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Sample records for thyroid function studies

  1. Thyroid function study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    A short revision of thyroid physiology is done. The radioisotopes of common use in thyroid investigation and the choice of the most appropriated ones are discussed. A table showing radioisotopes frequently used in this study, with their main characteristics is presented. Among several isotopic assays in thyroid propaedeutics, those that refer to the function study, topographic studies and tests 'in vitro' are pointed out. Exploration methods 'in vivo' are treated, such as: thyroid uptake; urinary excretion; thyroid scintigraphy, with scintigraphic imagings; stimulation test by TSH; suppression test; pbi; clearance test with perchlorate; iodine deficiency test and thyroid study with technetium. 'In vitro' proofs like triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) assays, as well as free thyroxine index, are treated. At last, the therapeutics by Iodine 131 is commented and emphasis is given to its application on the treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma [pt

  2. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Thyroid Function Tests Leer en Español Thyroid Function Tests FUNCTION HOW DOES THE THYROID GLAND FUNCTION? ... Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Function Tests Resources Thyroid Function Tests Brochure PDF En ...

  3. A population study of the association between thyroid autoantibodies in serum and abnormalities in thyroid function and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, I.B.; Laurberg, P.; Knudsen, N.

    2005-01-01

    autoantibodies in serum and abnormalities in thyroid function and structure, and to study the thyroid volume in subjects with subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism. Design A population study including 4649 randomly selected subjects. Measurements Blood tests were used to analyse for thyroid peroxidase...

  4. Study of Thyroid Function in Children with Attention Deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of Thyroid Function in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Aggressive Behavior. ... Results: There was a significantly lower IQ (p<0.05) among patients (84.2±16.4%) when compared to controls (100.9±5.4%).

  5. Maternal thyroid function and child educational attainment: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott M; Haig, Caroline; McConnachie, Alex; Sattar, Naveed; Ring, Susan M; Smith, George D; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lindsay, Robert S

    2018-02-20

    To determine if first trimester maternal thyroid dysfunction is a critical determinant of child scholastic performance and overall educational attainment. Prospective cohort study. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in the UK. 4615 mother-child pairs with an available first trimester sample (median 10 weeks gestation, interquartile range 8-12). Free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies assessed as continuous measures and the seven clinical categories of maternal thyroid function. Five age-specific national curriculum assessments in 3580 children at entry stage assessment at 54 months, increasing up to 4461 children at their final school assessment at age 15. No strong evidence of clinically meaningful associations of first trimester free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone levels with entry stage assessment score or Standard Assessment Test scores at any of the key stages was found. Associations of maternal free thyroxine or thyroid stimulating hormone with the total number of General Certificates of Secondary Education (GCSEs) passed (range 0-16) were all close to the null: free thyroxine, rate ratio per pmol/L 1.00 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.01); and thyroid stimulating hormone, rate ratio 0.98 (0.94 to 1.02). No important relationship was observed when more detailed capped scores of GCSEs allowing for both the number and grade of pass or when language, mathematics, and science performance were examined individually or when all educational assessments undertaken by an individual from school entry to leaving were considered. 200 (4.3%) mothers were newly identified as having hypothyroidism or subclinical hypothyroidism and 97 (2.1%) subclinical hyperthyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Children of mothers with thyroid dysfunction attained an equivalent number of GCSEs and equivalent grades as children of mothers with euthyroidism. Maternal thyroid dysfunction in early pregnancy does not have a

  6. Thyroid function and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Andersen, Stig; Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Karmisholt, Jesper

    2012-10-01

    Important interaction exists between thyroid function, weight control, and obesity. Several mechanisms seem to be involved, and in studies of groups of people the pattern of thyroid function tests depends on the balance of obesity and underlying thyroid disease in the cohort studied. Obese people with a normal thyroid gland tend to have activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis with higher serum TSH and thyroid hormones in serum. On the other hand, small differences in thyroid function are associated with up to 5 kg difference in body weight. The weight loss after therapy of overt hypothyroidism is caused by excretion of water bound in tissues (myxoedema). Many patients treated for hyperthyroidism experience a gain of more weight than they lost during the active phase of the disease. The mechanism for this excessive weight gain has not been fully elucidated. New studies on the relation between L-T3 therapy and weight control are discussed. The interaction between weight control and therapy of thyroid disease is important to many patients and it should be studied in more detail.

  7. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  8. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Main, Katharina M; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To overview the effects of endocrine disrupters on thyroid function. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in recent years have revealed thyroid-disrupting properties of many environmentally abundant chemicals. Of special concern is the exposure of pregnant women and infants, as thyroid...

  9. Comprehensive radionuclide study of the functional status of hypophyseal-thyroid system in autonomous thyroid adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashkadamov, A.V. (Kievskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Ehndokrinologii i Obmena Veshchestv (Ukrainian SSR))

    1981-10-01

    The significance of radionuclide investigation methods in the diagnosis of the functional state of thyroid and the role of these methods in the diagnosis of compensated and decompensated toxic adenomas, are found out. It is established that thyrotropic pituitary body function is decreased in patients with autonomous thyroid adenomas. The general thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentration is higher in patients with clinical thyrotoxicosis manifestations. It is shown that complex, radioisotope and radioimmunologic investigations are of great value in the diagnosis of compensated and decompensated toxic adenoma.

  10. Comprehensive radionuclide study of the functional status of hypophyseal-thyroid system in autonomous thyroid adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashkadamov, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The significance of radionuclide investigation methods in the diagnosis of the functional state of thyroid and the role of these methods in the diagnosis of compensated and decompensated toxic adenomas, are found out. It is established that thyrotropic pituitary body function is decreased in patients with autonomous thyroid adenomas. The general thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentration is higher in patients with clinical thyrotoxicosis manifestations. It is shown that complex, radioisotope and radioimmunologic investigations are of great value in the diagnosis of compensated and decompensated toxic adenoma [ru

  11. Maternal thyroid function and the outcome of external cephalic version: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, S.M.I.; Kooistra, L.; Hasaart, T.H.M.; Donk, M.W.; Vader, H.; Oei, S.G.; Pop, V.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate the relation between maternal thyroid function and the outcome of external cephalic version (ECV) in breech presentation. Methods Prospective cohort study in 141 women (= 35 weeks gestation) with a singleton fetus in breech. Blood samples for assessing thyroid function were

  12. Iodine and thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Rim Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency causes hypothyroidism that results in impaired somatic growth and motor development in children. Mild and moderate iodine deficiencies cause multifocal autonomous growth of thyroid, which results in thyrotoxicosis. On the other hand, iodine excess is associated with the development of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity. In areas of iodine deficiency, a sudden increase in iodine intake is associated with transient hyperthyroidism. Recent studies demonstrated that long-term thyroid function of subjects who experienced both iodine deficiency and iodine excess during childhood tended to be abnormal despite optimization of their current iodine intake. Iodine status in the Korean Peninsula is very unique because people in the Republic of Korea have been shown to have predominantly excessive iodine levels, whereas the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is known to be an iodine-deficient area. Further research is warranted to verify the optimal ranges of iodine intake and to clarify the effects of iodine intake on thyroid disorders in the Korean Peninsula.

  13. Study of thyroid function, using iodine 131, in leprosy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatit, E.D.; Carvalho, N.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made in a group of 117 leprosy patients in differents clinical conditions, under treatment, in drug rest or virgins of treatment. They were divided in sub-groups for the following tests: the radioiodine uptake of 2-24 hours; neck-thigh ratio; thyrobinding index; protein-bound radioiodine (PB 131 I) levels of plasma. The results led to the following conclusions: 1) Leprosy patients present a low uptake in conjunction with a decrease in the velocity of thyroid clearance in the majority of the cases. Even the remaining presented values within the low limit of normality; 2) In view of these results, the tests were repeated after thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with exogenous TSH, in the sub-group of patients virgin of treatment. With the positive response observed (increase in the uptake, in the neck-thigh ratio and the PB 131 I) the low uptake was considered secondary with regard to a deficit of the endogenous TSH; 3) The TBI and PB 131 I tests were not in sufficient agreement for an appraisal of the phase of organic binding and release of hormone [pt

  14. Neonatal thyroid screening results are related to gestational maternal thyroid function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, S.M.I.; Kooistra, L.; Wijnen, H.A.; Vader, H.L.; Hasaart, T.H.M.; Oei, S.G.; Vulsma, T.; Pop, V.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between maternal thyroid function at each pregnancy trimester and neonatal screening results. Background Overt maternal thyroid dysfunction during gestation is associated with poor neonatal thyroid function. However, research on the relationship between suboptimal

  15. Longitudinal Changes in Thyroid Function in the Oldest Old and Survival: The Cardiovascular Health Study All-Stars Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Avantika C.; Arnold, Alice M.; Newman, Anne B.; Bùžková, Petra; Hirsch, Calvin

    2012-01-01

    Context: Data on thyroid function in the oldest old are sparse, and existing studies show conflicting evidence on the relationship between thyroid function and mortality in this age group. Objective: We describe longitudinal changes in thyroid function in a cohort of elderly individuals and determine the relationship between thyroid function and mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Eight hundred forty-three participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars Study who were not taking thyroid medications and had thyroid function testing in 2005–2006 (mean age 85 yr). Main Outcome Measure: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (FT4), total T3, and thyroid peroxidase antibody status were measured in 1992–1993 and 2005–2006. Deaths were ascertained through February 2011. Results: There was a statistically significant 13% increase in TSH, 1.7% increase in FT4, and 13% decrease in total T3 over the 13-yr period. Two hundred eighty-seven deaths occurred over a median follow-up of 5.1 yr. There was no association between subclinical hypothyroidism[hazard ratio (HR) 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66–1.43], TSH level (HR per milliunits per liter 0.94, 95% CI 0.88–1.01), or persistent thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.62–1.92), and death. However, FT4 was positively associated with death (HR per nanograms per deciliter 2.57, 95% CI 1.32–5.02). Conclusions: TSH increased over time in these older individuals. This elevation was not associated with increased or decreased mortality, although higher FT4 levels were associated with death. These findings raise concern for treatment of mild elevations of TSH in advanced age. Further studies are needed to determine the potential benefit of treating age-related changes in thyroid function. PMID:22879629

  16. Study Of thyroid Function In Children With Attention Deficit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a well recognized psychiatric disorder of childhood. Its cause is unknown, but there is evidence of familial predisposition. Symptoms suggestive of the disorder have been reported in patients with generalized resistance to thyroid hormones. (GRTH), a disease ...

  17. Maternal thyroid function and the outcome of external cephalic version: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate the relation between maternal thyroid function and the outcome of external cephalic version (ECV) in breech presentation. Methods Prospective cohort study in 141 women (≥ 35 weeks gestation) with a singleton fetus in breech. Blood samples for assessing thyroid function were taken prior to ECV. Main outcome measure was the relation between maternal thyroid function and ECV outcome indicated by post ECV ultrasound. Results ECV success rate was 77/141 (55%), 41/48 (85%) in multipara and 36/93 (39%) in primipara. Women with a failed ECV attempt had significantly higher TSH concentrations than women with a successful ECV (p breech (OR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.10-0.93) and placenta anterior (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.85) were independently related to ECV success. Conclusions Higher TSH levels increase the risk of ECV failure. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00516555 PMID:21269431

  18. Maternal thyroid function and the outcome of external cephalic version: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Donk Riet W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the relation between maternal thyroid function and the outcome of external cephalic version (ECV in breech presentation. Methods Prospective cohort study in 141 women (≥ 35 weeks gestation with a singleton fetus in breech. Blood samples for assessing thyroid function were taken prior to ECV. Main outcome measure was the relation between maternal thyroid function and ECV outcome indicated by post ECV ultrasound. Results ECV success rate was 77/141 (55%, 41/48 (85% in multipara and 36/93 (39% in primipara. Women with a failed ECV attempt had significantly higher TSH concentrations than women with a successful ECV (p Conclusions Higher TSH levels increase the risk of ECV failure. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00516555

  19. Study on the incidence and etiology of subclinical thyroid function disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jingxin; Xie Xiuhai; Huang Chenyang; Fu Junyan; Lu Weiguo; Chen Kejing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the incidence and etiology of subclinical thyroid function disorders in 12592 subjects tested. Methods: The etiology of 874 patients with abnormal serum TSH (with IRMA) found in the tested 12592 patients, whose serum T 3 , T 4 , FT 3 , FT 4 , TSH, TGA and TMA were also detected with RIA was analyzed. Results: 874 of 12592 patients had abnormal TSH levels (6.94%). Among them, TSH was elevated in 397 patients (3.15%) and decreased in 477 patients (3.79%). Most of them were associated with obvious related thyroid or other thronic diseases such as hyperthyroidism after therapy, thyroxine replacement treatment of hypothyroidism and other thyroid diseases (thyroiditis, diffuse nontoxic goiter). In the remaining apparently disease-free 143 subjects, there were with subclinical hypothyroidism and 34 (3.89% of 874) with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Also among the 874 patients, 30.78% (n=269) patients had elevated TGA and TMA[16.82% (n=147) had elevated TSH and TGA, TMA simultaneously, 13.96% (n=122) had decreased TSH and elevated TGA and TMA simultaneously]. In the 874 patients, 256 (29.29%) were older than 60. Conclusion: Elderly people has higher incidence of subclinical thyroid function disorders. We should pay more attention to the detection of this condition, especially in elderly patients. (authors)

  20. Can thyroid parotid ratio replace radioactive iodine uptake as a new objective parameter in the evaluation of thyroid function in cases of hyperthyroidism? A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, G.; Seshadri, N.; Gupta, A.; Das, B.K.; Gambhir, S.; Pradhan, P.K.; Bhagat, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) measurements are used to distinguish other causes of thyrotoxicosis from hyperthyroidism. However it is a cumbersome technique requiring patients' visit for two or more days. Thyroid to parotid ratio (TP ratio) which is a ratio of Technetium-99m pertechnetate counts in thyroid to those in parotid glands is a new objective parameter for evaluation of thyroid function. The aim of present study was to compare TP ratio with RAIU in patients of thyrotoxicosis. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 15 patients (13 males and 2 females) who were clinically and biochemically hyperthyroid. All of these patients underwent Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy followed by RAIU on two separate occasions. The technetium thyroid scan was done 20 minutes after intravenous application of 185 MBq (5 mCi) of the radiotracer. Both anterior and oblique views of the neck region were acquired under a standard large field of view gamma camera with LEAP collimation. The TP ratio was calculated from anterior view by drawing the region of interest over the thyroid and two regions of interest over each parotid gland. The counts of thyroid region were compared with each parotid and average of two sides was taken as TP ratio. The radioactive iodine uptake was estimated at 2,4,24, and 48 hours after oral administration of 925 KBq (25 microcuries) of I-131 in all patients with a thyroid probe by the standard technique. Apart from this 10 controls (5 males and 5 females) who were clinically and biochemically euthyroid were also included in the study and they underwent same studies as the cases. All patients with nodular disease of thyroid, past history of thyroiditis and parotitis were excluded from the study. Results: The scintigraphic findings in all patients revealed a diffusely concentrating thyroid gland with no evidence of hot or cold areas. The RAIU and TP ratio in both cases and controls is presented.: S.E: Standard error. There was a

  1. Comparative study of the parameters of thyroid function TSH, PB131J, T3, T4 in healthy persons and patients after thyroid surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueffer, W.

    1979-01-01

    Goals of the investigation were: 1. Study of the parameters TSH, PB 131 I, T 4 , T 3 in strumectomized patients with different functional states of the thyroid after surgery, and comparison with a normal collective. 2. Study of the correlation between pituitary and thyroid behaviour of strumectomized patients by comparing PB 131 I and TSH, T 4 and TSH, and T 3 and TSH. 3. Comparison of in-vivo- and in-vitro tests (TRH, T 4 , T 3 ) in order to assess the thyroid function after strumectomy and for early detection of impending relapses. 466 patients have been grouped according to the functional state of their thyroids. The mean values obtained for each group were compared with those of a normal collective. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Evaluation of thyroid function tests in non-thyroidal illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    Normal thyroid physiology and pathophysiology with reference to non-thyroidal illness (NTI) is reviewed including specific disease states and drugs and their effect on thyroid function tests. The diagnostic utility of two new highly sensitive thyrotrophin (TSH) assays as screening tests for thyroid dysfunction are evaluated and compared with conventional thyroid function assays. A group of 40 patients with NTI was studied. This group was compared to a group of normal controls and a group of thyrotoxic patients. Conventional thyroid function tests yielded many values outside the reference range in the NTI group. The general pattern that emerged was decreased total triiodothyronine levels in 70% of NTI patients, normal to low thyroxine values, increased mean free thyroxine values (dialysis), low mean values for the free thyroxine index and varying results for newer commercial assays for free thyroxine according to methodology. The TSH response to intravenous thyroliberin (TRH) was found to be blunted compared to controls. Basal TSH levels were measured with two ultasensitive TSH assays. The immunoradiometric assays yielded fewer values outside the reference range in the NTI group than conventional thyroid function tests. This assay yielded undetectable basal TSH levels in all thyrotoxic patients and could reliably separate thyrotoxic patients from the NTI group. Basal TSH levels with ultrasensitive TSH assays correlated well with the TSH response to TRH (TSH) and could obviate the need for TRH tests. Ultrasensitive TSH assays are promising first line screening tests in NTI. 120 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Thyroid Function and Cognition during Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Bégin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize here the studies examining the association between thyroid function and cognitive performance from an aging perspective. The available data suggest that there may be a continuum in which cognitive dysfunction can result from increased or decreased concentrations of thyroid hormones. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism in middle-aged and elderly adults are both associated with decreased cognitive functioning, especially memory, visuospatial organization, attention, and reaction time. Mild variations of thyroid function, even within normal limits, can have significant consequences for cognitive function in the elderly. Different cognitive deficits possibly related to thyroid failure do not necessarily follow a consistent pattern, and L-thyroxine treatment may not always completely restore normal functioning in patients with hypothyroidism. There is little or no consensus in the literature regarding how thyroid function is associated with cognitive performance in the elderly.

  4. Study on the changes of leptin levels in females with abnormal thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Kejian; Zhang Qi; Xu Yundi; Guan Yu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of leptin levels in females with abnormal thyroid function. Methods: Serum leptin levels were determined with RIA in 60 cases of hyperthyroidism, 36 cases of hypothyroidism and 30 normal controls. In patients with thyroid dysfunction and treated, serum leptin levels were again measured after completion of therapy. Results: The serum leptin levels were positively correlated to BMI in all the cases (p 0.05). The serum leptin levels in hypothyroid patients after treatment (6.77 ± 2.35 μg/L) were significantly higher than those before treatment (4.19 ± 1.84 μg/L) (p < 0.05). No obvious differences in the levels of serum leptin were observed before and after treatment in the hyperthyroid group. Conclusion: Normal thyroid hormone levels may be an important factor to achieve an adequate leptin gene expression so as to maintain an energy metabolic balance and thyroid dysfunction will influence the normal regulation of leptin

  5. Thyroid function tests in patients taking thyroid medication in Germany: Results from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannemann Anke

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies from iodine-sufficient areas have shown that a high proportion of patients taking medication for thyroid diseases have thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels outside the reference range. Next to patient compliance, inadequate dosing adjustment resulting in under- and over-treatment of thyroid disease is a major cause of poor therapy outcomes. Using thyroid function tests, we aim to measure the proportions of subjects, who are under- or over-treated with thyroid medication in a previously iodine-deficient area. Findings Data from 266 subjects participating in the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP were analysed. All subjects were taking thyroid medication. Serum TSH levels were measured using immunochemiluminescent procedures. TSH levels of 2.15 mIU/L in subjects younger than 50 years and 2.09 mIU/L in subjects 50 years and older, were defined as decreased or elevated, according to the established reference range for the specific study area. Our analysis revealed that 56 of 190 (29.5% subjects treated with thyroxine had TSH levels outside the reference range (10.0% elevated, 19.5% decreased. Of the 31 subjects taking antithyroid drugs, 12 (38.7% had TSH levels outside the reference range (9.7% elevated, 29.0% decreased. These proportions were lower in the 45 subjects receiving iodine supplementation (2.2% elevated, 8.9% decreased. Among the 3,974 SHIP participants not taking thyroid medication, TSH levels outside the reference range (2.8% elevated, 5.9% decreased were less frequent. Conclusion In concordance with previous studies in iodine-sufficient areas, our results indicate that a considerable number of patients taking thyroid medication are either under- or over-treated. Improved monitoring of these patients' TSH levels, compared to the local reference range, is recommended.

  6. Thyroid function tests in patients taking thyroid medication in Germany: Results from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Friedrich, Nele; Haring, Robin; Krebs, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Alte, Dietrich; Nauck, Matthias; Kohlmann, Thomas; Schober, Hans-Christof; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2010-08-16

    Studies from iodine-sufficient areas have shown that a high proportion of patients taking medication for thyroid diseases have thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels outside the reference range. Next to patient compliance, inadequate dosing adjustment resulting in under- and over-treatment of thyroid disease is a major cause of poor therapy outcomes. Using thyroid function tests, we aim to measure the proportions of subjects, who are under- or over-treated with thyroid medication in a previously iodine-deficient area. Data from 266 subjects participating in the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were analysed. All subjects were taking thyroid medication. Serum TSH levels were measured using immunochemiluminescent procedures. TSH levels of 2.15 mIU/L in subjects younger than 50 years and 2.09 mIU/L in subjects 50 years and older, were defined as decreased or elevated, according to the established reference range for the specific study area. Our analysis revealed that 56 of 190 (29.5%) subjects treated with thyroxine had TSH levels outside the reference range (10.0% elevated, 19.5% decreased). Of the 31 subjects taking antithyroid drugs, 12 (38.7%) had TSH levels outside the reference range (9.7% elevated, 29.0% decreased). These proportions were lower in the 45 subjects receiving iodine supplementation (2.2% elevated, 8.9% decreased). Among the 3,974 SHIP participants not taking thyroid medication, TSH levels outside the reference range (2.8% elevated, 5.9% decreased) were less frequent. In concordance with previous studies in iodine-sufficient areas, our results indicate that a considerable number of patients taking thyroid medication are either under- or over-treated. Improved monitoring of these patients' TSH levels, compared to the local reference range, is recommended.

  7. Thyroid function, reduced kidney function and incident chronic kidney disease in a community-based population: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Ulla T; Daya, Natalie; Grams, Morgan E; Seufert, Jochen; Steffes, Michael; Coresh, Josef; Selvin, Elizabeth; Köttgen, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Reduced kidney function is a common public health problem that increases risk for a wide variety of adverse outcomes, making the identification of potentially modifiable factors associated with the development of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) important. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis have been linked to reduced kidney function, but the association of thyroid function with the development of incident CKD is largely uncharacterized. Concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) were quantified in 12 785 black and white participants of the ongoing community-based prospective Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Thyroid markers and clinical categories of thyroid dysfunction (euthyroidism, combined subclinical and overt hypothyroidism, combined subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism) were also evaluated for their association with reduced kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate kidney function at study baseline. The clinical entities hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were also associated with higher odds of baseline reduced kidney function, but this was not significant. However, none of the markers of thyroid function nor different clinical categories of thyroid dysfunction (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism or TPOAb positivity) were associated with incident CKD in adjusted analyses. Elevated TSH, FT4 and reduced T3 concentrations were associated with reduced kidney function cross-sectionally. The lack of association with the development of incident CKD suggests that altered thyroid function in the general population is not causally related to CKD development, but screening for thyroidal status may be especially relevant in persons with reduced kidney function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2006-01-01

    . There is substantial evidence that polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans cause hypothyroidism in exposed animals and that environmentally occurring doses affect human thyroid homeostasis. Similarly, flame retardants reduce peripheral thyroid hormone (TH) levels in rodents, but human studies are scarce. Studies...... also indicate thyroid-disruptive properties of phthalates, but the effect of certain phthalates seems to be stimulative on TH production, contrary to most other groups of chemicals. Thyroid disruption may be caused by a variety of mechanisms, as different chemicals interfere with the hypothalamic...

  9. Thyroid disease: thyroid function tests and interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases of the thyroid are among the most prevalent of medical conditions, especially in women, but the symptoms can be relatively nonspecific or mild. For this reason, clinicians have been placing increased reliance on the laboratory for assistance in the diagnosis of thyroid disorders. In the 1950s, only one thyroid.

  10. Age, place of living and education influences the pregnancy universal thyroid function screening program attendance - questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewicz, Tomasz; Zuk, Małgorzata; Stochmal, Ewa; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Galicka-Latała, Danuta; Juszczyk, Leszek; Krzysiek, Józef

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess attendance at the universal screening programme for thyroid function in pregnancy and attempt to evaluate the influence of age, number of past pregnancies, level of education, and place of residence on the attendance. The study was performed by means of a questionnaire. Our study was performed on the basis of an anonymous questionnaire handed out to 543 women aged 16-45 years, on the third day of their puerperal stay in one of five obstetric wards in southern Poland. The questionnaire contained questions about participation in plasma level measurements of TSH, fT4, total T4, thyroid antibodies or thyroid ultrasound scanning at least once in pregnancy. The rate of attendance at any examination of thyroid function among pregnant women was 26.7%. The highest attendance rate (32.7%) was found among women living in provincial capitals or with higher education (41.3%), whereas the lowest was among women who had completed only primary school (11%) and those living in county towns (15%). The number of previous pregnancies did not influence the thyroid screening attendance. Women over 21 years of age participated in this screening programme more frequently (27.1-30%). Less than one third of pregnant women participated in the thyroid function screening. Place of living, education level, and age were the main factors influencing the attendance rate.

  11. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones...... at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its...

  12. Narrow intra-individual variation of maternal thyroid function in pregnancy based on a longitudinal study on 132 women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, M.; Forman, Julie Lyng; Juul, A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adaptive alterations in maternal physiology cause changes in thyroid hormone levels throughout pregnancy, and precise biochemical evaluation is thus highly dependent on gestation-specific reference intervals and expected intra-individual variation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study...... was the assessment of the intra-individual variation as well as the longitudinal course of thyroid hormones during normal pregnancy and factors that influence the normal reference range for thyroid function. For this purpose, a longitudinal statistical model was applied. DESIGN: In a cohort of 132 pregnant women......, serial blood samples were obtained and ultrasound scans were performed throughout pregnancy. METHODS: Serum levels of TSH, free and total thyroxine (T(4)), free and total triiodothyronine (T(3)) as well as autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin were measured in 979 serum samples...

  13. Spectrum of thyroid function in children among the patients attending to examine thyroidal illness at CNMU, Dhaka - A retrospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taslima Begum, D.A.; Afroz, S.

    2004-01-01

    Establishment of a standard range of thyroid hormones for Bangladesh younger population is very essential. Trials were conducted to standardize the normal range of thyroid hormones i.e. T 3 , T 4 and TSH level, at 95% confidence limit (2sd) of age ranging from 1 day to 12 yrs of Bangladesh children group, which were differ by sex. The ranges of different thyroid status were evaluated in the In vitro Laboratory of Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Dhaka. Comparing three stages (Table 2,3, and 4) observed hormone ranges at euthyroid stage marked off for overlapping the higher level of hypo thyroidal stage by lower side and the lower level of hyper thyroidal stage by higher side. Present work calculated the mean values of thyroid hormones of both sexes, which were found not affected by the sex. (author)

  14. Anticonvulsants and thyroid function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, P P; Bates, D; Howe, J G; Ratcliffe, W A; Schardt, C W; Heath, A; Evered, D C

    1978-01-01

    Serum total and free thyroid hormone concentrations were estimated in 42 patients with epilepsy taking anticonvulsants (phenytoin, phenobarbitone, and carbamazepine either singly or in combination). There was a significant reduction in total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) in the treated group compared with controls. Free hormone concentrations were lower than total hormone concentrations, suggesting that increased clearance of thyroid hormones occurs in patients receiving anticonvulsants. Detailed analysis indicated that phenytoin had a significant depressant effect on TT4, FT4, FT3, and reverse T3 (rT3). Phenobarbitone and carbamazepine had no significant main effects, but there were significant interactions between phenytoin and carbamazepine for TT4 and FT4. phenobarbitone and carbamazepine for FT3, and phenytoin and phenobarbitone for rT3. PMID:656820

  15. Study of serum TSH content in functioning thyroid gland adenoma by 'supersensitive' immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldes, Janos; Banos, Csaba; Csillag, Jozsef; Lakatos, Peter; Tarjan, Gabor; 2546970HU)

    1987-01-01

    Determinations of serum TSH levels by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)-math TSH (Mallinckrodt) kit and of the thyroid function by scintiscanning using 99m Tc-pertechnetate (20-40 MBq) were carried out paralelly in euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients. A comparison of the two tests allowed a better distinction of preclinical hyperthyreosis from toxic adenomas. (L.E.)

  16. Post Partum Depression and Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Keshavarzi MD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Risk of depression is particularly high for women during the prenatal period. Various investigators have attempted to establish a link between thyroid function and post partum depression. This study aimed to investigate whether thyroid function differs in women with postpartum depression compared to a control group.Methods: In this case-control study, subjects were selected from Obstetrics & Gynecology and Psychiatric clinics of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Forty eight patients suffering from postpartum depression according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition totally revised (DSM-IV-TR, and 65 normal controls underwent diagnostic evaluation by one trained psychiatrist using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. Then, the demographic questionnaire and the Persian version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS were completed by the participants. Finally, their thyroid functions were assessed. Data analyses were done using the SPSS program 13.Results: No statistically significant differences were observed between thyroid function tests and postpartum depression. According to multiple regression analysis with stepwise method, subjects with lower serum TSH, T3RU, T3 levels, younger age and longer period after delivery tended to have higher EPDS scores (P-value=0.008. Conclusion:The present study reports that those women with postpartum depression had a no greater prevalence of thyroid dysfunction than the control subjects. It seems that thyroid dysfunction should be considered in women with postpartum depression individually, but the role of thyroid as an important cause of this condition is not yet established. This suggests that future studies should concentrate on this concept in postpartum depression.

  17. Thyroid function in neonatal hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, J H; Letarte, J; Guyda, H; Laberge, C

    1976-10-01

    Various aspects of the thyroid function have been measured in 28 cases of neonatal hypothyroidism detected by means of the Quebec Screening Program for Metabolic Diseases. In all instances the T4 value in the blood of filter paper spot was below 2 SD of the mean of the day, averaging 0.39 +/- 0.04 ng/40 mul (mean +/- SEM) of eluted blood. The T4 value of a second similar sample averaged 0.22 +/- 0.04 ng/mul of eluted blood; this value was significantly lower than the first one. The serum T4 concentration was decreased in all the infants, whereas three of them had a normal serum TSH concentration. At least three groups of patients could be identified: (1) patients with primary thyroid failure, (2) those with secondary or tertiary hypothyrodism, and (3) those with abnormal synthesis of thyroid hormone.

  18. Thyroid function and thyroid antibodies in recurrent miscarriage women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, A. B. H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine thyroid status in recurrent miscarriage Sudanese women and to determine the association between thyroid antibodies and miscarriage. The study included patients attending obstetrics and gynecology unit at Khartoum teaching hospital and Omdurman New hospital since June 2008 to Jan 2009, these patients were complaining of vaginal bleeding. Sixty, apparently healthy pregnant women with history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages during the first trimester, their ages ranged between 20 and 45 years were selected as target group. Forty healthy, normal pregnant women of the same gestational age and known to reach term and had healthy labor, patients with age ranged between 17 and 41 years were selected from (SAEC), referral clinic center at Khartoum Teaching and Omdurman New Hospitals as control group. The two groups were physically examined and their thyroid glands were seen by the physician. Questionnaires were completed for all the subjects. Patients with metabolic or endocrinologic disorders, genital organ anamoly, uterine myoma, mal nourishment or exposed to toxic substances were excluded from the study. Five ml of venous blood samples were collected from the target and control subjects. Thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies (TT 4 , TT 3 , FT 4 , FT 3 , TSH, TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab) were measured for the two groups (target and control ) using RIA technique. The results of this study showed that there was a significant decrease decrease in the concentrations of thyroid hormones (TT 4 and TT 3 ) in the target group (p-value = 0.0001 and 0.004 respectively) compared with the control group. Moreover, there was a significant elevation in the concentration of TSH in the target group (p- value = 0.0001). The free T-4 concentration was lower but not significant in the target group (p-value=0.075), FT 3 level was similar in both groups (p-value = 0.591). The presence of abnormal high concentrations of TT 4 in control and target groups

  19. Scintigraphy of the functioning thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of functioning thyroid nodules is achieved by use of several Iodine isotopes, while in clinical routine 99m Tc-Pertechnetate is dominating. For classification the terms hyperfunctional, isofunctional (normal) and hypofunctional are useful in comparison to the surrounding normally functioning thyroid tissue, which can be stimulated or suppressed. Therefore, autonomous functioning thyroid nodules can vary the scintigraphic appearance. For precise description the terms 'compensation' and 'decompensation' have to be used in relation to scintigraphy or thyroidal metabolism (regulation). (orig.)

  20. The effect of excessive iodine diet on thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuhua; Li Yaming

    2009-01-01

    The modify of the thyroid cell structure can be induced by excessive iodine diet. Then the disordered thyroid function can result in a number of thyroid disease. The radionucline thyroid imaging play an important role in diagnoses of thyroid. Amplify on the effect of excessive diet on thyroid function will be worthy instructing what preparation should do before doing the thyroid nuclide imaging. (authors)

  1. The effect of electromagnetic radiation due to mobile phone use on thyroid function in medical students studying in a medical college in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Mary Baby

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enormous increase in mobile phone use throughout the world raises widespread concerns about its possible detrimental effect on human health. Radiofrequency waves are emitted by cell phones. They are non-ionising and the effect on the thyroid gland is part of their non thermal effects. The thyroid gland may be particularly vulnerable to this effect because of its normal anatomical position. Materials and Methods: The study was done to explore the association between radiation exposure and thyroid dysfunction among mobile phone users. It had an exploratory design and unit survey method to collect information from all medical students in a medical college in South India. Inclusion criteria included active use of mobile phone prior to and during the study period. Criteria for exclusion was presence of pre-existsting thyroid disease,thyroid nodule,thyroid goitre/nodule and altered thyroid function. Results: The sample size was 83 undergraduate students. 71% of respondents had no family history of thyroid illness. Among the remainder,20.5% had a first degree relative with thyroid dysfunction,8.4% had a second degree relative affected. Clinical examination revealed that 79.5% of the respondents were normal,13.6% had thyroid swelling,3.6% had symptoms of thyroid dysfunction and 3.6% had both thyroid swelling and symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. 53% of the respondents spent 0.5 hrs on an average talking on the phone daily,28.9% spent 1.5 hrs daily and 10.8% of respondents spent over 3.5 hours. We found there was a significant correlation between total radiation exposure and an increase in TSH among both groups –in those with and without family history of thyroid illness. Conclusion: In our study there was a significant correlation between total radiation exposure and increasing TSH values among both all respondents.

  2. Functional scintigraphy of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehre, M.; Emrich, D.

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain more diagnostic information by thyroid scintigraphy we used a gamma camera with a high resolution collimator and a computer. This led to an improvement of thyroid scintigrams and their documentation. Additionally it allowed to obtain values for global and regional uptake of pertechnetate before and under suppression. The usefulness of this method was proven by investigation of 50 individuals with normal thyroid function and 32 euthyroid patients with pathological suppressibility in an area of iodine deficiency. In normals global thyroid uptake and its suppression correlated with the FT 4 I and Δ TSH after TRH in dependence of their iodine excretion. Three types of pathological reaction under suppression could be delineated: 1. pure focal autonomy, 2. generalized (disseminated) autonomy, 3. combined focal and disseminated autonomy. The means of Δ TSH decreased stepwise from group 1 to 3 indicating increasing autonomy. The method is predominantly helpful to detect autonomy in euthyroid goitre. It is superior to qualitative evaluation of scintigrams. Additionally it is useful for decisions in therapy, especially for functionally orientated operation. (orig.) [de

  3. Impact of alcohol use on thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is one of the commonest illicit psychoactive substances consumed globally and is the world′s third largest risk factor for disease and disability. It has been reported to have multiple effects on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis and the functioning of the thyroid gland. It has been reported to cause direct suppression of thyroid function by cellular toxicity, and indirect suppression by blunting thyrotropin-releasing hormone response. It causes a decrease of peripheral thyroid hormones during chronic use and in withdrawal. Alcohol use may also confer some protective effect against thyroid nodularity, goiter, and thyroid cancer. This article presents a review of the clinically relevant effects of alcohol on the functioning of the thyroid gland and also discusses the effect of medication used in treatment of alcohol dependence on thyroid function.

  4. Does selenium supplementation affect thyroid function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Cold, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selenium is present in the active site of proteins important for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of selenium supplementation in different doses on thyroid function, under conditions of suboptimal dietary selenium intake....... DESIGN: The Danish PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with SElenium pilot study (DK-PRECISE) is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 491 males and females aged 60-74 years were randomized to 100 μg (n=124), 200 μg (n=122), or 300 μg (n=119) selenium-enriched yeast......=0.015), respectively, per 100 μg/day increase, with insignificant differences between 6 months and 5 years. No significant effects were found for FT3 and FT3:FT4 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: In euthyroid subjects, selenium supplementation minutely and dose-dependently affects thyroid function, when compared...

