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Sample records for thyroid gland lesions

  1. A case of thyroid fibromatosis, a rare lesion of this gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Rafael Adame; Leite, Valeriano

    2016-01-01

    Summary Thyroid fibromatosis is a very rare lesion; to our knowledge, there are only four cases reported in the medical literature. Herein, we report the clinical case of a woman with thyroid fibromatosis with a long follow-up (11 years). A 63-year-old female patient, with an increasing multinodular goitre without compressive symptoms, was admitted to total thyroidectomy. The histology revealed a spindle-cell proliferation with fibroblastic characteristics with no atypia and thin capillary vessels. Immunohistochemistry was positive for beta-catenin, focally to desmin and alfa-actin and negative for cytokeratins and CD34. Thyroid cells did not display any features of papillary thyroid cancer. These characteristics were compatible with thyroid fibromatosis. For the past 11 years, the patient has been periodically followed up with neck CTs and she has not shown any signs of recurrence. Thyroid fibromatosis has been associated with invasion of surrounding structures in previous reported cases. However, this aggressive behaviour was not observed in our patient. The most challenging differential diagnosis is with papillary thyroid cancer with fibromatosis-like stroma, in which the malignant component is usually peripheral. Therefore, in these cases, it is mandatory to perform an extensive examination of the resected sample. Learning points: Fibromatosis is a mesenchymal lesion that consists of an infiltrative proliferation of fibroblasts without atypia. Thyroid fibromatosis is a rare entity in this gland. In previously reported cases, it has been associated with an invasive behaviour but this was not the case in our patient. When spindle-cell proliferation with fibroblastic/myofibroblastic characteristics is detected on thyroid histology, it is mandatory to exclude a papillary thyroid carcinoma with fibromatosis-like stroma.

  2. Thyroid gland removal

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    ... small thyroid growth ( nodule or cyst) A thyroid gland that is so overactive it is dangerous ( thyrotoxicosis ) Cancer of the thyroid Noncancerous (benign) tumors of the thyroid that are causing symptoms Thyroid ...

  3. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

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    ... a sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ... procedure, a skinny needle is inserted into the thyroid gland, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  4. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000293.htm Thyroid gland removal - discharge To use the sharing features ... surgery. This will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid ...

  5. Thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study two main objectives were concerned.The first one is the estimation of serum of thyroid hormones antigen level in pregnant women in Khartoum area. To fulfill the first objectives, thirty pregnant women were selected their age 25-45 yrs and serum was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for T4, T3 and TSH and was found that mean concentration in serum T4=156, T3= 2.9 and TSH 0.4. For the assessment of the other parameters, the same number was allowed for Hb%, age and weight and so no significant different was observed in the mean concentration and evaluated as best results can concerned. Different techniques were used in the study such as micro reader and spectrophotometer. (Author)

  6. Radioiodine and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takavar A

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Using the method, ¹³¹I activity or any other radioisotope activity required for a certain case can be determined with a good estimate.

  7. Cyto-histology and clinical correlation of thyroid gland lesions: A 3 year study in a tertiary hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Bamanikar; Pinky Soraisham; Sudhir Jadhav; Harsh Kumar; Pradeep Jadhav; Arvind Bamanikar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a cost-effective and time saving diagnostic test used to specifically distinguish between benign and malignant lesions by histocytology. The aim of this study was to study the spectrum of thyroid lesions and to correlate the FNAC findings with histopathology of excised specimens. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 patients with thyroid swelling were included in this study who had FNAC during 3 years study period, from July 2011 to July ...

  8. Cyto-histology and clinical correlation of thyroid gland lesions: A 3 year study in a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Bamanikar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is a cost-effective and time saving diagnostic test used to specifically distinguish between benign and malignant lesions by histocytology. The aim of this study was to study the spectrum of thyroid lesions and to correlate the FNAC findings with histopathology of excised specimens. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 patients with thyroid swelling were included in this study who had FNAC during 3 years study period, from July 2011 to July 2013, at a tertiary care hospital. All patients with thyroid swelling were assessed by medical history, clinical examination, biochemical tests and radiological investigations. The FNAC diagnoses were correlated with clinical features, radiological investigations, hormonal findings and subsequent histological examination of the thyroid specimens. Results: Out of 300 patients, females outnumbered males in thyroid diseases and revealed preponderance toward younger population (21-40 years. Nodular colloid goiter was the most common cause of thyroid swelling presented during 1 month to 1-year period. There were 104 patients (34.7% who had surgical intervention and 86 (28.7% patients reported for follow-up and had thyroid function tests done. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for malignancy were 94.2%, 50% and 100% respectively in our study. Conclusion: FNAC is a reliable, safe and accurate method as an initial simple diagnostic test for thyroid nodules in decision making about surgical intervention. Our study suggested that FNAC has higher specificity than sensitivity in detecting thyroid malignancy; hence its use as a reliable diagnostic tool for evaluation of thyroid swelling cannot be overemphasized.

  9. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

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    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions.

  10. [Pregnancy and the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlienger, J L; Dreyfus, M

    1993-01-01

    During pregnancy the thyroid should adapt itself to the availability of the least quantities of iodides necessary to synthesis hormones and to several other possible modifications such as a rise in the thyroxine-binding globulin and the thyroid stimulating effect of beta-hCG. An increase in size of the thyroid gland is very common. The interpretation of the parameters used to diagnose abnormalities of thyroid function can be carried out. Although the development of the fetal thyroid can take place independently of the maternal thyroid behaviour, an abnormal thyroid function in the mother can not occur without affecting the pregnancy. Grave's disease can cause either fetal or neonatal hyperthyroidism due to a transplacental transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins or hypothyroidism secondary to the use of too large doses of synthetic antithyroid products. Pregnancy itself favours hyperthyroidism. Maternal hypothyroidism which has not been treated is rarer because of a lack of fertility. It can cause repercussions on the fetus that have probably been over estimated. When pregnancy occurs in a hypothyroid woman who is being treated the dosages of drugs that she is being given should be increased by 20-30%. Providing a good knowledge of the thyroid parameters and keeping the patient preferably euthyroid in cases where thyroid dysfunction can occur, the pregnancy can continue normally whatever the state of the mother thyroid function was. The risks to the fetus are minimal. In women who are at risk it is very important to keep controlling the thyroid state after delivery when there is an immunological rebound which may lead to a relapse in Grave's disease and to post-partum thyroiditis. PMID:7693795

  11. Thyroid gland pigmentation and minocycline therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, G.; Sparano, B. M.; Kramer, A.W.; Kelly, R. G.; Iatropoulos, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Thyroid pigments in black thyroid glands from minocycline-treated patients were compared by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis with minocycline-induced pigment in thyroid glands of laboratory animals, and with naturally occurring lipofuscins in untreated laboratory animals and humans. All thyroid samples examined contained nonbirefringent, Schmorl-positive pigment. However, the pigments in black thyroids from minocycline-treated patients resemb...

  12. Thyroid and parathyroid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008268 Effects of iodine excess on TPO and NIS genes mRNA expression in rats. XIAO Jianying(肖建英), et al. Dept Biochem, Liaoning Med Coll, Jinzhou 121001. Chin J Endemiol 2008;27(2):145-148.Objective To observe the effects of iodine excess on thyroid morphology,the expression of thyroid peroxidase and sodium iodide symporter mRNA and to explore their mechanisms.Methods One-month SD rats were divided into three groups:control iodine(CI),high iodine I

  13. Thyroid and parathyroid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008029 Diagnostic value of serum thyroglobulin autoantibody on recurrence and/or metastasis following surgery in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. FAN Qun(范群), et al. Dept Nucl Med, West China Hosp, Sichuan Univ, Chengdu 610041. Chin J Endocrinol Metab 2007;23(6):494-497. Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of serum thyrog

  14. Sonographic Elastography of the Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Menzilcioglu, Mehmet Sait; Duymus, Mahmut; Avcu, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Summary Thyroid gland disorders include benign and malignant thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid disorders. The incidence of malignant thyroid nodules is low and the prognosis is good. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer and diffuse parenchymal disorders is generally based on clinical manifestations and histopathological evaluation. Ultrasonography has its place in the diagnostics and follow-up of thyroid disorders. Ultrasonographic elastography is a new, developing method that shows increase in ...

  15. Follicular-patterned thyroid lesions

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    F. Fulya KÖYBAŞIOĞLU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim is to determine the minimal cytopathologic criteria needed to make differential diagnosis in follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid gland.Materials and Methods: We reviewed 56 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens which were reported as “suspicious for follicular-patterned lesions of thyroid” between years 2001 and 2005 in our hospital and their histological slides. Parameters for cytopathologic assesment are cellularity, colloid formation, multilayered rosette formation, follicular cell rings, monolayered sheets, intact follicles, hyperplastic papillae, hyaline stromal fragments, intranuclear inclusions, nuclear grooves, angulated nuclei, nucleoli, cerebriform nuclei, nuclear size, macrophages, flame cells and Hurthle cells. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 and Fisher's-exact tests and Kolmogorov-Simirnov test.Results: Four cytopathologic features–cerebriform nuclei, angulated nuclei, nuclear grooves and intranuclear inclusion- were constantly observed in the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (p< 0.05. Diluted colloid, monolayered sheet, nuclear size, macrophage and nucleoli were frequently seen in nodular hyperplasia (p< 0.05. The nuclear size was the sole differential cytopathologic criteria between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma (p<0.05.Conclusion: Detailed cytopathologic examination was found to be important in differentiating follicular variant of papillary carcinoma from nodular hyperplasia. On the other hand, none of the cytopathologic findings were sufficient to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma. Therefore, cytopathologists should report such lesions as “follicular neoplasms”.

  16. Thyroid and parathyroid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950261 Humoral autoimmunity in endocrine ophthal-mopathy.TANG Zhengyi(汤正义),et al.Shanghai En-docrinol Res Instit,Shanghai 2nd Med Univ,Shang-hai,200025.Chin J Endorinol & Metabol 1994;10(5)151-153.The crude antigens of the cell membrane and cyto-plasm of the thyroid,eye muscles and periobital con-nective tissues and cell membrane crude antigens of theskeletal muscle,and liver were subjected to SDS-PAGE,then immunoblotting with the sera of the pa-

  17. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland.

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    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable.

  18. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable.

  19. Effect of iodine-137 on sex and thyroid hormone binding to blood plasma proteins in children with functional lesions of the thyroid gland as a result of Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studying characteristics of specific interaction of estradiol-, testosterone- and thyriod-binding blood globulins with the corresponding ligands in children from Gomel region with with endemic swelling of the thyroid gland (degrees 1 and 2) affected by iodine-131 revealed were a reduced cooperativity in estradiol T-3 binding and a halved affinity to androgens and thyroids as compared to healthy controls. In addition, there was a drastic decline in the binding capacity of estradiol- and testosterone-binding globulins in the blood plasma. The endemic thyroid gland swelling is supposed to be due to sexual malfunction in teenagers

  20. Imaging diagnosis of thyroid gland congenital anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and radiological findings in 25 patients presenting diverse thyroid gland anomalies are described, as follows: thyroid aplasia - 2, thyroid hemiagenesis - 9, lingual thyroid gland - 3, median cervical cysts - 8, lateral cervical aberrant tissue - 2, distant aberrant thyroid tissue - 1 case. In all patients the following methods are applied: echography, computer tomography and radionuclide examination with 99mTc. Conclusions are made that: 1) To make definite diagnosis of thyroid ectopia the complex application of imaging methods is mandatory. 2) Ultrasound examination is sufficient to establish agenesis, hypo- or hemiaplasia of the thyroidea without need to resort to other imaging modalities. 3) Ectopic thyroid tissue eventually discovered should be carefully monitored by echography and cytologically because of susceptibility of malignant degeneration

  1. [Clinical importance of thyroid gland cytology].

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    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Bockisch, A; Führer, D; Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The cytological evaluation of fine needle biopsies (FNB) of the thyroid gland crucially depends on a close cooperation between clinicians and cytopathologists. Scintigraphy, sonography as well as clinical data and patient history are necessary for a correct interpretation of the indications for FNB; moreover, these data are of outstanding importance for cytopathologists for the correct interpretation of the cytomorphological findings. This overview describes the present standards in the acquisition, technical workup and cytopathological interpretation of thyroid gland tissue obtained by FNB, particularly focusing on the rapidly growing relevance of additional molecular pathological investigations to increase the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNB.

  2. Semi-automatic elastic registration on thyroid gland ultrasonic image

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    Xu, Xia; Zhong, Yue; Luo, Yan; Li, Deyu; Lin, Jiangli; Wang, Tianfu

    2007-12-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. However, the shape of thyroid gland is irregular and difficult to calculate. For precise estimation of thyroid volume by ultrasound imaging, this paper presents a novel semiautomatic minutiae matching method in thyroid gland ultrasonic image by means of thin-plate spline model. Registration consists of four basic steps: feature detection, feature matching, mapping function design, and image transformation and resampling. Due to the connectivity of thyroid gland boundary, we choose active contour model as feature detector, and radials from centric points for feature matching. The proposed approach has been used in thyroid gland ultrasound images registration. Registration results of 18 healthy adults' thyroid gland ultrasound images show this method consumes less time and energy with good objectivity than algorithms selecting landmarks manually.

  3. Neuroendocrine tumors presenting with thyroid gland metastasis: a case series

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    Sivrikoz Emre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autopsy series have shown that metastasis to the thyroid gland has occurred in up to 24% of patients who have died of cancer. Neuroendocrine tumors may metastasize to thyroid gland. Case presentations Case 1 was a 17-year-old Turkish woman who was referred from our Endocrinology Department for a thyroidectomy for treatment of neuroendocrine tumor metastasis. She was treated with a bilateral total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination results were consistent with a neuroendocrine tumor; neoplastic cells showed strong immunoreactivity to chromogranin A and synaptophysin, but the immunohistochemical profile was inconsistent with medullary thyroid carcinoma in that the tumor was negative for calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen, and thyroid transcription factor-1. Case 2 was a 54-year-old Turkish woman who presented with a 3-cm nodule on her right thyroid lobe. She had undergone surgery for a right lung mass four years previously. After a right pneumonectomy, thymectomy and lymph node dissection, a typical carcinoid tumor was diagnosed. Under ultrasonographic guidance, fine needle aspiration biopsy of her right thyroid pole nodule was performed and the biopsy was compatible with a neuroendocrine tumor metastasis. She was treated with a bilateral total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination indicated three nodular lesions, 5 cm and 0.4 cm in diameter in her right lobe and 0.1 cm in diameter in her left lobe. The tumors were consistent with a neuroendocrine phenotype, showing strong immunoreactivity to chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Conclusion Thyroid nodules detected during follow-up of neuroendocrine tumor patients should be thoroughly investigated. A fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid confirms the diagnosis in most cases and leads to appropriate management of those patients and may prevent unnecessary treatment approaches.

  4. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  5. MR imaging of the lingual thyroid. Comparison to other submucosal lesions

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    Takashima, S.; Ueda, M.; Shibata, A.; Takayama, F.; Momose, M.; Yamashita, K. [Shinshu Univ. School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2001-03-01

    Purpose: To study MR findings for clues to the diagnosis of lingual thyroid. Material and methods: MR findings and clinical and scintigraphic data of 5 cases of lingual thyroid were reviewed and the MR findings were compared to those of 16 cases of other submucosal lesions in the base of the tongue. Results: Four of the 5 patients with lingual thyroid were women and all had hypothyroidism. MR imaging depicted lingual thyroid in the midline in the base of the tongue (n=5) and additional ectopic thyroid glands in the floor of the mouth (n=2) or between the right and left sternohyoid muscles (n=1). Ectopic thyroid glands appeared isointense or hyperintense relative to muscle tissue on T1-weighted images and showed slight or fair contrast enhancement. All glands had low to intermediate T2 signal, which was also seen in 1 case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 1 case of adenoid cystic carcinoma. All ectopic thyroid glands had well-defined margins, whereas malignant tumors tended to have ill-defined margins and to invade the surrounding structures. All but the 5 cases of lingual thyroid had an MR-demonstrable thyroid gland in the normal cervical position. Conclusion: A well-defined mass of low-intermediate T2 signal in the midline base of the tongue, neither with invasive tendency nor with a cervical thyroid gland in the normal site on MR imaging, may strongly indicate lingual thyroid.

  6. Comparison of histological features, and description of histopathological lesions in thyroid glands from three species of free-ranging sharks from the northwestern Atlantic, the blue shark, Prionace glauca (L.), the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrhinchus Rafinesque, and the thresher, Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre).

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    Borucinska, J D; Tafur, M

    2009-09-01

    Abstract Histomorphological features of piscine thyroids are widely accepted and frequently used as bioindicators of environmental pollution. This despite the fact that there is marked variation in thyroid morphology resulting from numerous pathological and physiological conditions. Our hypothesis was that there will be variations in histological features in thyroids collected from different shark species during the summer season in the northwestern Atlantic. To test our hypothesis, we examined histological features encountered in grossly normal thyroids from three species of sharks, the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrhinchus, thresher, Alopias vulpinus and blue sharks, Prionace glauca. In addition, microscopic lesions from these thyroids were described. Ninety-four sharks were collected in summer 2001, 2002 and 2004. Routine, haematoxylin and eosin-stained paraffin-embedded sections were studied by light microscopy. We found inter-species but not intra-species variation in histological patterns of thyroids, which were distinct enough to allow 'blind' assignment of a thyroid to the specific species. The most common lesions encountered were lymphofollicular hyperplasia and chronic thyroiditis. In addition, one case each of intravascular larval nematodes and a myxosporean infection was found. Our results provide the first data on species-specific morphology of thyroids collected during summer months from sharks. The results indicate that familiarity with normal thyroid morphology is crucial before using shark thyroids in biomonitoring of environmental contamination or interpreting data from this gland in shark-health studies.

  7. Sonography of Normal and Abnormal Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands.

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    Andrioli, Massimiliano; Valcavi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) represents the most sensitive and efficient method for the evaluation of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Infectious and autoimmune thyroiditis are common diseases, usually diagnosed and followed up by clinical examination and laboratory analyses. Nevertheless, US plays an important role in confirming diagnoses, predicting outcomes and, in autoimmune hyperthyroidism, in titrating therapy. Conversely, in nodular thyroid disease US is the imaging method of choice for the characterization and surveillance of lesions. It provides consistent clues in predicting the risk of malignancy, thus directing patient referral for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. Suspicious US features generally include marked hypoechogenicity, a shape taller than it is wide, ill-defined or irregular borders, microcalcifications and hardness at elastographic evaluation. Finally, the role of US in thyroid cancer is to evaluate extension beyond the thyroid capsule and to assess nodal metastases or tumor recurrence. The main application of US in parathyroid diseases is represented by primary hyperparathyroidism. In this condition, US plays a role after biochemical diagnosis, and it should always be strictly performed for localization purposes. In both thyroidal and parathyroid diseases, US is recommended as a guide in FNA biopsies. PMID:27002829

  8. [Intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland].

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    Synoracki, S; Ting, S; Siebolts, U; Dralle, H; Koperek, O; Schmid, K W

    2015-07-01

    The goal of evaluation of intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland is to achieve a definitive diagnosis which determines the subsequent surgical management as fast as possible; however, due to the specific methodological situation of thyroid frozen sections evaluation a conclusive diagnosis can be made in only some of the cases. If no conclusive histological diagnosis is possible during the operation, subsequent privileged processing of the specimen allows a final diagnosis at the latest within 48 h in almost all remaining cases. Applying this strategy, both pathologists and surgeons require a high level of communication and knowledge regarding the specific diagnostic and therapeutic peculiarities of thyroid malignancies because different surgical strategies must be employed depending on the histological tumor subtype.

  9. Non-visualized Thyroid Gland by Tc-{sup 99m} MIBI Scan with Normal Thyroid Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Baskin, Aylin; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha [Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2013-09-15

    We present the case of a 21-year-old man who was referred to us for parathyroid scintigraphy with high blood levels of intact parathormone and osteoporosis. Several methods and radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201 chloride/Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4}) subtraction, are commonly used for this purpose. We present the case of a thyroid gland that demonstrates quite normal Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake, no accumulation of Tc-99m MIBI, and very low grade Tl-201 uptake. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously. A 21-year-old male with osteoporosis and growth-development retardation was referred for MIBI parathyroid scan because of high blood levels of intact parathormone and bone-specific alkaline-phosphatase, which were 219.4 (15-88 pg/ml) and 355 (21-58 U/L), respectively. In his Tc-99m pertechnetate (TcPO{sup -4}) pinhole scintigraphy, bilateral clearly visualized radioactivity accumulation in the thyroid gland was seen. In both early or late images of the Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, the thyroid gland was not visualized. Therefore, a Tl-201/TcPO{sub -4} subtraction scan method was used. However, the Tl-201 accumulation level in the thyroid gland was not sufficient for the subtraction method. In his thyroid ultrasonography, the thyroid gland echo was homogenous, and there was neither any solid nor cystic lesion. The physical examination of his neck was normal. Other laboratory findings were all normal as follows. TSH: 3.03 (0.35-5.6 IU/mL), free T3: 3.66 (2.5-3.9 pg/mL), free T4: 0.90 (0.59-1.3 ng/dL), Anti-TPO:0.3 (0.40 IU/mL), Anti-TG-Ab: <2.2 (0-+u/L), TSH receptor Ab: 1.0 (0.14 U/L), osteocalcine: 9.13 (1.5-15 ng/dL), growth hormone: 1.3 (0.014-5.21), calcitonin:17 (0.150 ng/mL), sedimentation:6 (0.15 mm/h). There were no significant symptoms of acute or chronic thyroiditis. The cause for discordant uptake in the thyroid gland with T1-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scan could not be provided through clinical or

  10. Dual ectopic thyroid gland: sonography and scintigraphy of lingual and sublingual thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Vinko; Glavina, Gordana; Eterović, Davor; Punda, Ante; Brdar, Dubravka

    2014-06-01

    Dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid gland is an extraordinarily rare condition. We present 1 patient with subclinical hypothyroidism. The clinical examination revealed that the thyroid gland was not palpable in its usual cervical location, whereas ultrasonography confirmed an empty thyroid bed without any ectopic thyroid tissue in the rest of the neck. The final diagnosis of dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid was established by ultrasound examination through the mouth floor and confirmed by scintigraphy and CT thereafter.

  11. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  12. The theoretical and palomporphological aspects of cancerogenesis and anticancerogenesis in the thyroid gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedchenko M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of theoretic and pathomorphologic postulates are offered for creation of the integrated concept of morphological mechanisms of cancero- and anticarcinogenesis in the thyroid gland. These postulates developed on the basis of long-term researches of this organ. The problems of system formation with new properties (neosystemogenesis which are the important philosophical and theoretical problem of oncology are introduced in the article.The new view of sight on a function – morphogenetic and morphodynamic- of hemocapillars in the thyroid gland is offered. These mechanisms provide the coordina-tive change of the spatial-time ratio, by which adaptive change of a qualitative condition of thyroid gland is reached without change of quantitative characteristics, and also realize morphogenetic processes - formation of new follicles by their fragmen-tation by hemocapillars. We insist, that the failure of morphogenetic and morphodynamic function of hemocapillars of a thy-roid gland bases a pathogenesis of the majority diseases of this organ, including tumors. The conception about pretumoral and intratumoral dysplasia, mechanism of their formation and role in formation of blastomas are offered. An experimental model of carcinogenesis from C-cells by long-term lesion of structural homeostasis of thyroid gland by hypercalcemia is developed. The problem of existence of anticarcinogenesis is analyzed in the article. The phenomenon of elimination of follicles of a central zone of the thyroid gland is determined as a specific mechanism of the thyroid gland during long-term stimulation of prolifera-tive activity of C-cells. This phenomenon can be explained as the mechanism of anticarcinogenesis in the thyroid gland. It is necessary to search for similar phenomenon in other organs for creation of a new trend in medicine - therapeutic surgery, which is extirpation of pathological neoplasms on early stages of their formation without a classic surgical

  13. Scintigraphic evaluation of congenital anomalies of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total 2287 patients who undergone thyroid scintigraphy in Nuclear Medicine Centre, Khulna from January 1998 to December 2000 were retrospectively studied to evaluate the congenital anomalies of the thyroid gland. Scintigraphy showed thyroid anomalies in 11 patients (0.48%). The presenting features and thyroid function tests were analyzed and a detailed study was performed. Of these 11 cases, 7 patients (63.6%) had ectopic thyroid gland and site of ectopic was found to be lingual in 4 cases, sublingual in 2 cases and pre laryngeal in 1 case, 3 patients (27.3%) with hemi agenesis of thyroid and 1 patient (9.1%) with athyreosis. Biochemically 3 cases were hypothyroid of which 2 had ectopic thyroid and 1 with athyreosis. 1 patient was hyperthyroid with hemi agenesis of thyroid and 7 were euthyroid. Females were more affected than males, the ratio being 4.5:1. (authors) 2 tabs. 12 refs

  14. Interactive MR-guided biopsies of the thyroid gland: validation of a new method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacl, G.M. [Department of Medical Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)]|[Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Bicik, I.; Schulthess, G.K. von [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Schoenenberger, A.W.; Steiner, P.; Romanowski, B.; Debatin, J.F. [Department of Medical Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical feasibility and utility of an interactive MR-guidance system to target and biopsy thyroid lesions, and to compare resolution between ultrasound and interventional MR imaging in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Twenty thyroid lesions of 18 patients were interactively biopsied using a 0.5-T superconducting open magnet system. Stereotactic localization of the needle and imaging was accomplished using T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) images. Representative cytological material was retrieved in 16 of 20 lesions (benign cystic or colloid goiter: n = 14; one de Quervain`s thyroiditis and one follicular neoplasia). Lesions smaller than 1.5 cm detected by ultrasound could not be visualized adequately on GRE images. Lesions smaller than 1.5 cm were successfully biopsied by ultrasound (three colloid and haemorrhagic goiters and one adenoma). Magnetic-resonance-guided interactive biopsies and positioning of non-ferromagnetic needles in the thyroid gland are technically feasible and safe. Compared with high-resolution ultrasound, lesions larger than 1.5 cm can be adequately visualized and biopsied. Magnetic-resonance-guided placement of non-ferromagnetic needles is no substitute for high-resolution ultrasound in clinical work-up of thyroid lesions. (orig.) With 8 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs.

  15. PRIMARY FIBROSARCOMA OF THE THYROID GLAND: CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabelić, Nina; Mateša, Neven; Jukić, Tomislav; Soldić, Željko; Kust, Davor; Prgomet, Angela; Bolanca, Ante; Kusić, Zvonko

    2016-03-01

    Due to progressive dyspnea, a male patient aged 59 underwent medical examination in 2003 in a local hospital. Neck ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of a suspect lesion in the thyroid gland revealed the presence of a malignant neoplasm, i.e. mesenchymal tumor. Immunocytochemistry for epithelial membrane antigen, chromogranin A and leukocyte common antigen (CD45) was negative, while vimentin and S-100 were positive. The patient was referred to a university hospital center, where further oncologic work-up was done. Neck ultrasound revealed a tumor in the left lobe of the thyroid, with extension to the aortic arch. After repeated FNAB, cytologic diagnosis of primary thyroid fibrosarcoma was established. Due to the locally advanced and consequently inoperable disease, primary radiotherapy to the neck region (64 Gy in 32 fractions) was applied, followed by 6 cycles of chemotherapy with doxorubicin. After completion of therapy, computed tomography scan demonstrated significant regression of primary disease, but it was still not amenable to surgical treatment. Thus, the decision of the oncology board was active surveillance of the patient. During 9-year follow up, no signs of progression or activity of the disease were found. PMID:27333734

  16. [Comparative rate of regional metastasis of high differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, N N; Evmenova, T D; Drozdova, D É

    2014-01-01

    The rate of metastasis of high differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid glands to the neck lymph nodes was studied in people of Kemerovo Region. The metastatic lesions of pretracheal lymph nodes (VI group) were detected in 49.5% patients with papillary carcinoma and 21.0% of patients with follicular cancer. Metastases in jungular lymph nodes were revealed in 37.3% patients with papillary carcinoma. It was noted that an extension of metastatic lesions of regional lymph nodes was observed in the case of primary tumour foci spread beyond borders of the capsula glandularis in patients with papillary carcinoma. There wasn't such a relation in a case of follicular cancer. Metastases in regional lymph nodes were detected more often (67.6%) in the case of papillary carcinoma in uncontaminated zone of the thyroid gland compared with other thyroid pathology (31.7%).

  17. Genetic aspects of etiology and development of thyroid gland cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Yu.V.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on thyroid gland cancer development and progression have identified new classes of tumor markers, proto-oncogenes, tumor-suppressing genes, cell receptor genes, identified genetic tumor-predisposing polymorphism and some other significantly important segments of genome. The identification has been based mainly on revealing of DNA abnormal consequences, specific for occurrence of thyroid gland cancer and its progression.

  18. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Herr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  19. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  20. THYROID GLAND DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION IN THE ZEBRAFISH MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Porazzi, P; D. Calebiro; Benato, F.; N. Tiso; Persani, L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Thyroid development has been intensively studied in the mouse, where it closely recapitulates the human situation. Despite the lack of a compact thyroid gland, the zebrafish thyroid tissue originates from the pharyngeal endoderm and the main genes involved in its patterning and early development are conserved between zebrafish and mammals. In recent years, the zebrafish has become a powerful model not only for developmental biology studies, but also for large-scale genetic...

  1. Warthin-Like Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Paliogiannis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 22-year-old woman and a review of the literature on the topic. The patient had the occasional discovery of a hypoechoic thyroid nodule of approximately 18 mm, characterized by irregular margins, hyperechoic spots, rich intra- and perilesional vascularization, and a suspicious enlarged right laterocervical lymph node. Fine-needle aspiration was performed for both lesions and the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma without lymph node involvement was made. The patient underwent thyroidectomy and central neck lymphadenectomy without complications. Histopathological examination suggested a Warthin-like papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, with all the removed lymph nodes being free of disease. The patient subsequently underwent iodine ablative therapy and she remains free of disease one year after surgery. Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma is a recently described variant of papillary thyroid cancer that is frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis. Morphologically, it resembles Warthin tumors of the salivary glands, with T and B lymphocytes infiltrating the stalks of papillae lined with oncocytic cells. Surgical and postoperative management is identical to that of classic differentiated thyroid cancer, while prognosis seems to be favourable.

  2. 国内近30年报道的198例异位甲状腺病例的文献分析%Analyzing for 198 cases of ectopic thyroid glands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏; 孙莹; 贾静; 杨松青

    2012-01-01

    Summary Through analyzing the data of ectopic thyroid glands, to know this kind of congenital lesion deeply. In all the cases, parathyroid gland types were more than aberrant thyroid types; the majority cases were single ectopic thyroid; most of ectopic thyroid were present in the neck and mouth; local mass was the most common symptom; adenoma was often associated with ectopic thyroid and there was a high proportion of combined malignant; most cases could not be correctly diagnosed.

  3. Growth and development in a child with resistance to thyroid hormone and ectopic thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Natasha; Hall, Kate; Neas, Katherine; Potter, Howard; Wiltshire, Esko

    2012-03-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone is an uncommon problem, which has rarely been associated with thyroid dysgenesis. We report a case with both thyroid gland ectopy and resistance to thyroid hormone and, thus, a reduced capacity to produce and respond to thyroid hormone. The patient presented at 2 years of age with developmental delay, dysmorphic features, and elevation in both thyroxine and thyrotropin. We document her response to therapy with thyroxine, with particular regard to her growth and development. Persistent elevation of thyrotropin is commonly recognized during treatment of congenital hypothyroidism. Resistance to thyroid hormone may be an important additional diagnosis to consider in cases where thyrotropin remains persistently elevated.

  4. Diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland: A pathologic curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ruchika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 4-year history of midline neck swelling associated with recent onset respiratory distress. Local examination showed a lobulated diffuse thyroid enlargement. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. The right lobe weighed 225 g and the left lobe weighed 130 g. Multiple sections from both the lobes revealed diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue. There was no evidence of amyloid deposits or papillary carcinoma. A final diagnosis of diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland was rendered. Lipomatosis or adenolipomatosis of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare entity. The various differential diagnoses of fat in the thyroid include benign entities like amyloid goiter, adenolipoma, lymphocytic thyroiditis, intrathyroid thymic or parathyroid lipoma and malignant tumors like liposarcoma and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Adequate clinical details and a thorough histopathological examination are mandatory for diagnosis.

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THYROID LESIONS IN WARDHA DISTRICT OF CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarth Shukla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To establish a significant predominance of thyroid lesions in and around Wardha district, and to establish specific etiological link for the predominance the thyroid lesions. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : This was a hospital based analytical prospective study, conducted in Acharya Vinobha Bhave Rural Hospital (A.V.B.R.H. involving 108 patients. The study was carried over a duration of 1 year January 2010 to December 2010. Patients attending endocrinological clinics and the newly detected cases of thyroid lesions, within set parameters of study, were the subjects of this study. OBSERVATION: Thyroid lesions which we came across in the course of the study were Thyrotoxicosis, Myxoedema, Thyroiditis, Diffuse goitre, Nodular Goitre and Carcinoma Thyroid . These were correlated with epidemiological factors like Age, Sex, Region, Diet and Iodine Intake. Significant relationship between thyroid function, age of patient, diet was seen in comparison to individual thyroid lesions. CONCLUSION : G oitre was the commest pathology encountered . Almost all of the thyroid lesions were of hypothyroid in their function with exception of thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma. Thyroid lesions were found predominantly in females, Age related lesion pathology was significant, and vegetarian and non - vegetarian diets along with low and high iodine salt uptake had obvious pathological effects on thyroid

  6. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimashkieh Haytham

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parathyroid gland and their tumors comprise a small proportion of non-palpable neck masses that are investigated by ultrasound (US guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We reviewed our institution's cases of US guided FNAB of parathyroid gland and their lesions to determine the role of cytology for the preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid gland and their lesions. Method All cases of FNAB of parathyroid gland and lesions in the last 10 years were reviewed in detail with respect to clinical history and correlated with the histopathologic findings in available cases. The cytologic parameters that were evaluated included cellularity assessed semiquantitatively as scant, intermediate or abundant (500 cells, cellular distribution (loose clusters, single cells/naked nuclei, rounded clusters, two- and three-dimensional clusters, and presence of prominent vascular proliferation, cellular characteristics (cell size, nuclear shape, presence/absence of a nucleolus, degree of mitosis, amount of cytoplasm, and appearance of nuclear chromatin, and background (colloid-like material and macrophages. Immunostaining for parathyroid hormone (PTH was performed on selected cases using either destained Pap smears or cell block sections. Results Twenty cases of US-guided FNAB of parathyroid glands and their lesions including 13 in the expected locations in the neck, 3 in intrathyroid region, 3 in thyroid bed, and 1 metastatic to liver were studied. Majority of the cases showed intermediate cellularity (51–500 cells with round to oval cells that exhibited a stippled nuclear chromatin, without significant pleomorphism or mitotic activity. The cells were arranged in loose two dimensional groups with many single cells/naked nuclei around the groups. Occasionally macrophages and colloid like material was also encountered. There was no significant difference in the cytomorphologic features between normal gland, hyperplasia adenoma, or carcinoma

  7. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ((99)mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and (99)mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland.

  8. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ((99)mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and (99)mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  9. An unusual case of Hashimoto′s thyroiditis with four lobed thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayees Ahmad Dar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto′s thyroiditis (HT, an autoimmune disorder, is the most prevalent cause of subclinical or overt hypothyroidism in areas with sufficient iodine intake. The gland is often diffusely enlarged, and the parenchyma is coarsened, hypoechoic, and often hypervascular on ultrasonograpy. Histopathologic appearance of HT includes lymphocyte aggregates with germinal centers, small thyroid follicles, presence of Hurthle cells, and variable fibrosis. We present a case of a 40-year-old female with suspected follicular neoplasm on fine-needle aspiration cytology of neck swelling. Intraoperatively, thyroid gland was found having four lobes separated from each other. Total thyroidectomy was done and histopathology from all four lobes revealed HT. At present, there is no literature to support the fact that such distorted thyroid anatomy may be due to the underlying disease. If we consider it as thyroid gland anomaly, no such anomaly has been mentioned in the literature till date.

  10. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  11. Inhibition of Thyroid Hormone Release from Cultured Amphibian Thyroid Glands by Methimazole, 6-Propylthiouracil, and Perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis. . . This information can then be used to select chemicals for further evaluation in v...

  12. Thyroid gland metastasis arising from breast cancer: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Mei; WANG, WEI; ZHANG, CHENFANG

    2013-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an uncommon site for metastasis to develop and thus metastases arising from breast cancer are rarely observed. In the present study, we describe a case of a 45-year-old female with a three-year history of breast cancer who presented with a thyroid mass that was diagnosed as metastatic breast carcinoma by histopathological analysis of the subtotal thyroidectomy specimen. To ascertain the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, we evaluated two types of markers; those that p...

  13. PHACE syndrome and congenitally absent thyroid gland at MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlouk, Mark D; Yu, John-Paul J; Asch, Sarah; Mathes, Erin F

    2016-01-01

    PHACE syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous disorder characterized by posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, cardiac defects, and abnormalities of the eye. Thyroid disorders associated with PHACE syndrome have been described, although there are limited reports of this rare occurrence. We report a case of PHACE syndrome with congenital hypothyroidism in an infant, for which absent thyroid gland was diagnosed at magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26995578

  14. [The wound drainage after operation on thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechay, A P; Smolyar, V A; Voytenko, V V; Sichinava, R M; Larin, A S; Cherenko, S M

    2015-03-01

    Efficacy of active draining, promoting the most rapid reconvalescence and rehabilitation of the patients, in comparison to passive wound draining was studied up in various diseases of thyroid gland and operative intervention volume. The autors have had concluded, that suturing of operative wound without draining after hemithyroidectomy conduction is possible, as well as a thyroidectomy for nodular and multinodular goiter, if the excised volume of the lobe/gland do not exceed 15 cm3 and in nonapplication of anticoagulants.

  15. Tuberculous Infection of Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Cheriyan Modayil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and almost one-third of the world is infected with this disease. Tuberculosis has been reported in many parts of the human body. But thyroid gland involvement is extremely rare and its true incidence is unknown. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a thyroid cyst which turned out to be a primary mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Conclusion. The correct diagnosis of thyroid tuberculosis is important because of the availability of medical treatment and the limited role of surgery.

  16. Burkitt Lymphoma of Thyroid Gland in an Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cooper

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkitt Lymphoma is a highly aggressive form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that in nonendemic areas has abdominal primary sites. We report a very rare case of Burkitt lymphoma of the thyroid gland presenting as a rapidly growing thyroid swelling in a 14-year-old white Caucasian British male with no preexisting thyroid or medical problems. The diagnosis was confirmed by an open wedge biopsy following a fine needle aspiration. The patient was treated according to the Children’s Cancer and Leukaemia Group guidelines for BL—Group B protocol and currently is in remission.

  17. Primary tuberculosis of the thyroid gland:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sant; Parkash; Kataria; Parul; Tanwar; Sneh; Singh; Sanjay; Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland is an uncommon disease and primary involvement of Uiyroid is even more rare.It is a rare disease even in countries in which tuberculosis is endemic.The diagnosis is often difficult as the clinical presentation has no distinct characteristics.Clinical course of the disease may resemble toxic goiter or acute thyroiditis or may follow a subacute or chronic growth pattern without specific symptomatology.Histologically presence of necrotizing epithelioid cell granulomas along with langhans type giant cells are the hallmark of thyroid tuberculosis.Demonstration of acid fast bacilli by ZN staining confirms the diagnosis,but this stain is frequently negative in tissue sections.

  18. Burkitt Lymphoma of Thyroid Gland in an Adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, K.; Gangadharan, A.; Arora, R S; Shukla, R; B. Pizer

    2014-01-01

    Burkitt Lymphoma is a highly aggressive form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that in nonendemic areas has abdominal primary sites. We report a very rare case of Burkitt lymphoma of the thyroid gland presenting as a rapidly growing thyroid swelling in a 14-year-old white Caucasian British male with no preexisting thyroid or medical problems. The diagnosis was confirmed by an open wedge biopsy following a fine needle aspiration. The patient was treated according to the Children’s Cancer and Leukaemia...

  19. Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy.

  20. Paraganglioma of the thyroid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thyroid paraganglioma is a very rare malignant neuroendocrine tumor. Immunohistochemical features of thyroid paraganglioma are helpful for the diagnosis. Case report. A 69-year-old female came to hospital with the presence of a growing thyroid nodule of the left lobe. Ultrasonic neck examination showed 5 cm hypoechoic nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy showed a big cold nodule in the left lobe. Computed tomography (CT scan showed left lobe thyroid tumor with tracheal deviation on the right site. Extended total thyroidectomy was done. Intraoperative consultation with the pathologist confirmed thyroid cancer. The pathologist diagnosed thyroid paraganglioma on the base of immuohistochemical investigation. This thyroid paraganglioma was positive for neuron-specific enolase, chomogranin A, synaptophysin, and S-100 protein highlighted the sustentacular cells. Tumor cells were nega-tive for thyroglobulin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic. After the surgery the patient was treated with chemotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and permanent TSH suppressive therapy. The patient was followed with measurements of thyroid hormone and serum neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A level, every 6 months. Gastroscopy, colonoscopy, chest and abdomen CT scan as well as further tests (chest x-ray, ultrasound of the neck, and whole body octreotide scintigraphy were done. No primary neuroendocrine tumor in digestive sistem or in the chest was found. After more than 3 years the patient has no evidence of the recurrent disease. Conclusion. Radical resection of thyroid paraganglioma, followed by chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, should be considered the treatment of choice in patients with thyroid gland paraganglioma.

  1. What Does the Thyroid Gland Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work well. They control how your body uses food for energy. Thyroid hormones affect your metabolism rate, which means how fast or slow your brain, heart, muscles, liver, and other parts of your ...

  2. Development of Thyroid Gland Specific Markers of Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid Axis Disruption in the Amphibian Model Species Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of the research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis.

  3. Lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark between 1974 and 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton; Prause, Jan Ulrik;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence rate, distribution, patient characteristics and indications for surgical intervention of lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark between 1974 and 2007. Material and methods: All biopsied/surgically removed lacrimal gland lesions in Denmark during the period 1974...... of the lacrimal gland were included. The incidence rate of lacrimal gland lesions was 1.3/1 000 000/year. The overall annual age- and gender-adjusted incidence rate more than doubled during the study period, owing to an increase in non-malignant lesions. Approximately half of the lesions were neoplasms (119......) and 55% (66) of these were malignant. Dacryops constituted 10% (24), inflammatory lesions 27% (62), normal tissue 12% (27), benign tumours 23% (53) and malignant tumours 29% (66). Patients with malignant neoplasms were significantly older than patients with benign neoplasms (63 versus 48 years, p...

  4. Diagnostic value of CD-10 marker in differentiating of papillary thyroid carcinoma from benign thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using of CD10 in accordance with clinical and histological features of thyroid lesions could be used as both diagnostic and prognostic tool, which consequently influence the management and their prognosis for survival of patients with thyroid neoplasms especially papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. The aim of this study was to determine its expression in PTC and different benign thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, paraffin-embedded tissues of patients with definitive pathologic diagnosis of different benign thyroid lesions and PTC were retrieved. Immunostained sections of each slides was performed using immunohistochemistry methods and expression of CD10 was compared in two groups of benign thyroid lesions and PTC. Results: From selected cases 134 sections studied in two groups of PTC (n = 67 and benign thyroid lesions (n = 67. CD10 were immunohistochemically positive in 29.9% of PTC cases, but in none of the thyroid benign lesions (0% (P 0.05. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that due to the higher expression of CD10 in PTC than benign thyroid lesions it might be used for differentiating mentioned lesions. But for using it as a diagnostic tool further studies with larger sample size and determination of its sensitivity, specificity and cut-off point is necessary.

  5. Hybrid SPECT/CT evaluation of dual ectopia of thyroid in the absence of orthotopic thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harisankar, Chidambaram Natrajan Balasubramanian; Preethi, Govindababu Rajalakshmi; George, Mv

    2012-06-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) refers to all cases in which the thyroid gland is present at a location other than its usual site. The prevalence of ETT is approximately 1 per 100,000 to 300,000 persons and is reported to occur in 1 of 4000 to 8000 patients with thyroid disease. Multiple ectopia of the thyroid is extremely rare, with fewer than 35 cases published in literature to date. We report a 4-year-old girl with euthyroid and dual ectopia of thyroid without orthotopic thyroid gland. The role of hybrid SPECT/CT in the localization of the sites of ETT is also highlighted. PMID:22614198

  6. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion arising in the parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae Chung; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Yoo, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-15

    The authors diagnosed a 33 years old female as benign lymphoepithelial lesion after undergoing clinical, radiological and histopathological examinations and the characteristics were as follows : 1. Clinically, the patient complained of painless bilateral swelling of the parotid glands and dryness of the palate. Rheumatoid facor was detected in her serum. 2. Sialograms showed punctuate or globular collections of contrast media distributed evenly throughout the parotid gland s in so-called 'cherry blossom' or 'fearless fruit-laden tree' appearance. 3. A salivary gland scan showed no uptake of radioisotopes by the parotid glands. 4. At T1-weighted imaging of PNS MRI, the lesions had the same signal intensity as the rest of the gland. At T2-weighted imaging, the lesion could be seen as high signal intensity 1.3 cm and 2.1 cm in diameter in the left and the right parotid gland respectively. 5. Ultrasonogram showed sonolucent lesions 20 X 15 mm and 17 X 14 mm in size in the lower part of the left parotid gland an d another 18 X 11 mm in size in the lower part of the parotid gland AS well as many other small sonolucent lesions. 6. Histopathologically, lymphocytic infiltration replacing the normal acini and lymphoid follicles containing germinal centers could be seen. Epimyoepithelial islands were scattered throughout the lesion and benign lymphoepithelial cysts were also observed.

  7. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate (99mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathor...

  8. An Unusual Case of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis with Four Lobed Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Rayees Ahmad Dar; Nisar Ahmad Chowdri; Fazl Qadir Parray; Sabiya Hamid Wani

    2012-01-01

    Hashimoto′s thyroiditis (HT), an autoimmune disorder, is the most prevalent cause of subclinical or overt hypothyroidism in areas with sufficient iodine intake. The gland is often diffusely enlarged, and the parenchyma is coarsened, hypoechoic, and often hypervascular on ultrasonograpy. Histopathologic appearance of HT includes lymphocyte aggregates with germinal centers, small thyroid follicles, presence of Hurthle cells, and variable fibrosis. We present a case of a 40-year-old female with ...

  9. Thin needle aspiration biopsy in diagnosis of thyroid gland carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of thyroid gland cancer in people of Belarus is one of the most actual medical problems appeared after the Chernobyl disaster. During the period 1986 -1999 in Belarus were revealed 6901 cases of cancer in the adults and 673 -in the children. Compared with the pre-disaster period the increase of the pathology has made 4.7 and 84 times correspondingly. In Magilew region during post-disaster years were revealed 899 cases of thyroid gland cancer in the adults and 34 -in the children. From the year 1998 perceptible rise of disease appeared in people over 19 years old. According to the prognosis of specialists the problem of high thyroid gland carcinoma rate will be actual for years, gradually decreasing in the children and increasing in the adults. Thyroid gland cancer promoted by radiation has very aggressive nature. According to the data of Republican science-practical thyroid gland tumors center even small carcinomas (3-9 mm) can give numerous metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. The possibility of tumor growth to the nearest tissues is very high. That's why the early diagnostic of the pathology is important. Medical help to the patients with thyroid gland cancer and other node formations consist in the complex problem solution: early node formation revealing by ultrasonic method, early diagnosis verification with the help of cytological bio-assays examination, received by the way of the thin needle aspiration biopsy (TNAB) under ultrasonic control, surgical treatment, radio iodine therapy, rehabilitation and prophylactic medical examination. Under the problem of early thyroid carcinoma revealing they understand exact diagnostic and surgical treatment in the stages pT1, pT1a and pT1b, N0, M0. In 1993 -1999 in the diagnostic center 139,2 thousand patients were surveyed. In the pointed cases 10739 thin needle aspiration biopsies under ultrasonic control were made and the bioassays received were studied cytologically. Ultrasonic examinations and TNAB were

  10. Monosodium glutamate induced histomorphometric changes in thyroid gland of adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Rani1, Kamlesh Khatri2, Renu Chauhan1

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium Glutamate (MSG is widely used as a flavor enhanc-er throughout the world. MSG contains glutamic acid, sodium and water. Glutamic acid serves as a neurotransmitter vital to the transmission of nerve impulses in many parts of the central nerv-ous system, and in excess it may cause neurotoxicity leading to endocrinal disorders. The present study was conducted to eva-luate histomorphometrically the effects of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid gland of adult albino rats. The experimental group was given 4mg/g body weight of monosodium glutamate intra-peritoneally for seven days. Controls were maintained. After thirty days of the last dose, all the animals were sacrificed, their thyroid glands were dissected out, processed and sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS and examined for histomorphometry under Zeiss light microscope and Image Pro-Express Analyzer. The results of the present study showed a significant increase in the body weight of the MSG treated animals, although these animals consumed less food than the controls. A significant increase in the size of the follicles ac-companied by an increase in the mean height and area of the folli-cular cells and decreased colloid in some of the follicles was ob-served, pointing towards an increase in thyroid gland activity.

  11. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumar, B.; M Nazargi Mahabob

    2012-01-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by block...

  12. Histopathological changes induced by selective inactivation of menin on the thyroid gland in RET÷PTC3 and E7 transgenic mice. A study of 77 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Căpraru, Oana Maria; Berger, Nicole; Gadot, Nicolas; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Zhang, Chang; Borda, Angela; Szilágyi, Tibor; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Selmi-Ruby, Samia

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) does not involve the thyroid gland, but animal studies have shown that mice with inactivation of menin could develop thyroid pathologies. The objective was to evaluate if the selective inactivation of menin in murine thyroid glands expressing RET÷PTC3 and E7 oncogenes, might induce an increased index of proliferation and a more rapid development of thyroid hyperplasia and÷or tumors. The thyroid glands of 77 mice aged 4-18 months (31 expressing the E7 oncogene and 25 the RET÷PTC3 oncogene) were analyzed for histological changes and Ki67 proliferation index. Fifty-two mice had selective inactivation of menin in the thyroid gland (16 mice with RET÷PTC3 oncogene and 19 mice with E7 oncogene). As compared to wild type, mice with inactivation of menin presented an increased Ki67 proliferation index. Mice presenting the E7 oncogene showed larger thyroid glands with a pattern of diffuse hyperplasia. Mice expressing the RET÷PTC3 oncogene presented larger thyroid glands compared to the wild type mice but smaller compared to E7 mice. The lesions in the RET÷PTC3 group were "proliferative papillary cystic changes" (60%), "cribriform" (16%), "solid" (8%) and a combination of these patterns in the rest of the thyroid glands. The inactivation of menin in the thyroid gland of young mice does not seem to change the histological pattern, but it influences the proliferation of follicular cells. Further molecular studies especially in aged mice are needed to better understand the correlation between certain oncogenes and the inactive status of menin.

  13. Histopathological changes induced by selective inactivation of menin on the thyroid gland in RET÷PTC3 and E7 transgenic mice. A study of 77 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Căpraru, Oana Maria; Berger, Nicole; Gadot, Nicolas; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Zhang, Chang; Borda, Angela; Szilágyi, Tibor; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Selmi-Ruby, Samia

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) does not involve the thyroid gland, but animal studies have shown that mice with inactivation of menin could develop thyroid pathologies. The objective was to evaluate if the selective inactivation of menin in murine thyroid glands expressing RET÷PTC3 and E7 oncogenes, might induce an increased index of proliferation and a more rapid development of thyroid hyperplasia and÷or tumors. The thyroid glands of 77 mice aged 4-18 months (31 expressing the E7 oncogene and 25 the RET÷PTC3 oncogene) were analyzed for histological changes and Ki67 proliferation index. Fifty-two mice had selective inactivation of menin in the thyroid gland (16 mice with RET÷PTC3 oncogene and 19 mice with E7 oncogene). As compared to wild type, mice with inactivation of menin presented an increased Ki67 proliferation index. Mice presenting the E7 oncogene showed larger thyroid glands with a pattern of diffuse hyperplasia. Mice expressing the RET÷PTC3 oncogene presented larger thyroid glands compared to the wild type mice but smaller compared to E7 mice. The lesions in the RET÷PTC3 group were "proliferative papillary cystic changes" (60%), "cribriform" (16%), "solid" (8%) and a combination of these patterns in the rest of the thyroid glands. The inactivation of menin in the thyroid gland of young mice does not seem to change the histological pattern, but it influences the proliferation of follicular cells. Further molecular studies especially in aged mice are needed to better understand the correlation between certain oncogenes and the inactive status of menin. PMID:27151693

  14. Natural Radium-226 accumulation in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Small amounts of Ra-226 and other radium isotopes routinely enter the human body through normal dietary intake and, in some cases, through occupational exposure. Currently accepted biokinetic models for radium in the human body assume a uniform distribution among all soft tissues and a short retention time in those tissues. These assumptions persist despite publications in the mid-1980s indicating that radium concentrations in tissue are related to calcium levels in each organ, implying that the thyroid gland could accumulate greater concentrations of radium isotopes than any other tissue. Moreover, the natural intake or production of sulfate or barium compounds in the body could serve to precipitate radium in the thyroid gland, thereby immobilizing it, with the result that the radionuclide stays resident for many years. Evidence of both accumulation and immobilization of Ra-226 in thyroids of grazing animals has been documented since the 1960s by one of us (LVM). Little is known, however, about the concentration and retention of radium in the human thyroid. Reported here, for the first time, are Ra-226 measurement data from about 100 human thyroids collected from over 95 persons with no known occupational exposure to radium with lifetime residences in the US and other countries, one person who routinely ingested a homeopathic preparation containing Ra-226, and three uranium miners. Sensitive measurements were made using the radon emanation technique. Regardless of the origin of the thyroid sample, Ra-226 activity was almost always detected above the detection limit of 0.65 mBq when at least 10 g of thyroid tissue were available. Our analyses to-date suggests a background concentration in human thyroids of about 0.1 ±0.01 Bq/kg, considerably greater than the commonly reported literature value of 0.003 Bq/kg in soft tissues. In addition, our measurements indicate concentrations of Ra-226 in the three uranium miners (whose exact job description was

  15. Cytodiagnosis of thyroid lesions-usefulness and pitfalls: A study of 288 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guhamallick M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the thyroid gland has been widely and successfully utilized for diagnosis. Aim: Our aim was to demonstrate the effectiveness of this cheap and simple procedure for the diagnosis of different thyroid lesions, particularly, differentiation of malignant and nonmalignant lesions. In addition, we sought to highlight probable causes of error and possible remedies in the cases showing lack of correlation between cytological and histological diagnoses. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 cases of thyroid swellings were aspirated in our two-year study period. Cases were divided into four groups, namely, aspiration inadequate where diagnosis was not offered; a nonneoplastic group which included different goiters and thyroiditis; an indeterminate group which included cases showing features of follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasms, and a malignant group that included nonfollicular malignant tumors of the thyroid. Cases showing cytohistologic disparity were reevaluated. Results: Almost 14% of the cases could not be reported because of inadequate aspiration, however, an overall cytohistological correlation was achieved in 82.66% of all cases. Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of malignancy were 92.7 and 98.2%, respectively. There were four false negative malignant cases with one false positive case and 13 cases failed to show any cytohistological correlation. Conclusions: FNAC is the single most important test for preoperative assessment of thyroid pathology if attention is paid to the clinical features and collection of samples from proper sites.

  16. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, B; Mahabob, M Nazargi

    2012-08-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by blockade of salivary gland duct. The common site of occurrence of mucocele is lower lip followed by tongue, floor of mouth (ranula), and the buccal mucosa. PMID:23066247

  17. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Senthilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by blockade of salivary gland duct. The common site of occurrence of mucocele is lower lip followed by tongue, floor of mouth (ranula, and the buccal mucosa.

  18. Involvement of the thyroid and the salivary glands in childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphomas at initial diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akata, Deniz; Akhan, Okan; Akyuez, Canan; Oezmen, Mustafa N.; Yalcin, Bilgehan

    2002-12-01

    Objective: The clinical spectrum of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is different from that in adults, with frequent extranodal involvement. We searched the incidence and radiological appearance of the secondary involvement of the thyroid and salivary glands by ultrasonography (US) to assess its importance for staging of the disease. Materials and methods: We examined the thyroid, parotid and submandibulary glands of 43 children with NHL, age ranging between 9 months and 17 years, by US. Results: According to US findings, involvement of the parotid gland was very common as detected in 18 of the cases with NHL (41%). It was the most common organ involved in lymphoma. Lymphomatous infiltration of the thyroid gland, with bilateral multiple focal lesions, was detected in two patients and proved by fine needle aspiration biopsy in all cases (5%). Salivary gland and thyroid involvement changed staging in three (6%) of the patients, however, the treatment plan was unchanged. Conclusions: This study shows that anatomic sites, known to be very rarely involved at the initial presentation of the disease is actually more commonly involved in childhood NHL. However, it does not cause any significant change in the treatment planning or in the survival.