  5. Thyroid nodules, thyroid function and dietary iodine in the Marshall islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Fujimori, K; Simon, S L; Bechtner, G; Edwards, R; Trott, K R

    1999-08-01

    Thyroid nodules have been found to be common in the population of the Marshall Islands. This has been attributed to potential exposure of radioiodines from the nuclear weapons tests on Bikini and Eniwetok between 1946 and 1958. In order to get a full picture of thyroid pathology in the Marshallese population potentially exposed to radioactive fallout we performed a large thyroid screening programme using palpation, high resolution ultrasound and fine needle biopsies of palpable nodules. In addition, various parameters of thyroid function (free T3, free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]) and anti-thyroid antibodies were examined in large proportions of the total population at risk. Since dietary iodine deficiency is an established risk factor for thyroid nodules, iodine concentration in urine samples of 362 adults and 119 children was measured as well as the iodine content of selected staple food products. The expected high prevalence of thyroid nodules was confirmed. There was no indication of an increased rate of impaired thyroid function in the Marshallese population. A moderate degree of iodine deficiency was found which may be responsible for some of the increased prevalence of thyroid nodules in the Marshallese population. Studies on the relationship between exposure to radioiodines and thyroid nodules need to take dietary iodine deficiency into account in the interpretation of findings.

  6. SELENIUM SUBSTITUTION – EFFECT ON THYROID FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Pešić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the essential role of selenium (Se in thyroid hormone synthesis, metabolism and action, as well as normal thyroid function, increased during the past decades. The thyroid gland is among the human tissues with the highest Se content per mas unit, similar to other endocrine organs and brain. Biological actions of Se are mediated, in most cases, through the expression of at least 30 selenoproteins coded by 25 selenoprotein genes in the human. Via the selenoproteins, selenium can influence the cell function through antioxidant activites, modifying redox status and thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. Selenoproteins iodothyronine deiodinases are present in most tissues and have a role to increase the production of bioactive tri-iodothyronine. Futhermore, Se has been shown to be important in the regulation of immune function. Se deficiency is accompained by the loss of immune competence. The links between Se deficiency, altered immune function and inflamation have prompted studies in humans to examine if Se suplementation can modify auto-antibodies production in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Until now, several randomised prospective clinical trials have been performed in patients with established chronic autoimmune thyrioditis. The clinical endpoint of each study was the decrease in TPO antibodies concentration after 3-12 months of treatment. Ussualy, the dosage of daily Se supplementation was 200µg. Selenium suplemetation had no significant effect on the concentration of TSH or thyroid hormone concentrations. These studies indicate that Se treatment result in reduced inflammatory activity, but it does not cure chronc autoimmune process.

  7. Thyroid Function after Subtotal Thyroidectomy in Patients with Graves' Hyperthyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limonard, E. J.; Bisschop, P. H.; Fliers, E.; Nieveen van Dijkum, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Subtotal thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure, in which the surgeon leaves a small thyroid remnant in situ to preserve thyroid function, thereby preventing lifelong thyroid hormone supplementation therapy. Aim. To evaluate thyroid function after subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves'

  8. Maternal thyroid function, prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain-The Generation R Study: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collares, Fernanda M; Korevaar, Tim I M; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Peeters, Robin P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-12-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are associated with pregnancy complications. Thyroid function is related to differences in body mass index (BMI) in adult populations. We examined the associations of maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy with maternal BMI and weight gain during pregnancy. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 5726 mothers, we measured maternal TSH and FT4 levels at 13.5 weeks of gestation (95% range: 9.7-17.6 weeks). Maternal weight was assessed before pregnancy and in each trimester. Higher maternal TSH levels were associated with higher prepregnancy BMI (difference: 0.18 kg/m 2 [95% CI: 0.01, 0.36] per SD increase in maternal TSH level) and higher total gestational weight gain (difference: 0.02 kg/wk [95% CI: 0.01, 0.03] per SD increase in maternal TSH level). Higher maternal FT4 levels were associated with lower prepregnancy BMI (difference: -0.44 kg/m 2 [95% CI: -0.63, -0.26] per SD increase in maternal FT4 level) and lower total gestational weight gain (difference: -0.01 kg/wk [95% CI: -0.02, -0.01] per SD increase in maternal FT4 level). The associations of maternal thyroid function with weight gain in early pregnancy were stronger than those with weight gain in mid and late-pregnancy. Maternal hypothyroidism was associated with higher prepregnancy BMI and early pregnancy weight gain, whereas opposite effects were observed for maternal hyperthyroidism (Pgain. Further studies are needed to explore maternal and foetal consequences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Thyroid function after mantle irradiation in Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E. Jr.; Adler, R.A.; Clark, P.; Brinck-Johnsen, T.; Tulloh, M.E.; Colten, T.

    1981-01-01

    The thyroid function of 64 patients with Hodgkin's disease who received mantle irradiation during the period 1966 to 1976 was studied. More than two-thirds (44 to 64) had some thyroid dysfunction. Twenty had mild dysfunction manifested by an abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Twenty had what could be termed compensated hypothyroidism while four were overtly hypothyroid. The severity of dysfunction was not related to age, sex, or chemotherapy. We found, however, that decreased thyroid function was inversely proportional to the length of time between a diagnostic lymphangiogram and the radiation therapy. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the iodine load of the lymphangiogram renders the thyroid gland more radiosensitive. Thyroxine suppression of the thyroid gland during the period from the lymphangiogram through the termination of radiation therapy is suggested as a means of avoiding thyroid injury

  10. [Thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Camille; Groussin, Lionel

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of thyroiditis encompasses a broad spectrum of thyroid disorders. Analysis of signs and symptoms, biochemical changes, neck ultrasound characteristics and radioactive iodine uptake values allows an accurate diagnosis. Recent studies of the whole genome have helped to identify many susceptibility genes for autoimmune thyroiditis. However, none of these genes contribute to a significant increase in risk of developing this thyroiditis. Clinical awareness of the characteristic presentations of exceptional thyroiditis (acute suppurative thyroiditis, Riedel's thyroiditis) is an important issue. Selenium administration seems to be beneficial for reducing the incidence of thyroiditis. Finally, certain drug-induced thyroiditis remains a therapeutic challenge for the physician.

  11. Functional insulin receptors are overexpressed in thyroid tumors: is this an early event in thyroid tumorigenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frittitta, L; Sciacca, L; Catalfamo, R; Ippolito, A; Gangemi, P; Pezzino, V; Filetti, S; Vigneri, R

    1999-01-15

    Insulin receptor (IR), a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, is expressed in normal thyroid cells and affects thyroid cell proliferation and differentiation. The authors measured IR content in benign and malignant thyroid tumors by three independent methods: a specific radioimmunoassay, 125I-insulin binding studies, and immunohistochemistry. The results obtained were compared with the IR content in paired, adjacent, normal thyroid tissue. To assess IR function in thyroid carcinoma cells, glucose uptake responsiveness to insulin was also studied in a human transformed thyroid cell line (B-CPAP) and in follicular carcinoma cells in primary culture. In 9 toxic adenomas, the average IR content was similar to that observed in the 9 paired normal thyroid tissue specimens from the same patients (2.2+/-0.3 vs. 2.1+/-0.3). In 13 benign nonfunctioning, or "cold," adenomas, the average IR content was significantly higher (P thyroid tissue (4.0+/-0.4 vs. 1.6+/-0.2 and 5.6+/-1.0 vs. 1.8+/-0.2, respectively). The finding of a higher IR content in benign "cold" adenomas and in thyroid carcinomas was confirmed by both binding and immunostaining studies. The current studies indicate that 1) IR content is elevated in most follicular and papillary differentiated thyroid carcinomas, and 2) IR content is also elevated in most benign follicular adenomas ("cold" nodules) but not in highly differentiated, hyperfunctioning follicular adenomas ("hot" nodules), which very rarely become malignant. This observation suggests that increased IR expression is not restricted to the thyroid malignant phenotype but is already present in the premalignant "cold" adenomas. It may contribute, therefore, to thyroid tumorigenesis and/or represent an early event that gives a selective growth advantage to transformed thyroid cells.

  12. Association between thyroid function and gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry V(o)lzke; Daniel M Robinson; Ulrich John

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate those associations using data of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania.METHODS: A study population of 3 749 residents aged 20-79 years without previously diagnosed thyroid disease was available for analyses. Serum TSH was used to assess thyroid function. Cholelithiasis was defined by either a prior history of cholecystectomy or the presence of gallstones on ultrasound. Logistic regression was performed to analyze independent associations between thyroid function and cholelithiasis.RESULTS: There were 385 persons (10.3%) with low (<0.3 mIU/L), 3 321 persons (88.6%) with normal and 43 persons (1.2%) with high serum TSH levels (>3 mIU/L).The proportion of cholelithiasis among males and females was 14.4% and 25.3%, respectively. Among males, there was an independent relation between high serum TSH and cholelithiasis (OR 3.77; 95%-CI 1.06-13.41; ,P<0.05). zAlso among males, there was a tendency towards an elevated risk of cholelithiasis in persons with low serum TSH (OR 1.40; 95%-CI 0.96-2.02; P = 0.07). In the female population, no such relation was identified.CONCLUSION: There is an association between thyroid and gallstone disease with a gender-specific relation between hypothyroidism and cholelithiasis.

  13. Comparison of radioimmunological and enzyme-immunological methods of determination in thyroid function studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    During the study described here parallel investigations were carried out using radio-immuno-assays (RIA) and enzyme-immuno-assays (EIA) in order to assess the quality and diagnostic value of both these techniques as well as to weigh up their relative advantages and disadvantages in connection with thyroid function studies. The following comparisons were made: T4 RIA versus T4 EIA, T3 RIA versus T3 EIA, T3 uptake versus thyroxine binding capacity, total balance of free hormone bonds. Correlation coefficients of 0.982 for T4 and 0.989 for T3 proved that the test results obtained using either RIA or EIA were in fairly good agreement. Less satisfactory correlation was suggested by a coefficient of 0.807 between the tests for thyroxine binding capacity and T3 uptake, which was even seen to decrease with increasing binding capacity so that the greatest deviations were observed in hyperthyroidism. The same holds true for the free T4 index and total balance, where the correlation coefficient is altered in a similar way by the inclusion of a thyroxine binding capacity EIA. Better agreement was achieved by optimal adjustment of the defined diagnostic ranges for hypothyroidism, euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The EIA results were biassed in the presence of hyperbilirubinemia. Intra-assay abd inter-assay veriations were analysed and found to range from 8.1 to 16.9% and 13.6 to 28.1%, respectively. EIA offers advantages over RIA inasmuch as it is free from radioactivity and does not require any special safety measures, although it was judged considerably less favourable than RIA in terms of sensitivity. (TRV) [de

  14. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma with functional autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaturu, Subhashini; Fowler, Marjorie R

    2002-01-01

    To present a case of papillary carcinoma in an autonomously hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule. We chronicle the clinical and laboratory findings in a patient with a painless neck mass, with a particular focus on the pathologic findings after surgical removal of the right thyroid lobe. A 39-year-old woman had an enlarging nodule of the right thyroid lobe. Results of thyroid function tests suggested subclinical hyperthyroidism. Two months later, the patient complained of increasing swelling in the neck (but still had no symptoms suggestive of hyperthyroidism). Thus, resection of the right thyroid lobe was performed. Pathologic analysis disclosed low-grade papillary thyroid carcinoma within the nodule, with a small rim of compressed inactive-appearing thyroid tissue surrounding the nodule. Subsequently, she underwent total thyroidectomy and follow-up care for thyroid carcinoma. Although solitary hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid gland are usually considered benign, the current case suggests that the diagnosis of autonomous thyroid nodules does not preclude thyroid carcinoma in a functioning nodule.

  15. The function and morphology of Meibomian glands in patients with thyroid eye disease: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Ho, Ren-Wen; Fang, Po-Chiung; Yu, Hun-Ju; Chien, Chun-Chih; Hsiao, Chang-Chun; Kuo, Ming-Tse

    2018-04-12

    To investigate function and morphology of the meibomian gland (MG) in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED). In this prospective case series study, patients with unilateral or bilateral TED were consecutively enrolled. The diagnosis of TED was based on the typical orbital findings and/or radiographic evidence. The disease activity of TED was classified according to the clinical activity score (CAS). Degrees of lagophthalmos and exophthalmos, blinking rates, and results of the Schirmer test 1 were also recorded. All patients completed the SPEED questionnaire and underwent MG assessment, including lipid layer thickness (LLT), MG dropout (MGd), and MG expression. In total 31 eyes from 17 patients with unilateral or bilateral TED were included. Patients were divided into inactive TED (CAS 0-1; 20 eyes from 11 patients) and active TED (CAS 2-3, 11 eyes from 6 patients) groups. MGd was significantly more severe in the active TED than the inactive TED group [Median (Inter-quartile region): 3.0 (2.0-3.0) vs. 2.0 (1.0-2.0) degree, P = 0.04]. However, patients with active TED had thicker LLT than those with inactive TED (90.0 [80.0-100.0] vs. 65.0 [47.8-82.5] nm, P = 0.02), and LLT was positively correlated with lagophthalmos (r = 0.37, P = 0.04). Patients with active TED had more severe MGd, but thicker LLT. Active TED may cause periglandular inflammation of MGs, leading to MGd, but compensatory secretion from residual MGs and lagophthalmos-induced forceful blinking might temporarily release more lipids over the tear film.

  16. The effect of nitrate on the thyroid gland function in healthy volunteers in a 4-week oral toxicity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers AC; Koppeschaar HPF; Isselt JW van; Slob W; Schothorst RC; Mensinga TjT; Meulenbelt J; ARO-UMC; VIC; LEO

    2000-01-01

    Increased nitrate intake might affect the thyroid gland function in humans, as has been observed in animals. The reason is that the nitrate-ion (NO3-) inhibits the iodide (I-) transport into the thyroid gland because it shares the same transport mechanism. This inhibition could lead to a decrease in

  17. Infants of hypothyroid mothers- are postnatal Thyroid Function Tests necessary? A Retrospective Study in a Regional Hospital

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawke, A

    2017-02-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a preventable cause of intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to establish whether adding an additional thyroid function check between days of life 10-14 in infants born to mothers with known hypothyroidism identified any additional cases of congenital hypothyroidism requiring treatment that were not detected by the national newborn bloodspot screening programme. Babies who had Thyroid Function Tests (TFTs) measured at 10-14 days of age were identified using the Paediatric Ward attenders log from the years 2012-2014. Data were collected on patients’ TFTs and their mothers’ Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase (Anti-TPO) antibody levels. Of the 121 patients included, none were found to have a significantly raised TSH requiring treatment. 40 infants had repeat TFTs performed. None of the 121 infants had a significantly raised TSH, which required treatment with thyroxine. Congenital hypothyroidism is already being screened for as part of the National Newborn Screening Programme. The findings of our study have led us to recommend stopping current practice of routinely checking TFTs on day 10-14 of life in infants of hypothyroid mothers.

  18. Reduction of thyroid volume following radioiodine therapy for functional autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, M.; Jacob, M.; Thelen, M.H.; Michalowski, U.; Deutsch, U.; Reiners, C.

    1995-01-01

    In a retrospective study we evaluated the data of 112 patients who underwent radioiodine treatment for functional autonomy of the thyroid at Essen University Hospital from 1988 to 1993. Therapeutic activities of radioiodine were administered after individual determination of activity for intended radiation doses (150-300 Gy) taking into consideration autonomously functioning volume, maximum uptake, and effective half-life. The achieved dose was calculated by means of measurement of the radioiodine kinetics during therapy. Depending on the type of autonomous function of the thyroid (solitary autonomously functioning nodule, multiple autonomously functioning nodules, autonomously functioning thyroid tissue) volume reductions between 39 and 46% were found approximately 6 months after treatment. (orig.) [de

  19. The Link between Thyroid Function and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella P. Hage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between thyroid function and depression has long been recognized. Patients with thyroid disorders are more prone to develop depressive symptoms and conversely depression may be accompanied by various subtle thyroid abnormalities. Traditionally, the most commonly documented abnormalities are elevated T4 levels, low T3, elevated rT3, a blunted TSH response to TRH, positive antithyroid antibodies, and elevated CSF TRH concentrations. In addition, thyroid hormone supplements appear to accelerate and enhance the clinical response to antidepressant drugs. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between thyroid function and depression remain to be further clarified. Recently, advances in biochemical, genetic, and neuroimaging fields have provided new insights into the thyroid-depression relationship.

  20. Clinicoepidemiological Observational Study of Acquired Alopecias in Females Correlating with Anemia and Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Deo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia can either be inherited or acquired; the latter, more common, can be diffuse, patterned, and focal, each having cicatricial and noncicatricial forms. This observational study of 135 cases in a semiurban Indian population aimed to detect the prevalence of various forms of acquired alopecia in females and correlate the same with levels of hemoglobin, serum ferritin, triiodothyronine, thyroxin, and thyroid stimulating hormone. The majority (84, 62.2% of our cases of alopecia had telogen effluvium followed by female pattern alopecia (32, 23.7%. Stress (86, 63.7%, topical application of chemicals (72, 53.3%, systemic medications for concurrent illnesses (62, 5%, and pregnancy (14, 10.3% were the common exacerbating factors. Neither low hemoglobin (12 μg/L. Though lack of vitamin B12 testing was a limitation of our study, its deficiency could be the probable cause of iron deficiency as the majority (58, 64.4% of these cases, as indeed majority (89, 65.4% of our study population, were vegetarians. Thyroid disorders (23, 17%, including 9 newly diagnosed were not of significance statistically.

  1. Longitudinal study on thyroid function in patients with thalassemia major: High incidence of central hypothyroidism by 18 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    was found between ferritin and TSH. Conclusions: Worsening of thyroid function was observed in 35% of the studied thalassemic patients by the age of 18 years. The lack of proper increase of TSH in response to the low circulating levels of FT4 in 13/17 (76% of these patients indicates a relatively high incidence of defective pituitary thyrotrophic function in these patients.

  2. Sonographic decreased echogenicity of thyroid parenchyma in asymptomatic population: Correction with thyroid function and thyroid autoimmune activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Chan Sub; Lee, Ji Ye [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Kyung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic Kwandong University School of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seong Yoon [Div. of Hematology-Oncology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Jin [Dept. of of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between decreased echogenicity of thyroid and thyroid hormones or autoantibodies. From January 2009 to December 2011, 543 patients with decreased parenchymal echogenicity [M:F = 133:410, median age: 42 years (range: 9-82 years)], who did not have solid nodule, symptom or medication related to thyroid and underwent thyroid function test were retrospectively reviewed. Images were classified based on the degree of hypoechogenicity, heterogenicity or thyroid size. 1) Group A: mild decreased echogenicity, group B: marked decreased echogenicity, 2) group Ho: homogeneous echogenicity, group He: heterogeneous echogenicity, 3) group 1: decreased size, group 2: normal size, group 3: increased size. Differences in triiodiothyronyne (T3), free-thyroxine (fT4), thyrotropin (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and anti-TSH receptor antibody (TSH-rAb) were evaluated among groups. T3, fT4, and TSH levels differed between groups A and B (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, p < 0.001). TgAb and TPOAb of group B were higher than group A (p = 0.006, p < 0.001). TPOAb of group He was higher than group Ho (p < 0.001). TSH-rAb and TPOAb of group 3 were higher than group 2 (p = 0.017, p < 0.001). The patients with findings of markedly decreased, heterogeneous echogenicity or thyroid enlargement may have abnormal thyroid function and autoantibodies. These may facilitate the physicians' decision to order tests for thyroid function and autoimmune activity.

  3. Radionuclide study of thyroid function in pediatrics, using sup(99m)Tc, 123I or 131I: 150 case-reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, J.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Soubiran, G.; Blanquet, P.; Guillet, G.

    1981-01-01

    THe best radioisotope for in vivo thyroid investigations is the one which provides the highest quality scintigrams with the least radiation exposure. The choice of 131 I, 123 I or sup(99m)Tc in 150 children is discussed. Cases included 25 dysgenesis, 4 goiters with hypothyroidism, 56 goiters without thyroid dysfunction, 3 thyroiditis, and 11 cold nodules. When thyroid scanning is performed with 131 I, the gland's radiation exposure is high. 123 I is preferable since a fairly high activity can be obtained without delivering an excessive radiation dose. (approximately 2 rad to the thyroid for 50 microCi/m 2 ). sup(99m)Tc which is readily available is not a true iodine analog. It does not give a true picture of iodine metabolism. 123 I was generally used in cases of hypothyroidism, goiter (whenever a defect in thyroid hormone synthesis was suspected) and hyperthyroidism. sup(99m)Tc was generally used in other cases. The low radiation doses delivered by these radioisotopes allows study of thyroid function in the neonate [fr

  4. Radionuclide study of thyroid function in pediatrics, using sup(99m)Tc, /sup 123/I or /sup 131/I: 150 case-reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, J.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Soubiran, G.; Blanquet, P. (Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France)); Guillet, G. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA). Div. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1981-11-01

    THe best radioisotope for in vivo thyroid investigations is the one which provides the highest quality scintigrams with the least radiation exposure. The choice of /sup 131/I, /sup 123/I or sup(99m)Tc in 150 children is discussed. Cases included 25 dysgenesis, 4 goiters with hypothyroidism, 56 goiters without thyroid dysfunction, 3 thyroiditis, and 11 cold nodules. When thyroid scanning is performed with /sup 131/I, the gland's radiation exposure is high. /sup 123/I is preferable since a fairly high activity can be obtained without delivering an excessive radiation dose. (approximately 2 rad to the thyroid for 50 microCi/m/sup 2/). sup(99m)Tc which is readily available is not a true iodine analog. It does not give a true picture of iodine metabolism. /sup 123/I was generally used in cases of hypothyroidism, goiter (whenever a defect in thyroid hormone synthesis was suspected) and hyperthyroidism. sup(99m)Tc was generally used in other cases. The low radiation doses delivered by these radioisotopes allows study of thyroid function in the neonate.

  5. Radioimmunoassay and the hormones of thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) has provided the tools for wide-reaching investigations that have changed and continue to change many important concepts of thyroid physiology and pathophysiology. The RIA for human thyrotropin (TSH) was developed in 1965; development of the RIA for triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine(T 4 ), thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), and recently, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) followed. The capacity to measure nanogram and picogram concentrations with relative ease and speed has permitted the demonstration of dynamic relationships of the intrathyroidal and circulating thyroid hormones to each other and to the pituitary and hypothalamic regulating hormones. Evidence for the presence of cross-influences between TRH and other hypothalamic regulating hormones on the secretion of pituitary hormones has accumulated. The impact of the new information on clinical practice is now becoming evident. There is new appreciation of the value of assaying serum T 3 and TSH concentrations in the clinical management of patients with disturbed function of the thyroid, pituitary, or hypothalamus. The necessary components for RIA performance can be purchased separately or in kit form from commercial sources. With appropriate quality-control procedures, precise, sensitive, and reliable data can be generated. Awareness of the specific technical problems relating to the RIA of these hormones is absolutely necessary to assure reliable results. The availability of kits or their components permits the performance of these studies in the community hospital and in reliable commercial-service laboratories. (U.S.)

  6. Radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disorders: functional thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the last 15 years, several concepts have been developed to further improve the outcome of radioiodine therapy in functional thyroid autonomy. Results of radioiodine therapy in functional autonomy are considerably better than in Graves' disease. All of the currently-applied concepts offer healing rates of 75-100%, but they differ considerably in the hypothyreosis rates attained. The target volume can be precisely determined by sonography only in unifocal autonomy. In the case of multifocal and disseminated autonomy, the entire thyroid is taken as the target volume and the focal dose is reduced ('dosimetric compromise'). TcTUs-based dose concepts calculate the functionally autonomous volume from the TcTUs and replace the target volume by sonography, in the TcTUs-adapted dose concepts, sonographic target volume is left and the focal dose varied in dependence of the suppression uptake. The objective is to attain a high rate of success with a low rate of hypothyreosis. (orig.)

  7. Congenital leptin deficiency and thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz-Filho Gilberto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thyroid function is closely related to leptin's secretion by the adipose tissue. In states of leptin-deficiency, the circadian rhythm of TSH is altered, leading to central hypothyroidism in animal models. In humans, central hypothyroidism has also been described in rare cases of congenital leptin deficiency. However, the thyroid phenotype in these cases is heterogeneous, with the occurrence of central hypothyroidism in a minority of cases. Here we describe thyroid function in four leptin-deficient humans (2 males aged 5 and 27, and 2 females aged 35 and 40, before and during leptin replacement with recombinant human methionyl leptin (r-metHuLeptin. The child was evaluated for four years, and the adults, for eight years. In addition, the adults were submitted to a brief withdrawal of leptin during six weeks in the sixth year. Our results show that, regardless of leptin replacement, our leptin-deficient patients have normal thyroid function. In spite of having an important role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroidal axis, leptin is not required for normal thyroid function. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00659828 and NCT00657605

  8. Thyroid function profile in cord blood and postnatal changes at 24 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studying the acute postnatal changes of newborn thyroid function is essential for determining the best timing of screening for congenital hypothyroidism. There is paucity of literature on neonatal thyroid function and particularly the postnatal changes in Nigeria. Objectives: To describe the profile of thyroid ...

  9. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Rae; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Man; Park, Rae Woong; Suh, Jung Ho; Kang, Byung Chul

    1999-01-01

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 ± 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 ± 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  10. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable....... Measurement of antithyroperoxidase and/or TSH receptor antibodies adds to the differential diagnosis of autoimmune and nonautoimmune thyroid diseases....... for thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age...

  11. A Study on 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake in various thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Jae; Min, Hae Sook; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1974-01-01

    The 99m Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake rates(20 min) were measured in 24 healthy normal subjects, 140 patients with nontoxic goiter and 98 patients with thyrotoxicosis who were treated at the Thyroid Clinic, Seoul National University Hospital, from August 1972 to August 1973. Diagnostic reliabilities and correlations between 99m TcO 4 -thyroid uptake rate (20 min) and other thyroid function tests were evaluated. The observed results were as follows:1) The 99m TcO 4 - thyroid uptake rates (20 min) in normal subjects, euthyroid group and hyperthyroid group were 4.1±0.9%, 5.2±1.8% and 29.7±10.6%. There was a significant difference between the mean of the euthyroid group and the mean of the hyperthyroid group and so differentiation between them can be easy. 2) In the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, the reliabilities of 99m TcO 4 - thyroid uptake rate(20 min), 131 I thyroid uptake rate (24 hrs), serum T 3 resin uptake rate, serum T 4 and T 7 were 87.9-97.9%, 81.2-94.4%, 87.9-97.9%, 90.5-99.3% and 93.7-100%. 99m TcO 4 -thyroid uptake rate (20 min) is more accurate than 131 I thyroid uptake rate (24 hrs) in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. 3) 99m TcO 4 -thyroid uptake rate (20 min) was well correlated with 131 I thyroid uptake rate (24 hrs), serum T 3 resin uptake rate, serum T 4 and T 7 . Points in favor of 99m Tc are that it gives a small radiation dose to the thyroid, that tests can be repeated at the short interval, the study can be completed at a single patient visit and it is particularly well suited for the assessment of thyroid function in patients being treated with an antithyroid drug.

  12. Normal thyroid function values in Ethiopians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassie, Emnetu; Abdulkadir, Jemal

    1990-01-01

    Thyroid function values were determined in 56 healthy nongoitrous adult Ethiopians. The mean triiodothyronine (T3) values for 20 males and 36 females were 1.42+-0.32 nmol/L and 1.51+-0.25 nmol/L, and thyroxine (T4) values were 119 22 nmol/L and 116+21 nmol/L respectively. The mean thyrotropin (TSH) values for males and females were identical at 1.86+-0.94 mu/L. Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) at 2 hours was 8.6+-4.4% in males and 11.3+-4.3% in females, and at 24 hours 31.7+-11.7% and 38.9+-11.1% respectively. The difference between males and females were significant at both 2 and 24 hours (P<0.05). The ranges for the 3 hormones derived from the mean 2SD values are close to these supplied with the kits but the Ethiopian RAIU values are higher than the values currently applicable in developed countries, probably indicative of the lower level of dietary iodine available to the population here. The values obtained in this study are offered to serve as normal reference for the interpretation of thyroid function results in Ethiopian patients. A strategy for the rational utilization of the available in vitro tests is suggested

  13. High prevalence of thyroid FDG uptake on PET study in patients with thyroid hormone replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.-Q.; Kumar, R.; Xiu, Y.; Dadparvar, S.; Kung, J.W.; Kunjunmen, B.D.; Feng, Q.; Alavi, A.; Zhuang, H.

    2004-01-01

    Thyroid uptake is commonly seen on whole-body FDG-PET images. One well-known cause for this uptake is hyperthyroidism. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hypothyroidism also affects FDG uptake by the thyroid gland. Hospital records of 2765 patients who had undergone whole-body FDG-PET imaging for malignancies were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, those who had thyroid cancer, history of thyroid ablation for hyperthyroidism, neck lymphoma, and other types of head and neck cancer or recent neck surgery were excluded from analysis. The prevalence and level of thyroid FDG uptake in the remaining 1939 patients was compared with the state of patients' thyroid function. There were 141 hypothyroid subjects and the rest (n=1798) were euthyroid. The prevalence of thyroid tissue uptake in euthyroid subjects was 2.34% (42 of 1798), while it was 22% (31 out of 141) in hypothyroid patients. This was statistically significant. Similarly, the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients in patients showing thyroid uptake was 42.5% (31 of 73), while it was 5.9% (110 of 1866) in patients without thyroid uptake. This was again statistically significant (p<0.001). Based on this retrospective analysis it was concluded that the prevalence of increased thyroid FDG uptake is significantly higher in patients with hypothyroidism than those who are euthyroid. (author)

  14. Thyroid functions in young diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.A.; Ismail, A.A.; Awadeen, M.R.; Abbas, E.Z.; Farag, M.S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Assessment of the thyroid-pituitary axis was performed in uncontrolled (20 cases) and controlled (22 cases) insulin-dependent young diabetics who were university students attending the university hospital. A third age-matching group (21 normal subjects) was also investigated. The plasma glucose level was determined after fasting as well as 2 hours after an oral glucose meal (50 g). Thyroxine (T 4 ), triiodeothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were assayed by RIA. The data obtained showed a lowered level of T 3 and T 4 and a raised level of TSH in uncontrolled young diabetics as compared to corresponding values for age matching normals. The group of controlled diabetics showed near normal T 3 and increased T 4 levels, but still lower than normal. TSH levels dropped significantly to the normal level. (author)

  15. Apoptotic study in Graves disease treated with thyroid arterial embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wei; Gao Bulang; Yi Genfa

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate apoptosis in the thyroid of Graves disease (GD) induced by thyroid arterial embolization. Forty one patients with clinically and laboratorily ascertained GD were treated with thyroid arterial embolization and followed up for 3-54 months following embolization. Prior to embolization and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 36 months following embolization, thyroid autoimmune antibodies were tested respectively, including thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) and thyroid microsomal antibody (TMAb). Thyroid biopsy was performed under the guidance of computed tomography for immunohistochemistry examination using semi-quantity analysis. The positive staining of Fas and FasL was mostly in the cytoplasma and cell membrane, the positive expression of Bax was mainly in the cytoplasma, and no positive expression of P53 was detected in the thyroid cells before embolization. After arterial embolziation, the positive cell number and staining degree of these genes were both greater than before embolization. The treatment method of thyroid arterial embolization can effectively enhance the positive expression of pro-apoptotic genes of Fas, FasL, Bax, Bcl-2 and P53 in GD thyroid, thus promoting apoptosis of GD thyroid and helping restore the thyroid size and function to normal conditions. (author)

  16. Thyroid function in the newborn child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharieva, V.; Shtereva, K.

    1982-01-01

    Assessment is made of the thyroid parameters in the early neonatal period against the background of age-related physiological peculiarities of the thyroid function. One hundred infants, born in the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology over the period 25th to 42nd gestation week, are studied. The umbilical cord serum levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine and thyroiy-stimulating (TSH) levels are measured by a radioimmunologic method. The values of thyroxine disclose a steady increase with the progress of the gestation age of the fetus, and at childbirth they are higher than in adults. Triiodothyronine is lowered in all instances, and only in full-term infants it augments to reach the lowermost limit of the norm for adults. Reverse triiodothyronine is strongly elevated in all neonates, rather marked in premature infants. TSH exhibits no dependence whatsoever on the gestation age of the fetus, and at childbirth it is slightly above the uppermost limit of the norm for adults. Being aware of the peculiarities outlined has an essenti;l practical bearing on the correct interpretation of the results of ho of the results of hormonal studies, which in turn is closely linked to the problem of early detection and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism. (author)

  17. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable...... for thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age......-related reference ranges. Equally important, the intraindividual variability of the thyroid hormone measurements is much narrower than the interindividual variation (reflecting the reference interval). The best laboratory assessment of thyroid function is a free thyroid hormone estimate combined with TSH...

  18. Graves' disease: thyroid function and immunologic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossage, A.A.R.; Crawley, J.C.W.; Copping, S.; Hinge, D.; Himsworth, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Patients with Graves' disease were studied for two years during and after a twelve-month course of treatment. Disease activity was determined by repeated measurements of thyroidal uptake of [ 9 -9μTc]pertechnetate during tri-iodothyronine administration. These in-vivo measurements of thyroid stimulation were compared with the results of in-vitro assays of Graves, immunoglobulin (TSH binding inhibitory activity - TBIA). There was no correlation between the thyroid uptake and TBIA on diagnosis. Pertechnetate uptake and TBIA both declined during the twelve months of antithyroid therapy. TBIA was detectable in sera from 19 of the 27 patients at diagnosis; in 11 of these 19 patients there was a good correlation (p<0.05) throughout the course of their disease between the laboratory assay of the Graves, immunoglobulin and the thyroid uptake. Probability of recurrence can be assessed but sustained remission of Graves' disease after treatment cannot be predicted from either measurement alone or in combination

  19. Association of maternal thyroid function during early pregnancy with offspring IQ and brain morphology in childhood: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Muetzel, Ryan; Medici, Marco; Chaker, Layal; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Steegers, Eric A P; Visser, Theo J; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Peeters, Robin P

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is involved in the regulation of early brain development. Since the fetal thyroid gland is not fully functional until week 18-20 of pregnancy, neuronal migration and other crucial early stages of intrauterine brain development largely depend on the supply of maternal thyroid hormone. Current clinical practice mostly focuses on preventing the negative consequences of low thyroid hormone concentrations, but data from animal studies have shown that both low and high concentrations of thyroid hormone have negative effects on offspring brain development. We aimed to investigate the association of maternal thyroid function with child intelligence quotient (IQ) and brain morphology. In this population-based prospective cohort study, embedded within the Generation R Study (Rotterdam, Netherlands), we investigated the association of maternal thyroid function with child IQ (assessed by non-verbal intelligence tests) and brain morphology (assessed on brain MRI scans). Eligible women were those living in the study area at their delivery date, which had to be between April 1, 2002, and Jan 1, 2006. For this study, women with available serum samples who presented in early pregnancy (brain MRI scans (done at a median of 8·0 years of age [6·2-10·0]) were obtained. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders including concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin and child thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine. Data for child IQ were available for 3839 mother-child pairs, and MRI scans were available from 646 children. Maternal free thyroxine concentrations showed an inverted U-shaped association with child IQ (p=0·0044), child grey matter volume (p=0·0062), and cortex volume (p=0·0011). For both low and high maternal free thyroxine concentrations, this association corresponded to a 1·4-3·8 points reduction in mean child IQ. Maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone was not associated with child IQ or brain morphology. All associations remained

  20. Correlation of Thyroid Functions with Severity and Outcome of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During normal pregnancy, changes in thyroid function are well documented; however, information regarding thyroid function in preeclampsia is scanty. Pregnancy is associated with increased total thyroxine (T4) and, in preeclampsia, biochemical hypothyroidism (raised thyroid‑stimulating hormone [TSH]) occurs.

  1. Effect of Thyroid on Lipid Profile and Renal Function: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    filtration rate.[7,8] However, clinical studies on hypothyroid subjects are very few and not much data is available on how hypothyroidism influences renal function in human beings. Hence, we conducted this observational study to see the relation of the thyroid hormone with hepatic and renal functions. Subjects and Methods.

  2. IMPORTANCE OF THYROID FUNCTION TEST IN DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Thyroid disorder and Diabetes are both hormone and endocrine and problems. When thyroid disease occurs in someone with diabetes, it can make blood glucose control more difficult. The incidence and occurrence of thyroid diseases in general population is increasing more and more day by day . As the prevalence of diabetes and thyroid both is more in India, correlation of these two diseases was studied in this study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: this study was conducted on 105 diabetic (both type I and II patients attending Outpatient Department. Thyroid tests including TSH, and T4 were measured using enzyme immune assay. RESULTS: We have enrolled 105 patients which are Prediabetes, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Out of these 55 are male and 50 patients are females. 68 patients are on oral hypoglycemic drugs and 28 patients are on insulin with oral hypoglycemic agents, 09 patients were only on Diabetic D iet. We have observed that patient with diabetes predominantly females were having abnormal thyroid levels than compared to control group. Hypothyroidism was seen to be more common in females than in males in both the control and study group. Similarly hyp erthyroidism also seems to be common in females compared to males in both diabetic and non - diabetic groups (Perros P 1995. DISCUSSION: Abnormal thyroid hormone levels were observed more commonly in study group than in control group. Hypothyroidism was see n to be more common in females than in males in both the control and study group. Similarly hyperthyroidism also seems to be common in females compared to males in both diabetic and non - diabetic groups

  3. Metal ions to affect thyroid functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Mikio

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism of physiological action of the trace elements that exert effects to internal secretion organs has not much been specified. The reasons are presumed as the elements exert effects to many enzyme groups, change the structural constitution, or modify the permeability of matters. As the metallic elements that exert effects to thyroid, there are more than ten kinds including Li, Ca, Co, Br, I, Hg, Pb and Se. In this report, the knowledge that the authors observed about the effects of Mn, I and Li which are apt to accumulate on thyroid is introduced. Mn and I were quantitatively determined by activation analysis, and Li by atomic absorption spectrometry. There is the report that the excessive intake of Mn causes human thyroid tumor. By the shortage of Mn, the restriction of energy metabolism, growth delay, sterility, bone abnormality and motion disorder arise. The contents of Mn and I in the periphery of thyroid tumors were examined by activation analysis. When an antipsychotic Li is administered, the function of thyroid is often lowered. Those effects are explained. In the case of Mn excess and Mn shortage, the new problem that the hormone residue in globulin tended to increase arose. The similar phenomenon occurred also in the case of I. The reason is unknown at present. (K.I.)

  4. Our experience with radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, Otakar

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this paper the author presents his experience with radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies. The objectives of this study were to establish the efficacy and determine the adverse effects of radioiodine therapy of patients with thyroid functional autonomies. The main pathologic attribute of thyroid functional autonomies is the loss of regulation in the axis of hypothalamus-hypophysis-thyroid. The main cause of functional autonomy of the thyroid is iodine deficiency. Over a period of 30 years (1974-2004) 799 patients (age from 33 to 86 years; average age 58.7 years; the female: male ration was 7.4:1) with unifocal functional autonomy (UFA), multifocal functional autonomy (MFA) and disseminated functional autonomy (DFA) received at least one treatment of radioiodine. For diagnostics and the evaluation of radioiodine therapeutic effect of functional autonomies a thyroid scintigraphy is the basic and necessary procedure. In some patients a common scintigraphy with special imaging modulation, in some patients a scintigraphy after suppression or stimulation by means of thyroid hormones or TSH were done. We have also performed a thyroid ultrasonography, an assessment of a serum level of a total and free thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, TSH, radioiodine accumulation test, estimation of radioiodine effective half-life, in some patients TRH-TSH test. The follow-up examinations were done in all patients after 4-6 months, another examination after one year in 545 patients and after two years in 254 patients. One therapeutic dose received 733 patients (91.74%) and it was sufficient for an elimination of functional autonomies. Some patients were retreated if there was the evidence of small or no treatment effect and no elimination of functional autonomies. Two radioiodine treatments received 62 patients (7.76%) and three treatments 4 patients (0.5%). We advocate individual pre-therapeutic dosimetry to determine the activity necessary to achieve a

  5. Thyroid Function and Body Weight: A Community-Based Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergved, Lena; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans

    2014-01-01

    . Weight increased by 0.3 kg (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1, 0.4, P = 0.005) in women and 0.8 kg (95% CI 0.1, 1.4, P = 0.02) in men for every one unit TSH (mU/L) increase. Conclusions: TSH levels were not a determinant of future weight changes, and BMI was not a determinant for TSH changes......,102 individuals who participated at 11-year follow-up, without current or former treatment for thyroid disease and with measurements of TSH and weight at both examinations. Multiple linear regression models were used, stratified by sex and adjusted for age, smoking status, and leisure time physical activity....... Results: Baseline TSH concentration was not associated with change in weight (women, P = 0.17; men, P = 0.72), and baseline body mass index (BMI) was not associated with change in TSH (women, P = 0.21; men, P = 0.85). Change in serum TSH and change in weight were significantly associated in both sexes...

  6. Association of thyroid function with arterial pressure in normotensive and hypertensive euthyroid individuals: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltiki Katerina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt hypothyroidism has been associated with arterial hypertension and increased arterial stiffness. Results in euthyroid individuals have been conflicting. We investigated associations of thyroid function with systolic (SAP and diastolic (DAP arterial pressure in euthyroid subjects. Methods 311 euthyroid individuals (185 women, mean age 43.9 ± 9 without a history of diabetes attending a preventive medicine program were examined. Subjects receiving thyroxine (10.6% were excluded; 19.3% had hypertension, 43% had a family history for hypertension. TSH, fT4, thyroid autoantibodies, insulin, glucose were measured. The "fT4.TSH product", which has been suggested as a T4 resistance-index, was calculated. Results TSH range was 0.1–8, median 1.4 mU/L, fT4 range was 11.5–25.2 pmol/L, median 17.4. TSH and the "fT4.TSH product" were positively associated with DAP (p 2 mU/L (35.3% vs 21.3%, p = 0.045. Conclusion In euthyroid individuals the association of thyroid function with diastolic arterial pressure remains significant even when a stricter "normal range" for TSH levels is considered. The "freeT4.TSH" product appears to be an even stronger predictor of DAP, independently of HOMA insulin resistance index and obesity.

  7. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Aakre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study. In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L, respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight.

  8. Some biochemical studies on thyroid immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoush, M.A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of induced immunological environment on: a - Carbohydrate metabolism as reflected by immunoreactive insulin and blood sugar levels. b - Biochemical parameters, namely total protein, albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatase and transaminases, reflecting liver function. c - Radioimmunological tests reflecting thyroid function. The study comprised 36 male rabbits, boscate strain of six months age assigned randomly to : control, albumin immunized and thyroglobulin immunized groups

  9. Pregnancy outcomes are not altered by variation in thyroid function within the normal range in women free of thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Flora; Kleynen, Pierre; Grabczan, Lidia; Salajan, Alexandra; Rozenberg, Serge; Pepersack, Thierry; Poppe, Kris

    2018-02-01

    In the recently revised guidelines on the management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy, treatment with thyroid hormone (LT4) is not recommended in women without thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) and TSH levels in the range 2.5-4.0 mIU/L, and in a recent study in that particular group of pregnant women, more complications were observed when a treatment with LT4 was given. The objective of the study was therefore to investigate whether variation in thyroid function within the normal (non-pregnant) range in women free of thyroid disease was associated with altered pregnancy outcomes? Cross-sectional data analysis of 1321 pregnant women nested within an ongoing prospective collection of pregnant women's data in a single centre in Brussels, Belgium. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-abs), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (FT4) and ferritin levels were measured and baseline characteristics were recorded. Women taking LT4, with TAI and thyroid function outside the normal non-pregnant range were excluded. Pregnancy outcomes and baseline characteristics were correlated with all TSH and FT4 levels within the normal range and compared between two groups (TSH cut-off 500 mL) was inversely associated with serum FT4 levels (OR: 0.35; CI 95%: 0.13-0.96); P  = 0.040. Also 10% of women free of thyroid disease had serum TSH levels ≥2.5 mIU/L. Variation in thyroid function during the first trimester within the normal (non-pregnant) range in women free of thyroid disease was not associated with altered pregnancy outcomes. These results add evidence to the recommendation against LT4 treatment in pregnant women with high normal TSH levels and without TPO antibodies. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. Reproductive function and biological dosimetry prospective study of young thyroid differentiated cancer patients treated with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Taja, Maria R.; Radl, Analia; Chebel, Graciela; Fadel, Ana M.; Gutierrez, Silvia; Normandi, Eduardo; Levalle, Oscar; Kundt, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The administration of I-131 in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is a well established practice. As the spermatogonia is highly sensitive to radiation, large doses of internal radiation could result in adverse effects on reproductive function such as oligo/azoospermia and infertility. During spermiogenesis, mammalian chromatin undergoes replacement of nuclear histones by protamines, which yields a DNA sixfold more highly condensed in spermatozoa than in mitotic chromosomes. The structure of this highly packaged chromatin shows a low binding capacity for several fluoro chromes and dyes such as chromo mycin A 3 (CMA 3 ). The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between reproductive function (endocrine and exocrine testicular function, and levels of CMA 3 stainability) and biological dosimetry in a prospective study of 4 young DTC patients treated with I-131. In this context, a background level of CMA 3 binding in mature human sperm was established. It revealed a variable accessibility of CMA 3 to the DNA that is dependant on packaging quality and thus, indicative of protamine deficiency. The identification of altered stainability suggests DNA damage as well as epigenetic effects, which may be indicators of male infertility. Transient impairment of spermatogenesis associated with an increase in FSH, an altered spermiogram and even azoospermia was observed after the administration of cumulative activities. Overall, testosterone levels were preserved, except in one case, which presented a drastically diminished value associated with an increase in LH level. As peripheral blood lymphocytes and spermatogonia have equivalent radiosensitivity (interphase death) we hypothesize that the knowledge of DNA damage recovery in peripheral lymphocytes could correlate with spermatogonia recovery and with FSH evolution. Therefore, a prospective study on the decline of unstable chromosome aberrations is being conducted, considering the damage

  11. Thyroid function testing in women who had a stillbirth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Janna W.; Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; Groen, Henk; Timmer, Albertus; Van den Berg, Gerrit; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.

    ContextThyroid dysfunction is thought to be associated with stillbirth. Therefore, thyroid function is often recommended in the diagnostic investigations for stillbirth. ObjectiveWe aimed to evaluate the added value of thyroid function testing in the diagnostic investigations for stillbirth. Design

  12. Reproductive function and biological dosimetry prospective study of young thyroid differentiated cancer patients treated with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Taja, M.R.; Radl, A.; Chebel, Graciela; Fadel, Ana Maria; Gutierrez, Silvia; Normandi, Eduardo; Levalle, Oscar; Kundt, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    The administration of I-131 in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is a well established practice. As the spermatogonia is highly sensitive to radiation, large doses of internal radiation could result in adverse effects on reproductive function such as oligo/azoospermia and infertility. During spermiogenesis, mammalian chromatin undergoes replacement of nuclear histones by protamines, which yields a DNA sixfold more highly condensed in spermatozoa than in mitotic chromosomes. The structure of this highly packaged chromatin shows a low binding capacity for several fluorochromes and dyes such as chromomycin A3 (CMA3). The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between reproductive function (endocrine and exocrine testicular function, and levels of CMA3 stainability) and biological dosimetry in a prospective study of 4 young DTC patients treated with I-131. In this context, a background level of CMA3 binding in mature human sperm was established. It revealed a variable accessibility of CMA3 to the DNA that is dependant on packaging quality and thus, indicative of protamine deficiency. The identification of altered stainability suggests DNA damage as well as epigenetic effects, which may be indicators of male infertility. Transient impairment of spermatogenesis associated with an increase in FSH, an altered spermiogram and even azoospermia was observed after the administration of cumulative activities. Overall, testosterone levels were preserved, except in one case, which presented a drastically diminished value associated with an increase in LH level. As peripheral blood lymphocytes and spermatogonia have equivalent radiosensitivity (interphase death) we hypothesize that the knowledge of DNA damage recovery in peripheral lymphocytes could correlate with spermatogonia recovery and with FSH evolution. (authors)

  13. Characterization of thyroid function and antithyroid antibody tests among Saudis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammah, Anwar A.; Alshehri, Anwar S.; Alrakhis, Afaf A.; Alhedaithy, Asma S.; Almadhi, Asma M.; Alkwai, Hala M.; Alhamad, Maram M.; Alzahrani, Saad H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reference intervals for thyroid function tests and the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in the Saudi population. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January to June 2013. History and physical examination were obtained. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were measured by Electro-chemiluminescence Immunoassay system-assay. Anti-thyroperoxidase, and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent-assay. Subjects with previous or a family history of thyroid disorders, those taking medications affecting thyroid function, pregnant or lactating women, and those with goiter were excluded. Individuals with positive antibodies were excluded from the final analysis of the TSH reference range, but were used to determine the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity. Results: Out of 337 Saudi subjects initially screened, 132 (aged 13-60 years) were candidates for reference calculation, the mean±standard deviation, and (2.5th-97.5th) percentile of TSH (mIU/L) was 1.96±0.9 (0.59-4.37), for FT4 (pmol/L) was 15.47±1.83 (12.04-19.13), and for FT3 (pmol/L) was 5.22±0.7 (4.07-6.76). The TSH was higher in the antibodies positive group (2.5±1.17 mIU/L) compared with the negative one (1.96±0.9 mIU/L) (pantithyroid antibodies. Conclusion: The TSH reference range was similar to laboratory references. Thyroid antibodies were prevalent in Saudis, necessitating further work in larger scale studies. PMID:25987111

  14. Hyper-functioning Thyroid Nodule with Scintigraphic Owl's Eye Appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kordi, R.S.; Elgazzar, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Hyper-functioning thyroid nodules may produce various scintigraphic appearances on thyroid scans. Autonomously hyper functioning thyroid nodules invariably demonstrate degenerative changes. These changes may give rise to central or less commonly peripheral photopenic areas on a thyroid scan within otherwise a hot nodule. In this report we present a case of hyper functioning autonomous nodule with peripheral degeneration and residual central functioning tissue giving the appearance of an owl's eye. Although rare, this pattern can be seen in a variety of benign and malignant thyroid conditions. (author)

  15. Role of Estrogen in Thyroid Function and Growth Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Santin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases are more prevalent in women, particularly between puberty and menopause. It is wellknown that estrogen (E has indirect effects on the thyroid economy. Direct effects of this steroid hormone on thyroid cells have been described more recently; so, the aim of the present paper was to review the evidences of these effects on thyroid function and growth regulation, and its mechanisms. The expression and ratios of the two E receptors, α and β, that mediate the genomic effects of E on normal and abnormal thyroid tissue were also reviewed, as well as nongenomic, distinct molecular pathways. Several evidences support the hypothesis that E has a direct role in thyroid follicular cells; understanding its influence on the growth and function of the thyroid in normal and abnormal conditions can potentially provide new targets for the treatment of thyroid diseases.

  16. Maternal thyroid function in pregnancy may program offspring blood pressure, but not adiposity at 20 y of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Dorte; Andersen, Stine L; Bech, Bodil H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence exists indicating that maternal thyroid hormones during pregnancy may affect the metabolic set point and cardio-vascular function in the offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between maternal thyroid function in week 30...... circumference. CONCLUSION: Maternal thyroid function during third trimester of pregnancy may affect long-term blood pressure in the offspring....

  17. Making sense of thyroid function tests | Gezawa | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thyroid disorders are second only to diabetes mellitus among endocrine problems encountered in practice. Many patients with thyroid disorders tend to present with nonspecific symptoms to clinicians in different specialties, who are often quick to request for a thyroid function test. Although interpretation of the ...

  18. Graves' disease: thyroid function and immunologic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossage, A.A.; Crawley, J.C.; Copping, S.; Hinge, D.; Himsworth, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Patients with Graves' disease were studied for two years during and after a twelve-month course of treatment. Disease activity was determined by repeated measurements of thyroidal uptake of [/sup 99m/Tc]pertechnetate during tri-iodothyronine administration. These in-vivo measurements of thyroid stimulation were compared with the results of in-vitro assays of Graves, immunoglobulin (TSH binding inhibitory activity--TBIA). There was no correlation between the thyroid uptake and TBIA on diagnosis. Pertechnetate uptake and TBIA both declined during the twelve months of antithyroid therapy. TBIA was detectable in sera from 19 of the 27 patients at diagnosis; in 11 of these 19 patients there was a good correlation (p less than 0.05) throughout the course of their disease between the laboratory assay of the Graves, immunoglobulin and the thyroid uptake. Probability of recurrence can be assessed but sustained remission of Graves' disease after treatment cannot be predicted from either measurement alone or in combination

  19. Association Between Thyroid Hormones, Thyroid Antibodies, and Cardiometabolic Factors in Non-Obese Individuals With Normal Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHypothyroidism is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT is the leading cause of hypothyroidism. Recent studies showed that even AIT patients with euthyroidism still had an increased number of early atherosclerotic lesions. However, the precise mechanism is not yet known. This study aimed to investigate the association of thyroid function, thyroid autoimmunity, and cardiometabolic risk factors in non-obese AIT patients with euthyroidism.MethodsA total of 5,608 non-obese individuals including 1,402 AIT patient and 4,206 sex-, age-, and body mass index (BMI-matched healthy controls were recruited.ResultsThe AIT patients had significantly lower free T3 and free T4 levels, and higher TSH, antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb and TgAb levels. The elevated levels of high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were observed in the AIT patients than the controls [hsCRP: 0.65 (0.27–1.33 vs. 0.20 (0.03–0.74 mg/L; HOMA-IR: 2.78 ± 1.60 vs. 2.33 ± 1.49; all P < 0.05]. Thyroid function was not associated with metabolic parameters and inflammatory makers, while the TPOAb titer was positively associated with the HOMA-IR and hsCRP levels after adjustment for confounding factors (all P < 0.05. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the TPOAb level was an independent influencing factor for the HOMA-IR and hsCRP levels (HOMA-IR: β = 0.058, P < 0.05; hsCRP: β = 0.108, P < 0.05.ConclusionThe TPOAb level is associated with HOMA-IR and hsCRP levels independently of thyroid function in non-obese individuals. Mild deviation of thyroid function within the normal range, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance may be the links between AIT and atherosclerosis in the non-obese population.

  20. Clinical course of thyroid function and thyroid associated-ophthalmopathy in patients with euthyroid Graves’ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki N

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nami Suzuki,1 Jaeduk Yoshimura Noh,1 Toshiaki Kameda,1 Ai Yoshihara,1 Hidemi Ohye,1 Miho Suzuki,1 Masako Matsumoto,1 Yo Kunii,1 Kenji Iwaku,1 Natsuko Watanabe,1 Koji Mukasa,1 Ai Kozaki,2 Toshu Inoue,2 Kiminori Sugino,1 Koichi Ito1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Ito Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Olympia Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Background: Euthyroid Graves’ disease (EGD is a rare condition defined as the presence of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO in patients with normal thyroid function. Due to the rarity of this disease, only a limited number of studies and case reports are available for further evaluation of the characteristics of the disease. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the thyroid function, thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb and eye symptoms, and then determine whether TRAb is related to TAO in EGD patients. TRAb in this study was defined as including both thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII and thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSAb. Patients and methods: Medical records of patients diagnosed with EGD were reviewed. Ophthalmologists specializing in TAO examined the eyes of all subjects. Results: Of the 58 patients diagnosed with EGD, 24.1% developed hyperthyroidism, while 3.4% developed hypothyroidism. A total of 72.4% of the 58 patients remained euthyroid throughout the entire follow-up period. At the initial presentation, TBII and TSAb were positive in 74.5% and 70.5%, respectively. Ophthalmic treatments were administered to 30 (51.7% out of the 58 patients. A significant spontaneous improvement of the eye symptoms was found in 28 of the EGD patients who did not require eye treatments. EGD patients exhibited positive rates for both TBII and TSAb, with the number of the TRAb-positive patients gradually decreasing while the eye symptoms spontaneously improved over time. There were no correlations found between TRAb at initial presentation and the eye symptoms

  1. The Study on the Thyroid Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Ho

    1982-01-01

    Several recent advances in our knowledge of thyroid physiology have broad application to the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders. For in the thyroid, more than other end-ocrine organs, pathophysiology can be translated directly into the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease. Graves' disease is a syndrome including goiter with hyperthyroidism, exophthalmos and dermatopathy. The pathogenesis of Graves' disease is not yet clearly identified, but various autoantibodies to the thyroid gland and immunapathalogic studied indicate that autoimmune processes are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The diagnosis and management of Graves' disease are largely dependent on radionuclide technique as radioimmunoassay, radioactive iodine therapy and so on. Several laboratory tests are also developed to determine the remission of this disease including TRH stimulation test, T 3 , suppression test and detection of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins. Autoimmune thyroiditis is almost certainly a primary immunologic disease and the incidence tends to increase recently, mainly due to the application of biopsy technique is thyroid diseases. Thyroid nodules have been a great challenge to physicians because of the possibility of malignancy. But recently, cytologic examination of thyroid aspirate provides a very simple and also reliable diagnostic method in patients with thyroid nodules. In 163 patients with thyroid nodules, only 19.3% was revealed to be malignant. Therefore cytologic examination of thyroid aspirate and thyroid biopsy should be included in the diagnosis of nodular patients prior to surgical intervention. In this paper, a comprehensive review is presented on the pathogenesis, clinical features, laboratory findings and therapeutic modalities of various thyroid diseases on the basis of over 80 researches performed during the past 20 years at radioisotope clinic, Seoul National University Hospital.

  2. Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Frohnert Hansen

    Full Text Available Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of humans. They are suspected to disrupt the thyroid axis as epidemiological studies suggest an influence on the peripheral thyroid hormone concentration. The mechanism is still unknown as only few in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg secretion from the cells. Results of the lactate dehydrogenase-measurements indicated that the MEHP-mediated influence was caused by cell death. No influence on gene expression of thyroid specific genes (Tg, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodine symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor by any of the investigated diesters could be demonstrated. All phthalate diesters were metabolised to the respective monoester, however with a fall in efficiency for high concentrations of the larger diesters DnBP and DEHP. In conclusion, human thyroid cells were able to metabolise phthalates but this phthalate-exposure did not appear to substantially influence selected functions of these cells.

  3. Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroiditis Resources Thyroiditis Brochure PDF Thyroiditis FAQs PDF En Español Tiroiditis El folleto de Tiroiditis Tiroiditis, Preguntas Frecuentes (FAQ) Search ...

  4. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: impact on thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestgaard, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2008-01-01

    In pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated whether the presence of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO) was associated with changes in thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome.......In pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated whether the presence of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO) was associated with changes in thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome....

  5. Anti-thyroid antibodies and thyroid function in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Yi, Huan; Liu, Jia; Li, Min; Mao, Zhi-Feng; Xu, Li; Peng, Fu-Hua

    2016-07-15

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are complicated neuroautoimmune disorders which can coexist with other organ-specific autoimmune disorders. The most frequently specific organ is the thyroid. The aim of this study is to evaluate the thyroid function of NMOSD patients and detect the difference between anti-thyroid antibodies (ATAbs) seropositive and seronegative NMOSD patients. 88 patients diagnosed with NMOSD were enrolled and their thyroid functions were evaluated. They were divided into two groups by ATAbs abnormalities. In addition, demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms and MRI scan results of brain and spinal cord were assessed. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAbs) seropositivities were detected more frequently in patients with NMOSDs when compared with healthy controls (37.5% vs 14.9%, P=0.01, Diff22.6%, 95CI[9.0%, 34.9%]; 31.8% vs 16.2%, P=0.022, Diff15.6%, 95CI[2.27%, 27.9%]). In NMOSD patients, the Expanded disability status scale score (EDSS) score was significantly higher in ATAbs seropositive group than that in ATAbs seronegative group (median 6.5 vs 3.75, P=0.012). However, there is no significant difference for demographic characteristics and other clinical symptoms. Moreover, NMOSD patients with ATAbs abnormalities had more brain and cervical cord lesions when compared with ATAbs negative NMOSD patients (83.8% vs 61.4%, P=0.029, Diff22.4%, 95CI[0.9%, 40.9%]; 93.9% vs 59.6%, P=0.001, Diff34.3%, 95CI[13.6%, 50.4%]). NMOSD patients have a higher frequency of ATAbs abnormalities. ATAbs may be associated with disability status, brain abnormalities and cervical cord lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation effect of radioiodide therapy on the hypophyseal and hypothalamic feedback control centers for thyroid function studied by dry-mount autoradiography. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, W.E.

    1972-01-01

    Results are reported from studies in rats on the effects of β radiation from therapeutic doses of 131 I on the physiology of the pituitary gland and on brain structures considered thyroid hormone control areas. Iodine-125-labeled triiodothyronine and thyroxine and autoradiographic techniques were used to determine the cellular and subcellular localization of thyroid hormones in the brain tissues of untreated and thyroidectomized animals. The results suggest that thyroid hormones act on all neurons throughout the mature brain. (U.S.)

  7. Request of thyroid function tests from Primary Care in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Pomares, Francisco J; Flores, Emilio; Uris, Joaquín; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory tests are crucial for diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid disorders. It is therefore necessary to study the pattern and variability in requests of thyroid function tests. The study objectives were to compare the inter-regional variability in the request of laboratory thyroid tests by general practitioners (GPs) in Spain, and to investigate the potential economic savings if the goals set for some suitability indicators were reached. Test requests per 1,000 inhabitants and test ratios (free thyroxine (FT4)/thyrotropin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3)/TSH, thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb)/peroxidase antibody (TPOAb)) were compared between the different areas, according to their setting, location, and management. The resulting savings if each department achieved the goals for indicator (0.25 for FT4/TSH, 0.1 for FT3/TSH) were estimated. Seventy-six laboratories covering a population of 17,679,195 inhabitants participated in the study. TSH was requested significantly less in urban-rural areas, and the requests for FT3/1,000 inhabitants, FT3/TSH, and TgAb/TPOAb were higher in departments with private management. The savings generated if specifications for the ratios of related tests were met would be 937,260.5 €. The high variability reported in requests for thyroid function and autoimmunity tests in Spain suggests the need for implementing strategies to improve use of such tests. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical studies on thyroid diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on some aspects of thyroid disease: prevention of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), diagnosis of related conditions as autoimmune hypophysitis in autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease), and treatment of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT).

  9. Thyroid function testing in neonates born to women with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Matthew; Reyani, Zahra; O'Connor, Pamela; White, Martin; Miletin, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to assess the utility of serum thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone performed at 10-14 days of life in diagnosing congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in babies born to mothers with hypothyroidism. This was a retrospective study of all babies born in a tertiary referral centre for neonatology over a 12-month period. Infants who had thyroid function testing (TFT) checked at 10-14 days of life because of maternal hypothyroidism during the period of study were included. The results of the newborn bloodspot and day 10-14 TFT were recorded along with whether or not patients were subsequently treated. Of the 319 patients included in the study, only two patients were found to have CH and in both cases the newborn blood spot had been abnormal. No extra cases of CH were detected from the thyroid test at 10-14 days and this practice should be discontinued due to the robust nature of existing newborn screening programmes. What is Known: • Congenital hypothyroidism(CH) is the commonest preventable cause of childhood intellectual impairment. • Family history of hypothyroidism has been implicated as a risk factor for CH. • CH has formed part of newborn screening since the 1970s. What is New: • There is no research recommending thyroid function testing at 10-14 days of life to detect CH in neonates born to mothers with hypothyroidism. • Thyroid function testing at 10-14 days of life does not improve diagnostic yield for CH in babies born to mothers with hypothyroidism. • Newborn blood spot remains the mainstay for accurate and timely diagnosis of CH.

  10. A 2-YEAR PRELIMINARY LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING IN HASHIMOTO’S THYROIDITIS UNDER LEVOTHYROXINE TREATMENT: ONLY TRAIL MAKING TEST IS MAKING A DIFFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaitsa Giannouli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined longitudinally depression, stress and cognition in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis (HT under levothyroxine (LT4 treatment. Although HT is claimed to cause several mood changes and cognitive deficits in patients who are left untreated, we still know little about the longitudinal profile of these patients when they are under stable treatment. Sixteen middle-aged euthyroid HT women and sixteen healthy control women were examined with a detailed neuropsychological battery covering different cognitive functions (attention, visual and verbal memory, executive functions and mood, and with thyroid functions tests at three time points at one and two years post-baseline. Depression and perceived stress, along with verbal and visual memory were found to be stable at a two-year retesting in euthyroid HT women. Only TMT-Parts A and B deteriorated at one and two years in euthyroid HT. Although impaired performance in attention and executive deficits are linked with heighted levels of depression and stress, here they were not accompanied by changes in mood. The present study failed to detect any noticeable changes longitudinally in the cognitive and emotional function in euthyroid HT women under stable and continuous LT4 treatment. Patients’ restricted deficits may indicate that the decline in attention and executive functioning performance might be related to the effects of a specific progressive degenerative process associated with the disorder, rather than the effects of aging.

  11. Peculiarities of hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid function in children born from the Chornobyl NPP accident survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopylova, O.V.; Stepanenko, O.A.

    2015-01-01

    The 168 children born to parents exposed after the Chernobyl accident were examined to study the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system function in descendants of the Chernobyl survivors. Clinical, hormonal, ultrasound examinations and challenge test with tyroliberynum were conducted. Some abnormalities that might explain the functional strain of the hypothalamic-pituitary system were identified being of a great role in origination and progress of thyroid disease. The prolonged strain leads to decreased production of thyroid hormone, which causes an increased secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone. Under the influence of TSH the thyroid gland in the first stage becomes increased in its mass, which leads to the formation of endemic goiter. Stable and permanent thyroid gland enlargement often leads to formation of the nodular goiter and other proliferative processes, namely to carcinogenesis

  12. The relationship between iron level and thyroid function during the first trimester of pregnancy: A cross-sectional study in Wuxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinyan; Yang, Anqiang; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Yunlong; Gu, Ying; Xu, Yaohui; Chen, Daozhen

    2017-09-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between iron level and thyroid function during the first trimester of pregnancy in Eastern China. This was a hospital-based, cross-sectional observational study. A total of 1764 pregnant women were enrolled during their first trimester of gestation in Wuxi city. Serum ferritin (SF), hemoglobin (Hb), urinary iodine concentrations (UIC), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were measured and evaluated in pregnant women. The median of TSH,FT4 and FT3 were 1.53mIU/L,10.43pmol/L and 4.50pmol/L respectively. The median UIC was 200μg/L and the median Hb was 126g/L. Of all the women, 1.76% of the subjects had iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) (SFiron deficiency (ID) (SF100μg/L group, the FT4 level was significantly lower in SF20μg/L group was significantly higher than that in SF 20-100μg/L group (P=0.038) and SF>100μg/L group(P=0.034). There was an inverse linear relationship between TSH and FT4 after log transformation (r=0.245,P=0.000). Moreover, spearman's correlation analysis showed that UIC were correlated with SF and FT3 (all Piron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia shoud be evaluated and treated to combat thyroid dysfunction during the first trimester of pregnancy, Meanwhile, an increased attention should be paid on iodine nutritional status among this pregnant women simultaneous iron deficiency and thyroid dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. correlation between cytology and thyroid function test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damary

    2006-10-01

    Oct 1, 2006 ... the hormones tri-iodothyronine T3 and thyroxine T4, which are in turn regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), produced by the anterior pituitary gland. Diseases of the thyroid gland usually result in thyroid enlargement (goiter) which can be due to infections, cystic changes, autoimmune diseases, ...

  14. The effect of low-dose ionizing radiation on structural functional state of thyroid gland. Communication 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukashova, O.P.

    1999-01-01

    Twelve rabbits were used to study the ultrastructure of thyroid cells after mercazolilum administration during 2.5 month (1 mg/kg of the body mass) to intact and exposed to total x-ray radiation at the total dose of 0.75 Gy animals. Prolonged administration of mercazolilum to intact rabbits causes the development of considerable morpho functional changes in the thyroid gland suggesting disturbances of thyroid secretion. 2-3 month after the preparation withdrawal thyroid 's ultrastructure restores almost completely. Mercazolilum administration to the irradiated rabbits prevents the development of structural disturbances in the thyroid epithelium characteristic for the action of separate factors. Thyroid ultrastructure in rabbits 2-3 month after the preparation withdrawal in similar to that observed at irradiation only. Normalization of thyroid ultrastructure at administration of mercazolilum to the irradiated animals suggest that inhibition of thyroid activity after the exposure to radiation is reversible and can be due to disturbances in thyroid homeostasis regulation

  15. Thyroid function in children and adolescents with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis after l-thyroxine discontinuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Radetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid function may recover in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT. Design: To investigate thyroid function and the need to resume l-thyroxine treatment after its discontinuation. Setting: Nine Italian pediatric endocrinology centers. Patients: 148 children and adolescents (25 m and 123 f with HT on treatment with l-thyroxine for at least one year. Intervention and main outcome measure: Treatment was discontinued in all patients, and serum TSH and fT4 concentrations were measured at the time of treatment discontinuation and then after 2, 6, 12 and 24 months. Therapy with l-thyroxine was re-instituted when TSH rose >10 U/L and/or fT4 was below the normal range. The patients were followed up when TSH concentrations were between 5 and 10 U/L and fT4 was in the normal range. Results: At baseline, TSH was in the normal range in 139 patients, and was between 5 and 10 U/L in 9 patients. Treatment was re-instituted after 2 months in 37 (25.5% patients, after 6 months in 13 patients (6.99%, after 12 months in 12 patients (8.6%, and after 24 months in an additional 3 patients (3.1%. At 24 months, 34 patients (34.3% still required no treatment. TSH concentration >10 U/L at the time of diagnosis was the only predictive factor for the deterioration of thyroid function after l-thyroxine discontinuation. Conclusions: This study confirms that not all children with HT need life-long therapy with l-thyroxine, and the discontinuation of treatment in patients with a TSH level <10 U/L at the time of diagnosis should be considered.

  16. Effect of abnormal thyroid function on the severity of Graves' ophthalmopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Mourits, M. P.; Koornneef, L.; Berghout, A.; van der Gaag, R.

    1990-01-01

    Many clinicians have the impression that treatment of thyroid dysfunction ameliorates ophthalmopathy in Graves' disease. The aim of our study was to relate thyroid function to the severity of Graves' ophthalmopathy. We studied 90 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy and Graves' hyperthyroidism in

  17. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Rae; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Man; Park, Rae Woong; Suh, Jung Ho [Aju University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 {+-} 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 {+-} 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  18. STUDY OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS AND ITS CLINICAL CORRELATION IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyasagar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Thyroid dysfunction in elderly is not uncommon. Thyroid abnormalities were more among females than in males. Clinical diagnosis is difficult to make but Thyroid Function Tests always help in diagnosing the disease. Subclinical state is equally common as clinical state in elderly population. As the age advances the incidence of thyroid disorders increase. The study was undertaken with an objective to study the spectrum of thyroid dysfunction in elderly and to correlate clinical symptoms with abnormal thyroid function. Thyroid disorders were present in 26%, overt hypothyroidism in 12%, subclinical hypothyroidism in 8% cases, hyperthyroidism in 3% and subclinical hyperthyroidism in 3% patients was noted. In this study, 36 patients were males and 64 were females. Females (20% had high incidence of thyroid disorders than males (6%.

  19. Effect of steroid replacement on thyroid function and thyroid autoimmunity in Addison's disease with primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Selviambigapathy, Jayakumar; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Nagarajan, K; Vivekanandan, Muthupillai

    2016-01-01

    Steroid replacement without thyroxine supplementation normalizes thyroid function test (TFT) in some but not all Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to this improvement in TFT. However, the documentation of the change in thyroid autoimmunity after cortisol replacement is very limited in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of steroid replacement on TFT and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab) titer in Addison's disease with primary hypothyroidism. This observational study was conducted in a tertiary care center in South India. Six Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism, who were only on steroid replacement, were included in the study. Low serum cortisol (22 pmol/L) and/or hyperpigmentation of skin/mucous membranes was considered as the diagnostic criteria for Addison's disease. Primary hypothyroidism (both overt and subclinical) was defined as high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with/without low free thyroxine (fT4). TFT and anti-TPO-Ab were performed before and after steroid replacement in all of them. Poststeroid replacement, there was a normalization of TSH in all but one subjects. In overt hypothyroidism patients, fT4 also normalized. The improvement in TFT was not associated with decreasing titer of the anti-TPO-Ab in all six patients. However, there was a significant difference in TSH after steroid replacement compared to the baseline status. The concept of normalization of primary hypothyroidism with cortisol replacement in patients with Addison's disease should be recognized to avoid iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis caused by thyroxine replacement. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to these alterations.