  19. Involvement of the thyroid and the salivary glands in childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphomas at initial diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The clinical spectrum of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is different from that in adults, with frequent extranodal involvement. We searched the incidence and radiological appearance of the secondary involvement of the thyroid and salivary glands by ultrasonography (US) to assess its importance for staging of the disease. Materials and methods: We examined the thyroid, parotid and submandibulary glands of 43 children with NHL, age ranging between 9 months and 17 years, by US. Results: According to US findings, involvement of the parotid gland was very common as detected in 18 of the cases with NHL (41%). It was the most common organ involved in lymphoma. Lymphomatous infiltration of the thyroid gland, with bilateral multiple focal lesions, was detected in two patients and proved by fine needle aspiration biopsy in all cases (5%). Salivary gland and thyroid involvement changed staging in three (6%) of the patients, however, the treatment plan was unchanged. Conclusions: This study shows that anatomic sites, known to be very rarely involved at the initial presentation of the disease is actually more commonly involved in childhood NHL. However, it does not cause any significant change in the treatment planning or in the survival

  20. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londei, Marco; Bottazzo, G. Franco; Feldmann, Marc

    1985-04-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves' disease were cloned in mitogen-free interleukin-2 (T-cell growth factor). The clones were expanded and their specificity was tested. Three types of clones were found. One group, of T4 phenotype, specifically recognized autologous thyroid cells. Another, also of T4 phenotype, recognized autologous thyroid or blood cells and thus responded positively in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. Other clones derived from cells that were activated in vivo were of no known specificity. These clones provide a model of a human autoimmune disease and their analysis should clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and provide clues to abrogating these undesirable immune responses.

  1. Management of thyroid gland invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanoğlu, Seçil; Eren, Erdem; Özkul, Yılmaz; Ciğer, Ejder; Kopar, Aylin; Önal, Kazım; Etit, Demet; Tütüncü, G Yazgı

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma; and the association between clinicopathological parameters and thyroid gland invasion. Medical records of 75 patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent total laryngectomy with thyroidectomy were reviewed, retrospectively. Preoperative computed tomography scans, clinical and operative findings, and histopathological data of the specimens were evaluated. There were 73 male and two female patients with an age range of 41-88 years (mean 60.4 years). Hemithyroidectomy was performed in 62 (82.7 %) and total thyroidectomy was performed in 13 patients (17.3 %). Four patients had histopathologically proven thyroid gland invasion (5.3 %). In three patients, thyroid gland involvement was by means of direct invasion. Thyroid gland invasion was significantly correlated with thyroid cartilage invasion. Therefore, prophylactic thyroidectomy should not be a part of the treatment policy for these tumors.

  2. Analysis of origin and growth of the thyroid gland in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Burkhard; Reibe, Saskia; Feitosa, Natalia M; Elsalini, Osama A; Wendl, Thomas; Rohr, Klaus B

    2006-07-01

    The zebrafish thyroid gland shows a unique pattern of growth as a differentiated endocrine gland. Here, we analyze the onset of differentiation, the contribution of lineages, and the mode of growth of this gland. The expression of genes involved in hormone production and the establishment of epithelial polarity show that differentiation into a first thyroid follicle takes place early during embryonic development. Thyroid follicular tissue then grows along the pharyngeal midline, initially independently of thyroid stimulating hormone. Lineage analysis reveals that thyroid follicle cells are exclusively recruited from the pharyngeal endoderm. The ultimobranchial bodies that merge with the thyroid in mammals form separate glands in zebrafish as visualized by calcitonin precursor gene expression. Mosaic analysis suggests that the first thyroid follicle differentiating at 55 hours postfertilization corresponds later to the most anterior follicle and that new follicles are added caudally.

  3. Changes in serum thyroid hormone levels and thyroid gland activity of artificially maturing female Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Xiancheng(曲宪成); Massaki Nagae; Sinji Adachi; Kohei Yamauchi

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the involvement of the thyroid gland in reproduction, thyroid func-tioning was described in female cultivated Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica ) in progressive stages of sex-ual maturation induced by chum salmon pituitary homogenate (SPH) treatment. Serum thyroid hor-mones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were also measured in each stage. Thyroid gland ac-tivity (epithelial cell height) was high before SPH injection (previtellogenic stage), further increasing at the early vitellogenic stage, thereafter decreasing to late vitellogenic and migratory nucleus stages. Theprofiles of both T3 and T4 changed during vitellogenesis, being high during previtellogenic and earlyvitellogenic stages, and subsequently declining, thus mimicking thyroid gland activity. These resultssuggest that the thyroid has relation with eel ovarian development during artificial maturation.

  4. FOLLICULAR CELL CARCINOMA OF THE THYROID GLAND IN THREE CAPTIVE AGED RACCOON DOGS (NYCTEREUTES PROCYONOIDES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Nobuhide; Itagaki, Iori; Ono, Kaori; Omiya, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Rei

    2015-12-01

    The clinical and histologic features of thyroid carcinoma in raccoon dogs have not been previously reported. Three of four raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) over 8 yr of age at the Nogeyama Zoological Gardens developed thyroid follicular cell carcinomas that were detected at necropsy. The affected raccoon dogs were rescued from the wild and were housed at the Nogeyama Zoological Gardens for 8 yr 8 mo, 8 yr 10 mo, and 10 yr 3 mo, respectively. Although all of them appeared lethargic and developed partial alopecia or desquamation of their skin, they did not display any other specific clinical signs associated with a thyroid lesion. Serum thyroid hormone values were examined in two of the affected raccoon dogs and the average and standard deviation values (free-thyroxin [FT4]: 0.078 ± 0.077 pM/L and 0.062 ± 0.0039 pM/L; free-triiodothyronine [FT3]: 3.261 ± 0.765 pM/L and 3.407 ± 0.919 pM/L) were lower than the reference range (FT4: 0.141 ± 0.117 pM/L; FT3: 5.139 ± 2.412 pM/L) derived from a clinically normal raccoon dog. On necropsy, the thyroid lobes were markedly enlarged bilaterally. Histopathologically, the neoplastic cells in the thyroid gland appeared round or oval and columnar or cuboidal with minimal heteromorphism. Moreover, mostly small (but occasionally large) follicles were identified, and the neoplastic cells had infiltrated into the surrounding capsule and blood vessels. The histopathologic features of the thyroid tumors in the raccoon dogs revealed that the tumors were derived from follicular cells.

  5. Quantitative image analysis in sonograms of the thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Skouroliakou; Maria, Lyra; Aristides, Antoniou; Lambros, Vlahos

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution, real-time ultrasound is a routine examination for assessing the disorders of the thyroid gland. However, the current diagnosis practice is based mainly on qualitative evaluation of the resulting sonograms, therefore depending on the physician's experience. Computerized texture analysis is widely employed in sonographic images of various organs (liver, breast), and it has been proven to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis by providing a better tissue characterization. The present study attempts to characterize thyroid tissue by automatic texture analysis. The texture features that are calculated are based on co-occurrence matrices as they have been proposed by Haralick. The sample consists of 40 patients. For each patient two sonographic images (one for each lobe) are recorded in DICOM format. The lobe is manually delineated in each sonogram, and the co-occurrence matrices for 52 separation vectors are calculated. The texture features extracted from each one of these matrices are: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. Primary component analysis is used to select the optimal set of features. The statistical analysis resulted in the extraction of 21 optimal descriptors. The optimal descriptors are all co-occurrence parameters as the first-order statistics did not prove to be representative of the images characteristics. The bigger number of components depends mainly on correlation for very close or very far distances. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of thyroid sonograms can provide an objective characterization of thyroid tissue.

  6. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma in the Thyroid Gland and Pancreas Showing Uptake on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT Scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthan, Gowri L; Schembri, Geoffrey Paul; Samra, Jaswinder; Roach, Paul; Hsiao, Edward

    2016-07-01

    Ga DOTATATE PET/CT is an imaging technique used in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. We report a case of 66-year-old woman with a history of surgically removed renal cell carcinoma who presented for a DOTATATE PET/CT scan to characterize a newly diagnosed pancreatic lesion. DOTATATE-avid lesions were identified in the thyroid gland and pancreas. Subsequent biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma at both sites. It is important to be aware that tumors other than neuroendocrine tumors may also show uptake on DOTATATE PET/CT scan. A biopsy may be required if lesions are identified at atypical sites. PMID:27055137

  7. [Possibilities of ultrasonic investigations in differentiation of a small-foci impairment of thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyti, A O; Vityuk, N V; Medvedev, V E; Starushok, I O

    2015-03-01

    The results of ultrasound investigation of microcarcinomas and nontumoral foci of thyroid gland up to 10 mm in diameter and malignant foci over 10 mm are presented. Ultrasound signs are depicted, in accordance to which a potentially malignant thyroid gland foci are delineated, what demands a morphological (cytological) verification conduction.

  8. The clinical significance and management of incidental focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with non-thyroidal malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background Incidental focal fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid is not uncommon. A significant proportion is due to intercurrent thyroid cancer on further evaluation. Purpose To investigate and discuss the clinical significance and management of incidental focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with non-thyroidal malignancy. Material and Methods We investigated 188/7896 (2.4%) patients who had incidental focal thyroid uptake on FDG PET/CT in an oncology population over a 45-month period. Diagnosis was confirmed in 63 patients of whom 59 patients had histopathological verification. Results Thirty-two percent of confirmed cases were malignant comprising intercurrent thyroid cancer in three-quarters of these patients. Maximum standardized uptake values of the thyroid lesions and SUV ratios compared with background thyroid and mediastinal uptake were not predictive of a benign or malignant etiology. In patients with incidental thyroid cancers, more than half had non-papillary and intermediate to high-risk pathology. Conclusion Focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on PET/CT showed a malignancy risk of 32%. The intensity of uptake does not predict histology and underpins the importance of further investigations to exclude intercurrent thyroid cancer in suitable patients

  9. The clinical significance and management of incidental focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with non-thyroidal malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Christine (Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)); Lin, Michael (Univ. of New South Wales (Australia); Liverpool Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Liverpool (Australia)), email: Michael.lin@swsahs.nsw.gov.au; Chicco, Andrew; Benson, Rhonda (Liverpool Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Liverpool (Australia))

    2011-10-15

    Background Incidental focal fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid is not uncommon. A significant proportion is due to intercurrent thyroid cancer on further evaluation. Purpose To investigate and discuss the clinical significance and management of incidental focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with non-thyroidal malignancy. Material and Methods We investigated 188/7896 (2.4%) patients who had incidental focal thyroid uptake on FDG PET/CT in an oncology population over a 45-month period. Diagnosis was confirmed in 63 patients of whom 59 patients had histopathological verification. Results Thirty-two percent of confirmed cases were malignant comprising intercurrent thyroid cancer in three-quarters of these patients. Maximum standardized uptake values of the thyroid lesions and SUV ratios compared with background thyroid and mediastinal uptake were not predictive of a benign or malignant etiology. In patients with incidental thyroid cancers, more than half had non-papillary and intermediate to high-risk pathology. Conclusion Focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on PET/CT showed a malignancy risk of 32%. The intensity of uptake does not predict histology and underpins the importance of further investigations to exclude intercurrent thyroid cancer in suitable patients

  10. [DIAGNOSTIC AND TREATMENT STRATEGY IN FOLLICULAR TUMOR OF THYROID GLAND].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaĭlova, M V; Zubarovskiĭ, I N; Osipenko, S K

    2015-01-01

    The article is based on the treatment results of 44 patients with follicular tunor of thyroid gland. A staged morphological assessment of thyroid nodes was performed for all patients: in case of preoperative fine-needle biopsy, urgent intraoperative study and according to results of final histological research. The urgent histological study of surgical material was conducted for 44 patients with diagnosis "follicular tumor" according to fine-needle biopsy. The data of final histological study were matched with findings of intraoperative research. A micro-follicular adenoma was detected in 22 patients (50%) and 6 (13,6%) patients had this diagnosis combined with autoimmune thyroiditis. The general part of patients didn't changed in final study, but the rate of diagnosis "micro-follicular adenoma against the background of autoimmune thyroiditis" increased. Papillary carcinoma was revealed in 5 (11,4%) patients and follicular cancer had 4 (9,1%) patients detected in intraoperative study and 3 (6,8%) more patients according to data of final research. The histopathologic feature of colloid goiter was observed in 7 (15,9%) cases and a part of such patients reduced to 6,8% during final study. One of the patients (2,3%) had final diagnosis "oncocytoma". In case of thyroid nodules detection the needle biopsy should be carried out regardless to the size of nodule. The authors recommended performing the surgery with the urgent histological study in case of undetermined histological report. The following surgical strategy was specified by the results of the urgent histological report.

  11. Bullous lesions, sweat gland necrosis and rhabdomyolysis in alcoholic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF. Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  12. In vivo analysis of fracture toughness of thyroid gland tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschowitz Sharon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human solid tumors that are hard or firm on physical palpation are likely to be cancerous, a clinical maxim that has been successfully applied to cancer screening programs, such as breast self-examination. However, the biological relevance or prognostic significance of tumor hardness remains poorly understood. Here we present a fracture mechanics based in vivo approach for characterizing the fracture toughness of biological tissue of human thyroid gland tumors. Methods In a prospective study, 609 solid thyroid gland tumors were percutaneously probed using standard 25 gauge fine needles, their tissue toughness ranked on the basis of the nature and strength of the haptic force feedback cues, and subjected to standard fine needle biopsy. The tumors' toughness rankings and final cytological diagnoses were combined and analyzed. The interpreting cytopathologist was blinded to the tumors' toughness rankings. Results Our data showed that cancerous and noncancerous tumors displayed remarkable haptically distinguishable differences in their material toughness. Conclusion The qualitative method described here, though subject to some operator bias, identifies a previously unreported in vivo approach to classify fracture toughness of a solid tumor that can be correlated with malignancy, and paves the way for the development of a mechanical device that can accurately quantify the tissue toughness of a human tumor.

  13. AZD6244 in Treating Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-02

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  14. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

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    Baek, Jung Hwan; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Yoon Suk; Kwak, Min Sook; Chang, Sun Hee [Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyun Chul [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ultrasound guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the benign nodules of the thyroid gland. We studied 148 patients with benign thyroid nodules (200 total nodules) that were confirmed histopathologically, and we performed ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. The radiofrequency ablation was done 1 to 5 times per one nodule, and follow-up ultrasonography was performed one to nineteen months after the ablation procedures. The physical changes and the decrease of volume of the nodules were evaluated, and the complications related to radiofrequency ablation were observed. The mean initial nodule volume was 0.01-95.61 ml (mean; 6.83 {+-} SD of 10.63 ml) and the nodule volume after radiofrequency ablation was decreased to 0.00-46.56 ml (mean; 1.83 {+-} SD of 4.69 ml). The mean volume reduction rate was 73.2%. Reduction of more than 50% was noted in 90% of all cases. For 180 nodules (90%), the decrease was 50% or more, in 20 nodules (10%), the decrease was 49% or less. On gray-scale ultrasonogram obtained after ablation, the echogenicity of the nodules changed to darker, and on the doppler-sonogram, the vascular flow within the nodules disappeared in all cases. Most patients complained pain during or right after the procedure, but the pain was transient and subsided after medication. Two patients developed hoarseness that was improved in 1 week and 2 months, respectively. Sonoguided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation can be one of the treatments for benign nodules of the thyroid gland.

  15. Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intraoral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

  16. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF THE THYROID GLAND IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF LARYNGEAL CANCER TREATMENT

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    I. N. Vorozhtsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ, which has a significant influence on human organism from the perinatal period and throughout the whole life, participating in the regulation of metabolism. The most common variant of thyroid dysfunction is hypothyroidism, which causes different disorders in various organs and systems, including psycho-emotional sphere. This can burden comorbidities and particularly malignant processes.Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. Despite the visual availability of this localization for diagnosis, more than 50% of cases stay timely unrecognized. Many cases are found out at stages III and IV, which requires expanded operations and causes traumatization because of disruption or loss of such important functions as breathing, swallowing, speech, causing long-term or permanent disability. This makes laryngeal cancer significant medical and social and economic problem.One of the leading treatments for cancer of the larynx is external beam radiotherapy. Thyroid gland gets into the radiation area and may take more than 50% of the total focal dose. The most common outcome of post-radiation inflammation is fibrosis of thyroid tissue due to lesions of the blood vessels and destruction of thyrocytes. It causes the development of hypothyroidism, which exacerbate stress caused by cancer and by aggressive antitumor therapy. Also, hypothyroidism adversely affects the patients’ condition during the postoperative period.Despite the fact that the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is pretty simple, and replacement therapy with L-thyroxine is cheap and available, many doctors don’t monitorthyroid function in cancer patients at all or don’t make all necessary tests.Thus, timely detection of hypothyroidism is extremely important during and after the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Early prescribing adequate treatment helps to reduce the incidence of complications.

  17. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVB Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVC Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma

  18. Insight to neoplastic thyroid lesions by fine needle aspiration cytology

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    M Rangaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: FNAC is a rapid, efficient, cost-effective, relatively painless procedure with a high diagnostic accuracy. It has high rate of sensitivity and positive predictive value in diagnosing thyroid neoplastic lesions. Hence, it is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of patients.

  19. Thyroid gland rupture: a rare finding after a blunt neck trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Faisal; Varshney, Rickul; Payne, Richard J; Manoukian, John J

    2013-05-01

    This is a case report of a 13 years old boy with a thyroid rupture secondary to a hockey stick blunt trauma to his neck and a literature review focused on diagnosis and management. There are 14 other cases in the literature, 7 of which required surgical intervention mainly to evacuate a hematoma. The case in this review did not develop any complications. This is the first reported case in the literature of thyroid gland rupture due to a blunt trauma in a child. Patients with thyroid gland rupture should be monitored closely for developing a hematoma or thyroid storm. PMID:23522054

  20. Expression of nk2.1a during early development of the thyroid gland in zebrafish.

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    Rohr, K B; Concha, M L

    2000-07-01

    We show here that a zebrafish orthologue of the Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 (TTF-1), nk2.1a, is expressed in the developing thyroid gland. Using a fate mapping approach we found that an early nk2.1a expression domain in the endoderm adjacent to the heart follows morphogenetic movements of the lower jaw, ending up in the region in which the mature thyroid gland is located. We therefore suggest that nk2.1a labels the thyroid precursor cells from somitogenesis stages onwards.

  1. Expression of PACAP and PAC1 Receptor in Normal Human Thyroid Gland and in Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma.

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    Bardosi, Sebastian; Bardosi, Attila; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Reglodi, Dora

    2016-10-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) belongs to the vasoactive intestinal peptide-secretin-glucagon peptide family, isolated first from ovine hypothalamus. The diverse physiological effects of PACAP are known mainly from animal experiments, including several actions in endocrine glands. Alteration of PACAP expression has been shown in several tumors, but changes in expression of PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor in human thyroid gland pathologies have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate expression of PACAP and its PAC1 receptor in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, the most common endocrine malignant tumor. PACAP and PAC1 receptor expressions were investigated from thyroid gland samples of patients with papillary carcinomas. The staining intensity of follicular epithelial cells and thyroid colloid of tumor tissue was compared to that of tumor-free tissue in the same thyroid glands in a semi-quantitative way. Our results reveal that both PACAP(-like) and PAC1 receptor(-like) immunoreactivities are altered in papillary carcinoma. Stronger PACAP immunoreactivity was observed in active follicles. Colloidal PACAP immunostaining was either lacking or very weak, and more tumorous cells displayed strong apical immunoreactivity. Regarding PAC1 receptor, cells of the normal thyroid tissue showed strong granular expression, which was lacking in the tumor cells. The cytoplasm of tumor cells displayed weak, minimal staining, while in a few tumor cells we observed strong PAC1 receptor expression. This pattern was similar to that observed in the PACAP expression, but fewer in number. In summary, we showed alteration of PACAP and PAC1 receptor expression in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, indicating that PACAP regulation is disturbed in tumorous tissue of the thyroid gland. The exact role of PACAP in thyroid tumor growth should be further explored.

  2. Ambulatory major surgery of benign tumors of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and prospective study on the practice of ambulatory major surgery to eliminate benign tumours of the thyroid gland, was carried out in the General Surgery Service of 'Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany' Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the years 1996-2008, both included, through a previous clinical evaluation of 74 patients in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department, where it was decided that they could definitely have a surgical treatment. The female sex, the age groups from 31 to 45 years, the hemithyroidectomy as surgical technique, acupuncture as analgesic procedure and the follicular adenoma as cytohistological result prevailed in the case material. Mild complications occurred in 5 members of the sample, but recovery was absolute in all, so that even 72 of them were discharged before the 24 hours. Due to its good acceptance, this surgical method is beneficial for patient and hospital institutions.(author)

  3. Thyroid nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 14. Read More Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) Laryngeal nerve damage Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma Thyroid gland removal Patient Instructions Thyroid gland ...

  4. Aflibercept in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  5. Thyroid gland in vitro activity and reactivity to TRH in newborn lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronska, D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the thyroid gland tissue concentration and activity on T4 and T3 in vitro release to the medium without (control) or with TRH (10 μg/ml) for 90 min of incubation in lambs just after birth and after the first 6h of postnatal life. The results obtained show that T4 concentration in the blood plasma in newborn lambs as well after 6h of life is higher than in thyroid gland tissue. In the case of T3 the concentration in blood plasma of lambs just after birth is lower than after 6h of postnatal life. Inversely, the higher level of that hormone concentration in blood plasma just after birth is higher than in the thyroid gland tissue. The results clearly indicate the inhibitory TRH effect on in vitro T4 especially, and in lesser degree T3 release from the thyroid gland tissue of lambs just after birth. Stimulation of the TRH thyroid gland tissue from lambs after 6h of life caused an increase in T4 release, especially after 60 min of the experiment. Similarly, a significant increase of T3 release was found only after 60 min of incubation. The transient promoting TRH effect on the amount of iodothyronine release from the thyroid gland in older lambs is probably connected with this gland's function not occurring before the designated time of postnatal adaptation. The described in vitro experiment visibly shows that changing thyroid gland activity in newborn lambs is not only conditioned by the entire HPT activity, but by the immanent thyroid gland attributes as well.

  6. [MORPHOFUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE THYROID GLAND AFTER EXPOSURE TO MELATONIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanko, R V

    2015-01-01

    Morphofunctional state of the thyroid gland (TG) of young rats after exposure of exogenous melatonin in the spring and autumn periods was investigated. Exogenous melatonin (Unipharm Inc., USA) was administered to experimental group of animals daily at a dose 5 mg/kg. The duration of the experiment was 28 days. It was shown an increase of the cross-section area of follicles by 31% and colloid by 30% (in spring), reduction of the area of follicle epithelium by 12% (in autumn), an increase in the follicle internal diameter and a decline in the thyroid epithelium height by 12% (in autumn) in TG of experimental groups rats. Also it was shown a decline of follicle-colloid index and growth of colloid accumulation index, reduction amount of interfollicular islets. The introduction of melatonin in the spring period brought down the amount of connecting tissue elements. Melatonin introduction in the autumn period reduced the thickness of connective tissue trabecules in TG. The introduction of melatonin in the spring period resulted in more substantial changes in the structure of TG, as compared to an autumn experiment. Thus, melatonin administered both in the spring and in the autumn periods reduces the functional activity and physiological regeneration of TG.

  7. Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report

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    Yokoyama Junkichi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13 cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody and thyroglobulin measured as high as 970 U/ml and 600 ng/mL respectively. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosed chronic thyroiditis. A preoperative diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was made, and a right hemithyroidectomy was performed to definite diagnosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD3 and CD45RO. The pathological diagnosis was chronic thyroiditis with atypical lymphocytes infiltration. However, Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed only a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Finally, peripheral T cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Therefore, the left hemithyroidectomy was also performed one month later. No adjuvant therapy was performed due to the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 22 months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. As malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was difficult to diagnose, gene rearrangement examination needed to be performed concurrently.

  8. Thyroid gland morphology in young adults: normal subjects versus those with prior low-dose neck irradiation in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid glands obtained at autopsy from young adults were studied to establish more accurately the ''normal'' morphology in the groups 20 to 40 years of age. A total of 56 autopsy specimens (many obtained from trauma victims) were examined in detail by totally embedding and sectioning the thyroid glands. The morphology of these thyroid glands also was compared to that of surgically removed thyroid glands from 47 young adult patients with prior low-dose neck irradiation. The ''normal'' thyroid specimens frequently showed morphologic features, such as thyroid tissue outside the recognizable capsule of the gland (40 of 56 patients) and in the strap muscles of the neck (six of 56 patients), which are conditions commonly considered as evidence for invasive thyroid carcinoma. The thyroid glands from the ''normal'' young adult population were significantly different from those thyroid glands surgically removed from patients who had received irradiation. The irradiated thyroid glands invariably showed multiple nodules of a wide variety of histologic types, extensive lymphocytic infiltrates, and distorting fibrosis as well as a high incidence of malignancy (27 of 47 patients). A single 0.1 cm focus of papillary carcinoma was found in one specimen in the nonirradiated thyroid group. This study suggests that ''occult'' thyroid carcinomas in the group 20 to 40 years of age are rare and are significantly fewer in number than in the older population (P less than 0.02)

  9. Metastases of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Thyroid Gland with Synchronous Benign and Malignant Follicular Cell-Derived Neoplasms

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    Carlos Zamarrón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC is the most common origin for metastasis in the thyroid. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for a subcarinal lesion. Ten years before, the patient had undergone a nephrectomy for CCRCC. Whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed elevated values in the thyroid gland, while the mediastinum was normal. An endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the mediastinal mass was consistent with CCRCC, and this was confirmed after resection. The thyroidectomy specimen also revealed lymphocytic thyroiditis, nodular hyperplasia, one follicular adenoma, two papillary microcarcinomas, and six foci of metastatic CCRCC involving both thyroid lobes. Curiously two of the six metastatic foci were located inside two adenomatoid nodules (tumor-in-tumor. The metastatic cells were positive for cytokeratins, CD10, epidermal growth factor receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. No BRAF gene mutations were found in any of the primary and metastatic lesions. The patient was treated with sunitinib and finally died due to CCRCC distant metastases 6 years after the thyroidectomy. In CCRCC patients, a particularly prolonged survival rate may be achieved with the appropriate therapy, in contrast to the ominous prognosis typically found in patients with thyroid metastases from other origins.

  10. Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer-a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC) patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT). In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT)-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT technique. Matched patients in Controls remained free for hypothyroidism. Based on each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH) the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were then estimated (V20, V30, V40 and V50) together with the individual mean thyroid dose over the whole gland (MeanTotGy). The mean and median thyroid dose for the included patients was about 30 Gy, subsequently the total volume of the thyroid gland (VolTotGy) and the absolute volumes (cm3) receiving respectively < 30 Gy and ≥ 30 Gy were calculated (Vol < 30 and Vol ≥ 30) and analyzed. No statistically significant inter-group differences were found between V20, V30, V40 and V50Gy or the median of MeanTotGy. The median VolTotGy in Controls was 2.3 times above VolTotGy in Cases (ρ = 0.003), with large inter-individual variations in both groups. The volume of the thyroid gland receiving < 30 Gy in Controls was almost 2.5 times greater than the comparable figure in Cases. We concluded that in patients with small thyroid glands after loco-radiotherapy of BC, the risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism depends on the volume of the thyroid gland

  11. Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer-a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutstad K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT. Methods and materials In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT technique. Matched patients in Controls remained free for hypothyroidism. Based on each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were then estimated (V20, V30, V40 and V50 together with the individual mean thyroid dose over the whole gland (MeanTotGy. The mean and median thyroid dose for the included patients was about 30 Gy, subsequently the total volume of the thyroid gland (VolTotGy and the absolute volumes (cm3 receiving respectively Results No statistically significant inter-group differences were found between V20, V30, V40 and V50Gy or the median of MeanTotGy. The median VolTotGy in Controls was 2.3 times above VolTotGy in Cases (ρ = 0.003, with large inter-individual variations in both groups. The volume of the thyroid gland receiving Conclusions We concluded that in patients with small thyroid glands after loco-radiotherapy of BC, the risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism depends on the volume of the thyroid gland.

  12. [Using Kirlian photography method for risk assessment of the thyroid gland pathology development in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisots'ka, L A; Kul'kina, O A; Abaiantseva, T O; Shostak, L V; Babenko, V V; Zaruvins'ka, O Iu

    2010-01-01

    The article considers possibilities of the use of the express method based on the Kirlian-effect to detect prenosological signs of pathology of the thyroid gland. Type of Kirlian emission form fingers was compared with the form of disease, its pathogenesis, clinical peculiarities and ultrasonic data. Obtained data were used to form criteria for different group of the risk development of thyroid gland pathology. PMID:21488372

  13. Effect of vertical angulation to dose of thyroid glands in periapical radiography

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    Hosoi, Keitaro; Satoh, Keiji; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1992-10-01

    Much attention has been given to reducing the dose of radiation in dental radiography in terms of the highest risk for the head and neck. Organ doses in intraoral radiography vary greatly with subtle differences in vertical angulation. Quantitative determination of doses delivered to the thyroid gland is thus necessary in determining adequate doses and risk for dental radiography. A personal computer program, prepared for estimating organ doses under various radiographic conditions, was used to evaluate the effect of vertical angulation on the dose delivered to the thyroid gland in radiography of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Review of the literature revealed that the calculated dose delivered to the thyroid gland is approximately in accordance with the data of the actual determination under the same radiographic conditions. The dose-dependence of radiation delivered to the thyroid gland on vertical angulation of the maxilla was much more than that of the mandible. In the mandible, the dose delivered to the thyroid gland increased about three fold at a field size of 6 cm[phi] and about 1.5 fold at 8 cm[phi] when the vertical angulation changed from -40deg to 0deg. In the maxilla, the delivered dose increased about 480 times at a field size of 6 cm[phi] when vertical angulation changed from 0deg to 50deg and rapidly increased about 280 times at 8 cm[phi] when the angulation changed from 0deg to 40deg. The dose of radiation delivered to the thyroid gland was evaluated as a function of product of the irradiated volume within the primary beam directed at the thyroid gland and the inverse square of the distance between a subject's surface and the thyroid gland. (N.K.).

  14. Various somatostatin receptor expression in thyroid gland carcinomas and carcinoids showed with scintigraphy with various somatostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various neuroendocrine tumors and tumors of the thyroid gland exprime somatostatin receptors in high density. OctreoScan is used for the diagnosis of SSTR positive tumors. OctreoScan is an 111In marked Octreotid-derivative. In this study the applicability of the various tracers for the diagnosis of carcinoids and thyroid gland carcinomas was tested. With planar scintigraphy the results was evaluated. (boteke)

  15. Differential protein expression profiles of cyst fluid from papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid lesions.

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    Andrii Dinets

    Full Text Available Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC is a subgroup of PTC presenting a diagnostic challenge at fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB. To further investigate this entity we aimed to characterize protein profiles of cyst fluids from cPTC and benign thyroid cystic lesions. In total, 20 cPTCs and 56 benign thyroid cystic lesions were studied. Profiling by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was performed on cyst fluids from a subset of cases after depletion, and selected proteins were further analyzed by Western blot (WB, immunohistochemistry (IHC and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. A total of 1,581 proteins were detected in cyst fluids, of which 841 were quantified in all samples using LC-MS/MS. Proteins with different expression levels between cPTCs and benign lesions were identified by univariate analysis (41 proteins and multivariate analysis (59 proteins in an orthogonal partial least squares model. WB analyses of cyst fluid and IHC on corresponding tissue samples confirmed a significant up-regulation of cytokeratin 19 (CK-19/CYFRA 21-1 and S100A13 in cPTC vs. benign lesions. These findings were further confirmed by ELISA in an extended material of non-depleted cyst fluids from cPTCs (n = 17 and benign lesions (n = 55 (p55 ng/ml for CK-19 resulted in 82% specificity and sensitivity. For S100A13 a cut-off at >230 pg/ml revealed a 94% sensitivity, but only 35% specificity. This is the first comprehensive catalogue of the protein content in fluid from thyroid cysts. The up-regulations of CK-19 and S100A13 suggest their possible use in FNAB based preoperative diagnostics of cystic thyroid lesions.

  16. Differential protein expression profiles of cyst fluid from papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinets, Andrii; Pernemalm, Maria; Kjellin, Hanna; Sviatoha, Vitalijs; Sofiadis, Anastasios; Juhlin, C Christofer; Zedenius, Jan; Larsson, Catharina; Lehtiö, Janne; Höög, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC) is a subgroup of PTC presenting a diagnostic challenge at fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). To further investigate this entity we aimed to characterize protein profiles of cyst fluids from cPTC and benign thyroid cystic lesions. In total, 20 cPTCs and 56 benign thyroid cystic lesions were studied. Profiling by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed on cyst fluids from a subset of cases after depletion, and selected proteins were further analyzed by Western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 1,581 proteins were detected in cyst fluids, of which 841 were quantified in all samples using LC-MS/MS. Proteins with different expression levels between cPTCs and benign lesions were identified by univariate analysis (41 proteins) and multivariate analysis (59 proteins in an orthogonal partial least squares model). WB analyses of cyst fluid and IHC on corresponding tissue samples confirmed a significant up-regulation of cytokeratin 19 (CK-19/CYFRA 21-1) and S100A13 in cPTC vs. benign lesions. These findings were further confirmed by ELISA in an extended material of non-depleted cyst fluids from cPTCs (n = 17) and benign lesions (n = 55) (p55 ng/ml for CK-19 resulted in 82% specificity and sensitivity. For S100A13 a cut-off at >230 pg/ml revealed a 94% sensitivity, but only 35% specificity. This is the first comprehensive catalogue of the protein content in fluid from thyroid cysts. The up-regulations of CK-19 and S100A13 suggest their possible use in FNAB based preoperative diagnostics of cystic thyroid lesions. PMID:25978681

  17. Irradiation doses on thyroid gland during the postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

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    Mustafa Akın

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In majority of the node-positive breast cancer patients treated with 3D CRT, the thyroid gland was exposed to considerable doses. On the other hand, for 44% of the patients are at risk for developing thyroid function abnormalities which should be considered during the routine follow-up.

  18. HIGH RESOLUTION ULTRASONOGRAPHIC AND COLOUR DOPPLER EVALUATION OF THYROID LESION

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    Amit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the utility of gray - scale USG and colour doppler to identify patterns of thyroid lesions and to correlate the characteristics of benign and malignant nodules with pathological diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 2013 to September 2014, a total of 100 patients (17 males and 83 females were included in this study. The gray scale and Doppler characteristics of various lesions were determined. The results were then compared with fine needle aspiration (FNA/histopathological diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients examined, 9 (9% were found to be malignant on cytopathology. The malignant nodules demonstrated presence of microcalcification ( S ensitivity 44.5%, specificity 98.5%; irregular or poorly defined margins ( S ensitivity 77.7%, specificity 90%; absent or thick incomplete halo ( S ensitivity 88.8%, specificity 87.3%; RI >0.7(sensitivity 88.8%, specificity 95.7% and type iii and iv flow(sensitivity 77.7%, specificity 59%. CONCLUSION: Gray - scale USG and colour Doppler features of thyroid nodules are useful to distinguish patients with clinically significant thyroid nodules from those with innocuous nodules despite the overlap of findings. From our study, it is apparent that the USG findings of poorly defined margins, absent halo and RI> 0.7 have a high diagnostic accuracy and microcalcifications have high NPV for identifying malignant thyroid nodules.

  19. Melatonin in the thyroid gland: regulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone and role in thyroglobulin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marin, R; Fernandez-Santos, J M; Morillo-Bernal, J; Gordillo-Martinez, F; Vazquez-Roman, V; Utrilla, J C; Carrillo-Vico, A; Guerrero, J M; Martin-Lacave, I

    2015-10-01

    Melatonin is an indoleamine with multiple functions in both plant and animal species. In addition to data in literature describing many other important roles for melatonin, such as antioxidant, circadian rhythm controlling, anti-aging, antiproliferative or immunomodulatory activities, our group recently reported that thyroid C-cells synthesize melatonin and suggested a paracrine role for this molecule in the regulation of thyroid activity. To discern the role played by melatonin at thyroid level and its involvement in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, in the present study we have analyzed the effect of thyrotropin in the regulation of the enzymatic machinery for melatonin biosynthesis in C cells as well as the effect of melatonin in the regulation of thyroid hormone biosynthesis in thyrocytes. Our results show that the key enzymes for melatonin biosynthesis (AANAT and ASMT) are regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone. Furthermore, exogenous melatonin increases thyroglobulin expression at mRNA and protein levels on cultured thyrocytes and this effect is not strictly mediated by the upregulation of TTF1 or, noteworthy, PAX8 transcription factors. The present data show that thyroid C-cells synthesize melatonin under thyroid-stimulating hormone control and, consistently with previous data, support the hypothesis of a paracrine role for C-cell-synthesised melatonin within the thyroid gland. Additionally, in the present study we show evidence for the involvement of melatonin in thyroid function by directly-regulating thyroglobulin gene expression in follicular cells.

  20. Interferin with thyroid scintigraphy: the effects of interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction upon thyroid scintigraphy in patients with the hepatitis C virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing. Interferon alpha therapy is often used to treat patients who are HCV positive. Thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction has been reported to occur with variable frequency during INF-alpha therapy in patients with the HCV. This study reviews the scintigraphic findings of thyroid scans in such patients in order to assess for the effects on thyroid scintigraphy. To our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive study of this important occurrence to date. There were a number of patients with the HCV being treated at our institution between 23/09/1996 and 09/08/2000. Some of them received INF-alpha therapy, certain were subsequently diagnosed with thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction. Eight were imaged with thyroid scintigraphy and reviewed. The scintigraphic findings in the 8 patients fell into two broad categories; 4 demonstrated changes of Graves' disease, and 3 changes of thyroiditis (1 of these was sub-acute). One hypothyroid patient with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies had normal thyroid scintigraphy. Six patients were found to have antithyroid antibodies. One patient with thyroiditis tested negative to antithyroid antibodies. One patient was not tested for antithyroid antibodies. Interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction can markedly affect the thyroid scintigraphic findings of patients with the hepatitis C virus. This hitherto undescribed occurrence on thyroid scintigraphy has important practical implications of which Nuclear Medicine Specialists need to be aware in order to correctly interpret thyroid scintigraphy studies in such patients. The clinical presentation and effects on imaging appearances are varied. The Nuclear Medicine Specialist can play a central role in establishing the causal link. Awareness of this occurrence enables the Nuclear Medicine Specialist to add value to the referral. This occurrence will become an increasingly common

  1. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6–NTRK3 fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Tuttle, R Michael; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-01-01

    ETV6–NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47–72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6–NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated

  2. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6-NTRK3 fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Michael Tuttle, R; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-09-01

    ETV6-NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47-72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated with long

  3. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6-NTRK3 fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Michael Tuttle, R; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-09-01

    ETV6-NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47-72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated with long

  4. Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Michael [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: ormying@polyu.edu.hk; Sin Manhong [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Pang, Shuk-fan [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-11-01

    Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = {pi}/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects.

  5. Comparative thyroidology : thyroid gland location and iodothyronine dynamics in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus Peters) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geven, E.J.; Nguyen, N.K.; Boogaart, M. van den; Spanings, F.A.; Flik, G.; Klaren, P.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    In teleosts, the thyroid gland is mostly found in the subpharyngeal region. However, in several species thyroid follicles are found in, for example, heart, head kidney and kidney. Such heterotopic thyroid follicles are active, and considered to work in concert with the subpharyngeal thyroid. In Moza

  6. Stereological study of the capillaries in the thyroid gland after IR laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez de Vargas, I.; Vidal, Lourdes; Parrado, C.; Carrillo, F.; Pelaez, A.; Rius, F.

    1994-02-01

    We have planned a stereological ultrastructural study of capillaries in the thyroid gland treated with IR laser radiation and quantified 1 day after the last treatment. Wistar rats, 50 days old, were irradiated with IR laser radiation. The rats were perfused with 2.5 percent glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (ph equals 7.4). The pieces obtained after sectioning the thyroid gland were placed immediately into the same fixative. A stereological study of the thyroid capillaries was carried out. This analysis revealed an increase of luminal area in irradiated capillaries.

  7. Expression of sodium-iodide symporter in thyroid gland tumors: immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko O.O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key moments of radioiodine therapy, and also radioisotope diagnostics of cancers of a thyroid gland is ability of their cells to accumulate iodide. This ability is provided with activity of the specific transporter – sodium-iodide symporter. Our research has shown disorders of sodium-iodide symporter immunoexpression in all tumors of thyroid gland: from overexpression and absence of plasma membrane expression in differentiated carcinomas, up to weak or actually absent in low differentiated cancers and Hurtle-cells tumors. Thus, there is a prospect of application of the sodium-iodide symporter, as the prognostic marker of thyroid cancers.

  8. MR imaging of noncancerous lesions of the prostate gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper determines the importance of MR signal characteristics in noncancerous lesions of the prostate. Step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens from over 50 individuals with stage A or B cancer were retrospectively reviewed and compared with correlative axial T2-weighted MR images obtained just prior to surgery. Noncancerous lesions were evaluated for signal intensity and location. Focal high-signal-intensity areas were present in 82% of patients. The 28% of lesions in the central gland correlated with cystic atrophy. Of the lesions in the peripheral prostate, 85% were cystic atrophy without associated cancer, 7.5% cystic atrophy with cancer, and 7.5% focal inflammation. Focal low-signal-intensity areas were present in 76% of patients. Of the 31% in the central prostate, one-fifth correlated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and four-fifths with fibrous tissue, 10% to the 69% that were peripheral, 82% corresponded to fibrous tissue, 10% to BPH, and 8% to normal tissue. Mixed lesions were present in 73%; 93% of these were located centrally and 7% peripherally. All mixed central lesions were BPH, and the peripheral 7% were areas of combined cystic atrophy and fibrosis

  9. Diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland with papillary microcarcinoma: Report of a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandyala, Hariharanadha Sarma; Madapuram, Srinivasulu; Yadav, Megha; Katamala, Sudheer Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Presence of lobules of adipose tissue either focally or diffusely is very rare in the thyroid gland. Fat accumulation can be macroscopic or microscopic. Focal infiltrates of fat have been reported in conditions such as adenolipoma, intrathyroid lipoma, and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Diffuse lipomatosis has been reported in conditions such as amyloid goitre, heterotopic fat nests, thyrolipoma and liposarcoma. The exact mechanism of fat accumulation is not known although there are many theories postulated. Investigations such as ultrasound, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging can detect the presence of macroscopic fat in the thyroid gland. Accurate diagnosis of the type of fat accumulation is necessary because tumorous and nontumorous conditions fall into the differential diagnosis. Only nine cases of papillary carcinoma associated with lipomatosis of thyroid are reported so far. We report possibly the first case of diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland with a focus of papillary microcarcinoma.

  10. Influence of chronic stress and terahertz radiation at nitric oxide frequency on functional activity of thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsymbal А.А.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the chronic stress conditions oppression of functional activity of thyroid gland is revealed. Influence of terahertz radiation at the nitric oxide frequency of 150,176-150,664 GHz on functional activity of thyroid gland in the conditions of chronic experimental stress was studied. It was shown that during 15 minutes of influence of terahertz waves at nitric oxide frequency partial restoration of studied indicators of activity of thyroid gland was observed in stressed animals. At 30 minute mode of influence of specified waves a complete recovery of broken indicators of functional condition of thyroid gland was determined

  11. Expression of thyroglobulin and calcitonin in spontaneous thyroid gland tumors in the Han Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Andrew M; Jones, Stewart A; Endersby-Wood, Helen J; McCormack, Nicola A M; Turton, John A

    2007-04-01

    Spontaneous follicular and C-cell tumors of the thyroid gland in the Han Wistar rat were examined using two morphologic procedures. Firstly, in situ hybridization (ISH) was used to localize thyroglobulin (TG) and calcitonin (CT) mRNAs. Secondly, the proteins for these markers were detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The aim was to study the morphology of the tumors and to examine the usefulness of TG and CT markers in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. Follicular tumors with cystic, papillary and follicular patterns showed relatively consistent expression of TG mRNA by ISH, thereby confirming the diagnostic value of this technique. However, no staining for TG markers was observed in solid lesions. In general, C-cell tumors comprised well-differentiated cells that continued to express CT mRNA and peptides even after embolic spread and metastasis. Therefore, the performance of either ISH or IHC for CT markers can be used for diagnostic confirmation. Additional features noted in C-cell tumors included the appearance of tumor emboli or metastases in association with small primary lesions (less than 5 average follicular diameters in size) and the presence of eosinophilic (amyloid-like) material showing immunopositivity for CT peptides. Finally, evidence is provided for the sequestration of TG protein by proliferating C-cells.

  12. The thyroid gland and the process of aging; what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesing Adam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endocrine system and particular endocrine organs, including the thyroid, undergo important functional changes during aging. The prevalence of thyroid disorders increases with age and numerous morphological and physiological changes of the thyroid gland during the process of aging are well-known. It is to be stressed that the clinical course of thyroid diseases in the elderly differs essentially from that observed in younger individuals, because symptoms are more subtle and are often attributed to normal aging. Subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism, as well as thyroid neoplasms, require special attention in elderly subjects. Intriguingly, decreased thyroid function, as well as thyrotropin (TSH levels – progressively shifting to higher values with age – may contribute to the increased lifespan. This short review focuses on recent findings concerning the alterations in thyroid function during aging, including these which may potentially lead to extended longevity, both in humans and animals.

  13. Evaluation of clinical hypothyroidism risk due to irradiation of thyroid and pituitary glands in radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) has been reported. This study investigated the radiation effects of the thyroid and pituitary glands on thyroid function after radiotherapy for NPC. Sixty-five NPC patients treated with radiotherapy were recruited. Baseline thyroid hormone levels comprising free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were taken before treatment and at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. A seven-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan was generated for each patient. Thyroid and pituitary gland dose volume histograms were generated, dividing the patients into four groups: high (>50Gy) thyroid and pituitary doses (HTHP group); high thyroid and low pituitary doses (HTLP group); low thyroid and high pituitary doses; and low thyroid and pituitary doses. Incidence of hypothyroidism was analysed. Twenty-two (34%) and 17 patients (26%) received high mean thyroid and pituitary doses, respectively. At 18 months, 23.1% of patients manifested various types of hypothyroidism. The HTHP group showed the highest incidence (83.3%) of hypothyroidism, followed by the HTLP group (50%). NPC patients with high thyroid and pituitary gland doses carried the highest risk of abnormal thyroid physiology. The dose to the thyroid was more influential than the pituitary dose at 18 months after radiotherapy, and therefore more attention should be given to the thyroid gland in radiotherapy planning.

  14. Cediranib Maleate With or Without Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  15. Mucinous Variant of Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillaci, Salvatore; Pitino, Antonio; Spairani, Cinzia; Ferrari, Mauro; Carlon, Eugenio; Cosimi, Maria Fabia

    2016-04-01

    The rare reports of mucinous variant of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland have not provided enough evidence to support the recognition of these tumors as a distinct clinicopathologic entity or to understand their etiopathogenesis. We report the fourth case of mucinous variant of follicular carcinoma displaying a minimally invasive tumor with diffuse expression of thyroglobulin, TTF-1, CD56, PAX-8, cytokeratins 7 and 19, in the absence of monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 20, chromogranin, HBME-1, P63 expression, and BRAF gene mutation, in a 51-year-old woman who is alive without signs of disease 13 months after total thyroidectomy, bilateral neck dissection, and radioactive iodine. Herein, fine-needle aspiration cytology disclosed "worrisome" cytologic features consisting of large epithelial cells arranged in clusters or singularly, with high nucleocytoplasmic ratio, nuclear grooves and evident nucleoli which were shared by those of mucin-producing papillary thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, knowledge of the cytological and histopathological spectrum of this lesion is important to avoid misdiagnosis. The morphologic clues leading to the correct diagnosis of mucinous variant of follicular neoplasm have been correlated with the data of the literature, and the differential diagnosis is briefly discussed.

  16. Treatment results of localized non-Hodgkin's lymphoma originated in the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Masaki, Norie; Aozasa, Katsuyuki

    1988-04-01

    A total of 38 cases of localized non-Hodgkin's lymphoma originated in the thyroid gland were treated at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital from 1967 through 1986. There were 18 males and 20 females, and age ranged from 15 to 78, averaging 58 years. Fifteen cases were classified as clinical stage I and 23 as stage II. All cases were histologically confirmed, 15 by total or partial resection and 23 by open biopsy, and diffuse histiocytic was most common (18 cases) and diffuse lymphocytic, poorly differentiated was the next (15) after Rappaport classification. Those were further classified into intermediate grade after Working Formulation in 76 % of the cases. In all patients local were controlled by radiotherapy by 40 - 50 Gy in 5 to 6 weeks. Local lesion was assessed as uncontrolled in only one patient at dose of 33 Gy, who was immunoblastic in histology, and with infiltration to local skin. No local relapse occurred after treatment. The relapse outside the treatment field was seen in 9 patients, all of which occurred in the abdomen. Overall 5 year survival rate and relapse-free rate were 72 % and 64 %, respectively. Five-year survival rate for Stages I and II were 84 % and 63 %, respectively (Z = 0.7445, N.S.). Five-year survival rate for thyroidal swelling with longer diameter less than 11 cm is 83 %, whereas that with more than 12 cm is 61 % (z = 0.7525, N.S.).

  17. Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, M.; Kido, A.; Hyodo, K.; Tachibana, K.; Onoue, K.; Morita, T.; Nagai, K.

    1979-08-01

    We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T/sub 3/-RU, T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/, TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06.

  18. Influence of chronic exposure to cold environment on thyroid gland function in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, S; Elgazzar, A

    2014-07-01

    Chronic exposure to cold can affect the thyroid gland. However, the effect on thyroid gland perfusion images and the ratio between thyroid hormones secretion were not addressed in any previous study. The present study investigates the effects of chronic cold exposure on thyroid gland function using radionuclide tracer and thyroid hormones secretion concentration. New Zealand white rabbits weighing approximately 1.8-2 kg were kept in a cold room (4°C) for 7 weeks. Thyroid scintigraphy was performed for cold exposed rabbits and a control rabbit group. Each rabbit was injected with 115 MBq (3.1 mCi) technetium-99m pertechnetate (99mTc pertechnetate). Studies were performed using Gamma camera equipped with a low energy, high resolution, pinhole collimator interfaced with a computer. Static images were acquired 20 min after administration of the radiotracer. Rabbits chronically exposed to cold had less body weights than control. Thyroid gland uptake is higher in rabbits chronically exposed to cold than controls using radionuclide perfusion study. The increase was proportional to the time period, so the increase after 7 weeks was greater than 5 weeks. There is also an increase in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and a decrease in free thyroxine (FT4) values. Our results indicate that thyroid gland uptake is higher in rabbits chronically exposed to cold than control and the increase was proportional to the duration. The decrease in rabbit body weights may be related to the increase in metabolism due to the increase of thyroid hormones. Chronic cold exposure also increased the conversion of T4 to T3, which is more potent in thermogenic effect.

  19. Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by μ-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm-1), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm-1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm-1, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm-1) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm-1. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm-1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included

  20. Chronic urticaria in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: Significance of severity of thyroid gland inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gulec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a clear association between autoimmune thyroiditis (AT and chronic urticaria/angioedema (CUA. However, not all patients with AT demonstrate urticaria. Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate in which patients with AT did CUA become a problem. A sensitive inflammation marker, neopterine (NP was used to confirm whether the severity of inflammation in the thyroid gland was responsible for urticaria or not. Methods: Neopterine levels were assessed in patients with AT with urticaria and without urticaria. Furthermore, levels were compared in relation to pre and post levothyroxine treatment. Twenty-seven patients with urticaria (Group 1 and 28 patients without urticaria (Group 2 were enrolled in the study. A course of levothyroxine treatment was given to all patients, and urine neopterine levels before and after the trial were obtained. Results: All patients completed the trial. Mean age in Group 1 and Group 2 was similar (35.70 ± 10.86 years and 38.36 ± 10.38 years, respectively (P=0.358. Pre-treatment urine neopterine levels were significantly higher in Group 1 (P=0.012. Post-treatment levels decreased in each group, as expected. However, the decrease in the neopterine level was insignificant in the patients of Group 2 (P=0.282. In Group 1, a significant decrease in post-treatment neopterine levels (P=0.015 was associated with the remission of urticaria. Conclusion: In patients with CUA and AT, pre-treatment elevated levels of NP, and its decrease with levothyroxine treatment along with symptomatic relief in urticaria, may be evidence of the relationship between the degree of inflammation in thyroid and presence of urticaria.

  1. STRAIN ELASTOGRAPHY USING DOBUTAMINE-INDUCED CAROTID ARTERY PULSATION IN CANINE THYROID GLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gahyun; Jeon, Sunghoon; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Kim, Hyunwoo; Yu, Dohyeon; Choi, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid disease is common in dogs and conventional ultrasonography is a standard diagnostic test for diagnosis and treatment planning. Strain elastography can provide additional information about tissue stiffness noninvasively after applying external or internal compression. However, natural carotid artery pulsations in the canine thyroid gland are too weak to maintain sufficient internal compression force. The objective of the present study was to describe the feasibility of strain elastography for evaluating the canine thyroid gland and the repeatability of dobutamine-induced carotid artery pulsation as an internal compression method. In seven healthy Beagle dogs, strain on each thyroid lobe was induced by external compression using the ultrasound probe and internal compression using carotid artery pulsation after dobutamine infusion. The thyroid appeared homogeneously green and the subcutaneous fat superficial to the thyroid lobe appeared blue. Strain values and strain ratios did not differ among dogs or between the left and right lobes. Interobserver repeatability was excellent for both compression methods. Intraobserver repeatability of the strain ratio measured using the carotid artery pulsation method (intraclass coefficient correlation = 0.933) was higher than that measured using the external compression method (0.760). Mean strain values of thyroid lobes for the external compression method (142.93 ± 6.67) differed from the internal method (147.31 ± 8.24; P thyroid stiffness in dogs. Carotid artery pulsation induced by dobutamine infusion can be used for canine thyroid strain elastography with excellent repeatability.

  2. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Body in Balance › Thyroid Nodules Fact Sheet Thyroid Nodules March 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Hindi ... Singer, MD Leonard Wartofsky, MD What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped ...

  3. Right thyroid hemiagenesis with adenoma and hyperplasia of parathyroid glands -case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oruci Merima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare anomaly, more commonly seen on the left side (ratio 4:1 and in females (ratio 3:1. The first to describe this anomaly was Handfield Jones in 1852. Case presentation We present a 66 year old female patient with right thyroid hemiagenesis, parathyroid adenoma on the side of hemiagenesis and parathyroid hyperplasia on the contralateral side. The patient had neck pain and was diagnosed as Hashimto thyroiditis with hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid hormone, thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab were elevated. Neck ultrasound and technetium 99mTc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI scintigraphy confirmed the right thyroid hemiagenesis, but not adenoma of parathyroid glands. Intraoperatively, right thyroid hemiagenesis was confirmed and left loboistmectomy was performed with removal of left inferior hyperplastic parathyroid gland. Postoperative PTH (parathyroid hormone levels were within normal range. Five months after the operation PTH level was elevated again with calcium values at the upper limit. MIBI scintigraphy was performed again which showed increased accumulation of MIBI in the projection of the right parathyroid gland. Surgical reexploration of the neck and excision of the right upper parathyroid adenoma was performed which was located behind cricoid laryngeal cartilage. After surgery a normalization of calcium and PTH occured. Conclusion From available literature we have not found the case that described parathyroid adenoma on the side of thyroid hemiagenesis,with parathyroid hyperplasia on the contralateral side.

  4. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

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    Luca Giovanella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 99mTc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  5. The application of Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ) in diagnosis of thyroid lesions: A preliminary study

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    Hou, Xiu-Juan; Sun, Ai-Xia [In-Patient Ultrasound Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhou, Xian-Li, E-mail: hrbzhouxl@163.com [In-Patient Ultrasound Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Ji, Qiao; Wang, Hong-Bo; Wei, Hong; Sun, Jia-Wei; Liu, Han [In-Patient Ultrasound Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Objectives: Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ) is a quantified ultrasound (US) acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging method that provides numerical measurements (wave-velocity values) of tissue stiffness. The purpose of this study was to detect whether VTQ could be applied to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Methods: Healthy subjects’ thyroid tissue and thyroid lesions were examined by VTQ to analyze their elasticity after conventional ultrasound. All the thyroid lesions were analyzed pathologically after surgery and correlated the VTQ values with the pathological results. Results: The VTQ value of healthy thyroid tissue, the benign lesions, and the malignant lesions were 1.69 ± 0.41 m/s, 2.03 ± 0.42 m/s, and 3.10 ± 1.08 m/s, respectively. The VTQ value of the malignant lesions was higher than that of the healthy thyroid tissue and the benign lesions (both p < 0.001). The VTQ value of the benign lesions was higher than that of the healthy thyroid tissue (p < 0.001). With a cutoff value of 2.42 m/s, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for differentiating between the benign and the malignancy lesions were 80.00%, 89.23%, 87.05%, 69.56%, and 93.54%, respectively. Conclusions: VTQ could provide quantitative elasticity measurements, which might play an important role in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid lesions.

  6. The application of Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ) in diagnosis of thyroid lesions: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ) is a quantified ultrasound (US) acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging method that provides numerical measurements (wave-velocity values) of tissue stiffness. The purpose of this study was to detect whether VTQ could be applied to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Methods: Healthy subjects’ thyroid tissue and thyroid lesions were examined by VTQ to analyze their elasticity after conventional ultrasound. All the thyroid lesions were analyzed pathologically after surgery and correlated the VTQ values with the pathological results. Results: The VTQ value of healthy thyroid tissue, the benign lesions, and the malignant lesions were 1.69 ± 0.41 m/s, 2.03 ± 0.42 m/s, and 3.10 ± 1.08 m/s, respectively. The VTQ value of the malignant lesions was higher than that of the healthy thyroid tissue and the benign lesions (both p < 0.001). The VTQ value of the benign lesions was higher than that of the healthy thyroid tissue (p < 0.001). With a cutoff value of 2.42 m/s, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for differentiating between the benign and the malignancy lesions were 80.00%, 89.23%, 87.05%, 69.56%, and 93.54%, respectively. Conclusions: VTQ could provide quantitative elasticity measurements, which might play an important role in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid lesions

  7. The effect of nitrate on the thyroid gland function in healthy volunteers in a 4-week oral toxicity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers AC; Koppeschaar HPF; Isselt JW van; Slob W; Schothorst RC; Mensinga TjT; Meulenbelt J; ARO-UMC; VIC; LEO

    2000-01-01

    Increased nitrate intake might affect the thyroid gland function in humans, as has been observed in animals. The reason is that the nitrate-ion (NO3-) inhibits the iodide (I-) transport into the thyroid gland because it shares the same transport mechanism. This inhibition could lead to a decrease in

  8. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken.

  9. Interrelation specific autoimmune pathologies of a thyroid gland with inorganic autoimmune rheumatic diseases

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    O V Paramonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a pathology of a thyroid gland at rheumatic diseases, in particular at rheumatoid arthritis, remains actual and to this day. The work purpose was studying antitelogenesis to thyroid hormones at patients with mixt autoimmune pathology. In whey of blood of patients with RA and autothyroid pathology are found out antibodies (AB to Т3 and Т4, their concentration correlates with activity of pathological process. It is shown, that level AB to Т3 and Т4 authentically differs from the maintenance of the given antibodies in whey of blood of healthy faces. Level of antibodies to thyroid hormones can be considered as the criterion predicting development of pathology of a thyroid gland at patients with RA.

  10. Diagnostic value of some radioisotope methods in the study of the thyroid gland of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out on the diagnostic effectiveness of the 131I-captation test, the thyro-cap, thyro-con, res-o-mat method, and the scintigraphic method in the investigation of sheep with hypo- and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. It was established that the first of these methods displayed negligible diagnostic capacity, embracing the changes in the inorganic phase of the iodine metabolism at hypo- and hyperfunction of the thyroid. The data obtained for the T-3, T-4, and FT-4 values on the basis of the radioimmune tests used reflected precisely and differentially the changes in the level of the hormone synthesis taking place in the thyroid in various physiologic conditions. Scintigraphic studies with 131I and sup(99)Tc did not give account for the functional changes taking place in the parenchyma of the thyroid gland

  11. Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Youn Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sei Joong; Cho, Young Up [Dept. of General Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  12. Transcriptome, methylome and genomic variations analysis of ectopic thyroid glands.

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    Rasha Abu-Khudir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Congenital hypothyroidism from thyroid dysgenesis (CHTD is predominantly a sporadic disease characterized by defects in the differentiation, migration or growth of thyroid tissue. Of these defects, incomplete migration resulting in ectopic thyroid tissue is the most common (up to 80%. Germinal mutations in the thyroid-related transcription factors NKX2.1, FOXE1, PAX-8, and NKX2.5 have been identified in only 3% of patients with sporadic CHTD. Moreover, a survey of monozygotic twins yielded a discordance rate of 92%, suggesting that somatic events, genetic or epigenetic, probably play an important role in the etiology of CHTD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the role of somatic genetic or epigenetic processes in CHTD, we analyzed gene expression, genome-wide methylation, and structural genome variations in normal versus ectopic thyroid tissue. In total, 1011 genes were more than two-fold induced or repressed. Expression array was validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR for 100 genes. After correction for differences in thyroid activation state, 19 genes were exclusively associated with thyroid ectopy, among which genes involved in embryonic development (e.g. TXNIP and in the Wnt pathway (e.g. SFRP2 and FRZB were observed. None of the thyroid related transcription factors (FOXE1, HHEX, NKX2.1, NKX2.5 showed decreased expression, whereas PAX8 expression was associated with thyroid activation state. Finally, the expression profile was independent of promoter and CpG island methylation and of structural genome variations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first integrative molecular analysis of ectopic thyroid tissue. Ectopic thyroids show a differential gene expression compared to that of normal thyroids, although molecular basis could not be defined. Replication of this pilot study on a larger cohort could lead to unraveling the elusive cause of defective thyroid migration during embryogenesis.

  13. Spindle cell carcinoma of the tongue combined with double primary cancer of the thyroid gland: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC) is referred to as a variant of oral squamous cell carcinoma. It is also known as "sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma" because it consists of normal squamous carcinoma cells with spindle-shaped cells that appear similar to a sarcoma. The term, "second primary tumor" (SPT) or "double primary tumor", is proposed for a second tumor that develops independently from the first. SPTs can present as either synchronous or metachronous lesions. Synchronous SPTs are defined as tumors occurring simultaneously or within 6 months after the first tumor. The patient in this case, whose primary tumor was in the tongue, was diagnosed with SpCC with metastases to both neck lymph nodes. This case also exhibited a second primary cancer as a synchronous lesion in the thyroid gland, which is uncommon. All carcinomas, both in the tongue and thyroid gland, were removed surgically, and especially in the tongue, an anterolateral thigh free flap was performed successfully to replace the defect. PMID:27595090

  14. Follicular adenomas exhibit a unique metabolic profile. ¹H NMR studies of thyroid lesions.

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    Stanisław Deja

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. However, more than 90% of thyroid nodules are benign. It remains unclear whether thyroid carcinoma arises from preexisting benign nodules. Metabolomics can provide valuable and comprehensive information about low molecular weight compounds present in living systems and further our understanding of the biology regulating pathological processes. Herein, we applied ¹H NMR-based metabolic profiling to identify the metabolites present in aqueous tissue extracts of healthy thyroid tissue (H, non-neoplastic nodules (NN, follicular adenomas (FA and malignant thyroid cancer (TC as an alternative way of investigating cancer lesions. Multivariate statistical methods provided clear discrimination not only between healthy thyroid tissue and pathological thyroid tissue but also between different types of thyroid lesions. Potential biomarkers common to all thyroid lesions were identified, namely, alanine, methionine, acetone, glutamate, glycine, lactate, tyrosine, phenylalanine and hypoxanthine. Metabolic changes in thyroid cancer were mainly related to osmotic regulators (taurine and scyllo- and myo-inositol, citrate, and amino acids supplying the TCA cycle. Thyroid follicular adenomas were found to display metabolic features of benign non-neoplastic nodules and simultaneously displayed a partial metabolic profile associated with malignancy. This finding allows the discrimination of follicular adenomas from benign non-neoplastic nodules and thyroid cancer with similar accuracy. Moreover, the presented data indicate that follicular adenoma could be an individual stage of thyroid cancer development.

  15. [The implementation of computer model in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduvaliev, A A; Gil'dieva, M S; Khidirov, B N; Saĭdalieva, M; Khasanov, A A; Musaeva, Sh N; Saatov, T S

    2012-04-01

    The article deals with the results of computational experiments in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle in normal condition and in the case of malignant neoplasm. The model studies demonstrated that the chronic increase of parameter of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle results in abnormal behavior of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle. The stationary state interrupts, the auto-oscillations occur with transition to irregular oscillations with unpredictable cell proliferation and further to the "black hole" effect. It is demonstrated that the present medical biologic experimental data and theory propositions concerning the structural functional organization of thyroid gland on cell level permit to develop mathematical models for quantitative analysis of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle in normal conditions. The technique of modeling of regulative mechanisms of living systems and equations of cell cenosis regulations was used PMID:22768711

  16. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THYROID GLAND OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    R. KAUSAR AND R. U. SHAHID

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue samples of thyroid glands of 16 healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius were investigated under two age groups i.e. group A (3-5 years and group B (6-10 years with equal number of animals, for their gross and microscopic anatomy. Gross studies revealed that thyroid glands were located near the first ring of trachea and had two lobes, connected by an isthmus. They were of reddish brown in colour. The values of weight, length and width of thyroid glands were 45.7 ± 0.35 and 50.65 ± 0.26 g, 36 ± 0.46 and 6.36 ± 0.33 cm, and 3.35 ± 0.29 and 3.53 ± 0.21 cm in groups A and B, respectively. The diameter of the glands averaged 0.97 ± 0.13 and 1.05 ± 0.14 cm in groups A and B, respectively. Histologically, thyroid gland consisted of a connective tissue capsule and trabeculae were found extending from the capsule into the substance of the gland, which divided it into lobules. Each lobule consisted of two sized follicles in variable numbers, the large and small. The large follicles were lined by low cuboidal epithelium, while the small follicles were lined by high cuboidal to columnar epithelium. The follicles had colloid material in their lumen, probably an apocrine secretion from the lining epithelial cells. The para follicular or C-cells were absent in thyroid glands of camel.

  17. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  18. IR Spectroscopic signs of malignant neoplasms in the thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Butra, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    We use Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to study thyroid tumor tissues which were removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the tissues with pathological foci are compared with data from histologic examination. In the region of N-H, C-H, and C = O stretching vibrations, the IR spectra of the tissues for thyroid cancer are different from the IR spectra of tissues without malignant formations. We identify the spectral signs of thyroid cancer. We show that IR analysis is promising for identification of thyroid pathology at the molecular level.

  19. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland: characteristic features on ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Jikuzono, Tomoo; Fukata, Shuji; Amino, Nobuyuki; Miyauchi, Akira; Nakamura, Yasushi

    2007-03-01

    We report a case of hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland and describe the characteristic ultrasonographic features of this tumor. This was a rare tumor of follicular cell origin with a trabecular pattern of growth and marked intratrabecular hyalinization. The tumor had an irregular shape, a delicately jagged border, and hypoechoic and heterogeneous internal echoes on B-mode ultrasonography. Very rich intratumoral blood flow, the so-called "tumor inferno" was evident on power Doppler ultrasonography. In the clinical management of thyroid nodules, clinicians should be aware of this peculiar type of thyroid tumor and its characteristic ultrasonographic findings.

  20. Multielemental analysis of human thyroid glands using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, K.; Yokode, Y.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Uda, M.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of human thyroid glands. Nontumor thyroid tissues taken from different patients showed almost the same composition which fell into the range of the data for normal thyroids given in the literature. On the other hand, a deficiency of iodine and iron was observed in all of the malignant and benign tumor tissues examined here. In some injured tissues considerable deviations of K and Ca from normal concentration levels were also recognized. This work demonstrates an important advantage of PIXE to analyze fugacious elements together with other elements simultaneously.

  1. Diffuse infiltration of Aspergillus hyphae in the thyroid gland with multinodular goiter

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    Havva Erdem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old woman presented with a thyroid mass, weakness and shortness of breath of 3 years duration. On physical examination, she had a diffusely enlarged thyroid gland with multiple nodules. There were no signs to suggest immune suppression. The patient farmed and raised livestock. Biochemical tests and hemogram were normal. She underwent surgery, and a histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed nodular hyperplasia. Microscopically, silver methenamine (PASM stain-positive hyphae that divided into branches at 45° and conidia were detected beside the thyroid capsule, with conidia in the cystic nodule. Moreover, ischemic changes of the thyroid tissue were observed closer to the capsule. We report a case of Aspergillosis of the thyroid of a patient who underwent surgery for a multinodular goiter.

  2. Simultaneous Occurrence of Different Follicular Neoplasms within the Same Thyroid Gland

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    Şefika Burçak Polat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Neoplasms of the thyroid gland are classified according to the cells they originate from and commonly develop from cells of follicular origin. The most common differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC are papillary and follicular carcinomas. Coexistence of two different histological types of primary follicular thyroid neoplasm is a rare condition. There are previous reports of concomitant medullary and papillary thyroid cancers. However, there is scarce data about the simultaneous occurrence of the two different histological types of primary follicular thyroid tumors and this is the first study on that subject. Material and Method: From January 2007 to September 2014, our institutional database was reviewed for patients who underwent thyroid surgery for various indications. Medical records and cytopathology reports of those patients were examined retrospectively. Simultaneous neoplasms of follicular origin were noted. Results: A total of 3.700 patients were operated. Histopathological examination revealed a benign pattern in 2.686 (73% patients and a malignant pattern in 1.014 (27% patients. Among the patients with the diagnosis of DTC, only 20 (1.9% had a concomitant neoplasm within the same thyroid gland. Discussion: Such simultaneous tumors may be a part of a familial tumor syndrome or an unidentified novel gene mutation playing role in the pathogenesis of more than one type of tumor. Based on the current evidence, the synchronous occurrence of those neoplasms in a given patient is likely coincidental in the literature. Further studies on larger patient population with standardized genetic characterization are needed.

  3. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report

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    Sadat Alavi Mehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that appeared to be a metastatic lesion. The results of thyroid function tests were normal, but the preoperative calcitonin serum value was elevated. Our patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with neck exploration. Two separate and ill-defined solid lesions grossly in the right lobe were noticed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of these lesions suggested the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The lymph nodes isolated from a neck dissection specimen showed metastases from both lesions. Conclusions The concomitant occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and the exact diagnosis of this uncommon event are important. The treatment strategy should be reconsidered in such cases, and genetic screening to exclude multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes should be performed. For papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy are performed. However, the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is mostly radical surgery with no effective adjuvant therapy.

  4. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 ± 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 ± 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  5. Quantitative analysis of 3 dimensional volumetry and histogram of thyroid gland on neck computed tomography for patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, In Chul; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Ryu, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Baek, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daum; Kim, Tae Nyun; Kim, Mi Kyung [Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Mok [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To analyze three-dimensional (3D) volume and histogram of thyroid gland on neck computed tomography (CT) for patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A total of 121 subjects who underwent neck CT between March 2013 and February 2014 were included in this study. These subjects were divided into the following two groups: 1) control group (n = 76); 2) Hashimoto's thyroiditis group (n = 45). Non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced CT images were obtained. On contrast-enhanced images, the 3D volume of thyroid gland was semi-automatically calculated. On CT histogram, attenuation number, mean, median, standard deviation (SD), and coefficient of variation (CV) of thyroid gland were calculated. These values were compared between the two groups. Total 3D volume of thyroid gland was 14.9 ± 4.8 cm{sup 3} in the control group, which was significantly (p = 0.002) lower than that (19.2 ± 8 cm{sup 3}) in the Hashimoto's thyroiditis group. On CT histogram, the mean, median, SD, and CV of thyroid gland on non-enhanced images were 95.8, 99.3, 21.7, and 0.226, respectively, in the control group and 72.2, 72.6, 19.6, and 0.28 in the Hashimoto's thyroiditis group (p < 0.05). Histogram parameters on contrast-enhanced images were not significantly (p > 0.05) different. Median at cut-off value of 83 revealed the largest Az value (Az: 0.905; 95% confidence interval: 0.837-0.951; sensitivity: 84.4%; specificity: 85.5%). The Hashimoto's thyroiditis group had larger volume but lower CT attenuation number with more prominent parenchymal heterogeneity of thyroid gland than the control group.

  6. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies: Its effect on thyroid gland and breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Kandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid peroxidase (TPO is a key enzyme in the synthesis of thyroid hormone. TPO is involved in thyroid hormone synthesis (organification and coupling reactions. TPO is a major antigen corresponding to thyroid-microsomal autoantibodies. Anti-TPO auto antibodies are very important to diagnose autoimmune thyroid diseases and also in estimating its clinical course. Autoimmune thyroid disease is detected mostly by measuring circulating antibodies to thyroglobulin which is uncommon measurement of antibodies to TPO that gives reliable information about autoimmune thyroid disease. Eighty percent of Grave′s disease patients have high levels of antiTPO antibodies. About 4% of subclinical hypothyroid patients with positive TPO antibodies develop clinical hypothyroidism. There is always a controversy on the relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. As these tissues, i.e., breast and thyroid, originate embryologically from the same type of cells, hypothyroid/hyperthyroid females are more prone to develop benign or malignant breast tumors. The studies on breast cancer patients indicate increased thyroid disorders in breast cancer patients, most commonly Hashimoto′s thyroiditis accounts to increased thyroid disorders in these patients. This is independent of hormonal receptor status of the patient. These findings suggest the usefulness of screening for thyroid disease in any patient with breast cancer.

  7. Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Patients With Refractory Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-04

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Tall Cell Variant Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma

  8. Carboxylic ester hydrolases in the thyroid gland of the guinea-pig. A light microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S

    1976-01-01

    The location of cholinesterase and non-specific esterase in the thyroid gland of the guniea-pig was studied with the light microscope. It was found that the idoxyl method for non-specific esterase activity under special conditions is superior to the cholinesterase method in a number of respects...

  9. [Postradial sialozoadenitis in patients with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, V A; Kopchak, A V; Kovalenko, A E

    2015-01-01

    The authors present the results of investigation of 42 patients with salivary gland dysfunction after radioactive iodine-131 ablation therapy concerning papillary thyroid carcinoma. Clinical manifestations of postradial sialodenitis with secretory insufficiency of different degree were revealed. These side effects required an application of the special therapy.

  10. Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm2, in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

  11. Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Iodine I 131 and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-17

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma

  12. Electromagnetic fields at 2.45 GHz trigger changes in heat shock proteins 90 and 70 without altering apoptotic activity in rat thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Misa Agustiño

    2012-07-01

    Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45 GHz may modify the expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP in the thyroid gland. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique, we studied levels of HSP-90 and HSP-70. We also used hematoxilin eosin to look for evidence of lesions in the gland and applied the DAPI technique of fluorescence to search for evidence of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation in the thyroid cells of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-four rats were individually exposed for 30 min to 2.45 GHz radiation in a Gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM cell at different levels of non-thermal specific absorption rate (SAR, which was calculated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD technique. Ninety minutes after radiation, HSP-90 and HSP-70 had decreased significantly (P<0.01 after applying a SAR of 0.046±1.10 W/Kg or 0.104±5.10−3 W/Kg. Twenty-four hours after radiation, HSP-90 had partially recovered and HSP-70 had recovered completely. There were few indications of lesions in the glandular structure and signs of apoptosis were negative in all radiated animals. The results suggest that acute sub-thermal radiation at 2.45 GHz may alter levels of cellular stress in rat thyroid gland without initially altering their anti-apoptotic capacity.

  13. Morpho-functional characteristics of rat fetal thyroid gland are affected by prenatal dexamethasone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica N; Filipović, Branko R; Nestorović, Nataša M; Šošić-Jurjević, Branka T; Ristić, Nataša M; Trifunović, Svetlana L; Milošević, Verica Lj

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) and glucocorticoids strongly contribute to the maturation of fetal tissues in the preparation for extrauterine life. Influence of maternal dexamethasone (Dx) administration on thyroid glands morpho-functional characteristics of near term rat fetuses was investigated applying unbiased stereology. On the 16th day of pregnancy dams received 1.0mg/Dx/kg/b.w., followed by 0.5mg/Dx/kg/b.w. on the 17th and 18th days of gestation. The control females received the same volume of saline. The volume of fetal thyroid was estimated using Cavalieri's principle; the physical/fractionator design was applied for the determination of absolute number of follicular cells in mitosis and immunohistochemically labeled C cells; C cell volume was measured using the planar rotator. The functional activity of thyroid tissue was provided from thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroperoxidase (TPO) immunohistochemical staining. Applying these design-based modern stereological methods it was shown that Dx treatment of gravid females led to a significant decrease of fetal thyroid gland volume in 19- and 21-day-old fetuses, due to decreased proliferation of follicular cells. The Tg and TPO immunohistochemistry demonstrated that intensive TH production starts and continues during the examined period in control and Dx-exposed fetuses. Under the influence of Dx the absolute number of C cells was lower in both groups of near term fetuses, although unchanged relation between the two populations of endocrine cells, follicular and C cells suggesting that structural relationships within the gland are preserved. In conclusion maternal glucocorticoid administration at the thyroid gland level exerts growth-inhibitory and maturational promoting effects in near term rat fetuses.

  14. Scintigraphic study of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of scintigraphic salivary gland dysfunction in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine. Patients were divided in two groups: null or mild dysfunction (grade I-II), moderate-severe dysfunction (grade III-IV) and statistical Mann-Whitney U test was applied. The radioiodine dose ranged between 80 and 200 mCi. Nineteen patients were found to be less affected (group 1), corresponding to grades I and II, and 11 patients were more affected (group 2), with grade III involvement. The severity of involvement of the salivary glands was not related with the dose of radioiodine used in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer and the sex of the patients had no clear influence either. Other factors are possibly related to the severity of salivary gland involvement

  15. Sonographic features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration of metastases to the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Ga Ram [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate the characteristic ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid, and how accurate US features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) are for the diagnosis of thyroid metastases. Twenty-three thyroid lesions in 23 patients (mean age, 66.7 years; range, 46 to 85 years) that had been diagnosed as thyroid metastases were included. The composition, echogenicity, margin, shape, presence of calcifications, underlying parenchymal echotexture, and vascularity were analyzed in US images of the thyroid metastases. Final US assessments were categorized into probably benign and suspicious malignancy. The presence of suspicious metastatic cervical lymph nodes was noted. The medical records, US-FNA cytology, and pathology reports of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 23 thyroid lesions, the general US appearance was mass-forming in 21 (91.3%) and non-mass-forming in 2 (8.7%). All 23 lesions showed a solid tumor composition. Common US features among the 21 mass-forming thyroid metastases were hypoechogenicity (81.0%), non-circumscribed margins (90.5%), no calcifications (76.2%), and parallel shape (81.0%). Suspicious cervical lymph nodes were present in 18 patients (78.3%). Of the 23 lesions, 21 (91.3%) were classified as suspicious malignancy, and 2 (8.7%) as probably benign. US-FNA showed diagnostic results specific for metastases in 21 of the 22 patients (95.5%) who had undergone US-FNA. Common US features in thyroid metastasis were hypoechogenicity, non-circumscribed margins, no calcifications, parallel shape, and the presence of suspicious cervical lymph nodes. US-FNA can be effectively used in the diagnosis of thyroid metastasis, preventing unnecessary surgery.

  16. Sonographic features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration of metastases to the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the characteristic ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid, and how accurate US features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) are for the diagnosis of thyroid metastases. Twenty-three thyroid lesions in 23 patients (mean age, 66.7 years; range, 46 to 85 years) that had been diagnosed as thyroid metastases were included. The composition, echogenicity, margin, shape, presence of calcifications, underlying parenchymal echotexture, and vascularity were analyzed in US images of the thyroid metastases. Final US assessments were categorized into probably benign and suspicious malignancy. The presence of suspicious metastatic cervical lymph nodes was noted. The medical records, US-FNA cytology, and pathology reports of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 23 thyroid lesions, the general US appearance was mass-forming in 21 (91.3%) and non-mass-forming in 2 (8.7%). All 23 lesions showed a solid tumor composition. Common US features among the 21 mass-forming thyroid metastases were hypoechogenicity (81.0%), non-circumscribed margins (90.5%), no calcifications (76.2%), and parallel shape (81.0%). Suspicious cervical lymph nodes were present in 18 patients (78.3%). Of the 23 lesions, 21 (91.3%) were classified as suspicious malignancy, and 2 (8.7%) as probably benign. US-FNA showed diagnostic results specific for metastases in 21 of the 22 patients (95.5%) who had undergone US-FNA. Common US features in thyroid metastasis were hypoechogenicity, non-circumscribed margins, no calcifications, parallel shape, and the presence of suspicious cervical lymph nodes. US-FNA can be effectively used in the diagnosis of thyroid metastasis, preventing unnecessary surgery.

  17. Effects of lithium carbonate on the microanatomy of thyroid gland of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseer Ahmad Shah

    2014-02-01

    Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284

  18. Automated segmentation of thyroid gland on CT images with multi-atlas label fusion and random classification forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Chang, Kevin; Kim, Lauren; Turkbey, Evrim; Lu, Le; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    The thyroid gland plays an important role in clinical practice, especially for radiation therapy treatment planning. For patients with head and neck cancer, radiation therapy requires a precise delineation of the thyroid gland to be spared on the pre-treatment planning CT images to avoid thyroid dysfunction. In the current clinical workflow, the thyroid gland is normally manually delineated by radiologists or radiation oncologists, which is time consuming and error prone. Therefore, a system for automated segmentation of the thyroid is desirable. However, automated segmentation of the thyroid is challenging because the thyroid is inhomogeneous and surrounded by structures that have similar intensities. In this work, the thyroid gland segmentation is initially estimated by multi-atlas label fusion algorithm. The segmentation is refined by supervised statistical learning based voxel labeling with a random forest algorithm. Multiatlas label fusion (MALF) transfers expert-labeled thyroids from atlases to a target image using deformable registration. Errors produced by label transfer are reduced by label fusion that combines the results produced by all atlases into a consensus solution. Then, random forest (RF) employs an ensemble of decision trees that are trained on labeled thyroids to recognize features. The trained forest classifier is then applied to the thyroid estimated from the MALF by voxel scanning to assign the class-conditional probability. Voxels from the expert-labeled thyroids in CT volumes are treated as positive classes; background non-thyroid voxels as negatives. We applied this automated thyroid segmentation system to CT scans of 20 patients. The results showed that the MALF achieved an overall 0.75 Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and the RF classification further improved the DSC to 0.81.

  19. TH与乳腺疼痛的相关临床研究%Clinical study on relationship between thyroid gland related hormone and hyperplasia of mammary gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐虓; 刘志英; 孙祝生; 刘会岭

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between thyroid hormone levels and breast pain rating, mammary gland thickness, and gland hyperplasia degree. Methods: From January 2010 to June 2013, 130 patients with breast pain as the chief complaint to the hospital were randomly selected. Correlation between breast pain rating, mammary gland thickness, gland hyperplasia degree and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO), thyroglobulin antibody (TG), TSH receptor antibody (Anti-TSHR), mammary gland disorder, and thyroid disease were analyzed. Results: Degree of breast hyperplasia is unrelated with serum T3, T4, TPO, TG, Anti-TSHR level (P>0.05), and it is related with serum TSH levels (P=0.002, P0.05). There is no significant relationship between mammary gland hyperplasia degree and the gland structural disorder (P>0.05), while the correlation of mammary gland hyperplasia degree with presence of thyroid disease is significant. Patients with thyroid disease are apt to have severer mammary gland hyperplasia (P0.05),与血清TSH水平相关(P=0.002,P0.05).乳腺增生程度与乳腺腺体结构紊乱之间无明显关系(P>0.05),与是否有甲状腺疾患有关,有甲状腺疾患者乳腺增生程度较重(P<0.05).结论:血清TSH升高可引起乳腺增生,乳腺疼痛程度与甲状腺相关激素水平无关.中重度乳腺增生患者往往合并甲状腺疾患.

  20. MCT8 is Downregulated by Short Time Iodine Overload in the Thyroid Gland of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, E C L; Dias, G R M; Cardoso, R C; Lima, L P; Fortunato, R S; Visser, T J; Vaisman, M; Ferreira, A C F; Carvalho, D P

    2015-11-01

    Wolff-Chaikoff effect is characterized by the blockade of thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion due to iodine overload. However, the regulation of monocarboxylate transporter 8 during Wolff-Chaikoff effect and its possible role in the rapid reduction of T4 secretion by the thyroid gland remains unclear. Patients with monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene loss-of-function mutations and monocarboxylate transporter 8 knockout mice were shown to have decreased serum T4 levels, indicating that monocarboxylate transporter 8 could be involved in the secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the regulation of monocarboxylate transporter 8 during the Wolff-Chaikoff effect and the escape from iodine overload, besides the importance of iodine organification for this regulation. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 mRNA and protein levels significantly decreased after 1 day of NaI administration to rats, together with decreased serum T4; while no alteration was observed in LAT2 expression. Moreover, both monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression and serum T4 was restored after 6 days of NaI. The inhibition of thyroperoxidase activity by methimazole prevented the inhibitory effect of NaI on thyroid monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression, suggesting that an active thyroperoxidase is necessary for MCT8 downregulation by iodine overload, similarly to other thyroid markers, such as sodium iodide symporter. Therefore, we conclude that thyroid monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression is downregulated during iodine overload and that the normalization of its expression parallels the escape phenomenon. These data suggest a possible role for monocarboxylate transporter 8 in the changes of thyroid hormones secretion during the Wolff-Chaikoff effect and escape.

  1. Evaluation of focal thyroid lesions incidentally detected in fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Yaylali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Increased uptake in the thyroid gland (TG is often identified as an incidental finding on the whole body fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT in non-thyroid cancer patients. Currently, there is no consensus on the appropriate approach for the management of these cases. Thyroid ultrasound, scintigraphy and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB are suggested to exclude malignant thyroid lesions. Our aim is to determine the importance of increased F-18-FDG uptake in the TG on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT scans in patients who are being screened for various forms of non-thyroid cancer. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 2000 cases undergoing whole body PET/CT scanning between April 2011 and October 2012. The age, sex, type of primary cancer, maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max , size of the thyroid nodules and cervical lymph nodes (CLNs on 18 F-FDG PET/CT images and if available, the biopsy results were evaluated. Results: In total, 57 patients (23 men, 34 women, mean age ± standard deviation (SD, 60.89 ± 14 years showed an increased fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG uptake by the TG (average SUV max : 4.07 ± 3.7. The CLNs were detected in 19/57 patients (33%. Only 20 cases (35% received FNAB. The final histopathological diagnosis was papillary thyroid carcinoma in seven patients (mean SUV max ± SD: 6.0 ± 5.43 and benign thyroid disease in seven patients (mean SUV max ± SD: 2.36 ± 0.63. The FNAB results were undetermined for six patients. Conclusion: Focal high 18 F-FDG uptake in the TG may be associated with an increased risk of malignancy, but the clinical significance is unclear. More data are needed to elucidate the role of the SUV in the differentiation of benign and malign thyroid lesions. If a focal increase in 18 F-FDG uptake in the TG on PET/CT is present, a prompt histopathological evaluation should be

  2. Effect of age on the sensitivity of the rat thyroid gland to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuu-Matsuyama, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Okaichi, Kumio; Kurashige, Tomomi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood is a well-known risk factor for thyroid cancer. Our study evaluated the effect of age on the radiosensitivity of rat thyroid glands. Four-week-old (4W), 7 -week-old (7W), and 8-month-old (8M) male Wistar rats were exposed to 8 Gy of whole-body X-ray irradiation. Thyroids were removed 3-72 h after irradiation, and non-irradiated thyroids served as controls. Ki67-positivity and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) focus formation (a DNA damage response) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Amounts of proteins involved in DNA damage response (p53, p53 phosphorylated at serine 15, p21), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3), and autophagy (LC3, p62) were determined via western blotting. mRNA levels of 84 key autophagy-related genes were quantified using polymerase chain reaction arrays. Ki67-positive cells in 4W (with high proliferative activity) and 7W thyroids significantly decreased in number post-irradiation. The number of 53BP1 foci and amount of p53 phosphorylated at serine 15 increased 3 h after irradiation, regardless of age. No increase in apoptosis or in the levels of p53, p21 or cleaved caspase-3 was detected for any ages. Levels of LC3-II and p62 increased in irradiated 4W but not 8M thyroids, whereas expression of several autophagy-related genes was higher in 4W than 8M irradiated thyroids. Irradiation increased the expression of genes encoding pro-apoptotic proteins in both 4W and 8M thyroids. In summary, no apoptosis or p53 accumulation was noted, despite the expression of some pro-apoptotic genes in immature and adult thyroids. Irradiation induced autophagy in immature, but not in adult, rat thyroids.

  3. Effect of age on the sensitivity of the rat thyroid gland to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood is a well-known risk factor for thyroid cancer. Our study evaluated the effect of age on the radiosensitivity of rat thyroid glands. Four-week-old (4W), 7-week-old (7W), and 8-month-old (8M) male Wistar rats were exposed to 8 Gy of whole-body X-ray irradiation. Thyroids were removed 3–72 h after irradiation, and non-irradiated thyroids served as controls. Ki67-positivity and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) focus formation (a DNA damage response) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Amounts of proteins involved in DNA damage response (p53, p53 phosphorylated at serine 15, p21), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3), and autophagy (LC3, p62) were determined via western blotting. mRNA levels of 84 key autophagy-related genes were quantified using polymerase chain reaction arrays. Ki67-positive cells in 4W (with high proliferative activity) and 7W thyroids significantly decreased in number post-irradiation. The number of 53BP1 foci and amount of p53 phosphorylated at serine 15 increased 3 h after irradiation, regardless of age. No increase in apoptosis or in the levels of p53, p21 or cleaved caspase-3 was detected for any ages. Levels of LC3-II and p62 increased in irradiated 4W but not 8M thyroids, whereas expression of several autophagy-related genes was higher in 4W than 8M irradiated thyroids. Irradiation increased the expression of genes encoding pro-apoptotic proteins in both 4W and 8M thyroids. In summary, no apoptosis or p53 accumulation was noted, despite the expression of some pro-apoptotic genes in immature and adult thyroids. Irradiation induced autophagy in immature, but not in adult, rat thyroids. (author)

  4. [MORPHO-FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE THYROID GLAND AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, V S; Sizova, Ye A; Miroshnikov, S A; Notova, S V; Zavaleyeva, S M

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted on 15 male Wistar rats, which were injected intramuscularly with copper nanoparticle lyosols at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg body weight once a week for 3 months. Thyroid gland was removed 7 days after the last injection and was studied using histological, morphometric and immunohistochemical methods (demonstration of Ki-67 and caspase-3). Animals of the control group (n = 15) were administered distilled water at the same time intervals. It was found that after 1, 2, 3 and 4 injections of copper nanoparticles, the thyroid gland contained an increased number of large cyst-like follicles, while the average thyrocyte height of and the volume of their nuclei were reduced, which indicate a decline in hormone production. After 12 injections of copper nanoparticles, the hyperplastic thyroid gland demonstrated small follicles lined with columnar epithelium, which contained no or small amount of the colloid. The number of mitotically dividing thyrocytes was increased. Parafollicular cells demonstrated an apoptotic dominant. Morphological data suggest goitrogenic effect of multiple doses of copper nanopartides. The data received indicating the readiness of the thyroid cells to the programmed death and its possible depression (absence of signs of thyrocyte apoptosis) at different stages of the experiment confirm the modulating effect of copper on apoptosis.

  5. Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantuano, Natalia de O.; Silva, Ademir X. da [Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Canevaro, Luca V.; Mauricio, Claudia Lucia P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ) Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

  6. Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

  7. Phototherapeutic Effect of Low-Level Laser on Thyroid Gland of Gamma-Irradiated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcos, Nadia; Omran, Manar; Ghanem, Hala; Elahdal, Mahmoud; Kamel, Nashwa; Attia, Elbatoul

    2015-01-01

    One inescapable feature of life on the earth is exposure to ionizing radiation. The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs to gamma-radiation and endocrine disrupters. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to stimulate tissue repair, and reduce inflammation. The aim of this study was to gauge the value of using Helium-Neon laser to repair the damaged tissues of thyroid gland after gamma-irradiation. Albino rats were used in this study (144 rats), divided into control, gamma, laser, and gamma plus laser-irradiated groups, each group was divided into six subgroups according to time of treatment (total six sessions). Rats were irradiated once with gamma radiation (6 Gy), and an external dose of laser (Wavelength 632.8 nm, 12 mW, CW, Illuminated area 5.73 cm(2), 2.1 mW cm(-2) 120 s, 1.4 J, 0.252 J cm(-2)) twice weekly localized on thyroid region of the neck, for a total of six sessions. Animals were sacrificed after each session. Analysis included thyroid function, oxidative stress markers, liver function and blood picture. Results revealed improvement in thyroid function, liver function and antioxidant levels, and the blood cells count after LLLT.

  8. {sup 131}I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torlak, V.; Capkun, V.; Stanicic, A. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Zemunik, T. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Medical Biology]. E-mail: tzemunik@bsb.mefst.hr; Modun, D. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pharmacology; Pesutic-Pisac, V. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pathology; Markotic, A. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). School of Medicine. Dept. of Biochemistry; Pavela-Vrancic, M. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Faculty of Natural Sciences. Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-08-15

    Therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of {sup 131}I (64-277 {mu}Ci). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before {sup 131}I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following {sup 131}I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 {+-} 8.16 to 55.0 {+-} 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 {+-} 6.9 to 25.4 {+-} 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after {sup 131}I administration to rats, which was not {sup 131}I dose dependent. (author)

  9. Changes in the function of the thyroid gland and the connection of the appearance of thyroid gland carcinoma after irradiation of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of examinations has been carried out on adults to discover the connection between irradiation of the neck or head and the development of aberrations of the thyroid gland. Two patient groups were studied, 26 men between 41 and 79 and 8 men between 51 and 75 years of age who received radiation treatment for carcinoma of the larynx during 1967-1971 and 1972-1976 respectively. The examination included an E.C.G., and a technetium scan. In the former group two cases of hypothyroidism and one case of hyperthyroidism were found. In general it was found that the radiation treatment had a high curative effect. (C.F.)

  10. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the evaluation of parotid gland lesions: an update of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, E; Cantisani, V; De Vincentiis, M; Sidhu, P S; Greco, A; Tombolini, M; Drudi, F M; Messineo, D; Gigli, S; Rubini, A; Fresilli, D; Ferrari, D; Flammia, F; D'Ambrosio, F

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution ultrasound is the first line examination for parotid gland diffuse disease and focal lesions, normally using grey-scale and colour-Doppler ultrasound. Unfortunately, grey-scale and colour-Doppler ultrasound features of benign and malignant salivary gland lesions may overlap, particularly with benign tumors, where pleomorphic adenomas are often indistinguishable from malignant lesions. With atypical lesions, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is usually the second level imaging modality requested. The introduction of ultrasound contrast agents has opened further possible perspectives to improve the interpretation of parotid diseases, particularly the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. We present a review of the current literature on contrast-enhanced ultrasound for the assessment of parotid gland lesions, considering all characteristics of the technique, evidence of usefulness, future perspectives and limitations.

  11. Ultrasonic scores of conventional ultrasound and ultrasound elastography in the diagnosis of thyroid nodular lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢曹鑫

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the values of total ultrasonic scores of conventional ultrasound and ultrasound elastography in the diagnosis of thyroid nodular lesions.Methods A total of 347 thyroid nodules proved by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and surgery underwent

  12. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Rae; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Man; Park, Rae Woong; Suh, Jung Ho [Aju University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 {+-} 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 {+-} 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  13. Lacrimal gland and perioptic nerve lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (2007: 9b)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, M.; Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Gool, S. van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Pediactrics, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Ophthalmology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2007-12-15

    We report a patient presenting with bilateral lacrimal gland involvement and perioptic nerve sheath lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) invasion. LCH is a rare multisystemic disease characterized by a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. All organs may be involved with a clinical spectrum ranging from a solitary bone lesion to a severe life-threatening multisystem disease. Osteolytic orbital bone lesions with extension into the adjacent orbital soft tissues have been described. To our knowledge, lacrimal gland involvement has probably been described only once before. Perioptic nerve lesions are also very rare, having been described only three times before. (orig.)

  14. Lacrimal gland and perioptic nerve lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (2007: 9b)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a patient presenting with bilateral lacrimal gland involvement and perioptic nerve sheath lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) invasion. LCH is a rare multisystemic disease characterized by a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. All organs may be involved with a clinical spectrum ranging from a solitary bone lesion to a severe life-threatening multisystem disease. Osteolytic orbital bone lesions with extension into the adjacent orbital soft tissues have been described. To our knowledge, lacrimal gland involvement has probably been described only once before. Perioptic nerve lesions are also very rare, having been described only three times before. (orig.)

  15. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla;

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children....... We found a significant positive association between IGF-I and TV (P multiple regression analyses, TSH (P

  16. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, M.; Hegedus, L.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.;

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children. DE...

  17. Histopathological and Biochemical Toxic Effect of Amiodarone on Thyroid Gland in Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola A. El Sayed*, Safaa E. Gawish

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Amiodarone AMD (Cordarone was a benzofuran derivative, used in management of angina and refractory ventricular arrhythmia. Its effect on the thyroid gland structure and function was investigated in this study. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The first group was consisted of 10 rats which served as control, received distilled water orally (1ml. The second group was consisted of 20 rats used as therapeutic dose treated group, received 40 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone while the third group was consisted of 20 rats used as a toxic dose treated group which received 60 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone orally daily for three months. Body weight of animals was determined. Serum concentration of tri-iodothyonine (T3, thyroxine (T4, thyrotrophin (TSH, interleukin 6 (IL6, tumour marker P53 and tissue residue for amiodarone in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart was determined. Results: Specimens from thyroid gland were taken and prepared for light and electron microscope examination. Highly significant decrease in body weight (P<0.001 were observed in both therapeutic and toxic doses treated groups in comparison to the control one. A very highly significant increase (P<0.001 of serum (T4 & T3 with Concomitant suppression of (TSH (P<0.001. Serum levels of IL6 and P53 showed also a very highly significant increase (P<0.001. Amiodarone concentration in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart showed significant increase in therapeutic dose treated group and highly significant increase in toxic dose treated group. Histopathological examination of thyroid gland of therapeutic dose treated group by light microscope showed marked evidence of thyotoxicosis in the form of microcystic follicular changes and peripheral scalloping, cellular degeneration with scanty cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei appeared. These changes became more severe in toxic dose treated group in the form of

  18. Prevalence of BRAF T1799A mutations in benign and malignant thyroid tumors and tumor-like thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An increased incidence of thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident evoked a strong need in an early and accurate cancer diagnosis. Spectrum of thyroid diseases is wide, ranging from tumor-like lesions such as thyroiditis and various types of goiter, benign adenomas to malignant follicular, papillary, medullary and anaplastic (undifferentiated) cancer. Differential morphological diagnosis of these diseases is sometimes complicated. Therefore, much of attention has been recently paid to additional auxiliary diagnostic means, in particular to molecular and genetic assays. One of the most informative markers of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a BRAF point mutation that has been shown to occur with a relatively high rate in PTCs but not in follicular cancer and benign lesions. The purpose of the current study was an investigation of hotspot BRAF T1799A mutation prevalence in a series of tumor-like thyroid lesions and thyroid tumors. For the study we collected thyroid tissue specimens from 44 patients living in the central region of the Russian Federation (8 males and 36 females; age range 23 to 69 years, 46 years old, mean) who were surgically treated in the Clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Included in the study were 32 cases of malignant thyroid tumors (26 papillary, 4 follicular and 2 medullary carcinomas), 5 benign (follicular adenomas), and 7 tumor-like lesions (5 nodular goiters and 2 lymphocytic thyroiditis). Histological classification was made according to the criteria described by LiVolsi (1990) and Rosai and colleagues (1992). Remaining excess tissue specimens of thyroid benign and malignant lesions and surrounding normal thyroid not needed for histological examination were used for DNA extraction. Genomic DNA was analyzed for the BRAF mutations by mutant allele specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA from PTC tissue previously determined to harbor mutant BRAF was used as a positive

  19. Electronic and oscillation absorption spectra of blood plamsa at surgical diseases of thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guminetskiy, S. G.; Motrich, A. V.; Poliansky, I. Y.; Hyrla, Ya. V.

    2012-01-01

    The results of investigating the absorption spectra of blood plasma in the visible and infrared parts of spectra obtained using the techniques of spherical photometer and spectrophotometric complex "Specord IR75" are presented. The possibility of using these spectra for diagnoses the cases of diffuse toxic goiter and nodular goiter and control of treatment process in postsurgical period in the cases of thyroid gland surgery is estimated.

  20. [ANALYSIS OF THE SURGICAL TREATMENT RESULTS IN THE THYROID GLAND DISEASES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarashchenko, Yu N; Bolgov, M Yu

    2015-08-01

    The results of surgical treatment of the thyroid gland diseases were analyzed, including the specific morbidity rate, cosmetic effect of the operation, stationary treatment of patients duration, the operation radicalism. Improvement of the operation methods and introduction of modern electric surgical instruments have permitted to reduce the operation duration, the surgical access length, the rate of postoperative hypocalcaemia occurrence, duration of the patients stationary treatment.

  1. [Technic of fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid gland: coagulation inhibiting and stabilizing additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, F; Poley, F

    1988-04-01

    In the fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid gland by the moistening of cannule and syringe with heparin or citric sodium rather disadvantages for the evaluation are the result. Artificial changes are most clearly to be seen in heparin. ACD-buffer does indeed not bring about any artefacts, does, however, also not show any provable advantages. In the fine needle biopsy the additives mentioned are entirely avoidable. PMID:3388921

  2. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassali Geovanni D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR, high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12, E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53 was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1% of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2% were without and 26 (38.8% with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%. Sixty (89.5% of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors. The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

  3. Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction Using Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in Sjoegren's Syndrome Patients and in Thyroid Cancer Patients after Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ji Yeon; Jang, Su Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Jang, Sung June; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) provides an objective means of diagnosing salivary gland dysfunction in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) patients and in thyroid cancer patients after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In the present study, SGS was performed in SS patients and in thyroid cancer patients post RAI, and scintigraphic parameters were compared. Twenty eight SS patients (males:females=1:27, age 53.3{+-}11.9 years), 28 controls (males:females=3.25, age 54.1{+-}10.1 years), and 92 thyroid cancer patients (males:females=28:64, age 46.2{+-}12.9) who had undergone a session of high dose RAI therapy (mean dose, 5.2{+-}1.5 GBq) were included. SGS was performed using Tc 99m pertechnetate (925MBq). Scintigraphic parameters (parotid uptake ratio PU, submandibular uptake ratio SU, percent age parotid excretion %PE, and percentage submandibular excretion %SE) were measured and compared for SS, thyroid cancer post RAI, and control patients. PU, SU, %SE, and %PE were all significantly lower in SS than in post RAI thyroid cancer of control patients (p<0.05), whereas only %PE was significantly lower in post RAI thyroid cancer patients than in controls (P<0.05). SU and %SE were found to be correlated with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. Scintigraphic parameters derived from SGS can play a crucial role in the detection of salivary gland dysfunction in SS patients and in post RAI thyroid cancer patients.

  4. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland: A puzzling entity on fine needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Nasit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT is a rare unique but controversial thyroid neoplasm, characterized by prominent trabecular growth pattern and stromal hyalinization. Whether HTT is a benign tumor or a variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is still unclear. Cytology findings of HTT have been described in few reports. Cytological features of HTT frequently overlap with those of PTC and medullary thyroid carcinoma, which can lead to frequent misdiagnosis. In order to avoid overtreatment like total thyroidectomy, pathologist should be aware of cytological features of HTT. We present a case of 35-year-old female with a right-side thyroid swelling for three years. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed. According to The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology, cytological diagnosis of benign thyroid neoplasm was made. Histopathology of the right thyroidectomy specimen showed HTT. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of HTT requires a very meticulous and cautious approach in the evaluation of cytological features. Trabecular pattern of cells, vague curved nuclear palisading, radiating arrangement of cells around hyaline material, spindled to elongated cells, filamentous cytoplasmic processes with ill-defined cell border and yellow bodies are important diagnostic features of HTT. Nuclear features alone are insufficient for the diagnosis of HTT. Any suspicious cytology of thyroid lesion should follow hemithyroidectomy and histopathological evaluation.

  5. Histological Studies of Atrazine Toxicity on the Thyroid Gland in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.N.KORNILOVSKAYA; M.V.GORELAYA; 等

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about the toxic activity of the atrazine(a herbicide,commonly used in agricultural production)on the thyroid gland.In this study the compound was administered orally in female albino rats at subletal exposure equivalent to 0.2 LD50 doses for 6 and 12 days.At termination of dosing the anesthetized animals were killed and blood was drawn fo the determination of serum triiodothyronine(T3)and thyroxin(T4).A dose-dependent decrease of serum T3 concentration was observed in all the groups (control:0.5nmol·L-1,6days:0.35nmol·L-1,12days:0.21nmol·L-1).The thyroid gland was examined light-microscopically.Bouin's solution-fixed thyroids were embedded in paraffin and sections cut at 6μm ,stained separately with toluidine blue according to Slinchenko's method.Histologically in experimental groups epithelium featured small cuboidal cells and occasional structures of the follicles confluence within epitheliomers.A dose-dependent changes of the following parameters were observed:(a)increasing of number of follicle-building thyroid cells;(b) increasing of tollicular volume;(c) decreasing of nucleus volume.Investigation of the whole population of thyroid mast cells disclosed no change in degranulation intensity.By contrast,Degranulation intensity was decreased in perifollicular mast cells from groups treated with atrazine in dose-dependent manner.There are no changes observed in degranulation of stromal mast cells.These results suggesting that differences in response to the atrazine might account for an aspect of the functional heterogeneit within the rat thyroid mast cell population.

  6. Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaraa Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer. Case presentation We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings. A woman was seen in the otolaryngology clinic with a mass at the angle of the left side of her jaw. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular carcinoma with metastases to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein. Conclusion This is an educational case which highlights the importance of close communication between clinicians, histopathologists and radiologists to ensure that such rare cases are not missed.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was intended to discover small organic molecules acting as iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid cells. These compounds can indeed be derivatized into biochemical probes for further characterization of proteins involved in iodide transport mechanisms. On the long term, these inhibitors also appear as attractive drug candidates for treatment of thyroid pathologies or radioprotection against iodine isotopes. A similar strategy was adopted for both of the two inhibitor families. First, we synthesized a chemical library of around 100 analogues; we measured their IC50 against iodide uptake in FRTL-5 cells to get structure-activity relationships. Absolute configuration of stereo-genic centers was also investigated, and a preferential stereochemistry was found to be responsible for activity. From this basis, around twenty 'second-generation' analogues were synthesized by combining fragments contributing to biological activity. Biological evaluation indicated that nine were very potent inhibitors, with IC50 ≤ 6 nM and satisfying physicochemical properties required for drug candidates. Finally, one photoactivatable biotinylated probe was developed in each family and used for photoaffinity labeling. Several specifically labeled proteins are still under identification and constitute new potential therapeutic targets. (author)

  8. Ameliorative Role of Marjoram Against Ionizing Radiation-Induced Biochemical and Histological Changes in Thyroid Gland in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of marjoram, grey green leaf, against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage in thyroid gland of male albino rats. Marjoram (100 mg/kg/day) was given to rats via gavages for 30 consecutive days prior exposure to irradiation (4.5 Gy) and the last dose of marjoram was administered 24 hr before irradiation. Thyroid gland was taken for histological study and blood samples for biochemical analysis on the 7th and 15 th day post-irradiation. In the irradiated group, the histological observations of thyroid gland sections showed distortion of the thyroid follicles together with apparent swelling of the follicular cells, vacuolated cytoplasm and ill-defined cell boundaries of the follicular epithelium. Biochemical analysis in the blood showed significant decrease in serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Also, a significant decrease was observed in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and blood glutathione (GSH). Treatment with marjoram (100 mg/kg) was found to offer significant protection against gamma radiation induced toxicity in thyroid gland tissues which was evident by improved status of most parameters under investigation. These results suggest that marjoram could increase the antioxidant defence systems of thyroid gland and may protect from adverse effects of whole body gamma radiation.

  9. Assessment of the role of cone beam computed sialography in diagnosing salivary gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Wahed, Nagla' a; Abo-Taleb, Noha Saleh Mahmoud [Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Korea, Republic of); Amer, Maha E. [Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Minia University, El Menia City (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess cone-beam computed (CBCT) sialography imaging in the detection of different changes associated with lesions of salivary glands. This study consisted of 8 cases with signs and symptoms from salivary gland lesions. Conventional sialography using digital panoramic and lateral oblique radiographs and CBCT sialography were performed for each subject. The radiographs were evaluated by 3 radiologists independently of each other. The results were compared between conventional sialography and CBCT sialography in the evaluation of various lesions associated with the salivary glands. There was an agreement between the radiologists in interpreting the lesions that affected salivary glands with both techniques. The detection of the presence of stones or filling defects, stenosis, ductal evagination, dilatation, and space occupying lesions was 83% for conventional sialography compared with CBCT sialography. CBCT sialography was superior to conventional sialography in revealing stones, stenosis, and strictures, especially in the second and third order branches. It would be advisable to perform CBCT sialography in cases of obstructive salivary gland diseases for better demonstration of the ductal system of the gland.

  10. Parathyroid gland angiography with indocyanine green fluorescence to predict parathyroid function after thyroid surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Fortuny, J.; Belfontali, V.; Sadowski, S. M.; Karenovics, W.; Guigard, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative hypoparathyroidism remains the most common complication following thyroidectomy. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the use of intraoperative parathyroid gland angiography in predicting normal parathyroid gland function after thyroid surgery. Methods Angiography with the fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) was performed in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy, to visualize vascularization of identified parathyroid glands. Results Some 36 patients underwent ICG angiography during thyroidectomy. All patients received standard calcium and vitamin D supplementation. At least one well vascularized parathyroid gland was demonstrated by ICG angiography in 30 patients. All 30 patients had parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the normal range on postoperative day (POD) 1 and 10, and only one patient exhibited asymptomatic hypocalcaemia on POD 1. Mean(s.d.) PTH and calcium levels in these patients were 3·3(1·4) pmol/l and 2·27(0·10) mmol/l respectively on POD 1, and 4·0(1.6) pmol/l and 2·32(0·08) mmol/l on POD 10. Two of the six patients in whom no well vascularized parathyroid gland could be demonstrated developed transient hypoparathyroidism. None of the 36 patients presented symptomatic hypocalcaemia, and none received treatment for hypoparathyroidism. Conclusion PTH levels on POD 1 were normal in all patients who had at least one well vascularized parathyroid gland demonstrated during surgery by ICG angiography, and none required treatment for hypoparathyroidism. PMID:26864909

  11. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-13

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  12. Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-05

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  13. Melatonin changes in the pineal gland of sleep-deprived rats following habenular nucleus lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Jin; Meiying Song; Min Huang; Manli Wang; Hua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The habenular nucleus (Hb) is an important structure that regulates the function of the pineal gland,which may affect melatonin content in the pineal gland after sleep deprivation (SD). In the present study, high performance liquid chromatography showed that the melatonin content in the pineal gland was significantly reduced, and Y-aminobutyric acid content in the Hb was significantly increased after SD. Furthermore, the melatonin content in the pineal gland was markedly reduced after Hb lesion under normal sleep and SD conditions. Immunohistochemistry showed that the number of Fos-positive neurons was significantly decreased in the lateral and medial Hb after SD.The findings demonstrate that the reduction of melatonin in the pineal gland after SD is related to decreased activity of Hb neurons, and that the Hb can regulate sleep-wake rhythm by influencing melatonin secretion in the pineal gland.

  14. Experimental investigation with 198Au colloid as to lymph communications between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of a direct connection of lymph drainage between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland was examined using the lymphotropic radioactive tracer 198Au colloid. Twelve rabbits were examined. Six animals were injected with 50 μCi198Au colloid into the right thyroid lobe and six animals into the right retrobulbar space. Distribution and total bodyradioactivity was measured in vivo using a scintillation camera with a computer. After 6 hrs tissue specimens of different organs were measured in a well-counter. The discharge of activity from the thyroid after 6hrs was significantly higher than that from the retrobulbar space (63% versus 33.5%). This was probably due to a higher vascularisation and to a higher degree of lymph drainage of the thyroid. The lymph drainage of the thyroid gland as well as of the retrobulbar space occured mainly via the lymphonodi cerv.proff. No significant activity was found in the retrobulbar space after thyroid injection or in the thyroid after retrobulbar injection. It may be concluded from these results that there are not direct lymph connections between the retrobulbar space and the thyroid gland. However, indirect communications via the deep cervical lymph nodes cannot be excluded in the event of reverse lymph flow. (orig.)