  20. Effect of steroid replacement on thyroid function and thyroid autoimmunity in Addison's disease with primary hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Selviambigapathy, Jayakumar; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Nagarajan, K.; Vivekanandan, Muthupillai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Steroid replacement without thyroxine supplementation normalizes thyroid function test (TFT) in some but not all Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to this improvement in TFT. However, the documentation of the change in thyroid autoimmunity after cortisol replacement is very limited in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of steroid replacement on TFT and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab) titer in Addison's disease with primary hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in a tertiary care center in South India. Six Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism, who were only on steroid replacement, were included in the study. Low serum cortisol (22 pmol/L) and/or hyperpigmentation of skin/mucous membranes was considered as the diagnostic criteria for Addison's disease. Primary hypothyroidism (both overt and subclinical) was defined as high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with/without low free thyroxine (fT4). TFT and anti-TPO-Ab were performed before and after steroid replacement in all of them. Results: Poststeroid replacement, there was a normalization of TSH in all but one subjects. In overt hypothyroidism patients, fT4 also normalized. The improvement in TFT was not associated with decreasing titer of the anti-TPO-Ab in all six patients. However, there was a significant difference in TSH after steroid replacement compared to the baseline status. Conclusions: The concept of normalization of primary hypothyroidism with cortisol replacement in patients with Addison's disease should be recognized to avoid iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis caused by thyroxine replacement. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to these alterations. PMID:27042409

  1. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ( 99 mTc0 4 ) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99 mTc0 4 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland

  2. CO-occurring exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate alters thyroid function in healthy pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Megan K., E-mail: megan.horton@mssm.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Blount, Benjamin C.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Wapner, Ronald [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Whyatt, Robin [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Gennings, Chris [Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Factor-Litvak, Pam [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Background: Adequate maternal thyroid function during pregnancy is necessary for normal fetal brain development, making pregnancy a critical window of vulnerability to thyroid disrupting insults. Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors, namely perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate, have been shown individually to competitively inhibit uptake of iodine by the thyroid. Several epidemiologic studies examined the association between these individual exposures and thyroid function. Few studies have examined the effect of this chemical mixture on thyroid function during pregnancy Objectives: We examined the cross sectional association between urinary perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate concentrations and thyroid function among healthy pregnant women living in New York City using weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression. Methods: We measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FreeT4) in blood samples; perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate and iodide in urine samples collected from 284 pregnant women at 12 (±2.8) weeks gestation. We examined associations between urinary analyte concentrations and TSH or FreeT4 using linear regression or WQS adjusting for gestational age, urinary iodide and creatinine. Results: Individual analyte concentrations in urine were significantly correlated (Spearman's r 0.4–0.5, p<0.001). Linear regression analyses did not suggest associations between individual concentrations and thyroid function. The WQS revealed a significant positive association between the weighted sum of urinary concentrations of the three analytes and increased TSH. Perchlorate had the largest weight in the index, indicating the largest contribution to the WQS. Conclusions: Co-exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate may alter maternal thyroid function, specifically TSH, during pregnancy. - Highlights: • Perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate and iodide measured in maternal urine. • Thyroid function (TSH and Free T4) measured in maternal blood

  3. CO-occurring exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate alters thyroid function in healthy pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, Megan K.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Wapner, Ronald; Whyatt, Robin; Gennings, Chris; Factor-Litvak, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate maternal thyroid function during pregnancy is necessary for normal fetal brain development, making pregnancy a critical window of vulnerability to thyroid disrupting insults. Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors, namely perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate, have been shown individually to competitively inhibit uptake of iodine by the thyroid. Several epidemiologic studies examined the association between these individual exposures and thyroid function. Few studies have examined the effect of this chemical mixture on thyroid function during pregnancy Objectives: We examined the cross sectional association between urinary perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate concentrations and thyroid function among healthy pregnant women living in New York City using weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression. Methods: We measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FreeT4) in blood samples; perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate and iodide in urine samples collected from 284 pregnant women at 12 (±2.8) weeks gestation. We examined associations between urinary analyte concentrations and TSH or FreeT4 using linear regression or WQS adjusting for gestational age, urinary iodide and creatinine. Results: Individual analyte concentrations in urine were significantly correlated (Spearman's r 0.4–0.5, p<0.001). Linear regression analyses did not suggest associations between individual concentrations and thyroid function. The WQS revealed a significant positive association between the weighted sum of urinary concentrations of the three analytes and increased TSH. Perchlorate had the largest weight in the index, indicating the largest contribution to the WQS. Conclusions: Co-exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate may alter maternal thyroid function, specifically TSH, during pregnancy. - Highlights: • Perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate and iodide measured in maternal urine. • Thyroid function (TSH and Free T4) measured in maternal blood

  4. A rare cause of hyperthyroidism: functioning thyroid metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Daphne; Ho, Su Chin

    2014-10-09

    Hyperthyroidism is a common medical problem that is readily treated with antithyroid medications. However, attributing the correct aetiology of hyperthyroidism alters management and outcome. We present a case of a 66-year-old woman with a seemingly common problem of hyperthyroidism associated with a goitre, which was initially attributed to a toxic nodule. However, Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake scan and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody were negative, inconsistent with a toxic nodule or Grave's disease. Her thyroid function tests proved difficult to control over the next few months. She eventually proceeded to a total thyroidectomy and histology revealed follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma. She was started on levothyroxine postoperatively but developed severe hyperthyroidism, revealing the cause of hyperthyroidism to be autonomously functioning thyroid metastases. Although functioning thyroid metastases are very rare, they need to be considered among the differential diagnoses of hyperthyroidism, as there are nuances in management that could alter the eventual outcome. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Whole-genome sequence-based analysis of thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Peter N.; Porcu, Eleonora; Chew, Shelby

    2015-01-01

    Normal thyroid function is essential for health, but its genetic architecture remains poorly understood. Here, for the heritable thyroid traits thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), we analyse whole-genome sequence data from the UK10K project (N = 2,287). Using additional whole-genome seque...

  6. Maternal Thyroid Function in Early Pregnancy and Child Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Andersen, Stig; Vestergaard, Peter

    2018-01-01

    of abnormal maternal thyroid function was 12.5% in the sub-cohort and significantly higher among cases of ASD (17.9%; aHR = 1.5 [CI 1.1-2.1]), but not among other types of neurodevelopmental disorders (febrile seizures: 12.7%; epilepsy: 13.1%; SDD: 12.6%; and ADHD: 14.0%). However, evaluation of subtypes......: The design was a case-cohort study within the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003). From the eligible cohort of 71,706 women, a random 12% sub-cohort (n = 7624) was selected, and all women (n = 2276) whose child was diagnosed with seizures, specific developmental disorder (SDD), autism spectrum disorder......BACKGROUND: Maternal thyroid dysfunction may adversely affect fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential fetal programming by abnormal maternal thyroid function on child neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS...

  7. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody and vitiligo: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhyani Maryam

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting disorder due to destruction of melanocytes. Although many theories have been suggested for its pathogenesis, the role of autoimmunity is the most popular one. The association of vitiligo with autoimmune thyroid diseases and the increased prevalence of autoantibodies including thyroid autoantibodies in vitiligo favor this role. Our objective was to compare the frequency of thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO in vitiligo patients with healthy subjects in Iran. Methods Ninety-four cases of vitiligo (46 female and 48 male and 96 control subjects (49 female and 47 male were enrolled in this controlled study. Patients with known thyroid disease, history of thyroid surgery and those receiving thyroid medications were not included. The two groups were matched regarding gender and age. The demographic data, symptoms related to thyroid diseases and results of skin and thyroid examinations were recorded in a questionnaire for each subject. Thyroid function tests including free T3, free T4 and TSH-IRMA were performed. Anti-TPO levels were assessed as well. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version-11 in vitiligo patients and subgroups according to gender, age, extent, and duration of the disease compared with the control group. Results Anti-TPO was detected in 17 (18.1% of patients affected by vitiligo, while this figure was 7 (7.3% in the control group; the difference was significant with p-value The difference of the frequency of anti-TPO was not significant regarding the duration and extent of vitiligo. In addition, there was no significant difference in the levels of free T3, free T4, and TSH in vitiligo patients compared with the control group. Conclusion According to our study, anti-TPO was shown to be significantly more common in vitiligo patients especially in young women, compared with control group. As this antibody is a relatively sensitive and specific marker of autoimmune thyroid

  8. Use of gamma probe in 131I thyroid uptake studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, Andrea Gondim Leitao

    2002-11-01

    Evaluation of thyroid uptake by administration of radioactive iodine is a well-defined procedure to assess patient thyroid function. In general, nuclear medicine institutions use gamma cameras coupled to pinhole collimators to perform uptake studies. With the growing use of intraoperative gamma probes in the radioguided surgical techniques, several institutions are purchasing this new and portable equipment, which can technically be also employed to assess patient's thyroid function, permitting further other applications of gamma cameras. The aim of the study was to compare thyroid uptake trails carried out with both gamma camera and intraoperative gamma probe, in order to evaluate the possible use of gamma probe for this purpose. At first a preliminary study of feasibility was carried out using a neck phantom to verify equipment efficiency with known activities of 131 I. Henceforth, work data from 12 patients undergone studies of thyroid uptakes were evaluated, 24 hours after oral administration of 370 kBq of 131 I. The maximum difference observed between the values obtained with both equipment was 60%, which demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed protocol and made clear that gamma probe can be useful for thyroid uptake studies. (author)

  9. Functioning and nonfunctioning thyroid adenomas involve different molecular pathogenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P; Agretti, P; Ceccarini, G; Perri, A; Cavaliere, R; Mazzi, B; Naccarato, A G; Viacava, P; Miccoli, P; Pinchera, A; Chiovato, L

    1999-11-01

    The molecular biology of follicular cell growth in thyroid nodules is still poorly understood. Because gain-of-function (activating) mutations of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TShR) and/or Gs alpha genes may confer TSh-independent growth advantage to neoplastic thyroid cells, we searched for somatic mutations of these genes in a series of hyperfunctioning and nonfunctioning follicular thyroid adenomas specifically selected for their homogeneous gross anatomy (single nodule in an otherwise normal thyroid gland). TShR gene mutations were identified by direct sequencing of exons 9 and 10 of the TShR gene in genomic DNA obtained from surgical specimens. Codons 201 and 227 of the Gs alpha gene were also analyzed. At histology, all hyperfunctioning nodules and 13 of 15 nonfunctioning nodules were diagnosed as follicular adenomas. Two nonfunctioning thyroid nodules, although showing a prevalent microfollicular pattern of growth, had histological features indicating malignant transformation (a minimally invasive follicular carcinoma and a focal papillary carcinoma). Activating mutations of the TShR gene were found in 12 of 15 hyperfunctioning follicular thyroid adenomas. In one hyperfunctioning adenoma, which was negative for TShR mutations, a mutation in codon 227 of the Gs alpha gene was identified. At variance with hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas, no mutation of the TShR or Gs alpha genes was detected in nonfunctioning thyroid nodules. In conclusion, our findings clearly define a different molecular pathogenetic mechanism in hyperfunctioning and nonfunctioning follicular thyroid adenomas. Activation of the cAMP cascade, which leads to proliferation but maintains differentiation of follicular thyroid cells, typically occurs in hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas. Oncogenes other than the TShR and Gs alpha genes are probably involved in nonfunctioning follicular adenomas.

  10. Amiodarone: Effects on thyroid function and the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, L.E.; Safran, M.; Bambini, G.; Pinchera, A.; Martino, E.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to the effects of Amiodarone on the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones and on pituitary TSH secretion, a major complication of therapy is the relatively high frequency of iodide-induced thyroid dysfunction. The mean T 4 and T 3 concentration following Amiodarone application was measured in euthyroid, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients and in control patients with and without cardiac disorders. Furthermore, the serum TSH was determined in euthyroid Amiodarone-treated euthyroid patients. 131 I uptake was studied in patients with Amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis. The difficulties of the therapy of Amiodarone-induced hyper-thyroidism are outlined. Preliminary studied of the effect of Amiodarone and its analogues on the metabolism of thyroid hormones in the rat indicate that Amiodarone may act as a thyroid hormone agonist in the pituitary. (MG)

  11. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: impact on thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestgaard, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2008-01-01

    In pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated whether the presence of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO) was associated with changes in thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome....

  12. Risk of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Liang; Cheng, Shih-Ping; Lin, Hui-Wen; Lai, Yuen-Liang

    2014-03-01

    The causative relationship between autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer remains a controversial issue. The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis. From the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005) of Taiwan, we identified adult patients newly diagnosed with thyroiditis between 2004 and 2009 (n = 1,654). The comparison cohort (n = 8,270) included five randomly selected age- and sex-matched controls for each patient in the study cohort. All patients were followed up from the date of cohort entry until they developed thyroid cancer or to the end of 2010. Multivariate Cox regression was used to assess the risk of developing thyroid cancer. A total of 1,000 bootstrap replicates were created for internal validation. A total of 35 patients developed thyroid cancer during the study period, of whom 24 were from the thyroiditis cohort and 11 were from the comparison cohort (incidence 353 and 22 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the hazard ratio (HR) for thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis was 13.24 (95 % CI 6.40-27.39). Excluding cancers occurring within 1 year of follow-up, the HR remained significantly increased (6.64; 95 % CI 2.35-18.75). Hypothyroidism was not an independent factor associated with the occurrence of thyroid cancer. We found an increased risk for the development of thyroid cancer after a diagnosis of thyroiditis, independent of comorbidities.

  13. Pathophysiology of recent advances in current thyroid function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesch, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    In the first chapter I have discussed thyroid function and thyroid status which is determined by thyroid gland function in secreting T4 and peripheral biotransformation of T4. The accuracy of a current in-vitro diagnostic strategy allows high reliability in clinical routine. More recent test procedures for iodothyronines and immunological phenomena need further evaluation. In another chapter the biotransformation of T4 to bioactive and regulatory iodothyronines with respect to possible clinical implications is discussed. Finally, the role of TBG for interpration of T4 and T3 concentrations is determined and more attention directed to its functional heterogeneity. (orig.) [de

  14. Variation of left heart function and thyroid hormone in cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junchi; Du Sujun; Mao Shaorong; Lu Jun; Tang Xiaoling

    1996-01-01

    The observation of 52 cases of cirrhosis left heart function indices traced with 113 In m in quiet and motion, and the combining determination of thyroid hormone serum levels with RIA are described. The cirrhosis to the function of liver damage increased, the indices of left heart function has great change. Moreover, the serum levels of T 3 , FT 3 in thyroid hormone are decreased obviously and the serum level of rT 3 is also increased significantly

  15. The function of the thyroid gland in patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Matveyeva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB remains a health problem for many countries in the world. The share of MDRTB is 10–30% among newly diagnosed cases and 20–70% among relapses and treatment failure. The aim of the study is to define the side effects of second line drugs used in the treatment of MDRTB on thyroid function. Methods In 30 patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis, echostructure of thyroid was studied by ultrasound imaging method. Indices of thyroid function: plasma levels of free thyroxin, thyroid stimulating hormone were studied before chemotherapy initiated, at the end of intensive phase and after the treatment finished. Results Decreasing of thyroid function under antituberculosis chemotherapy was approved. Monitoring and correction of thyroid function during antituberculosis chemotherapy was suggested. Conclusion Patients with MDRTB taking ethionamide and PAS are at increased risk for hypothyroidism and goiter, and therefore require monitoring of thyroid function at all stages of antituberculosis chemotherapy for its timely correction.

  16. [A longitudinal study regarding the gestational changes in iodine nutrition and thyroid function among pregnant women in the iodine deficient areas of Henan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Zheng, Heming; Li, Xiaofeng; Ying, Huili

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the gestational changes of iodine nutrition and thyroid function and to explore the factors associated with the thyroid function in pregnant women. A longitudinal survey was conducted in 130 pregnant women in Luohe city of Henan province from October 2012 to May 2013. Samples of fasting blood and urine were collected in each trimester to test on thyroid function and urinary iodine. Data regarding social demography and lifestyle behavior were collected through questionnaire in the first trimester. The medians of urinary iodine (MUI) for pregnant women were 238.9, 150.8 and 306.4 µg/L in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively (P 0.05) but the level of free thyroxine (FT4) decreased (P iodine nutrition and thyroid function. With the increase of iodine level, the level of TSH first increased and then decreased while the levels of FT3 and FT4 showed the opposite trend. The level of TSH was influenced by factors as education level, history of chronic diseases, history of CT and X-ray examination, and intake of pickled food etc. The level of FT4 was associated with residence (urban or rural), stressful events in the previous year, daily means of transportation, and the hours of sedentariness, working and sleeping. Significant differences were noticed in iodine nutrition and thyroid function of pregnant women during the three trimesters. It was essential to establish specific reference ranges for different trimesters. Thyroid functions of pregnant women seemed to be associated with iodine level and lifestyle.

  17. Iodine status and thyroid function of Boston-area vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M; Lamar, Andrew; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2011-08-01

    Adequate dietary iodine is required for normal thyroid function. The iodine status and thyroid function of U.S. vegetarians and vegans have not been previously studied. Environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate (inhibitors of thyroid iodine uptake) exposures may adversely affect thyroid function. The objective of the study was to assess the iodine status and thyroid function of U.S. vegetarians (consume plant based products, eggs, milk; abstain from meat, poultry, fish, shellfish) and vegans (avoid all animal products) and whether these may be affected by environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate exposures. This was a cross-sectional assessment of urinary iodine, perchlorate, and thiocyanate concentrations and serum thyroid function in Boston-area vegetarians and vegans. One hundred forty-one subjects (78 vegetarians, 63 vegans) were recruited; one vegan was excluded. Median urinary iodine concentration of vegans (78.5 μg/liter; range 6.8-964.7 μg/liter) was lower than vegetarians (147.0 μg/liter; range 9.3-778.6 μg/liter) (P vegans (630 μg/liter; range 108-3085 μg/liter) was higher than vegetarians (341 μg/liter; range 31-1963 μg/liter) (P vegans may be at risk for low iodine intake, and vegan women of child-bearing age should supplement with 150 μg iodine daily. Environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate exposures are not associated with thyroid dysfunction in these groups.

  18. Thyroid function in healthy and unhealthy preterm newborns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-06-02

    Jun 2, 2018 ... Thyroid function in healthy and unhealthy preterm newborns. Gökten Korkmaz1 ... disruptions of this system can cause permanent damage. Unrecognized early .... hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia and malnutrition. Some rare.

  19. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been found to be dysregulated in various cancer typeand its functions in ... investigated by knocking down HUWE1 in three authentic thyroid cancer cell lines, ... overexpression of HUWE1 significantly inhibited tumourgrowth in vivo using ...

  20. Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Brorson, Marianne Møller; Boas, Malene

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of humans. They are suspected to disrupt the thyroid axis as epidemiological studies suggest an influence on the peripheral thyroid hormone concentration. The mechanism is still unknown as only few...... in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP......)) on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg) secretion from...

  1. Associations between urinary diphenyl phosphate and thyroid function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Emma V; McClean, Michael D; Claus Henn, Birgit; Stapleton, Heather M; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Makey, Colleen M; Webster, Thomas F

    2017-04-01

    Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) is a commonly used organophosphate flame retardant and plasticizer with widespread human exposure. Data on health effects of TPHP are limited. Recent toxicological studies suggest TPHP may alter thyroid function. We used repeated measures to assess the temporal variability in urinary concentrations of the TPHP metabolite, diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), and to examine relationships between DPHP concentrations and thyroid hormones. We sampled 51 adults at months 1, 6, and 12 from 2010 to 2011. Urine samples were analyzed for DPHP. Serum samples were analyzed for free and total thyroxine (fT 4 , TT 4 ), total triiodothyronine (TT 3 ), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). We assessed variability in DPHP using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and kappa statistics. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine associations between DPHP and thyroid hormones. DPHP was detected in 95% of urine samples. Mean DPHP concentrations were 43% higher in women than men. DPHP showed high within-subject variability (ICC range, 0.13-0.39; kappa range, 0.16-0.39). High versus low (≥2.65 vs. <2.65ng/mL) DPHP in all participants was associated with a 0.43μg/dL (95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.72) increase in mean TT 4 levels. In sex-stratified analyses, high versus low DPHP was associated with a 0.91μg/dL (95% CI: 0.47, 1.36) increase in mean TT 4 in women. The association was attenuated in men (βeta=0.19; 95% CI: -0.15, 0.52). We found no significant associations between DPHP and fT 4 , TT 3 , or TSH. We found evidence that TPHP exposure may be associated with increased TT 4 levels, especially in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioprinting of a functional vascularized mouse thyroid gland construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, Elena A; Koudan, Elizaveta V; Degosserie, Jonathan; Heymans, Charlotte; Pereira, Frederico DAS; Parfenov, Vladislav A; Sun, Yi; Wang, Qi; Akhmedova, Suraya A; Sviridova, Irina K; Sergeeva, Natalia S; Frank, Georgy A; Khesuani, Yusef D; Pierreux, Christophe E; Mironov, Vladimir A

    2017-08-18

    Bioprinting can be defined as additive biofabrication of three-dimensional (3D) tissues and organ constructs using tissue spheroids, capable of self-assembly, as building blocks. The thyroid gland, a relatively simple endocrine organ, is suitable for testing the proposed bioprinting technology. Here we report the bioprinting of a functional vascularized mouse thyroid gland construct from embryonic tissue spheroids as a proof of concept. Based on the self-assembly principle, we generated thyroid tissue starting from thyroid spheroids (TS) and allantoic spheroids (AS) as a source of thyrocytes and endothelial cells (EC), respectively. Inspired by mathematical modeling of spheroid fusion, we used an original 3D bioprinter to print TS in close association with AS within a collagen hydrogel. During the culture, closely placed embryonic tissue spheroids fused into a single integral construct, EC from AS invaded and vascularized TS, and epithelial cells from the TS progressively formed follicles. In this experimental setting, we observed formation of a capillary network around follicular cells, as observed during in utero thyroid development when thyroid epithelium controls the recruitment, invasion and expansion of EC around follicles. To prove that EC from AS are responsible for vascularization of the thyroid gland construct, we depleted endogenous EC from TS before bioprinting. EC from AS completely revascularized depleted thyroid tissue. The cultured bioprinted construct was functional as it could normalize blood thyroxine levels and body temperature after grafting under the kidney capsule of hypothyroid mice. Bioprinting of functional vascularized mouse thyroid gland construct represents a further advance in bioprinting technology, exploring the self-assembling properties of tissue spheroids.

  3. Taurine ameliorated thyroid function in rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, Motunrayo Ganiyat; Shittu, Muftau; Uchendu, Chidiebere; Yaqub, Lukuman Surakat

    2016-12-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Lead is a toxic heavy metal and it is used for domestic and industrial purposes. Taurine is a semi essential amino acid with bioprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of taurine on thyroid function in Wistar rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead. The rats were divided into 5 groups of 10 rats each. The first two groups were administered with distilled water and soya oil (1 ml/kg) respectively. The other groups received taurine (50 mg/kg), chlorpyrifos + lead [chlorpyrifos (4.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose] and lead (233.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose) and taurine + chlorpyrifos + lead respectively. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage for 16 weeks. The rats were euthanized after the completion of the study and the thyroid function and thyroid histoarchitecture were evaluated. The results revealed that co-administration of chlorpyrifos and lead to the rats induced perturbations in thyroid function and this was manifested by reductions in the concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, increased thyroid stimulating hormone concentration and degeneration of the follicular epithelia of the thyroid gland. Taurine alleviated the perturbations in thyroid function and improved thyroid gland histoarchitecture. The beneficial effects of taurine may be attributed to its ability to protect the body from toxicity and oxidative stress. Taurine may be useful for prophylaxis against disruptions in thyroid function in animals that are exposed to environmental chlorpyrifos and lead.

  4. Dynamic studies of liver and thyroid function with the aid of a gamma camera and an on-line digital computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raikar, U.R.; Ganatra, R.D.; Samuel, A.M.; Ramanathan, P.; Atmaram, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    Initial experience of dynamic studies with the use of a 16 K digital computer coupled to a scintillation camera is described. 1. A system for scoring bolus was developed taking into account peaking time, the ratio of counts at the peak and at 8 s after the peak and full width at half maximum. Various parameters affecting the boli are discussed. 2. A method is established for finding the slope of net early trapping of sup(99m)TcO 4 in the thyroid after subtraction of extrathyroidal vascular background. This value was found diagnostically useful in establishing the state of thyroid function in 26 patients. 3. Portal extraction half-times of various colloidal radiopharmaceuticals were studied in the first two-minute dynamic study of the liver. This determination provided a method of bioassay for the consistency of the production of colloid for liver scintigraphy. Differences were noted in the trapping time between the right and left lobes of the liver. 4. On the basis of portal extraction half-times, sup(99m)Tc phytate appeared to become colloidal instantaneously after injection into the circulation and its behavior in dynamic studies was more or less identical with that of the sup(99m)Tc-S-colloid. 5. Normal liver has a dual blood supply, while a malignancy in the liver derives blood from only the hepatic artery. Benign lesions such as abscesses and cysts are relatively avascular. This difference in the blood supply of benign and malignant space-occupying lesions in the liver was exploited in an early dynamic study of blood flow to offer a clue to the pathology of cold areas in 170 patients. (author)

  5. Preoperative thyroid function and weight loss after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, João Sérgio; Souteiro, Pedro; Oliveira, Sofia Castro; Pedro, Jorge; Magalhães, Daniela; Guerreiro, Vanessa; Costa, Maria Manuel; Bettencourt-Silva, Rita; Santos, Ana Cristina; Queirós, Joana; Varela, Ana; Freitas, Paula; Carvalho, Davide

    2018-05-16

    Thyroid function has an important role on body weight regulation. However, the impact of thyroid function on weight loss after bariatric surgery is still largely unknown. We evaluated the association between preoperative thyroid function and the excess weight loss 1 year after surgery, in 641 patients with morbid obesity who underwent bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of thyroid disease, treatment with thyroid hormone or antithyroid drugs and those with preoperative evaluation consistent with overt hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism were excluded. The preoperative levels of TSH and FT4 were not associated with weight loss after bariatric surgery. The variation of FT3 within the reference range was also not associated with weight loss. In contrast, the subgroup with FT3 above the reference range (12.3% of patients) had a significantly higher excess weight loss than patients with normal FT3. This difference remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, type of surgery, TSH and FT4. In conclusion, we observed an association between high FT3 and a greater weight loss after bariatric surgery, highlighting a group of patients with an increased benefit from this intervention. Our results also suggest a novel hypothesis: the pharmacological modulation of thyroid function may be a potential therapeutic target in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

  6. Thyroid function and some related biochemical parameters in bilharzial liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, W. Abdel Massih

    1983-01-01

    Bilharziasis in its different forms is estimated to affect at least 200 million people in the world (W.H.O., 1973). In egypt, it affects 60 - 70% of the rural population (WcMullen, 1963). Bilharzial ova reaches the liver with the portal blood stream causing a fibro - cellular reaction in and around the portal tract resulting in hepatic periportal fibrosis with various clinical stages (Abdalla et al., 1978 b). The effect of liver disease on thyroid function is still a subject of controversy and contradiction. While some reports are published on the effect of non-bilharzial liver disease on thyroid function, there is scanty studies as regards to bilharzial liver diseases . Most of the studies carried out to evaluate thyroid function in bilharzial liver disease, were focused on the estimation of one or two parameters of thyroid function e.g., T 3 and TSH. The available review of literature was focused on some parameters of thyroid function ignoring the others thyroid function tests and not considering the hormone carrier proteins. Thus resulting inconsistent and contradictory results (Ghareeb, 1962; El Haieg and Ibrahim, 1977)

  7. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

  8. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D M

    1984-08-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

  9. Study on the thyroid function of thoroughbred females in varying stages of pregnancy using 'in vitro' tests /sup 125/I-T/sub 3/ and /sup 125/I-T/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Martin, B W [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    1975-01-01

    A study is made on the thyroid function of thoroughbred female equines, aged between five through twelve years, in varying stages of pregnancy, using 'in vitro' tests /sup 125/I.T/sub 3/ and /sup 125/I-T/sub 4/.

  10. Implication from thyroid function decreasing during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients: chemosensitization role of triiodothyronine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones have been shown to regulate breast cancer cells growth, the absence or reduction of thyroid hormones in cells could provoke a proliferation arrest in G0-G1 or weak mitochondrial activity, which makes cells insensitive to therapies for cancers through transforming into low metabolism status. This biological phenomenon may help explain why treatment efficacy and prognosis vary among breast cancer patients having hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and normal function. Nevertheless, the abnormal thyroid function in breast cancer patients has been considered being mainly caused by thyroid diseases, few studied influence of chemotherapy on thyroid function and whether its alteration during chemotherapy can influence the respose to chemotherapy is still unclear. So, we aimed to find the alterations of thyroid function and non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) prevalence druing chemotherapy in breast cancer patients, and investigate the influence of thyroid hormones on chemotherapeutic efficacy. Methods Thyroid hormones and NTIS prevalence at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy were analyzed in 685 breast diseases patients (369 breast cancer, 316 breast benign lesions). The influence of thyroid hormones on chemotherapeutic efficacy was evaluated by chemosensitization test, to compare chemotherapeutic efficacy between breast cancer cells with chemotherapeutics plus triiodothyronine (T3) and chemotherapeutics only. Results In breast cancer, NTIS prevalence at the initial diagnosis was higher and increased during chemotherapy, but declined before the next chemotherapeutic course. Thyroid hormones decreased signigicantly during chemotherapy. T3 can enhance the chemosensitivity of MCF-7 to 5-Fu and taxol, with progression from G0-G1 phase to S phase. The similar chemosensitization role of T3 were found in MDA-MB-231. We compared chemotherapeutic efficacy among groups with different usage modes of T3, finding pretreatment with lower dose of T3, using

  11. 12-month efficacy of a single radiofrequency ablation on autonomously functioning thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stella; Stacul, Fulvio; Michelli, Andrea; Giudici, Fabiola; Zuolo, Giulia; de Manzini, Nicolò; Dobrinja, Chiara; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Fabris, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has been advocated as an alternative to radioiodine and/or surgery for the treatment of autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. However, only a few studies have measured radiofrequency ablation efficacy on autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. The aim of this work was to evaluate the 12-month efficacy of a single session of radiofrequency ablation (performed with the moving shot technique) on solitary autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. Thirty patients with a single, benign autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules, who were either unwilling or ineligible to undergo surgery and radioiodine, were treated with radiofrequency ablation between April 2012 and May 2015. All the patients underwent a single radiofrequency ablation, performed with the 18-gauge needle and the moving shot technique. Clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound evaluations were scheduled at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months from the procedure. A single radiofrequency ablation reduced thyroid nodule volume by 51, 63, 69, and 75 % after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. This was associated with a significant improvement of local cervical discomfort and cosmetic score. As for thyroid function, 33 % of the patients went into remission after 3 months, 43 % after 6 months, and 50 % after 12 months from the procedure. This study demonstrates that a single radiofrequency ablation allowed us to withdraw anti-thyroid medication in 50 % of the patients, who remained euthyroid afterwards. This study shows that a single radiofrequency ablation was effective in 50 % of patients with autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. Patients responded gradually to the treatment. It is possible that longer follow-up studies might show greater response rates.

  12. Randomized prospective study comparing a single radioiodine dose and a single laser therapy session in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2007-01-01

    at inclusion and at 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment. RESULTS: Normalization of serum TSH was achieved in 7 out of 14 patients in the ILP group and in all 15 patients in the (131)I group (P=0.0025). In the ILP group, mean thyroid nodule volume reduction was 44+/-5% (s.e.m.; P... 47+/-8% (Phypothyroidism but no major side...... hypothyroidism. Using the present design, ILP seems inferior to (131)I therapy in normalization of serum TSH. The potential value of ILP as a non-surgical alternative to (131)I needs further investigation...

  13. Histomorphometric and functional studies of the rat thyroid throughout the estrous cycle Histomorfometria e função tireoidiana no ciclo estral da rata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Serakides

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the estrous cycle on the thyroid gland was studied. Twenty one five-to-seven-month-old Wistar female rats were divided according to the stage of the estrous cycle in two groups: metaestrus-diestrus and proestrus-estrus. After gross inspection, the thyroids were weighed, sampled, and processed for staining with hematoxilyn-eosin. Seric concentrations of total T4, free T4, total T3, TSH, progesterone, and estradiol were measured. The values of estradiol were significantly higher in the proestrus-estrus stage. However, no significant differences in the plasmatic concentrations of progesterone, free T4, total T4 and TSH throughout the cycle were found. The results of the morphometric study of the thyroid did not indicate any significant differences between the groups. These findings suggest that there is no thyreotrophic effect of estrogen during the estrous cycle in rats.

  14. Functional status of thyroid of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators after 10 years after disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators' complaints is carried out and their clinical surveillance is conducted as well. Pronounced disorders of neuro-immune-endocrine system of the liquidators majority and ahill reflex latency half-period prolongation have been observed. By data of ultrasonic study the majority of examined ones have thyroid hyperplasia without features of chronic autoimmune inflammation and formation of adenomatous knots. Thyroid levels of hormone concentration are reduced. There is direct dependence between hormones levels and irradiation dose. The is concluded, that in delayed period after irradiation by low doses the hypo-function status of thyroid is observing

  15. Effect of thyroid function on LDL oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, F; Pierdomenico, S D; De Cesare, D; De Remigis, P; Bucciarelli, T; Bittolo-Bon, G; Cazzolato, G; Nubile, G; Guagnano, M T; Sensi, S; Cuccurullo, F; Mezzetti, A

    1998-05-01

    In this study, the effect of different levels of thyroid hormone and metabolic activity on low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation was investigated. Thus, in 16 patients with hyperthyroidism, 16 with hypothyroidism, and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy normolipidemic control subjects, the native LDL content in lipid peroxides, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and lycopene, as well as the susceptibility of these particles to undergo lipid peroxidation, was assessed. Hyperthyroidism was associated with significantly higher lipid peroxidation, as characterized by a higher native LDL content in lipid peroxides, a lower lag phase, and a higher oxidation rate than in the other two groups. This elevated lipid peroxidation was associated with a lower LDL antioxidant concentration. Interestingly, hypothyroid patients showed an intermediate behavior. In fact, in hypothyroidism, LDL oxidation was significantly lower than in hyperthyroidism but higher than in the control group. Hypothyroidism was also characterized by the highest beta-carotene LDL content, whereas vitamin E was significantly lower than in control subjects. In hyperthyroidism but not in the other two groups, LDL oxidation was strongly influenced by free thyroxine blood content. In fact in this group, the native LDL lipid peroxide content and the lag phase were directly and indirectly, respectively, related to free thyroxine blood levels. On the contrary, in hypothyroidism LDL oxidation was strongly and significantly related to serum lipids. In conclusion, both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are characterized by higher levels of LDL oxidation when compared with normolipidemic control subjects. In hyperthyroid patients, the increased lipid peroxidation was strictly related to free thyroxine levels, whereas in hypothyroidism it was strongly influenced by serum lipids.

  16. Thyroid Hormones and Thyroid Function status in each clinical phase of Korean Hemorrhagic Fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Tae; Jeon, Byung Sook; Yoon, Sung Yeul; Lee, Houn Young; Kim, Sam Yong; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1983-01-01

    Fifteen cases of Korean hemorrhagic fever who were admitted Chungnam National University Hospital from October 1981 to December 1981 were analysed on the evaluation of metabolic changes of the thyroid hormones, and thyroid function status in each clinical phase. 1) Serum T 3 , T 4 concentration, FT 4 I and T 4 /TBG ratio were significantly lower (p 4 , TSH and TBG concentration were within normal range in all phase of KHF. Thus in Korean hemorrhagic fever, euthyroidism is probably maintained by normal or elevated serum FT 4 . 2) T 4 /T 3 and rT 3 /T 3 ratio (p 4 to T 3 in oliguric and early diuretic phase.

  17. A meta-analysis of thyroid-related traits reveals novel loci and gender-specific differences in the regulation of thyroid function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Porcu

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is essential for normal metabolism and development, and overt abnormalities in thyroid function lead to common endocrine disorders affecting approximately 10% of individuals over their life span. In addition, even mild alterations in thyroid function are associated with weight changes, atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis, and psychiatric disorders. To identify novel variants underlying thyroid function, we performed a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for serum levels of the highly heritable thyroid function markers TSH and FT4, in up to 26,420 and 17,520 euthyroid subjects, respectively. Here we report 26 independent associations, including several novel loci for TSH (PDE10A, VEGFA, IGFBP5, NFIA, SOX9, PRDM11, FGF7, INSR, ABO, MIR1179, NRG1, MBIP, ITPK1, SASH1, GLIS3 and FT4 (LHX3, FOXE1, AADAT, NETO1/FBXO15, LPCAT2/CAPNS2. Notably, only limited overlap was detected between TSH and FT4 associated signals, in spite of the feedback regulation of their circulating levels by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Five of the reported loci (PDE8B, PDE10A, MAF/LOC440389, NETO1/FBXO15, and LPCAT2/CAPNS2 show strong gender-specific differences, which offer clues for the known sexual dimorphism in thyroid function and related pathologies. Importantly, the TSH-associated loci contribute not only to variation within the normal range, but also to TSH values outside the reference range, suggesting that they may be involved in thyroid dysfunction. Overall, our findings explain, respectively, 5.64% and 2.30% of total TSH and FT4 trait variance, and they improve the current knowledge of the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function and the consequences of genetic variation for hypo- or hyperthyroidism.