  15. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of thyroid gland in a male patient: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chi-Yun; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Jen-Der; Hsueh, Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE) was first described by Chan et al in 1991. It is characterized by nest or strands of epidermoid tumor cells with squamous differentiation, rare mucous cells, prominent sclerotic stroma, eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and a background of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in the non-neoplastic thyroid gland. It is important to recognize SMECE of thyroid and differentiate it from squamous cell carcinoma or other neoplasms with squamous differentiation/metaplasia. In published cases, the SMECE of thyroid gland predominantly occurs in women. We report a case of SMECE of thyroid in a 45-year-old male patient. All cases in male patients were Caucasian described in English literature, and our case is the first one in Asian.

  16. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Thyroid Gland: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Kyriakos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid metastases are rarely seen in clinical practice but should be considered particularly in patients with a history of non-thyroidal malignancies. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common tumor to metastasize to the thyroid gland and may present many years after a nephrectomy. Thus, patients require a long-term follow-up and, physicians should have a high index of suspicion particularly in patients with benign disorders of the thyroid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and thyroglobulin immunohistochemical staining are considered the most effective methods for diagnosis. Surgical treatment of solitary thyroid metastases is recommended and prolongs survival. Adjuvant medical treatment may also be useful in specific situations. We present the unusual case of a relative young patient with goiter who presented with an intrathyroidal metastasis of RCC. Turk Jem 2014; 2: 58-60

  17. Radiation exposure of eyes, thyroid gland and hands in orthopaedic staff: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavachandran Chandrasekharan Nair

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various procedures, especially minimal invasive techniques using fluoroscopy, pose a risk of radiation exposure to orthopaedic staff. Anatomical sites such as the eyes, thyroid glands and hands are more vulnerable to radiation considering the limited use of personal protective devices in the workplace. The objective of the study is to assess the annual mean cumulative and per procedure radiation dose received at anatomical locations like eyes, thyroid glands and hands in orthopaedic staff using systematic review. Methods The review of literature was conducted using systematic search of the database sources like PUBMED and EMBASE using appropriate keywords. The eligibility criteria and the data extraction of literature were based on study design (cohort or cross-sectional study, study population (orthopaedic surgeons or their assistants, exposure (doses of workplace radiation exposure at hands/fingers, eye/forehead, neck/thyroid, language (German and English. The literature search was conducted using a PRISMA checklist and flow chart. Results Forty-two articles were found eligible and included for the review. The results show that radiation doses for the anatomical locations of eye, thyroid gland and hands were lower than the dose levels recommended. But there is a considerable variation of radiation dose received at all three anatomical locations mainly due to different situations including procedures (open and minimally invasive, work experience (junior and senior surgeons,distance from the primary and secondary radiation, and use of personal protective equipments (PPEs. The surgeons receive higher radiation dose during minimally invasive procedures compared to open procedures. Junior surgeons are at higher risk of radiation exposure compared to seniors. PPEs play a significant role in reduction of radiation dose. Conclusions Although the current radiation precautions appear to be adequate based on the low dose radiation

  18. Radioiodide uptake in brain, CSF, thyroid, and salivary glands of audiogenic seizure mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, F.L.; Chow, S.Y.; Kemp, J.W.; Woodbury, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    DBA/2J (DBA) mice are susceptible to audiogenic seizures (ASs) in an age-dependent manner. Anion transport as measured by radioiodide uptake was determined in thyroid gland, salivary gland, skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and CSF from these mice at various ages. Anion transport was also determined in C57BL/6J(C57) mice, an AS-resistant strain. In thyroid, DBA mice had an enhanced ability to concentrate iodide at 21 days of age when they have maximal AS susceptibility, as compared with the same-aged C57 mice. This difference in thyroid function was less marked at 40 days of age, when DBA mice are less AS susceptible, and was absent at 110 days of age, when DBA mice are AS resistant. In brain, differences in iodide uptake were also noted between these two strains of mice at 21 days of age. DBA mice had an increased concentration of iodide in CSF, an indication that they have a defect in the transport of iodide out of the CSF across the choroid plexus. In addition, DBA mice had a lower ratio of cerebral cortex to CSF iodide, which suggests that DBA mice have a defect in the transport of this anion into cerebral cortical cells from brain interstitial fluid. These differences in iodide transport in brain decreased with age as the AS susceptibility of DBA mice decreased. These results suggest a relation between anion transport in thyroid gland, cerebral cortex, and choroid plexus and AS susceptibility in DBA mice at 21 days of age.

  19. Does ultrasonographic volume of the thyroid gland correlate with difficult intubation? An observational study

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    Basak Ceyda Meco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preoperative ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland done by surgeons could let us foresee airway management challenges. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the effects of thyroid-related parameters assessed preoperatively by surgeons via ultrasonography and chest X-ray on intubation conditions. METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing thyroid surgery were enrolled. Thyromental distance, Mallampati score, neck circumference and range of neck movement were evaluated before the operation. Thyroid volume, signs of invasion or compression and tracheal deviation on chest X-ray were also noted. The intubation conditions were assessed with Cormack and Lehane score and the intubation difficulty scale. Statistical analyses were done with SPSS 15.0 software. RESULTS: The mean thyroid volume of the patients was 26.38 ± 14 mL. The median intubation difficulty scale was 1 (0-2. Thyromental distance (p = 0.011; r = 0.36; 95% CI 0.582-0.088, Mallampati score (p = 0.041; r = 0.29; 95% CI 0.013-0.526, compression or invasion signs (p = 0.041; r = 0.28; 95% CI 0.006-0.521 and tracheal deviation on chest X-ray (p = 0.041; r = 0.52; 95% CI 0.268-0.702 were correlated with intubation difficulty scale. Also patients were classified into two groups related to their intubation difficulty scale (Group I, n = 19: intubation difficulty scale = 0; Group II, n = 31: 1 < intubation difficulty scale ≤ 5 and difficult intubation predictors and thyroid-related parameters were compared. Only Mallampati score was significantly different between groups (p = 0.025. CONCLUSION: The thyroid volume is not associated with difficult intubation. However clinical assessment parameters may predict difficult intubation.

  20. [INCIDENCE AND SURGICAL IMPORTANCE OF PYRAMIDAL LOBE AND TUBERCLE OF THE THYROID GLAND: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacić, Marijan; Kovadcić, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The pyramidal lobe and tubercles are common anatomic variations of the thyroid gland, and their frequency is highly represented. While pyramidal lobe requires additional seriousness in identifying and its removal, especially in patients with hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer, the presence of tubercles is desirable. Tubercle is covered by recurrent laryngeal nerve and directs the surgeon in his search and besides this, serves to facilitate detection of the upper parathyroid glands. In this prospective study we analysed 342 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy in the period from January 2009 to March 2015. We looked at the incidence and anatomic characteristics of pyramidal lobe and tubercles of the thyroid gland. The pyramidal lobe was present in 52.3% of the patients with more frequent central and left placement. Bilateral tubercles were present in 14.9%, while position right-sided phenomenon was represented in 39.5% and 18.5% in lower left (64.3% patients). Their prevalence by gender showed no significant difference (p = 0.59; p = 0.2). Associated presence of pyramidal lobe and tubercles on one or both sides is highly represented in our group of patients (34%), also with no differences by gender (p = 0.29). Length of the pyramidal lobe ranged from 1.3 to 4.7 cm (average 2.3 cm), and the size of tubercles in 36% of patients was over 1 cm. Recurrent laryngeal nerve was only in 1.8% placed laterally of tubercles, and the upper parathyroid gland in 95.4% was located above tubercle. Considering that only 16.5% of our patients did not have any of these anatomical variations, their presence during surgery is the rule, not the exception.

  1. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  2. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskosha, O.; Ermakova, O.; Kaneva, A. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  3. Role of AgNORs in thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asotra Sarita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration has an important role in diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm. However, it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma by cytology alone. Recently, silver staining has been performed for nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs to differentiate various tumors. Aims: The present study was undertaken to see if the AgNOR technique could distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, particularly, follicular neoplasm. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty cases of thyroid lesions were examined, which included colloid goiter (n = 36, multinodular goiter (n = 38, subacute thyroiditis (n = 6, Hashimoto′s thyroiditis (n = 17, lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 3, follicular neoplasm (n = 18, Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 16, and medullary carcinoma (n = 3. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in 80 cases. The usual one-step silver colloidal reaction was performed at room temperature for 35 minutes and intranuclear dots of silver deposits were counted in 100 cells. Results: AgNOR counts of benign and malignant lesions were compared and were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mean AgNOR counts were higher in neoplastic lesions. Conclusions: AgNOR counting in fine needle aspiration smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms.

  4. Ectopic Thyroid Tissue in the Adrenal Gland: A Report of Two Cases with Pathogenetic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Rojas, Alfredo; Bella-Cueto, María Rosa; Meza-Cabrera, Ivonne A.; Cabezuelo-Hernández, Angeles; García-Rojo, Darío; Vargas-Uricoechea, Hernando

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ectopic thyroid tissue is usually found anywhere along the embryonic descent pathway of the medial thyroid anlage from the tongue to the trachea (Wölfler area). However, ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland (ETTAG) is not easy to understand on the basis of thyroid embryology; because it is so rare, the possibility of metastasis should first be considered. Here, we describe two cases of ETTAG with pathogenetic implications and review the associated literature. Patient findings: Two cases of ETTAG presented as incidental cystic adrenal masses in adult females, one having a congenital hernia of Morgagni. The ETTAG was histologically indistinguishable from normal orthotopic thyroid tissue, and its follicular nature was confirmed by immunohistochemical positivity for thyroglobulin, thyroperoxidase, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1/Titf-1/Nkx2.1), cytokeratin AE1/AE3, cytokeratin 7, pendrin, human sodium iodide symporter, paired box gene 8, and forkhead box E1 (TTF-2), as well as positivity for the messenger RNA of the thyroglobulin gene by in situ hybridization analysis. No C cells (negativity for calcitonin, chromogranin, and synaptophysin) were present. Neither BRAF nor KRAS mutations were detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Further work-up did not show evidence of thyroid malignancy. Summary: ETTAG is a rare finding, with only seven cases reported; women are much more frequently affected than men (8:1), and it usually presents in the fifth decade (mean age 54, range 38–67) as a cystic adrenal mass incidentally discovered on abdominal ultrasonography and/or in computed tomography images. ETTAG is composed of normal follicular cells without C cells. The expression of some transcription factors (TTF-1, paired box gene 8, and FOXE1) involved in development and/or migration of the medial thyroid anlage is preserved. Coexistence of a congenital hernia of Morgagni in one patient suggests an overdescent of medial thyroid

  5. Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumor with Thyroid Gland Metastasis: Case Report

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    Cristina Corina Pop Radu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors (NET represent approximately 20% of all primary neoplasms of the lung. Histologic confirmation is important for treatment and prognosis determination. NET are classified according to four subtypes in the lung: typical carcinoid tumor (TC, atypical carcinoid tumor (AC, small cell carcinoma (SCC, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC. TC is low-grade, AC is intermediate-grade, and SCC and LCNEC are high-grade malignancies. Case report: A 57 years old woman, affected by a cervical anterior tumor and a proliferative tissue below the glottis was referred to our Endocrinology Department from ENT service for a second opinion. An ultrasound scan of the neck showed a polynodular goiter with bilaterally lymph nodes enlargement with suspicious malignancy characters. She had undergone surgery for the cervical anterior mass and for the laryngeal biopsy. Histopathological examination results were consistent with a SCC; neoplastic cells showed immunoreactivity to synaptophysin, neuron specific enolase and chromogranin. The serum levels of serotonin, cromogranin A, calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen, ACTH, PTH, TSH, FT4 were normal. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of her left thyroid lobe nodule was performed and the cytopathological exam was compatible with a neuroendocrine tumor metastasis. Thoracic and abdominal computed tomography was normal at that moment. Chest CT revealed the primary pulmonary tumor at 6 months after presentation. The therapeutic option for advanced or metastatic NETs is mainly palliation of symptoms; options need to be individualized and, therefore, rely on the knowledge of multidisciplinary teams.

  6. Is thyroid gland an organ at risk in breast cancer patients treated with locoregional radiotherapy? Results of a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutahir Ali Tunio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aim was to evaluate the dose distribution within the thyroid gland its association with hypothyroidism in breast cancer (BC patients receiving supraclavicular (SC radiation therapy (RT. Materials and Methods: Consecutive 40 BC patients with baseline normal thyroid function tests (TFTs, were randomized into two groups: (a Adjuvant chest wall/breast with SC-RT (20 patients and (b control group (adjuvant chest wall/breast RT only; 20 patients. The thyroid gland was contoured for each patient. Each patient′s dose volume histogram (DVH, mean thyroid volume, the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy (V5, V10, V20, V30, V40, and V50, and D mean (average dose in whole volume of thyroid were then estimated. TFTs were performed at the time of the last follow-up and compared. Results: Mean thyroid volume of cohort was 19.6 cm 3 (4.02-93.52 and D mean of thyroid gland in SC-RT and control group was 25.8 Gy (16.4-52.2 and 5.6 Gy (0.7-12.8, respectively. Median values of V5, V10, V20, V30, V40, and V50 were 54%, 51%, 42.8%, 30.8%, 27.8%, and 7.64%, respectively, in SC-RT as compared to control group (V5;4.9%, V10;2.4%, V20;1.75%, V301%, V40;0%, and V50;0%, respectively with P 50% and the risk can be minimized by thyroid gland shielding during RT.

  7. Rapid measurement of 131I in the thyroid gland using a portable Ge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid yet accurate measurement of the 131I activity in the thyroid gland as well as in the air, water and vegetation may have an important role in obtaining quantitative information on internal doses for the people living in the vicinity of nuclear facilities shortly after an accidental release of radionuclides. Whole body counting technique is still the standard method for measuring radionuclides in the body while necessity for in situ measurement techniques has considerably increased especially after the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. For measurement of 131I in the thyroid gland in emergency situations, NaI (Tl) detectors, as in a scintillation survey meter as in the simplest case, are most often used while measurement of urinary excretions for members of the public may also effective. The scintillation survey meter method, being easily implemented, may not have enough selectivity for radioiodine and even be liable to an elevated background radiation spectrum. This would possibly lead to higher detection limits and lower accuracy. A use of a laboratory Ge (Li) detector system in the thyroidal radioiodine measurement was suggested to overcome the problem. A real measurement with a similar instrument was reported for the residents in U.K. after the Chernobyl accident. A use of a scintillation spectro-survey meter with a NaI (Tl) probe with lead collimation to thyroidal radioiodine measurement was also reported to give satisfactorily accurate evaluation of the thyroidal 131I burden. In this paper, a movable Ge system was developed for the above purpose and preliminarily evaluated particularly for counting efficiency. It is consisted of a portable high-purity Ge detector and a battery-operated MCA. It employs a laboratory made thin Pb shield with a collimation window and an elevator for the detector platform. The elevator was designed to adjust the height of the thyroid radioiodine probe in relation to the height and position of the neck of a subject

  8. Features of radionuclide research after thyroidectomy at the thyroid gland cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David В Dolidze

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AimTo clarify the possibility of postoperative radioisotope studies in determining the remnants of thyroid tissue in patients with thyroid carcinoma.Materials and methodsThe work is based on the study results of surgical treatment and postoperative examination of 120 patients with thyroid cancer, at the Botkin hospital during the period from 2007 to 2013. All patients were performed extrafascial intervention. 118 (98.3% patients were provided thyroidectomy (including lymph node dissection. For all patients in the postoperative period after 2–4 weeks were performed thyroid and whole-body scan with iodine and technetium, as well as ultrasound and computed tomography of the neck and the chest cavity.ResultsDuring the research, 16 (13.3% patients after scanning with 123I (7 (5.8% patients, 131I (3 (2.5% patients, 99mTs-Pertechnetate (6 (5% patients and applying them consistently (6 (5% patients received the accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the operation area, as in the midline in the area of the isthmus, and the locations of the right, left and pyramidal thyroid share. These facts were interpreted as an accumulation of the isotope in the remnants of thyroid tissue after surgery. With additional research methods were revealed swelling and infiltration of tissues in 10 (8.3% cases in the sterno-hyoid and sterno-thyroid muscles, and in 6 (5% cases – in the paratracheal and paralaryngeal areas. After fine-needle aspiration biopsy from infiltrative zone was received cytology of nonspecific inflammation. All patients received antiinflammatory and antibiotic therapy with a positive effect. Control ultrasound noted a gradual reduction of the inflammatory infiltrate. After 6 months of thyroid scan was recorded decrease area of uptake, and a year later its complete disappearance.ConclusionsThus, postoperative radionuclide scanning in patients with thyroid gland carcinoma in some cases gives false-positive results, regardless of the type

  9. Marked Reduction of the Number and Individual Volume of Sebaceous Glands in Psoriatic Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liakou, Aikaterini I; Nyengaard, Jens R; Bonovas, Stefanos;

    2016-01-01

    and psoriatic alopecia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes of the sebaceous glands in patients with psoriatic plaques and especially psoriatic alopecia. METHODS: Histological and stereological analyses were performed in skin specimens from involved and healthy-looking skin...... gland may be a player and not an innocent bystander in the development of psoriatic lesions and especially of psoriatic alopecia....

  10. Effect of sharply lowered muscular activity on the thyroid gland of the white rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekishev, K.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of hypokinesia on the thyroid gland of 200 white rats was studied. The rats were kept in 16x6x6 cm cages for 90 days. The functional activity of the thyroids increased after 24 hrs of partial immobilization and peaked after 15 days. After 30 days of immobilization, the functional activity returned to normal in one third of the test animals and after 60 days in all animals. After 15 days of immobilization, the test animals began to lose weight (in comparison to the controls) and remained underweight for the rest of the test period (up to 90 days). When returned to normal conditions, they caught up with and even overtook in weight the control animals after about 1 month. All changes produced by hypokinesia were reversible after 1 month.

  11. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid gland with local recurrence: ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ja Yoon; Kwon, Kye Won; Kim, Sang Wook [Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Youn, In Young [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland (PSCCT) is a rare malignancy that presents with advanced disease and poor prognosis. It is difficult to diagnose PSCCT in its early stage because of its rarity and lack of typical imaging findings. We experienced an elderly woman with PSCCT confirmed by surgery. Although preoperative fine-needle aspiration revealed no malignancy, surgical resection was performed because the ultrasonogram showed diffuse microcalcifications, which suggested malignancy, and clinically, the mass grew rapidly to compress the trachea. Local tumor recurrence was noted at 3 months after surgery. Surgical resection or repeat biopsy should be considered if a cytologically benign thyroid mass shows imaging or clinical features of malignancy.

  12. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid gland with local recurrence: ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja yoon Jang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland (PSCCT is a rare malignancy that presents with advanced disease and poor prognosis. It is difficult to diagnose PSCCT in its early stage because of its rarity and lack of typical imaging findings. We experienced an elderly woman with PSCCT confirmed by surgery. Although preoperative fine-needle aspiration revealed no malignancy, surgical resection was performed because the ultrasonogram showed diffuse microcalcifications, which suggested malignancy, and clinically, the mass grew rapidly to compress the trachea. Local tumor recurrence was noted at 3 months after surgery. Surgical resection or repeat biopsy should be considered if a cytologically benign thyroid mass shows imaging or clinical features of malignancy.

  13. [Case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland with concurrent tuberculous lymphadenitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishinaga, Hajime; Hamaguchi, Noriko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Miyamura, Tomotaka; Nakamura, Satoshi; Otsu, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and cervical lymph node metastases with concurrent tuberculous lymphadenitis that was diagnosed preoperatively. A 35-year-old woman presented with multiple lymph node swellings and an anterior neck mass. No findings suggesting the coexistence of pulmonary tuberculosis were present. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with bilateral neck dissection together with medication. Measures to prevent tuberculosis were undertaken during the perioperative period. The histopathological diagnosis was papillary carcinoma with both metastatic and tuberculous lymphadenitis of the lymph nodes in the neck. The possible coexistence of tuberculous lymphadenitis must be ruled out when lymph node swellings are observed in patients with head and neck cancer, including thyroid carcinoma.

  14. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo thyroid function testing is conducted with isotopes of iodine, the rate-limiting substrate for thyroid hormonogenesis, or with pertechnetate, an anion which the thyroidal follicular cells will concentrate or trap similarly to iodide, but will not organify. The physical characteristics of these isotopes, their advantages or indications, their disadvantages, and the average radiation dose to the thyroid in the infant, child, and adult are reviewed. The latter is expressed as estimated dose in rads per microcurie administered assuming an uptake of 27 percent and a biological half-life of 68 days. For many years the standard isotope for thyroid studies has been 131I. This isotope, however, has the disadvantage of a high radiation dose to the gland, especially in infants and children. Furthermore the high-energy gamma ray (364 keV) requires low-efficiency, thick septal collimators for scanning. More recently 125I, 123I, and 99/sup m/Tc-pertechnetate have been used. (auth)

  15. FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION OF NODULAR LESIONS OF THYROID: A STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available piration Cytology in diagnosing the nature of thyroid lesions and comparing its results with histopathological findings. It was observed that FNAC is the investigation of choice in thyroid swellings and has excellent patient compliance, is simple and quick to perform in outpatient department and is cost effective with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study comparing cytology and corresponding histopathology reported in 60 cases of nodular thyroid lesions. The statistical analysis included sensitivity and specificity and accuracy in nodular thyroid lesions. RESULTS On cytological examination of the 671 cases, initial diagnosis/impression as non-neoplastic was given for 616 cases (91.80% and neoplastic for 47 cases (7.00% in which 17 cases (36.17% were benign and 28 cases (59.57% were given as malignant, 5 cases were reported as suspicious for malignancy and for 5 cases samples were inadequate for a cytological diagnosis. Sensitivity of FNA in non-neoplasm lesions 92.5%, follicular neoplasm 87.5% and malignancies 68.42%. The specificity of FNA in non-neoplastic lesion is 100%, in follicular neoplasm is 96% and in malignancy 100%. Accuracy in FNAC for non-neoplastic lesion and follicular neoplasm 95% and malignancy 91%. CONCLUSION It was observed that FNAC is a vital reliable tool, safe and accurate method to evaluate nodular thyroid lesions. It greatly influences the treatment decision. In spite of accuracy of FNAC in differentiating between benign and malignant lesions, certain pitfalls were highlighted in diagnosing follicular neoplasm, which constitutes a “Gray zone” and papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma. We hope that a better understanding of these pitfalls wound help avoiding them in future and will contribute to better patient care.

  16. Relationship between 129I and 127I contents in bovine thyroid glands from Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, A. E.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Wallner, A.; Arazi, A.; Steier, P.

    2013-01-01

    129I/127I ratios and iodine concentrations in bovine thyroids stemming from Argentina were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. From these measurements, a relationship of the 129I/127I ratio with iodine content in the gland was obtained. A weak correlation between the two isotopes was found, suggesting that 129I re-emission from the ocean is not the only process for the 129I deposition in Argentina. Moreover, contributions to the total 129I inventory in the Southern hemisphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources were theoretically studied. Surface compartments present similar contribution from natural sources and nuclear explosions fallout.

  17. [Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, less common disorder of the thyroid gland complicating the pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajka, L; Binder, T

    2015-12-01

    The case report focuses on the case of heavy Graves - Basedow thyreotoxicosis in 33 years old secundipara who was transferred to our departement from regional hospital for decompensation of gestational hypertension, oligohydramnios and the suspition on intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In our clinical praxis the problems of thyroid gland in terms of its reduced function in pregnant women are getting more frequent. The goal of this article is to describe the less often situation, the hyperthyroidism in the third trimestr of the pregnancy. Thyretoxicosis in pregnancy is associated with higher risk of preterm labour, preeclampsia, IUGR, heart failure and stillbirth. Some of these complications confirmes our case report. PMID:26741159

  18. Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-01-01

    PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined...... with relation to blood vessels co-stored NPY (neuropeptide Y), whereas only a few fibres co-stored CGRP. PAC(1) and VPAC(1) receptor mRNA's occurred in follicular cells and blood vessels, whereas the expression of the VPAC(2) receptor was low. The findings suggest that PACAP plays a role in the regulation...

  19. Synchronous Occurrence of Papillary Carcinoma in the Thyroid Gland and Thyroglossal Duct in an Adolescent with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Şıklar, Zeynep; Berberoğlu, Merih; YAĞMURLU, Aydın; Hacıhamdioğlu, Bülent; Savaş Erdeve, Şenay; Fitöz, Suat; Kır, Metin; Öçal, Gönül

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma (TC) combined with congenital hypothyroidism is rare. The synchronous occurrence of these two conditions is even rarer. We describe a patient with congenital hypothyroidism in whom hyperthyroglobulinemia and nodules developed despite adequate replacement therapy. Papillary TC was detected at age 19 years. Postoperative diagnostic scintigraphy showed increased uptake in the thyroglossal duct region. Repetitive imaging of the thyroid gland can be useful in the early detection ...

  20. A case report of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Cuevas, S.; Baena Ocampo, L. [Hospital de Oncologia (Mexico). Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery

    1995-12-01

    This a report on a 19-year-old female who developed a low grade T2 N0 M0 mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the right parotid gland 3 years and 5 months after the post-operative treatment of 100 mCi of radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The parotid tumour appeared during the patient`s pregnancy. There are few reports of salivary gland cancer developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma and it is hoped that this report may stimulate others to investigate this association further in order to clarify the risk of secondary malignancies after radioiodine therapy. (author).

  1. Thyroid Disorders Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Symptoms Hypothyroidism Thyroid Nodules Lifestyle and Prevention Thyroid Disorders The thyroid gland is located at the ... lives, and must be closely monitored by physicians. Thyroid Nodules Thyroid disorders can also occur because of ...

  2. The usefulness of Al face block fabrication for reducing exposure dose of thyroid glands in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Eun Ae [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Currently, there are many studies being conducted around the world to reduce exposure dose to radiation for patients to receive medical treatments in a safe environment. We developed and fabricated of this shield that the patients are protected from the radiation and are need of safety control during breast imaging. In this study, for breast imaging, GE Senography 2000D were used and set at SID 65 cm, 28 kVp, and 63 mAs. The measuring instrument was Flukes Victoreen 6000-529. And we performed Face Block on with 30 patients. The chamber on the actual thyroid glands to take CC and MLO and measure the dosage before and after wearing the Face Block. For the results, after wearing the Face Block, exposure was decreased by 53.8%-100% and 65.8% in average in CC View and by 50%-100% and 60.7% in average in MLO View. The development of the Face Block that practically decreased the exposure dose of thyroid glands, crystalline eyes during breast imaging and reduced the patients anxiety during breast imaging. The Face Block is expected to improve patients satisfaction and contribute to reducing patients exposure dose, but more efforts should be made to reduce exposure dose to medical radiation.

  3. Determination of thyreostats in bovine urine and thyroid glands by HPLC-MSMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Federico Labella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thyreostats are orally active substances used in medicine and veterinary work to regulate the production of T3 and T4 hormones by the thyroid gland. They can be illicitly administered to livestock for fattening purposes in order to improve body-weight gain due to an important retention water in edible tissues and in the gastroenteric tract. Their fraudulent utilisation is severely prohibited by the European Union, which requires a precise monitoring. In 2007, European Union of Reference Laboratories in the CRL Guidance paper proposed a recommended concentration of 10 ng mL-1 in urine, which has just been suggested to increase to 30 ng mL-1. In order to facilitate the detection of thyreostats in two bovine matrices, urine and thyroid glands, a method was developed without a previous derivatisation step, frequently used for HPLC analysis of Thiouracil. A salting-out assisted liquid–liquid extraction procedure for preparation was carried out to facilitate the movement of the thyreostats to the tert buthyl methyl ether phase. The HPLC-MS/MS analytical procedure of the method was validated according to the guidelines of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and has permitted to obtain satisfactory performance parameters and, decision limit and detection capability values for all the thyreostats lower than the recommended values hitherto mentioned.

  4. Thyroid ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may or may not be cancerous (a tumor ). Sometimes the thyroid is enlarged without any nodules. ... to: Cysts Enlargement of the thyroid gland ( goiter ) Thyroid nodules Your doctor can use these ...

  5. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid.

  6. Thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland evaluations in patients exposed to multiple fluoroscopic examinations during tuberculosis therapy: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M.M.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Ames, D.B.; Rosenstein, M.

    1988-02-01

    The prevalence of thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary abnormalities was determined in 91 women who received an average of 112 fluoroscopic chest examinations during pneumothorax treatment for tuberculosis more than 40 yr previously and in 72 women treated for tuberculosis by other modalities. Thyroid abnormalities were determined by physical examination, scintiscans, and measurements of serum free T4 index, TSH, and thyroid microsomal antibodies. Thyroid nodules were diagnosed in 7.7% of the exposed and 4.2% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 1.8; 90% confidence interval 0.6-5.7). Autoimmune thyroid disease was diagnosed in 15.2% of the exposed and 6.9% of the comparison group (prevalence ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-6.2). No salivary tumors were detected. Two exposed women and 1 comparison woman had primary hyperparathyroidism. Although absorbed dose to the thyroid could not be precisely determined, approximately 60 rads would be expected to yield the observed excess of thyroid nodules. While the prevalence ratios were not significantly increased in the exposed group, the results suggest that susceptibility of the thyroid to nodules from cumulative radiation doses of this magnitude could be increased even when the doses are accumulated over years and that such x-ray exposure of the thyroid gland may predispose the patient to the development of autoimmune disease.

  7. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid. PMID:26589365

  8. 异位甲状腺的诊断与治疗%Diagnosis and treatment of ectopic thyroid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷德涛; 尹峰燕; 刘洋; 李建华; 卢秀波; 邱新光

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of ectopic thyroid gland and to improve the management of ectopic thyroid. Methods The clinical data of 15 cases of ectopic thyroid in our hospital and the literatures were analyzed. The clinical features of ectopic thyroid gland, its diagnosis and the treatment were summarized. Results Of the 15 cases, 13 cases underwent operation. Among them, 9 cases showed symptom relief and their thyroid gland function resumed normal with no reoccurrence, 3 cases were complicated by temporary hypothyroidism and 1 case was misdiagnosed and mistreated, resulting in permanent hypothyroidism and lifetime thyroid hormone replacement. Conclusions Ectopic thyroid gland is a rare disease which was frequently misdiagnosed and mistreated. Improvement of related examination is essential in reducing misdiagnosis and mistreatment.%目的 探讨异位甲状腺的临床特征、诊断与治疗,以提高异位甲状腺的诊治水平.方法 分析郑州大学第一附属医院15例异位甲状腺患者的临床资料,结合文献复习,对异位甲状腺的临床特点、诊断、治疗等进行分析总结.结果 13例行手术治疗,9例治疗后症状缓解,甲状腺功能正常,无复发;3例术后并发暂时性甲状腺功能减退;1例因误诊误治,致使甲状腺功能永久性减退,终身服用甲状腺素片.结论 异位甲状腺是一种少见的疾病,易误诊误治,完善相关检查可减少误诊误治.

  9. Thermal effect of microwave antenna radiation on a generic model of thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriloaia, Gheorghe; Gavriloaia, Mariuca-Roxana; Ghemigean, Adina-Mariana

    2010-11-01

    The rapid diffusion of wireless communication systems has caused an increased concern for the potential detrimental effects on human health deriving from exposure to electromagnetic field. It penetrates the body and acts on all the organs, altering the cell membrane potential and the distribution of ions and dipoles. The thyroid gland is one of the most exposed vital organs and may be a target for electromagnetic radiation. This paper presents the computed temperature and specific absorption rate inside to a generic model of a human thyroid using signals radiated by an antenna operating in the 2450 MHz band and the power density levels up to 100 W/cm2. Calculations were carried out using the Finite Difference Time Domain method for the solving of two coupled differential equations, Maxwell and Pennes. The results show that the temperature can rise up to very dangerous levels, i.e., 46 °C, in a very short time. The estimated temperature distribution in the human thyroid due to exposure from microwave signals can be used to design the dangerous aria for personal working around high power emitted antenna and for medical applications.

  10. Increasing the number of thyroid lesions classes in microarray analysis improves the relevance of diagnostic markers.

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    Jean-Fred Fontaine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic markers for thyroid cancers identified by microarray analysis have offered limited predictive accuracy so far because of the few classes of thyroid lesions usually taken into account. To improve diagnostic relevance, we have simultaneously analyzed microarray data from six public datasets covering a total of 347 thyroid tissue samples representing 12 histological classes of follicular lesions and normal thyroid tissue. Our own dataset, containing about half the thyroid tissue samples, included all categories of thyroid lesions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Classifier predictions were strongly affected by similarities between classes and by the number of classes in the training sets. In each dataset, sample prediction was improved by separating the samples into three groups according to class similarities. The cross-validation of differential genes revealed four clusters with functional enrichments. The analysis of six of these genes (APOD, APOE, CLGN, CRABP1, SDHA and TIMP1 in 49 new samples showed consistent gene and protein profiles with the class similarities observed. Focusing on four subclasses of follicular tumor, we explored the diagnostic potential of 12 selected markers (CASP10, CDH16, CLGN, CRABP1, HMGB2, ALPL2, ADAMTS2, CABIN1, ALDH1A3, USP13, NR2F2, KRTHB5 by real-time quantitative RT-PCR on 32 other new samples. The gene expression profiles of follicular tumors were examined with reference to the mutational status of the Pax8-PPARgamma, TSHR, GNAS and NRAS genes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that diagnostic tools defined on the basis of microarray data are more relevant when a large number of samples and tissue classes are used. Taking into account the relationships between the thyroid tumor pathologies, together with the main biological functions and pathways involved, improved the diagnostic accuracy of the samples. Our approach was particularly relevant for the classification of microfollicular adenomas.

  11. A THYROID GLAND SHOWING PYRAMIDAL LOBE WITH LEVATO R GLANDULAE THYROIDEA .

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    Sreekanth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Literature is replete with wide range of common and rare variations of thyroid gland. The presence of pyramidal lobe (accessory lo be – a rostral directed stalk that results from the retention and growth of the caudal end of thyroglossal duct and fibrous or fibromuscular levator glandulae thyroidea (LGT ari sing from its apex are commonly occurring variations . A 50 yrs Old Male Cadaver showed leva tor glandulae thyroidea with cranio caudal extension from the body of the hyoid bone to the ap ex of pyramidal lobe which was projecting upwards from the left ¾ th of isthmus without any encroachment on the left lo be of the thyroid gland. In the groove clearly demarcating pyramidal lobe from the left lobe, a glandular branch of anterior branch of left superior thyroid artery w as seen. It entered the pyramidal lobe inferiorly, just above the lower border of the isth mus. Just adjacent to the right lobe a small portion of isthmus with prominent and free upper border and lower border is seen. Due its frequent presence it may not be fascinating to the Anatomists but can definitely challenge the skill o f operating neck surgeons performing thyroidectomies, lobectomies and isthmusectomies an d Otolaryngologists performing tracheostomies ,tracheotomies and laryngotomies. T he wide range of variations in the number, size, extent and consistency of the levator glandul ae thyroidea (LGT and pyramidal lobe necessitate the pre operative ultrasonographic examina tion or scintigraphical images or intense contrast enhancement on CT/MRI scan for total anato mical details enabling relatively a safer surgery.

  12. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & Pineal Glands Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other ... hormone secretion. « Previous (Characteristics of Hormones) Next (Pituitary & Pineal Glands) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | Accessibility | FOIA | File Formats ...

  13. Brunner's gland lesions in rats induced by a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Akira; Nakano-Ito, Kyoko; Fujikawa, Yasuhiro; Sonoda, Jiro; Hayakawa, Kazuhiro; Ohta, Etsuko; Taketa, Yoshikazu; Van Gessel, Yvonne; Akare, Sandeep; Hutto, David; Hosokawa, Satoru; Tsukidate, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors are reported to cause reversible mucosal hyperplasia (adenosis) in the duodenum of rats; however, the pathogenesis is not fully elucidated. Using lenvatinib, a VEGF RTK inhibitor, we characterized the histologic time course of this duodenal change in rats. At 4 weeks, there was degeneration and necrosis of Brunner's gland epithelium accompanied by neutrophil infiltration around the affected glands. At 13 weeks, the inflammation was more extensive, and Brunner's gland epithelium was attenuated and flattened and was accompanied by reactive hyperplasia of duodenal epithelium. At 26 weeks, the changes became more severe and chronic and characterized by marked cystic dilation, which extended to the external muscular layer. These dilated glands exhibited morphological characteristics of duodenal crypt epithelium, suggestive of replacement of disappeared Brunner's glands by regenerative duodenal crypt epithelial cells. Similar changes were not present in similar time course studies in dog and monkey studies, suggesting that this is a rodent- or species-specific change. Based on the temporal progression of Brunner's gland lesion, we identify degeneration and necrosis of the Brunner's glands as the primary change leading to inflammation, cystic dilatation, and regeneration with cells that are morphologically suggestive of duodenal crypt epithelium.

  14. Stromal modulation and its role in the diagnosis of papillary patterned thyroid lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Sahar Aly; Esmail, Reham Shehab El Nemr; Hareedy, Amal Ahmed; Khalil, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    The papillary patterned lesion of thyroid may be challenging with many diagnostic pitfalls. Tumor stroma plays an important part in the determination of the tumor phenotype. CD34 is thought to be involved in the modulation of cell adhesion and signal transduction as CD34(+) fibrocytes are potent antigen-presenting cells. Smooth muscle actin (SMA) positivity could be diagnostic for fibroblast activation during tumorigenesis. We aimed to examine the expression of CD34 and alphaSMA in the stroma of papillary thyroid hyperplasia, papillary thyroid carcinoma and papillary tumors of uncertain malignant potential in order to elucidate their possible differential distribution and roles. A total number of 54 cases with papillary thyroid lesions were studied by routine HandE staining, CD34 and ASMA immunostaining. ASMA was not expressed in benign papillary hyperplastic lesions while it was expressed in papillary carcinoma, indicating that tumors have modulated stroma. Although the stroma was not well developed in papillary lesions with equivocal features of uncertain potentiality, CD34 was notable in such cases with higher incidence in malignant cases. So ASMA as well as CD34 could predict neoplastic behavior, pointing to the importance of the stromal role. Differences between groups suggest that the presence of CD34 + stromal cells is an early event in carcinogensis and is associated with neoplasia, however ASMA+ cells are more likely to be associated with malignant behavior and metastatic potential adding additional tools to the light microscopic picture helping in diagnosis of problematic cases with HandE.

  15. [The case of carcinoma adenoides cysticum of the tongue, the trachea and the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdas, Andrzej; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz; Kenig, Dagmara; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    We present a case of a 65-year-old female patient who was for the first time admitted to the clinic in 1997 due to a tuber of the tongue root. The removed tuber turned out to be histopatologically a polymorphic adenoma. The patient was re-admitted to the Clinic in 2001 due to a tuber of the tongue and of the oral cavity bottom. The tuber was removed entirely through a central incision, and an apart hypertrophic change has been found on the posterior pharynx wall and in the scar after the tracheostomy carried out during the previous surgery. In all cases carcinoma adenoides cysticum has been found, as well as metastasis into the thyroid gland and the lungs. The patient was qualified for chemotherapy in the Institute of Oncology, which she has been going through periodically every two weeks until now. In 2002 the patient was operated on a small tuber located hypodermically in the scar after the tracheotomy, which was removed. Carcinoma adenoides cysticum was found. In November 2002, during the surgery a tumorous infiltration of the thyroid gland was found comprehending trachea and reaching the mediastenum. In February 2003 the patient was re-admitted to the Clinic due to dyspnoea caused by a significant contraction of the trachea which occurred as a result of a focus of carcinoma adenoides cysticum and significantly enlarged lymph glands near the trachea. The patient was qualified for stent placement in the Institute of Pulmonary Disease and Tuberculosis (Instytut Chorób Płuc i Gruźlicy). The presented case describes an exceptionally aggressive and polyfocal regrowth and transformation of a polymorphic adenoma into cancer.

  16. SALIVARY GLAND LESIONS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 100 CASES OF SALIVARY SWELLING PRESENTING FOR FNAC AT CYTOPATHOLOGY DEPARTMENT, CIMS, BILASPUR

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    Ganguly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fine - needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the salivary gland is a time tested, cost effective, reliable and safe technique in the diagnosis of both neoplastic and non - neoplastic lesions of the salivary gland. It also helps to eliminate confusion with lymphadenopathies as there is a lot of overlap in the clinical presentation of both saliv ary gland and lymph node swellings. Here we aim to study the incidence of common salivary gland pathologies in our set up and also attempt to analyze the role of FNAC in differentiating between sialadenopathies and lymphadenopathies. METHODS: A retrospecti ve study of 100 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with salivary gland pathologies and referred to Cytopathology Section, Department of Pathology, CIMS, Bilaspur for FNAC was conducted from 01.04.2004 to 07.05.2010. Clinically diagnosed lymph node s wellings which subsequently evinced salivary gland cytopathology were also included in this study. The lesions were classified based on cytomorphological diagnostic criteria and different incidental parameters like age, sex, location, presenting symptoms, duration of complaints etc were calculated. RESULTS: The lesions were broadly categorized cytomorphologically into non - neoplastic salivary gland lesions (42.5%, benign neoplastic salivary gland lesions (46.25% and malignant salivary gland lesions (11.25 % after excluding the negative results (aspiration failure, inadequate material, non salivary cytopathology. M : F Ratio was 1.56:1 (61:39. Parotid was the most common salivary gland involved (47.5%. The most common benign salivary neoplasm was pleomorph ic adenoma (38.75% and the most common malignant neoplasm was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (7.5% . CONCLUSION: FNAC is a reliable, safe and simple outpatient procedure in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions, and is also of some value in distinguishing sal ivary lesions from clinically indistinguishable non salivary swellings occurring in

  17. The Role of Immunohistochemistry in Differential Diagnosis of Follicular Patterned Lesions of Thyroid

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    Gülçin YEĞEN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study we aimed to assess the role of galectin- 3, cytokeratin 19, thyroid peroxidase and CD44v6 in distinguishing benign from malignant follicular lesions.Material and Method: Fifty-four malignant and 50 benign lesions were evaluated and classified according to World Health Organization 2004 histological classification. Galectin-3, cytokeratin 19, thyroid peroxidase and CD44v6 were performed immunohistochemically and the slides were evaluated by two independent investigators. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed for each antibody tested.Results: Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were as follows respectively: Galectin-3: 59,25%, 84% and 71,15%; Cytokeratin 19: 70%, 82% and 75,4%; Thyroid peroxidase: 61%, 70% and 65,4%; CD44v6: 20,4%, 88% and 52,9%.Conclusion: The negativity for Galectin-3 and Cytokeratin 19 can not exclude malignancy but positivity can be thought as a sign of malignant feature or potential for lesions in which there is strong suspect of malignancy. Thyroid peroxidase immunostaining failed to differantiate benign from malignant oxyphilic tumors but decreased expression can be used as a malignancy marker together with Galectin-3 and/or Cytokeratin19 positivity in suspicious cases. CD44v6 does not seem to be reliable in distinguishing benign from malignant follicular patterned thyroid lesions.In conclusion, our approach is to take as much new samples or serial sections as possible in cases without clear-cut evidence of malignancy but with histological and immunohistochemical suspicion. Follicular variant papillary carcinoma has different criteria for malignancy and it should be always kept in mind while evaluating a benign-looking lesion with immunohistochemical signs that favor malignancy.

  18. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of

  19. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Raldúa, Demetrio, E-mail: drpqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Maladies Rares: Génétique et Métabolisme (MRGM), University of Bordeaux, EA 4576, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-06-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO{sub 4} (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC{sub 10} that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of

  20. APPLICATION OF LIQUID-BASED CYTOLOGY TO FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION BIOPSIES OF THE THYROID GLAND

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    Guido eFadda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available FNAB (fine-needle aspiration biopsy is regarded as an important tool for diagnosing thyroid lesions because of its simplicity, safety and cost-effectiveness. Its role in correctly characterizing the group of indeterminate lesions or follicular-patterned neoplasms (FN might be more decisive. LBC (Liquid-based cytology is a technique based on the use of a semi-automated device that has gained popularity as a method of collecting and processing both gynecologic and non-gynecologic cytologic specimens. It achieves a diagnostic sensitivity as accurate as conventional preparations especially for its excellent cell preservation and for the lack of background which decrease the amount of inadequate diagnoses. Moreover, the cellular material which has been stored in the preservative solution could be effectively used for the application of immunocytochemical and molecular techniques used especially for the Follicular proliferations . In many cases the cytologic features are similar in both methods but the colloid film and the lymphocytic component are more easily evaluated on direct smears whereas nuclear details and colloid globules are better evaluated in LBC slides. The LBC processed biopsies represent a valid alternative to conventional cytology. The possibility of applying special techniques enhance the efficacy of the cytological diagnosis of thyroid lesions.

  1. Expression of ck-19, galectin-3 and hbme-1 in the differentiation of thyroid lesions: systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis

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    de Matos Leandro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To distinguish between malignant and benign lesions of the thyroid gland histological demonstration is often required since the fine-needle aspiration biopsy method applied pre-operatively has some limitations. In an attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy, markers using immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry techniques have been studied, mainly cytokeratin-19 (CK-19, galectin-3 (Gal-3 and Hector Battifora mesothelial-1 (HBME-1. However, current results remain controversial. The aim of the present article was to establish the diagnostic accuracy of CK-19, Gal-3 and HBME-1 markers, as well as their associations, in the differentiation of malignant and benign thyroid lesions. Methods A systematic review of published articles on MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library was performed. After establishing inclusion and exclusion criteria, 66 articles were selected. The technique of meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy was employed and global values of sensitivity, specificity, area under the summary ROC curve, and diagnostic odds ratio (dOR were calculated. Results For the immunohistochemistry technique, the positivity of CK-19 for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid lesions demonstrated global sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 73%; for Gal-3, sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 81%; and for HBME-1, sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 83%. The association of the three markers determined sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 97%, and diagnostic odds ratio of 95.1. Similar results were also found for the immunocytochemistry assay. Conclusion This meta-analysis demonstrated that the three immunomarkers studied are accurate in pre- and postoperative diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Nevertheless, the search for other molecular markers must continue in order to enhance this diagnostic accuracy since the results found still show a persistency of false-negative and false-positive tests. Virtual slides Http

  2. The feasibility study of isolating the thyroid gland tubercle in the operation of excisioning the profile of the thyroid gland%甲状腺侧叶切除术治疗孤立甲状腺结节的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝伟桐

    2009-01-01

    目的 分析甲状腺侧叶全切术治疗孤立甲状腺结节的合理性与安全性.方法 回顾性分析169例孤立甲状腺结节患者甲状腺侧叶全切术的治疗效果.结果 141例为甲状腺良性病变,28例为甲状腺癌.术后均未出现甲状腺功能低下,169例患者均存活,无癌复发.结论 甲状腺侧叶全切术是治疗孤立甲状腺结节的安全和有效的术式.%Objective The goal analysis thyroid gland lateral lobe all cuts the technique treatment isolated thyroid gland tubercle the rationality and the security.Methods The review analysis 169 example isolated thyroid gland tubercle patient thyroid gland lateral lobe all cuts the technique the treatment result.Results 141 examples are the thyroid gland benign pathological change,28 examples are the thyroid cancers.After the technique,has not presented the thyroid function to be low,169 example patients survive,non-cancer recrudescence.Conclusion The thyroid gland lateral lobe all cuts the technique is the treatment isolated thyroid gland tubercle security and the effective technique type.

  3. Iodine deficiency up-regulates monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression of mouse thyroid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhimei; Zhuo Xiaohua; Shi Yanan; Liu Xin; Yuan Jihong; Li Lanying; Sun Yina

    2014-01-01

    Background Iodine deficiency is a major factor affecting thyroid auto-regulation,the quantity of iodine may greatly influence the synthesis of thyroid hormones (THs).It has long been believed that TH enters the cell through passive diffusion.Recent studies have suggested that several transporters could facilitate transportation of TH.The monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) was identified as a very active and specific TH transporter.The purpose of this study was to investigate whether iodine insufficient affected the expression of MCT8 in the thyroid gland.Methods Sixty BALB/c mice were randomly divided into two groups:control group was fed with standard feed (iodine concentration of 300 μg/kg); while low-iodine (LI) group received iodine-insufficient feed (iodine concentration of 20-40 μg/kg).After 3 months,10 mice of each group were sacrificed.The remaining 20 mice of each group were kept till 6 months.From the LI group,we randomly selected 15 mice and injected triiodothyronine (T3,100 μg/kg body weight per day) intraperitoneally for 24,48 or 72 hours (5 mice for each time-point).Then,all the mice were sacrificed.Mouse serum thyroxine (T4),T3,and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA).The protein content or messenger RNA (mRNA) level of thyroid MCT8 was measured by Western blotting analysis or real time RT-PCR respectively.MCT8 subcellular location in thyroid tissues was probed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay.Results We found that mouse serum T3 and T4 levels decreased and TSH level increased by the end of the third month.Consistent with these findings,there was significant goiter and hypothyroidism in the LI group.Meanwhile,the MCT8 mRNA increased to 1.36-fold of the level in the control group at the 3rd month.At 6th month,the serum T4 level in LI mice remained at a lower level,and MCT8 mRNA expression continued rising to nearly 1.60-fold compared with the control group.The protein content was

  4. Analysis of the behavior and characteristics of thyroid lesions identified by biopsy fine needle aspiration and gammagraphic diagnosis: Hospital Calderon Guardia: period 2004-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid lesions have meant one of the most important pathological entities in the Costa Rican population for many years, which have been increased by new diagnostic examinations and early detection and timely thanks to the preventive medicine that is exerted on the security of the country. After the nuclear accident Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union for several decades ago has shown an increase in neoplastic lesions as well as was appreciated after the implementation of the first atomic bomb in World War II, this behavior is the interest to see how thyroid pathology develops in the environment and what have been the Costa Rican experiences in correlation with the expected time to the global statistics. The behavior pattern observed of the lessons of the thyroid gland and based on clinical findings and in some cases together with scintigraphy have allowed to study the development seen through the ultrasound and cytopathological result. The behavior of the patients was similar to global statistics, being most frequent the benign lesions than malignant, and the scintigraphy correlation with lesions were found to be cold was significant for determination of malignant or suspicious for malignancy. Some of these lesions that were suspicious for malignancy scintigraphy and ultrasound were benign have been found to fall within the expected rate for this type of injury. The study consisted of sampling in 2023 noted that the prevalence was 9:1 in women compared with men, which agrees as thyroid diseases are more common in women than in men as well as the expected results in malignant lesions that remained the same behavior. As expected in the age ranges of suffering from thyroid lesions remained between the fifth and sixth decade of life, which has allowed to observe the frequency of different benign and malignant lesions that occurred during this study in the decades and periods covered. While before the study of thyroid lesions was occupied by scintigraphy and

  5. Association of TCR-signaling pathway with the development of lacrimal gland benign lymphoepithelial lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min; Ma; Yi-Xin; Cui; Xin; Ge; Jing; Li; Jin-Ru; Li; Xiao-Na; Wang

    2015-01-01

    ·AIM: To identify the association of the T cell receptor(TCR) signaling with the development of benign lymphoepithelial lesions(BLEL) of the lacrimal gland.· METHODS: We collected affected lacrimal gland tissues from 9 patients who underwent dacryoadenectomy in the Capital Medical University Beijing Tongren Hospital Eye Center between August2010 and March 2013 and were confirmed to have lacrimal gland BLEL by histopathological analysis. Tumor tissues from 9 patients with orbital cavernous hemangioma were also collected and used as control.Whole genome gene expression microarray was used to compare gene expression profiles of affected lacrimal gland tissues from patients with lacrimal gland BLEL to those from of orbital cavernous hemangiomas.Differential expression of TCR pathway genes between these tissues was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and immunohistochemistry.·RESULTS: Microarray analysis showed that in lacrimal glands with BLEL, 32 signaling pathways were enriched in the upregulated genes, while 25 signaling pathways were enriched in the downregulated genes. In-depth analysis of the microarray data showed that the expression of 27 genes of the TCR signaling pathway increased significantly. To verify the differential expression of three of these genes, CD3, CD4, and interleukin(IL)-10, reverse transcription-PCR(RT-PCR)and immunohistochemistry assays were performed. RT-PCR analysis showed that CD3 and CD4 were expressed in the lacrimal glands with BLEL, but IL-10 was not expressed. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that CD3 and CD4 proteins were also present, but IL-10 protein was not. CD3, CD4, or IL-10 expression was not found in the orbital cavernous hemangiomas with either RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry.· CONCLUSION: TCR signaling pathway might be involved in the pathogenesis of lacrimal gland BLEL.

  6. Relationship between {sup 129}I and {sup 127}I contents in bovine thyroid glands from Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, A.E., E-mail: negri@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez Niello, J.O. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Campus Miguelete, B1650BWA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wallner, A. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Arazi, A. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Steier, P. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

    2013-01-15

    {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios and iodine concentrations in bovine thyroids stemming from Argentina were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. From these measurements, a relationship of the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio with iodine content in the gland was obtained. A weak correlation between the two isotopes was found, suggesting that {sup 129}I re-emission from the ocean is not the only process for the {sup 129}I deposition in Argentina. Moreover, contributions to the total {sup 129}I inventory in the Southern hemisphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources were theoretically studied. Surface compartments present similar contribution from natural sources and nuclear explosions fallout.

  7. Histological study of the thyroid gland following 904-nm laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez de Vargas, I.; Parrado, C.; Gonzalez, V.; Vidal, Lourdes; Rius, F.

    1993-06-01

    The present histological and stereological studies are on thyroid glands of Wistar rats irradiated with an IR laser. The animals were exposed to total doses of 46,80 J/cm2, and sacrificed at 1, 40, and 180 days after the last treatment. A morphological and stereological study was made on follicular epithelium, follicle, stroma, and capillary. The laser beam produced an increase of follicular epithelial volume and hyperplasia of follicular cells in the animals sacrificed at 1, 40, and 180 days after the last treatment. Capillary dilation underwent a progressive decrease as time passed. It was higher in the animals sacrificed after 24 hours, then it decreased after 40 days and finally disappeared after 180 days.

  8. Congenital disturbances of the thyroid gland in the experimental litters obtained from mothers subjected to immunization and the action of I13+H1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I131 injected to rabbits immunized with homologous thyroid gland on the 19th - 20th day of pregnancy led to congenital disturbances of the thyroid gland in the experimental litters in the first and second generations. The functional activity and the activity of proteolytic enzymes of the thyroid gland descreased by the 30th day of the postnatal development. A distinct correlation was revealed between the contents in the thyroid gland of the experimental litters of DIT+MIT and of organic forms -T3+T4. During the first days after birth the DIT+MIT content showed a sharp fall and increased by the 30th day; on the contrary, iodine binding into organic forms decreased with the age. Histological examination of the thyroid glands in the experimental litters demonstrated lymphoid-plasmocytic infiltration, along with connective tissue proliferation, which led to a marked sclerosis and fibrosis of tissues, hypofunction. Beginning with the age of one month there was observed an extensive nodular proliferation, which possibly served as the beginning of the parenchymatous goiter formation. The appearance of lymphoid-plasmocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland of the second generation could be considered as the result of a congenital predisposition to the autoimmune thyroiditis inlaid in the memory cells and intensified during birth

  9. [MORPHOMETRIC AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE THYROID GLAND AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF HYDRA PEPTIDE MORPHOGEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulayeva, V V; Bykov, V L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of Hydra peptide morphogen (HPM) on quantitative histochemical and morphometric parameters of the thyroid gland (TG) was studied. The experiments were conducted on 40 outbred albino male mice weighing 20-25 g, which were injected intraperitoneally with HPM at the dose of 100 μg/kg of body weight per day for 5 days. Relative volumes occupied by the epithelium (E), including its follicular (E(f)), interfollicular (E(i)) components, and colloid (C) were determined using stereological method on TG transverse sections. E(f)/E(i) and E/C ratios were calculated as the indices of follicular organization and TG activity, respectively. Mitotic activity of thyrocytes was also evaluated. The enzymes, characterizing the metabolic activity of thyrocytes: NADH-diaphorase, succinate- and lactate dehydrogenases were demonstrated on cryostat sections of material, frozen in liquid nitrogen and their activity was assessed cytophotometrically. The results demonstrated that HPM administration lead to a significant increase in relative volume of thyroid epithelium with a concomitant reduction of the volume of the colloid. E(f)/E(i) ratio was not significantly different from that in the control. HPM also induced a significant increase of thyrocyte proliferation rate and of the activity of enzymes studied. Collectively, the quantitative histoenzymological and morphometric data obtained indicate the stimulating effect of HPM on TG functional activity and thyrocyte proliferation.

  10. Sex-specific changes in thyroid gland function and circulating thyroid hormones in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following embryonic exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers by maternal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C

    2016-08-01

    High concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) accumulate in predatory birds. Several PBDE congeners are considered thyroid disruptors; however, avian studies are limited. The authors examined circulating thyroid hormones and thyroid gland function of nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) at 17 d to 20 d of age, following embryonic exposure by maternal transfer only to environmentally relevant levels of PBDEs (DE-71 technical mixture). Nestlings were exposed to in ovo sum (Σ) PBDE concentrations of 11 301 ± 95 ng/g wet weight (high exposure), 289 ± 33 ng/g wet weight (low exposure), or 3.0 ± 0.5 ng/g wet weight (controls, background exposure). Statistical comparisons are made to controls of the respective sexes and account for the relatedness of siblings within broods. Circulating concentrations of plasma total thyroxine (TT4 ) and total triiodothyronine (TT3 ) in female nestlings were significantly influenced overall by the exposure to DE-71. Following intramuscular administration of thyroid-stimulating hormone, the temporal response of the thyroid gland in producing and/or releasing TT4 was also significantly affected by the females' exposure to DE-71. The altered availability of T4 for conversion to T3 outside of the gland and/or changes in thyroid-related enzymatic activity may explain the lower TT3 concentrations (baseline, overall) and moderately altered temporal TT3 patterns (p = 0.06) of the treatment females. Controlling for the significant effect on TT3 levels of the delayed hatching of treatment females, baseline TT3 levels were significantly and positively correlated with body mass (10 d, 15 d, 20 d), with PBDE-exposed females generally being smaller and having lower TT3 concentrations. Given that exposure concentrations were environmentally relevant, similar thyroidal changes and associated thyroid-mediated processes relating to growth may also occur in wild female nestlings. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016

  11. Thyroid lesions incidentally detected by 18F-FDG PET-CT ― a two centre retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamsek Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Incidental 18F-FDG uptake in the thyroid on PET-CT examinations represents a diagnostic challenge. The maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax is one possible parameter that can help in distinguishing between benign and malignant thyroid PET lesions.

  12. Influence of dietary iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland in Slc26a4-null mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwata Tomoyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pendred syndrome (PDS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment and variable degree of goitrous enlargement of the thyroid gland with a partial defect in iodine organification. The thyroid function phenotype can range from normal function to overt hypothyroidism. It is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SLC26A4 (PDS gene. The severity of the goiter has been postulated to depend on the amount of dietary iodine intake. However, direct evidence has not been shown to support this hypothesis. Because Slc26a4-null mice have deafness but do not develop goiter, we fed the mutant mice a control diet or an iodine-deficient diet to evaluate whether iodine deficiency is a causative environmental factor for goiter development in PDS. Methods We evaluated the thyroid volume in histological sections with the use of three-dimensional reconstitution software, we measured serum levels of total tri-iodothyronine (TT3 and total thyroxine (TT4 levels, and we studied the thyroid gland morphology by transmission electron microscopy. Results TT4 levels became low but TT3 levels did not change significantly after eight weeks of an iodine-deficient diet compared to levels in the control diet animals. Even in Slc26a4-null mice fed an iodine-deficient diet, the volume of the thyroid gland did not increase although the size of each epithelial cell increased with a concomitant decrease of thyroid colloidal area. Conclusions An iodine-deficient diet did not induce goiter in Slc26a4-null mice, suggesting that other environmental, epigenetic or genetic factors are involved in goiter development in PDS.

  13. Role of monitoring in diagnostics of diseases of the thyroid gland at children at the moment of the disaster on ChNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking back on eighteen-year experience of liquidation of consequences of disaster on Chernobyl NPP shows the importance of monitoring in formation of pathology of a thyroid gland at children, undergone to radiating influence. (Authors)

  14. SALIVARY GLAND LESIONS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 100 CASES OF SALIVARY SWELLING PRESENTING FOR FNAC AT CYTOPATHOLOGY DEPARTMENT, CIMS, BILASPUR

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguly; Gupta,; Bagde; Bharadwaj; Tiwari,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fine - needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the salivary gland is a time tested, cost effective, reliable and safe technique in the diagnosis of both neoplastic and non - neoplastic lesions of the salivary gland. It also helps to eliminate confusion with lymphadenopathies as there is a lot of overlap in the clinical presentation of both saliv ary gland and lymph node swellings. Here we aim t...

  15. The Sonographic Features of the Thyroid Gland After Treatment with Radioiodine Therapy in Patients with Graves' Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Collette; Casey, Ruth; Bell, Marcia; Bergin, Diane; Murphy, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the typical sonographic features of the thyroid gland in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism after radioiodine therapy (RIT). Thirty patients (21 female and 9 male) with a mean age of 53 y (standard deviation [SD] ± 11.3) and with previous Graves' disease who had been successfully treated with RIT were enrolled in the study. All were hypothyroid or euthyroid after treatment. The thyroid ultrasound was carried out by a single experienced operator with an 8-MHz linear transducer. Volume, vascularity, echogenicity and echotexture of the glands were noted. The presence of nodules and lymph nodes was also documented. The mean volumes of the right lobe were 2.4 mL ± 2.9 SD (0.6-14) and the left lobe were 1.8 mL ± 1.9 SD (0.4-9.1), with a mean total volume of 4.2 mL ± 4.7 SD (1.3-19.1). Of those who had a pre-treatment ultrasound (23%), the percentage reduction in volume was 87% (p glands were hypovascular, with the remaining 7% showing normal vascularity. The glands were hyperechoic and of coarse echotexture. Overall, the sonographic features of the post-RIT gland included a significantly reduced mean total volume of 4.2 mL, hypovascularity, coarse echotexture and hyperechogenicity.

  16. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of atrophic orthotopic thyroid gland in a patient with acquired hypothyroidism: Evaluation with hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) refers to all cases in which the thyroid gland is present at a location other than its usual site. The prevalence of ETT is approximately one per 100,000 to 300,000 persons and is reported to occur in one in 4,000 to 8,000 patients with thyroid disease. Multiple ectopia of thyroid is extremely rare. Multiple ectopia in the presence of orthotopic thyroid gland is extremely rare. We report a 13-year-old boy with stunted growth and developmental delay caused due to acquired hypothyroidism. Technetium scan performed as per management protocol identified dual ectopia of thyroid. The role of hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) in the localization of the sites of ETT is also highlighted

  17. The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt Towards Iodium Levels (I2 in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA and The Histology of Thyroid Gland of Goitrogenic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risman Heli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Goitrogenic substances can inhibit of iodine taking by the thyroid gland. Thus iodine concentration in thyroid gland will be low, and this phenomena is indicated by inflammation in the thyroid gland. Moreover, it can cause releaseing of an excessive amount of free radicals. This radicals, in the body, causes oxidative stress and also increase the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA. This is also as an indicator for lipid peroxidation and the decreasing of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU. The treatment with KIO3 and KI salt was intended to study the level of supplementation of iodine (I2 toward level of MDA in serum and histological description of rat’s thyroid gland. The MDA levels was determined through TBA test (Thio Barbituric Acid, meanwhile the histological pattern of rat thyroid gland was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results indicated both of KIO3 and KI salt significantly (p<0.01 reduced MDA level in the serum. Treatment with KIO3 salt gave 33.62% while KI salt slightly higher (37,02%. In addition, both of treaments displayed an recovering effect in thyroid gland.

  18. Uptake of 131-I in maxillary bones mimicking salivary glands. False- positive images in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the whole body scans (WBS) with 131-I in the follow-up or treatment of patients bearing DTC it is observed frequently fixation areas of the tracer apparently in relation with salivary glands. These areas generally belong to the salivary glands and are present during the first 48/72 hours, but others are kept during more than 3 weeks. These latter ones were considered as possible uptake in ectopic thyroid cells in the mouth floor, iodized proteins, retention of salivary glands and other assertions. Valdivieso et al. (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, 1996) and Gutierrez et al. (SLAT,Chile, 1997) considered that the fixation took place also in maxillary bones probably in areas in relation with dental illness (inflammation, pulpitis, dental caries, perionditis, periapical granuloma, periapical cyst and resorption of surrounding bone seen radiologically as periapical radiolucency). This presumption was sustained for two publications (Clin. Nucl. Med. 1998;23. 747-749, and Clin. Nucl. Med. 2000; 23; 314-315). This end the review of 638 131-I WBS carried out between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st of 2007 in 502 patients that were studied for ablation, treatment of metastasis or relapses or follow up. In 31,5% of the patients were observed areas of activity in maxilla. The intensity of concentration of the tracer was 0.3 to 1.2 % of the activity administered. In 10 patients was determinate the effective T 1/2 and in 5 a panoramic Rx of the maxilla and a bone scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MDP; there were correlation between both images, the 131-I one an the 99m-Tc-MDP with radiology. The effective T 1/2 mean value was 6,87 days ± 0,94 (S.D.) very close to the physical T 1/2 of the radioiodine tracer indicating a strongly labeled molecule. In 6 patients treated with high activities of radioiodine (5,55 to 11,1 MBq - 150 to 300 mCi) actinic lesions were observed in mouth and lingual mucous membrane, including ulcers. The intensity of the images and of the lesions correlate

  19. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Workplace Giving Other Ways to Donate Thyroid Hormone Treatment Thyroid hormone is used in two situations: ... prevent recurrence or progression of their cancer. THYROID HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY Many people have a thyroid gland ...

  20. Histological Changes in the Thyroid Gland in Cases of Infant and Early Childhood Asphyxia-A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Bellis, Maria

    2016-05-01

    A retrospective blinded study of thyroid gland histology was undertaken in 50 infants and young children aged from 1 to 24 months. Deaths were due to (i) suffocation (N = 7), hanging (4), wedging (3), and chest and/or neck compression (4), and (ii) SIDS (20), noncervical trauma (7), organic disease, (4) and drug toxicity (1). In the asphyxia group (N = 18), thyroid gland congestion ranged from 0 to 3+ with 39% of cases (7/18) having moderate/marked congestion. In three cases, focal aggregates of red blood cells (blood islands) were observed within the intrafollicular colloid. These deaths involved chest compression, chest and/or neck compression, and crush asphyxia in a vehicle accident, and all had facial petechiae. Only 22% of the 32 control cases (7/32) had moderate/marked congestion with no blood islands being identified (p crushing or compression and may provide supportive evidence for this diagnosis. PMID:27122404

  1. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  2. The Role of Elastosonography in the Differentiation of Parotid Gland Lesions: Report of Three Cases and Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parotid gland is the mostly affected site among major salivary gland tumors in up to 85% of cases. Preoperative knowledge of the tumour nature is crucial since it influences the surgical procedure and patient’s morbidity, especially the risk of facial nerve palsy. Ultrasonography is commonly used as the first line imaging modality for the salivary gland lesions. A pitfall is that the histologic pleomorphism often reflects an imaging pleomorphism. Herein we aimed to present the role of elastosonography in three parotid lesions: a case of benign pleomorphic adenoma, a Wharthin’s tumour and a malignant parotid tumour. Our findings show that malignant parotid lesion was the stiffest lesion according to elastosonography. Wharthin’s tumour demonstrated soft elastosonographic features. The pleomorphic adenoma was also interpreted as stiff by elastosonography suggesting that the elastosonographic features of pleomorphic adenoma may resemble those of malignant lesions limiting the utility of the technique

  3. MIBI scintigraphy in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules. Can it predict the dignity of the lesion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theissen, P.; Schmidt, M.; Ivanova, T.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Cologne (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Aim: Several authors have investigated the value of technetium-MIBI scanning to predict the dignity of hypofunctioning, cold thyroid nodules (HTN) in regions with differing levels of iodine supply. They concluded that an MIBI scan can exclude thyroid malignancy, although comparisons between the studies are of limited value owing to differences in methodology and wide variations in patient selection criteria. The present study investigates whether the above claim is also valid in Germany, a country with a long-standing and persistent, mild iodine deficiency and a high incidence of nodules in large goiters with a low prevalence of malignancy. Patients, methods: The study compares the results of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy (incl. SPECT and planar images) in HTN (MIBI) with those of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and histology. Of 154 consecutive patients (121 women, 33 men; mean age 56 {+-} 12 years), 73 underwent thyroid surgery from which the results of FNAB and MIBI were assessed. Selection criteria were risk estimation or conditions limiting the feasibility of FNAB. The mean thyroid volume was 42 {+-} 25 ml, with 2.1 {+-} 1.4 nodules per patient. Results: Histology revealed thyroid malignancies in 8 out of 73 patients (11.0%). The negative predictive value for MIBI was 97%, which is comparable to FNAB (94%). However, in 19.5% of patients FNAB was indeterminate. Lower specificity (54%) and low positive predictive value (19%) showed that MIBI accumulation cannot differentiate between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. However, comparison with cytological and/or histological findings indicated that it could distinguish between lesions with differing rates of mitochondrial metabolism. Conclusion: Even in areas of former or mild iodine deficiency MIBI forms a basis for choosing between wait-and-see and surgical strategies if FNAB is unfeasible or not representative. However, even for pathological MIBI results, the prevalence of malignancy is not very high

  4. Atypical imaging features of adrenal gland lesions in children – report of three cases and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential diagnosis of adrenal pathology depends on the child’s age and imaging findings. Three children without clinical symptoms of neoplasm, with an adrenal lesion discovered on diagnostic ultrasound imaging. Laboratory tests for neoplasm were negative. The final diagnosis was based on histopathological examinations after surgical resection. 1. The value of diagnostic imaging and laboratory tests in differential diagnosis of adrenal gland lesions is limited. 2. Malignant tumors of adrenal glands should be taken into account in children. 3. Surgical resection should be considered in diagnostic algorithm of adrenal gland masses. 4. The final diagnosis is always based on histopathological examination

  5. Histological Changes in the Thyroid Gland in Cases of Infant and Early Childhood Asphyxia-A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Bellis, Maria

    2016-05-01

    A retrospective blinded study of thyroid gland histology was undertaken in 50 infants and young children aged from 1 to 24 months. Deaths were due to (i) suffocation (N = 7), hanging (4), wedging (3), and chest and/or neck compression (4), and (ii) SIDS (20), noncervical trauma (7), organic disease, (4) and drug toxicity (1). In the asphyxia group (N = 18), thyroid gland congestion ranged from 0 to 3+ with 39% of cases (7/18) having moderate/marked congestion. In three cases, focal aggregates of red blood cells (blood islands) were observed within the intrafollicular colloid. These deaths involved chest compression, chest and/or neck compression, and crush asphyxia in a vehicle accident, and all had facial petechiae. Only 22% of the 32 control cases (7/32) had moderate/marked congestion with no blood islands being identified (p thyroid gland may be caused by congestion associated with crushing or compression and may provide supportive evidence for this diagnosis.

  6. Does amifostine have radioprotective effects on salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chao; Wang, Guoming; Zuo, Shuyao [Qingdao University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Qingdao, Shandong Province (China); Xie, Jiawei [Qingdao University, Medical College, Qingdao (China); Jiang, Zhongxin [Qingdao University, Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Qingdao (China)

    2010-09-15

    To assess the effects of amifostine on salivary glands in radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled clinical trials which compared the effects of amifostine with those of placebo or acid-stimulating agents. Two randomized controlled clinical trials with a total of 130 patients were included. Both studies had a low risk of bias. There were no statistically significant differences between the effects of amifostine and acid-stimulating agents on the incidence of xerostomia (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.01 to 9.52), the decrease of scintigraphically measured uptake of {sup 99m}Tc by the parotid (RR 0.30, 95% CI -2.28 to 2.88) or submandibular glands (RR 1.90, 95% CI -1.46 to 5.26) at 12 months, or the reduction in blood pressure (RR 5.00, 95% CI 0.25 to 99.16). Neither of the included trials investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs. The results of two randomized controlled clinical trials suggest that amifostine has no significant radioprotective effects on salivary glands in radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The use of acid-stimulating agents to increase salivation should remain the first choice during radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. Patients should also be well informed of the importance of hydration and acid stimulation. (orig.)

  7. Quantitative comparison of technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, A.; Meduri, G.; Calcagni, M.L. [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Roma (Italy); Marozzi, P.; Ficola, U.; Vaccaro, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cervello Hospital, Palermo (Italy); Rubini, G. [Department of Nuclear Medicine of the University, Bari (Italy); Attard, M.; Li Puma, M. [Department of Endocrinology, Cervello Hospital, Palermo (Italy); Ricci, R. [Department of Pathology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Corsello, S. [Department of Endocrinology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy)

    1999-08-01

    The aim of the study was to quantitatively compare the scintigraphic images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands obtained with technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Forty-six patients with hyperparathyroidism underwent {sup 201}Tl (74 MBq), {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate (74 MBq) and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (555-740 MBq) scintigraphy in a single session. Image analysis included the computation of the thyroid/background ratio in the whole study population and the parathyroid/background ratio, parathyroid/thyroid ratio and diagnostic sensitivity in 17 patients who underwent parathyroid surgery. The pertechnetate subtraction technique was used. {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin showed a similar thyroid/background ratio (1.79{+-}0.41 and 1.81{+-}0.47, respectively, P=NS); however, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin showed a higher parathyroid/background ratio than {sup 201}Tl (2.06{+-}0.54 vs 1.79{+-} 0.50, P=0.007). Despite the superior quality of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin images, both tracers showed identical sensitivity in detecting enlarged parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (89%) and in those with secondary hyperparathyroidism (50%). (orig.) With 2 figs., 3 tabs., 15 refs.

  8. Hormones of thyroid gland in sera of rats treated with different dose of concentrated potassium iodine solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potassium iodine (KI is used as a drug therapy for treating numerous diseases such as small-vessel vasculitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis nodularis, Sweet's syndrome, tuberculosis and granulomatosis, and for iodized salt. At the same time, KI can be harmful. Iodine intake may increase the frequency of thyroiditis in humans, and may induce the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (ET in animals. Investigations on an experimental model for the examination of thyroiditis in Wistar rats have clearly showed morphological changes in the rat thyroid evoked by KI administration. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low and high doses of KI on the thyroid gland of Wistar rats and determine the effect on hormone status (T4, T3 and TSH in this rat strain. Methods Two groups of rats from the Wistar strain were treated with a low iodine dose (225 μg/g BW and with a high iodine dose (675 μg/g BW of KI solutions. Untreated nonimmunized animals served as controls. The solution was administrated daily intraperitoneally during the period of 26 consecutive days. Results Monitoring hormone status (TSH, T3 and T4 and morphological changes it was found that therapeutic doses of KI applied in treatment induced the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (chronic destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis in humans and cell necrosis in animals not carrying a genetic susceptibility. Significant inflammatory changes were observed in rats treated with a high iodine dose. Conclusion The early iodine induced cell necrosis and inflammation in the nonimmunized animals without genetic susceptibility is a new experimental model of thyroiditis. .

  9. [Uptake of 123I-MIBG in a hepatic hemangioma in the scintigraphic study of an adrenal gland lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampol Bas, C; Peña Viloria, C

    2005-01-01

    A 60 year old symptom free female in whom a lesion in left adrenal gland was found by chance in a CT scan is presented. She also had increased serum and urine catecholamines levels. 123I-MIBG scintigraphy showed a non-physiological uptake in right adrenal gland that is still seen in the delayed image, with normal left gland. MRI confirmed the presence of a mass in the left adrenal gland suggestive of an adenoma and found a lesion in the right hepatic area at the level of the previously seen MIBG image. This lesion was labelled as a hemangioma and would explain the findings of the isotopic study with MIBG. It must be considered as a false positive for phaechromocytoma. The increased catecholamine serum and urine levels were due to drug interactions. PMID:15847786

  10. Salivary gland protection by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Klutmann, S.; Bleckmann, C.; Mester, J.; Clausen, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Brenner, W.; Lassmann, S.; Henze, E. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Clinic of Nuclear Medicine

    1999-02-01

    Quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy using 100 to 120 MBq Tc-99m-pertechnetate was performed in 17 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after radioiodine treatment with 6 GBq I-131. Eight patients were treated with 500 mg/m{sup 2} amifostine prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment and compared retrospectively with 9 control patients. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO criteria. In 9 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.01) reduced Tc-99m-pertechnetate uptake by 35.4{+-}22.0% and 31.7{+-}21.1% in parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Of these 9 patients, 3 exhibited xerostomia Grade I (WHO). In contrast, in 8 amifostine-treated patients, there was no significant (p=0.878) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen eines Heilversuchs wurde eine limitierte Anzahl von Patienten untersucht. Vor und drei Monate nach Gabe von 6 GBq I-131 wurde eine quantitative Speicheldruesenszintigraphie mit 100 bis 120 MBq Tc-99m-Pertechnetat an 17 Patienten mit differenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinomen durchgefuehrt. Acht Patienten erhielten vor Radiojodtherapie 500 mg/m{sup 2} Amifostin und wurden mit einer historischen Kontrollgruppe aus neun Patienten verglichen. Eine Xerostomie wurde nach WHO-Kriterien beurteilt. Die Patienten der Kontrollgruppe wiesen sowohl fuer die Glandulae parotides als auch fuer die Glandulae submandibulares eine signifikante Verminderung der Tc-99m-Pertechnetat-Aufnahme um 35,4{+-}22,0% bzw. 31,7{+-}21,1% als Zeichen einer Parenchymschaedigung auf. Bei drei dieser neuen Patienten fand sich eine Xerostomie Grad I (WHO). Im Gegensatz dazu konnte bei den mit Amifostin behandelten Patienten keine signifikante Verminderung der Parechymfunktion festgestellt werden (p=0,878). Dementsprechend wies keiner dieser Patienten eine Xerostomie auf. (orig.)

  11. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment is needed. Many types of growths and tumors can develop in the thyroid gland. Most of these are benign (non-cancerous) but ... are thyroid lymphoma, thyroid sarcoma or other rare tumors. Parathyroid cancer Behind, but attached to, the thyroid gland are 4 tiny glands called the parathyroids . The ...

  12. Synchronous malignancies of breast and thyroid gland: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Dwarka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship and coincidence of breast cancer with thyroid disorders is a subject of extensive debate and controversy. Many studies have shown that thyroid diseases are common among women with breast cancer. We present a case of concomitant malignancy of breast and thyroid with review of literature on the association of breast with thyroid neoplasm. The potential association and plausible mechanisms of breast carcinoma development after or before the thyroid carcinoma should be evaluated in larger cohorts of patients.

  13. The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt towards Iodium Levels (I2 in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Histological Thyroid Gland of The Goitrogenic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanif Mahdi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Goitrogenic a substance that can inhibit the taking of iodine by the thyroid gland, so that the concentration of iodine in the thyroid to be low., is characterized by the inflammation in the gland thyroid area caused an excessive of free radicals. An excessive of free radicals in the body cause oxidative stress, That increasing the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU. The treated to give KIO3 and KI salt was intended to determine the level of supplementation of iodine (I2, the level of MDA in serum and histological rat thyroid gland. MDA levels are determined through a TBA test (Thio Barbituric acid, meanwhile the histological of the rat thyroid gland was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results showed the KIO3 and KI salt was significantly (p<0.05 reduce levels of MDA in the serum of treatment with KIO3 salt (33.62% and KI salt (37,02% and improving histological of the thyroid gland rats.

  14. Clinical Research on Benign Lymphoepithelial Lesions of Lacrimal Gland in 20 Chinese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Min Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLEL is characterized by symmetric bilateral swelling of the lacrimal and salivary glands and considered a subtype of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4-related sclerosing disease, the etiology and pathogenesis of which has not been determined. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the clinical features of BLEL in the lacrimal gland and the relationship between the serum level of IgG4 and BLEL. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with BLEL diagnosed in Department of Ophthalmology at Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University between January 2012 and December 2013 were observed. The clinical features, imaging findings, laboratory tests, treatments and follow-up status of these 20 consecutive patients were analyzed. Results: In all 20 patients, the ratio of male to female was 1:4, the ages ranged from 28 to 57 years, the ratio of unilateral to bilateral eyes involvement was 1:4, and painless uncongested symmetrical swelling of the upper eyelid was the main clinical manifestation. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed that all patients involved lacrimal gland, which were obviously enlarged with equal signals in T1W images and T2W images and obvious enhancement on contrast MRI. Extraocular muscles were involved in 5 patients, salivary gland in 8 patients, and frontal nerve in 3 patients. Serum IgG4 concentration was elevated in 18 patients. The treatment strategy mainly included surgery and steroid administration. Three patients were lost to follow-up, 17 patients reached complete response, and no recurrence was observed. Conclusions: Eyelid swelling is the typical symptom of BLEL. Most of the patients involved bilateral lacrimal glands. High serum IgG4 level and abundant IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration are the important features, which can be found in most of BLEL patients. Surgery combined with glucocorticoids is an efficient treatment strategy.

  15. Multimodal ultrasonographic characterisation of parotid gland lesions-A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopf, Andreas, E-mail: a.knopf@lrz.tum.de [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Mansour, Naglaa; Chaker, Adam; Bas, Murat [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Stock, Konrad [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Abteilung fuer Nephrologie der II. Medizinischen Klinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: Lesions of the major salivary glands represent a heterogeneous group comprising infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The reliable pre-operative assessment of the lesional dignity might reduce patient's morbidity preventing re-surgery. To date, there exists no imaging technique which reliably distinguishes tumour entities. Methods: 35 parotid lesions were analysed in this study. B-mode ultrasound, colour duplex imaging and contrast enhanced ultrasound were applied for all patients. After fractionated boli of 4.8 ml SonoVue{sup Registered-Sign} perfusion kinetics, time to peak (TP) and mean transit time (MTT), were analysed for intraparotideal lesion and were normalised by circumjacent parotid tissue. Ultrasonographic data was structured in a multimodal diagnostic pathway. Results: B-mode ultrasound identifies six lymphoepithelial lesions due to Sjoegren's syndrome (p: 0.0001). CDS further differentiates hypovascularised pleomorphic adenoma from hypervascularised Warthin's tumours, monomorphic adenomas, and carcinomas (p < 0.0001). Application of CEUS detected Warthin's tumours being significantly hypervascularised compared to monomorphic adenomas (MTT, p < 0.05) and carcinomas (MTT, p < 0.02). Conclusions: A multimodal diagnostic pathway unifies different ultrasonographic techniques and identifies pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin's tumours and carcinomas with sensitivities of 100%. Further studies have to be performed to validate this diagnostic approach and to specify monomorphic adenomas.

  16. Monitoring intervals for measurement of the radionuclides 125 I and 129I in thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows the monitoring interval, which can be implemented in the Laboratorio de Contaminacion Interna del Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, for direct measurement in the thyroid gland of radionuclides 125I and 129I . Were used two measuring systems, one employing a scintillating detector and the other detector Phoswich. Both detectors were placed inside a depth camera, 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5m of dimension covered with 15 cm of steel, 3 mm lead, 1.8 mm tin and 1.5 mm of copper. Was calculated for each system, the minimum detectable activity, and based on this, the monitoring interval is determined. Was obtained, for 125, all tested intervals, 120, 90,60,30 , 14, and 7 days may be implemented with both systems. In the case of the radionuclide 129 I, with the installation of scintillating detector can only be implemented the intervals 120, 90, and 60 days , and for installation with Phoswich, all evaluated

  17. T-cell Lymphoma of Thyroid Gland with Lennert Type of Morphology: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prabhashankar; Banerjee, Devmalya; Gujral, Sumeet

    2016-09-01

    The rare entity of primary T-cell lymphoma of thyroid gland may pose great diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to the pathologist and clinician. There are very few case and short series reports of these tumors describing their varied clinicopathologic features in English literature. We report a case of mature T-cell lymphoma of thyroid in a 26 year old male, with unique pseudogranulomatous and lymphohistiocytic Lennert type of morphology, on a background of autoimmune thyroiditis. This man, diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis for the previous 2 years, underwent thyroidectomy for sudden onset of pressure symptoms. The diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma was made on the thyroid tissue based on histopathologic and immunophenotypic findings, in concert with the results of T-cell receptor gene rearrangement studies by polymerase chain reaction. Later, after about 3 months, similar findings were confirmed in an excision biopsy from a left cervical lymph node in the patient. The patient has been started on chemotherapy with gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin along with involved field radiotherapy; however, he has shown a rapid upstaging of disease from stage IE to IIIE in a short period of 3 months with relatively well preserved clinical parameters until the latest follow up.

  18. T-cell Lymphoma of Thyroid Gland with Lennert Type of Morphology: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prabhashankar; Banerjee, Devmalya; Gujral, Sumeet

    2016-09-01

    The rare entity of primary T-cell lymphoma of thyroid gland may pose great diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to the pathologist and clinician. There are very few case and short series reports of these tumors describing their varied clinicopathologic features in English literature. We report a case of mature T-cell lymphoma of thyroid in a 26 year old male, with unique pseudogranulomatous and lymphohistiocytic Lennert type of morphology, on a background of autoimmune thyroiditis. This man, diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis for the previous 2 years, underwent thyroidectomy for sudden onset of pressure symptoms. The diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma was made on the thyroid tissue based on histopathologic and immunophenotypic findings, in concert with the results of T-cell receptor gene rearrangement studies by polymerase chain reaction. Later, after about 3 months, similar findings were confirmed in an excision biopsy from a left cervical lymph node in the patient. The patient has been started on chemotherapy with gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin along with involved field radiotherapy; however, he has shown a rapid upstaging of disease from stage IE to IIIE in a short period of 3 months with relatively well preserved clinical parameters until the latest follow up. PMID:26984124

  19. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  20. Measurement of uptake rates of internal organs including thyroid gland and daily urinary excretion rates for adult Korean males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Whang, Joo Ho [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Geun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    In this study, uptake rates of internal organs and daily urinary excretion rates were measured to get more reliable estimation results for Korean. Radioactive iodine({sup 131}I) of 100{mu}Ci was administered by ingestion to 28 adult males for the experiment and then the radioactivity in thyroid gland, liver, stomach, small intestine, kidneys, and urine was measured after time intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours. Uptake rates of each organ and daily urinary excretion rates were calculated on the basis of these experimental results. As a result, uptake rates of 19.70% for thyroid and daily urinary excretion rates of 71.12%, on the average, were indicated. The maximum of uptake rates and daily urinary excretion rates were recorded after 2 hours of administration of {sup 131}I, but those rates were decreased gradually later. It was also found that uptake rates were the highest in stomach, followed by the left kidney, liver, small intestine and right kidney except for thyroid gland. In this experiment, the calculated uptake change rate in thyroid gland after 24 hours of administration of {sup 131}I was different from that of ICRP-54/67(30%) and ICRP-78(25%). Thus, it is necessary to apply more reliable approach, reflecting the characteristic of Korean physiology and to obtain the basic data of results using this approach for calculation of the internal adsorbed dose. In the future, this approach can be helpful for the internal dose assessment of radiation workers in a nuclear power plant or in a hospital.

  1. Radiation damage to thyroid gland may be the reason of increase in frequency of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and other hematological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of autoimmune thyroidities in the patients with diseases of blood system was investigated. Attribute of autoimmune thyroidities was revealed by the detection of antimicrosomal antibodies. It was established that the autoimmune thyroidities are more often in patients with various hematological diseases than in control group. It is supposed that the increase in frequency of some hematological diseases in residents suffered from the Chernobyl accident can be defined not only by the influence of the radiation on blood system, but also can be connected with damage to thyroid glands

  2. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma of a Diffuse Sclerosing Variant: Ultrasonographic Monitoring from a Normal Thyroid Gland to Mass Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Seong; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Sung, Chang Ohk; Oh, Young Lyun; Song, Sang Yong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and has a tendency for rapid growth and a higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastases. We experienced a case of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 48-year-old man. This case showed benign features on nitial ultrasonography and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. A new nodule was detected on follow-up ultrasonography that showed rapid enlargement. This case was confirmed by surgical excision. We herein describe the initial and follow-up ultrasonographic findings of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma

  3. Concurrent Endometrial Carcinosarcoma and Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma: PET CT Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Genc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report a patient who was diagnosed with a concurrent primary tumor by 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET imaging performed for staging of an endometrial cancer. FDG uptake was detected in the uterus, where the primary cancer was located, and in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. The biopsy sample from the hypermetabolic nodular lesion in thyroid gland revealed intermediate cytology according to Bethesda Classification. The patient underwent hysterectomy and thyroidectomy. An endometrial carcinoma in the uterus and a multicentric thyroid papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland were diagnosed.

  4. Thinking About Your Thyroid: Get to Know This Small But Mighty Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Thinking About Your Thyroid Get to Know This Small ... September 2015 search Features Better Nutrition Every Day Thinking About Your Thyroid Wise Choices Links Symptoms of ...

  5. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Sarah; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  6. Clinical Significance of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakiotaki, Eleftheria; Giaginis, Constantinos; Tolia, Maria; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Kyrgias, George; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is comprised of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and proteins responsible for their metabolism participate in many different functions indispensable to homeostatic regulation in several tissues, exerting also antitumorigenic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of CB1 and CB2 expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions. CB1 and CB2 proteins' expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 87 patients with benign (n = 43) and malignant (n = 44) lesions and was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological parameters, follicular cells' proliferative capacity, and risk of recurrence rate estimated according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA) staging system. Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was significantly more frequently observed in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0005, resp.). Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was also significantly more frequently observed in papillary carcinomas compared to hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0097 and p = 0.0110, resp.). In malignant thyroid lesions, elevated CB2 expression was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0301). Enhanced CB2 expression was also more frequently observed in malignant thyroid cases with presence of capsular (p = 0.1165), lymphatic (p = 0.1989), and vascular invasion (p = 0.0555), as well as in those with increased risk of recurrence rate (p = 0.1165), at a nonsignificant level though, whereas CB1 expression was not associated with any of the clinicopathological parameters examined. Our data suggest that CB receptors may be involved in malignant thyroid transformation and especially CB2 receptor could serve as useful biomarker and potential therapeutic target in thyroid neoplasia.

  7. Clinical Significance of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Lakiotaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system is comprised of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2, their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids, and proteins responsible for their metabolism participate in many different functions indispensable to homeostatic regulation in several tissues, exerting also antitumorigenic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of CB1 and CB2 expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions. CB1 and CB2 proteins’ expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 87 patients with benign (n=43 and malignant (n=44 lesions and was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological parameters, follicular cells’ proliferative capacity, and risk of recurrence rate estimated according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA staging system. Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was significantly more frequently observed in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p=0.0010 and p=0.0005, resp.. Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was also significantly more frequently observed in papillary carcinomas compared to hyperplastic nodules (p=0.0097 and p=0.0110, resp.. In malignant thyroid lesions, elevated CB2 expression was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastases (p=0.0301. Enhanced CB2 expression was also more frequently observed in malignant thyroid cases with presence of capsular (p=0.1165, lymphatic (p=0.1989, and vascular invasion (p=0.0555, as well as in those with increased risk of recurrence rate (p=0.1165, at a nonsignificant level though, whereas CB1 expression was not associated with any of the clinicopathological parameters examined. Our data suggest that CB receptors may be involved in malignant thyroid transformation and especially CB2 receptor could serve as useful biomarker and potential therapeutic target in thyroid neoplasia.

  8. Arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery in human fetal cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgüner, G; Sulak, O

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in fetal cadavers using anatomical dissection. The anterior necks of 200 fetuses were dissected. The origins of the superior thyroid artery (STA) and the ITA and location of the ITA in relation to the entrance of the thyroid lobe were examined. The relationship between the ITA and the RLN was determined. The origins of the STA were classified as: external carotid artery, common carotid artery (CCA), and the thyrolingual trunk. The origins of the ITA were the thyrocervical trunk and the CCA. The ITA was absent on the left side in two cases. The relationship of the RLN to the ITA fell into seven different types. Type 1: the RLN lay posterior to the artery; right (42.5%), left (65%). Type 2: the RLN lay anterior to the artery; right (40.5%), left (22.5%). Type 3: the RLN lay parallel to the artery; right (11.5%), left (7%). Type 4: the RLN lay between the two branches of the artery; right (1%), left (3.5%). Type 5: The extralaryngeal branch of the RLN was detected before it crossed the ITA; right (4.5%), left (0%). Type 6: the ITA lay between the two branches of the RLN; right (0%), left (0.5%). Type 7: the branches of the RLN lay among the branches of the ITA; right (0%), left (0.5%). The results from this study would be useful in future thyroid surgeries.

  9. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Iodine-Refractory Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  10. The Contributions of Gamma Probe to Lesion Detectability and Surgical Safety in Recurrent Thyroid Cancer at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Sinan Gültekin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In patients, who underwent thyroid surgery or treated with I-131 radioiodine previously for differentiated thyroid cancer, a second surgical intervention carries higher risks due to distortion of the natural anatomy and development of fibrotic/cicatricial tissue. In addition, accurate assessment of current status about extent of the disease is important in terms of success of the surgery. In this case report, we present the positive contribution of intraoperative gamma probe used for lesion detectability and for surgical safety in a patient operated for several times and administered high cumulative dose of radioiodine therapy for diffentiated thyroid carcinoma previously.

  11. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients

  12. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) - TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, which regulate the body's metabolism, energy balance, growth, and nervous system activity. Read about TSH-secreting tumors . Luteinizing hormone (LH) - LH stimulates testosterone production in ...

  13. Calcitonin-negative neuroendocrine tumor of thyroid gland mimicking anaplastic carcinoma: an unusual entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Berkesoglu, Mustafa; Dag, Ahmet; Sezer, Emel; Bal, Kemal Koray; Vayısoğlu, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer is the neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of thyroid with mostly both secreting calcitonin and immunohistochemically showing calcitonin positivity. Occasionally; NETs of thyroid may have little or no calcitonin expression. We present a case of serum calcitonin negative and immunohistochemically calcitonin-negative staining tumor with positive reaction to neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin and chromogranin-A. The patient’s right vocal cord was paralytic and thyroid mass was huge with descending to thorax till hilar region. We discussed diagnostic difficulties and way of treatment about NETs of thyroid with the light of current literature with this case. PMID:26312221

  14. Role for Tissue-Dependent Methylation Differences in the Expression of FOXE1 in Nontumoral Thyroid Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Khudir, Rasha; Magne, Fabien; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Deal, Cheri; Van Vliet, Guy; Deladoëy, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Background Discordance of monozygotic twins for thyroid dysgenesis suggests that epigenetic mechanisms may underlie defects in thyroid gland development. This prompted us to evaluate whether differentially methylated regions (DMRs) can be found between human thyroids (either eutopic or ectopic) and matched leukocytes. Methods To compare the genome-wide methylation profile of thyroids and leukocytes, immunoprecipitated methylated DNA was interrogated on human promoter plus CpG island tiling arrays. In addition, the methylation profile of the human FOXE1, PAX8, and NKX2.1 promoter was examined using bisulfite sequencing. Finally, the functional impact of CpG methylation of the promoter on FOXE1 expression was assessed with luciferase assays. Results Genome-wide methylation profiling and bisulfite sequencing of CpG islands of PAX8 and NKX2.1 promoters revealed no DMR between thyroid and leukocytes. However, bisulfite sequencing revealed that the methylation level of two consecutive CpG dinucleotides (CpG14 and CpG15, which were not covered by the genome-wide array) in one CpG island of the FOXE1 promoter (−1600 to −1140 from the transcription start site) is significantly higher in leukocytes than in eutopic or ectopic thyroid tissues, suggesting that methylation of this region may decrease FOXE1 gene expression. Indeed, luciferase activities were decreased when FOXE1 promoter constructs were methylated in vitro. Moreover, derepression of luciferase activity was observed when the methylation of CpG14 and CpG15 was prevented by mutations. Conclusion We report a tissue-dependent DMR in the FOXE1 promoter. This DMR contains two consecutive CpG dinucleotides, which are epigenetic modifiers of FOXE1 expression in nontumoral tissues. PMID:24646064

  15. Molecular classification of thyroid lesions by combined testing for miRNA gene expression and somatic gene alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Dennis; Beaudenon-Huibregtse, Sylvie; Haynes, Brian C; Giordano, Thomas J; Labourier, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Multiple molecular markers contribute to the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer and can provide valuable information to improve disease diagnosis and patient management. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of miRNA gene expression in diverse thyroid lesions (n = 534) and developed predictive models for the classification of thyroid nodules, alone or in combination with genotyping. Expression profiling by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in surgical specimens (n = 257) identified specific miRNAs differentially expressed in 17 histopathological categories. Eight supervised machine learning algorithms were trained to discriminate benign from malignant lesions and evaluated for accuracy and robustness. The selected models showed invariant area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) in cross-validation (0.89), optimal AUC (0.94) in an independent set of preoperative thyroid nodule aspirates (n = 235), and classified 92% of benign lesions as low risk/negative and 92% of malignant lesions as high risk/positive. Surgical and preoperative specimens were further tested for the presence of 17 validated oncogenic gene alterations in the BRAF, RAS, RET or PAX8 genes. The miRNA-based classifiers complemented and significantly improved the diagnostic performance of the 17-mutation panel (p management of patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules. PMID:27499919

  16. DC-CIK biotherapy for a recurrent benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the salivary gland: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Dejun; Zhao, Yueming

    2014-11-01

    A benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLEL) is an idiopathic inflammation of the parotid gland, characterized by hyperplasia, lymphocyte infiltration and the formation of epimyoepithelial islands, as well as atrophy of the gland parenchyma. Common treatment methods include immunosuppression and glucocorticoid therapies, in addition to surgical dissections. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells sensitized to specific antigens by dendritic cells (DCs) are used in DC-CIK biotherapy. The present study reports the case of a 22-year-old female suffering from a postoperative recurrent BLEL on the left parotid gland, which was gradually increasing. Following initial unsuccessful conservative treatment attempts, a 10-day course of DC-CIK therapy was initiated, after which the lesion in the gland area was reduced in size and local infection and skin ulcerations were improved. DC-CIK biotherapy was continued for three months (four sessions of 10-day treatments with a 10-day break in between) until the lesion disappeared and the skin ulceration was healed. Computerized tomography scans of the parotid gland revealed complete remission of the primary lesion and recovery of the bone destruction. The patient was discharged and remained stable with no sign of recurrence during a 10-month follow-up period. In the present case report, a successful DC-CIK adoptive cellular immunotherapy treatment for a BLEL was described for the first time.

  17. Normal values of thyroid gland in Isfahan, an iodine replete area

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    Atoosa Adibi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Because of different values of thyroid volume in different populations, and the effects of different trace element and geographic substances on thyroid volume, we decided to evaluate thyroid volume and its determinants using ultrasound in healthy adults of Isfahan, a centrally located city in Iran, an iodine replete area.
    • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 1500 healthy adults were enrolled by cluster sampling. Serum TSH level and morning urine iodine level were measured. Thyroid exam was performed according to WHO criteria and history of previous or present thyroid disease was taken. If all the mentioned results were normal they were considered clinically normal. One third of these normal subjects referred for thyroid ultrasonography. If ultrasonography of thyroid parenchyma texture was normal, and there was no nodule by sonography (thyroid incidentaloma, thyroid volume was measured using ellipsoid formula (X×Y×Z×8/6. Correlation between thyroid volume and age, sex, BMI, TSH level and urinary iodine concentration (UIC was determined by Pearson correlation coefficient, t-Test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Thyroid volume more than 97% of this population was considered as goiter sonographically. Data expressed as mean ± SD, unless otherwise stated.
    • RESULTS: We finally studied 200 subjects (123 Males, 77 females, average age: 37.27 ± 11.80 Years. The overall thyroid volume was 9.53 ± 3.68 ml. Males thyroid volume (10.73 ± 3.44 ml was significantly higher than the females one (7.71 ± 2.63 ml (P < 0.001. The thyroid volume ranges were 3-23.9 ml, 3.6-23.9 ml and 3-14.3 ml in all, males and females, respectively. Thyroid volume values more than 97 percentile of this reference range were 10.14 ml, 11.48 ml and 8.37 ml in all, males and females respectively, and were considered goiter sonographically. Thyroid volume had a positive correlation with age (r = 0.163, P

    • Pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland and the thyroglossal duct remnant: a study using human fetal sections.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Takanashi, Yoshitaka; Honkura, Yohei; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Katori, Yukio

      2015-01-01

      To investigate developmental changes in the thyroglossal duct, we observed serial sagittal sections of eight embryos (crown-rump length (CRL) 6-12 mm; approximately 5-6 weeks of gestation) as well as serial horizontal or cross-sections of 70 embryos and fetuses (CRL 15-110 mm; 6-15 weeks). In the sagittal sections, the thyroglossal duct was identified as a small sheet or mass of relatively large cells with vacuolization anterior, superior or inferior to the fourth pharyngeal arch artery. However, we found no continuous duct-like structure that reached the thyroid gland. Thus, previous classical schemes might have overestimated the continuity of the duct. Among cross-sections of 70 specimens, we found the thyroglossal duct remnant in only two specimens (CRL 15 mm and 100 mm), in contrast to the pyramidal lobe, which was seen in one-third of the specimens. The duct remnant ran downward along the lateral edge of the hyoid body to reach the anterior aspect of the thyroid cartilage. However, the connection between the pyramidal lobe and the duct remnant was interrupted by the anterior cervical muscles. Therefore, it was unlikely that the thyroglossal duct remnant would more frequently be evident in fetuses than in adults. The highly tortuous course of the duct along the lingual aspect of the hyoid body, which has been reported previously, appeared to become established near term. Descent of the thyroid gland was not evident after the CRL 20 mm stage (6 weeks): the gland appeared to retain its position at the level of the third-sixth cervical vertebrae.

    • Brain metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer in patients treated with radioiodine for bone and lung lesions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Brain metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) often is detected during treatment of other remote lesions. We examined the prevalence, risk factors and treatment outcome of this disease encountered during nuclear medicine practice. Of the 167 patients with metastasis to lung or bone treated 1-14 times with radioactive iodine (RAI), 9 (5.4%) also had lesions in the brain. Five were males and 4 females, aged 49-84, out of the original population of 49 males and 118 females aged 10-84 (mean 54.7) years. Three of them underwent removal of their brain tumors, 5 received conventional external beam irradiation, and 2 had stereotactic radiosurgery with supervoltage X-ray. None of the brain lesions showed significant uptake of RAI despite demonstrable accumulation in most extracerebral lesions. Seven patients died 4-23 (mean 9.4) months after the discovery of cerebral metastasis, brain damage being the primary or at least a contributing cause. The 8th and 9th patients remained relatively well for more than 42 and 3 months, respectively, without any evidence of intracranial recurrence. Our results confirmed that the brain is a major site of secondary metastasis from DTC. No statistically significant demographic risk factor was detected. Any suspicious neurological symptoms in the course of RAI treatment warrant cerebral computed tomography. As for therapy, from out initial experience, radiosurgery seemed promising as an effective and less invasive alternative to surgical removal. (author)

    • Clinical Research on Benign Lymphoepithelial Lesions of Lacrimal Gland in 20 Chinese Patients

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Jian-Min Ma; Jing Li; Xin Ge; Ming Li; Jin-Ru Li; Xiao-Na Wang

      2015-01-01

      Background:Benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLEL) is characterized by symmetric bilateral swelling of the lacrimal and salivary glands and considered a subtype of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing disease,the etiology and pathogenesis of which has not been determined.The purpose of the present study was to analyze the clinical features of BLEL in the lacrimal gland and the relationship between the serum level of IgG4 and BLEL.Methods:Twenty consecutive patients with BLEL diagnosed in Department of Ophthalmology at Beijing Tongren Hospital,Capital Medical University between January 2012 and December 2013 were observed.The clinical features,imaging findings,laboratory tests,treatments and follow-up status of these 20 consecutive patients were analyzed.Results:In all 20 patients,the ratio of male to female was 1:4,the ages ranged from 28 to 57 years,the ratio of unilateral to bilateral eyes involvement was 1:4,and painless uncongested symmetrical swelling of the upper eyelid was the main clinical manifestation.Orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that all patients involved lacrimal gland,which were obviously enlarged with equal signals in T1W images and T2W images and obvious enhancement on contrast MRI.Extraocular muscles were involved in 5 patients,salivary gland in 8 patients,and frontal nerve in 3 patients.Serum IgG4 concentration was elevated in 18 patients.The treatment strategy mainly included surgery and steroid administration.Three patients were lost to follow-up,17 patients reached complete response,and no recurrence was observed.Conclusions:Eyelid swelling is the typical symptom of BLEL.Most of the patients involved bilateral lacrimal glands.High serum IgG4 level and abundant IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration are the important features,which can be found in most of BLEL patients.Surgery combined with glucocorticoids is an efficient treatment strategy.

  1. [Suppression of replication of swine parvoviral antisense RNA against the NS PPV gene in swine thyroid gland cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskresenskaia, E P; Miroshnichenko, O I; Ponamareva, T I; Savich, O M; Tikhonenko, T I

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of suppression of porcine parvovirus (PPV) reproduction in the culture of thyroid gland cells of a swine that contain the integrated genes for asRNA against the nonstructural proteins of the virus has been studied. 10 cell lines with the asRNA genes have been obtained. The line with the maximal number of integrated gene copies was used to inflict with the parvovirus. The expression of asRNA in this cell line was shown to lead to 95% suppression of PPV replication as compared with the control cell line. PMID:8510680

  2. Clinical Studies of Nonpharmacological Methods to Minimize Salivary Gland Damage after Radioiodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastavrou, Evridiki; Frangos, Savvas; Tamana, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To systematically review clinical studies examining the effectiveness of nonpharmacological methods to prevent/minimize salivary gland damage due to radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods. Reports on relevant trials were identified by searching the PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane, and Scopus electronic databases covering the period 01/2000–10/2015. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were prespecified. Search yielded eight studies that were reviewed by four of the present authors. Results. Nonpharmacological methods used in trials may reduce salivary gland damage induced by radioiodine. Sialogogues such as lemon candy, vitamin E, lemon juice, and lemon slice reduced such damage significantly (p DTC. However, the studies retrieved were limited in number, sample size, strength of evidence, and generalizability. More randomized controlled trials of these methods with multicenter scope and larger sample sizes will provide more systematic and reliable results allowing more definitive conclusions. PMID:27446226

  3. When Evaluating a New Thyroid Mass and a Ring-Enhancing Brain Lesion (When Two Presentations Collide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Zachary; Sughrue, Michael; Battiste, James; Algan, Ozer

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the clinical and pathologic features of two common medical illnesses and their appropriate workup and pathognomonic findings. A 57-year-old white male presented with a new onset expressive aphasia while traveling abroad. He was evaluated at an outside facility and underwent workup for a stroke. The evaluation included a CT and MRI of the brain demonstrating three new enhancing lesions, the largest of which was a 2.5 cm ring-enhancing cystic lesion. A CT of the chest noted a 4-cm cystic thyroid lesion that was diagnosed as a thyroid cancer with brain metastases. The patient was told that he had cancer and needed therapy. The patient elected to be treated closer to home and presented to our institution with a referral for brain irradiation. The patient was evaluated and his case was reviewed in a neuro/oncology tumor board, where several other possible diagnoses were considered. A complete workup was performed, including two separate FNAs of the thyroid mass along with a PET scan, CEA test, CBC test, CMP, CRP, sed rate, and SLE testing, along with a spinal tap (cytology, protein, and serology). The MRI on further review showed that one of the lesions was a periventricular enhancing area and the largest lesion was an open ring with T2 and DWI enhancement. The fine needle aspiration (FNA) samples of the thyroid both showed benign histology. The laboratory evaluation was negative except for a mildly elevated CRP with no tumor markers identified and the spinal tap was positive for elevated protein and particularly oligoclonal bands. The PET scan showed no sites of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid masses including the thyroid. Multiple sclerosis (MS) represents 400,000 cases in the US and benign thyroid nodules noted on imaging range from 19-35% of the population. One pathognomonic finding of MS that is less common is the open rings called tumefactive lesions versus the closed rings seen with metastases. A cystic thyroid lesion can range from a

  4. Clinical Studies of Nonpharmacological Methods to Minimize Salivary Gland Damage after Radioiodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Christou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To systematically review clinical studies examining the effectiveness of nonpharmacological methods to prevent/minimize salivary gland damage due to radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC. Methods. Reports on relevant trials were identified by searching the PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane, and Scopus electronic databases covering the period 01/2000–10/2015. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were prespecified. Search yielded eight studies that were reviewed by four of the present authors. Results. Nonpharmacological methods used in trials may reduce salivary gland damage induced by radioiodine. Sialogogues such as lemon candy, vitamin E, lemon juice, and lemon slice reduced such damage significantly (p<0.0001, p<0.05, p<0.10, and p<0.05, resp.. Parotid gland massage also reduced the salivary damage significantly (p<0.001. Additionally, vitamin C had some limited effect (p=0.37, whereas no effect was present in the case of chewing gum (p=0.99. Conclusion. The review showed that, among nonpharmacological interventions, sialogogues and parotid gland massage had the greatest impact on reducing salivary damage induced by radioiodine therapy of DTC. However, the studies retrieved were limited in number, sample size, strength of evidence, and generalizability. More randomized controlled trials of these methods with multicenter scope and larger sample sizes will provide more systematic and reliable results allowing more definitive conclusions.

  5. Complement System in the Pathogenesis of Benign Lymphoepithelial Lesions of the Lacrimal Gland.

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    Jing Li

    Full Text Available We aimed to examine the potential involvement of local complement system gene expression in the pathogenesis of benign lymphoepithelial lesions (BLEL of the lacrimal gland.We collected data from 9 consecutive pathologically confirmed patients with BLEL of the lacrimal gland and 9 cases with orbital cavernous hemangioma as a control group, and adopted whole genome microarray to screen complement system-related differential genes, followed by RT-PCR verification and in-depth enrichment analysis (Gene Ontology analysis of the gene sets.The expression of 14 complement system-related genes in the pathologic tissue, including C2, C3, ITGB2, CR2, C1QB, CR1, ITGAX, CFP, C1QA, C4B|C4A, FANCA, C1QC, C3AR1 and CFHR4, were significantly upregulated while 7 other complement system-related genes, C5, CFI, CFHR1|CFH, CFH, CD55, CR1L and CFD were significantly downregulated in the lacrimal glands of BLEL patients. The microarray results were consistent with RT-PCR analysis results. Immunohistochemistry analysis of C3c and C1q complement component proteins in the resected tissue were positive in BLEL patients, while the control group had negative expression of these proteins. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that activation of the genes of complement system-mediated signaling pathways were the most enriched differential gene group in BLEL patients.Local expression of complement components is prominently abnormal in BLEL, and may well play a role in its pathogenesis.

  6. Right thyroid hemiagenesis with adenoma and hyperplasia of parathyroid glands -case report

    OpenAIRE

    Oruci Merima; Ito Yasuhiro; Buta Marko; Radisavljevic Ziv; Pupic Gordana; Djurisic Igor; Dzodic Radan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare anomaly, more commonly seen on the left side (ratio 4:1) and in females (ratio 3:1). The first to describe this anomaly was Handfield Jones in 1852. Case presentation We present a 66 year old female patient with right thyroid hemiagenesis, parathyroid adenoma on the side of hemiagenesis and parathyroid hyperplasia on the contralateral side. The patient had neck pain and was diagnosed as Hashimto thyroiditis with hyperparathyroidism. Parathyro...

  7. Ex-vivo Imaging of Thyroid Gland Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography at Wavelength from 800 to 1700 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Shutaro; Nishizawa, Norihiko

    2012-03-01

    Wavelength dependence of ex-vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) imaging of thyroid gland using supercontinuum at wavelength from 800 to 1700 nm was demonstrated. The wavelength dependence of the thickness of follicular epithelium and fine structures such as round or oval follicles were observed from the UHR-OCT cross sectional images. The reconstructed en-face OCT images at all wavelength regions were obtained and the images of follicles with several different signal intensities were observed in 1060 and 1700 nm UHR-OCT images. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of wavelength dependence of OCT images of thyroid gland structure.

  8. Correlation of fine needle aspiration cytology with histopathology findings in cases of thyroid lesions in Bir Hospital

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    PB Thapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To correlate the findings of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC with the histopathology( HPE of the excised nodule or specimen and to assess the accuracy and efficacy of FNAC in the diagnosis of the thyroid nodules. Materials and methods: This is a prospective study conducted at the Department of Ear Nose Throat (ENT & Head & NecK Surgery( HNS, National Academy of Medical Sciences, Bir Hospital, Kathmandu from 2nd January 2009 to 29th December 2011. One hundred patients with thyroid nodule were included in the study. Results: Out of 100 patients 77 were females and 23 males. The age ranged from 11-60 years. Statistical analysis of results for Benign Thyroid lesion showed 98.6% sensitivity, 75 % specificity. Likewise, results for Malignant thyroid lesions showed 75 % sensitivity, 98.6 % specificity . Conclusion: FNAC has high accuracy in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid lesions. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-1, 23-29 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i1.9670

  9. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule

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    Basu S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule, who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopathy, normal thyroid functions, and a cold nodule on 99mTcO4- thyroid scan can often lead to a misdiagnosis as primary thyroid neoplasm. The present case underscores the fact that due importance to the subtle signs and symptoms and a high degree of suspicion, whenever the histology is unusual for a thyroid primary, is needed and the workup should include ruling out other primary malignancies.

  11. Subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain) presenting as a painless cold nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, P.C.; Boer, R.O.

    1987-09-01

    A 49-yr-old woman presented with a solid, painless, nontender nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed a solitary cold area in the left lobe and a slightly decreased 24-hr radioactive iodine thyroid uptake (9%). Although there were no specific clinical or biochemical signs suggesting thyroiditis needle aspiration cytology showed the presence of a subacute thyroiditis. Approximately 1 mo later the entire thyroid gland was affected leading to a completely suppressed thyroid radioiodine uptake and elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations. This case illustrates that in the early phase of the disease, subacute thyroiditis may present as a solitary, painless, cold nodule and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of such lesions.