  18. A Meta-Analysis of Thyroid-Related Traits Reveals Novel Loci and Gender-Specific Differences in the Regulation of Thyroid Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Claudia B.; Wilson, Scott G.; Cappola, Anne R.; Bos, Steffan D.; Deelen, Joris; den Heijer, Martin; Freathy, Rachel M.; Lahti, Jari; Liu, Chunyu; Lopez, Lorna M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Trompet, Stella; Arnold, Alice; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beekman, Marian; Böhringer, Stefan; Brown, Suzanne J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Camaschella, Clara; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Davies, Gail; de Visser, Marieke C. H.; Ford, Ian; Forsen, Tom; Frayling, Timothy M.; Fugazzola, Laura; Gögele, Martin; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hermus, Ad R.; Hofman, Albert; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Jensen, Richard A.; Kajantie, Eero; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Lim, Ee M.; Masciullo, Corrado; Mariotti, Stefano; Minelli, Cosetta; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Netea-Maier, Romana T.; Palotie, Aarno; Persani, Luca; Piras, Maria G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Räikkönen, Katri; Richards, J. Brent; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sala, Cinzia; Sabra, Mona M.; Sattar, Naveed; Shields, Beverley M.; Soranzo, Nicole; Starr, John M.; Stott, David J.; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Usala, Gianluca; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Heemst, Diana; van Mullem, Alies; H.Vermeulen, Sita; Visser, W. Edward; Walsh, John P.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Widen, Elisabeth; Zhai, Guangju; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fox, Caroline S.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Schlessinger, David; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Slagboom, Eline P.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaidya, Bijay; Visser, Theo J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Rotter, Jerome I.; Spector, Tim D.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Toniolo, Daniela; Sanna, Serena; Peeters, Robin P.; Naitza, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal metabolism and development, and overt abnormalities in thyroid function lead to common endocrine disorders affecting approximately 10% of individuals over their life span. In addition, even mild alterations in thyroid function are associated with weight changes, atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis, and psychiatric disorders. To identify novel variants underlying thyroid function, we performed a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for serum levels of the highly heritable thyroid function markers TSH and FT4, in up to 26,420 and 17,520 euthyroid subjects, respectively. Here we report 26 independent associations, including several novel loci for TSH (PDE10A, VEGFA, IGFBP5, NFIA, SOX9, PRDM11, FGF7, INSR, ABO, MIR1179, NRG1, MBIP, ITPK1, SASH1, GLIS3) and FT4 (LHX3, FOXE1, AADAT, NETO1/FBXO15, LPCAT2/CAPNS2). Notably, only limited overlap was detected between TSH and FT4 associated signals, in spite of the feedback regulation of their circulating levels by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Five of the reported loci (PDE8B, PDE10A, MAF/LOC440389, NETO1/FBXO15, and LPCAT2/CAPNS2) show strong gender-specific differences, which offer clues for the known sexual dimorphism in thyroid function and related pathologies. Importantly, the TSH-associated loci contribute not only to variation within the normal range, but also to TSH values outside the reference range, suggesting that they may be involved in thyroid dysfunction. Overall, our findings explain, respectively, 5.64% and 2.30% of total TSH and FT4 trait variance, and they improve the current knowledge of the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function and the consequences of genetic variation for hypo- or hyperthyroidism. PMID:23408906

  19. Trimester specific reference intervals for thyroid function tests in normal Indian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri, Tarun; Juhi, Juhi Agarwal; Wilfred, Reena; Kanwar, Ratnesh S; Sethi, Jyoti; Bhadra, Kuntal; Nair, Sirimavo; Singh, Satveer

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of thyroid function during pregnancy is critical, for initiation of thyroid hormone therapy, as well as for adjustment of thyroid hormone dose in hypothyroid cases. We evaluated pregnant women who had no past history of thyroid disorders and studied their thyroid function in each trimester. 86 normal pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy were selected for setting reference intervals. All were healthy, euthyroid and negative for thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb). These women were serially followed throughout pregnancy. 124 normal nonpregnant subjects were selected for comparison. Thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and anti-TPO were measured using Roche Elecsys 1010 analyzer. Urinary iodine content was determined by simple microplate method. The 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles were calculated as the reference intervals for thyroid hormone levels during each trimester. SPSS (version 14.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for data processing and analysis. The reference intervals for the first, second and third trimesters for the following parameters: TSH 0.09-6.65, 0.51-6.66, 0.91-4.86 µIU/mL, FT4 9.81-18.53, 8.52-19.43, 7.39-18.28 pM/L and FT3 3.1-6.35, 2.39-5.12, 2.57-5.68 pM/L respectively. Thyroid hormone concentrations significantly differed during pregnancy at different stages of gestation. The pregnant women in the study had median urinary iodine concentration of 150-200 µg/l during each trimester. The trimester-specific reference intervals for thyroid tests during pregnancy have been established for pregnant Indian women serially followed during pregnancy using 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles.

  20. The functional condition of fetoplacental system in pregnant women with thyroid gland autoimmune pathology

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    T. A. Melikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Some kind of specific system: placenta - thyroid gland - is said to be formed during pregnancy. Regulation of thyroid hormone metabolism depends on the state of the fetoplacental complex (FPC. The nature of the relationship of thyroid gland (TG with the FPC affects the course of pregnancy, fetal growth and the formation of his own pituitary-thyroid system. Goal. To study the characteristics of the hormonal function of fetoplacental complex in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease. Materials and methods. The study included 102 pregnant women: group I – 29 women with euthyroid as the outcome of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT, 25 women with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism as a form of AIT were included into the second group, in III group – 23 women with autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The control group consisted of 25 healthy women. Hypophysial and thyroid system hormonal profile and FPK of pregnant women were detected in dynamics. Results. It is revealed that reliable change of hormonal indexes of function of hypophysial and thyroid system leads to weighable changes of indexes of FPK and the AFP level in mother's blood, i.e. to a placentary failure, are result of it: early and late gestosis (54.5 %, chronic fetal hypoxia (21.7 %, discoordination of patrimonial activity (5.2 %, premature births (17.2 %, threat of an abortion (7.4 %. Conclusions. According to our data the most accurate diagnostic criterion for the development of primary placental insufficiency in pregnant women with thyroid conditions can be considered the change in the level of estriol, progesterone, placental lactogen and AFP in the dynamics of gestation. Their determination can be considered as predictor for early treatment and prevention of placental insufficiency.

  1. Radionuclide method for functional and structural examination of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenov, K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is development and routine daily practice of the radionuclide method for tracking of the thyroid gland functional status and structure. 168 patients with various thyroid diseases were examined. Nuclear medicine examination is held by gamma camera (Siemens and ADAK). 74 MBq 99m Tc-pertechnetate is injected intravenous. The activity of full and empty syringe is measured. Static scintigrams of full and empty syringes and injection place and duration 10 seconds are carried out. On 20 th minute a static scintigraphy of the thyroid gland with a duration of 300 seconds in front position is held. The individual dose calibration factor is calculated. The functional status of thyroid gland as well as its structural changes is determined. In addition, the relationships between the accumulation of radiopharmaceutical in the salivary glands and thyroid are determined. 168 patients are studied, 97 of them are with euthyroidism, 71 with hyperthyroidism and 19 - with hypothyroidism. The nuclear medicine diagnostic method provides information about functional and structural condition of the thyroid gland. The study is determining for decision to conduct the metabolic brachytherapy of hyperthyroid conditions

  2. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules in childhood and adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croom, R.D. III; Thomas, C.G. Jr.; Reddick, R.L.; Tawil, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) in children and adolescents (under age 18) are unusual but are not as rare as earlier reports suggested. These lesions have a significantly different biologic potential than similar lesions in older patients. In the younger age group there is a more rapid progression toward toxicity and a higher incidence of thyroid carcinoma. Our experience with 12 patients is combined with those previously reported for identification of a total of 61 children and adolescents with AFTNs, of whom 53 have undergone operation. Hyperthyroidism was present in 15 patients (24.6%), and in six patients (11.3%) the AFTN was due to a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Surgical treatment is advisable for all children and adolescents with AFTNs because of the risks of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. Surgical excision (lobectomy is preferred) results in rapid restoration of a euthyroid state for the toxic AFTN and allows histopathologic diagnosis. Therapy with radioiodine is not advisable for treatment of AFTNs in this age group. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression should be used for all patients with a diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma

  3. Thyroid function and cold acclimation in the hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasi, T.E.; Horwitz, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR), thyroxine utilization rate (T 4 U), and triiodothyronine utilization rate (T 3 U) were measured in cold-acclimated (CA) and room temperature-acclimated (RA) male golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus. Hormone utilization rates were calculated via the plasma disappearance technique using 125 I-labeled hormones and measuring serum hormone levels via radioimmunoassay. BMR showed a significant 28% increase with cold acclimation. The same cold exposure also produced a 32% increase in T 4 U, and a 204% increase in T 3 U. The much greater increase in T 3 U implies that previous assessments of the relationship between cold acclimation and thyroid function may have been underestimated and that cold exposure induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in thyroid function. It is concluded that in the cold-acclimated state, T 3 U more accurately reflects thyroid function than does T 4 U. A mechanism for the cold-induced change in BMR is proposed

  4. Risk factors of thyroid abnormalities in bipolar patients receiving lithium: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehpour Ahmad Reza

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lithium-induced thyroid abnormalities have been documented in many studies. They may occur despite normal plasma lithium levels. The objectives of this study were: 1 to determine possible relationship between lithium ratio, defined as erythrocyte lithium concentrations divided by plasma lithium concentrations, and thyroid abnormalities in bipolar patients receiving lithium and 2 to find other possible risk factors for developing thyroid abnormalities in the subjects. Methods Sixty-eight bipolar patients receiving lithium therapy were enrolled in a cross-sectional evaluation of thyroid function test and thyroid size. Patients were divided into two groups based on their thyroid function tests and thyroid sizes. Erythrocyte and plasma lithium concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry for each patient. Lithium ratio was then calculated. Results No significant differences were found between age, positive family history of affective disorder, plasma lithium concentration, erythrocyte lithium concentration, and lithium ratio comparing the two groups. Thyroid abnormalities was significantly higher in women than in men (p Conclusions Lithium ratio does not appear to have a predictive role for thyroidal side effects of lithium therapy. Female gender was the main risk factor. We suggest more frequent thyroid evaluation of bipolar women who are treated with lithium.

  5. Correlation between Oxidative Stress and Thyroid Function in Patients with Nephrotic Syndrome

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    Sangita U. Sawant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study is to look for a correlation between oxidative stress and thyroid function in patients with the nephrotic syndrome in the remission phase as well as in a persistent proteinuric state. Introduction. Nephrotic syndrome is a form of chronic kidney disease due to which blood loses protein through the urine. We wanted to know if there was an increased loss of thyroid hormones in urine affecting thyroid function. Methods. 60 patients with nephrotic syndrome and 20 healthy non-proteinuric individuals as control subjects were enrolled in the study. We measured their serum tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPx catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx were carried out by standard methods. Results. TSH was elevated in the nephrotic patients compared to controls, while TT4 and TT3 were significantly lower in the patients than in controls. Lipid Peroxidation and GPx were significantly higher in the nephrotic syndrome patients than in the controls, while SOD and catalase were significantly lower than in patients than in the control subjects. Conclusion. Nephrotic patients can lose significant amounts of thyroid hormones along with protein in urine, which can affect thyroid status, but this is reversible on remission.

  6. TSH alone is not sufficient to exclude all patients with a functioning thyroid nodule from undergoing testing to exclude thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado-Lopez, Luis-Mauricio; Monroy-Lozano, Blanca-Estela [General Hospital of Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Martinez-Duncker, Carlos [Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez, Medicina Nuclear Molecular, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to analyze whether the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) alone avoids tests to exclude malignancy in all patients with functional thyroid nodules (FTN). Sixty-nine patients with FTN on {sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy, radioiodine uptake test (RIU), {sup 99m}Tc thyroid uptake, TSH assay, T3, and T4 obtained within 48 h were retrospectively identified out of 2,356 thyroid scans performed from January 2000 to April 2007. FTNs were classified as causing total, partial, or no inhibition of the thyroid as group 1, 2, or 3, respectively. TSH was subnormal in 21 of 69 (30.43%) patients. In group 1 (N = 23, 33.3%), TSH was subnormal, normal, and high in eight, nine, and six patients; in group 2 (N = 17, 24.6%), TSH was subnormal, normal, and high in four, six, and seven patients, and in group 3 (N = 29, 42%), TSH was subnormal, normal, and high in 9, 13, and 7 patients, respectively. TSH was significantly lower in group 1. In T3, T4, {sup 99m}Tc thyroid uptake, and RIU, there were no differences between the three groups. Only 30.43% of patients had subnormal TSH. TSH alone cannot avoid tests to exclude malignancy in all patients with FTN. FTN existence can only be accurately assessed by thyroid scintigraphy. The current incidence of FTN may be unknown because scintigraphy is not routinely performed in all patients with thyroid nodules. Thyroid scintigraphy of patients with high TSH can detect diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and identify patients with FTN in whom no further diagnostic procedures would be needed in patients with normal TSH levels with nondiagnostic fine-needle aspiration results. (orig.)

  7. Vascular and renal function in experimental thyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Félix; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Osuna, Antonio; Alvarez-Guerra, Miriam; García-Estañ, Joaquín

    2006-02-01

    This review focuses on the effects of thyroid hormones in vascular and renal systems. Special emphasis is given to the mechanisms by which thyroid hormones affect the regulation of body fluids, vascular resistance and, ultimately, blood pressure. Vascular function is markedly affected by thyroid hormones that produce changes in vascular reactivity and endothelial function in hyper- and hypothyroidism. The hypothyroid state is accompanied by a marked decrease in sensitivity to vasoconstrictors, especially to sympathetic agonists, alteration that may play a role in the reduced blood pressure of hypothyroid rats, as well as in the preventive effects of hypothyroidism on experimental hypertension. Moreover, in hypothyroid rats, the endothelium-dependent and nitric oxide donors vasodilation is reduced. Conversely, the vessels from hyperthyroid rats showed an increased endothelium-dependent responsiveness that may be secondary to the shear-stress induced by the hyperdynamic circulation, and that may contribute to the reduced vascular resistance characteristic of this disease. Thyroid hormones also have important effects in the kidney, affecting renal growth, renal haemodynamics, and salt and water metabolism. In hyperthyroidism, there is a resetting of the pressure-natriuresis relationship related to hyperactivity of the renin-angiotensin system, which contributes to the arterial hypertension associated with this endocrine disease. Moreover, thyroid hormones affect the development and/or maintenance of various forms of arterial hypertension. This review also describes recent advances in our understanding of thyroid hormone action on nitric oxide and oxidative stress in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal function and in the long-term control of blood pressure.

  8. Thyroid and hypophysial function in radiation therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimova, T.P.; Lozinskaya, I.N.

    1984-01-01

    In breast cancer a decrease in triiodothyronine concentration was revealed with the normal level of thyroxine that may be associated with the disturbed peripharal metabolism into triiodothyronine. The lowering of thyroid functional activity is noted during radiation therapy of patients at menopause. Administration of thyroidin during radiation therapy to elderly patients with the 3 stage of the disease compensated for hormone deficiency producing a sparing effect on the thyroid, and influenced the therapeutic results favorably. A high level of the somatotropic hormone was observed in patients, of the reproductive age and at menopause, the level of insulin was increased in all the patients

  9. Thyroid hormone is required for hypothalamic neurons regulating cardiovascular functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittag, J.; Lyons, D.J.; Sällström, J.; Vujoviv, M.; Dudazy-Gralla, S.; Warner, A.; Wallis, K.; Alkemade, A.; Nordström, K.; Monyer, H.; Broberger, C.; Arner, A.; Vennström, B.

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is well known for its profound direct effects on cardiovascular function and metabolism. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the hormone also regulates these systems indirectly through the central nervous system. While some of the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormone’s

  10. Effect of drugs on the thyroid function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, G.P.; Faria, A.C.S. de; Carvalho, M.C. de; Guimaraes, M.M.; Cordeiro, J.G.H.; Santa Casa do Rio de Janeiro

    1984-01-01

    The effects of drugs in the results of thyroid function tests, which could lead to misinterpretation of the real clinical state of the patients, are reviewed. The aspects of the metabolism of the thyreoidean hormones which could be related to these alterations are presented. (Author) [pt

  11. A Study on the Solitary Adenomatous, Thyroid Nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Min Koo; Koh, Yong Bak; Park, Chung Ok; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon

    1974-01-01

    The authors studied on the 5 cases of solitary thyroid nodule by T 3 suppression test and TSH stimulation test. Radioiodine uptake and thyroid scan were observed after administration of dessicated thyroid and TSH. 3 of 5 cases were treated by 1 '3 1 I and 2 by long-term administration of dessicated thyroid. Following were the results: 1) Nodular tissue was not affected by the administration of dessicated thyroid or TSH. 2) Extranodular tissue responded as normal thyroid tissue on the administration of dessicated thyroid or TSH. 3) There were many gradations from euthyroid to hyperthyroid in clinical state. 4) Treatments were successful in all cases except one case who was treated by long-term administration of dessicated thyroid.

  12. Childhood Exposure to Phthalates: Associations with Thyroid Function, Insulin-like Growth Factor I, and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Malene; Frederiksen, Hanne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Hilsted, Linda; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Phthalates are widely used chemicals, and human exposure is extensive. Recent studies have indicated that phthalates may have thyroid-disrupting properties. Objective We aimed to assess concentrations of phthalate metabolites in urine samples from Danish children and to investigate the associations with thyroid function, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and growth. Methods In 845 children 4–9 years of age, we determined urinary concentrations of 12 phthalate metabolites and serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormones, and IGF-I. Results Phthalate metabolites were detected in all urine samples, of which monobutyl phthalate was present in highest concentration. Phthalate metabolites were negatively associated with serum levels of free and total triiodothyronine, although statistically significant primarily in girls. Metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diisononyl phthalate were negatively associated with IGF-I in boys. Most phthalate metabolites were negatively associated with height, weight, body surface, and height gain in both sexes. Conclusions Our study showed negative associations between urinary phthalate concentrations and thyroid hormones, IGF-I, and growth in children. Although our study was not designed to reveal the mechanism of action, the overall coherent negative associations between urine phthalate and thyroid and growth parameters may suggest causative negative roles of phthalate exposures for child health. PMID:20621847

  13. The radioimmunoassay in revealing preclinical disorders of the pituitary-thyroid system functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piven', N.V.; Pilatova, N.L.; Lukhverchik, L.N.; Kuz'menkova, E.I.; Solovej, V.V.; Mokhort, T.V.

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to study the value of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for assessing the pituitary - thyroid function in healthy persons (aged 18-45). Quantitative criteria have been worked put for estimation of thyroid gland function for the population of Belarus in accordance with regional ecological situation. On this basis, concentrations of thyrotropin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyroglobulin, thyroxine binding globulin were determined by RIA in blood samples. The analysis of the data obtained revealed latent forms of hyperthyroidism (42%) and hypothyroidism (21%), regarded by the authors as late medical consequences of Chernobyl accident. Subclinical stages were diagnosed in most cases. Thus RIA has proved useful for studying the functional state of the regulatory 'pituitary-thyroid gland' system and revealing prenosological disorders in it

  14. Estudos da função tireóidea em crianças com síndrome de Down Studies of the thyroid function in children with Down's syndrome

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    Benjamin J. Schmidt

    1975-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudaram a função tireóidea (T-3, triiodotironina; T-4, tetraiodotironina e captação do I131 pela tireóide com 2 e 24 horas após a ingestão do radioisótopo em pacientes com síndrome de Down, e compararam os resultados com os obtidos nos seus respectivos irmãos, todos clinicamente normais. Os resultados comparativos não apresentaram diferenças significativas, exceto na captação de 2 horas do I131 pela tireóide (P The thyroid function (T-3 triiodothyronine; T-4 tetraiodothyronine and the captation of the I131 through the thyroid, in 2 and 24 hours after the intake of isotope radium, was studied in patients with Down's syndrome and the results being compared to those obtained from the respective siblings, all clinically normal. The comparative results showed no significant differences, except in the 2 hours captation of the I131 through the thyroid (P < 0.01. The findings suggest that the hypothalamus-hypophysary or the response of the thyroid gland would be slow, but compensated when analyzed after 24 hours.

  15. The effect of diltiazem on the manifestations of hyperthyroidism and thyroid function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleştimur, F; Aksu, A

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of diltiazem on the symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism and thyroid function tests and to assess whether diltiazem can be used associated with an anti-thyroid drug, propylthiouracil. Twenty-two patients with hyperthyroidism were included in a prospective, randomized and placebo controlled study. Group 1 (n:12) patients received diltiazem, 60 mg twice a day, for 30 days. Group 2 (n:10) patients received placebo for 30 days. The patients in both groups were given propylthiouracil, 100 mg three times a day, for the last 20 days of the study period. The patients remained in the hospital during the first 10 days. A standardized hyperthyroid symptom score (HSS) and thyroid function tests including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (free T4), free triiodothyronine (free T3), total thyroxine (T4) and total triiodothyronine (T3) were evaluated before and after 10 and 30 days of the study period. HSS decreased from 27.80 +/- 4.54 to 22.51 +/- 4.04 after 10 days of diltiazem therapy in Group 1 (p 0.01). No significant changes in thyroid function tests have occurred in both groups after 10 days of treatment. Diltiazem can be used in patients with hyperthyroidism to alleviate adrenergic manifestations. It can also be safely combined with propylthiouracil.

  16. Determination of the autonomously functioning volume of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.; Erlenmaier, U.; Pohl, M.; Luig, H.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the autonomously functioning volume in euthyroid and hyperthyroid goitres for prognostic and therapeutic pruposes. To this end, various groups of patients were selected: Individuals without evidence of thyroid disease, euthyroid patients with diffuse goitre of normal structure and function, euthyroid patients with evidence of autonomy and patients with hyperthyroidism due to autonomy. In all of them the thyroid uptake of Technetium-99m was determined under exogeneous suppression (TcU s ) in the euthyroid state and under endogenous suppression (TcU) in the hyperthyroid state. It was demonstrated that: 1. In patients with unifocal autonomy the TcU s and TcU correlated linearly with the autonomous volume delineated and measured by sonography. 2. A nearly identical result was obtained if the mean autonomous volume in individuals without thyroid disease of 2.2±1.1 ml calculated by TcU s /TcU x total thyroid volume was used as a basis. 3. The critical autonomous volume, i.e. the volume at which hyperthryroidism will occur, was found to be 16 ml at a cumulated sensitivity and specificity of >0.9. The method can be used to select patients for definitive treatment before hyperthryroidism occurs and to measure the autonomously functioning volume independent of its distribution within the thyroid for treatment with radioiodine. The method is easy to perform and is also an example of how a relative parameter of a function can be converted into an absolute parameter of a functioning volume. (orig.)

  17. /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate uptake in the thyroid measured with a scintillation camera: a parameter of thyroid function. [/sup 131/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokole, E.B.; van der Schoot, J.B.; Alberts, C.

    1975-01-01

    A /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate thyroid uptake procedure, using a scintillation camera and a data storage system, is described. After comparison of extrathyroidal activity in several regions below the thyroid, activity in the clavicular regions was preferred for correction of the thyroid uptake measurement. No pertechnetate uptake curve obtained over the initial 15 min after injection was found to be representative of a specific thyroid function, and regional thyroid uptake curves gave only quantitative differences. The 15-min pertechnetate thyroid uptake measurement, with correction for clavicular extrathyroidal activity, correlates well with /sup 131/I uptake and is a good parameter of thyroid function, especially in the distinction of euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

  18. Epidemiological studies on postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid cancer in Southeastern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.P. Kuijpens (Hans)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe studies described in this thesis concentrate OIl epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and related topics, and on epidemiological and treatment aspects of thyroid cancer. The studies were petfonned in the southeastern part of the

  19. The Relationship between Thyroid Function and Recent History of Suicide Attempt in Patients with Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Eshraghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Todays, evaluation of the relationship between thyroid function and some psychiatric diseases have been identified. However, studies on the relationship between thyroid function and suicide attempt are limited. The present study was carried out with the aim of evaluating thyroid function in patients attempting suicide. Methods: In this descriptive analytical study during the years 2011 and 2012, 88 patients with major depression and recent history of suicide attemp and 89 patients with major depression without history of recent suicide, who were hospitalized in the psychiatric ward of Hazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital in Tehran, were included in the study. The studied variables in this research included demographic variables, such as age, gender as well as clinical findings, such as thyroid function tests, including TSH, T3, T4. thyroid function tests were requested for patients when hospitalized with a diagnosis of major depression during the years 2011 and 2012, that these values were extracted from the patients’ medical records. Results: The two groups were matched in terms of age and gender. In patients with recent suicide attempt, 5 (5.6% cases of clinical hypothyroidism and 6 (6.8% cases of subclinical hypothyroidism, were reported. In the major depression patients without recent suicide attempt, there were 3 (3.3% cases of clinical hypothyroidism and 6 (6.7% cases of subclinical hypothyroidism, and the two groups had no significant difference in terms of the incidence of thyroid disease (p=0.75. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, lower levels of T3 and T3 to T4 ratio can be one of the factors related to the recent history of suicide in patients with major depression.

  20. [Study of serum thrombomodulin(TM) levels in patients with hyper- or hypo- thyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, M; Maeda, Y; Matsuura, R; Sasaki, I; Kasakura, S; Saeki, Y; Ikekubo, K; Ishihara, T; Kurahachi, H; Sasaki, S; Tagami, T; Nakao, K

    1997-01-01

    We studies a relationship between the serum levels of thrombomodulin(TM) and the thyroid functions. Serum TM levels were measured in 48 patients with Graves' disease, 17 patients with primary hypothyroidism, 7 patients with subacute thyroiditis, 5 patients with painless thyroiditis and 2 patients with systematic Refetoff syndrome. These patients did not have malignant tumor, kidney failure, or blood vessel injury. Control sera were obtained from 42 healthy subjects. Serum levels of TM in patients with untreated Graves' disease were significantly higher(p thyroid function(FT3, FT4 and TH) in patients with Graves' disease during treatment showed that both the serum levels of TM and thyroid hormones (FT3 and FT4) lowered progressively during treatment. After normalization of serum FT3 and FT4, the serum TM levels returned to normal. However, the serum levels of TM in patients with destructive thyroiditis and Refetoff syndrome were normal in spite of high serum levels of thyroid hormones. These data suggest that an increase in serum levels of TM is not the direct result of thyroid hormones themselves but is the result of the prolonged hypermetabolic state induced by their peripheral activities. Thyroid hormones may stimulate the synthesis or metabolism of TM on the surface of vascular endothelial cells in the patients with Graves' disease.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of Pax8 binding provides new insights into thyroid functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Llorente Sergio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor Pax8 is essential for the differentiation of thyroid cells. However, there are few data on genes transcriptionally regulated by Pax8 other than thyroid-related genes. To better understand the role of Pax8 in the biology of thyroid cells, we obtained transcriptional profiles of Pax8-silenced PCCl3 thyroid cells using whole genome expression arrays and integrated these signals with global cis-regulatory sequencing studies performed by ChIP-Seq analysis Results Exhaustive analysis of Pax8 immunoprecipitated peaks demonstrated preferential binding to intragenic regions and CpG-enriched islands, which suggests a role of Pax8 in transcriptional regulation of orphan CpG regions. In addition, ChIP-Seq allowed us to identify Pax8 partners, including proteins involved in tertiary DNA structure (CTCF and chromatin remodeling (Sp1, and these direct transcriptional interactions were confirmed in vivo. Moreover, both factors modulate Pax8-dependent transcriptional activation of the sodium iodide symporter (Nis gene promoter. We ultimately combined putative and novel Pax8 binding sites with actual target gene expression regulation to define Pax8-dependent genes. Functional classification suggests that Pax8-regulated genes may be directly involved in important processes of thyroid cell function such as cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, cell polarity, motion and adhesion, and a plethora of DNA/protein-related processes. Conclusion Our study provides novel insights into the role of Pax8 in thyroid biology, exerted through transcriptional regulation of important genes involved in critical thyrocyte processes. In addition, we found new transcriptional partners of Pax8, which functionally cooperate with Pax8 in the regulation of thyroid gene transcription. Besides, our data demonstrate preferential location of Pax8 in non-promoter CpG regions. These data point to an orphan CpG island-mediated mechanism

  2. Relationship between thyroid functions and urinary growth hormone secretion in patients with hyper- and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murao, K; Takahara, J; Sato, M; Tamaki, M; Niimi, M; Ishida, T

    1994-10-01

    Thyroid hormone plays an important role in growth hormone (GH) synthesis and secretion. To study the relationship between thyroid function and urinary GH secretion in the hyperthyroid and hypothyroid states, we measured thyroid hormones, simultaneously with serum and urinary GH levels, in 54 patients with thyroid diseases. GH-releasing hormone (GRH) test was performed in 18 patients in order to evaluate serum and urinary GH responses to GRH in hyper- and hypothyroid states. Serum thyroid hormone levels were strongly correlated with the urinary GH levels in the patients, and the correlation was greater than that between serum thyroid hormone and serum GH levels. Urinary GH levels were significantly higher in the hyperthyroid patients than in the euthyroid and hypothyroid patients, although serum GH levels were not significantly different among these three groups. Serum GH response to GRH was significantly decreased in hyperthyroid patients as compared to euthyroid patients. However, urinary GH levels after GRH administration were not decreased in the hyperthyroid patients. These results suggest that hyperthyroid states increase GH in urine and may accelerate the urinary clearance of GH.

  3. Thyroid function, Alzheimer's disease and postoperative cognitive dysfunction: a tale of dangerous liaisons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafrica, Federica; Fodale, Vincenzo

    2008-05-01

    Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are commonly present conditions in adults, leading to neurological symptoms, affecting the central and peripheral nervous system, and to neurocognitive impairment. Several studies investigated a possible association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and thyroid dysfunctions. Increasing evidence supports an extensive interrelationship between thyroid hormones and the cholinergic system, which is selectively and early affected in AD. Moreover, thyroid hormones negatively regulate expression of the amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP), which plays a key role in the development of AD. A condition, the so called euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), characterized by reduced serum T_{3} and T_{4} concentrations without increased serum thyroid stimulation hormone secretion, occurs within hours after major surgery. After surgery, elderly patients often exhibit a transient, reversible state of cognitive alterations. Delirium occurs in 10-26% of general medical patients over 65, and it is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. Modifications in thyroid hormone functioning may take place as a consequence of psycho-physical stress caused by surgery, and probably as a consequence of reduced conversion of T4 into T3 by the liver engaged in metabolizing anesthetic drugs. Therefore, modifications of thyroid hormones post-surgery, might play a role in the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

  4. Thyroid carcinoma. A descriptive retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Carolina C.; Yaniskowski, Maria L.; Wyse, Eduardo P.; Giovannini, Andrea A.; Lopez, Monica B.; Wior, Myrian E.

    2006-01-01

    The thyroid carcinoma (TC) is not very frequent among all cancer. Its course is slow and is high potentially curable. Our aim was to analyse the characteristics in patients with TC. A retrospective analysis on 171 patients, with an average age of 41.1. (± 14.6), who asked for TC to our service between the years 2000-2004, was performed. From case histories it was evaluated: anamnesis, diagnostic image, histopathology and evolution. Tumours were grouped for size and TNM (tumor-nodule-metastasis) in stage (S). A simulated serum thyroglobulin level >2 ng/ml and positive image with 131 I or another nuclear marker were considered as positive for residual TC. In the totality of the analyzed patients 88% were female, 62% below 45 years old, and in 77% the thyroid function was normal. The fine needle aspiration (FNA) was diagnostic in 78%. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in 96%. The 63% was SI; 14% SII; 19% SIII and 4% SIV. During follow-up, we observed that 90% of patients with Tg between 2 and 10 had evidence of residual TC, and 100% with Tg > 10 ng/ml, whereas 18% of those whose simulated Tg [es

  5. Unstable Thyroid Function in Older Adults Is Caused by Alterations in Both Thyroid and Pituitary Physiology and Is Associated with Increased Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Jennifer S; McGready, John; Ladenson, Paul W; Simonsick, Eleanor M

    2017-11-01

    Average thyrotropin (TSH) levels are known to be higher in older adults when measured in cross-sectional populations. Possible etiologies include differential survival, neutral aging changes, or increased disease prevalence at older ages. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying changing thyroid function during aging, and to determine the association of changes with survival, by analyzing the individual thyroid axis over time. Individual patterns of changing TSH and free thyroxine (fT4) were determined in 640 participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging who had at least three measures of serum TSH and fT4, not on medications, over an average of seven years of follow-up. Participants with changing phenotypes were identified based on quintiles for both slopes. Those with alterations in primary thyroid gland function demonstrated intact negative feedback (rising TSH with declining fT4 or declining TSH with rising fT4). Other participants had a parallel rise or fall of TSH and fT4 levels, consistent with pituitary dysfunction. Predictors of phenotype were analyzed by logistic regression. Differential survival between thyroid aging phenotypes was analyzed using multivariate Cox regression. While the majority of participants at all ages had stable thyroid function, changes were more common among older adults, with 32.3% of those aged >80 years but only 9.5% of those aged function changes in the highest and lowest quintiles. Regression to the mean accounts for some of the changes, for example increased baseline TSH was associated with a falling TSH pattern (odds ratio = 1.4 [confidence interval 1.1-1.7] per 1 mIU/L). Importantly, changing thyroid function in either the upper or lower quintiles of slope for TSH and fT4 was associated with increased risk of death compared to stable thyroid status (hazard ratio = 5.4 [confidence interval 3.1-9.5]). Changing thyroid hormone function is increasingly common at older ages and is associated

  6. Thyroid status in a large cohort of patients with mental retardation: the TOP-R (Thyroid Origin of Psychomotor Retardation) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Willem Edward; de Rijke, Yolanda B; van Toor, Hans; Visser, Theo J

    2011-09-01

    Abnormalities in thyroid state may affect development and function of the brain and result in mental retardation (MR). Thyroid parameters have not been systematically investigated in institutionalized MR subjects. The objective is to measure thyroid parameters in a novel cohort of 946 institutionalized subjects. The TOP-R (Thyroid Origin of Psychomotor Retardation) study is a cross-sectional nation-wide multicentre study. Subjects with unexplained MR. The majority of the MR subjects had thyroid parameters within the reference range used in our laboratory. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) use affected thyroid hormones (T4: 102·1 ± 1·2 vs 83·9 ± 1·2 nmol/l, P hyperthyroidism was 5·2% and 2·8%, respectively. We report thyroid parameters in a cohort of institutionalized subjects with MR. Our findings substantiate the fact that AEDs affect thyroid hormone levels. Future studies will be employed to investigate genetic causes of MR related to abnormalities in thyroid hormone homeostasis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Therapeutic options in the management of autonomously functioning thyroid adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrenechea, E.A.; Ong, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules or adenomas (AFTN or AFTA) was established as a clinical entity in 1918 by Goetsch correlating cellular mitochondrial content with nodular function and showing the inverse correlation between AFTN function and extra nodular tissue function. They are almost always benign and degeneration, which is common in AFTN, can result in the development of hyperthyroidism. It is therefore important to know the function of these nodules by requesting for the thyroid function tests namely T3, T4, and TSH. They are diagnosed by thyroid scans using I-131 or Tc 99m as a hot solitary nodule in one lobe with the other lobe not appearing on scan or suppressed. The frequency of AFTA worldwide is quite variable depending on geography. It ranges from 1% in North America to 10 % in some areas in Europe and Asia or in areas of iodine deficiency. The traditional methods of treatment of these nodules have been surgery and radioactive iodine ablation. Surgical treatment as a rule is indicated in young patients with nodules larger than 3 cm and those with local compressive symptoms. RAI is used in elderly patients and those who are poor surgical risks. The usual dose ranges from 20 to 30 mCi and is definitely larger that when treating Graves' disease. Others have resorted to PEI or percutaneous ethanol injection with reported success. There has been no definite management of these AFTA due to the variable natural history and some would only recommend observation for asymptomatic small adenomas, which are euthyroid. Therefore this paper studied the results of treatment using RAI ablation, surgery or plain observation for AFTA. Percutaneous ethanol injection is not being done in our center. In the local setting, where thyroid disease is still endemic, the incidence of AFTA is not so high. Graves' disease is still the predominating cause of hyperthyroidism followed by multinodular goiter. Toxic AFTA occurs in 3% of the total hyperthyroid

  8. Effect of steroid replacement on thyroid function and thyroid autoimmunity in Addison′ s disease with primary hypothyroidism

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    Jaya Prakash Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Steroid replacement without thyroxine supplementation normalizes thyroid function test (TFT in some but not all Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to this improvement in TFT. However, the documentation of the change in thyroid autoimmunity after cortisol replacement is very limited in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of steroid replacement on TFT and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab titer in Addison's disease with primary hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in a tertiary care center in South India. Six Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism, who were only on steroid replacement, were included in the study. Low serum cortisol (22 pmol/L and/or hyperpigmentation of skin/mucous membranes was considered as the diagnostic criteria for Addison's disease. Primary hypothyroidism (both overt and subclinical was defined as high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH with/without low free thyroxine (fT4. TFT and anti-TPO-Ab were performed before and after steroid replacement in all of them. Results: Poststeroid replacement, there was a normalization of TSH in all but one subjects. In overt hypothyroidism patients, fT4 also normalized. The improvement in TFT was not associated with decreasing titer of the anti-TPO-Ab in all six patients. However, there was a significant difference in TSH after steroid replacement compared to the baseline status. Conclusions: The concept of normalization of primary hypothyroidism with cortisol replacement in patients with Addison's disease should be recognized to avoid iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis caused by thyroxine replacement. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to these alterations.

  9. Radioiodine therapy of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guhlmann, C.A.; Rendl, J.; Boerner, W.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effects of radioiodine therapy (RIT) for autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) and Graves' disease on thyroid function and size up to one year after RIT. In 230 patients with AFTNs, a dose of 300 Gy was effective in about 90% of the cases 6 months after RIT. Out of 65 patients suffering from Graves' disease, 5 patients (8%) had persisting hyperthyroidism 6 months after RIT with a dose of 150 Gy. This group consisted exclusively of patients with manifest hyperthyroidism at the time of RIT. As determined by ultrasonography 6 months after RIT, a reduction of thyroid size by about 40% and 60% was observed in patients with AFTNs and Graves' disease, respectively. (orig.) [de

  10. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-01-01

    Whereas the consequences of extremes in iodine intake are well described, much less is known about the effect of more moderate variations in maternal iodine intake on fetal thyroid function. The present study performed in Denmark with mild to moderate iodine deficiency dealt with the effect...... (P iodine intake in both mothers and neonates. The results suggest that the fetal thyroid, at least in areas of mild iodine deficiency, is more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of iodine...... of maternal iodine supplementation on thyroid function in the mother at term and in the fetus/neonate. Serum was collected consecutively from pregnant women at term (n = 144) and from cord blood (n = 139). Forty-nine women had a regular intake of vitamin and mineral tablets with iodine (150 microg/day) during...