  12. Iodine kinetics and dosimetry in the salivary glands during repeated courses of radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.; Huang, R.; Kuang, A.; Zhao, Z.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, J.; Tian, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The present study was conducted to investigate salivary iodine kinetics and dosimetry during repeated courses of radioiodine ({sup 131}I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Such data could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of {sup 131}I induced salivary toxicity and help to develop appropriate methods to reduce this injury. Methods: Seventy-eight consecutive DTC patients (mean age 45 {+-} 17 years, 60%, female) undergoing {sup 131}I therapy for remnant ablation or metastatic tumors were prospectively recruited. Planar quantitative scintigraphy of head-neck images was serially acquired after administration of 2.9-7.4 GBq of {sup 131}I to assess kinetics in the salivary glands of patients. Salivary absorbed doses were calculated based on the schema of Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry. Results: The maximum uptakes in percentage of administered {sup 131}I activity per kilogram of gland tissue (%/kg) were 12.9% {+-} 6.5%/kg (range, 0.4%-37.3%/kg) and 12.3% {+-} 6.2%/kg (range, 0.4%-35.1%/kg) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Statistically significant correlations of maximum uptake versus cumulative activity (r = -0.74, P < 0.01, for the parotid glands; r = -0.71, P < 0.01, for the submandibular glands) and treatment cycle (P < 0.001, for both gland types) were found. The effective half-lives of {sup 131}I in the parotid and submandibular glands were 9.3 {+-} 3.5 h (range, 1.5-19.8 h) and 8.6 {+-} 3.2 h (range, 0.8-18.0 h), respectively. A statistically significant correlation was observed between effective half-life with cumulative activity (r = 0.37, P < 0.01) and treatment cycle (P = 0.03) only for the parotid glands. The calculated absorbed doses were 0.20 {+-} 0.10 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-0.92 mGy/MBq) and 0.25 {+-} 0.09 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-1.52 mGy/MBq) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. The photon contribution to the salivary absorbed dose was minimal in relation to the beta dose

  13. The clinicopothologic study of benign and malignant lesions of salivary glands in patients attending Shiraz dental school in 15 years

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    Soheil Pardis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are malignant and benign intra-oral pathologic lesions of salivary gland. Reevaluation of paitants’ age, sex and location of lesions can help to have better diagnosis and accurate comparison with other studies in other countries.Materials and Method: In a retrospective study, cases of benign and malignant salivary gland during 1369 to 1385 retrieved from the files and histopathologic records of cases diagnosed at Shiraz School of Dentistry.Results: From 110 cases, 70 cases had mucocele, 15 had sialadenitis, 7 of pleomorphic adenoma, 3 mucoepidermoid carcinoma and the remaining 3 cases had adenoid cystic carcinoma. The mean age for patients with mucoceles was 20. 8 and the most common site were mucosa of the lower lips. The mean age for patients with sialadenitis was 34. The most common sites were mucosa of the lips and submandibular gland. The mean age of pleomorphic adenoma was 32 and the most common site was hard palate. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was detected in 3 males at the ages of 44 to 54. Adenoidcystic carcinoma was seen in 3 patients at the ages of 18 to 32.Conclusion: Mucocele was the most common lesion (71% and pleomorphic adenoma constituted 70% of all salivary gland diseases and 53% of all neoplasms. Mucocele was the most common lesion in lower lip, in the second and third decades with equal gender distribution. Pleomorphic adenoma occurs more in third and fourth decades and the most common site was hard palate

  14. Analysis of thyroid hormones in gland and serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (THs), which are critical for growth and development in all vertebrates, can be impacted through chemical perturbation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis. Amphibian and mammalian models are being used to address this research priority within US EPA...

  15. NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms

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    Renê Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry. INTRODUCTION: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 encodes a protein whose expression is induced by various stimuli, including cell differentiation, exposure to heavy metals, hypoxia, and DNA damage. Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined. METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant, follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody. RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P < 0.001. A combined analysis showed higher immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 in malignant lesions (classical pattern and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas, follicular carcinomas, and metastases of thyroid carcinomas compared to benign thyroid lesions (goiter and follicular adenomas (P = 0.043. In thyroid carcinomas, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression was significantly correlated with a more advanced TNM stage (P = 0.007 and age, metastasis, tumor extent, and size (AMES high-risk group (P = 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid carcinomas showed increased immunohistochemical N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression compared to normal and benign thyroid lesions and is

  16. VALIDITY OF CORE NEEDLE BIOPSY IN THE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL VERIFICATION OF PAROTID GLAND LESIONS

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    Aleksandar Oroz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: An adequate diagnosis of a parotid gland enlargement is crucial for an appropriate treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate effectiveness and minimal invasiveness of diagnostic procedures of core-needle biopsy. Materials and Methods: This study involved 67 patients, aged 40 to 90 years, with a tumor mass in the submandibular and parotid region. Method used for taking samples of pathological masses was BD Disposable guillotine spring-loaded needle for biopsies on soft tissues. Final diagnoses were established on the basis of surgical-pathological results in 67 cases, and on the basis of histopathological analysis of core-biopsy samples. Results: Compared with results of surgical biopsy, core-needle biopsy had sensitivity of 100% in differentiating benign from malignant lesions and in setting up an adequate diagnosis. Its positive predictive values were 100% in diagnosing malignancy. There were found 28 non-malignant and 39 malignant lesions with fewer disadvantages for patients.

  17. Comparison between ultrasonography and computed tomography for detecting the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland: A prospective multicenter study

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    Kim, Dong Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So Lyoung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Na [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, busan (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jin Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Thyroid Center, Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To compare the detection rates of the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland (TPL) using ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) in a prospective multi-center study. We enrolled 582 patients who underwent neck CT at six institutions. Each radiologist prospectively evaluated the presence and features of TPLs on thyroid US. Radiologists were divided into two groups according to their previous experience in detecting TPL on US or CT. The same radiologist also retrospectively assessed CT findings, blinded to the corresponding US findings. The pyramidal lobe of the thyroid glands were detected in 230 cases (39.5%) on US and in 276 cases (47.6%) on CT. The TPL detection rate at the six institutions ranged from 22.0% to 59% for US and from 34.1% to 59% using CT. There were significant differences between US and CT in the detection rate, length, anteroposterior diameter, volume, and superior extent of TPL (p < or = 0.027). The TPL detection rates on both US and CT (p < 0.001) differed significantly according to the experience level of the radiologists. When the CT result was used as a reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, as well as the accuracy of US for TPL detection were 72.6%, 91.5%, 89.3%, 77.3%, and 82.1%, respectively. Our prospective multicenter study revealed that US could detect TPL with relatively high diagnostic accuracy compared to CT. Because the detection rate of TPL varied significantly according to the radiologists' level of experience, careful inspection is necessary to avoid imaging pitfalls and ensure appropriate evaluation of TPL on both US and CT.

  18. Comparison between ultrasonography and computed tomography for detecting the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland: A prospective multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the detection rates of the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland (TPL) using ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) in a prospective multi-center study. We enrolled 582 patients who underwent neck CT at six institutions. Each radiologist prospectively evaluated the presence and features of TPLs on thyroid US. Radiologists were divided into two groups according to their previous experience in detecting TPL on US or CT. The same radiologist also retrospectively assessed CT findings, blinded to the corresponding US findings. The pyramidal lobe of the thyroid glands were detected in 230 cases (39.5%) on US and in 276 cases (47.6%) on CT. The TPL detection rate at the six institutions ranged from 22.0% to 59% for US and from 34.1% to 59% using CT. There were significant differences between US and CT in the detection rate, length, anteroposterior diameter, volume, and superior extent of TPL (p < or = 0.027). The TPL detection rates on both US and CT (p < 0.001) differed significantly according to the experience level of the radiologists. When the CT result was used as a reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, as well as the accuracy of US for TPL detection were 72.6%, 91.5%, 89.3%, 77.3%, and 82.1%, respectively. Our prospective multicenter study revealed that US could detect TPL with relatively high diagnostic accuracy compared to CT. Because the detection rate of TPL varied significantly according to the radiologists' level of experience, careful inspection is necessary to avoid imaging pitfalls and ensure appropriate evaluation of TPL on both US and CT.

  19. Killing effect of different doses of preoperative iodine 131 therapy on thyroid cancer cells and its effect on salivary gland function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Zheng; Tao Pu; Yi Luo; Xing-An Zhang; Zu-Mao Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the killing effect of different doses of preoperative iodine 131 therapy on thyroid cancer cells and its effect on salivary gland function.Methods:Patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer in our hospital from May 2013 to June 2014 were enrolled for study, given preoperative iodine 131 therapy and randomly divided into control group, low dose group, middle dose group and high dose group. Then cell apoptotic rate, cell cycle, cancer promoting gene and cancer suppressor gene expression in thyroid carcinoma tissue as well as salivary gland function were detected.Results: (1) cancer cell killing effect: compared with control group, cell apoptotic rates and number of cells in G0/G1 phase of low dose group, middle dose group and high dose group increased, number of cells in S and G2/M phase decreased, BRAF, Livin, MCM7 and CDK2 expression decreased, CCNG2 and PTEN expression increased; cell killing effect of middle dose group and high dose group were better than that of low dose group, and cell killing effect of middle dose group and high dose group had no differences; (2) salivary gland function: compared with control group, UI and SR in bilateral parotid and bilateral submandibular glands of low dose group, middle dose group and high dose group decreased; salivary gland damage effect of low dose group and middle dose group were weaker than that of high dose group, and salivary gland damage effect of low dose group and middle dose group had no differences.Conclusion:Middle dose of iodine 131 can take the killing effect on cancer cells and the protective effect on salivary glands into account; it’s an ideal dosage for preoperative iodine 131 internal radiation therapy of thyroid cancer patients.

  20. Hes1 is required for appropriate morphogenesis and differentiation during mouse thyroid gland development.

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    Aurore Carre

    Full Text Available Notch signalling plays an important role in endocrine development, through its target gene Hes1. Hes1, a bHLH transcriptional repressor, influences progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Recently, Hes1 was shown to be expressed in the thyroid and regulate expression of the sodium iodide symporter (Nis. To investigate the role of Hes1 for thyroid development, we studied thyroid morphology and function in mice lacking Hes1. During normal mouse thyroid development, Hes1 was detected from E9.5 onwards in the median anlage, and at E11.5 in the ultimobranchial bodies. Hes1(-/- mouse embryos had a significantly lower number of Nkx2-1-positive progenitor cells (p<0.05 at E9.5 and at E11.5. Moreover, Hes1(-/- mouse embryos showed a significantly smaller total thyroid surface area (-40 to -60% compared to wild type mice at all study time points (E9.5-E16.5. In both Hes1(-/- and wild type mouse embryos, most Nkx2-1-positive thyroid cells expressed the cell cycle inhibitor p57 at E9.5 in correlation with low proliferation index. In Hes1(-/- mouse embryos, fusion of the median anlage with the ultimobranchial bodies was delayed by 3 days (E16.5 vs. E13.5 in wild type mice. After fusion of thyroid anlages, hypoplastic Hes1(-/- thyroids revealed a significantly decreased labelling area for T4 (-78% and calcitonin (-65% normalized to Nkx2-1 positive cells. Decreased T4-synthesis might be due to reduced Nis labelling area (-69%. These findings suggest a dual role of Hes1 during thyroid development: first, control of the number of both thyrocyte and C-cell progenitors, via a p57-independent mechanism; second, adequate differentiation and endocrine function of thyrocytes and C-cells.

  1. Comparison of diagnostic value of conventional ultrasonography and shear wave elastography in the prediction of thyroid lesions malignancy.

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    Ewelina Szczepanek-Parulska

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Thyroid nodular disease (TND is a very common disorder. However, since the rate of malignancy is reported to be 3-10%, only a minority of patients require aggressive surgical treatment. As a result, there is a need for diagnostic tools which would allow for a reliable differentiation between benign and malignant nodules. Although a number of conventional ultrasonographic (US features are proved to be markers of malignancy, Shear Wave Elastography (SWE is considered to be an improvement of conventional US. The aim of this study was to compare conventional US markers and SWE diagnostic values in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients referred for thyroidectomy, irrespective of the indications, underwent a US thyroid examination prospectively. Patients with TND were included into the study. Results of the US and SWE examinations were compared with post-surgical histopathology. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty two patients with 393 thyroid nodules were included into the study. Twenty two patients were diagnosed with cancer. SWE turned out to be a predictor of malignancy superior to any other conventional US markers (OR=54.5 using qualitative scales and 40.8 using quantitative data on maximal stiffness with a threshold of 50 kPa. CONCLUSIONS: Although most conventional US markers of malignancy prove to be significant, none of them are characterized by both high sensitivity and specificity. SWE seems to be an important step forward, allowing for a more reliable distinction of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Our study, assessing SWE properties on the highest number of thyroid lesions at the time of publication, confirms the high diagnostic value of this technique. It also indicates that a quantitative evaluation of thyroid lesions is not superior to simpler qualitative methods.

  2. 甲状腺结节内钙化与甲状腺癌关系的研究%RELATIONSHIP OF CALCIFICATION IN TUBERCLE OF THYROID GLAND AND THYROID CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康鸿斌; 张瑞明

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To clarify the correlations of calcification in tubercle of thyroid gland and thyroid cancer by ultrasonic sounding. Methods:2700 patients with thyroid gland operation among the recent three years were collected. We compared the results of ultrasonic diagnose on the tubercle of thyroid gland and that with pathology check postoperative. Results:The incidence of calcification and micro - calcification in the tubercle of thyroid gland for patients with thyroid cancer was significantly higher than that of patients with benign thyroid gland diseases (P <0. 05). Microcalciffcation had evidently statistical significance( P <0.01). There are significant difference between the proportion of malignant tubercle accompanying with calcification in single classes and multiple classes ( P < 0. 05). Conclusion : Microcalcification detected by ultralsonic sounding is a specific marker for diagnose of thyroid carcinoma , especially for papillary thyroid carcinoma.%目的:探讨超声探测到的甲状腺结节内钙化与甲状腺癌关系.方法:收集我院3a间行甲状腺手术病人2700例,对比甲状腺结节术前超声与术后病理检查诊断.结果:甲状腺癌病人甲状腺结节内钙化、微小钙化的发生率明显高于良性甲状腺疾病的发生率,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).微小钙化对于甲状腺癌更有统计学意义(P<0.01).伴钙化的恶性结节在单发与多发组间比较有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论:超声探查到微小钙化对诊断甲状腺癌特异性高,特别是乳头状甲状腺癌.

  3. The issue of nursing care of patients after thyroid gland operation

    OpenAIRE

    MARŠÁLKOVÁ, Pavla

    2009-01-01

    The developed countries, our Republic not excluded, have a relatively high incidence of thyroid diseases (5 % to 30 % of population). Females develop the diseases five times oftener than males, mostly in their middle or higher age. The thyroid diseases are curable, but they require that proper diagnostics is applied, effective treatment administered by a professional team, and the patients behave responsibly. A nurse at a Surgery Department has to stand ready to cater instantaneously to the n...

  4. Tenosynovial giant cell tumor presenting as a parotid gland mass: Expanding the differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions in salivary glands

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    Ling Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TGCT are rare benign soft tissue tumors affecting mostly young adults. The most common affected sites include the knee, ankle, elbow, shoulder, and fingers. The temporomandibular joint is occasionally affected. Herein, we report a case of a 31-year-old Caucasian male who presented clinically with a parotid gland mass. The initial clinical and radiological work-up failed to reveal any involvement of the adjacent temporomandibular joint. Fine-needle aspiration revealed a cellular tumor composed of mononuclear and multinucleated giant cells with fibrosis and hemosiderin deposition. This was subsequently found to be a TGCT arising from the temporomandibular joint. Giant cell-rich lesions are uncommon in salivary glands. Herein, we describe the cytomorphology and clinico-radiographic features of this tumor with emphasis on the differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions presenting in salivary glands. Despite its rare occurrence, this entity should be considered when giant cells are prominent in specimens acquired from this location.

  5. Effects of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and/or Lactation on the Morphology of Thyroid Gland in Male Wistar Rat Offspring

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    J. E. Onu*, B. O. Oke1, P. C. Ozegbe1 and J. O. Oyewale2

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was conducted to document the effect of alcohol on the morphology of thyroid gland of male rat offspring whose dams consumed alcohol during pregnancy and/or lactation. Seventy-five female rats divided into three groups, 1, 2, and 3, of 25 each and their offspring were used. Group 1 served as control (C, group 2 was exposed to alcohol during pregnancy and lactation (APL while group 3 was exposed to alcohol during lactation only (AL. At day 35 and 49 postpartum 5 male rat offspring were randomly selected from the three groups and sacrificed. After the sacrifice, the thyroids were dissected out and their absolute and relative weights determined. Thereafter, the thyroid tissues were prepared for routine histological examination. The results of the investigation showed significant reduction (P<0.05 in the weights of the thyroid and thyroid follicles. There was also disorganization and desquamation of follicular cells. Our findings suggest that alcohol intake during pregnancy and/or lactation could be injurious to the thyroid glands of the offspring.

  6. IMMUNOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL PREDICTORS OF CLINICAL HETEROGENEITY OF PATIENTS WITH GRAVES' DISEASE (BASED ON RESEARCH OF THE THYROID GLAND OPERATIONAL MATERIAL

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    T. V. Saprina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little research is devoted to the study of communication systemic immunological changes and local immunological changes in the tissue of the thyroid in autoimmune thyrophaties. The goal of the research was to establish immunologic and morphologic predictors of clinical course and functional outcomes of Graves’s disease (GD.Material and methods. We examined 45 patients with GD (14 men and 31 women aged 18–55 years (47.0 (35.0–53.0 years, matching the following criteria: a verified diagnosis GD, accommodation in Tomsk oblast and the Tomsk not less than 10 years, the patient's consent for the study. The control group included 30 people, with an average age of (45.3 ± 5.6 years and was comparable by age and sex with GD patients. The study included: definition of the standard for GD hormonal and serological profile (free T4, free T3, and TSH, antibodies to TPO, antibodies to the TSH receptor, the cultivation of mononuclear leukocytes in complete culture medium within 24 hours with subsequent determination of interleukins concentrations (IL-2, IL-4, TNF-alpha in culture medium using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, determination of the number of blood cells carrying membrane-bound receptors to IL-2, IL-4, TNF-R1 by flow laser cytometry on cytometer BD FACS Canto tmΙΙ (USA using labeled monoclonal antibody, the standard postoperative histological examination of thyroid gland tissue samples and immunohistochemical detection in samples of thyroid tissue receptors to IL-2, IL-4, TNF-alpha.Results. On the basis of the received results it is possible to allocate 2 clinical-immunologic and morphologic cluster of autoimmune hyperthyroidism syndrome in patients with clinical diagnosis of GD. The first includes the formation of 1 and 2 histological options GD (minimally expressed monocytes infiltration, lack of oncocytic transformation of thyroid epithelium, with some clinical characteristics (persistent and pronounced hyperthyroidism, the large

  7. Thyroid Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one of the glands that make up the endocrine system. The glands of the endocrine system produce and store hormones and release them into ... one of the glands that make up the endocrine system. Thyroid hormones affect metabolism, brain development, breathing, heart ...

  8. Fine needle aspiration of secondary synovial sarcoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murro, Diana; Slade, Jamie Macagba; Syed, Sahr; Gattuso, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Synovial sarcomas (SS) of the head and neck region are extremely rare and arise in only 5% of cases. We present a case of secondary SS of the thyroid originally diagnosed as medullary carcinoma on fine needle aspiration (FNA). A 41-year-old man presented with several weeks of dysphonia and a left thyroid mass. FNA of the thyroid nodule showed a cellular smear composed of loosely cohesive oval to spindle-shaped cells with irregular nuclear borders, finely granular chromatin, and inconspicuous nucleoli. The patient was diagnosed with medullary carcinoma and underwent a total thyroidectomy. Intro-operatively, the mass was found to arise from the tracheoesophageal groove with spread to the left thyroid. Microscopic examination of the thyroid tumor revealed a dense spindle cell proliferation with abundant mitoses, scant cords and nests of epithelial cells and foci of necrosis. The spindle cells were positive for bcl2 and vimentin and the epithelial cells were positive for cytokeratin 8/18 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Both spindle and epithelial cells were negative for thyroglobulin, calcitonin, synaptophysin and chromogranin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated translocation (X;18)(p11;q11), confirming the diagnosis of SS. The patient underwent a total laryngopharyngoesophagectomy with subsequent adjuvant therapy and is currently disease free. Only 6 cases of histologically confirmed primary SS of the thyroid have been reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of FISH-confirmed secondary SS of the thyroid and also the first case of SS arising from the tracheoesophageal groove.

  9. Usefulness of fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions: an institutional experience of 340 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Pandey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the results of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in the diagnosis, its correlation with histology, to highlight its limitations and diagnostic pitfalls as well as the impact of FNAC on the decreased rate of surgery in clinically suspect thyroid lesions.Study design: FNAC was performed on 340 patients with thyroid enlargement over a period of six years. The cytological results were correlated with clinical features, thyroid function tests and histopathological examination.Results: Among non- neoplastic group, the most frequently encountered lesion was colloid goiter in 231 (67.94% cases followed by thyroiditis in 68 (20% cases, five (1.47% adenomatous goiter and four (1.17% thyroglossal cysts. Among the neoplasticgroup, twelve (3.52% cases were reported as follicular neoplasm, seven (2.05% cases as Hürthle cell neoplasm and four (1.17% as malignant tumors. The cytological and histological concordance was determined. A false positive cytologic diagnosis of neoplasms was made in five cases. Presence of Hürthle cell metaplasia, hyperplastic nodules and papillary hyperplasia were responsible for the false positive diagnoses. For the entire series, the false negative rate was 8.57% and the false positive rate was 7.14%. FNA revealed a sensitivity of 62.5%, a specificity of 90.74%, a positive predictive value of 66.66% and a negative predictive value of 89.09%.Conclusion: FNAC is thus an accurate, cost- effective, minimally invasive and reliable diagnostic tool for assessment of patients with thyroid lesions and their management.

  10. Effects of dietary supplementation of selenium and iodine on growth performance, carcass characteristics and histology of thyroid gland in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghwan, Zeiad Amjad; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Kadhim, Khalid Kamil; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Goh, Yong Meng; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of dietary selenium (Se), iodine (I) and a combination of both on growth performance, thyroid gland activity, carcass characteristics and the concentration of iodine and selenium in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle in goats. Twenty-four bucks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: control (CON), basal diet without supplementation, basal diet + 0.6 mg Se/kg dry matter (DM) (SS), 0.6 mg I/kg DM (IP), or combination of 0.6 mg/kg DM Se and 0.6 mg/kg DM I (SSIP) and fed for 100 days. Animals fed diet SSIP exhibited higher (P goats fed the supplemented diets was higher (P goats. Thyroid follicular epithelial cells of IP and SSIP animals were significantly higher than those of CON and SS groups. The study demonstrated that the combined Se and I dietary supplementation improves growth performance, carcass dressing percentage and increases the retention of Se and I in goat meat. PMID:26560071

  11. Burkitt lymphoma presenting as a mass in the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study of 7 cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Andrés E; Liu, Huifei; Miranda, Roberto N; Golardi, Natalia; Billah, Shahreen; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Jaso, Jesse Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Burkitt lymphoma presenting in the thyroid gland is rare, and only a few cases have been reported. We retrospectively reviewed 7 patients diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma of the thyroid gland between 2000 and 2015. There were 4 men and 3 women with a median age of 41 years (range, 19-49 years). All patients presented with a rapidly growing neck mass associated with upper airway compression in 5 (71%) patients. Two patients presented with localized (stage I/II) and 5 patients with disseminated (stage III/IV) disease. All cases showed morphologic and immunophenotypic features of Burkitt lymphoma with MYC rearrangement in all 5 cases tested. One case showed evidence of concurrent Hashimoto thyroiditis. Six of 7 patients were treated primarily with rituximab, hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone. One patient was treated primarily with dose-adjusted rituximab, etoposide, prednisolone, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide. At the end of the study period, 5 patients were alive: 4 in complete remission and 1 with persistent disease. Two patients died with persistent disease (median follow-up, 25 months; range, 12-361 months). We conclude that Burkitt lymphoma of the thyroid gland shows clinicopathologic features similar to sporadic Burkitt lymphoma at other anatomic sites, but patients present at an older median age. The clinical course is aggressive with a high frequency of disseminated disease at diagnosis; however, a subset of patients responds well to aggressive chemotherapy.

  12. THE BETHESDA SYSTEM FOR REPORTING THYROID CYTOLOGY - UNIFORM TERMINOLOGY TO AID IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THYROID LESIONS: STUDY IN KMCH

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    Mahathi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fine needle aspiration has been widely accepted as diagnostic procedure of choice in assessment of non-toxic thyroid nodule. Despite thyroid cytology being widely used as a first-line investigation to guide clinical management, until recently there was no standardized terminology for FNAC reporting. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytology (TBSRTC has attempted to standardize reporting in aspiration smears. AIMS The objective of the present study was to report thyroid cytology smears by TBSRTC into various categories, analyse their cytological features using TBSRTC monograph, conveying brief management plan to clinicians and correlated with histopathology specimens whenever they are available. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 138 patients who presented with thyroid swelling were subjected to thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC and the smears were made followed by H and E staining. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytology was followed on aspiration smears using criteria published in the atlas and related literature. The clinicians were communicated implied risk of malignancy and recommended clinical management along with report. Histopathology specimens whenever received were processed as per standard methods. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated using histopathology diagnosis as gold standard results: Distribution of 138 cases as per Bethesda system of reporting was done. Benign category was the largest (75.4% followed by ND/UNS category (8.7%, malignant and SFM constitutes 2.9% and 4.3% total 7.2%, AUS/FLUS constitutes 5.8%, while FN/SFN constitutes 2.9%. If FN/SFN is included in malignant group the sensitivity increases, but the specificity decreases. There is marked decrease in positive predictive value. CONCLUSION Our findings were consistent with others, who used the Bethesda cytopathology reporting system. Applying a standard terminology

  13. Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis. Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 μIU/ml, median: 7.37 μIU/ml, range: 0.074-211 μIU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum standardized uptake value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules

  14. Thyroid gland rupture after blunt neck trauma: A case report and review of the literature

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    Sebastian Arana-Garza

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the rarity of this condition, physicians should take in mind the possibility of thyroid injury after blunt neck trauma. Early detection and prompt treatment, can reduce life threatening complications. Management should be individualized to patient’s characteristics and surgeon’s experience.

  15. Changes in gastric sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) activity are associated with differences in thyroid gland sensitivity to perchlorate during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James A; Murali, Sharanya; Hu, Fang; Goleman, Wanda L; Carr, Deborah L; Smith, Ernest E; Wages, Mike

    2015-08-01

    We investigated stage-dependent changes in sensitivity of the thyroid gland to perchlorate during development of African clawed frog tadpoles (Xenopus laevis) in relation to non-thyroidal iodide transporting tissues. Perchlorate-induced increases in thyroid follicle cell size and colloid depletion were blunted when exposures began at Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage 55 compared to when exposures began at NF stages 49 or 1-10. To determine if the development of other iodide transporting tissues may contribute to this difference we first examined which tissues expressed transcripts for the sodium dependent iodide symporter (NIS). RT-PCR analysis revealed that NIS was expressed in stomach and small intestine in addition to the thyroid gland of X. laevis tadpoles. NIS mRNA was not detected in lung, kidney, skin, gill, muscle, heart or liver. Perchlorate sensitive (125)I uptake was found in stomach, lung, kidney, gill, and small intestine but not muscle, liver, or heart. Perchlorate-sensitive (125)I uptake by stomach was 6-10 times greater than in any other non-thyroidal tissue in tadpoles. While NF stage 49 tadpoles exhibited perchlorate-sensitive uptake in stomach it was roughly 4-fold less than that observed in NF stage 55 tadpoles. Although abundance of NIS gene transcripts was greater in stomachs from NF stage 55 compared to NF stage 49 tadpoles this difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that gastric iodide uptake increases between NF stages 49 and 55, possibly due to post-translational changes in NIS glycosylation or trafficking within gastric mucosal cells. These developmental changes in gastric NIS gene expression may affect iodide availability to the thyroid gland.

  16. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid in Treating Patients With Metastatic and/or Locally Advanced or Locally Recurrent Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-23

    Insular Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage II Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage II Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  17. Study on Thyroid Gland Lobectomy in the Treatment of Thyroid Nodules wereA nalyez d%甲状腺腺叶切除术治疗甲状腺结节的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟立新; 高桂明

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨关于甲状腺腺叶切除术治疗甲状腺结节的临床分析。方法:收集该院从2011年3月~2013年4月有甲状腺结节的患者120例,随机将其分为2组,分别是观察组即甲状腺腺叶切除术组60例,对照组即甲状腺次全切除术组60例。对照观察2组的临床疗效。结果:2组的基本资料相差不大,无统计学意义,观察组的手术时间和术中出血量要少于对照组,而且在并发症发生情况和恢复效果上,观察组明显优于对照组,有统计学意义。结论:通过2组的治疗对比,综合之下甲状腺腺叶切除术治疗甲状腺结节的疗效要优于甲状腺次全切除术。%Objectiev :To study on thyroid gland lobectomy in the treatment of thyroid nodules were analyzed .Methods:To collect the hospital from March 2011 to April 2011, 120 cases of patients with thyroid nodules , it can be divided into two groups at random , respectively is to observe the thyroid gland lobectomy group 60 cases, control group total resection of thyroid times group of 60 cases.Contrast observation the clinical curative effect of two groups .Results:Two groups of the basic data were similar , without statistical significance , the observation group of operative time and intraoperative blood loss less than the control group , and on complications and recovery effect , the observation group was better than control group , with statistical significance .Conclusiont:hrough the treatment of two groups of contrast , under the com-prehensive thyroid gland lobectomy in the treatment of thyroid nodule curative effect is superior to times total resection of the thyroid gland .

  18. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland: is the immunohistochemical expression of cyclin D1 or galectin-3 in primary tumour an indicator of metastatic disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise;

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Papillary microcarcinomas (PMC) of the thyroid gland are defined according to The WHO Committee as papillary carcinomas measuring 10 mm or less in diameter. A large proportion of these tumours are found coincidentally in the treatment of symptomatic goitre and most cases follow...... at the time of diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From the 1(st) of January 1996 to 31(st) of December 2002 a total of 169 PMC patients were diagnosed and registered in the national Danish thyroid cancer database DATHYRCA and 131 of these were eligible for the study. Forty-three (33%) had histologically...

  19. Unusual diagnosis of a solitary thyroid nodule in the paediatric population: cervical thymic cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadacharan, Dhalapathy; Sathya, Anjali; Ravikumar, Divya; Nallapa, Deepakala

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of an 8-year-old girl with a painless swelling in her neck. An ultrasonogram revealed a cystic nodule with internal echoes, lying posterior to right lobe of thyroid, and MRI confirmed it. Thyroid scintigraphy did not show any uptake in the swelling. Intraoperatively, the lesion was densely adherent to the thyroid gland, hence a hemithyroidectomy was performed. Histopathology showed it to be an ectopic cervical thymic cyst with parathyroid tissue. PMID:26420701

  20. Preoperative localization and minimally invasive management of primary hyperparathyroidism concomitant with thyroid disease*

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yi-xiong; Xu, Shao-ming; Wang, Ping; Li CHEN

    2007-01-01

    The coexistence of thyroid diseases with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) can present a challenge in the clinical diagnosis and management for these patients. This study aims to determine the frequency of coexisting thyroid gland lesions in a consecutive series patients with PHPT, and to analyze the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of these patients. Twenty-two cases of a total of 52 PHPT patients who had synchronous thyroid and parathyroid pathology were surgically managed in thi...

  1. Incidental Thyroid Abnormalities on Carotid Color Doppler Ultrasound: Frequency and Clinical Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Pezeshki Rad; Seyed Rasoul Zakavi; Parvin Layegh; Alireza Khooei; Aria Bahadori

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are often incidentally detected during physical examination, Doppler ultrasound of carotid artery, and other imaging modalities and there are many controversies about the management of these incidentalomas. We focused on incidental thyroid lesions during carotid ultrasound and evaluated their importance and suspected malignant features. Patients and methods: The thyroid gland was evaluated for any nodule(s) following carotid Doppler ultrasound in 290 patients. If there was ...

  2. Immunocytochemical localization and identification of prosomatostatin gene products in medullary carcinoma of human thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopsi, L; Ferrari, C; Pilotti, S; Holst, J J; Rehfeld, J F; Fossati, G; Rilke, F

    1990-08-01

    Thirty-three cases of histologically proven calcitonin-positive medullary thyroid carcinoma were studied immunocytochemically for the occurrence of prosomatostatin-related peptides. Positive cells, identified with a panel of antisera raised against four different regions of the prosomatostatin molecule, were found in 100% of the tumors. Most but not all somatostatin-positive cells were also immunoreactive for calcitonin. Notably, seven patients harboring somatostatin-rich tumors revealed a more favorable clinical course. The results (1) indicate that somatostatin production is a universal concomitant of thyroid medullary carcinoma, (2) suggest that these cells are likely to produce a somatostatin precursor molecule similar to mammalian prosomatostatin, and (3) imply that somatostatin-reactive cells may have as yet unknown roles in these tumors, possibly in the realm of paracrine and autocrine regulation of cell growth.

  3. SLC26A4 Variations Among Graves’ Hyper-Functioning Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Hassen Hadj-Kacem; Rihab Kallel; Salima Belguith-Maalej; Mouna Mnif; Ilhem Charfeddine; Abdelmounem Ghorbel; Mohamed Abid; Hammadi Ayadi; Saber Masmoudi

    2010-01-01

    Deleterious mutations of SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (PS), an autosomal recessive disorder comprising goitre and deafness with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA), and nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL). However, the SLC26A4 hyperactivity was recently associated with the emergence of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) and asthma among human and mouse model. Here, by direct sequencing, we investigate the sequences of the 20 coding exons (2 to 21) of SLC26A4 and their flanking intron-exon junc...

  4. Multiple primary cancers of the colon, rectum, and the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubaidi Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The major concern in the case of cancer, whether one or in worse case more than one, is the extent of treatment required and the prognosis. This article reports three cases with two cancers: colorectal cancer and thyroid cancer, in the same patient at the same time. It also discusses the related clinical presentation and management of the cancers, and a review of literature has been presented.

  5. VEGF-C Is a Thyroid Marker of Malignancy Superior to VEGF-A in the Differential Diagnostics of Thyroid Lesions.

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    Kosma Woliński

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodular goiter is one of the most common medical conditions affecting even over a half of adult population. The risk of malignancy is rather small but noticeable-estimated by numerous studies to be about 3-10%. The definite differentiation between benign and malignant ones is a vital issue in endocrine practice. The aim of the current study was to assess the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A and VEGF-C on the mRNA level in FNAB washouts in case of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and to evaluate the diagnostic value of these markers of malignancy.Patients undergoing fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB in our department between January 2013 and May 2014 were included. In case of all patients who gave the written consent, after ultrasonography (US and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB performed as routine medical procedure the needle was flushed with RNA Later solution, the washouts were frozen in -80 Celsius degrees. Expression of VEGF-A and VEGF-C and GADPH (reference gene was assessed in washouts on the mRNA level using the real-time PCR technique. Probes of patients who underwent subsequent thyroidectomy and were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC; proved by post-surgical histopathology were analyzed. Similar number of patients with benign cytology were randomly selected to be a control group.Thirty one DTCs and 28 benign thyroid lesions were analyzed. Expression of VEGF-A was insignificantly higher in patients with DTCs (p = 0.13. Expression of VEGF-C was significantly higher in patients with DTC. The relative expression of VEGF-C (in comparison with GAPDH was 0.0049 for DTCs and 0.00070 for benign lesions, medians - 0.0036 and 0.000024 respectively (p<0.0001.Measurement of expression VEGF-C on the mRNA level in washouts from FNAB is more useful than more commonly investigated VEGF-A. Measurement of VEGF-C in FNAB washouts do not allow for fully reliable differentiation of benign and

  6. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children: Normal Variation or Sign of a Failing Thyroid Gland?

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    Kaplowitz PaulB

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a mildly elevated TSH (typically 5–10 mU/L, is common in children, but there is currently no consensus on management. Several recent pediatric studies indicate that progression of SCH to overt hypothyroidism (OH is uncommon and that over a period of several years, elevated TSH usually either normalizes or persists but does not increase. The etiology appears to be multifactorial, with some cases representing minor developmental abnormalities, some related to obesity, some to mild autoimmune thyroiditis, and some associated with mutations in the gene for the TSH-receptor. There are no pediatric studies showing clinical benefit of treating these children with thyroid hormone, but additional studies in this area are needed. Since few cases of pediatric SCH progress to OH, treatment can be deferred, and periodic follow-up testing may be the preferred strategy, with elevated thyroid antibodies or a goiter being considered risk factors for eventual OH.

  7. Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid Gland: Surgical Anatomy in Patients Undergoing Total Thyroidectomy

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    Emin Gurleyik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anatomic variations, the presence of the pyramidal lobe (PL, may impact completeness of thyroidectomy and effect of surgical treatment. Method. This study included 166 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy. The anterior cervical region between the thyroid isthmus and the hyoid bone was dissected during thyroid surgery. The incidence, size, and anatomical features of the PL were established in these patients. Results. The incidence of PL was 65.7%. No gender difference was found for PL incidence. The base of the PL was located at the isthmus in 52.3%, the left lobe in 29.4%, and the right lobe in 18.3% of patients. The mean length of the PL was 22.7 (range, 5–59 mm. The PL was longer than 30 mm in 23% of patients. One-third of the patients with short PL were men whereas women accounted for 80% of patients with long PL. Conclusions. The high incidence indicates that the PL is a common part of the thyroid. The PL generally originates from the isthmus near midline and is of variable length, extending from the isthmus up to the hyoid bone. Considering that the PL is a common structure, the prelaryngeal region should be dissected to achieve the completeness of thyroidectomy.

  8. Stromal tissue as an adjunct tool in the diagnosis of follicular thyroid lesions by fine-needle aspiration biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Kien T.; Hogan, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The stroma in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of thyroid lesions has not been well investigated. Design: We studied 256 consecutive cases of thyroid FNAB prepared with traditional smear technique. The stroma was categorized: Type 1a consisted of long (more than 3 mm), broad bands composed of mesh containing collagen fibrils thickened by entrapped blood components and follicular cells. Type 1b consisted of dense strands/bands. Type 2 was similar to Type 1a but with shorter (papillary architectures or fragments of capsule. Type 1b stroma likely represented thick/collagenized fibrous septae. Incomplete or complete rings of small encapsulated tumor were occasionally identified. These frameworks of stroma were frequently associated with multinodular goiters (MNGs) which are often hypocellular and follicular neoplasms/papillary thyroid carcinoma with increased cellularity. Type 2 was associated with microfollicles in encapsulated neoplasms or with macrofollicles in MNG. Follicular lesions of unknown significance (n = 41) either negative (n = 26) or positive (n = 15) for carcinoma in subsequent follow-up were frequently associated with stroma characteristic of MNG and carcinoma, respectively. Conclusion: The preservation of the in vivo architecture of Type 1 is likely due to its elasticity. Recognition of the stromal architecture will likely facilitate the diagnosis. PMID:27651822

  9. The Role of Computer-aided Detection and Diagnosis System in the Differential Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions in Ultrasonography

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    Tien-Chun Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To avoid abuse of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and to save the time of a learning curve, a computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD system to detect suspicious lesions for FNAC from thyroid ultrasonography has been developed by the Department of Industrial Engineering, cooperative with the Department of Surgery at the National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. The purposes of this article are to introduce how to utilize the CAD system in thyroid ultrasonography, and to outline the real role of the CAD system. After marking the apparently transverse (extending across axis and longitudinal axis of the nodule appearing by ultrasonography, four parameters are calculated and displayed by the computer system automatically, which include microcalcifications, hypoechoic lesion, heterogeneity, and indistinct margin. The results are displayed by the pointers in the semilunar figures. The necessity of FNAC is dependent on the size and numbers of positive findings (pointers displayed in the right side. This CAD system is objective and easy to use. It may supply an easy method to determine the necessity for FNAC, but what we must keep in mind is that this method can reduce the necessity of FNAC, not replace FNAC for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

  10. Primary thyroid angiosarcoma: an unusual localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronella Pasquale

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The finding of thyroid nodules is a very common occurrence in routine clinical practice. Approximately 5% to 7% of the entire population have thyroid nodules. Vascular lesions are one of the most controversial issues in thyroid pathology. These include benign lesions such as hemangiomas and, rarely, malignant tumors such as angiosarcomas or undifferentiated angiosarcomatoid carcinomas. In particular, angiosarcoma of the thyroid gland is a rare, highly aggressive malignant vascular tumor and in Italy the greatest geographical incidence of this lesion is witnessed near the Alps. Here, a case of thyroid angiosarcoma in a 71-year-old man with a history of goiter for about 20 years is described. The unusual localization of this lesion, the difficulties in reaching a definitive diagnosis for this particular histological type of primary tumor and a history of long-standing multinodular goiter in thyroid of an older man from outside the Alpine region prompted us to report this case of thyroid angiosarcoma mainly to discuss surgical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features.

  11. [Thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research. PMID:22514922

  12. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ceccanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol. RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  13. Combined effect of the environmental factors as ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland and the immune condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danyarova, L. [Department of Endocrynology, Research Institute of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2012-07-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons. It is located on the steppe in northeast Kazakhstan. The tragic situation of the Semipalatinsk region is an acute and chronic radiation, repeated in big and small doses and a total absence of territorial decontamination, created unique conditions for study of the long term influence of the radiation doses on the health of the population. The Semipalatinsk region of the Republic of Kazakhstan belongs also to an area of moderate and pronounced iodine deficiency. The purpose of the research is to study the prevalence of a thyroid gland pathology and the condition of a cytokine immune link that is likely to be influenced by a combine effect of ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency. 1100 people passed through the investigation and it appears that 56, 75% of them had a thyroid pathology. Thyroid gland functional condition analysis (TSH, FT3, FT4 a-TG, a-TPO) has shown the prevalence of a subclinical hypothyroidism (33%). 28, 8% resulted in the presence of antibodies to thyroglobulin and the thyroid peroxides, whereas in the areas located further to the nuclear range, the percentage was only 13, 0%

  14. Entrance surface dose measurement on the thyroid gland in orthopantomography: The need for optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The anatomic position and proven radiosensitivity of the thyroid make it an organ of concern in dental x-ray examinations. A National Radiation Protection Department sponsored pilot study carried out in the Dental Radiology Department of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, to assess if the radiation dose in panoramic radiographies could be reduced without significant impairment of the subjective image quality. Materials and methods: Thermoluminescent dosimetry is widely acknowledged to be the recommended method for measuring entrance surface doses. In this study, entrance surface doses was measured using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) on the thyroid of 40 patients who had referred to the School of Dentistry, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. Patients were no exposed to any additional radiation and the radiographs were used for diagnostic purposes. Thermoluminescent dosimetry were calibrated with radiation energies similar to those commonly used in orthopantomography. Results: The overall mean entrance surface doses on the thyroid in orthopantomography was 0.071±0.012 mGy (ranged from 0.01 to 0.40 mGy). The mean entrance surface doses for radiographies performed with 66 k Vp (20 patients) and 68 k Vp (20 patients) were 0.072± 0.016 respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between these means. Conclusions: The measured surface doses in our study are inconsistent with the only one already reported about the same experiment. However, due to lack of national diagnostic reference levels for orthopantomography, it is not clear whether in case of the Pm 2002 Cc unit used in this experiment, reducing the radiation dose to a level that still keeps a diagnostically acceptable image quality is necessary

  15. INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM CONTENT AND OIL SOURCES IN FEED ON CONCENTRATION OF THYROID GLAND HORMONES AND ELECTROLYTE IN BROILER BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to elaborate the influence of designed mixtures used in broilers fattening on the concentration of electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in the blood.. The research was carried out on 120 male Ross 308 hybrid broilers. The fattening lasted for 42 days. During the first three weeks of fattening broilers were fed standard starter diet containing 22% crude protein and 13.90 MJ/kg ME. During the last three weeks of fattening, broilers were divided into 6 experimental groups, each fed specially prepared finisher diets (P1=6% sunflower oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P2=6% linseed oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P3=6% sunflower oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P4=6% linseed oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P5=6% sunflower oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed, P6=6% linseed oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Finisher diet was balanced at 18.02% crude protein and 14.40 MJ/kg ME. It was found out that the type of oil in chicken feed influenced to blood pH (P <0.001, whereas selenium level (P=0.014 in the feed, as well as the oil type and selenium level interaction (P<0.001 influenced the concentration of potassium in the blood. Oil type (P=0.037 influenced the concentration of fT3, which was lower in chickens fed mixtures with addition of linseed oil than in the chickens fed sunflower oil added mixtures. Interaction of selenium content and oil type had influence on differences in concentration of fT4 as well as on the ratio of fT3/fT4, (P<0.001, i.e. P=0.021. The research results indicated that oils supplemented to broiler diets and combined with different organic selenium concentrations affected pH, concentration of some electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in broiler blood, however, all obtained values were within reference range for poultry.

  16. Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland with Nodular Fasciitis-like Stroma

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Ki Yong; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Sung, Ji-Youn; Park, Won Seo; Kim, Youn Wha

    2013-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma with nodular fasciitis-like stroma (PTC-NFS) is a rare variant of PTC. The term 'PTC with fibromatosis-like stroma' has been used as a synonym to describe this variant. It is characterized by extensive proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in the tumor stroma, which occurs in up to 80% of the tumors. We herein describe a case of PTC-NFS which developed in a 49-year-old woman with the demonstration of findings of ultrasonography, fine needle aspiration cyt...

  17. Thyroid Imaging in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldis, Marina; Waldman, Lindsey; Marginean, Otilia; Rosenberg, Henrietta Kotlus; Rapaport, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. It is important to know the cause of each patient's thyroid dysfunction to foresee the course of therapy and outcomes. Imaging methods, such as ultrasound and thyroid scan, help determine the anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. Although thyroid scan is considered superior in detecting ectopic thyroid tissue, ultrasound is able to detect the presence of thyroid tissue not otherwise visualized in 15% of patients. PMID:27241963

  18. Effects of phytate on thyroid gland of rats intoxicated with cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tarek Mostafa; Salama, Afrah F; El Nimr, Tarek M; El Gamal, Doaa M

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most dangerous occupational and environmental toxins. The objective of the present study is to examine the potential prophylactic effects of phytic acid (PA) on thyroid hormones of male rats intoxicated with Cd. The male albino rats were divided into five groups: group I (control) was fed with the basal diet, group II was intoxicated with Cd in drinking water, groups III, IV, and V were intoxicated with Cd in drinking water and fed with the diet containing 3.5, 7, and 10 g of PA/kg, respectively. The results indicated that the serum calcium, iron (Fe), and total Fe binding capacity levels and serum T3 and T4 in Cd-treated rats of group II were decreased when compared with the control group, while PA-administered groups with Cd showed a significant improvement when compared with the Cd-treated rats only. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly increased in Cd-treated rats compared with the control group, while the addition of PA in diet decreased the high levels of TSH. These results indicated a prophylactic effect of PA against Cd-induced toxicity in rats.

  19. Effects of phytate on thyroid gland of rats intoxicated with cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tarek Mostafa; Salama, Afrah F; El Nimr, Tarek M; El Gamal, Doaa M

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most dangerous occupational and environmental toxins. The objective of the present study is to examine the potential prophylactic effects of phytic acid (PA) on thyroid hormones of male rats intoxicated with Cd. The male albino rats were divided into five groups: group I (control) was fed with the basal diet, group II was intoxicated with Cd in drinking water, groups III, IV, and V were intoxicated with Cd in drinking water and fed with the diet containing 3.5, 7, and 10 g of PA/kg, respectively. The results indicated that the serum calcium, iron (Fe), and total Fe binding capacity levels and serum T3 and T4 in Cd-treated rats of group II were decreased when compared with the control group, while PA-administered groups with Cd showed a significant improvement when compared with the Cd-treated rats only. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly increased in Cd-treated rats compared with the control group, while the addition of PA in diet decreased the high levels of TSH. These results indicated a prophylactic effect of PA against Cd-induced toxicity in rats. PMID:23796758

  20. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or MRI of the neck may show a tumor growing from the thyroid gland. A thyroid biopsy makes the diagnosis. An examination ... the thyroid Images ... Saunders; 2016:chap 226. Lai SY, Mandel SJ, Weber RS. Management of thyroid neoplasms. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et ...

  1. A novel panel of antibodies that segregates immunocytochemically poorly differentiated carcinoma from undifferentiated carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, S; Collini, P; Del Bo, R; Cattoretti, G; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1994-10-01

    The expression of bcl-2 and p53 was investigated by immunocytochemistry in combination with that of conventional structural and differentiation antigens on the archival material of 22 cases of undifferentiated carcinoma (UC) and 19 of poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC) of the thyroid gland. The restriction of bcl-2 expression to PDC in comparison to UC was 84.2% versus 13.6% of cases, respectively, in contrast to an almost equal percentage of p53 expression in the two histologic types, that is, 52.6% and 54.5% of cases of PDC and UC, respectively. However, the pattern of distribution of p53-immunoreactive cells was definitely different, being restricted to areas showing active infiltrating growth in PDC and involving almost all tumor cells in UC. Furthermore, in the subset of cases of UC showing the residual presence of a differentiated component, a distinctive mutual exclusion of bcl-2 and p53 immunoreactivity was observed in the two components. The results suggest that the evaluation of bcl-2 expression may be usefully applied to the differentiation of PDC from UC, whereas all morphologic findings related to p53 expression are in keeping with a significant role of the deregulation of this gene in the mechanism of dedifferentiation and progression of the disease.

  2. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007558.htm Retrosternal thyroid surgery To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of ...

  3. Thyroid preparation overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  4. Child thyroid anatomy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and ... a major role in regulating the body's metabolism. Thyroid disorders are more common in older children and ...

  5. Long Noncoding RNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in the Thyroid Gland of Two Phenotypically Extreme Pig Breeds Using Ribo-Zero RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yifei; Mao, Haiguang; Huang, Minjie; Chen, Lixing; Chen, Jiucheng; Cai, Zhaowei; Wang, Ying; Xu, Ningying

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ modulating development, growth, and metabolism, mainly by controlling the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones (THs). However, little is known about the pig thyroid transcriptome. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate gene expression and play critical roles in many cellular processes. Yorkshire pigs have a higher growth rate but lower fat deposition than that of Jinhua pigs, and thus, these species are ideal models for studying growth and lipid metabolism. This study revealed higher levels of THs in the serum of Yorkshire pigs than in the serum of Jinhua pigs. By using Ribo-zero RNA sequencing-which can capture both polyA and non-polyA transcripts-the thyroid transcriptome of both breeds were analyzed and 22,435 known mRNAs were found to be expressed in the pig thyroid. In addition, 1189 novel mRNAs and 1018 candidate lncRNA transcripts were detected. Multiple TH-synthesis-related genes were identified among the 455 differentially-expressed known mRNAs, 37 novel mRNAs, and 52 lncRNA transcripts. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that differentially-expressed genes were enriched in the microtubule-based process, which contributes to THs secretion. Moreover, integrating analysis predicted 13 potential lncRNA-mRNA gene pairs. These data expanded the repertoire of porcine lncRNAs and mRNAs and contribute to understanding the possible molecular mechanisms involved in animal growth and lipid metabolism.

  6. Development of an iodine captor for the study of the performance of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detection-measurement system (DETEC - PC) to be used in those studies of iodine reception in thyroid. It consists of three elements: the detector with its collimator, a blind module of measurement and the application software. The measurement module, communicates through an interface RS-232 series with the Personal Computer where the application software resides (DETEC). The software was designed chord with the principles from the Guided Programming to Objects and it was programmed in C++. The software besides the measurement of the patients, carries out the statistical processing of the lot of samples to use, fixed automatically the spectrometric parameters for the measurement, it possesses a database where it is stored the information of the studied patients and a help with the options of the system. (Author)

  7. Insular carcinoma: a distinct de novo entity among follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, S; Collini, P; Mariani, L; Placucci, M; Bongarzone, I; Vigneri, P; Cipriani, S; Falcetta, F; Miceli, R; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1997-12-01

    We reclassified 720 nonmedullary invasive thyroid carcinomas diagnosed and treated between 1975 and 1993. Twenty-seven cases met the criteria of insular carcinoma and 29 cases those of widely invasive follicular carcinoma. Comparison of these histotypes with respect to pathologic stage and overall, relative, and visceral metastasis-free survival showed a significant association between histotype and pT and pN categories. In particular, pT4 (p AAA transversion at codon 61 of the N-RAS gene in insular carcinoma. These findings suggest that insular carcinoma represents a de novo entity distinct from widely invasive follicular carcinoma, that widely invasive follicular carcinoma has biologic characteristics more consistent with poorly differentiated than well-differentiated carcinomas, and that both insular carcinoma and widely invasive follicular carcinoma share similar molecular alterations.

  8. SLC26A4 Variations Among Graves’ Hyper-Functioning Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Hadj-Kacem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious mutations of SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (PS, an autosomal recessive disorder comprising goitre and deafness with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA, and nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL. However, the SLC26A4 hyperactivity was recently associated with the emergence of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD and asthma among human and mouse model. Here, by direct sequencing, we investigate the sequences of the 20 coding exons (2 to 21 of SLC26A4 and their flanking intron-exon junctions among patients affected with Graves' disease (GD hyperthyroidism. Ten mono-allelic variants were identified, seven of which are intronic and previously unreported. Two, c.898A>C (p.I300L and c.1061T>C (p.F354S, of the three exonic variants are non synonymous. The p.F354S variant is already described to be involved in PS or NSHL inheritances. The exploration by PCR-RFLP of p.I300L and p.F354S variants among 132 GD patients, 105 Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT, 206 Healthy subjects and 102 families with NSHL have shown the presence of both variants. The p.F354S variation was identified both among patients (1~HT and 3 GD and healthy subjects (n=5. Whereas, the p.I300L variant was identified only in GD patients (n=3. Our studies provide evidence of the importance of systematic analysis of SLC26A4 gene sequences on models other than deafness. This approach allows the identification of new variants and the review of the pathogenic effects of certain mono-allelic variants reported responsible for PS and NSHL development.

  9. A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Reliability of Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System in Differentiation between Benign and Malignant Thyroid Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Naren Satya Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate diagnostic reliability of the daily use of thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS classification proposed by Kwak et al., in differentiating between a benign and a malignant thyroid lesion, to calculate inter-observer variability in the interpretation of each of the TIRADS ultrasound features and to evaluate role of TIRADS system in reducing unnecessary biopsies of benign lesions. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixty-five patients with clinically suspected thyroid lesions during the period from November 1, 2011, to August 31, 2015, were prospectively scanned on gray-scale and Doppler imaging by six radiologists separately. We used GE VOLUSON 730 PRO machine (GE healthcare, Milwaukee, USA equipped with a 7.5-12 MHz high-frequency linear array transducer with color and power Doppler capability. We evaluated five sonological features: Internal composition, echogenicity, margins, presence and type of calcification, and shape of the lesion. Based on the TIRADS proposed by Kwak et al., we determined categories of the thyroid lesions. The diagnostic performance of TIRADS classification system was evaluated by comparison with the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC reports which were subsequently obtained after taking informed consent from the patients. All follicular neoplasms on FNAC were further followed up with excision biopsy and histology. The cytopathological report was used as the standard final diagnosis for comparison. The P value and odds ratio were determined to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of a particular ultrasound feature was associated with benignity or malignancy in the study population. The risk of malignancy was stratified for each TIRADS category-based on the total number of benign and malignant lesions in that category. Cervical lymph nodes were also evaluated for their size, loss of the central, echogenic hilum, presence of irregular and indistinct margin

  10. Appearance of Hürthle cell carcinoma soon after surgical extirpation of Hürthle cell adenoma and follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hürthle cell neoplasms could be benign (Hürthle cell adenoma) or malignant (Hürthle cell carcinoma). Hürthle cell carcinoma is a rare tumour, representing 5% of all differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The cytological evaluation of Hürthle cell neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is complicated because of the presence of Hürthle cells in both Hürthle cell adenoma and Hürthle cell carcinoma. Thus, the preoperative distinction between these two entities is very difficult and possible only with pathohistological findings of the removed tumour. A 57-year old female patient was admitted at our Department, for investigation of nodular thyroid gland. She was euthyroid and FNAB of the nodules in both thyroid lobes were consistent of Hürthle cell adenoma with cellular atypias. After thyroidectomy the histopathology revealed Hürthle cell adenoma with high cellular content and discrete cellular atypias in the left lobe and follicular thyroid adenoma without cellular atypias in the right lobe. One year after substitution therapy, a palpable tumour on the left side of the remnant tissue was found, significantly growing with time, presented as hot nodule on 99mTc-sestamibi scan and conclusive with Hürthle cell adenoma with marked cellularity on FNAB. Tumorectomy was performed and well-differentiated Hürthle cell carcinoma detected. The patient received ablative dose of 100 mCi 131I. No signs of metastatic disease are present up to date. The differences between Hürthle cell adenomas and Hürthle cell carcinomas could be clearly made only by histopathological evaluation. Patients with cytological diagnosis of Hürthle cell neoplasms should proceed to total thyroidectomy, especially if tumour size is > 1cm, FNAB findings comprise cellular atypias and/or multiple bilateral nodules are detected in the thyroid gland

  11. Multiscale imaging of human thyroid pathologies using integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-02-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast. Thirty four thyroid gland specimens were imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology, ranging from normal thyroid to neoplasia and benign disease. The integrated OCT and OCM imaging system allows seamlessly switching between low and high magnifications, in a way similar to traditional microscopy. Good correspondence was observed between optical images and histological sections. The results provide a basis for interpretation of future OCT and OCM images of the thyroid tissues and suggest the possibility of future in vivo evaluation of thyroid pathology.

  12. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland volume among 8-15-year-old children in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moradi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The thyroid size in Isfahanian schoolchildren is lower than the reference values reported by WHO. These data could be used in determining local reference in the screening of children for thyroid enlargement.

  13. Clinical Analysis of Thyroid Gland Lobectomy in Treatment of Thyroid Nodules%甲状腺腺叶切除术治疗甲状腺结节的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春梅

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析甲状腺腺叶切除术治疗甲状腺结节的效果.方法 选取2014年5月~2015年5月我院收治的甲状腺结节患者64例,依照治疗方式不同将其分两组,各32例.对照组采用甲状腺次全切除术,实验组实施甲状腺腺叶切除术.观察评定疗效并进行组间对比.结果 实验组手术操作时间短,出血量少,并发症少,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义.结论 甲状腺结节患者经甲状腺腺叶切除术治疗,效果可靠.%Objective Analysis the effect of thyroid lobectomy in treatment of thyroid nodules.Methods Selected 64 cases of thyroid nodules from May 2014 to May 2015 in our hospital, were divided into two groups according to different treatment methods, each group had 32cases. The control group was treated with subtotal thyroidectomy, the experimental group was treated with thyroid gland resection. Observated and evaluated of efifcacy, thecomparison of two groups.Results The operation time of the experimental group was shorter, less bleeding, less complications,P<0.05, had difference statistically significance. Conclusion The treatment of thyroid nodules in patients with thyroid lobe resection has reliable effect.

  14. Clinical analysis of increased uptake in thyroid gland from 18F-FDG PET/CT%18F-FDG PET/CT甲状腺显影临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡亮; 陈跃; 黄占文; 张春银

    2015-01-01

    目的::研究18F-脱氧葡萄糖(FDG)PET/CT显像对甲状腺显影病变性质分析及最大标准摄取值(SUVmax)与甲状腺良恶性病变的相关性。方法:收集从2011年6月至2013年12月中来我科行18F-FDG PET/CT全身显像中甲状腺弥漫性及局灶性摄取病人共113例,所有病例最终诊断依靠甲状腺细针穿刺、手术病理、甲功五项及6个月随访观察证实,并进行良恶性病灶相关性分析。结果:甲状腺单侧或双侧弥漫性显影病人34例,其中甲状腺功能亢进2例,原发性甲状腺淋巴瘤3例,淋巴瘤累及甲状腺1例,1例为亚急性甲状腺炎,桥本氏甲状腺炎27例,良恶性比例为7.5:1;甲状腺局灶性显影79例,其中良性病变46例,恶性病变33例,恶性比例为41.7%。良恶性结节SUVmax有明显统计学意义,分别为(4.47±1.37与7.07±1.22,t=8.702, P<0.05)。结论:18F-FDG PET/CT显像中甲状腺弥漫性显影以良性病变为主,且多为甲状腺炎症,;局灶性甲状腺显影中,虽甲状腺恶性病变比例较高,但单存的SUV值无法鉴别其良恶性。在良恶性结节SUVmax值比较中,SUVmax值越高,其恶性可能性越大。%Objective To evaluate the value of increased thyroid gland uptake and the clinical significance of SUVmax in distinguishing thyroid benign diseases from malignant diseases via 18F-FDG PET/CT. Methods:113 cases with focal or diffuse FDG uptake in thyroid were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Final diagnosis of all cases based on fine-needle aspiration,surgical operation, measurement of thyroid hormone, and 6 months follow-up studies. The data were correlatively analysed. Results There were 34 patients with unilateral or bilateral diffuse thyroid imaging,including 2 cases of hyperthyroidism, 3 cases of primary thyroid lymphoma,1 case of secondary thyroid lymphoma, 1 case of subacute thyroiditis,and 27 cases of Hashimoto disease. The ratio of benign to malignant

  15. Indicators of physical and sexual development of adolescent boys, depending on the functional state of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Kamalov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Dagestan is a region with medium and severe iodine deficiency, which is associated with the development of endemic goiter and subclinical hypothyroidism. Children with goiter with or without it with SG had the worst indicators of physical, psychological and sexual development, tended to chronic somatic pathology.Objective. To examine the connection between the elevated TSH level with indicators of physical and sexual health of boys.Material and methodThere were examined 297 adolescents aged 11-13 years (76 persons in the beginning of puberty and 14-17 years (221 people in the middle and the end of puberty. The anthropometric studies of height, weight were conducted, body mass index BMI was calculated, the degree of sexual development: R - pubic body hair, G-degree sexual development, testicular volume by Prader and the size of the penis, index of virilization, level tireotroponogo hormone (TSH were assessed.Results showed that physical development of boys already in the early stages of dysfunction of the thyroid gland tends to lag behind. This is more evident in the mid to completion of puberty (boys and adolescents 14-17 years of age, secondary sexual characteristics in boys 11-13 years more marked in those with a TSH level of 0.5 to 2.6 IU/l compared with peers with TSH levels from 4.2 to 10.0 IU/l In the subgroup of 14-17 year old boys and teenagers, there is a tendency to the phenomenon of "macroorchidism" beginning at the stage of subclinical hypothyroidism.

  16. Chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma: metabolic and morphologic changes on PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Ukihide [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Gamez, Cristina; Yeung, Henry W.D.; Macapinlac, Homer A. [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Dawood, Shaheenah; Cristofanilli, Massimo [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Breast Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    To investigate clinical implications of FDG uptake in the thyroid glands in patients with advanced breast carcinoma by comparing metabolic and morphologic patterns on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). The institutional review board waived the requirement for informed consent. A retrospective analysis was performed in 146 women (mean age 54 years) with advanced breast carcinoma who received systemic treatment. All patients underwent PET-CT before and after treatment. All PET-CT studies were reviewed in consensus by two reviewers. Morphologic changes including volume and mean parenchymal density of the thyroid glands were evaluated. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were determined to evaluate metabolic changes. These parameters were compared between patients with chronic thyroiditis who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy and those who did not. Of the 146 patients, 29 (20%) showed bilaterally diffuse uptake in the thyroid glands on the baseline PET-CT scan. The SUVmax showed a linear relationship with volume (r = 0.428, p = 0.021) and the mean parenchymal density (r = -0.385, p = 0.039) of the thyroid glands. In 21 of the 29 patients (72%) with hypothyroidism who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the volume, mean parenchymal density, SUVmax, and TLG of the thyroid glands showed no significant changes. In contrast, 8 of the 29 patients (28%) who did not receive thyroid hormone replacement therapy showed marked decreases in SUVmax and TLG. Diffuse thyroid uptake on PET-CT represents active inflammation caused by chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma. Diffuse thyroid uptake may also address the concern about subclinical hypothyroidism which develops into overt disease during follow-up. (orig.)

  17. Detection for residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: comparison between Tc-99m pertechnetate scan and high dose I-131 therapy scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Ryung; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Fae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate diagnostic sensitivity of nuclear imaging in the detection of residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion, we have compared neck scintigrams with Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tc-99m scan) and high dose I-131 iodide (I-131 scan) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. One hundred thirty-five thyroidectomized patients for differentiated thyroid cancer were enrolled in this study. Twenty-three had a previous history of radioiodine therapy. Planar and pin-hole images of anterior neck with Tc-99m were acquired at 20 minutes after injection, followed by I-131 scan three days after high-dose radioiodine therapy with 7 days interval. Patients were asked to discontinue thyroid hormone replacement more than 4 weeks. All subjects were in hypothyroid state. Seventy out of 135 patients (51.9%) showed concordant findings between Tc-99m and I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan did not show any uptake in thyroid bed in 11 of 112 patients without previous history of radioiodine therapy, but 9 of them showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan showed no bed uptake in all of the 23 patients with previous history of radioiodine therapy, in contrast 14 of them (60.9%) showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. These results suggest that Tc-99m scan has poor detectability for residual thyroid tissue or metastatic lesion in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer patients, compared to high dose I-131 therapy scan. Tc-99m scan could not detect any remnant tissue or metastatic lesion in patients with previous history of radioiodine treatment, especially.

  18. An analysis of trends of incidence and cytohistological correlation of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland with evaluation of discordant cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetna Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in thyroid nodules has been well-studied but there is a paucity of studies solely involving papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. The diagnostic criteria for PTC are established but still there is a worrisome possibility of false positive and false-negative results, which can have a serious impact on patient care. This article correlates the cytological and histological diagnosis of PTC with an eventual aim of analyzing the cause of false positive and false negative results in order to prevent misdiagnosis. An increase in the incidence of PTC in the younger population has been noted. Aims: To analyze the epidemiological trends and cytohistological correlation of PTC and evaluate the discordant cases and pitfalls of FNAC. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two cases who had undergone both FNAC and histopathological examination (HPE of the thyroid gland were selected. Age and sex distribution as well as cytohistological correlation were done for all the cases. Results: Cytohistological correlation was 81.94%. False positives were 5.56% and the false negative rate was 13.2%. Sensitivity was 86.7% and the positive predictive value was 93.6%. The peak age was 31-40 years among females and 41-60 years among males. Seven of our patients were <20 years of age (10%. Conclusion: FNAC is an indispensible tool for the early diagnosis of PTC. However, certain conditions of the thyroid gland can cause diagnostic dilemma. Awareness of pathologists regarding these pitfalls can prevent misdiagnosis and provide better patient care. Increasing the incidence of PTC with a more striking increase in the younger population makes early diagnosis all the more important owing to better prognosis in this age group.

  19. Evaluation of surface radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the gonads during routine full-mouth intraoral periapical and maxillary occlusal radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheyl Sheikh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The quantitative aspects of radiation doses to critical organs can help the dental professionals to take the necessary radiation protective measures as deemed necessary and can help the general public to allay radiation exposure fear in dental radiography, if any. Our study determines the surface radiation dose to thyroid and gonads in full-mouth intraoral periapical (IOPA and maxillary occlusal radiography.Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 subjects participated in the study. The surface radiation dose was estimated to the thyroid gland and the gonads in full-mouth IOPA radiography using 10 IOPA (E speed films and in maxillary occlusal radiography. The measurements were calculated using a digital pocket dosimeter (PD-4507.Results: The average dose at the thyroid gland level during full-mouth intraoral and maxillary occlusal radiography was estimated to be 10.93 mRads (1.093 Χ 10 -2 mGy and 0.4 mRads (4.0 Χ 10 -2 mGy, respectively. The average surface radiation dose at the gonadal region during a full mouth intraoral and maxillary occlusal radiography was estimated to be 1.5 mRads (1.5 Χ 10 -2 mGy and 0.15 mRads (1.5 Χ 10 -3 mGy, respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest that although the radiation exposure doses to critical organs namely thyroid and gonads is within the safe limits still precautionary measures for these organs are advocated.

  20. TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem with the pituitary gland , such as a tumor producing unregulated levels of TSH A low TSH result may indicate: An overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) Excessive amounts of thyroid hormone medication in ...

  1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - like syndrome and other hormonal factors of promotion and progression of thyroid gland cancer in males-liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and laboratory endocrinological screening performed in 1,000 males - liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences revealed hormonal factors leading to node formation and having unfavourable influence on progression and promotion of thyroid gland cancer. The factors include syndrome of low thriiodothyronine, hyperprolactinemia, latent hypothyrosis and increased production of thyroglobulin. Peculiarities of hormonal status in liquidators allow us to suggest the presence of MEN-like syndrome among the liquidators population. Possible mechanisms of expression of RET oncogene in adults that may result in MEN- like syndrome have been discussed. (author)

  2. Evaluation of multiple-atlas-based strategies for segmentation of the thyroid gland in head and neck CT images for IMRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A.; Niermann, K. J.; Deeley, M. A.; Dawant, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    Segmenting the thyroid gland in head and neck CT images is of vital clinical significance in designing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. In this work, we evaluate and compare several multiple-atlas-based methods to segment this structure. Using the most robust method, we generate automatic segmentations for the thyroid gland and study their clinical applicability. The various methods we evaluate range from selecting a single atlas based on one of three similarity measures, to combining the segmentation results obtained with several atlases and weighting their contribution using techniques including a simple majority vote rule, a technique called STAPLE that is widely used in the medical imaging literature, and the similarity between the atlas and the volume to be segmented. We show that the best results are obtained when several atlases are combined and their contributions are weighted with a measure of similarity between each atlas and the volume to be segmented. We also show that with our data set, STAPLE does not always lead to the best results. Automatic segmentations generated by the combination method using the correlation coefficient (CC) between the deformed atlas and the patient volume, which is the most accurate and robust method we evaluated, are presented to a physician as 2D contours and modified to meet clinical requirements. It is shown that about 40% of the contours of the left thyroid and about 42% of the right thyroid can be used directly. An additional 21% on the left and 24% on the right require only minimal modification. The amount and the location of the modifications are qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. We demonstrate that, although challenged by large inter-subject anatomical discrepancy, atlas-based segmentation of the thyroid gland in IMRT CT images is feasible by involving multiple atlases. The results show that a weighted combination of segmentations by atlases using the CC as the similarity measure

  3. Clustering of sebaceous gland carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast cancer in a woman as a new cancer susceptibility disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Brian D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Multiple distinct tumors arising in a single individual or within members of a family raise the suspicion of a genetic susceptibility disorder. Case presentation We present the case of a 52-year-old Caucasian woman diagnosed with sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid, followed several years later with subsequent diagnoses of breast cancer and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Although the patient was also exposed to radiation from a pipe used in the oil field industry, the constellation of neoplasms in this patient suggests the manifestation of a known hereditary susceptibility cancer syndrome. However, testing for the most likely candidates such as Muir-Torre and Cowden syndrome proved negative. Conclusion We propose that our patient's clustering of neoplasms either represents a novel cancer susceptibility disorder, of which sebaceous gland carcinoma is a characteristic feature, or is a variant of the Muir-Torre syndrome.

  4. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland during amiodarone therapy: a study of 297 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarnywojtek A

    2016-04-01

    hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 42 (53.8% cases. In Group B, hyperthyroidism occurring during treatment with AM was found in 40 (33.9% patients, and permanent hypothyroidism was observed in eleven (12.5% cases. After annual follow-up in Group C, nine (11.4% patients were diagnosed with hypothyroidism, while 27 (34.1% patients were diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. In Group D, all patients had permanent hypothyroidism and when the concentration of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was >10 µIU/mL, l-thyroxine was applied.Conclusion: Our study showed that radioiodine administration is advisable in certain circumstances, even in euthyroid patients. It allows for continuation of further long-term AM treatment. Additionally, RIT allows for the reintroduction of AM therapy that was previously terminated. Hence, it can help control life-threatening tachyarrhythmias and decrease episodes of thyrotoxicosis. Keywords: amiodarone, amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis, amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism, radioactive iodine, radioiodine treatment, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia

  5. CyclinE在甲状腺乳头状癌组织中的表达及临床意义%TThe expression and clinical significance of CyclinE in the thyroid gland papilliform tumor organizes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晓东; 张鹏霞; 王茉琳; 王伟群

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the expression and clinical significance of CyclinE in the thyroid gland papilliform tumor .Methods The expression of CyclinE was tested by immunohistochemistry SP law of the thyroid gland papilliform tumor , the thyroid gland adenoma and the lump in the normal thyroid gland .Results The CyclinE expression rate was elevated gradually (P<0.01).CyclinE expression was correlated with stages, peritonsillar tissue infiltration and lymph node shift related of thyroid gland papilliform tumor (P<0.01).Conclusions CyclinE expression level is correlated with the occurrence and development of thyroid gland papilliform tumor .%目的:探讨CyclinE在甲状腺乳头状癌组织中的表达及其与临床病理特征的关系。方法用免疫组化 SP法检测CyclinE在甲状腺乳头状癌、甲状腺腺瘤及瘤旁正常甲状腺组织中的表达情况。结果 CyclinE的阳性表达率在正常甲状腺组织、甲状腺腺瘤、甲状腺乳头状癌组织中逐渐升高(P<0.01)。 CyclinE表达与甲状腺乳头状癌的临床分期、周围组织浸润及淋巴结转移有关(P<0.01)。结论 Cyclin E 的表达水平与甲状腺乳头状癌的发生、发展及预后有关,为甲状腺乳头状癌的治疗提供新的思路。

  6. Lesion dose in differentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases after rhTSH or thyroid hormone withdrawal: {sup 124}I PET/CT dosimetric comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, Lutz Stefan; Jentzen, Walter; Brandau, Wolfgang; Bockisch, Andreas [University of Duisburg/Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Petrich, Thorsten; Knapp, Wolfram H. [Hanover University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hanover (Germany); Froemke, Cornelia [Hanover University School of Medicine, Institute of Biometry, Hanover (Germany); Marlowe, Robert J. [Spencer-Fontayne Corporation, Jersey City, NJ (United States); Heusner, Till [University of Duisburg/Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Renal radioiodine excretion is {proportional_to}50% faster during euthyroidism versus hypothyroidism. We therefore sought to assess lesion dose/GBq of administered {sup 131}I activity (LDpA) in iodine-avid metastases (IAM) of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in athyreotic patients after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) versus after thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). We retrospectively compared mean LDpA between groups of consecutive patients (N = 63) receiving {sup 124}I positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 124}I PET/CT) aided by rhTSH (n = 27) or THW (n = 36); we prospectively compared LDpA after these stimulation methods within another individual. Data derived from serial PET scans and one CT scan performed 2-96 h post-{sup 124}I ingestion. A mixed model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) calculated the treatment groups' mean LDpAs adjusting for statistically significant baseline intergroup differences: non-IAM were more prevalent, median IAM count/patient lower in cervical lymph nodes and higher in distant sites, median stimulated thyroglobulin higher, mean cumulative radioiodine activity greater and prior diagnostic scintigraphy more frequent in the rhTSH patients. Mean LDpAs were: rhTSH group (n = 71 IAM), 30.6 Gy/GBq; THW group (n = 66 IAM), 51.8 Gy/GBq. The difference in group means (rhTSH less THW), -21.2 Gy/GBq, was statistically non-significant (p = 0.1667). However, the 95% confidence interval of that difference (-51.4 to + 9 Gy/GBq) suggested a trend favouring THW. The within-patient comparison found 2.9- to 10-fold higher LDpAs under THW. We found some suggestions, but no statistically significant evidence, that rhTSH administration results in a lower radiation dose to DTC metastases than does THW. A large, well-controlled, prospective within-patient study should resolve this issue. (orig.)

  7. CT Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions%甲状腺病变的CT诊断和鉴别诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢定友; 陈望

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the CT manifestations of thyroid lesions and to explore the CT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of various thyroid lesions. Methods Group selection the CT data of 54 cases of thyroid diseases confirmed by clinical and pathological changes in our hospital from November 2009 to December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The data of 54 cases were collected and analyzed. Results In the group of 54 patients, 24 cases of thyroid adenoma, 15 cases of thyroid carcinoma, 8 cases of nodular goiter, 4 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis,2 cases of thyroid cyst, Graves disease in 1 case. This group of cases according to the CT performance, is divided into three types: ① Single nodular type of 33 cases, including 17 cases of thyroid adenoma, 2 cases of nodular goiter , 12 cases of thyroid carcinoma,2 cases of thyroid cyst ; ②16 cases of multiple nodular type, including nodular goiter in 6 cases, 7 cases of thyroid adenoma, and 3 cases of thyroid carcinoma; ③ Diffuse swelling in 5 cases, including Graves disease in 1 case , Hashimoto's thyroiditis in 4 cases. Conclu-sion Thyroid lesions on CT classification, CT scan and enhanced features, and normal thyroid tissue and the surrounding re-lation, and with or without cervical lymph nodes metastasis is the main basis for the qualitative diagnosis of thyroid lesions.%目的:分析甲状腺病变的CT表现,探讨各种甲状腺病变的CT诊断和鉴别诊断要点。方法整群收集该院2009年11月—2015年12月经临床和病理证实的甲状腺病变共54例的CT资料,进行回顾性分析。结果该组54例中,甲状腺腺瘤24例,甲状腺癌15例,结节性甲状腺肿8例,桥本氏甲状腺炎4例,甲状腺囊肿2例,Graves病1例。该组病例依据其CT表现,分为三大类型:①单结节型33例,包括甲状腺腺瘤17例,结节性甲状腺肿2例,甲状腺癌12例,甲状腺囊肿2例;②多结节型16例,包括结节性甲状腺肿6例,甲状腺腺瘤7例,甲状腺癌3

  8. Texture-based and diffusion-weighted discrimination of parotid gland lesions on MR images at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruehwald-Pallamar, Julia; Czerny, Christian; Holzer-Fruehwald, Laura; Nemec, Stefan F; Mueller-Mang, Christina; Weber, Michael; Mayerhoefer, Marius E

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether texture-based analysis of standard MRI sequences and diffusion-weighted imaging can help in the discrimination of parotid gland masses. The MR images of 38 patients with a biopsy- or surgery-proven parotid gland mass were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were examined on the same 3.0 Tesla MR unit, with one standard protocol. The ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) values of the tumors were measured with three regions of interest (ROIs) covering the entire tumor. Texture-based analysis was performed with the texture analysis software MaZda (version 4.7), with ROI measurements covering the entire tumor in three slices. COC (co-occurrence matrix), RUN (run-length matrix), GRA (gradient), ARM (auto-regressive model), and WAV (wavelet transform) features were calculated for all ROIs. Three subsets of 10 texture features each were used for a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in combination with k nearest neighbor classification (k-NN). Using histology as a standard of reference, benign tumors, including subtypes, and malignant tumors were compared with regard to ADC and texture-based values, with a one-way analysis of variance with post-hoc t-tests. Significant differences were found in the mean ADC values between Warthin tumors and pleomorphic adenomas, as well as between Warthin tumors and benign lesions. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images contained the most relevant textural information for the discrimination between benign and malignant parotid masses, and also for the discrimination between pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin tumors. STIR images contained the least relevant texture features, particularly for the discrimination between pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin tumors. Texture analysis proved to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, as well as pleomorphic adenomas from Warthin tumors, based on standard T(1w) sequences (without and with contrast). Of all benign parotid masses, Warthin tumors had

  9. Prevalence of salivary glands lesions from histopathologic diagnosis of Experimental Pathology Laboratory of PUCPR in the period of 1999-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre BETTIO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lesions that affect salivary glands are a group of clinic entities ranging from local pathological alterations to the manifestation of systemic diseases. Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the prevalence of cases of lesions regarding salivary glands in patients of dental clinic of the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUCPR. Material and methods: A total of 1990 histopathologic reports was analyzed in data of Experimental Pathology Laboratory of the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, in the period of 1999 to 2008. Seventy-three cases of salivary glands diseases were analyzed, according to sex, age and histopathologic diagnosis. Results: Mucocele was the most prevalent lesion, with 58 cases (2.9%. Others diseases were diagnosed, such as: pleomorphic adenoma (0.3%, cystic adenoid carcinoma (0.1%, sialoadenitis (0.1%, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (0.05%, Sjögren’s syndrome (0.05%, ranula (0.05% and adenomatoid hyperplasia (0.05%. No predilection for sex was observed, but the majority of diseases occurred principally during the three first life decades. Conclusion: These findings reinforce that the occurrence oflesions associated to the salivary glands is low when compared to others oral diseases. The more common pathological entities that affect salivary glands are associated to traumatic agents and affect adult male young patients.

  10. 中华蟾蜍蝌蚪变态过程中甲状腺的组织学变化%Changes of thyroid gland histological structures during the metamorphosis of Bufo gargarizans tadpole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 柴丽红; 吴民耀; 王宏元

    2012-01-01

    【目的】研究中华蟾蜍(Bufogargarizans)蝌蚪在不同发育阶段甲状腺的组织学变化。【方法】以处于变态高峰前后5期(28,33,38,42,46期)的中华蟾蜍蝌蚪为试验材料,用MoticBA300光学显微镜对各个发育时期蝌蚪的甲状腺进行组织学观察,测定蝌蚪的全长、体质量和肝质量等形态指标,并分析这些形态指标与甲状腺直径、滤泡平均直径及最大直径的线性相关性。【结果】在28期时,中华蟾蜍蝌蚪甲状腺出现但无分泌甲状腺激素的功能;33期时,甲状腺具备了分泌甲状腺激素的能力;此后甲状腺进一步发育,在蝌蚪前肢展开期甲状腺活性达到最强;至尾完全吸收期,甲状腺机能减弱。蝌蚪全长、体质量及肝质量与甲状腺直径及滤泡直径呈正线性相关。【结论】具有分泌机能的甲状腺出现的发育时期,与两栖动物变态类型相关;分泌高峰期出现的发育时期与幼体持续时间密切相关。中华蟾蜍蝌蚪的全长可以直观地反映其甲状腺的机能活性。%[Objective] The research was to study the changes of thyroid gland histological structures in tadpole of Bufo gargarizans during development. [Method] Tadpoles were taken from every five stages before and after metamorphosis(stage 28,stage 33,stage 38,stage 42 and stage 46),and histological struc- tures of thyroid glands in tadpoles were observed by Motic BA300 microscope. In addition, total length, body weight and liver weight of the tadpoles were measured. Then, the relationship was analyzed between total length, body weight, liver weight and thyroid gland, follicle diameter and follicle number. [Result] The thyroid gland was first present at the stage 28, but it lacked function. Thyroid gland possessed the abil- ity of secreting hormone at the stage 33. The activity of thyroid gland reached peak when forelimbs unfol- ded. The activity of thyroid gland declined

  11. Thyroid ultrasonography consistently identifies goiter in adults over the age of 30 years despite a diminished response with aging of the thyroid gland to the effects of goitrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, S R; Brahmbhatt, R M; Eastman, C J; Boyages, S C

    2001-07-17

    Iodine deficiency is a national health problem in India and we have recently reported on the severity of IDD in adults and children in Gujarat province. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of thyroid ultrasonography to detect goiter in adults from an iodine-deficient population of Gujarat. We studied 472 adults selected by random household surveys. Data were collected on height, body weight, mid-upper arm circumference, thigh circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, thyroid size (palpation and ultrasonography), and diet. Casual urine samples for iodine (UI) and blood spots for TSH estimation were obtained. Endemic goiter is a major public health problem in Gujarat State, India and is probably caused by multiple factors including iodine deficiency, malnutrition, and other dietary goitrogens. These results indicate that thyroid US consistently detects goiter in adults despite a diminished thyroidal response to variable goitrogenic stimuli. PMID:12806080

  12. Thyroid Ultrasonography Consistently Identifies Goiter in Adults Over the Age of 30 Years Despite a Diminished Response with Aging of the Thyroid Gland to the Effects of Goitrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela R. Brahmbhatt

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency is a national health problem in India and we have recently reported on the severity of IDD in adults and children in Gujarat province. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of thyroid ultrasonography to detect goiter in adults from an iodine-deficient population of Gujarat. We studied 472 adults selected by random household surveys. Data were collected on height, body weight, mid-upper arm circumference, thigh circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, thyroid size (palpation and ultrasonography, and diet. Casual urine samples for iodine (UI and blood spots for TSH estimation were obtained. Endemic goiter is a major public health problem in Gujarat State, India and is probably caused by multiple factors including iodine deficiency, malnutrition, and other dietary goitrogens. These results indicate that thyroid US consistently detects goiter in adults despite a diminished thyroidal response to variable goitrogenic stimuli.

  13. Thyroid Ultrasonography Consistently Identifies Goiter in Adults Over the Age of 30 Years Despite a Diminished Response with Aging of the Thyroid Gland to the Effects of Goitrogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sheela R. Brahmbhatt; Brahmbhatt, Rajesh M.; Eastman, Creswell J.; Steven C. Boyages

    2001-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a national health problem in India and we have recently reported on the severity of IDD in adults and children in Gujarat province. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of thyroid ultrasonography to detect goiter in adults from an iodine-deficient population of Gujarat. We studied 472 adults selected by random household surveys. Data were collected on height, body weight, mid-upper arm circumference, thigh circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, thyroid s...

  14. Metastatic follicular carcinoma of thyroid in maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliaperoumal Santhosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the oral region is very rare and accounts for less than 1% of oral malignant tumors. Breast, lung, kidney, adrenal, gastro intestinal tract and prostates are most common primary tumors from which metastasis to oral region occur frequently. Metastasis from thyroid gland is extremely rare to oral region. We present an unusual case of metastatic follicular carcinoma of thyroid in maxilla. The significance of this report is that the secondary lesion was the only symptom of the primary tumor and helped us in diagnosis and treatment of disease.

  15. Thyroid disrupting chemicals: Mechanisms and mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

  16. Orbital metastasis as initial manifestation of a widespread papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagsisihan, Daveric Ablis; Aguilar, Anthony Harvey Isabelo; Maningat, Ma Patricia Deanna Delfin

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), particularly microcarcinomas, rarely metastasise to the orbit. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman with a right supraorbital mass and unremarkable physical examination of the thyroid gland region. Orbital CT scan showed an expansile lytic lesion in the orbital plate of the frontal bone with a soft tissue component. An incision biopsy revealed metastatic well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid ultrasound was normal except for a subcentimetre nodule in the right lobe. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy where histopathology showed a subcentimetre follicular variant PTC. She subsequently received radioactive iodine therapy. Post-therapy whole body scan revealed metastatic thyroid tissues in the right orbital and posterior parietal, and left shoulder and hip areas. Although infrequent, metastatic thyroid carcinoma should be considered in patients with orbital metastasis even when neck examination is normal. In rare cases, this may be the initial manifestation of a widely metastatic papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. PMID:25819821

  17. Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast. 34 thyroid gland specimens are imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology ranging from normal thyroid to benign disease/neoplasms (multinodular colloid goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and follicular adenoma) and malignant thyroid tumors (papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma). Imaging is performed using an integrated OCT and OCM system, with papillary architecture, microfollicules, psammomatous calcifications, or replacement of normal follicular architecture with sheets/nests of tumor cells, can be identified from OCT and OCM images and are clearly differentiable from normal or benign thyroid tissues. With further development of needle-based imaging probes, OCT and OCM could be promising techniques to use for the screening of thyroid nodules and to improve the diagnostic specificity of fine needle aspiration evaluation.

  18. Thyroid disease in the pediatric patient: emphasizing imaging with sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid disease does occur in the pediatric patient, and imaging plays an important role in its evaluation. A review is presented of normal development of the thyroid gland, the technique and indications for thyroid sonography, and key imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (ectopic or absent thyroid, infantile goiter, thyroglossal duct remnants), benign thyroid masses (follicular adenoma, degenerative nodules, colloid and thyroid cysts), malignant masses (follicular, papillary and medullary carcinoma) and diffuse thyroid disease (acute bacterial thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Grave's disease). (orig.)

  19. Expression of ARE-binding proteins AUF1 and HuR in follicular adenoma and carcinoma of thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowicz, B; Sekulla, C; Dralle, H; Hoang-Vu, C

    2016-01-01

    Both adenylate-uridylate rich elements binding proteins AUF1 and HuR may participate in thyroid carcinoma progression. In this study we investigated the expression of both factors on a protein level with a special focus on follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma. By employment of immunofluorescence and western blot on 68 thyroid tissues including 7 goiter, 16 follicular adenoma (4 adenomatous hyperplasia), 19 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 13 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 14 undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas we investigated protein expression of AUF1 and HuR. In addition to previous results we demonstrated that AUF1 and HuR are significantly up-regulated in carcinoma tissues as compared with follicular adenoma or goiter tissues. Furthermore, by evaluation of AUF1 or HuR expression, or combination of both proteins on total tissue lysates, we were able to demonstrate a significant difference between follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma. Overexpression of AUF1 and HuR is a common finding observed in thyroid malignancy. Analysis of the tissues obtained by surgical resection as demonstrated in this study is comparable to a fine needle aspiration and in combination with AUF1/HuR immuno-analysis may support the conventional immunohistological investigations. The promising results of this study were performed on relatively small collective, but justify future development of a quick thyroid diagnostic test on larger cohort of the patients, especially for thyroid samples which are inadequate for histological examinations.

  20. Dose in the uterus of a woman, with three months of pregnancy, due to the 131 I accumulated in her thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the absorbed dose by the uterus of a woman with three months of pregnancy to who was applied a dose of 131 I that was accumulated in the thyroid gland is determined. The absorbed dose was obtained by means of Monte Carlo calculations developing a detailed three-dimensional model of the pregnant one, where they have been included most of the organs. The absorbed dose also was calculated by means of a simple procedure. To verify the calculated results it was carried out an experiment where was constructed a phantom of the neck, in this was included the thyroid with 131 I and the exposure was measured at different distances of the neck; this was related with the dose. Of the Monte Carlo calculation is obtained that for each mCi of 131 I that is retained in the mother's thyroid, the uterus absorbs a dose of 6.80 E(-11) Gy. When comparing the results, it was found that the simple calculation throws a result 29 times superior to that of the dose obtained by means of Monte Carlo. When applying a correction for the effect of the absorption of the gamma photons by the mother's body an absorbed dose in the uterus was obtained that is 0.16 times superior to the Monte Carlo calculation. Of the experimental phase it is verified that the values calculated by means of the simple method are equal to those experimentally measured. (Author)

  1. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.Tumores mesenquimais da glândula tireoide são extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primário de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na região cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas de calcificação. A peça cirúrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 × 11 × 7,5 cm. À microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por células poligonais de tamanho intermédio, com um padrão condroide em algumas áreas e formação de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpressão negativa para AE1/AE3, proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP, antígeno da membrana epitelial (EMA, p53 e fator de transcrição da tireoide (TTF-1 e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnóstico de osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide foi, então, estabelecido.

  2. Thyroid Disease Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Thyroid Disease Definitions KidsHealth > For Teens > Thyroid Disease Definitions Print A A A Text Size ... sweat, mucous, and tears. goiter: This is a thyroid gland that is enlarged to the point that ...

  3. Radioiodine ( sup 131 I) therapy of Graves' disease; Use of the new high resolutional ultrasonic scanner for the determination of the accurate weight of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, Yuji; Ashizawa, Kiyoto; Matsuo, Keiichi; Inoue, Shuji; Harakawa, Seijiro; Hirayu, Hideshi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Izumi, Motomori; Nagataki, Shigenobu (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    In this series, eighteen patients with Graves' disease were treated with 8000 rads (80 Gy) of radioiodine ({sup 131}I), using the new high resolutional ultrasonic scanner for the determination of the accurate weight of the thyroid gland. The mean dose of radioiodine administered orally was 4.6 {plus minus} 3.0 mCi (170.2 {plus minus} 110.0 MBq) and 133.7 {plus minus} 44.6 muCi/g (4.95 {plus minus} 1.65 MBq). At one year after treatment, twelve of eighteen patients (66.7%) became euthyroid, five (27.8%) remained hyperthyroid and one (5.6%) became hypothyroid. Analysis of various factors which may be related to the effect of radioiodine therapy revealed that the weight of the thyroid gland in the hyperthyroid and euthyroid groups was significantly different (61.7 {plus minus} 33.5 g vs. 25.1 {plus minus} 9.1 g, p<0.05). Furthermore, all patients with larger glands (more than sixty grams) remained hyperthyroid, while the incidence of euthyroidism was as high as 80% in patients with smaller glands (less that forty grams). Although the number of patients studied was small, these results indicate that a larger thyroid gland requires a larger radioiodine dose per gram of tissue than a smaller gland, suggesting that the therapeutic radiation dose should be graded according to the gland size even when the gland size is accurately estimated by ultrasound. Further study is required to determine the appropriate radiation dose graded according to the gland size. (author).

  4. Thyroid ultrasonography in congenital isolated thyroid stimulating hormone deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Wakamoto, H; Miyazaki, M.; Tatsumi, K; Amino, N

    1995-01-01

    The effects of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency on thyroid development was examined using ultrasonography in a child with congenital isolated TSH deficiency. Ultrasound revealed the thyroid gland was one sixth normal volume, suggesting that TSH plays an important part in thyroid growth, but not a critical role in differentiation.

  5. A Pilot Comparison of 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT, Ultrasonography and 123I/99mTc-sestaMIBI Dual-Phase Dual-Isotope Scintigraphy in the Preoperative Localization of Hyperfunctioning Parathyroid Glands in Primary or Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: Influence of Thyroid Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Laure; Balogova, Sona; Burgess, Alice; Ohnona, Jessica; Huchet, Virginie; Kerrou, Khaldoun; Lefèvre, Marine; Tassart, Marc; Montravers, Françoise; Périé, Sophie; Talbot, Jean-Noël

    2015-10-01

    We compared (18)F-fluorocholine hybrid positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography (FCH-PET/CT) with ultrasonography (US) and scintigraphy in patients with hyperparathyroidism and discordant, or equivocal results of US and (123)I/(99m)Tc-sesta-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (sestaMIBI) dual-phase parathyroid scintigraphy. FCH-PET/CT was performed in 17 patients with primary (n = 11) lithium induced (n = 1) or secondary hyperparathyroidism (1 dialyzed, 4 renal-transplanted).The reference standard was based on results of surgical exploration and histopathological examination. The results of imaging modalities were evaluated, on site and by masked reading, on per-patient and per-lesion bases.In a first approach, equivocal images/foci were considered as negative. On a per-patient level, the sensitivity was for US 38%, for scintigraphy 69% by open and 94% by masked reading, and for FCH-PET/CT 88% by open and 94% by masked reading. On a per-lesion level, sensitivity was for US 42%, for scintigraphy 58% by open and 83% by masked reading, and for FCH-PET/CT 88% by open and 96% by masked reading. One ectopic adenoma was missed by the 3 imaging modalities. Considering equivocal images/foci as positive increased the accuracy of the open reading of scintigraphy or of FCH-PET/CT, but not of US. FCH-PET/CT was significantly superior to US in all approaches, whereas it was more sensitive than scintigraphy only for open reading considering equivocal images/foci as negative (P = 0.04). FCH uptake was more intense in adenomas than in hyperplastic parathyroid glands. Thyroid lesions were suspected in 9 patients. They may induce false-positive results as in one case of oncocytic thyroid adenoma, or false-negative results as in one case of intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma. Thyroid cancer (4 cases) can be visualized with FCH as with (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI, but the intensity of uptake was moderate, similar to that of parathyroid hyperplasia.This pilot study confirmed that

  6. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis), nontoxic goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland), Grave's disease (enlargement of the thyroid gland with protrusion of the eyeballs), and cancer of the thyroid. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thyroid autoantibody immunological test...

  7. Diet and the role of lipoproteins, lipases, and thyroid hormones in coronary lesion growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Jacques D.; Jansen, Hans; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Birkenhager, Jan C.; Kromhout, Daan

    1987-01-01

    The relationships between the coronary lesion growth and the blood contents of lipoprotein fractions, thyroic hormones, and the lipoprotein lipase activity were investigated in male patients with severe coronary atherosclerosis, who participated in a lipid-lowering dietary intervention program. A quantitative computer-assisted image-processing technique was used to assess the severity of coronary obstructions at the beginning of the program and at its termination two years later. Based on absolute coronary scores, patients were divided into a no-lesion growth group (14 patients) and a progression group (21 paients). At the end of the trial, the very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were found to be significantly higher, while the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hepatic lipase (HL) were lower in the progression group. Multivariate regression analysis showed HL to be the most important determinant of changes in coronary atherosclerotic lesions.

  8. Exposure of xenopus laevis tadpoles to cadmium reveals concentration-dependent bimodal effects on growth and monotonic effects on development and thyroid gland activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Xenopus laevis were exposed to 0-855 ??g cadmium (Cd)/l (measured concentrations) in FETAX medium from fertilization to 47 days postfertilization. Measurements included embryonic survival and, at 47 days, tadpole survival, snout-vent length, tail length, total length, hindlimb length, weight, Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage of development, initiation of metamorphic climax (??? NF 58), and thyroid follicle cell height. Embryonic and larval survival were unaffected by Cd. Relative to control tadpoles, reduced tail and total length were observed at 0.1- 8 and at 855 ??g Cd/l; and reduced snout-vent length, hindlimb length, and weight were observed at 0.1-1 and at 855 ??g Cd/l. Mean stage of development and rate of initiation of climax were unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l; however, none of the tadpoles exposed to 855 ??g Cd/l progressed beyond mid-premetamorphosis (NF 51). Thyroid glands with fully formed follicles were observed in all tadpoles ??? NF 49 examined. Follicle cell height was unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l but it was reduced at 855 ??g/l; in the latter, cell height was reduced even when compared with NF 49-51 tadpoles pooled from the 0 to 84 ??g Cd/l groups. In conclusion, (1) Cd affected tadpole growth in a bimodal pattern with the first and second inhibitory modes at concentrations below and above 84 ??g Cd/l, respectively; (2) exposure to high Cd concentrations (855 ??g/l) reduced thyroid activity and arrested tadpole development at mid-premetamorphosis; and (3) unlike its effect on growth, Cd inhibited tadpole development and thyroid function in a seemingly monotonic pattern.

  9. Dual thyroid ectopia-role of thyroid scintigraphy and neck ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) is a rare developmental anomaly of the thyroid tissue where the thyroid gland is not located in its usual position. Dual thyroid ectopia is far rarer. This case of a 5-year-old euthyroid girl with thyroglossal cyst was planned for surgery. Presurgical ultrasonography (USG) of the neck followed by thyroid scintigraphy was performed. There was absent normal thyroid gland with single ETT in neck swelling on USG. However, thyroid scintigraphy revealed two ectopic foci of thyroid tissue; one was corresponding to neck swelling, and other was superior to it at the base of the tongue along with absent eutopic thyroid gland. The repeat neck USG could demonstrate the same. The present case emphasizes that, if the thyroid gland is not visible by USG; ETT should be evaluated with thyroid scintigraphy in case of thyroid dysgenesis

  10. Thyroid and parathyroid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009167 The changes of thyrotropin level in euthyroid population:a 5-year follow-up study in communities with different iodine intakes. GUAN Haixia(关海霞),et al.Dept Endocrinol & Metab,Instit Endocrinol,1st Affili Hosp china Med Univ,Shenyang 110001.Chin J Intern Med,2009;48(4):308-311.

  11. Thyroid and parathyroid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930049 Experimental study on casein prevent-ing iodine deficiant goitre in rats.OUYANGAn(欧阳安),et al.Endocrinol Res Lab,1stAffili Hosp,Henan Med Univ,Zhengzhou.Chin J Endocrinol & Metabol 1992;8(3):159-160.In the experimental study,Wistar rats weredivided into 3 groups:Group A,33 rats fedwith diet purchased from endemic goitre areaand iodine-free distilled water;Group B,33rats fed with the same diet of group A but 50%of casein was added and iodine-free distilledwater,Group C,33 rats fed with general rat’s

  12. Thyroid and parathyroid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930466 The association of Graves’disease withserum soluble interleukin 2 receptor.RENYuezhong(任跃忠),SONG Zuogui(宋作珪).2ndAffili Hosp,Zhejiang Med Univ,Hangzhou,310009.Natl Med J China 1993;73(5):264—265.The serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor(slL2R)was measured in 38 first visited patientswith Graves’disease and 29 normal controls.The serum sIL2R in 17 patients with Graves’dis-ease was determined after treatment with an-tithyroid drugs(propylthiouracil)for a short pe-riod(1.2±0.5 months).The serum sIL2R was

  13. Thyroid and parathyroid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970272 Changes of calcitonin reserve function in pa-tients with primary osteoporosis. ZHAN Zhiwer(詹志伟), et a1. PUMC Hosp, Beijing, 100730. Chin JIntern Med 1997; 36(1): 11-14. Objective: In order to study the role of calcitonin(CT)in osteoporosis. Methods: The calcium loading

  14. Thyroid and parathyroid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010310 Expression of synaptotagmin I and effect of thyroxine treatment in the prefrontal cortex of adult hypothyroid rats. WANG Xi(王茜),et al. Dept Endocrinol,Anhui Geriat Insit,1st Affil Hosp, Anhui Med Univ,Hefei 230022. Chin J Endemiol 2010;29(3):239-240. Objective To observe the expression of synaptotagmin Ⅰ (syt Ⅰ) protein in the prefrontal

  15. Thyroid and parathyroid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008399 Epidemiologic study of hypothyroidism in Jiangsu province. DUAN Yu(段宇), et al. Dept Endocrinol, 1st Affili Hosp, Nanjing Med Univ, Nanjing 210029. Chin J Endocrinol Metab 2008;24(3):275-277. Objective To investigate the prevalence and epidemiologic characteristics of hypothyroidism among community population in Jiangsu province.

  16. Bioinorganic Chemistry in Thyroid Gland: Effect of Antithyroid Drugs on Peroxidase-Catalyzed Oxidation and Iodination Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mugesh

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Propylthiouracil (PTU and methimazole (MMI are the most commonly used antithyroid drugs. The available data suggest that these drugs may block the thyroid hormone synthesis by inhibiting the thyroid peroxidase (TPO or diverting oxidized iodides away from thyroglobulin. It is also known that PTU inhibits the selenocysteine-containing enzyme ID-1 by reacting with the selenenyl iodide intermediate (E-SeI. In view of the current interest in antithyroid drugs, we have recently carried out biomimetic studies to understand the mechanism by which the antithyroid drugs inhibit the thyroid hormone synthesis and found that the replacement of sulfur with selenium in MMI leads to an interesting compound that may reversibly block the thyroid hormone synthesis. Our recent results on the inhibition of lactoperoxidase (LPO-catalyzed oxidation and iodination reactions by antithyroid drugs are described.

  17. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Yoo; Yohanan Kim; Alfred Simental; Jared C. Inman

    2016-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  18. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  19. A Study on the Nature of Association between Demodex Mites and Bacteria Involved in Skin and Meibomian Gland Lesions of Demodectic Mange in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Taha Abu-Samra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria involved in bovine demodectic mange lesions and the normal flora inhabiting the skin of noninfected animals was investigated. Demodex bovis and D. ghanensis mites were isolated from the infected purulent material extracted from skin and meibomian gland lesions, respectively. The mites could not be demonstrated in skin brushings or impression smears from the eyes of noninfected cattle. Pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A and opportunistic organisms (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Trueperella pyogenes were isolated from skin lesions of demodectic mange, and Moraxella bovis and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from meibomian gland lesions. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A were isolated from skin brushings from noninfected cattle. The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria in demodectic mange lesions is synergistic and of equal significance. Pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria facilitated the establishment of Demodex mites in the lesions produced and provided an excellent microclimate for the mites to propagate and reproduce, resulting in severe and progressive disease. The “high-turnover” granulomatous reaction which characterized the histopathological changes proved that Demodex mites and associated bacteria were persistent and immunogenic.

  20. A Study on the Nature of Association between Demodex Mites and Bacteria Involved in Skin and Meibomian Gland Lesions of Demodectic Mange in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Samra, Mukhtar Taha; Shuaib, Yassir Adam

    2014-01-01

    The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria involved in bovine demodectic mange lesions and the normal flora inhabiting the skin of noninfected animals was investigated. Demodex bovis and D. ghanensis mites were isolated from the infected purulent material extracted from skin and meibomian gland lesions, respectively. The mites could not be demonstrated in skin brushings or impression smears from the eyes of noninfected cattle. Pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)) and opportunistic organisms (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Trueperella pyogenes) were isolated from skin lesions of demodectic mange, and Moraxella bovis and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from meibomian gland lesions. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) were isolated from skin brushings from noninfected cattle. The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria in demodectic mange lesions is synergistic and of equal significance. Pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria facilitated the establishment of Demodex mites in the lesions produced and provided an excellent microclimate for the mites to propagate and reproduce, resulting in severe and progressive disease. The “high-turnover” granulomatous reaction which characterized the histopathological changes proved that Demodex mites and associated bacteria were persistent and immunogenic. PMID:25177514

  1. Lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study over a period of five years in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Anjit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary Thyroid Lymphoma (PTL is uncommon, accounting for only 5% of thyroid neoplasms and less than 2.5 to 7% of extranodal lymphomas. The study aims to analyze the histopathological findings and to correlate it with clinical features. Methods: This study includes cases of PTL received in the department of pathology in a tertiary care center, Kerala, south India over a period of 5 years. Patient details and follow up data were obtained by communication with treating doctors and reviewing the hospital records. All cases had a minimum follow up of 6 months. Results: 15 cases of PTL were diagnosed over the five year period. In total 72 cases of extranodal lymphomas were diagnosed, thus forming 20.83% of extra nodal lymphomas. Lymphocytic thyroiditis was present in 93.3%. Most of the cases were Extranodal Marginal Zone B Cell Lymphoma (EMZBCL and Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL. Conclusion: It is important to consider the diagnosis of primary thyroid lymphoma in patients presenting with an enlarging neck mass especially with the history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Random microscopic foci of DLBCL or small areas of MZBL could be overlooked examination or missed with limited sampling. The distinction between MZBL and DLBCL in the thyroid is clinically significant. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 579-582

  2. TU-C-12A-05: Repeatability Study of Reduced Field-Of-View Diffusion-Weighted MRI On Human Thyroid Gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla-Dave, A; Lu, Y; Hatzoglou, V; Stambuk, H; Mazaheri, Y [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Banerjee, S; Shankaranarayanan, A [GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, California (United States); Deasy, J [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the repeatability of reduced field-of-view diffusion-weighted imaging (rFOV DWI) in quantifying apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting. Methods: Nine healthy human volunteers were enrolled and underwent 3T MRI exams. For each volunteer, 3 longitudinal exams (2 weeks apart) with 2 repetitive sessions within each exam, including rFOV and conventional full field-of-view (fFOV) DWI scans, were performed. In the acquired DWI images, a fixed-size region of interest (ROI; diameter=8mm) was placed on thyroid glands to calculate ADC. ADC was calculated using a monoexponential function with a noise correction scheme. The repeatability of ADC was assessed by using coefficient variation (CV) across sessions or exams, which was defined to be: r = 1-CV, 0 < r < 1, where CV=STD/m, STD is the standard deviation of ADC, and m is the average of ADC across sessions or exams. An experienced radiologist assessed and scored rFOV and fFOV DW images based on image characteristics (1, nondiagnostic; 2, poor; 3, satisfactory; 4, good; and 5, excellent).Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare ADC values, CV of ADC, repeatability of ADC across sessions and exams, and radiologic scores between rFOV and fFOV DWI techniques. Results: There was no significant difference in ADC values across sessions and exams either in rFOV or fFOV DWI. The average CVs of both rFOV and fFOV DWI were less than 13%. The repeatability of ADC measurement between rFOV and fFOV DWI was not significantly different. The overall image quality was significantly higher with rFOV DWI than with fFOV DWI. Conclusion: This study suggested that ADCs from both rFOV and fFOV DWI were repeatable, but rFOV DWI had superior imaging quality for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting.

  3. The ability to identify the intraparotid facial nerve for locating parotid gland lesions in comparison to other indirect landmark methods: evaluation by 3.0 T MR imaging with surface coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Mana; Fujii, Shinya; Nishihara, Keisuke; Matsusue, Eiji; Kodani, Kazuhiko; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori (Japan); Kawamoto, Katsuyuki [Tottori University, Division of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    It is important to know whether a parotid gland lesion is in the superficial or deep lobe for preoperative planning. We aimed to investigate the ability of 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with surface coils to identify the intraparotid facial nerve and locate parotid gland lesions, in comparison to other indirect landmark methods. We retrospectively evaluated 50 consecutive patients with primary parotid gland lesions. The position of the facial nerve was determined by tracing the nerve in the stylomastoid foramen and then following it on sequential MR sections through the parotid gland. The retromandibular vein and the facial nerve line (FN line) were also identified. For each radiologist and each method, we determined the diagnostic ability for deep lobe lesions and superficial lobe lesions, as well as accuracy. These abilities were compared among the three methods using the Chi-square test with Yates' correction. Mean diagnostic ability for deep lobe lesions, the diagnostic ability for superficial lobe lesions, and accuracy were 92%, 86%, 87%, respectively, for the direct identification method; 67%, 89%, 86%, respectively, for the retromandibular vein method; and 25%, 99%, 90%, respectively, for the FN line method. The direct identification method had significantly higher diagnostic ability for deep lesions than the FN line method (P < 0.01), but significantly lower diagnostic ability for superficial lobe lesions than the FN line method (P < 0.01). Direct identification of the intraparotid facial nerve enables parotid gland lesions to be correctly located, particularly those in the deep lobes. (orig.)

  4. Primary hypothyroidism mimicking a pituitary macroadenoma: regression after thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Ki Seong; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Tae Young [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Iksan (Korea); See-Sung, Choi [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Iksan (Korea); Kim, Jong Duck [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Iksan (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    We report a 9-year-old girl with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. She presented with growth arrest, abnormal thyroid function studies, and a pituitary mass on MRI. With thyroxine therapy, the pituitary mass regressed and her symptoms resolved. Primary hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid mass lesions of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of ultrasound-guided core biopsy versus fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the evaluation of salivary gland lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, Nicholas J; Bradford, Carol R

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasound-guided core biopsy provides many benefits compared with fine-needle aspiration cytology and has begun to emerge as part of the diagnostic work-up for a salivary gland lesion. Although the increased potential for tumor-seeding and capsule rupture has been extensively discussed, the safety of this procedure is widely accepted based on infrequent reports of tumor-seeding. In fact, a review of the literature shows only 2 cases of salivary tumor seeding following biopsy with larger-gauge needle characteristics, with 2 reported cases of salivary tumor seeding following fine-needle aspiration cytology. However, the follow-up interval of such studies (benefits of ultrasound-guided core biopsy over fine-needle aspiration biopsy, which include both improved consistency and diagnostic accuracy, current studies lack adequate patient numbers and follow-up duration to confirm comparable safety profile to currently accepted fine-needle aspiration cytology. In this report we: (1) compare the relative benefits of each procedure, (2) review evidence regarding tumor seeding in each procedure, (3) discuss time course and patient numbers necessary to detect tumor recurrence, and (4) describe how these uncertainties should be factored into clinical considerations. PMID:23109044

  6. An unusual case of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland radiologically simulating a benign lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shubhra; Patankar, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    Epithelialmyoepithelial carcinoma (EMEC) is a rare low-grade malignant salivary gland neoplasm that most commonly occurs in the parotid gland but can also arise in minor salivary glands. Here, we present a case of EMEC in a 60-year-old male patient with a huge swelling in the left parotid gland region. Clinically and radiologically, it simulated a benign salivary gland neoplasm. However, fine-needle aspiration cytology and histologic examination revealed atypical myoepithelial cells in solid sheets or nests suggestive of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. Diagnosis was further confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining with calponin (CALP) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) for glycogen.

  7. Thyroid papillary carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue within a neck branchial cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Fiore Agnese

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid gland derives from one median anlage at the base of the tongue, and from the two fourth branchial pouches. A number of anomalies may occur during their migration. These can be in form of ectopic tissues, which are frequently found along the course of thyroglossal duct and rarely in other sites, many of these may develop same diseases as the thyroid gland. Case presentation A 36-years-old female presented with a 3 month history of left side neck mass. The mass disappeared following aspiration of brown colored fluid, which on cytological examination showed cells with nuclear irregularities that warranted the resection of the lesion. The histology demonstrated a thyroid papillary carcinoma arising within the branchial cyst. Thereafter, the patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with central lymph nodes dissection. Histology showed a multifocal papillary carcinoma with central lymph nodes metastases. Only four cases of primary thyroid carcinomas in neck branchial cyst have been described so far. Conclusion In a lateral cystic neck mass, although rare, occurrence of ectopic thyroid tissue and presence of a papillary thyroid carcinoma should be kept in mind.