  11. The diagnostic effects of s-TSH and TRH stimulating test on subclinical thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Shujun; Wang Wenliang; Lu Shuyan; Zheng Linong; Hu Changjun; Fang Xiaozheng; Zheng Huian; Ma Meizhen

    2002-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the diagnostic effects of supersensitive TSH on diagnosing subclinical thyroid function with only once s-TSH detection and with TRH stimulating tests. TRH stimulating tests have been undertaken for 90 patients with different thyroid disease and 58 normal subjects. Diagnostic basal levels of s-TSH test in control group, subclinical hyperthyroidism group and subclinical hypothyroidism group were 2.20 +- 1.85 mIU/L, 0.54 +- 0.3 mIU/L and 9.08 +- 6.3 mIU/L, respectively, the levels of subclinical hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism group were significantly higher than that of normal subjects group (P s -TSH>30 mIU/L. Dynamic observing of TRH stimulating tests have more effect than that of only once s-TSH detection in diagnosing subclinical thyroid function

  12. Effect of Rifampin on Thyroid Function Test in Patients on Levothyroxine Medication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye In Kim

    Full Text Available Levothyroxine (LT4 and rifampin (RIF are sometimes used together; however, no clinical studies have assessed the effects of these drugs on thyroid function or the need to adjust LT4 dose.We retrospectively reviewed the records of 71 Korean patients who started RIF during LT4 treatment. Clinically relevant cases that required dose adjustment according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA/American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE guidelines were identified, and risk factors of increased LT4 dose were analyzed.After administering RIF, median serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level (2.58 mIU/L, interquartile range [IQR] 0.21-7.44 was significantly higher than that before RIF (0.25 mIU/L, IQR, 0.03-2.62; P < 0.001. An increased LT4 dose was required for 50% of patients in the TSH suppression group for thyroid cancer and 26% of patients in the replacement group for hypothyroidism. Risk factor analysis showed that remaining thyroid gland (odds ratio [OR] 9.207, P = 0.002, the time interval between starting RIF and TSH measurement (OR 1.043, P = 0.019, and baseline LT4 dose per kg body weight (OR 0.364, P = 0.011 were clinically relevant variables.In patients receiving LT4, serum thyroid function test should be performed after starting RIF treatment. For patients with no remnant thyroid gland and those receiving a lower LT4 dose, close observation is needed when starting RIF and TB medication.

  13. Human Exposures to Bisphenol A, Bisphenol F and Chlorinated Bisphenol A Derivatives and Thyroid Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xanthi D Andrianou

    Full Text Available Although the increasing prevalence of thyroid nodular disease (TND has been partially attributed to the more frequent usage of improved diagnostics, environmental factors, such as exposures to thyroid-disrupting chemicals may contribute to TND and altered thyroid function. We investigated the association between exposures to bisphenol A (BPA, its chlorinated derivatives (ClxBPA, and bisphenol F (BPF with TND and thyroid measures in adult women. A case-control study in Cyprus and Romania (n = 212 was conducted, where cases were those with thyroid nodules (diameter >3mm, and controls without nodules. Serum TSH and free thyroxine and urinary levels of BPA, BPF and ClxBPA were measured using immunoassays and tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The association between exposures to BPA compounds and TND, adjusting for age, BMI, thyroid hormones and urinary iodine was assessed using logistic regression. Linear regression was used to explore associations between urinary BPA, BPF and ClxBPA and serum thyroid hormones. With the exception of a chlorinated BPA compound (30%, the rest of bisphenols were quantified in 100% of urine samples. A positive and significant (p<0.05 association was observed between urinary BPA and serum TSH that remained after adjusting for urinary creatinine, age, BMI, study site and disease status; there was no significant association between BPF or ClxBPA with TSH. None of the BPA compounds were associated with higher odds of TND. Our study found associations of urinary BPA with TSH but not with BPF or ClxBPA. A larger study would be justified.

  14. Sarcoidosis and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Fazzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the studies have shown a higher risk for subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, antithyroid autoantibodies [overall antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb], and in general, thyroid autoimmunity, overall in the female gender in patients with sarcoidosis (S. A significantly higher prevalence of clinical hypothyroidism and Graves’ disease was also described in female S patients with respect to controls. Gallium-67 (Ga-67 scyntigraphy in S patients, in the case of thyroid uptake, suggests the presence of aggressive autoimmune thyroiditis and hypothyroidism. For this reason, ultrasonography and thyroid function should be done in the case of Ga-67 thyroid uptake. In conclusion, thyroid function, TPOAb measurement, and ultrasonography should be done to assess the clinical profile in female S patients, and the ones at high risk (female individuals, with TPOAb positivity, and hypoechoic and small thyroid should have periodically thyroid function evaluations and suitable treatments.

  15. Thyroid hormone: the modulator of erectile function in the rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible role of thyroid hormones in the Nitric Oxide (NO)- mediated response to sexual stimulation, and on prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and Sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction was investigated using the corpus cavernosum of the New Zealand rabbit animal model. The parameters studied were penile ...

  16. Marginal Iodide Deficiency and Thyroid Function: Dose-response analysis for quantitative pharmacokinetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe iodine deficiency is known to cause adverse health outcomes and remains a benchmark for understanding the effects of hypothyroidism. However, the implications of marginal iodine deficiency on function of the thyroid axis remain less well known. The current study examined t...

  17. Endogenous subclinical thyroid disorders, physical and cognitive function, depression, and mortality in older individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, R.T.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; van Schoor, N.M.; Rijs, K.J.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Comijs, H.C.; Kramer, M.H.H.; Vandenbroucke, J.P.; Dekkers, O.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To what extent endogenous subclinical thyroid disorders contribute to impaired physical and cognitive function, depression, and mortality in older individuals remains a matter of debate. Design: A population-based, prospective cohort of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Methods: TSH

  18. High Iodine and Salt Intakes and Obesity do not Modify the Thyroid Function in Mexican Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Villa, Lorena; García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gutiérrez, David Gustavo; Pérez-Mora, Valeria Alejandra; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Sampson-Zaldívar, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    Mexico is considered as a nutritional transition country with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, and recent studies have reported a high iodine intake in children. Both high iodine intake and obesity have been associated with thyroid dysfunction. Our aim was to assess iodine and salt intake and thyroid function in Mexican schoolchildren with normal weight and obesity. A cross-sectional study was performed during 2012-2013 in schoolchildren from Queretaro, Mexico. Six hundred seventy-eight schoolchildren were evaluated to obtain nutrition status, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid volume (TVol). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 47.3 %, the median UIC was 428 μg/L and TVol was normal in all schoolchildren; however, obese girls had a higher TVol than normal weight at the age of 8, 10 and 12 years. A subsample of schoolchildren was divided in 6-8 and 9-12-year-old groups, in order to compare thyroid function (thyrotropin, free T4, and anti-thyroid antibodies); iodine and salt intake were estimated with 24-h urinary samples. No differences in thyroid function were observed in both age groups. In the 6-8-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher iodine intake than normal-weight children (415.5 vs. 269.1 μg/day, p obese schoolchildren had higher salt intake than normal-weight children (6.2 vs. 3.8 g/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in iodine intake. Dietary patterns could explain the differences between both age groups. Further studies are needed to identify the main sources of iodine intake in Mexican populations.

  19. G raves’ disease – anti-thyroid autoantibodies and function thyroid status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavova, M.; Rusev, T; Donchev, M.; Dekova, M.; Tsarovska, T

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Hyperthyroidism is an autoimmune disease in the pathogenesis of which a key role play the antibodies against the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TRAb). The aim of this study is to analyze the immune and hormonal status in patients with Graves' disease, who are on thyreostatic therapy and in remission. Materials and methods: 67 patients were studied - 11 men and 56 women - with Graves' disease, mean age 49.7 years (range - 20-76 ). Of these, 55 were on thyreostatic therapy (two subgroups: 27 - treated up to 24 months , and 28 with relapsed disease ) and 12 were in remission up to a year. Patient's condition is assessed as a complex of clinical, biochemical, including hormonal, immune status and ultrasonography of the thyroid gland. We examined thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, antityreoperoxidase antibodies (Anti-TPO) and TRAb. The patients on therapy are: in hyperthyroidism - 10/ 14 with subclinical hyperthyroidism - 9/8, euthyroid - 7/6 and with subclinical hypothyroidism - 1/0. Results: The patients with hyperthyroidism ( 43.6% ) in both thyreostatic therapy groups have a significantly higher average values of TRAb. The patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism and relapse showed higher levels of TRAb in comparison with those undergoing therapy to 24 months after diagnosing. The values of TRAb in the euthyroid patients in both groups of treatment were 1,5 IU / l. The Anti-TPO values were increased in 78.2% of the patients on therapy and 55.5% of those in remission. Conclusion: With the decrease of thyroid hormones during treatment of Hyperthyroidism the levels of TRAb and Anti-TPO decrease. The TRAb values are useful for the monitoring the effect of the thyreostatic treatment, determining the therapeutic approach in patients with a sustained reduction of TRAb in the course thyreostatic therapy and particularly for relapse

  20. State of esophageal transport function in patients with nodular goiter and in patients operated on for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purizhanskij, I.I.; Lyzhina, V.D.; Ogneva, T.V.; Pashev, N.; Minchev, D.; Mladenov, V.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made of changes of esophageal transport function in 10 patients with thyroid adenoma and in 27 patients after surgical and radiotherapeutic management for thyroid cancer. The results were compared with those of a control group. Significant data on changes on esophageal transport function in patients with thyroid adenoma were unnoticed. Esophageal dysfunction after operation and radioactive iodine therapy for cancer was detected in 55%. Dysfunction was thought to be caused by dysphagia which showed direct correlation with the severity of hypothyroidism

  1. Likelihood ratio-based differentiation of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with sonographically evident diffuse hashimoto thyroiditis: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Xia, Yu; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Dai, Qing; Li, Xiao-Yi

    2012-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of sonography for discriminating nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis from papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with sonographically evident diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis. This study included 20 patients with 24 surgically confirmed Hashimoto thyroiditis nodules and 40 patients with 40 papillary thyroid carcinoma nodules; all had sonographically evident diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis. A retrospective review of the sonograms was performed, and significant benign and malignant sonographic features were selected by univariate and multivariate analyses. The combined likelihood ratio was calculated as the product of each feature's likelihood ratio for papillary thyroid carcinoma. We compared the abilities of the original sonographic features and combined likelihood ratios in diagnosing nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma by their sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index. The diagnostic capabilities of the sonographic features varied greatly, with Youden indices ranging from 0.175 to 0.700. Compared with single features, combinations of features were unable to improve the Youden indices effectively because the sensitivity and specificity usually changed in opposite directions. For combined likelihood ratios, however, the sensitivity improved greatly without an obvious reduction in specificity, which resulted in the maximum Youden index (0.825). With a combined likelihood ratio greater than 7.00 as the diagnostic criterion for papillary thyroid carcinoma, sensitivity reached 82.5%, whereas specificity remained at 100.0%. With a combined likelihood ratio less than 1.00 for nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis, sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 92.5%, respectively. Several sonographic features of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma in a background of diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis were significantly different. The combined likelihood ratio may be superior to original sonographic features for

  2. [Thyroid function in patients with anorexia nervosa and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natori, Y; Yamaguchi, N; Koike, S; Aoyama, A; Tsuchibuchi, S; Kojyo, K; Demura, R

    1994-12-01

    Thyroid hormone levels were measured in 21 patients with anorexia nervosa, 15 patients with depression and 16 patients with severe depression and were compared with those in 53 normal subjects. In anorexia nervosa and severe depressed patients, serum T3, T4, fT3, fT4 and T3/T4 ratio showed significantly lower values than those in normal subjects. However there was no difference between depressed patients and normal subjects. The serum TSH levels were within normal range in all of the studied subjects. Thus, thyroid hormone levels in severe depressed patients were similar to those in anorexia nervosa and the changes were inversely related to disease conditions. The supplementation of thyroid hormones to antidepressant relieved clinical symptoms in some of the severe depressed patients. These results suggested that the changes in thyroid hormone levels in anorexia nervosa and severe depression were mainly due to impaired conversion of T4 to T3 by increased cortisol secretion through emotional stress.

  3. STUDY OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN GERIATRIC AGES AND ITS CLINICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad Suram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This study was performed to study the thyroid dysfunction in elderly patients and its clinical correlation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study, which consists of 150 patients aged more than 60 years and were admitted to Government General Hospital, Nizamabad. They were under suspicion that they were suffering from thyroid disorders and were subjected to detailed clinical examination as per proforma. Thyroid antibody test was done for those who were found to have altered thyroid functions. From these patients, demographic details, anthropometric measurements, and clinical information was collected. Serum T3, T4, and TSH levels were evaluated in the laboratory by chemiluminescence assay method. Other tests like USG/FNAC neck, CBC, RBS, Lipid profile, PS, ESR, ECG, Echo were done. INCLUSION CRITERIA 150 patients with age of above 60 years were selected who were suspected to have thyroid disorders. EXCLUSION CRITERIA Patients who were sick, who were with established thyroid disorders, who were using drugs, which alter thyroid functions, who were using thyroid supplements, who have undergone thyroid surgery, who have been on radioactive iodine therapy, who were using iodine-containing vitamins and minerals, who have undergone radiological tests. RESULTS In the present study, out of 150 patients, 82 males and 68 were females. It was found that the thyroid dysfunction is more among females (21% than in males (14%. This was seen in both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism as females have increased autoimmune diseases. Out of 150 patients, only 35% had total thyroid abnormalities. Out of 150 patients, 15% had hypothyroidism, 10% had subclinical hypothyroidism, 4% had hyperthyroidism, and 6% had subclinical hyperthyroidism. TFT always is helpful in diagnosing the disease. Hypothyroidism is more common than hyperthyroidism in elderly patients. In elderly patients, thyroid dysfunction is not uncommon. Quarter of the

  4. Effect of lead nitrate on thyroid function on the Indian palm squirrel, Funambulus pennanti (Wroughton)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, V.K.; Katti, S.R.; Sathyanesan, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the known toxic effects of lead in mammals including man are, impaired heme synthesis, anemia, nepatopathy, nephropathy, behavioral disorders and neuropathy. However, very little is known about the effect of lead on endocrine physiology. Some data are available on lead induced impairment of thyroid function in occupationally exposed men and experimental rats. As lead nitrate is largely consumed through water and food, in this study the wild rodents Funambulus pennanti were administered lead through their drinking water and their thyroid structure, radioiodine 131-I percentage uptake and protein bound iodine (PBI) level were assessed

  5. COEXISTENCE OF CARCINOMAS OF THYROID WITH MULTINODULAR GOITRES OF THYROID – A TWO-YEAR STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar Epari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Multinodular goitre or nodular hyperplasia or adenomatoid goitre is the most common thyroid disease, which occurs due to deficient iodine intake. Initial hyperthyroid states, followed by follicular atrophy and secondary changes like haemorrhage, calcification and cystic degeneration occurs in most of the cases. Longstanding cases of nodular goitre can be associated with carcinomas, usually follicular carcinomas, and rarely papillary carcinomas.[1] This study was done to know the incidence of coexisting malignancies, follicular and papillary carcinomas of thyroid, in longstanding nodular goitres of thyroid. METHODS All the cases of nodular goitres examined in the last two years were studied, including the thyroidectomy specimens and FNAC slides whichever was done. Extensive grossing of the thyroidectomy specimens was done to detect the possibility of malignancy in longstanding cases of nodular goitre of thyroid. Review of FNAC slides was done in cases where cytodiagnosis of coexisting malignancy was missed and detected in histopathological examination. RESULTS In the present study, conducted over a two-year period, out of 50 cases of thyroidectomy specimens of multinodular goitres studied, six cases were diagnosed to be having coexisting malignancy of thyroid, of which four were follicular carcinomas of thyroid and two were papillary carcinomas of thyroid. FNAC diagnosis of coexisting malignancy was initially missed in FNAC in two cases, i.e. one case each of follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma. These FNAC slides were reviewed and the foci of malignancies detected. CONCLUSION There is a possibility of malignancy of thyroid coexisting with longstanding multinodular goitre of thyroid, which should be kept in mind, while performing the needle biopsy and thorough examination of FNAC slides is needed to avoid missing the possible detection of the coexisting malignant lesion. Thyroidectomy specimens should be extensively grossed to

  6. Thyroid hormones and menstrual cycle function in a longitudinal cohort of premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Melanie H; Howards, Penelope P; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Meadows, Juliana W; Kesner, James S; Spencer, Jessica B; Terrell, Metrecia L; Marcus, Michele

    2018-03-08

    Previous studies have reported that hyperthyroid and hypothyroid women experience menstrual irregularities more often compared with euthyroid women, but reasons for this are not well-understood and studies on thyroid hormones among euthyroid women are lacking. In a prospective cohort study of euthyroid women, this study characterised the relationship between thyroid hormone concentrations and prospectively collected menstrual function outcomes. Between 2004-2014, 86 euthyroid premenopausal women not lactating or taking hormonal medications participated in a study measuring menstrual function. Serum thyroid hormones were measured before the menstrual function study began. Women then collected first morning urine voids and completed daily bleeding diaries every day for three cycles. Urinary oestrogen and progesterone metabolites (estrone 3-glucuronide (E 1 3G) and pregnanediol 3-glucuronide (Pd3G)) and follicle-stimulating hormone were measured and adjusted for creatinine (Cr). Total thyroxine (T 4 ) concentrations were positively associated with Pd3G and E 1 3G. Women with higher (vs lower) T 4 had greater luteal phase maximum Pd3G (Pd3G = 11.7 μg/mg Cr for women with high T 4 vs Pd3G = 9.5 and 8.1 μg/mg Cr for women with medium and low T 4 , respectively) and greater follicular phase maximum E 1 3G (E 1 3G = 41.7 ng/mg Cr for women with high T 4 vs E 1 3G = 34.3 and 33.7 ng/mg Cr for women with medium and low T 4 , respectively). Circulating thyroid hormone concentrations were associated with subtle differences in menstrual cycle function outcomes, particularly sex steroid hormone levels in healthy women. Results contribute to the understanding of the relationship between thyroid function and the menstrual cycle, and may have implications for fertility and chronic disease. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of thyroid function in female subjects living in the high natural background radiation area of Karunagappally, Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, A.; Nair, Raghu Ram K.; Jayalakshmi, P.; Sebastian, P.; Akiba, S.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation exposure has been reported to cause non cancer thyroid abnormalities like diffuse goiter and thyroid nodules. The present study was undertaken to see if there are any morphological and functional changes taking place in the thyroid due to chronic low level radiation exposure. 257 female subjects living in the four high background radiation panchayats of Chavara, Neendakara, Alappad and Panmana were selected for the study after getting informed consent. 5 ml of blood was drawn from these subjects for assessing thyroid function. The subjects were all staying in the same area since their birth and had not moved out for more than one year at a stretch. The average age of the subjects was 40.5y with a range of 17-66y. The cumulative dose had a mean of 226.3 mGy and a range of 20.6-937.8 mGy. 95 subjects from the low background area of Oachira and Thevalakkara were selected as controls in the age group of 18-63y with a mean age of 47.1y. The mean cumulative dose of this group was 35.9 mGy with a minimum of 5.3 mGy and a maximum of 106.8 mGy. 5 ml blood was collected from these subjects for thyroid function studies. All the subjects underwent ultrasound examination of the thyroid using a 10 MHz frequency linear probe. The following parameters were studied to assess thyroid function: Free T4, TSH, Antithyroglobulin antibody (ATG), Parathyroid hormone. Ultrasound images showed the following common features: Normal - 171, Suggestive of Thyroiditis - 106, Multinodular Goitre - 63, Diffuse Goitre - 5, Solitary Nodule - 31. 73 subjects had elevated TSH and 190 subjects had raised ATG. A significant numbers of subjects had features of thyroiditis. A comparative evaluation with control subjects will be done to assess its significance with reference to cumulative dose

  8. Hypothyroidism in a dog after surgery and radiation therapy for a functional thyroid adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.W.; Price, G.S.; Spodnick, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Hypothyroidism was diagnosed in a dog which had undergone unilateral thyroid lobectomy and external beam irradiation (48 Gy in 3 Gy fractions) for a functional cystic thyroid adenocarcinoma. Hypothyroidism became biochemically apparent within 4 months of completion of radiation therapy, and clinically apparent within 7 months. Clinical signs resolved after thyroid hormone supplementation. The potential for alterations in thyroid function should be considered in any animal undergoing radiation therapy in which the thyroid gland is included in the radiation field. This potential may be greater if surgery and radiation are combined

  9. Thyroid cancers: a three year retrospective histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Than-Than-Htwe; Maung-Ko

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory based retrospective study was done on thyroid tissue specimen that were received from the surgically removed thyroid swellings of various reasons. It was a three year study from 1996-1998 with a total number of cases as (n=1690). Cases were between the age range of 8-88 years including both sexes. A routine histopathological examination was done according to the standard WHO classification, using conventional methods and techniques of specimen sectioning and processing. Occurrence of thyroid cancer among total cases of thyroid dysfunction is highly significant (P 0.860). The results obtained were discussed. (author)

  10. Small differences in thyroid function may be important for body mass index and the occurrence of obesity in the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, N.; Laurberg, P.; Rasmussen, Lone Banke

    2005-01-01

    Context: Increasing prevalence of overweight in the population is a major concern globally; and in the United States, nearly one third of adults were classified as obese at the end of the 20th century. Few data have been presented regarding an association between variations in thyroid function seen...... in the general population and body weight. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between thyroid function and body mass index (BMI) or obesity in a normal population. Design: A cross-sectional population study (The DanThyr Study) was conducted. Participants: In all, 4649...... participants were investigated, and 4082 were eligible for these analyses after exclusion of subjects with previous or present overt thyroid dysfunction. Main Outcome Measures: The study examined the association between category of serum TSH or serum thyroid hormones and BMI or obesity in multivariate models...

  11. Generation of Functional Thyroid Tissue Using 3D-Based Culture of Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonica, Francesco; Kasprzyk, Dominika Figini; Schiavo, Andrea Alex; Romitti, Mírian; Costagliola, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade three-dimensional (3D) cultures of pluripotent stem cells have been intensively used to understand morphogenesis and molecular signaling important for the embryonic development of many tissues. In addition, pluripotent stem cells have been shown to be a valid tool for the in vitro modeling of several congenital or chronic human diseases, opening new possibilities to study their physiopathology without using animal models. Even more interestingly, 3D culture has proved to be a powerful and versatile tool to successfully generate functional tissues ex vivo. Using similar approaches, we here describe a protocol for the generation of functional thyroid tissue using mouse embryonic stem cells and give all the details and references for its characterization and analysis both in vitro and in vivo. This model is a valid approach to study the expression and the function of genes involved in the correct morphogenesis of thyroid gland, to elucidate the mechanisms of production and secretion of thyroid hormones and to test anti-thyroid drugs.

  12. STUDY OF SERUM ELECTROLYTES IN FEMALE THYROID PATIENTS : A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neela Mannangi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION : Thyroid hormone is a central regulator of body haemodynamic, thermoregulation and metabolism. The effect of thyroid hormones on lipid metabolism is well known, whereas the effect on electrolytes and minerals has not been well established and also the underlying mechanisms not well understood. Thyroid hormones regulate the activity of sodium potassium pumps in mo st of the tissues. The higher prevalence of thyroid disease in women suggests that estrogen might be involved in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunction. With this background the present study was undertaken to assess the alterations in the levels of serum electrolytes in hyperthyroid, hypothyroid & euthyroid female patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS : The present study was conducted in female patients who atte nded medicine outpatient D epartment of S. N. Medical C ollege & HSK H ospital , Bagalkot . Thyroid hormones were estimated by chemiluminiscence method . Electrolyte levels (Na + , k + & Cl - were measured by ion selective electrode method. Serum levels of free T3 T4 and TSH were obtained. Patients with history of intake of thyroid drugs, hypertensive, diabetes mellitus, obesity and all other causes for electrolyte abnormalities were excluded from the study. STATISTICS : All the values are expressed in mean ± SD . Unp aired ‘t’ test was applied. Pearson’s correlation was done to see the correlation between serum electrolytes and thyroid hormones using SPSS (version 16.0. RESULTS : In the present study mean age group of patients were between 20 - 60yrs. There were 90 femal e patients total in number. Out of which 30 patients were with hypothyroidism, another 30 were with hyperthyroidism and remaining 30 were with euthyroidism. Mean serum levels for thyroid function parameters and electrolytes are given in below table no.2 an d 3. DISCUSSION : Hypothyroidism is a very common condition and seen more in women than in men. The higher prevalence of thyroid disease in

  13. The relationship of element contents in erythrocyte with thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Li; Zhao Zhiying; Wang Zhenghua; Li Yanfen; Liu Nianqing; Liu Pingsheng; Xu qing; Liu Peng; Qian Qingfang

    1998-01-01

    The serum thyroid hormones (T 3 , T 4 , TSH, FT 3 and FT 4 ) level and the elements K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb in the erythrocyte in 76 cases is measured by radiometric assay in vitro (RIA and IRMA) and nuclear analytical technique (PIXE and INNA). According to thyroid hormones level, the cases are divided into four groups with hyperthyroid, normal, subhyperthyroid and hypothyroid. The difference and correlation of various parameters in four groups are compared by Oneway-ANOVA and Partial Correlation using SPSS/PC statistical package respectively. The results show that the content of Zn for hypothyroid group is significantly higher than hyperthyroid (P = 0.007) and sub-hyperthyroid (P = 0.046) groups, and the content of Zn for normal is lower than hypothyroid group but not significant difference (P = 0.083), the other elements contents are no significant difference among four groups. The highly significant linear correlation between the contents of K, Zn and Cu in the erythrocyte and T 3 , T 4 level ratio and TSH level is observed in hypothyroid and normal groups, the close correlation between the content of Se and serum T 4 and TSH level is also observed in hyperthyroid and sub-hyperthyroid groups. These suggest that trace elements may be important for the synthesis, metabolism and biological function of thyroid hormones

  14. The impact of smoking on thyroid volume and function in relation to a shift towards iodine sufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, Pernille; Knudsen, Nils; Perrild, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the influence of smoking on thyroid volume and function changes in relation to a higher iodine intake in the population. The study comprised a total of 8,219 individuals each examined in one of two separate cross-sectional studies performed before (n...... = 4,649) and after (n = 3,570) a mandatory iodization of salt in year 2000 in two areas with established mild and moderate iodine deficiency. Participants answered questionnaires regarding life style factors and a thyroid ultrasonography was performed. Blood samples were analysed for serum thyroid...... of smoking on thyroid volume seems to be dependent on iodine intake, whereas the effect on function seems mainly to depend on other factors....

  15. Effects of the Thyroid Status Correction on the Functional State of Digestive System in Children with Diffuse Nontoxic Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Ye. Mamenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the effects of the diffuse non-toxic goiter treatment on the functional state of the digestive system in children. Materials and methods. The screening survey was based on lunior comprehensive schools (695 children aged 5–11 years: questioning of families, anthropometry and examination of children, detection of ioduria, palpation of the thyroid gland. In-depth examination of children with goiter (n = 88: ultrasonography of the thyroid gland and the digestive system, determination of levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, serotonin, melatonin, vasoactive intestinal peptide. Results. The high incidence of non-toxic diffuse goiter (25.8 %, associated with a reduction in functional activity of the thyroid gland to the minimum thyroid dysfunction (42.0 % and subclinical hypothyroidism (10.2 %, was detected in school-aged children. The presence of goiter leads to a static increase of the chances for functional gastrointestinal disorders developing (odds ratio 2.33, p = 0.000, mainly due to the hypokinetic conditions. The administration of potassium iodide preparations leads to the decreasing in goiter rate in high compliance up to the 27.3 % and to the normalization of the functional state of the pituitary-thyroid system (thyroid stimulating hormone — 1.66 mIU/L, that is associated with increased level of serotonin (6.14 ng/ml and vasoactive intestinal peptide (117.86 ng/ml and decreased melatonin concentration (2.5 pmol/l. In children who consistently for six months received preparations of potassium iodide, along with the normalization of thyroid status we noted the decrease of the frequency of complaints from the digestive system. Conclusions. The treatment of diffuse nontoxic goiter by potassium iodide preparations allows to achieve reduction of thyroid size and to normalize functional activity of thyroid-pituitary system. Increase in the functional activity of the pituitary-thyroid system helps reduce the

  16. Hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis activity and function of cardiac muscle in energy deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lachowicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Frequently repeated statement that energy restriction is a factor that improves cardiovascular system function seems to be not fully truth. Low energy intake modifies the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis activity and thyroid hormone peripheral metabolism. Thyroid hormones, as modulators of the expression and activity of many cardiomyocyte proteins, control heart function. Decreased thyroid hormone levels and their disturbanced conversion and action result in alternation of cardiac remodeling, disorder of calcium homeostasis and diminish myocardial contractility. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge about the mechanisms of energy restriction effects on thyroidal axis activity, thyroid hormone peripheral metabolism and action in target tissues, especially in cardiac myocytes. We also showed the existence of energy restriction-thyroid-heart pathway.

  17. TTH biological effect and thyrocyte binding in functional states of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    It was established in experiments made in vitro on the thyroid glands of intact animals and also on hyperplastic, functionally atrophied and inflamed thyroid glands that tritiated TTH actively incorporated into thyroid gland cells of the control animals and raised the rate of thyroxin secretion. Under the conditions of experimental hyperplasia, atrophy and thyroiditis of the thyroid gland, the hormonogenic reaction of thyrocytes and the nature of TTH binding by them was greatly disturbed. The thyrocytes of the hyperplastic and inflamed thyroid tissue did not accept the labelled TTH and did not react to its administration by intensification of thyroxin secretion. The thyrocytes of the functionally atrophied thyroid gland tissue actively bound the tritiated TTH and enhanced thyroxin secretion

  18. A Histological Autopsy Study of the Thyroid gland in Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the histological appearances of adult thyroid glands in patients who died of HIV related diseases at UTH in the period 2010 to 2012. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive retrospective study of adult thyroid glands collected at autopsy during the period 2010 ...

  19. Physiological changes in thyroid function during pregnancy: an approach to the interpretation of thyroid tests = Cambios fisiológicos de la función tiroidea en el embarazo: bases para la interpretación de las pruebas tiroideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba Ramírez, Nathalia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A proper understanding of thyroid physiology and its changes through pregnancy is critical to suspect diseases affecting the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, and to make a proper interpretation of the tests that measure its function. Alterations in thyroid function tests are common during pregnancy, and it may be difficult to distinguish them from those due to disease. Clinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are rare during pregnancy (0.2% to 0.36%, but subclinical forms are more frequent (around 2%. Iodine is essential as substrate for thyroid hormone synthesis, and the requirements vary according to the population and the moment of pregnancy. Infertile couples have five to ten times more thyroid disorders; for that reason they should be studied as to thyroid function when searching for the cause of the infertility. Autoimmunity has been associated with maternal and perinatal complications such as abortion, preterm delivery and postpartum thyroiditis; some studies have shown that their incidence decreases with levothyroxine. This review includes the following aspects: thyroid physiology during pregnancy, thyroid function and fertility, iodine and pregnancy, anti-thyroid antibodies and pregnancy, thyroid function tests during pregnancy, and screening for thyroid disorders in pregnant women.

  20. Influence of x irradiation and diet on pituitary/thyroid function in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qassar, I.G.

    1979-01-01

    Rats were maintained on low iodine diet or treated with T 4 . A significant increase in thyroid weight was observed in rats on low iodine diet whereas among rats on normal diet with thyroxine injections, the thyroid was lower in weight than thyroids of control animals. Pituitary weight increased significantly in rats on low iodine diet or T 4 treatment. Labelling index was significantly higher in the group on low iodine diet. A significantly lower labelling index was observed after thyroxine treatment. Where PTU was administered to rats pretreated with either normal diet, normal diet plus T 4 , or maintained on low iodine diet and then exposed to radiation (100 to 400R) to the neck, it was not possible to distinguish the effect of such local radiation on body growth. The pre-radiation treatment did not have any effect on thyroid weight during two weeks post-radiation, suggesting that a four week post-radiation period is essential to elicit radiation effects on the thyroid. Contrary to low iodine treatment, administration of PTU did not result in any increase in pituitary weight in rats maintained on normal diet prior to radiation or in rats maintained on low iodine diet prior to radiation. There was, however, a significant increase in pituitary weight in rats injected with thyroxine prior to radiation (250R or 400R). A significant increase in serum TSH was observed two weeks after radiation and PTU treatment. A lower TSH level was observed, however, in the 250R sub-group (normal diet or T 4 injection) and in the 400R sub-group (low iodine diet). There was a significant difference among sham-irradiated and the three x-irradiated sub-groups maintained on low iodine diet. The results of these studies indicate that local x irradiation with 100 to 400R to the neck may influence thyroid/pituitary function in the rat

  1. {sup 131}I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torlak, V.; Capkun, V.; Stanicic, A. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Zemunik, T. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Medical Biology]. E-mail: tzemunik@bsb.mefst.hr; Modun, D. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pharmacology; Pesutic-Pisac, V. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pathology; Markotic, A. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). School of Medicine. Dept. of Biochemistry; Pavela-Vrancic, M. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Faculty of Natural Sciences. Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-08-15

    Therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of {sup 131}I (64-277 {mu}Ci). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before {sup 131}I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following {sup 131}I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 {+-} 8.16 to 55.0 {+-} 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 {+-} 6.9 to 25.4 {+-} 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after {sup 131}I administration to rats, which was not {sup 131}I dose dependent. (author)

  2. Autonomous nodule of the thyroid: correlation of patient age, nodule size, and functional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, M.; Shenkman, L.; Hollander, C.S.

    1975-01-01

    In light of new techniques for measuring circulating thyroid hormones and for studying the thyroid gland, we present our experience with 35 patients with solitary autonomous nodules of the thyroid to define more precisely the clinical course of patients with this disorder. The patients ranged in age from 19 to 80 years and 31 of the 35 were female. Younger patients were generally euthyroid and sought attention because of a thyroid mass; virtually all older patients were hyperthyroid. Eighteen had obvious clinical features of hyperthyroidism and 5 over age 70 had apathetic hyperthyroidism; all 5 of the elderly and 13 of the 18 under age 70 had elevated thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) levels. Isolated elevation of T 3 and elevated basal metabolic rate were observed in 5 previously untreated clinically hyperthyroid young patients. In each of these, thyroid uptake of 131 I was not suppressible with exogenous T 3 and BMR was elevated in those tested. Two elderly patients, who had previously been treated for conventional hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine, had T 3 toxicosis when hyperthyroidism recurred. There was a strong positive correlation between the age of the patient, the size of the nodule and the thyroid functional state. The mean area of the nodules projected on 131 I rectilinear scan for euthyroid patients was 5.1 cm 2 . The mean area of the nodules in hyperthyroid subjects was significantly higher, 13.4 cm 2 in patients with T 3 toxicosis and 19.3 cm 2 in subjects with conventional hyperthyroidism. Progression from a euthyroid state to hyperthyroidism was observed in four patients. One of these became thyrotoxic within days after an injection of iodinated contrast medium. Spontaneous resolution of nodules occurred in two patients

  3. The pharmacists' role in improving guideline compliance for thyroid function testing in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziman, Melanie E; Bui, Hien T; Smith, Craig S; Tsukiji, Lori A; Asmatey, Veda M; Chu, Steven B; Miano, John S

    2012-04-01

    This single-center retrospective pilot program's objective was to utilize outpatient pharmacists to improve laboratory test adherence in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients overdue for thyroid function testing, thereby demonstrating the value of the outpatient pharmacist and justifying possible clinical role expansion. Thyroid disorders may contribute to CHF development, progression, and exacerbation. Testing is the standard of care in CHF patients per American Heart Association's 2009 Guidelines. Delinquency was defined as labs not conducted within 1 year in patients with euthyroid history, within 6 months in patients with thyroid dysfunction, abnormal labs at any time without follow-up, or lab absence after thyroid medication initiation, adjustment, or discontinuation. Targeted 80 nonpregnant adult CHF patients with delinquent thyroid function tests were counseled to get thyroid labs at point of sale, via telephone, e-mail, or letter. In collaboration with physicians, pharmacists ordered thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free T4 (FT4) labs. For patients with abnormal laboratory results, pharmacists coordinated drug therapy and follow-up labs. Data were collected from November 1, 2009 to March 30, 2010. Seventy-two patients (90%) previously delinquent for thyroid function testing received relevant thyroid labs. Ten patients (12.5%) with abnormal thyroid function tests not on prior drug therapy received treatment.