  8. Sciatica as a presenting feature of thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma in a 79-year-old woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbodo, Elisha; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Keohane, Catherine; Bermingham, Niamh; Kaar, George

    2011-12-01

    The authors describe an unusual case of metastatic thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma presenting with sciatica in a 79-year-old woman. The primary thyroid tumour was undiagnosed until this clinical presentation. The patient gave a short history of back pain and right-sided sciatica, which was progressive and nocturnal in nature. Neuroimaging revealed an enhancing intradural mass lesion, which was completely excised through a right L1-L3 hemilaminectomy. Histopathological examination of the excised tissue revealed a follicular thyroid carcinoma. Subsequent metastatic investigation revealed a heterogeneously attenuating mixed solid cystic mass in a retrosternal thyroid gland, with multiple solid pulmonary nodules suggestive of metastatic disease. She opted for palliative radiotherapy for the primary thyroid cancer and made remarkable postoperative improvement. The authors conclude that surgical treatment of solitary metastatic lesion may produce good symptomatic relief irrespective of patient's age and primary pathology, while emphasising the need for detailed clinical evaluation of patients with 'red flag' symptoms.

  9. Sciatica as a presenting feature of thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma in a 79-year-old woman.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbodo, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe an unusual case of metastatic thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma presenting with sciatica in a 79-year-old woman. The primary thyroid tumour was undiagnosed until this clinical presentation. The patient gave a short history of back pain and right-sided sciatica, which was progressive and nocturnal in nature. Neuroimaging revealed an enhancing intradural mass lesion, which was completely excised through a right L1-L3 hemilaminectomy. Histopathological examination of the excised tissue revealed a follicular thyroid carcinoma. Subsequent metastatic investigation revealed a heterogeneously attenuating mixed solid cystic mass in a retrosternal thyroid gland, with multiple solid pulmonary nodules suggestive of metastatic disease. She opted for palliative radiotherapy for the primary thyroid cancer and made remarkable postoperative improvement. The authors conclude that surgical treatment of solitary metastatic lesion may produce good symptomatic relief irrespective of patient\\'s age and primary pathology, while emphasising the need for detailed clinical evaluation of patients with \\'red flag\\' symptoms.

  10. Dignosis and Treatment of Primary Malignant Lymphoma of the Thyroid Gland%原发性恶性甲状腺淋巴瘤的诊断与治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Meusers; Britta Elo; Andrea Wittig; ZOU Ping

    2003-01-01

    原发性恶性甲状腺淋巴瘤是一种罕见病,约占甲状腺恶性疾病的1%~3%,甚至不到非何杰金氏淋巴瘤的1%.根据改良的Ann-Arbor分类法对原发性甲状腺淋巴瘤所下的定义,此类淋巴瘤或局限于甲状腺(IE期),或累及甲状腺与其邻近的膈上淋巴结(ⅡE期).原发性甲状腺淋巴瘤是一种异源性疾病,它包括许多淋巴瘤的特性.本文的重点在于原发性甲状腺淋巴瘤的诊断和治疗.%Primary malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland is a rare disease comprising about 1%-3% of the thyroid malignancies,and this uncommon lymphoma represents less than 1% of all non-Hodgkinlymphomas(NHL).According to the modified Ann-Arbor-Classification primary thyroid lymphoma by definition is a lymphoma that is restricted to the thyroid gland(stage IE)or involves the thyroid gland and supradiaphragmatic predominantly adjacent thyroid lymph nodes(stage IIE).Primary thyroid lymphoma is a heterogenous disease encompassing a wide variety of lymphoma entities.The diagnosis and treatment of this lymphoma are emphasis of this article.

  11. Thyroid Hemiagenesis from Childhood to Adulthood: Review of Literature and Personal Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf T; Di Maio, Salvatore; Elsedfy, Heba; Soliman, Nada A; Elalaily, Rania

    2016-03-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis (TH) is a rare congenital abnormality of the thyroid gland, characterised by the absence of one lobe. The true prevalence of this congenital abnormality is not known because the absence of one thyroid lobe usually does not cause clinical symptoms by itself. Between 1970 and 2010, 329 cases of TH have been reported. It is interesting to note that most cases have an agenesis of the left lobe (80% of cases) followed by the isthmus (44-50% of cases). Although the female to male ratio was 1:1.4 in 24,032 unselected 11-to 14-yr-old schoolchildren from South-eastern Sicily, several other reports have documented a higher prevalence in women, which may indicate a possible gender association. Most cases of TH are diagnosed when patients present a lesion in the functioning lobe. The functioning lobe of the thyroid gland can be a site of pathological changes similar to a normally developed gland and may present a spectrum of diseases like multinodular goiter, colloid goiter, follicular adenoma, thyroiditis, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. In three of our patients, TH was associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis (n = 1) and with subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 2). The frequency of thyroid abnormalities in patients with TH varies with age, due to the longer exposure of the hemi-agenetic gland to TSH overstimulation in older patients. This could explain the controversy about the benign character of this anomaly. Other extrathyroidal lesions, such as parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia, cervical thymic cysts, ectopic sublingual thyroid gland and thyroglossal duct cyst have been reported with TH. Therefore, systematic follow-up of all identified cases is recommended. PMID:27116848

  12. 黑斑蛙变态过程中甲状腺发育及甲状腺激素分泌%THE DEVELOPMENT AND HORMONE LEVELS OF THYROID GLAND DURING RANA NIGROMACULATA METAMORPHOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛雅楠; 李圆圆; 张银凤; 楼钦钦; 赵亚娴; 秦占芬

    2014-01-01

    The metamorphosis of amphibians is considered as a good model to study thyroid hormone (TH) disruption. In the present study, we used Rana nigromaculata, a domestic species, to investigate thyroid development and the changes in TH levels during metamorphosis.We first described the morphological change during the tadpole develop-ment (stage 26-46) that the hind limbs appeared and finally formed five toes from stage 26 to 40. At the climax of metamorphosis, the dramatic changes include the protruded forelimbs and start-to-resorb tail. Tail resorption completed at stage 46, indicating the completion of metamorphosis. Corresponding to the morphological changes, histological fea-tures of thyroid gland changed significantly. From stage 26 to 37, the thyroid gland was small and developed slowly. At stage 38, the thyroid gland enlarged dramatically. The climax of thyroid gland development happened at the climax of metamorphosis. The thyroid gland began to shrink at the completion of metamorphosis. The thyroid hormone (T3) levels were associated with thyroid gland development. T3 content in per lower jaw was very low before metamorphosis, while increased dramatically during metamorphosis; it reached the peak level at the climax of metamorphosis and then de-creased. During Rana nigromaculata metamorphosis, thyroid hormone levels were correlated with thyroid gland histo-logical features. The current study creates the foundation for the research of thyroid hormone disruption.%系统研究了我国本土两栖动物种黑斑蛙(Rana nigromaculata)变态发育过程中甲状腺组织学和甲状腺激素水平的变化,为甲状腺生物学和甲状腺干扰研究提供基础数据。黑斑蛙蝌蚪发育的形态变化:第26-40阶段,后腿芽生长并逐渐分化出五趾结构;42阶段,开始进入变态高峰期,前肢展开,尾吸收,蝌蚪身体发生巨大形变;46阶段,蝌蚪完全变态成小蛙。随着形态学的变化,甲状腺的组织结

  13. An incidental finding of the accessory inferior thyroid artery

    OpenAIRE

    Sedy J

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of an incidental finding of the right accessory inferior thyroid artery, emerging from the thyrocervical trunk together with a typical inferior thyroid artery, present in a normal position. On the left side, only single inferior thyroid artery was present. Only one inferior thyroid vein was found on each side. The accessory inferior thyroid artery entered the thyroid gland approximately 1 cm above the normal inferior thyroid, above the superior parathyroid gland. Although acc...

  14. Thyroid swellings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rebecca Hatton; Madhukar Patel; Devasenan Devendra

    2009-01-01

    @@ A 48 year old post-menopausal woman presents with a smooth midline sweHing in her neck,which has been present for more than 10 years.On examination.you find that it is consistent with an enlarged thyroid gland.

  15. Evaluation of multi atlas-based approaches for the segmentation of the thyroid gland in IMRT head-and-neck CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Antong; Niermann, Kenneth J.; Deeley, Matthew A.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2011-03-01

    Segmenting the thyroid gland in head and neck CT images for IMRT treatment planning is of great importance. In this work, we evaluate and compare multi-atlas methods to segment this structure. The various methods we evaluate range from using a single average atlas representative of the population to selecting one atlas based on three similarity measures. We also compare ways to combine segmentation results obtained with several atlases, i.e., vote rule, and STAPLE, which is a commonly used method to combine multiple segmentations. We show that the best results are obtained when several atlases are combined. We also show that with our data sets, STAPLE does not lead to the best results.

  16. Lack of Preemptive Analgesia by Intravenous Flurbiprofen in Thyroid Gland Surgery: A Randomized, Double-blind and Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaodi Zhang, Haifang Zhao, Changsong Wang, Fei Han, Guonian Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Nowadays, increasingly more preemptive analgesia studies focus on postoperative pain; however, the impact of preemptive analgesia on perioperative opioid requirement is not well defined. This study was carried out in order to evaluate whether preoperative intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can reduce perioperative opioid consumption and provide postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing thyroid gland surgery.Methods Ninety patients undergoing elective thyroid gland surgery were randomly assigned to three groups. Group A (Control was administered Intralipid® 2 ml as a placebo 15 min before the cervical plexus block and at the end of the surgery; Group B (Routine analgesia was administered a placebo 15 min before the cervical plexus block and flurbiprofen 50 mg at the end of the surgery; Group C (Preemptive analgesia was administered intravenous flurbiprofen 50 mg 15 min before the cervical plexus block and a placebo at the end of the surgery. Sufentanil administration during the surgery and the 24 h satisfaction score on analgesic therapy were both recorded. The analgesic efficacy was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after the surgery, based on visual analog scales.Results Ninety patients were involved in the study. One patient from Group B did not have their scheduled surgery; eighty-nine patients completed the study. There were no significant differences in the patient demographics between the three groups. Visual analog scales: 1, 2, 4 h for Group A was significantly higher than Groups B and C (P<0.05; Sufentanil administration during surgery: Group C was obviously lower compared to Groups A and B (P<0.05; 24 h satisfaction score: Groups B and C were higher than Group A (P<0.05.Conclusion Preoperative administration of intravenous Flurbiprofen axetil reduced analgesic consumption during surgery, but not postoperative pain scores.

  17. Lack of Preemptive Analgesia by Intravenous Flurbiprofen in Thyroid Gland Surgery: A Randomized, Double-blind and Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaodi; Zhao, Haifang; Wang, Changsong; Han, Fei; Wang, Guonian

    2011-01-01

    Background Nowadays, increasingly more preemptive analgesia studies focus on postoperative pain; however, the impact of preemptive analgesia on perioperative opioid requirement is not well defined. This study was carried out in order to evaluate whether preoperative intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can reduce perioperative opioid consumption and provide postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing thyroid gland surgery. Methods Ninety patients undergoing elective thyroid gland surgery were randomly assigned to three groups. Group A (Control) was administered Intralipid® 2 ml as a placebo 15 min before the cervical plexus block and at the end of the surgery; Group B (Routine analgesia) was administered a placebo 15 min before the cervical plexus block and flurbiprofen 50 mg at the end of the surgery; Group C (Preemptive analgesia) was administered intravenous flurbiprofen 50 mg 15 min before the cervical plexus block and a placebo at the end of the surgery. Sufentanil administration during the surgery and the 24 h satisfaction score on analgesic therapy were both recorded. The analgesic efficacy was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after the surgery, based on visual analog scales. Results Ninety patients were involved in the study. One patient from Group B did not have their scheduled surgery; eighty-nine patients completed the study. There were no significant differences in the patient demographics between the three groups. Visual analog scales: 1, 2, 4 h for Group A was significantly higher than Groups B and C (P<0.05); Sufentanil administration during surgery: Group C was obviously lower compared to Groups A and B (P<0.05); 24 h satisfaction score: Groups B and C were higher than Group A (P<0.05). Conclusion Preoperative administration of intravenous Flurbiprofen axetil reduced analgesic consumption during surgery, but not postoperative pain scores. PMID:21814477

  18. Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the thyroid gland without distant metastases at diagnosis: report of six cases with a long follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collini, Paola; Barisella, Marta; Renne, Salvatore L; Pizzi, Natalia; Mattavelli, Davide; Stacchiotti, Silvia; Mattavelli, Franco

    2016-08-01

    We present six cases of epithelioid angiosarcomas (EAS) of the thyroid gland without distant metastases at diagnosis and with a long follow-up. We retrieved the six consecutive cases of thyroid EAS between 2005 and 2011. Gender was equally represented; median age was 60 years (range 53-68). One case was post-irradiation and another post-exposure to vinyl chloride. Median diameter was 6 cm (range 5-13). Regional nodal metastases were present at onset in two cases. All the cases expressed CD31 in a membranous pattern. CD34 was always negative. All the patients underwent complete surgical resection. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was applied in one case and adjuvant chemotherapy in four cases with adjuvant radiation therapy in one case. Follow-up until June 2015 was available in five cases. Median follow-up was 59 months (range 9-82). Three patients relapsed. Two patients (the post-irradiation and post vinyl chloride exposure cases) died of disease after 36 and 9 months, after a local relapse soon followed by distant metastases. Three patients are alive and well after 59, 70, and 82 months, including a patient with a relapse treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery. In conclusion, thyroid EAS without distant metastases at diagnosis are very rare tumors. They all expressed CD31, while CD34 was always negative. Distant metastases developed together with local relapse, rapidly followed by death. Inadequate surgery contributed to poor outcome. Cases with previous exposure to irradiation and vinyl chloride showed a particularly poor behavior. PMID:27229516

  19. Nonpalpable thyroid carcinoma: clinical controversies on preoperative selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Angelo; Nicolini, Andrea; Casara, Dario; Rubello, Domenico; Rosa Pelizzo, Maria

    2003-06-01

    This article emphasizes some controversies concerning the preoperative selection of nonpalpable thyroid tumors. The prevalence of occult thyroid carcinoma in surgical series (1.8-10%) is not higher than in autopsy thyroid series (2.7-24%). The prevalence of occult thyroid carcinoma in thyroid glands examined in the same institution by ultrasound, for a clinical thyroid abnormality or for investigation of other neck structures without clinically evident or suspected thyroid disease, varies from 3% to 8% and is very similar independent of the fact that a thyroid abnormality is or is not the indication for ultrasonography. These data suggest that the presence of a thyroid disease is not a risk factor for harboring an occult thyroid carcinoma (except for C-cell hyperplasia in the rare case of MEN 2 syndromes). As it is not cost effective to examine all the nonpalpable lesions with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) guided by ultrasounds, it is necessary to define to which extent ultrasound is useful in selecting those lesions to be examined cytologically by FNA. The use of ultrasound to select these lesions is very controversial. Ultrasound-guided cytologic diagnosis of nonpalpable nodules is not as accurate as in the case of palpable nodules. Sampling of material adequate for cytologic analysis depends on the lesion size; it is 64% for a 0.7-cm lesion and it increases to 86.7% for a mean size of 1.1 cm. For the diagnosis of occult thyroid carcinomas (limit for dividing thyroid nodules in probably innocuous or potentially dangerous categories and because the cytologic diagnosis of nodules of this size is sufficiently reliable. For the smaller incidentally discovered thyroid nodules following ultrasound, physicians should discuss with the patient whether and when to perform an ultrasound-guided FNA considering the patient's data (risk factors, age, health state, etc.), the natural history of a small thyroid carcinoma, as well as the accuracy of ultrasound and ultrasound

  20. Thyroid stem cells: lessons from normal development and thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Dolly; Friedman, Susan; Lin, Reigh-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Ongoing advances in stem cell research have opened new avenues for therapy for many human disorders. Until recently, however, thyroid stem cells have been relatively understudied. Here, we review what is known about thyroid stem cells and explore their utility as models of normal and malignant biological development. We also discuss the cellular origin of thyroid cancer stem cells and explore the clinical implications of cancer stem cells in the thyroid gland. Since thyroid cancer is the most...

  1. 甲状腺及臀部孤立性纤维性肿瘤2例报道及临床病理学分析%Solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland and buttock:Report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东斌; 章宜芬; 吴鸿雁; 武慧娟

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨孤立性纤维性肿瘤(solitary fibrous tumor,SFT)的临床、病理组织学、免疫组织化学等特点.方法:报道2例原发于罕见部位的SFT.例1发生在男性右甲状腺,例2发生在女性左臀部.观察2例罕见部位SFT病理组织学特点及免疫组织化学结果.结果:甲状腺及臀部的肿块最大径分别为4.5cm和7cm,两例均为单个孤立的椭圆形结节,有纤维性假包膜.镜下甲状腺SFT与其它文献报道相符合,呈良性形态,臀部SFT局灶肿瘤细胞密集具有非典型性并有出血、坏死,核分裂<4/10HPF.免疫组化染色两例均示肿瘤细胞表达CD34、Vimentin、Bcl-2及CD99阳性.例1甲状腺标记物TG,TTF-1肿瘤细胞表达阴性.结论:发生在甲状腺和臀部的SFT均属罕见.与其他部位发生的肿瘤具有相同的病理组织学特点和免疫组化表达,肿瘤细胞呈梭形和卵圆形,有血管外皮瘤样组织学特点,伴有硬化区和多量胶原纤维.因SFT组织学形态多样性,易与其他软组织肿瘤混淆,正确诊断有赖于病理组织学形态及免疫组化特点.甲状腺SFT多为良性,臀部SFT易发恶性,因SFT生物学行为的不定性,需要长期随访.%Objective:To explore the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of the solitary fibrous tumor(SFT). Methods: We described two cases of primary solitary fibrous tumor in rare position for their histopa-thology and immunohistochemical features. One patient was men and lesion was located in right thyroid gland, another patient was women and lesion was located in left buttock. Results: The greatest diameter of the mass in thyroid gland and buttock was 4. 5cm and 7cm, both of the tumors were well circumscribed. Histologically, the solitary fibrous tumor of thyroid gland(T - SFT) was similar with reported cases and showed benign pattern. The tumor cells of but-tock SFT( B - SFT) had high cellularity, cellular pleomorphism, haemorrhage,necrosis,and mitotic activity less 4

  2. F-18 FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan H.; Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seek Nam; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    F-18 FDG PET has become an important diagnostic imaging modality of various malignancies including thyroid cancer. Focal hypermetabolic lesion in the thyroid gland is usually considered malignant (Fig.1), although some benign lesions are also hypermetabolic. The aim of our poster presentation is to demonstrate F-18- FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules (ATN) and to avoid confusion in the interpretation of F-18-FDG PET performed for the evaluation of thyroid malignancy. Two patients with ATN (one with toxic and the other with nontoxic) underwent F-18-PET. ATN was proven by Tc-99m pertechnate thyroid scan (TS) and thyroid function tests (TFTs) were performed. First patient with ATN was asymptomatic and had a long history of thyroid nodule. Second patient was suffering from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and he was mildly thyrotoxic clinically and chemically. Gamma camera based F-18 FDG PET was performed utilizing Elscints Varicam (Haifa, Israel) one hour after IV administration of 111 MBq (3mCi) F-18 FDG. Patients were fasting more than 6 hours prior ot FDG injection. First patients was scanned the neck and second patient had scan of the whole trunk including neck for the evaluation of AML. Both nontoxic and toxic ATNs were hypermetabolic and it was impossible to differentiate benign from malignancy. Biopsy of nodule of the first patient and surgical removal of the nodule in the second patient was benign. Benign nontoxic and toxic ATNs are F-18 FDG avid. The reason for this is that ATN has increased glycolysis and iodide metabolism. Therefore, focal increased FDG uptake within the thyroid gland should be interpreted with TS and TFTs for an accurate diagnosis when F-18 FDG PET is used in the evaluation of thyroid malignancy.

  3. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Thyroid with Multiple Cervical Lymph Node Involvement Accompanying Metastatic Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyran, A. Bahar; Şenol, Serkan; Bayraktar, Barış; Özkanlı, Şeyma; Cinel, Z. Leyla; Aydın, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    A 37-year-old male case was admitted with goiter. Ultrasonography of thyroid showed a 5 cm cystic nodule in the left lobe with a 1.5 cm solid component. Fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion. The patient was operated on. The pathological diagnosis was reported as papillary thyroid carcinoma. The immunohistochemical examination showed multiple foci of Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving both lobes. The patient died due to cardiac arrest with respiratory causes in the early postoperative period. Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare primary condition which involves abnormal clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in various tissues and organs. Thyroid involvement is infrequently seen. Although the etiology is unknown, genetic components may be linked to the disease. It is also associated with a family history of thyroid disease. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial tumor of the thyroid gland. Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting with papillary thyroid carcinoma is rare. The privilege of our case is langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid with multiple cervical lymph node involvement accompanying cervical lymph node metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma. PMID:25349760

  4. Preoperative localization and minimally invasive management of primary hyperparathyroidism concomitant with thyroid disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The coexistence of thyroid diseases with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) can present a challenge in the clinical diagnosis and management for these patients. This study aims to determine the frequency of coexisting thyroid gland lesions in a consecutive series patients with PHPT, and to analyze the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of these patients. Twenty-two cases of a total of 52 PHPT patients who had synchronous thyroid and parathyroid pathology were surgically managed in this study.Thirteen patients had ipsilateral thyroid nodules, and 9 patients had thyroid nodules in contralateral or bilateral side. Seven patients underwent direct parathyroidectomy and hemithyroidectomy via a mini-incision (about 3 cm), while other 15 procedures were converted to Kocher incision. Seventeen nodular goiter (32.7%), 2 thyroiditis (3.8%), 2 thyroid adenoma (3.8%) and 1 thyroid carcinoma (1.9%) coexisting with parathyroid adenoma were pathologically diagnosed. The sensitivity of preoperative ultrasonography (US) and methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy for parathyroid lesions was 63.6% and 85.7%; and the overall positive predictive values for MIBI and US were 100% and 95.5% respectively. A high incidence of thyroid diseases that coexisted with PHPT in literatures was briefly reviewed. Our study illustrated the need for clinical awareness of concomitant PHPT and thyroid disease. A combination of US, computed tomography (CT) and MIBI scintigraphy would be recommended for preoperative localization of enlarged parathyroid adenoma and for evaluation of thyroid lesions. Synchronous treatment of associated thyroid abnormalities is desirable, and open minimally invasive surgical approach with additional resection of isolated ipsilateral thyroid nodules is possible in some of these patients.

  5. Risk of malignancy in thyroid incidentalomas detected by (18)f-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Kerstin; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Brix, Thomas Heiberg;

    2012-01-01

    Background: The expanding use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) has led to the identification of increasing numbers of patients with an incidentaloma in the thyroid gland. We aimed to review the proportion of incidental thyroid cancers found by (18)F-FDG PET...... uptake, 7 of whom (4.4%) had thyroid malignancy. In the eight studies reporting individual maximum standardized uptake values (SUV(max)), the mean SUV(max) was 4.8 (standard deviation [SD] 3.1) and 6.9 (SD 4.7) in benign and malignant lesions, respectively (p...

  6. 经直肠彩色多普勒超声对增生前列腺内腺低回声前列腺痛与低回声增生结节的鉴别%A study of the hypoechoic hypertrophic lesions and hypoechoic cancer lesions in hypertrophic prostate inner glands with transrectal color doppler ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Wang; Rui Hou; Guang Yang; Wenin Xue; Shen Lv

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To observe the sonographic and hemodynamic features of hypoechoic hypertrophic lesions and hy-poechoic cancer lesions in the hypertrophic prostate inner glands, in order to raise the accuracy of early diagnosis rate for prostate cancer. Methods: 31 cases of hypoechoic hypertrophic lesions and 18 cases of hypoechoic cancer lesions in the hypertrophic prostata inner glands were observed by transrectal ultrasonography and comparatively analyze the shape, edge and the systolic peak velocity (Vs), resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of the lesions. Results: In contrast with hypertrophic group, the cancer group presented irregular shape and unclear edge, and obviously higher Vs, RI and PI. Con-clusion: The sonographic appearance and Vs. RI. PI have important value in distinguishing hypoechoic hypertrophic lesions and hypoechoic cancer lesions in the hypertrophic prostate inner glands.

  7. Hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus with localized hypertrophic pachymeningitis (Tolosa-Hunt syndrome) associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakita, Noriyoshi; Hanamoto, Takayuki; Muraoka, Noriaki; Ikeda, Tsuneko; Hirata, Toshifumi; Yasuda, Keigo; Sano, Toshiaki

    2004-01-01

    We report a 69-year-old woman with intracranial pachymeningitis showing hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, and Tolosa-Hunt syndrome associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis confirmed by autopsy. A large tumorous lesion of the hypothalamo-pituitary gland was revealed on magnetic resonance imaging, after the patient complained of gait and visual field disturbance. These symptoms subsided after thyroid hormone supplementation. Hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus were diagnosed after cessation of the treatment by the patient herself. Multiple cranial nerve palsies and orbito-frontalgia appeared. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy improved the symptoms, but they recurred when the dose of glucocorticoid was decreased. The patient died of brain thrombosis. Autopsy revealed typical findings of Hashimoto thyroiditis and intracranial pachymeningitis involving the cranial base and pituitary gland. The high titer of rheumatoid factor and Hashimoto thyroiditis in this patient suggest an immunological role in the pathogenesis of pachymeningitis. PMID:14722395

  8. Factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de la glándula tiroides en mujeres: Risk Factors Associated With Thyroid Cancer Gland in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Eduardo Bosso

    2011-12-01

    s thyroidits and eating habits with excessive consumption of cruciferous plants, are risk factors associated with thyroid cancer gland

  9. 自身免疫性甲状腺疾病患者唾液腺功能研究%Salivary gland function in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽霞; 陈金燕; 亓丽丽; 任妍; 苏君梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the salivary gland function changes in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Methods Thirty five patients with Graves' disease (7 males and 28 females,aged 49.62 ± 11.10y), 15 patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (5 males and 10 females,aged 45.67 ± 9.85 y )and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were included in the study. All subjects underwent routine thyroid scintigraphy imaging and salivery gland dynamic imaging. Time - activity curve of bilateral parotids and bilateral submandibulars were obtained by outlining regions of interest (ROI) of these glands,excreting technetium rate (ex%) and excreting technetium time (Tex) of each gland were calculated. Results The excreting technetium function of major salivary glands decreased significantly in Graves' disease patients(P<0.05). The excreting technetium function in major salivary glands of Hashimoto thyroiditis decreased significantly(P<0.05). The time of excreting technetium of major salivary gland was not longer than that of normal controls. The major salivary gland function was not correlated with thyroid technetium uptake rate at 30min in Graves' disease patients (r= -0.1768,-0.2753,-0.2596,-0.1747; P= 0.3331,0.1299,0.1514,0.3388). Conclusion With salivary gland dynamic imaging during routine thyroid scintigraphy, thyroid function parameters and salivary gland function indicators can be obtained simultaneously.%目的 通过在自身免疫性甲状腺疾病患者甲状腺显像过程中加入唾液腺显像,旨在探讨自身免疫性甲状腺疾病患者唾液腺功能的改变,以便指导临床在治疗此类疾病过程中同时关注患者唾液腺功能.方法 选取35 例Graves 病患者,15 例桥本甲状腺炎和同期同年龄唾液腺功能正常者35例.Graves 病及桥本甲状腺炎患者在甲状腺显像同时进行唾液腺显像.在甲状腺显像注射显像剂后常规等待的30min 行唾液腺动态显像,通过勾画ROI,获得

  10. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Kandil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black thyroid syndrome, all of whom underwent thyroid surgery, were reviewed. Data on age, gender, race, preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA, thyroid function levels, and pathology reports were collected. Main Outcome. The mean age was 60 years. There were 5 females, 4 of whom were African American. All patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Black pigmentation was not diagnosed in preoperative FNA, and only one patient had a preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The other patients underwent surgery and were found to have black pigmentation of the thyroid associated with carcinoma. Conclusions. FNA does not diagnose black thyroid, which is associated with thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid glands with black pigmentation deserve thorough pathologic examination, including several sections of each specimen.

  11. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of thyroid gland: Report of two cases with follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa Azizun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation (SETTLE is a rare malignant thyroid tumor showing thymic or related branchial pouch differentiation. The tumors are composed predominantly of spindle cells along with focal epithelial component and ductular formations. SETTLE occurs in young patients, with indolent growth and a tendency to develop delayed blood-borne metastases. We herein report two cases of SETTLE with a follow-up period of 64 months and 30 months, respectively.

  12. Dual Ectopic Thyroid with Normally Located Thyroid: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Santanu Barua; Sarojini Dutta Choudhury; Mihir Saikia; Dipti Sarma; Uma Kaimal Saikia; Bipul Kumar Choudhury; Swapna Dewri

    2011-01-01

    Dual ectopic thyroid is a rare presentation of thyroid ectopia. Only a few cases have been reported in the world literature. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of a normally located thyroid is even rarer. We report a case of dual ectopic thyroid in the lingual and submandibular areas in a seventeen-year-old female with hypoplastic thyroid gland in its normal location. The patient presented with a midline swelling at the base of tongue with dysphagia. Thyroid function test revealed primary h...

  13. Diagnostic Criteria on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for Differentiating Benign from Malignant Focal Hypermetabolic Lesions of Parotid Gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Bin; Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Eun Jeong; Yoo, Jang; Cheon, Miju; Cho, Suk Kyong; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kim, Byung-Tae [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    We investigated PET/CT diagnostic criteria for differentiating benign from malignant parotid lesions with focal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. The subjects of the study were 272 patients who exhibited focal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake of the parotid gland. Sixty-eight pathologically confirmed parotid lesions from 67 patients were included. The maximum SUV (SUVmax), uptake patterns (homogeneous vs. heterogeneous), size measured by CT, maximum Housfield units (HUmax) and margins on CT (well vs. ill defined) of each parotid lesion on PET/CT images were compared with final diagnoses. Thirty- two parotid lesions were histologically proven to be malignant. There were significant differences in uptake patterns (cancer incidence, heterogeneous:homogeneous=79.2%:29.5%, p<0.0001) and margins on CT (cancer incidence, ill:well defined=84.4%:13.3%, p<0.0001) between benign and malignant lesions. The cancer risks of parotid lesions were 89.5% with heterogeneous uptake and ill-defined margins, 70.6% with heterogeneous uptake or ill-defined margins (no overlap in subjects) and 9.3% with homogeneous uptake and well-defined margins (p<0.0001). When any lesion with heterogeneous uptake or ill-defined margins was regarded as malignant, the sensitivity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 90.6% (29/32) and 85.6% (58/68), respectively. For predicting malignancy, combined PET/CT criteria showed better sensitivity, NPV and accuracy than PET-only criteria, and had a tendency to have more accurate results than CT-only criteria, and had a tendency to have more accurate results than CT-only criteria. There were no significant differences in SUVmax, size or HUmax between benign and malignant lesions. Uptake patterns and margins on CT are useful PET/CT diagnostic criteria for differentiating benign from malignant lesions.

  14. CT findings of benign lymphoepithelial lesion of major salivary glands%大涎腺良性淋巴上皮病变的CT表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余长亮; 李小虎; 王万勤; 刘斌; 余永强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the CT findings of benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLEL) of major salivary glands.Methods The CT findings of 11 cases with BLEL which were clinically and pathologically confirmed were analyzed.The relevant literatures were reviewed.All the patients received plain CT.Among them,5 patients had contrast CT as well.The location,number,shape,margin,density,and enhancement characteristics of the lesions were observed.Results Of 11 BLEL,8 lesions were located in the parotid gland,three in the submandibular gland.There were 7 cases with bilateral multiple lesions,and 4 cases with unilateral solitary lesion.BLEL of major salivary gland could be classified into three types according to the CT findings,including multinodular type,solitary mass type,and diffusely infiltrating type.Multinodular type was the most common type.The typical CT findings of the lesion included diffusely enlargement of bilateral parotids and (or) submandibular glands,heterogeneous increase of density of the parenchyma with multiple soft tissue density nodules,and multiple cystiform hypodense.On contrast-enhanced CT,the lesions mostly manifested as heterogeneous enhancement.The solid part of the nodules showed moderate or marked enhancement.However,the cystiform hypodense showed no enhancement.Conclusion Although the CT findings of BLEL of major salivary glands are variable,they still share some common characteristics,which are useful in the clinical diagnosis.%目的 分析大涎腺良性淋巴上皮病变的CT表现,以提高对该病的认识.方法 回顾性分析11例经临床和病理证实的大涎腺良性淋巴上皮病变的CT表现并复习相关文献.所有患者均行CT平扫,其中5例行增强扫描.对病灶的部位、数目、形态、边缘、密度及强化特征等进行观察分析.结果 11例病变中发生于腮腺8例,颌下腺3例.7例双侧多发,4例单侧单发.根据CT表现可分为多发结节型、单发肿块型和弥漫浸润型.以多发结节

  15. MR imaging of diffuse thyroid disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masaaki; Fujii, Koichi; Ohnishi, Takuya; Higashikawa, Motoki; Araki, Yutaka; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu [Kinki Univ., Osaka-Sayama, Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 38 diffuse goiters, including 30 chronic thyroiditis and 8 Basedow disease. MR findings were analyzed as to degree of swelling, margin, internal structures including homogeneity and low intensity bands. With regard to signal intensity, thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios on T1 and T2-weighted images were measured in 19 normal thyroid glands, 30 chronic thyroiditis and 8 Basedow disease. Additionally thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios were compared between 19 hypothyroid glands and 11 euthyroid glands in chronic thyroiditis. Chronic thyroiditis tended to show lobulated margins, inhomogeneous intensity, and low intensity bands connecting with vessels or not. Basedow disease tended to display smooth margins, inhomogeneous intensity and low intensity bands connecting with vessels. Thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios of Basedow disease and chronic thyroiditis were significantly higher than those of normal thyroid gland at all sequences. In chronic thyroiditis thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios of euthyroid glands were significantly higher than those of hypothyroid glands. MR imaging could reflect pathologic features of diffuse goiters. Moreover, MR imaging is potentially contributory to speculate about thyroid function and degree of serious condition in diffuse thyroid disorders. (author)

  16. A case of hemiagenesis of thyroid with double ectopic thyroid tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaravel Velayutham; Shriraam Mahadevan; Latha Velayutham; Muthukumaran Jayapaul; Balamurugan Appakalai; Arun Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Developmental abnormalities of the thyroid gland are very rare. The most common abnormalities include ectopic thyroid tissues that are commonly seen in lingual or sublingual location, agenesis, and hemiagenesis of the thyroid gland. These developmental defects may or may not be associated with thyroid dysfunction. Our case is an 18-year-old male who presented with swelling in the neck of 4-year duration. Clinical examination revealed an oval-shape swelling in the left side of the thyroid glan...

  17. Chewing-gum stimulation did not reduce the absorbed dose to salivary glands during radioiodine treatment of thyroid cancer as inferred from pre-therapy 124I PET/CT imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jentzen, Walter; Richter, Marion; Nagarajah, James; Poeppel, Thorsten Dirk; Brandau, Wolfgang; Dawes, Colin; Bockisch, Andreas; Binse, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Background The goal of this prospective study was to estimate the absorbed (radiation) doses to salivary glands in radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer under chewing-gum stimulation using 124I positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging. Methods Duplex ultrasonography was conducted in three test persons for visual comparison of the glandular blood flow with three different stimulation types (no stimulation, chewing tasteless gum base, sucking on lemon slices). Ten pat...

  18. Simultaneous Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bighan Khademi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The association of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx with thyroid papillary carcinoma is an unusual finding. From 2004 to 2011, approximately 250 patients underwent laryngectomies due to squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx at the Otolaryngology Department of Khalili Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. In three patients, synchronous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma was found. Histopathologic study of the lymph nodes revealed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in one case. We report three cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma incidentally found on histological examinations of resected thyroid lobes, as a procedure required for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In comparison, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma needs more aggressive treatment than well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The prevalence of thyroid papillary carcinoma, as an incidental finding in our study was 0.01%. Therefore, preoperative evaluation of the thyroid gland by ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspicious lesions is recommended in patients who are candidates for open laryngectomy.

  19. Chromosomal rearrangements and the pathogenesis of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan K.G. Grebe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of thyroid cancers arise from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland, which yield a wide variety of distinct morphotypes, ranging from relatively indolent lesions to the most malignant forms of cancer known. The remaining primary thyroid cancers arise from C cells within the gland and result primarily from mutations of the RET protooncogene, germ line mutations of which give rise to the various forms of multiple endocrine neoplasia. The most common of the follicular cell-derived cancers are papillary carcinomas, (PTC, followed by follicular carcinomas (FTC and its Hurthle cell variant (HCC and finally anaplastic carcinomas (ATC. The pathogenesis of many thyroid cancers, of both PTC and FTC morphotype, involves chromosomal translocations. Rearrangements of the RET protoconcogene are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of ca. 50% of PTC. A similar proportion of FTC have been associated with a t(2;3(q13;p25 translocation, fusing the thyroid-specific transcription factor PAX8 with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ nuclear receptor, a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor. These rearrangements have analogy with translocations in erythropoetic cells, which form the only other known group of human malignancies that are largely the result of chromosomal translocation events. In this review we compare and contrast the oncogenic properties of thyroid and erythroid chromosomal transformations and speculate on mechanisms leading to their formation.

  20. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination and computerized tomography (CT scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellular malignant neoplasm composed of round plasmacytoid cells arranged in solid nests, which showed a positive immunoexpression for CD138, epithelial membrane antigen (AME, kappa light chains and multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1. The diagnosis of PTP was accordingly established.O plasmocitoma extramedular constitui 3%-5% de todas as neoplasias de plasmócitos e aproximadamente 80% dos casos ocorrem no trato respiratório superior. Plasmocitomas primários da tireoide (TPP são tumores raros. Os autores relatam um caso de TPP em um paciente masculino referindo dispneia e disfagia. O exame físico e a tomografia computadorizada revelaram tumor sólido comprometendo a glândula tireoide, medindo 12 cm na maior dimensão, o qual foi submetido à biópsia cirúrgica. À microscopia, foi identificada neoplasia maligna hipercelular constituída por células redondas/plasmocitoides dispostas em ninhos sólidos, as quais exibiam imunoexpressão positiva para CD138, antígeno da membrana epitelial (AME, cadeias leves kappa e oncogene mieloma múltiplo 1 (MUM1. O diagnóstico de TPP foi, então, estabelecido.

  1. 甲状腺癌患者131I治疗后唾液腺显影及损伤原因分析%Image and damage of salivary glands induced by 131I treatment in patient with thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵祯; 贾莉

    2013-01-01

    Objectivet To evaluate the image and damage of salivary gland induced by 131 I treatment in patient with thyroid carcinoma. Methods One case of thyroid cancer, for left salivary gland developing in 13I I whole body imaging, were examined SPECT/CT fusion imaging and ultrasound of salivary glands. Results Left chronic parotitis was proved by fusion imaging and ultrasound. Conclusion 131 I used to treat thyroid cancer patient is taken up by the salivary glands for sodium iodine symporter. β-radiation from m I exerts cytotoxic effects in the salivary glands.%目的 探讨甲状腺癌患者131I治疗后唾液腺显影及损伤的原因.方法 1例甲状腺癌患者,131 I全身显像唾液腺显影,对唾液腺进行SPECT/CT融合显像和超声检查.结果 SPECT/CT融合显像、唾液腺超声提示左侧慢性腮腺炎.结论 甲状腺癌患者131I治疗后唾液腺显影和损伤,与唾液腺小叶导管上皮细胞膜钠碘同向转运体摄取131I,131I发射β射线使细胞发生坏死有关,要密切观察及监测唾液腺功能.

  2. Case presentation – thyroid lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkisa Izić

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors of the thyroid gland account for about 1% of thenewly diagnosed malignant tumors each year, and their incidence inwomen is twice the incidence in men. According to the WHO classification (2004 thyroid tumors are divided into: carcinoma of the thyroid, adenoma and similar tumors, and other thyroid tumors which include: teratomas, angiosarcomas, paragangliomas and others, as well as primary lymphomas and plasmacytomas. Primary thyroid lymphomasare defined as lymphomas which originate in the thyroid gland. This study presents the case of a 68-year-old patient with a thyroid lymphoma, which caused compression of the airways. In the patientpresented there was reduced activity of the thyroid gland. The dominant symptoms were: breathing difficulties, hoarse voice and the enlargement of the thyroid. An ultrasound examination was performedbefore surgery on the neck, which showed a multinodular thyroid,with compromised and compressed trachea to the right and rear. Anemergency surgical procedure was performed to reduce the tumor.Pathohistological diagnosis confirmed diffuse large B cell lymphoma.The aim of the study was to present a patient with a thyroid lymphoma, who had previously not had any immunological changes to the gland,that is, she had not had any chronic lymphocyte thyroiditis, but due to the compressive syndrome it was necessary to perform an emergencysurgical procedure to reduce the tumor.

  3. The concordance between thyroid nodules ultrasound, based on thyroid Imaging reporting and data systems, and fine needle aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Farshchian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid nodules are solid or cystic lumps within the thyroid gland. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concordance between thyroid nodules ultrasound reports, based on Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data (TIRAD System and results of ultrasound guided Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 144 patients with thyroid nodules who referred to the radiology department of Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah at the request of endocrinologist were evaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS-21software using descriptive statistics. Results: The age range of patients was 15 to 78, with mean age 44.86±13.27 years. Of the sample, 141 cases (97.9 % were female and 3 cases (2.1 % were male. Based on the results of pathology, 130 (90.2% were benign and 14 (9.8% were malignant lesions and sonography result 129 cases (89.6% were benign and 15 cases (10.4% were malignant. There was a significant difference between the results of sonography and FNA and Kappa agreement test showed a significant concordance (96% between the sonographic reports of thyroid nodules, based on TIRAD system, and pathological findings. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated a high concordance between sonographic reports of thyroid nodules, based on TIRAD category, and FNA findings. Thus, TIRAD-based ultrasound can play a key role in determining thyroid nodules, thereby facilitating patient's management.

  4. Conduta conservadora no carcinoma papilífero da glândula tireóide Partial resection for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josias de Andrade Sobrinho

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados do tratamento do carcinoma papilífero limitado a um lobo da glândula tireóide, através de tireoidectomia parcial com seguimento superior a cinco anos. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo de 105 prontuários de pacientes portadores de carcinoma diferenciado da glândula tireóidea operados no Departamento de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço e Otorrinolaringologia do Hospital Heliópolis, Hosphel, São Paulo de 1977 a 1997 e selecionados 31 casos que apresentavam nódulos limitados a um lobo da glândula com seguimento superior a cinco anos e submetidos à lobectomia total mais istmectomia. RESULTADOS: Observamos somente um caso (3% de disfonia transitória com paresia de prega vocal unilateral que regrediu espontaneamente. Não houve casos de hipoparatireoidismo transitório ou definitivo. O seguimento médio foi de 12,6 anos, sendo todos com seguimento superior a cinco anos; 10 casos (32% com seguimento entre 10 e 15 anos e 10 casos (32% com seguimento além de 15 anos. Não foram observados casos com recorrência loco-regional ou metástase à distância, estando todos eles assintomáticos e sem doença. CONCLUSÃO: Nesta série, a tireoidectomia parcial para carcinoma papilífero limitado a um lobo, mostrou-se eficaz.BACKGROUND: To analyse the survival rate after partial resection for papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland. METHODS: After a retrospective study of 105 files of patients operated on at Hospital Heliópolis, Hosphel, São Paulo from 1977 to 1997, 31 patients with a single node were selected. They were submitted to partial resection (total lobectomy plus istmectomy, and evaluated for five years or more postoperatively. RESULTS: It was observed one case of transitory disphony (3% with spontaneous regression.There were no cases of hypoparathyroidism. Medium follow up was of 12,6 years, with 10 (32% with follow up between 10 and 15 years and 10(32% with more than 15 years. No regional or distant recurrences

  5. Radioprotection of salivary glands by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine treatment. Results of a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Klutmann, S.; Kroeger, S.; Buchert, R.; Bleckmann, C.; Mester, J.; Clausen, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Nuklearmedizin; Brenner, W.; Henze, E. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1999-11-01

    Background and purpose: Parenchymal impairment of salivary glands following high-dose radioiodine treatment is a well-known side effect in general caused by free radicals. Therefore, the radioprotective effect of the radical scavenger amifostine was evaluated prospectively in patients receiving high-dose radioiodine treatment. Patients and methods: Parenchymal function was assessed by quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy performed in 50 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after high-dose radioiodine treatment with either 3 GBq {sup 131}I (n=21) or 6 BGq {sup 131}I (n=29) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Twenty-five patients treated with 500 mg/m{sup 2} amifostine intravenously prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment were compared to 25 control patients receiving physiological saline solution. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO-criteria. Results: In 25 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.001) reduced parenchymal function of parotid and submandibular glands by 40.2{+-}14.1% and 39.9{+-}15.3%, respectively. Nine out of these 25 patients developed Grade I and 2 Grade II xerostomia. In contrast, in 25 amifostine-treated patients there was no significant (p=0.691) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. Conclusion: Parenchymal damage of salivary glands induced by high-dose radioiodine treatment can be significantly reduced by amifostine which may improve quality of life of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund und Ziel: Eine Schaedigung der Speicheldruesen mit konsekutiver Xerostomie ist eine bekannte, durch freie Radikale verursachte Nebenwirkung der ablativen Radioiodtherapie bei Patienten mit differenziertem Schilddruesenkarzinom. Daher wurde der Effekt des Radikalfaengers Amifostin bei ablativer Radioiodtherapie geprueft. Patienten und Methoden: Es wurden insgesamt 50

  6. Clinical significance of patterns of incidental thyroid uptake at 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidental uptake of 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) in the thyroid gland is not uncommonly encountered in day-to-day practice of oncological 18F-FDG positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). These are often felt to be “nuisance lesions” by referring clinicians and radiologists alike. However, recognition of the importance of different patterns of FDG uptake in the thyroid gland and knowledge of the possible underlying aetiologies are crucial in ensuring that patients are managed appropriately in the clinical context of their primary diagnosis, as the underlying pathological condition may be clinically important in a significant minority of such cases. This review describes the various patterns of 18F-FDG uptake within the thyroid and discusses the clinical significance and possible impact on patient management. Incidental low-grade homogeneous diffuse increased thyroid 18F-FDG uptake is usually seen in the patients with chronic thyroiditis, Grave's disease, and hypothyroidism. Thyroid function tests and antibody profiling are advised in these patients. Incidental focal 18F-FDG thyroid uptake should raise the possibility of underlying malignancy. Ultrasound with or without fine-needle aspiration cytology is usually recommended for the evaluation of these lesions. Heterogeneous uptake with prominent focal uptake in the thyroid should be further evaluated to exclude malignancy

  7. Ultrasonography of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two rare diseases of the thyroid gland are described. One, an intracystic carcinoma, has apparently only been described once before. The other, a mousetyphoid induced abscess, is extremely rare. Without ultrasonography both conditions would have been misdiagnosed in the first instance. It is advocated that all uncertain thyroid conditions and all ''cold'' areas on scintigraphy should be examined with ultrasonography. (orig.)

  8. Thyroid ultrasound (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a sound wave picture of the thyroid gland taken by a hand-held instrument and translated to a 2-dimensional picture on a monitor. It is used in diagnosis of tumors, cysts or goiters of the thyroid, and is a painless, no-risk procedure.

  9. Pathophysiology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main physiological function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroid hormones. The primary physiological control over iodine transport, organification and hormone synthesis appears to be through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Regulation of tumor cells, biochemical studies in experimental tumors, role of oxygen free radical and antioxidants, role of proteases in metastasis, influence of growth factors and influence of sex hormones and receptors are discussed

  10. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound with perfusion analysis for the identification of malignant and benign tumours of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendl, C M; Janke, M; Jung, W; Stroszczysnski, C; Jung, E M

    2015-10-27

    The aim of our study was to evaluate, whether the analysis of time intensity curves (TIC) of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) could help to differentiate between thyroid adenomas and carcinomas in daily clinical routine.B-mode, Colour Coded Doppler Sonography (CCDS), Power Doppler (PD) and CEUS were applied for 50 patients (27 men, 23 women; mean age 51 years, range 16-81 years).CEUS cine-sequences were analysed using time intensity curves (TIC) and calculating time to peak (TTP) as well as the area under the curve (AUC).All 20 patients with carcinomas presented with a complete wash-out in the late phase of CEUS while this occurred only in three out of the 30 patients with adenomas.Marked differences were observed between adenomas and carcinomas concerning the mean AUC in the surrounding thyroid tissue (p = 0.041). In addition, TTP differed clearly between the centre and the surrounding of the carcinomas (p benign and malignant nodules.

  11. Thyroid Cancer Statistics | Did You Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid cancer represents the 8th most common cancer in the United States. Did you know that this cancer, located at the base of the throat in the thyroid gland, is highly treatable and usually curable?

  12. Same-sex marriage, autoimmune thyroid gland dysfunction and other autoimmune diseases in Denmark 1989-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Morten; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have been little studied in gay men and lesbians. We followed 4.4 million Danes, including 9,615 same-sex married (SSM) persons, for 47 autoimmune diseases in the National Patient Registry between 1989 and 2008. Poisson regression analyses provided first hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) comparing rates between SSM individuals and persons in other marital status categories. SSM individuals experienced no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the risk of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction was increased, notably Hashimoto's thyroiditis (women(SSM), RR = 2.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.74-4.55) and Graves' disease (men(SSM), RR = 1.88; 95% CI 1.08-3.01). There was also an excess of primary biliary cirrhosis (women(SSM), RR = 4.09; 95% CI 1.01-10.7), and of psoriasis (men(SSM), RR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.77-3.36), rheumatic fever (men(SSM), RR = 7.55; 95% CI 1.87-19.8), myasthenia gravis (men(SSM), RR = 5.51; 95% CI 1.36-14.4), localized scleroderma (men(SSM), RR = 7.16; 95% CI 1.18-22.6) and pemphigoid (men(SSM), RR = 6.56; 95% CI 1.08-20.6), while Dupuytren's contracture was reduced (men(SSM), RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.39-0.99). The excess of psoriasis was restricted to same-sex married men with HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 10.5; 95% CI 6.44-15.9), whereas Graves' disease occurred in excess only among same-sex married men without HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.12-3.22). Lesbians and immunologically competent gay men in same-sex marriage face no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the observed increased risk of thyroid dysfunction in these lesbians and gay men deserves further study.

  13. Same-sex marriage, autoimmune thyroid gland dysfunction and other autoimmune diseases in Denmark 1989-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Morten; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have been little studied in gay men and lesbians. We followed 4.4 million Danes, including 9,615 same-sex married (SSM) persons, for 47 autoimmune diseases in the National Patient Registry between 1989 and 2008. Poisson regression analyses provided first hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) comparing rates between SSM individuals and persons in other marital status categories. SSM individuals experienced no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the risk of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction was increased, notably Hashimoto's thyroiditis (women(SSM), RR = 2.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.74-4.55) and Graves' disease (men(SSM), RR = 1.88; 95% CI 1.08-3.01). There was also an excess of primary biliary cirrhosis (women(SSM), RR = 4.09; 95% CI 1.01-10.7), and of psoriasis (men(SSM), RR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.77-3.36), rheumatic fever (men(SSM), RR = 7.55; 95% CI 1.87-19.8), myasthenia gravis (men(SSM), RR = 5.51; 95% CI 1.36-14.4), localized scleroderma (men(SSM), RR = 7.16; 95% CI 1.18-22.6) and pemphigoid (men(SSM), RR = 6.56; 95% CI 1.08-20.6), while Dupuytren's contracture was reduced (men(SSM), RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.39-0.99). The excess of psoriasis was restricted to same-sex married men with HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 10.5; 95% CI 6.44-15.9), whereas Graves' disease occurred in excess only among same-sex married men without HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.12-3.22). Lesbians and immunologically competent gay men in same-sex marriage face no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the observed increased risk of thyroid dysfunction in these lesbians and gay men deserves further study. PMID:24306355

  14. Metastasis of leiomyosarcoma to the thyroid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xiao-rong; WANG Gang; KUANG Chun-jing; PENG Gui-zu; CHEN Ren-sheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Leiomyosarcoma metastatic to the thyroid is extremely rare. Despite the fact that the thyroid gland is one of the largest vascular organs in the body, clinical and surgical cases have given an incidence of only 3% for secondary malignancies of the organ. Nevertheless,thyroid metastases are not an exceptional finding at autopsy, they are encountered in 2% to 24% of the patients with malignant neoplasms.1 We report a man with right leg leiomyosarcoma metastatic to the thyroid gland.

  15. 纳米碳在甲状腺癌手术中对甲状旁腺保护的应用价值%Application value of nano carbon for the protection of parathyroid glands in thyroid carcinoma surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丽平; 刘存山; 骆献阳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨纳米碳在甲状腺癌手术中对甲状旁腺保护的应用价值。方法:收治甲状腺癌患者88例,随机分成纳米碳组和对照组。对照组行甲状腺腺叶或甲状腺全切除,纳米碳组采用纳米碳黑染淋巴结后行甲状腺腺叶或甲状腺全切除。结果:纳米碳组无甲状旁腺误切,对照组甲状旁腺误切率20.5%,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。纳米碳组侧颈部淋巴结切除(10±5)个,中央区颈部淋巴结切除(10±4)个,对照组侧颈部淋巴结切除(6±4)个,中央区颈部淋巴结切除(6±3)个,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:纳米碳能够清晰地显示甲状旁腺,避免术中误切甲状旁腺,对保护甲状旁腺起到了较好的临床效果。%Objective:To investigate the application value of nano carbon for the protection of parathyroid glands in thyroid carci-noma surgery.Methods:88 cases of patients with thyroid carcinoma were randomly divided into the nano carbon group and the con-trol group.The control group underwent the resection of thyroid gland and thyroid,the nano carbon group underwent the resection of thyroid gland and thyroid after lymph nodes staining black using nano carbon.Results:There was no parathyroid glands removed incorrectly in the nano carbon group and the incorrect removed rate of parathyroid glands in the control group was 20.5%,the dif-ference was statistically significant(P<0.05).The dissection of lateral cervical lymph nodes in the nano carbon group were (10± 5) and the dissection of central neck lymph nodes were (10±4),the dissection of lateral cervical lymph nodes in the control group were (6±4) and the dissection of central neck lymph nodes were (6±3),the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Con-clusion:Nano carbon could display the parathyroid glands clearly and avoid the intraoperative parathyroid glands incorrect re-moved,which had better clinical effect

  16. Preventing the parathyroid glands and their blood supplies during level VI lymphadenectomy of thyroid cancer surgery%甲状腺癌Ⅵ区清扫术中预防甲状旁腺损伤的术式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐宏

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss how to identify and protect the parathyroid glands and their blood supplies during level Ⅵ lymphadenectomy of thyroid cancer surgery.Methods: During operation ,the parathyroid glands were exposed and preserved ,and the trunk of thyroid arteries were avoided to ligate.After operation,the function of parathyroid was observed.Results: Before operation,the blood concentrations in patients received ligating the trunk of thyroid arteries were almost the same compared to those without ligating the arteries,there was no statistical difference,but after operation,there was statistical difference(P<0.01 ).Conclusion: During level Ⅵ lymphadenectomy of thyroid cancer surgery,parathyroid glands and its artery blood-supply should be exposed and preserved to prevent hypoparathyroidism after surgery.%目的:探讨甲状腺癌Ⅵ区清扫术中保留甲状腺血管后支对甲状旁腺血运及功能的影响.方法:采用传统方法行甲状腺癌VI区淋巴结清扫及术中保留甲状腺上下血管后支方法的手术,术后观察甲状旁腺的血运及功能变化.结果:甲状腺癌Ⅵ区淋巴结清扫术中保留甲状旁腺上下血管后支可明显阳氏对甲状旁腺血运和功能影响.结论:甲状腺癌Ⅵ区清扫术中保留甲状腺血管后支可有效预访甲状旁腺功静低下.

  17. The influence of saliva flow stimulation on the absorbed radiation dose to the salivary glands during radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer using {sup 124}I PET(/CT) imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentzen, Walter; Schmitz, Jochen; Freudenberg, Lutz; Eising, Ernst; Bockisch, Andreas; Stahl, Alexander [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Balschuweit, Dorothee; Hilbel, Thomas [Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen, Fachbereich Physikalische Technik, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    A serious side effect of high-activity radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer is radiogenic salivary gland damage. This damage may be diminished by lemon-juice-induced saliva flow immediately after {sup 131}I administration. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing lemon slices on the absorbed (radiation) doses to the salivary glands. Ten patients received (pretherapy) {sup 124}I PET(/CT) dosimetry before their first radioiodine therapy. The patients underwent a series of six PET scans at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 48 and {>=}96 h and one PET/CT scan at 24 h after administration of 27 MBq {sup 124}I. Blood samples were also collected at about 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 h. Contrary to the standard radioiodine therapy protocol, the patients were not stimulated with lemon juice. Specifically, the patients chewed no lemon slices during the pretherapy procedure and neither ate food nor drank fluids until after completion of the last PET scan on the first day. Organ absorbed doses per administered {sup 131}I activity (ODpAs) as well as