  4. [The effect of arotinolol on the thyroid function and the autonomic nerve systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, N; Iitaka, M; Kitahama, S; Miura, S; Sakurai, S; Kawakami, Y; Ishii, J

    1993-01-20

    beta-blockers have been accepted as a reasonable adjunct therapy for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. They lessen the sympathetic symptoms such as tachycardia and finger tremor. On the other hand, many studies have demonstrated a decrease in 3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine (T3) during treatment with beta-blockers (especially propranolol). The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of arotinolol (alpha 1, beta-blocker) on the thyroid functions and autonomic nerve systems (ANS) of patients with Graves' disease. Arotinolol 20mg a day p.o. was given to untreated patients with Graves' disease (n = 16) for 2 weeks. Blood sampling and the ANS function-tests were done before and after the treatment. In addition, the in vitro effects of arotinolol on the cAMP production and the radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) using rat thyroid cell line FRTL5 were evaluated to examine the direct influence on thyroid cells. Arotinolol improved hyperthyroid symptoms including tachycardia, but had no effect on ANS function-tests. It is of interest that not only T3 but also T4 decreased after the arotinolol treatment. We therefore suspected the direct suppressive effects of arotinolol on the thyroid. There were, however, no in vitro inhibitory effects on the cAMP production and the RAIU in TSH-stimulated FRTL5 cells. The reason why serum T4 levels in patients with untreated Graves' disease have decreased after the treatment of arotinolol could not be clarified. In conclusion, arotinolol is a very useful drug for the initial therapy of patients with Graves' disease to reduce the serum thyroid hormone levels and symptoms of hyperthyroidism when combined with antithyroid drugs.

  5. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of thyroid function following total laryngectomy in laryngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motasaddi Zarandy M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is a well-documented complication after treatment of laryngeal cancer and is particularly significant among patients undergoing laryngectomy. We investigated the frequency of hypothyroidism in patients treated with total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer. We also evaluated the effect of neck radiotherapy on thyroid function after total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated 31 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (mean age 53.6 years. Among these patients, 14 were treated with surgery only and 17 were treated with surgery plus radiotherapy. Laboratory evaluation included levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T4, free T3, and antithyroid antibodies both preoperatively and postoperatively at the first day, as well as one and six months after surgery. Results: All patients had normal thyroid function before treatment; however, after 6 months, five patients (16.1% were hypothyroid. Of these, three patients (9.6% had subclinical symptoms, including elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal free T4, and two patients (6.5% showed clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism. Radiotherapy and neck dissection were significantly associated with higher incidences of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Our data suggest that hypothyroidism occurs in a substantial proportion of patients undergoing surgery for laryngeal cancer. The results indicate that thyroid function studies should be routinely performed in the follow-up care of laryngeal cancer patients, especially if radiotherapy and neck dissection were part of the treatment. We suggest that this approach will improve the patient's quality of life and diminish the co-morbidity associated with this kind of surgery.

  6. Statistical study on the thyroid disorders on Sudanese female undergoing in vitro investigations in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaba, O. S. A.

    2002-10-01

    In this study 711 Sudanese female have been analyzed for thyroid function. Thyroid related hormones were measured thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The study had been held during one complete year. The female subjects were referred to Sudan Atomic Energy Commission radioimmunoassay laboratory from different hospitals in Khartoum state. The age of females varied from less than one year up to 70 years. The age was divided into 10 years interval in order to study the dominants thyroid disorder in each interval. Statistical package for social science (SPSS) program was used in the study as data analysis tool, the clear observation from this study was the high incidence of disorders among the age between 20 up to 40 years. (Author)

  7. Comparative evaluation of 123I and /sup 99m/Tc for thyroid studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, H.L.; Ansari, A.N.; Bradley-Moore, P.R.; Lambrecht, R.; Wolf, A.

    1975-01-01

    Both /sup 99m/Tc and 123 I can be used to advantage in assessing thyroid function and anatomy. The nuclides have similar principal gamma photons, and their short physical half-lives result in low radiation dose, thus allowing administration of large quantities of activity. The very early uptakes of these radionuclides by the thyroid do not bear a consistent relationship, and that requires further study. The clinical value of 123 I depends ultimately on its consistent availability at reasonable cost

  8. Functional Analysis of Thyroid Peroxidase Gene Mutations Detected in Patients with Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanta Guria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid peroxidase (TPO is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. We aimed to identify the spectrum of mutations in the TPO gene leading to hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal to establish the genetic etiology of the disease. 200 hypothyroid patients (case and their corresponding sex and age matched 200 normal individuals (control were screened depending on their clinical manifestations. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and TPO gene (Exon 7 to Exon 14 was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were subjected to sequencing to identify mutations. Single nucleotide changes such as Glu 641 Lys, Asp 668 Asn, Thr 725 Pro, Asp 620 Asn, Ser 398 Thr, and Ala 373 Ser were found. Changes in the TPO were assayed in vitro to compare mutant and wild-type activities. Five mutants were enzymatically inactive in the guaiacol and iodide assays. This is a strong indication that the mutations are present at crucial positions of the TPO gene, resulting in inactivated TPO. The results of this study may help to develop a genetic screening protocol for goiter and hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal.

  9. The effect of chemoradiation therapy on pituitary-thyroid system function in children suffering Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, N.E.; Sachivko, N.V.; Zhavrid, Eh.A.

    1997-01-01

    The functional status of the thyroid gland was evaluated in 63 children with Hodgkin's disease, aged 4-15 years, before, in the course of and 5 years after chemoradiation therapy. Thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood were assayed. The disease was shown to disrupt the pituitary-thyroid system leading to hypothyroidism development which progressed as the disease advanced. While chemotherapy brought the balance between the peripheral thyroid hormone levels and TSH back to normal, thyroid function decrease again following radiotherapy of the neck. The most pronounced and persistent failure of the pituitary-thyroid system was registered with the total target dose of 30 Gy and higher. Irradiation in a dose of 20 Gy caused less disruption and the function was spontaneously restored within 12 months after the treatment

  10. [Features of the functioning of the thyroid gland in HIV-infected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, E V; Liashchenko, O Ia

    2013-01-01

    In the article analyzed the current literature, devoted to the peculiarities of functioning of the thyroid gland in patients with HIV infection. Based on the analysis of literature data bases demonstrated the structure of thyroid function disorders in HIV-infected, as well as the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these disorders. In the structure of thyroid function is dominated by hypothyroidism, euthyroid pathological syndrome, Graves' disease, for which the opportunistic infections are triggers immune activation. It should be noted that the step of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is accompanied by the development of inflammatory and neoplastic processes in the thyroid gland. Convincingly demonstrated the negative impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive for the development of thyroid dysfunction, in connection which the expediency of forming risk groups and the timely correction of the projected thyroid diseases.

  11. The effects of carbamazepine on thyroid functions in childhood epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of carbamazepinetherapy on thyroid function tests in childrenMethods: The carbamazepine group consisted of 58 childrenunder observation for epilepsy, and the control groupof 54 healthy children. Age of onset, length of drug use,drug dosage and laboratory parameters including free triiodothyronine(FT3, free thyroxin (FT4 and thyrotropin(TSH were recorded. These data were then comparedagainst those from the control group.Results: In the carbamazepine group, FT3 was 3.86 ±0.43 pg/mL, FT4 was 1.15 ± 0.18 mg/dL and TSH: 2.58 ±1.33 ml U/L. In the control group, FT3 was 4.13 ± 0.59 pg/mL, FT4 1.34 ± 0.13 mg/dL and TSH was 2.06 ± 0.89 mlU/L. No statistically significant difference between rates ofsubclinical hypothyroidism was determined between thetwo groups (p=0.196.Conclusion: Although, carbamazepine reduces thyroidhormone concentrations, rarely causes hypothyroidism.Key words: Child, carbamazepine, thyroid function tests

  12. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer: New studies based on an old idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    We have presented evidence that the functional thyroid follicles (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Recent studies have been designed to investigate: whether cell number-dependent inhibition of promotion-progression is mediated by remote hormonal feed-back, local cell-cell interactions, or both; the cell population kinetics of the clonogen subpopulation during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and the effect of prolonged exposure to high levels of TSH (thyrotropin) on the capacity of the clonogens to give rise to functional FU. The results indicate that local cell-cell interactions play an important role in the cell number-dependent suppression of neoplastic promotion-progression. They also show that if sufficient thyroid cells are grafted, the thyroid-pituitary axis can be reestablished in thyroidectomized rats fed normal diets. In such animals given iodine deficient diets, the FU that develop in the thyroid grafts shift their secretory pattern to increase the ratio of T3 (triiodothyronine) to T4 (thyroxine), and thus conserve the available iodine. Finally, the clonogenic subpopulation is conserved during both goitrogenesis and goiter involution. When they are transplanted to thyroidectomized recipients, clonogens from two types of goiters form FU that are morphologically indistinguishable from those that develop in grafts of normal thyroid clonogens. Furthermore, the secretion of T3 and T4 by such grafts is dependent on the grafted clonogen number, and hence FU formation, and not on the total number of thyroid cells transplanted. We conclude that the thyroid clonogens, the presumptive cancer progenitor cells, have many of the characteristics of stem cells

  13. Stereology of the thyroid gland in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus in comparison with human (Homo sapiens: quantitative and functional implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Chin Wing Kot

    Full Text Available The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels. The present study determined the colloid volume using simple stereological principle and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of 4 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and 2 human thyroid glands. In both dolphin and human thyroid glands, the size of the follicles tended to be quite variable. The distribution of large and small follicles within the thyroid gland was also found to be random in both the dolphin and human thyroid gland; however, the size of follicles appeared to decrease as a function of increasing age in the dolphin thyroid gland. The mean colloid volume of the dolphin thyroid gland and human thyroid gland was 1.22×10(5 µm(3 and 7.02×10(5 µm(3 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean colloid volume. The mean N/C ratio of the dolphin thyroid follicular epithelia and human follicular epithelia was 0.50 and 0.64 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean N/C ratio. This information contributes to understanding dolphin thyroid physiology and its structural adaptations to meet the physical demands of the aquatic environment, and aids with ultrasonography and corrective therapy in live subjects.

  14. Systemic evaluation of thyroid function in women and men according to the radioimmunoassay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, S.L.; Trusov, V.V.; Lajzan, L.K. (Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Rentgenologii i Radiologii, Moscow (USSR); Izhevskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR); Udmurtskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Izhevsk (USSR))

    1984-08-01

    A new variant of the integral quantitative systemic evaluation of thyroid function is presented. Its essence is as follows: the integral index of evaluation is based on the simultaneous registration of 3 thyroid indices TTH, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/. The proposed method makes it possible to unravel changes in thyroid function concealed by homeostasis in women depending on the menstruation phase and reflects in a summary form by means of one figure the entire activities of the hypophyseal-thyroid system.

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmuely, Haim; Shimon, Ilan; Gitter, Limor Azulay

    2016-07-01

    An association between Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection as environmental risk factors for Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) has been reported. We investigated this hypothesis in women in which HT is more common. Serum immunoglobulin G antibodies against H pylori (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), CagA protein (Western blot assay), circulating antibodies to thyroid antigens, mainly thyroperoxidase (TPOAbs) and thyroglobulin (TgAbs), were tested in 101 females with HT and 111 non-HT control women without a history of autoimmune disease. Thyroid function, socioeconomic status at childhood, and family history of thyroid malfunction were also studied. Forty-seven HT women (46.5%) tested seropositive for H pylori versus 48 controls (43.2%; P = 0.63). The prevalence of anti-CagA antibodies was 21.3% in HT-infected patients and 31.2% in infected controls (P = 0.352). Women with HT were older than the controls at a significance level of 0.03, and higher prevalence of hypothyroidism (69% vs 13.5%, respectively) and family history of thyroid malfunction (59% vs 34%, respectively) (P thyroid malfunction was independently associated with an increased risk of HT (odds ratio 3.39, 95% confidence interval 1.86-6.18, P thyroid malfunction is a risk factor for HT.

  16. Effects of 1-year growth hormone replacement therapy on thyroid volume and function of the children and adolescents with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Meliksah; Bayramoglu, Elvan; Aycan, Zehra

    2017-10-26

    There are different opinions about the effects of growth hormone replacement therapy (GHRT) on thyroid function and volume. This study aimed to assess the effects of GHRT on thyroid volume and function in the children and adolescents with growth hormone (GH) deficiency. A total of 29 patients diagnosed with GH deficiency were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 29 cases matched for age, gender and pubertal period with the patients. Thyroid function tests and insulin-like growth factor levels were measured, simultaneously thyroid volumes were assessed by ultrasonography at the initiation period and at the end of GHRT. Thyroid volumes of the patient group was -0.55±1.1 standard deviations (SDs) initially; whereas at the end of 1 year it was found to be -0.29±1.29 SDs and both SDs of thyroid volumes did not differ significantly. The SDs of thyroid volume of the control group was -0.85±1.03 SDs initially and -0.72±0.85 SDs at the end of 1 year; and they did not differ significantly. On the other hand, after GHRT of 1 year, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4) levels decreased. It was observed that SDs of thyroid gland volumes did not change in GH deficient children and adolescents after GHRT.

  17. Functional state of the pituitary-thyroid system in children with allergic dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Approximately 10 % of the pediatric population suffers from atopic dermatitis, and this disease is most common skin allergic pathology. The influence of thyroid hormones on the development of atopy is known. Study purpose was to evaluate the features of the functional status of the pituitary-thyroid system in children with allergic dermatosis. Materials and methods. 72 children aged from 7 to 18 years were divided into 4 groups: group I — patients who suffer from atopic dermatitis (n = 29, II — children with allergic contact dermatitis (n = 17, III group — patients with simple contact dermatitis (n = 16, IV group — healthy children (n = 10. The levels of thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, antibodies to thyroglobulin (TG were determined. Results. Erythema was found in 95.2 %, edema — in 43.5 %, exudation — in 37.1 %, excoriation — in 43.5 %, lichenification — in 56.4 % of the total group of patients. Dysfunctions of the pituitary-thyroid system, both at the central and peripheral level, were determined. The frequency of antibodies to TG detection in children of the first group was high and exceeded the average population values by 3.7 times (36.7 %, χ2 = 17.5, p < 0.05. The level of TG in all of observed patients was significantly higher than that of in the comparison group. The frequency of detection of antibo­dies to TG in the group of patients with the disease experience more than 10 years exceeded the average population values by 3.2 times (34.0 %, χ2 = 8.1, p < 0.05. Conclusions. Changes in the morpho-functional state of the pituitary-thyroid system, mainly of an autoimmune nature, are revealed in children with allergic dermatosis.

  18. Thyroid Function within the Reference Range and the Risk of Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaker, Layal; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P J

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The currently applied reference ranges for thyroid function are under debate. Despite evidence that thyroid function within the reference range is related with several cardiovascular disorders, its association with the risk of stroke has not been evaluated previously. DESIGN AND SETTING:...

  19. Do unliganded thyroid hormone receptors have physiological functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassande, O

    2003-08-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for the development of vertebrates and exerts numerous homeostatic functions in adults. TH acts through nuclear receptors which control the transcription of target genes. Unliganded and liganded thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) have been shown to exert opposite effects on the transcription of target genes in vitro. However, the occurance of an aporeceptor activity in vivo and its potential physiological significance has not been clearly addressed. Several data generated using experimental hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis in wild type and TR knockout mice support the notion that apoTRs have an intrinsic activity in several tIssues. ApoTRs, and in particular TRalpha1, are predominant during the early stages of vertebrate development and must be turned into holoTRs for post-natal development to proceed normally. However, the absence of striking alterations of embryonic and fetal development in mice devoid of TRs indicates that apoTRs do not play a fundamental role. During development, as well as in adults, apoTRs rather appears as a system which increases the range of transcriptional responses to moderate variations of T3.

  20. Assessment of the individual thyroid dose for the cohort members of the Belarusian-American epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minenko, Victor; Kuchta, Tatyana; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kutsen, Semion; Bouville, Andre; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Shinkarev, Sergey; Gavrilin, Yury; Khrouch, Valeri

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The U.S. National Cancer Institute and the Ministry of Health of Belarus conduct jointly an epidemiological study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in a cohort of 12,000 Belarusian subjects aged up to 18 years at the time of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. One of the important aspects of the study is the reconstruction of individual doses for all cohort members. Reconstruction of thyroid doses is based on the measurements of 131 I content in the thyroid glands of the subjects, which were performed in May-June 1986. In addition, the following information elicited by the personal interview is used to evaluate individual 131 I intake function for each cohort member: residential history; consumption rates of milk, dairy products and leafy vegetables and origin of consumed foodstuffs; and individual countermeasures undertaken shortly after the accident. The second round of thyroid doses estimation, which is currently conducted, includes Monte Carlo calculations of the age-dependent conversion coefficients from the measuring devices reading to the 131 I activity in the thyroid; estimation of the influence of surface contamination and internal body-burden on the exposure rate measured near the thyroid; and validation of parameters of the radioecological model used to assess the 131 I intake function. The revised thyroid dose estimates and their uncertainties will be presented, and the results obtained will be compared with the previous set of thyroid dose estimates. (author)

  1. Epidemiological studies of thyroid cancer in the CIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, G W [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Despite the great international interest in Chernobyl and the need for quantitative risk information on the carcinogenic effectiveness of the radio iodines, there has been relatively little epidemiological research on thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident. The reasons for this are many, diverse, and difficult to eliminate, although some progress is being made. Among them are the natural priority of public health concerns, a weak infrastructure for conducting studies in chronic disease epidemiology, and the difficulty of assigning thyroid dose estimates to individuals for study. In spite of the difficulties a number of significant studies have been begun or are planned, and several valuable reports have appeared. From the descriptive studies it is now known that the latent period for thyroid cancer in children exposed to radio iodines is not 5 to 10, but probably three years, that the magnitude of the increase in thyroid cancer among children is beyond anything previously experienced or expected, and that there is a strong correlation between thyroid cancer and environmental radiocesium contamination levels in the Gomel region of Belarus, and between thyroid cancer and average regional levels of I{sup 131} dose to the thyroid in Ukraine. However, even today, there is very little hard scientific information on the relation of thyroid cancer in children and their exposure to the radio iodines in the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This is information that only well-designed scientific epidemiological studies, based on firm dose estimates, could be expected to provide. With that purpose in mind, the US has planned with Belarus and Ukraine long-term cohort studies of many thousands of subjects with thyroid activity measurements.

  2. Epidemiological studies of thyroid cancer in the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the great international interest in Chernobyl and the need for quantitative risk information on the carcinogenic effectiveness of the radio iodines, there has been relatively little epidemiological research on thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident. The reasons for this are many, diverse, and difficult to eliminate, although some progress is being made. Among them are the natural priority of public health concerns, a weak infrastructure for conducting studies in chronic disease epidemiology, and the difficulty of assigning thyroid dose estimates to individuals for study. In spite of the difficulties a number of significant studies have been begun or are planned, and several valuable reports have appeared. From the descriptive studies it is now known that the latent period for thyroid cancer in children exposed to radio iodines is not 5 to 10, but probably three years, that the magnitude of the increase in thyroid cancer among children is beyond anything previously experienced or expected, and that there is a strong correlation between thyroid cancer and environmental radiocesium contamination levels in the Gomel region of Belarus, and between thyroid cancer and average regional levels of I 131 dose to the thyroid in Ukraine. However, even today, there is very little hard scientific information on the relation of thyroid cancer in children and their exposure to the radio iodines in the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This is information that only well-designed scientific epidemiological studies, based on firm dose estimates, could be expected to provide. With that purpose in mind, the US has planned with Belarus and Ukraine long-term cohort studies of many thousands of subjects with thyroid activity measurements

  3. Effect of chronic L-thyroxine-suppressive therapy on cardiac function in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: Radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, G.; Farouk, S.; Zidan, A.; Mustafa, S.; El-Reffaie, S.

    2005-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is usually treated by a combination of surgery, radioiodine (I-131) and suppressive doses of thyroid hormones [L-thyroxine (Eltroxine)]. It is well-known that thyroid hormone affects the function of cardiovascular system. However there is no study to objectively substantiate this phenomenon. The objective of this study was to assess the left ventricular function with the help of radionuclide ventriculography in patients of DTC. Various parameters of systolic function [ejection fraction (EF), peak ejection rate (PER) and time to peak ejection rate (TPER)], diastolic function [peak filling rate (PFR) and time to peak filling rate (TPFR)] and heart rate were determined. Ten healthy control subjects and 50 patients of DTC on suppressive doses of eltroxine following surgery and radio-iodine (I-131) therapy were evaluated. The patients were divided into 5 groups according to their clinical status and thyroid hormone profile. These groups were: euthyroid, sub-clinical hypothyroid, hypothyroid, sub-clinical hyperthyroid and hyperthyroid groups. The results of the study revealed that Eltroxine significantly affected left ventricular function. Although it did not affect the systolic function, the diastolic function was significantly impaired. Prolongation of TPER was noted in hypothyroid patients, while the same was significantly decreased in hyper- and sub-clinical hyper-thyroids patients. Such abnormalities in cardiac function would be responsible for serious morbidity and could affect the lives of patients' in several ways. Hence, early effective treatment of thyroid function is important in patients of DTC, which would improve their quality of life and avoid long-term serious or irreversible cardiovascular disorder. (author)

  4. The Evolution of Thyroid Function after Presenting with Hashimoto Thyroiditis Is Different between Initially Euthyroid Girls with and Those without Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasniewska, Malgorzata; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Corrias, Andrea; Mazzanti, Laura; Matarazzo, Patrizia; Corica, Domenico; Aversa, Tommaso; Messina, Maria Francesca; De Luca, Filippo; Valenzise, Mariella

    2016-01-01

    To prospectively investigate, during a 5-year follow-up, whether the prognosis of thyroid function with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is different in euthyroid girls with Turner syndrome (TS) than in euthyroid girls without TS. In 66 TS girls and 132 non-TS girls with euthyroid HT and similar thyroid functional test results at HT diagnosis, we followed up the evolution of thyroid status over time. At the end of follow-up, the TS girls exhibited higher TSH levels, lower fT4 levels, and lower prevalence rates of both euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism, but higher prevalence rates of both overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, irrespective of the karyotype. An association with TS is able to impair the long-term prognosis of thyroid function in girls with HT. Such an effect occurs irrespective of thyroid functional test results at HT diagnosis and is not necessarily linked with a specific karyotype. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ji Won; Yoo, Seung Min; Kwak, Seo Hyun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediately after the procedures, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later. The US and CT findings of the ablated tissue and complications were evaluated. Blood sampling was done at the pre-procedure time and 1 week later for evaluating the functional status of the thyroid gland. Laryngoscopy was done at the pre-procedure and post-procedure times, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later for the evaluation of any recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. The echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation appeared as poorly marginated and hyperechoic. On the US obtained 24 hours after radiofrequency ablation, the echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters after RFA were 9.4 ρ 0.5 mm in group I and 11.4 ρ 0.5 mm in group II. The pre-enhanced CT scan taken at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation showed ill defined hypodense areas in the ablated thyroid gland. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal portions of the thyroid gland was difficult on the contrast enhanced CT scan. Complications induced by radiofrequency ablation were one recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, two perforations of esophagus and five thickenings of the esophageal wall

  6. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Yoo, Seung Min [College of Medicine, Chungang University, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Seo Hyun [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediately after the procedures, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later. The US and CT findings of the ablated tissue and complications were evaluated. Blood sampling was done at the pre-procedure time and 1 week later for evaluating the functional status of the thyroid gland. Laryngoscopy was done at the pre-procedure and post-procedure times, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later for the evaluation of any recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. The echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation appeared as poorly marginated and hyperechoic. On the US obtained 24 hours after radiofrequency ablation, the echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters after RFA were 9.4 {rho} 0.5 mm in group I and 11.4 {rho} 0.5 mm in group II. The pre-enhanced CT scan taken at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation showed ill defined hypodense areas in the ablated thyroid gland. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal portions of the thyroid gland was difficult on the contrast enhanced CT scan. Complications induced by radiofrequency ablation were one recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, two perforations of esophagus and five thickenings of the esophageal

  7. The effects of Nigella sativa on thyroid function, serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) - 1, Nesfatin-1 and anthropometric features in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Dehghan, Parvin; Tajmiri, Siroos; Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari

    2016-11-16

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder and the most common cause of hypothyroidism. The use of Nigella sativa, a potent herbal medicine, continues to increase worldwide as an alternative treatment of several chronic diseases including hyperlipidemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of Nigella sativa on thyroid function, serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) - 1, Nesfatin-1 and anthropometric features in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Forty patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, aged between 22 and 50 years old, participated in the trial and were randomly allocated into two groups of intervention and control receiving powdered Nigella sativa or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Changes in anthropometric variables, dietary intakes, thyroid status, serum VEGF and Nesfatin-1 concentrations after 8 weeks were measured. Treatment with Nigella sativa significantly reduced body weight and body mass index (BMI). Serum concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies decreased while serum T3 concentrations increased in Nigella sativa-treated group after 8 weeks. There was a significant reduction in serum VEGF concentrations in intervention group. None of these changes had been observed in placebo treated group. In stepwise multiple regression model, changes in waist to hip ratio (WHR) and thyroid hormones were significant predictors of changes in serum VEGF and Nesgfatin-1 values in Nigella sativa treated group (P thyroid status and anthropometric variables in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Moreover, Nigella sativa significantly reduced serum VEGF concentrations in these patients. Considering observed health- promoting effect of this medicinal plant in ameliorating the disease severity, it can be regarded as a useful therapeutic approach in management of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Iranian registry of clinical trials

  8. Chapter 3. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Perez, R.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of a functional thyroid exploration study the physiopathology of the thyroid was reviewed on the basis of data supplied by the use of radioisotopes, especially radioiodine. It was pointed out in this respect that the functional activity of the thyroid is closely bound up with the iodine metabolism. The different stages of the iodine metabolism were therefore described in relation to the methods used for their exploration: study of iodine intake to the thyroid and uptake measurement; hormonogenesis and secretion of hormone iodine; transport and circulation of thyroid hormones; exploration of the hypothalamus-pituitary gland-thyroid axis. It was pointed out in addition that the morphological examination often complements the thyroid function exploration and is carried out whenever thyroid palpation reveals an anomaly. Data obtained by scintigraphy are given in this repect. Furthermore the remarkable capacity of hyperthyroid tissues to concentrate radioactive iodine may be used therapeutically to perform an endogenous irradiation of the thyroid. The treatment of both hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancers with radioactive iodine was studied [fr

  9. Thyroiditis: a Clinico-cytomorphological Study with a Reference to the Ethnic Groups of Northeast Regions of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Abhijit; Baruah, Ronica

    2015-12-01

    Definite clinico-cytological criterion is outlined for thyroid lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) makes it easier to segregate cases of thyroiditis (Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis/Hashimoto's thyroiditis-CLT/HT, and subacute thyroiditis-SAT) from other benign and malignant lesions of thyroid. The study was done for a period of 5½ years at a diagnostic centre in Guwahati. Patients underwent FNAC and smears were studied for cytomorphology. A correlation with clinical features and thyroid function, including antithyroid antibody estimation, was done, wherever possible. 792 thyroid lesions were encountered during the study, of which 213 (26.89 %) were cases of thyroiditis (70.43 % CLT/HT, 24.9 % SAT and 3.76 % having overlapping features of CLT/HT and SAT); 2 cases (0.9 %) of CLT showed suspicion of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), which was confirmed on histopathology. 24 cases (11.26 %) belonged to different ethnic tribal groups of Northeast India. CLT/HT presented predominantly with diffuse thyroid enlargement, but 12 cases (8 % of CLT/HT cases) had nodular enlargement. Patients presented with predominantly hypothyroidism; however occasional hyperthyroid cases were also seen. SAT showed signs of inflammation and presented with hyperthyroidism. Overlap cases of CLT/HT and SAT showed combined clinico-cytomorphological features of both lesions. 37.5 % cases with overlapping features belonged to tribal communities. A rise in incidence of thyroiditis, particularly CLT/HT, was seen. Overlap features of CLT/HT and SAT was noticed in significant percentage. No bias was noticed amongst any specific tribal community. FNAC, coupled with clinico-serological study, helps to diagnose thyroiditis at early stage.

  10. Thyroid Function Variations Within the Reference Range Do Not Affect Quality of Life, Mood, or Cognitive Function in Community-Dwelling Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Mary H; Kaimal, Rajani; Waring, Avantika; Fink, Howard A; Yaffe, Kristine; Hoffman, Andrew R; Orwoll, Eric; Bauer, Douglas

    2016-09-01

    Variations in thyroid function within the laboratory reference range have been associated with a number of clinical outcomes. However, quality of life, mood, and cognitive function have not been extensively studied, and it is not clear whether mild variations in thyroid function have major effects on these neurocognitive outcomes. Data were analyzed from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study, a cohort of community-dwelling men aged 65 years and older in the United States. A total of 539 participants who were not taking thyroid medications and had age-adjusted TSH levels within the reference range underwent detailed testing of quality of life, mood, and cognitive function at baseline. The same quality of life, mood, and cognitive outcomes were measured again in 193 of the men after a mean follow-up of 6 years. Outcomes were analyzed using thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels as continuous independent variables, adjusting for relevant covariates. At baseline, there were no associations between TSH or FT4 levels and measures of quality of life, mood, or cognition in the 539 euthyroid men. Baseline thyroid function did not predict changes in these outcomes over a mean of 6 years in the 193 men in the longitudinal analysis. Variations in thyroid function within the age-adjusted laboratory reference range are not associated with variations in quality of life, mood, or cognitive function in community-dwelling older men.

  11. Monitoring of recurrent and superior laryngeal nerve function using an Airwayscope™ during thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijichi, Kei; Sasano, Hiroshi; Harima, Megumi; Murakami, Shingo

    2017-10-01

    In thyroid surgery, intraoperative identification and preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and superior laryngeal nerve external branch (SLNEB) are crucial. Several reports have proposed that electromyography (EMG) monitoring is an acceptable adjunct for identification and preservation of the RLN. However, a limited number of hospitals have access to an EMG monitoring system. Therefore, the development of another viable monitoring method is required. The aim of the present study was to design a new RLN and SLNEB monitoring method combining an Airwayscope™ (AWS) and a facial nerve stimulator. The facial nerve-stimulating electrode stimulates the RLN or SLNEB, so that the movement of the vocal cord may be observed with an AWS. This monitoring method was performed on 10 patients with a thyroid tumor. In all the cases, RLN and SLNEB were identified and vocal cord function was preserved. All the patients exhibited normal vocal cord function following surgery. Thus, the new RLN and SLNEB monitoring method using an AWS and a facial nerve stimulator is useful in thyroid surgery, and this method may be used as a reliable and available alternative to EMG monitoring to ensure the normal function of the vocal cord.

  12. Associations between RET tagSNPs and their haplotypes and susceptibility, clinical severity, and thyroid function in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyun He

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether common genetic variants of the RET proto-oncogene contribute to disease susceptibility, clinical severity, and thyroid function in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC.A total of 300 DTC patients and 252 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Seven RET tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped using the KASPar platform.Subgroup analysis showed that concomitant thyroid benign diseases were less likely to occur in DTC subjects with the rs1799939 AG or AG plus AA genotypes (odds ratio (OR = 1.93 and 1.88, P = 0.009 and 0.011, respectively. A rare haplotype, CGGATAA, was associated statistically with a reduced risk of DTC (OR = 0.18, P = 0.001. Concerning the aggressive features of DTC, higher level of N stage was more likely to occur in subjects carrying the wild-type genotypes at rs1800860 site (for dominant model: OR = 0.48, P = 0.008. Another rare haplotype, CAAGCGT, conferred increased risk for the occurrence of distant metastasis (OR = 7.57, P = 0.009. Notably, higher thyroid stimulating hormone levels and lower parathyroid hormone levels were found in patients with rs2075912, rs2565200, and rs2742240 heterozygotes and rare homozygotes; similar results were observed between PTH levels and rs1800858.This study provided useful information on RET variants that should be subjected to further study.

  13. Study of thyroid tumors in atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Ichiro; Shichijo, Kazuko; Ito, Masahiro; Kishikawa, Masao; Mine, Mariko; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Ooya, Seiichi.

    1992-01-01

    Thyroid tumors, which were registered during 16 years from 1973 through 1988 in the Nagasaki tumor tissue registration committee, were examined with the purpose of searching for the relationship between thyroid tumors and A-bombing. One hundred and three A-bomb survivors having an A-bomb survivors 'handbook and 89 non-exposed persons born before August 9, 1945 in Nagasaki City were enrolled in the present study. The A-bomb survivors were divided into three groups: people exposed at >2,000 m from the hypocenter (n=20), those exposed at ≤2,000 m (n=68), and those entered the city early after A-bombing (n=15). Thyroid tumors examined were: thyroid carcinoma, nodular goiter, thyroid adenoma and malignant lymphoma. Crude incidence rate and relative risk of thyroid cancer were higher in all exposed groups, except for the ≤2,000 m group of males, than the non-exposed group. In particular, the >2,000 m group had significantly higher incidence of thyroid cancer, irrespective of sex. These findings confirmed the previous data for the higher incidence of thyroid cancer in A-bomb survivors exposed to higher doses of radiation. According to age, thyroid cancer was the most common in their sixth decade of life in the exposed group and in their fifth decade of life in the non-exposed group. Histologically, follicular carcinoma occupied higher incidence in the exposed group (19.2%) than the non-exposed group (8.7%). (N.K.)

  14. Thyroid function in sudanese patients with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A.Sh.; Mohamed, S.A.; Abdalla, B.A.; Suliman, S.M.; Abadi, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    This study deals with the determination of thyroid related hormones (T4,T3 and TSH) levels in sudanese patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and under haemodialysis to determine the best means of treatment. This is the first time in Sudan to investigate thyroid related hormones on patients with chronic renal failure and was done on 61 patients and 60 symptoms-free subjects as controls. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique is used for the determination of serum total T4 and T3,whereas, TSH was determination using immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). T-test calculation revealed that the mean concentrations of total T4 and T3 of the patients were much lower than that of the normal subjects (p 0.05).These results revealed that, serum total T4 levels tent to decline after long term treatment with haemodialysis. Serum total T3 level fluctuate in lower margin of the normal range in haemodialyzed patients. As serum total thyroxine (T4) tends to decline in haemodialyzed patients, the use of thyroxine replacement therapy is highly recommended. (Author)

  15. Circulating leptin and thyroid dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Belsing, Tina; Brabant, Georg; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    and triiodothyronine are involved in the starvation-induced decrease in thermogenesis. Both rodent and human studies of leptin have failed to show any consistent relationship between thyroid function and serum leptin concentrations. However, leptin might have an important role in thyroid pathophysiology due to thyroid...

  16. The Study on the Thyroglobulin in Thyroid Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk Keun; Lim, Soo Duk; Lee, Mun Ho

    1970-01-01

    In recent with development of immuno-electrophoresis, more accurate analysis of the serum protein became possible. However, there is few reports in the literature which investigated the changes of the immunoglobulin compared with electrophoretically fractioned serum thyroglobulin in the patients with various thyroid diseases. The purpose of this report is to investigate the changes of thyroglobulin in various thyroid diseases by the method of immuno-electrophoresis and to compare the results with serum protein fractionated by the method of agar-gel micro-electrophoresis. Sera from 9 patients with diffuse toxic goiter, 2 nodular nontoxic goiter, 2 thyroiditis, 3 hypothyroidism, 1 thyroid cancer, 7 cystic degeneration of the thyroid gland, and 10 normal subject were taken. All cases were confirmed by various laboratory thyroid function tests and thyroid needle biopsy. Immuno-electrophoretic analysis of the serum were performed by Scheidegger's modified micro-immuno-electrophoretic method. The antiserum was obtained from the Travenol Laboratories International, Hyland Products Division and was rabbit anti-human thyroglobulin. Microscope slide agar-gel electrophoresis for serum protein fractionation was performed at 4 .deg. C using veronal buffer, pH 8.6 and ionic strength 0.05, with 54 volts and 2.8 mA for 60 minutes. The fractionated slide was stained with 0.1% thiazine red. The results were as follows: 1) Increase of immune-globulin macroglobulin (IgM), alphaglobulin, and immune-globulin A (IgA) by 95.8%, 100%, 29.2% respectively was found in the serum from various thyroid diseases. 2) Thyroglobulin fraction was found to be increased in 50%, no change in 41.7%, and no line in 8.3% with all of the various goiter patients. On the other hand, 10 normal control group showed only 2 cases of increase, 5 cases of no change and 3 cases of no line.

  17. Changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods: A total of 216 cases of hyperthyroidism in our hospital from December 2015 to January 2015 were selected as the case group, 216 cases of healthy people selected the same period in our hospital physical examination center as the control group, detected thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes of all the studied subjects and compared with each other. Results: In this study, it was found that diastolic blood pressure, BMI, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, VLDL-C, TSH were all significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05, systolic blood pressure, LDL-C, GLU, T3, T4, FT3, FT4, HTG, TG-Ab, TPO-Ab in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. Right calcaneal speed of sound (SOS in case group was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05, BGP, PTH in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism can cause thyroid hormone levels abnormal, abnormal increase autoantibodies, decrease bone density, bone metabolism actively, easy to form osteoporosis, clinical treatment of hyperthyroidism in the same time, should actively prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis

  18. Serum Fetuin-A Levels and Thyroid Function inMiddle-aged and Elderly Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin Ru; Ding, Lin; Wang, Tian Ge; Xu, Min; Lu, Jie Li; Li, Mian; Zhao, Zhi Yun; Chen, Yu Hong; Bi, Yu Fang; Xu, Yi Ping; Xu, Yu

    2017-06-01

    Serum fetuin-A levels are reportedly elevated in hyperthyroidism. However, there are few relevant epidemiologic studies. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Songnan community, China in 2009 to investigate the association between serum fetuin-A concentrations and thyroid function. A total of 2,984 participants aged 40 years and older were analyzed. Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that serum fetuin-A concentra- tions were positively associated with log (free triiodothyronine) and were inversely associated with log (thyroid peroxidase antibody) after adjustment (both P < 0.05). Compared with the participants in the lowest tertile of free triiodo-thyronine and free thyroxine level, those in the highest tertile had higher fetuin-A concentrations. Additionally, high serum fetuin-A concentrations were related to high thyroid function (odds ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.61), after adjustment for conventional risk factors. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  19. Interaction between organophosphate pesticide exposure and PON1 activity on thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacasana, Marina; Lopez-Flores, Inmaculada; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Aguilar-Garduno, Clemente; Blanco-Munoz, Julia; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Gamboa, Ricardo; Gonzalez-Alzaga, Beatriz; Bassol, Susana; Cebrian, Mariano E.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides are widely used in agricultural purposes. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated the ability of these chemicals to alter the function of the thyroid gland in human. Moreover, the paraoxonase-1 enzyme (PON1) plays an important role in the toxicity of some organophosphate pesticides, with low PON1 activity being associated with higher pesticide sensitivity. This study evaluates the interaction between exposure to organophosphate compounds and PON1 enzyme activity on serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones in a population of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides. A longitudinal study was conducted on a population of floriculture workers from Mexico, during two periods of high and low-intensity levels of pesticide application. A structured questionnaire was completed by workers containing questions on sociodemographic characteristics and other variables of interest. Urine and blood samples were taken, and biomarkers of exposure (dialkylphosphates), susceptibility (PON1 polymorphisms and activity) and effect (thyroid hormone levels) were determined. Interaction between dialkylphosphates and PON1 polymorphisms or PON1 activity on hormone levels was evaluated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. A significant interaction was found between serum diazoxonase activity and total dialkylphosphates (ΣDAP) on TSH levels. Thus, when PON1 activity was increased we observed a decrease in the percentage of variation of TSH level for each increment in one logarithmic unit of the ΣDAP levels. This interaction was also observed with the PON1 192 RR genotype. These results suggest a stronger association between organophosphate pesticides and thyroid function in individuals with lower PON1 activity.

  20. Thyrocyte-specific Gq/G11 deficiency impairs thyroid function and prevents goiter development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, Jukka; Ahmed, Kashan; Wettschureck, Nina; Tunaru, Sorin; Wintermantel, Tim; Greiner, Erich; Schütz, Günther; Offermanns, Stefan

    2007-09-01

    The function of the adult thyroid is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which acts through a G protein-coupled receptor. Overactivation of the TSH receptor results in hyperthyroidism and goiter. The Gs-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclase-dependent cAMP formation has been regarded as the principal intracellular signaling mechanism mediating the action of TSH. Here we show that the Gq/G11-mediated signaling pathway plays an unexpected and essential role in the regulation of thyroid function. Mice lacking the alpha subunits of Gq and G11 specifically in thyroid epithelial cells showed severely reduced iodine organification and thyroid hormone secretion in response to TSH, and many developed hypothyroidism within months after birth. In addition, thyrocyte-specific Galphaq/Galpha11-deficient mice lacked the normal proliferative thyroid response to TSH or goitrogenic diet, indicating an essential role of this pathway in the adaptive growth of the thyroid gland. Our data suggest that Gq/G11 and their downstream effectors are promising targets to interfere with increased thyroid function and growth.

  1. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-07-14

    Jul 14, 2016 ... Moreover, HUWE1 was found to be down-regulated in human thyroid cancer tissues ... Methods. 2.1 Cell culture and treatment. Human thyroid cancer cell lines (WRO, FTC133, .... water and the quality of RNA was evaluated by gel electro- ... and the preparations stored at ‑80°C for subsequent analysis.

  2. Effects of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid autoimmunity on female sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppo, A; Franceschi, E; Atzeni, F; Taberlet, A; Mariotti, S

    2011-06-01

    Thyroid hormones affect male and female sexual functions, but data in hypo- and hyperthyroid women are scanty. To investigate sexual function in hypo- and hyperthyroid women before and immediately after restoration of euthyroidism and in women with euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Fifty-six women with thyroid diseases (age 19-50 yr; 22 with hyperthyroidism, 17 with hypothyroidism, and 17 with euthyroid HT) and 30 age-matched healthy women. Hypoactive sexual desire, disorders of sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and sexual pain (SPD) were assessed by Female Sexual Function Index. Serum TSH, free T4 (FT4) and thyroid autoantibodies (anti-thyroglobulin, anti-thyroperoxidase, and TSH-receptor antibodies) were assessed at the diagnosis; FT4 and TSH were repeated after treatment to confirm normalization of thyroid function. All sexual domains scores were significantly reduced (p ranging hyperthyroid women. Correction of hypothyroidism was associated to normalization of desire, satisfaction, and pain, while arousal and orgasm remained unchanged. In hyperthyroid women therapy normalized sexual desire, arousal/lubrication, satisfaction, and pain, while orgasm remained significantly impaired. Interestingly, euthyroid HT women displayed a significant decrease in sexual desire (phyperthyroidism markedly impair female sexual function. A rapid improvement is observed with the restoration of euthyroidism, although a longer period of time may be needed for full normalization. Preliminary data suggest that thyroid autoimmunity may selectively impair sexual desire, independently from thyroid function.

  3. Co-Existence of Thyroid Nodule and Thyroid Cancer in Children and Adolescents with Hashimoto Thyroiditis: A Single-Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Meliksah; Savas-Erdeve, Senay; Aycan, Zehra

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is an inadequate number of studies on nodule and malignancy development in children and adolescents with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Patients who were diagnosed with HT between 2004 and 2013 were included in the study. The HT diagnosis was made with a heterogeneous appearance on thyroid ultrasonography and the elevation of antithyroid peroxidase and/or anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was performed in cases with a nodule size >1 cm or who had ultrasonography findings indicating malignancy. A total of 39 (13%) thyroid nodules were detected in 300 patients with a diagnosis of HT. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was diagnosed in 2 of the 12 cases in whom FNAB was performed. The thyroid nodule was detected at the same time as HT in the 2 cases with malignancy. The PTC diagnosis was made 2 years after the HT diagnosis in the first case and 3 years later in the second case. The largest diameter of the thyroid nodule was 5 mm in both cases. The thyroid nodule rate on an HT background was found to be 13%, and the thyroid malignancy rate was 0.67% in our study. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Thyroid function appears to be significantly reduced in Space-borne MDS mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco; Curcio, Francesco; Fontanini, Elisabetta; Perrella, Giuseppina; Spelat, Renza; Zambito, Anna Maria; Damaskopoulou, Eleni; Peverini, Manola; Albi, Elisabetta

    It is known that prolonged space flights induced changes in human cardiovascular, muscu-loskeletal and nervous systems whose function is regulated by the thyroid gland but, until now, no data were reported about thyroid damage during space missions. We have demonstrated in vitro that, during space missions (Italian Soyuz Mission "ENEIDE" in 2005, Shuttle STS-120 "ESPERIA" in 2007), thyroid in vitro cultured cells did not respond to thyroid stimulating hor-mone (TSH) treatment; they appeared healthy and alive, despite their being in a pro-apopotic state characterised by a variation of sphingomyelin metabolism and consequent increase in ce-ramide content. The insensitivity to TSH was largely due to a rearrangement of specific cell membrane microdomains, acting as platforms for TSH-receptor (TEXUS-44 mission in 2008). To study if these effects were present also in vivo, as part of the Mouse Drawer System (MDS) Tissue Sharing Program, we performed experiments in mice maintained onboard the Interna-tional Space Station during the long-duration (90 days) exploration mission STS-129. After return to earth, the thyroids isolated from the 3 animals were in part immediately frozen to study the morphological modification in space and in part immediately used to study the effect of TSH treatment. For this purpose small fragments of tissue were treated with 10-7 or 10-8 M TSH for 1 hour by using untreated fragments as controls. Then the fragments were fixed with absolute ethanol for 10 min at room temperature and centrifuged for 20 min. at 3000 x g. The supernatants were used for cAMP analysis whereas the pellet were used for protein amount determination and for immunoblotting analysis of TSH-receptor, sphingomyelinase and sphingomyelin-synthase. The results showed a modification of the thyroid structure and also the values of cAMP production after treatment with 10-7 M TSH for 1 hour were significantly lower than those obtained in Earth's gravity. The treatment with TSH

  5. Effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the thyroid gland structure and function of ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgendy Mohamed S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen therapy is widely used nowadays in women to treat many postmenopausal symptoms but it may have some undesirable effects due to multiple organs affection. So, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in ovarictomized rats as a model simulating menopause. Findings Thirty adult female Wistar rats divided into three groups were used in this study; the first group was sham-operated, while the second and third groups were ovariectomized. The first and second groups were injected with olive oil while the third group was injected with estradiol dipropionate daily for three months, after that; hormonal assay for T3, T4, TSH and specimens of the thyroid were taken and processed to be examined by light and electron microscopy. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of T3 and T4 decreased in ovariectomized animals and significantly increased after estradiol treatment, while TSH increased in ovariectomized animals and decreased with estradiol treatment. Histological and morphometric study in ovariectomized group revealed marked accumulation of colloid in follicular lumens with decreased epithelial height in addition to increased connective tissue amount. After estradiol treatment the follicles became smaller in size, having small amount of colloid with increased epithelial height in addition to decreased connective tissue content. Ultrastructural study supported these results in addition to the presence of large amount of intracytoplasmic colloid vesicles after estradiol treatment. Conclusion Low estrogen level may lead to mild thyroidal hypofunction while estradiol treatment may lead to hyperactivity so it should be used very cautiously in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms to avoid its undesirable stimulatory effect on the thyroid.

  6. Use of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone for evaluation of thyroid function in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jörg; Wagner, Robert; Mitchell, Mark A; Fecteau, Kellie

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of administration of recombinant human (rh) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) for evaluation of thyroid function in euthyroid guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Prospective, experimental study. 10 healthy, sexually intact, pet guinea pigs (approx 1 year of age). Guinea pigs were given rhTSH (100 μg, IM); plasma thyroxine concentrations were determined prior to and 3 and 4 hours after rhTSH injection. The animals were housed in 2 groups on the basis of sex and fed different commercial maintenance diets according to their husbandry. There was no significant difference in thyroxine concentrations between males and females before or after rhTSH injection. There was also no difference between thyroxine concentrations at 3 versus 4 hours after rhTSH injection. There was a significant difference between thyroxine concentrations before (median, 9.05 nmol/L [0.70 μg/dL]; 10% to 90% range, 7.39 to 16.99 nmol/L [0.57 to 1.32 μg/dL]) and after (mean ± SD, 23.95 ± 4.2 nmol/L) rhTSH injection. Euthyroid guinea pigs had plasma thyroxine concentrations of at least 7.30 nmol/L (0.57 μg/dL) and an increase of at least 2.6 times prestimulation thyroxine concentrations at 3 or 4 hours after stimulation. The results suggested that rhTSH administered IM can be used for the TSH stimulation testing in guinea pigs. We suggest thyroxine concentration in a euthyroid guinea pig should at least double 3 to 4 hours after rhTSH injection.

  7. Patients With Antithyroid Antibodies Are Prone To Develop Destructive Thyroiditis by Nivolumab: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Iwama, Shintaro; Yasuda, Yoshinori; Okada, Norio; Tsunekawa, Taku; Onoue, Takeshi; Takagi, Hiroshi; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Ito, Yoshihiro; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Goto, Motomitsu; Suga, Hidetaka; Banno, Ryoichi; Yokota, Kenji; Hase, Tetsunari; Morise, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Ando, Masahiko; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Gotoh, Momokazu; Ando, Yuichi; Akiyama, Masashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Arima, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibodies, have become promising treatments for a variety of advanced malignancies. However, these medicines can cause immune-related adverse events (irAEs), including endocrinopathies. This study examined the incidence of endocrine irAEs induced by nivolumab. Sixty-six patients treated with nivolumab at Nagoya University Hospital were prospectively evaluated for pituitary hormones, thyroid function, antithyroid antibodies (Abs), and glucose levels every 6 weeks after the initiation of nivolumab for 24 weeks. Four out of 66 patients developed destructive thyroiditis, and three patients developed hypothyroidism requiring levothyroxine replacement. The prevalence of positive anti-thyroglobulin Abs (TgAbs) and/or anti-thyroid peroxidase Abs (TPOAbs) at baseline was significantly higher in the group that developed destructive thyroiditis (3/4) compared with the group that did not develop thyroiditis (3/62; P = 0.002). There were no significant differences in other clinical variables between the groups. There were no endocrine irAEs other than destructive thyroiditis during the 24 weeks. The prevalence of TgAbs and/or TPOAbs at baseline was not associated with the development of other irAEs, including pneumonitis, colitis, or skin reactions. Our real-world data showed that destructive thyroiditis was an endocrine irAE that was frequently induced by nivolumab and was significantly associated with positive TgAbs and/or TPOAbs before treatment. Our findings indicate that evaluating these Abs before treatment may help identify patients with a high risk of thyroidal irAEs and may have important clinical benefit.

  8. Patients With Antithyroid Antibodies Are Prone To Develop Destructive Thyroiditis by Nivolumab: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Iwama, Shintaro; Yasuda, Yoshinori; Okada, Norio; Tsunekawa, Taku; Onoue, Takeshi; Takagi, Hiroshi; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Ito, Yoshihiro; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Goto, Motomitsu; Suga, Hidetaka; Banno, Ryoichi; Yokota, Kenji; Hase, Tetsunari; Morise, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Ando, Masahiko; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Gotoh, Momokazu; Ando, Yuichi; Akiyama, Masashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Arima, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Context Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti–programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibodies, have become promising treatments for a variety of advanced malignancies. However, these medicines can cause immune-related adverse events (irAEs), including endocrinopathies. Objective This study examined the incidence of endocrine irAEs induced by nivolumab. Patients and Main Outcome Measured Sixty-six patients treated with nivolumab at Nagoya University Hospital were prospectively evaluated for pituitary hormones, thyroid function, antithyroid antibodies (Abs), and glucose levels every 6 weeks after the initiation of nivolumab for 24 weeks. Results Four out of 66 patients developed destructive thyroiditis, and three patients developed hypothyroidism requiring levothyroxine replacement. The prevalence of positive anti-thyroglobulin Abs (TgAbs) and/or anti–thyroid peroxidase Abs (TPOAbs) at baseline was significantly higher in the group that developed destructive thyroiditis (3/4) compared with the group that did not develop thyroiditis (3/62; P = 0.002). There were no significant differences in other clinical variables between the groups. There were no endocrine irAEs other than destructive thyroiditis during the 24 weeks. The prevalence of TgAbs and/or TPOAbs at baseline was not associated with the development of other irAEs, including pneumonitis, colitis, or skin reactions. Conclusions Our real-world data showed that destructive thyroiditis was an endocrine irAE that was frequently induced by nivolumab and was significantly associated with positive TgAbs and/or TPOAbs before treatment. Our findings indicate that evaluating these Abs before treatment may help identify patients with a high risk of thyroidal irAEs and may have important clinical benefit. PMID:29600292

  9. Prevalence of normal TSH value among patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglia, Giorgio; Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Verburg, Frederik A; Luster, Markus; Giovanella, Luca

    2015-07-01

    International guidelines significantly diverge on the effectiveness of thyroid scintigraphy (TS) in the initial work-up of thyroid nodules. In particular, the role of TS to detect or exclude the presence of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN) in patients with normal serum thyrotropin (TSH) is still a matter to debate. Here, we aimed to review the literature on the prevalence of normal TSH value among patients with AFTN and meta-analyse data of the retrieved eligible papers. A comprehensive literature search of studies published from January 2000 to December 2014 on AFTN detected by TS was performed. Records reporting serum TSH values in AFTN were selected. Pooled prevalence of AFTN with normal TSH values was calculated on a per-patient analysis including 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Eight records including 2761 AFTN were selected for the meta-analysis. Pooled prevalence of AFTN with normal TSH detected by TS was 50% (95% CI: 32-68%). Selection bias in the included studies and heterogeneity among studies were potential limitations of the meta-analysis. Present meta-analysis shows that about one in two patients with AFTN demonstrated by TS has a TSH value within normal references. As a consequence, TSH measurement may not be considered as effective as a single tool to detect or exclude AFTN, and TS remains mandatory. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  10. Few items in the thyroid-related quality of life instrument ThyPRO exhibited differential item functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Grønvold, Mogens; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the extent of differential item functioning (DIF) within the thyroid-specific quality of life patient-reported outcome measure, ThyPRO, according to sex, age, education and thyroid diagnosis.......To evaluate the extent of differential item functioning (DIF) within the thyroid-specific quality of life patient-reported outcome measure, ThyPRO, according to sex, age, education and thyroid diagnosis....

  11. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Raldúa, Demetrio, E-mail: drpqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Maladies Rares: Génétique et Métabolisme (MRGM), University of Bordeaux, EA 4576, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-06-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO{sub 4} (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC{sub 10} that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of

  12. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2013-01-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO 4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC 10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of

  13. Absence of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in foot-and-mouth disease-affected Indian cattle (Bos indicus) is associated with intact thyroid gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddur, M S; Rao, S; Chockalingam, A K; Kishore, S; Gopalakrishna, S; Singh, N; Suryanarayana, V V S; Gajendragad, M R

    2011-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease with high morbidity and reduced productivity of affected animals. We studied the heat intolerance (HI) (panting) syndrome and the effect of FMD virus (FMDV) infection on thyroid gland function in Indian cattle (Bos indicus). Experimental infection with FMDV Asia 1 resulted in a mild form of disease with superficial lesions. Heat intolerance syndrome and its signs were not observed among the recovered animals. Subtle changes in the serum level of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄) were observed. However, there were no distinct histological changes in the thyroid gland, and FMDV antigens were not detected in the thyroid tissues. Our results thus suggest that the absence of panting syndrome in FMD-affected Bos indicus cattle may be associated with intact thyroid gland function.

  14. Pathophysiology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.; Nadkarni, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The main physiological function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroid hormones. The primary physiological control over iodine transport, organification and hormone synthesis appears to be through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Regulation of tumor cells, biochemical studies in experimental tumors, role of oxygen free radical and antioxidants, role of proteases in metastasis, influence of growth factors and influence of sex hormones and receptors are discussed

  15. Increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma: from euthyroidism to thyrotoxicosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solter, M

    2012-01-31

    AIM: The aim was to investigate whether the intrathyroid conversion of T4 to T3 in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma (AFTA) tissue could influence serum T3 levels and suppression of TSH, especially in patients with borderline thyroid function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In ten patients with AFTA, thyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 was investigated in nodular and paranodular, TSH-suppressed tissue. All patients had normal serum T4 and suppressed TSH. Serum T3 was normal in six, and borderline or slightly increased in four. AFTA and paranodular tissues were surgically removed and frozen at -70 degrees C, then homogenized in a glass homogenizer, centrifuged at 100,000xg, and particulate fraction collected as a pellet. Analysis mixture consisted of thyroid enzyme suspension in 50 mumol\\/L TRIS buffer with 5 mumol DTT and 200 muL 1.3 mumol T4. Incubation was performed at 37 degrees C and the generation of T3 measured after 5, 10, 20 and 40 minutes respectively. RESULTS: T3 production (pmol\\/mg protein) was significantly higher in AFTA than in paranodular tissues (8.8 1.2\\/Mean +\\/- SE\\/vs. 1.8 +\\/- 0.2; p<0.01), and excessively high (9.8, 14.1, 14.2 and 15.0) in four patients with borderline or slightly supranormal serum T3. A significant correlation was found between serum T3 concentrations and T3 generation (T4 conversion) in AFTA tissues. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in AFTA tissue could be involved in an increased delivery of T3, increased serum T3 and suppressed serum TSH, particularly in patients with the disease evolving from euthyroid to an early hyperthyroid phase.

  16. Marked improvement of thyroid function and autoimmunity by Aloe barbadensis miller juice in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Metro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Some natural compounds decrease serum levels of thyroid autoantibodies, but results are inconsistent and thyroid function has been evaluated infrequently; moreover, the effects of Aloe on thyroid autoimmunity and function have been examined in very few studies. This study stems from the observation of one co-author, who has Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT-related subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH. Upon checking her biochemical thyroid panel when taking daily Aloe barbardensis Miller juice (ABMJ for thyroid-unrelated reasons, she noticed a decrease in serum thyroperoxidase autoantibodies (TPOAb and thyrotropin (TSH and an increase in serum free thyroxine (FT4. Based on this observation, we enrolled 30 consecutive HT women with levothyroxine-untreated SCH and high TPOAb levels. All of them took ABMJ (50 ml daily for nine months and were tested for serum TSH, FT4, free triiodothyronine (FT3 and TPOAb. Measurements were performed at baseline and at months 3 and 9. TSH, FT4 and TPOAb improved significantly already at month 3 and further (−61%, +23% and −56% at month 9. However, FT3 decreased significantly at month 3 (−16% with no further decrease at month 9, so that the FT4:FT3 ratio increased significantly (+33% and + 49%. At baseline, 100% of women had TSH > 4.0 mU/L and TPOAb > 400 U/ml, but frequencies fell to 0% and 37%, respectively, at month 9. In contrast, a control group (namely, 15 untreated SCH women of comparable age and baseline levels of TSH, FT4, FT3 and TPOAb had no significant changes in any index. We conclude that the daily intake of 100 ml ABMJ for 9 months in women with HT-related SCH decreases the burden of thyroid autoimmune inflammation. In addition, ABMJ rescues thyrocyte function, with decreased need for conversion of the prohormone T4 into the more active T3 through ABMJ-induced inhibition of T4 deiodination. Keywords: Aloe vera, Subclinical hypothyroidism, Thyroid autoimmunity, Thyroid function

  17. Dietary nitrate and nitrite and the risk of thyroid cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilfoy, Briseis A; Zhang, Yawei; Park, Yikyung; Holford, Theodore R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Hollenbeck, Albert; Ward, Mary H

    2011-07-01

    During the past several decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed worldwide. Nitrate inhibits iodide uptake by the thyroid, potentially disrupting thyroid function. An increased risk of thyroid cancer associated with nitrate intake was recently reported in a cohort study of older women in Iowa. We evaluated dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and thyroid cancer risk overall and for subtypes in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons (NIH-AARP) Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort of 490,194 men and women, ages 50-71 years in 1995-1996. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire. During an average of 7 years of follow-up we identified 370 incident thyroid cancer cases (170 men, 200 women) with complete dietary information. Among men, increasing nitrate intake was positively associated with thyroid cancer risk (relative risk [RR] for the highest quintile versus lowest quintile RR = 2.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29-4.041; p-trend cancer for either men or women. We evaluated risk for the two main types of thyroid cancer. We found positive associations for nitrate intake and both papillary (RR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.09-4.05; p-trend = 0.05) and follicular thyroid cancer (RR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.03-11.4; p-trend = 0.01) among men. Nitrite intake was associated with increased risk of follicular thyroid cancer (RR = 2.74; 95%CI: 0.86-8.77; p-trend = 0.04) among men. Our results support a role of nitrate in thyroid cancer risk and suggest that further studies to investigate these exposures are warranted. Published 2010 UICC.

  18. The effects of thyroid hormones on brown adipose tissue in humans: a PET-CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiongyue; Miao, Qing; Ye, Hongying; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Zuo, Chuantao; Hua, Fengchun; Guan, Yihui; Li, Yiming

    2014-09-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for energy expenditure through thermogenesis, although its regulatory factors are not well known in humans. There is evidence suggesting that thyroid hormones affect BAT functions in some mammals, but the effects of thyroid hormones on BAT activity in humans are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of thyroid hormones on glucose metabolism of BAT and other organs in humans. Nine Graves' disease-caused hyperthyroid patients who were newly diagnosed and untreated were studied. Putative brown adipose tissue activity was determined by the integrated ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (¹⁸F-FDG) positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT). All hyperthyroid patients were treated with methimazole and had been monitored until their symptoms disappeared and thyroid hormone levels returned to normal. At the end, a second PET-CT scan was performed. The average follow-up period was 77 days. Meanwhile, compared with a group of seventy-five brown adipose tissue-negative controls, thyroid hormones of seventy-five BAT-positive healthy subjects were measured. Active brown adipose tissue was not present in any of the hyperthyroid patients. However, one patient with normalized thyroid function showed active BAT after therapy. The free T3 levels and free T4 levels were significantly lower in the 75 BAT-positive subjects than in the BAT-negative subjects. All hyperthyroid patients showed symmetrically increased uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose in skeletal muscles before treatment, whereas, the standardized uptake value was substantially decreased after treatment. Abnormally high circulating thyroid hormone levels may not increase brown adipose tissue activity, which may be limited by the increased obligatory thermogenesis of muscle in adult humans. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Maternal Thyroid Function in Early Pregnancy and Neuropsychological Performance of the Child at 5 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Andersen, Stig; Liew, Zeyan; Vestergaard, Peter; Olsen, Jørn

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal maternal thyroid function in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine and corroborate the hypothesis. To estimate the association between maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy and neuropsychological performance of the child at 5 years of age. Follow-up study. A cohort of 1153 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) were measured in stored biobank sera from early pregnancy. Child neuropsychological test results (Wechsler Intelligence Scale/Test of Everyday Attention), test of motor function (Movement Assessment Battery), and results of parent and teacher reports (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function/Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Altogether 145 children (12.6%) were born to mothers with abnormal thyroid function in the early pregnancy. High maternal TSH and low fT4 were associated with lower child verbal intelligence quotient (adjusted mean difference TSH ≥ 10 mIU/L vs 0.1 to 2.49 mIU/L, -8.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), -15 to -2.4]; fT4 function was also associated with adverse motor function and teacher-reported problems of executive function and behavior, and these associations were dominated by exposure to maternal hypothyroxinemia. Maternal thyroid hormone abnormalities were associated with adverse neuropsychological function of the child at 5 years of age. For intelligence, marked hypothyroidism was important, whereas for motor function and executive and behavior problems, maternal hypothyroxinemia was predominant. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  20. A Systematic Review on Normative Values of Trimester-specific Thyroid Function Tests in Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Subramanian; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Sigamani, Alben

    2018-01-01

    Small cross-sectional studies are published on the trimester-specific normal ranges of thyrotropin and thyroxine levels in Indian women from various parts of the country. We sought to review the published literature on thyroid function tests in normal pregnant Indian women to see if the pooled data from various studies can define normative data and hypothyroidism in pregnancy. We retrieved 56 studies from online databases with detailed search using multiple search terms. Unanimously eight studies were finalized. Data of 2703 pregnant women (age 16-45 years; 966 were in the first trimester, 1072 in their second trimester, and 1037 women in their third trimester) were analyzed. All eight studies included singleton pregnancies from the northern and eastern part of India with seven studies being cross-sectional in nature. The exclusion criteria in all studies included those with historical/clinical evidence of thyroid dysfunction, those with family history of thyroid dysfunction, infertility and those with history of recurrent miscarriages (usually >3). Ultrasound evidence of thyroid disease, urinary iodine assessment, and thyroid antibodies were included as additional exclusion criteria in two, three, and four studies, respectively. None of the studies included the outcome of pregnancy as part of follow-up. As part of the pooled data analysis, the 5 th -95 th centile values of normal TSH extended from 0.09 to 6.65 IU/mL in the first trimester, 0.39-6.61 IU/mL in the second trimester, and 0.70-5.18 IU/mL in the third trimester. The FT4 levels (5 th -95 th centile values) extended from 8.24 to 25.74 pmol/L in the first trimester, 6.82-26.0 pmol/L, and 5.18-25.61 pmol/L in the third trimester. With due limitations imposed by the quality of the available studies, the current review suggests that upper normal limit of TSH values can extend up to 5-6 IU/mL in pregnancy.

  1. Modular Measuring System for Assesment of the Thyroid Gland Functional State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rosik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed modular system BioLab for biophysical examinations enabling assessment of the thyroid gland functional state is presented in the paper. The BioLab system is based on a standard notebook or desktop PC connected to an Ethernet-based network of two smart sensors. These sensors are programmed and controlled from PC and enable measurement of selected biosignals of the human cardiovascular and neuromuscular system that are influenced by the production of thyroid gland hormones. Recorded biosignals are processed in a PC and peripheral indicators characterizing thyroid gland functional state are evaluated.

  2. Effect of ultrasound-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation on benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules - a randomised study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) on thyroid function, nodule size and patient satisfaction in benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules by comparing one ILP session with no treatment in a prospective randomised study. MATERIALS...... and thyroid function was determined by routine assays before and during follow-up. Pressure and cosmetic complaints before and at 6 months were evaluated on a visual analogue scale. ILP was performed under US guidance and with an output power of 2.5-3.5 W. RESULTS: In the ILP group, the nodule volume...

  3. Thyroid Function during Early Life and Dental Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vucic, S.; Korevaar, T.I.; Dhamo, B.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Peeters, R.P.; Wolvius, E.B.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Children with low levels of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism) have delayed tooth eruption, enamel hypoplasia, micrognathia, and anterior open bite, whereas children with hyperthyroidism may suffer from accelerated tooth eruption, maxillary, and mandibular osteoporosis. However, it is still unknown

  4. Thyroid Function Test in Thyroid Diseases and Pregnancy - The diagnostic value of free thyroxine by RIA -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, M. H.; Yoon, H. J.; Shin, Y. T.; Lee, J. C.; Chung, S. I.; Cho, B. Y.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the measurement of free thyroxine(FT4) by radioimmunoassay, we measured free T 4 and T 4 , T 3 , T 3 RU, TSH and TBG serum levels by radioimmunoassay in 18 healthy persons and 52 patients with various thyroid diseases and 11 normal pregnant women. The results are as follows. 1) In 19 cases of overt hyperthyroidism, T 3 , free T 4 and FTI, T 4 /TBG ratio reflect hyperfunction in all cases. T 4 is increased in 94%(18/19) and TBG and TSH are decreased in 79%(15/19). 2) In 8 patients with overt hypothyroidism, TSH is increased in all cases and free T 4 and FTI is decreased in all cases. T 4 is decreased in 87.5%(7/8), T 3 is decreased in 75%(6/8) and T 4 /TBG ratio is decreased in 62.5%(5/8). 3) In 5 patients who are clinically in euthyroid state after treatment of hyperthyroidism, T , 4 free T 4 , FTI and TSH are in the normal range in all cases and T 3 is normal in 60%(3/5) and slightly increased in 40%(2/5). 4) In 10 patients who showed clinically borderline hypothyroidism after treatment of hyperthyroidism, TSH is increased in all cases and free T 4 and FTI are decreased in all cases, but T 4 and T 3 , T 4 /TBG ratio are in the normal limit in all cases. So after treatment of hyperthyroidism, TSH, free T 4 or FTI are recommended as optimal function test. 5) In normal pregnancy, free T 4 , FTI and T 4 /TBG ratio reflect normal function, but the other parameters unreliable due to the influence of increased TBG. Also TBG and TSH level in pregnancy is increased significantly compared with normal healthy control group. 6) The coefficients of correlation between T 4 and FTI were 0.862(p 4 and T 4 /TBG ratio. In most patients, diagnostic value of free T 4 was comparable and even superior to FTI, so free T 4 measurement can be used routinely with thyrotropin assay in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism or with T 3 for the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism.

  5. Urinary metabolomics reveals glycemic and coffee associated signatures of thyroid function in two population-based cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Nele; Pietzner, Maik; Cannet, Claire

    2017-01-01

    . In addition, the predictive character of these metabolites might argue for a potential feedback of the metabolic state on thyroid function. Besides known metabolic consequences of TH, the link to the urine excretion of trigonelline, a marker of coffee consumption, represents a novel finding of this study...... and given the ubiquitous consumption of coffee requires further research....

  6. Sex- and age-dependent effects of thyroid hormone on glial morphology and function

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Mami; Mori, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yusaku

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for the development and function of the central nervous system (CNS), not only for neuronal cells but also for glial development and differentiation. In adult CNS, both hypo- and hyper-thyroidism may affect psychological condition and potentially increase the risk of cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We have reported non-genomic effects of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on microglial functions and its signaling in vitro...

  7. Radioiodine-treatment (RIT) of functional thyroidal autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, J.; Sahlmann, C.O.; Becker, W.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1942, therapy with radioiodine (RIT) has gained a major role in the treatment of benign thyroid disorders, notably hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease or toxic multinodular goitre (thyroid autonomy). In iodine deficient areas thyroid autonomy accounts for 40-50% of all cases with hyperthyroidism. RIT has become a cost-effective first-line procedure in autonomy-patients with latent or overt hyperthyroidism, especially in the absence of a large goitre, after thyroid surgery and in elderly patients with associated conditions who carry a high intra- or perioperative risk. Decisions concerning the definitive treatment of thyroid autonomy should take into account previous episodes of hyperthyroidism, objective parameters of risk stratification in euthyroid patients as well as concomitant diseases and the probability of iodine exposure in the future. In Central Europe the majority of investigators prefer to estimate the therapeutic activity individually by a radioiodine test. TCTUs (global 99m-Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression) - based dose concepts have been proven to be highly effective in the elimination of autonomy and carry a low (< 10%) risk of postradioiodtherapeutic hypothyroidism. Radioiodine therapy for autonomy has been found to be both effective and safe and without major early or late side effects. The most frequent complication is hypothyroidism requiring lifelong follow-up. (author)

  8. Thyroid autonomy: sensitive detection in vivo and estimation of its functional relevance using quantified high-resolution scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehre, M.; Lindemann, C.; Emrich, D.; Hilgers, R.

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with 236 euthyroid individuals living in an area of iodine deficiency, 227 of whom had endemic goitres. In these subjects, autonomy could be suspected owing to an inhomogeneous activity distribution on the thyroid scintigram or a subnormal TSH response to TRH. They complete a total number of 426 investigated individuals. Previously, in 190 separated controls without evidence of autonomy, the reference ranges for the thyroid 99m Tc pertechnetate uptake under suppression (TcU s ), a measure for the non-suppressible thyroid iodide clearance, and for suppressibility of circumscribed thyroid regions, had been determined. These two parameters obtained by highresolution quantified scintigraphy were used for an accurate detection of thyroid autonomy among the 236 individuals. Suppression scintigraphy revealed autonomy in 171 patients. ΔTSH after TRH was subnormal in 40% of the subjects with abnormal thyroid suppressibility. Prevalence of abnormal suppression was dependent on three factors: patient age, goitre type and estimated thyroid weight. In the total investigated collective, the prevalence of autonomy was 77% in patients with a goitre weight above 50 g. The individuals with abnormal suppression were grouped into four classes of TcU s . I these classes, free thyroxie index (FT 4 I) and total triiodothyronine (TT 3 ) icreased with increasing TcU s , whereas ΔTSH decreased. This finding indicates a continuum of different extents of autonomous thyroid function, whereas in the individual patient, the extent can be determined using the pertechnetate uptake under suppression. In addition, FT 4 I, TT 3 and ΔTSH in each of the TcU s classes depended on the individual iodine supply. It is concluded that, in patients with thyroid autonomy, actual thyroid hormone concentrations and TSH stimulation are determined by two major factors: the extent of autonomy and the individual iodine supply. Therefore, in iodine deficiency, the TRH test may be normal

  9. Functional neuroanatomy of thyroid hormone feedback in the human hypothalamus and pituitary gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, Eric; Unmehopa, Unga A.; Alkemade, Anneke

    2006-01-01

    A major change in thyroid setpoint regulation occurs in various clinical conditions such as critical illness and psychiatric disorders. As a first step towards identifying determinants of these setpoint changes, we have studied the distribution and expression of thyroid hormone receptor (TR)

  10. Plasma Bile Acids Are Associated with Energy Expenditure and Thyroid Function in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ockenga, Johann; Valentini, Luzia; Schuetz, Tatjana; Wohlgemuth, Franziska; Glaeser, Silja; Omar, Ajmal; Kasim, Esmatollah; duPlessis, Daniel; Featherstone, Karen; Davis, Julian R.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Kroencke, Thomas; Biebermann, Heike; Koehrle, Josef; Brabant, Georg

    Background/Aims: Animal studies implicate a role of bile acids (BA) in thyroid-regulated energy expenditure (EE) via activation of the TGR-5/adenylate cyclase/deiodinase type 2 pathway. Here we investigated these possible associations in humans. Methods: EE, BA, and thyroid hormone status were

  11. Analysis and functional characterization of sequence variations in ligand binding domain of thyroid hormone receptors in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalikiri, Mahesh Kumar; Mamidala, Madhu Poornima; Rao, Ananth N; Rajesh, Vidya

    2017-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuro developmental disorder, reported to be on a rise in the past two decades. Thyroid hormone-T3 plays an important role in early embryonic and central nervous system development. T3 mediates its function by binding to thyroid hormone receptors, TRα and TRβ. Alterations in T3 levels and thyroid receptor mutations have been earlier implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders and have been linked to environmental toxins. Limited reports from earlier studies have shown the effectiveness of T3 treatment with promising results in children with ASD and that the thyroid hormone levels in these children was also normal. This necessitates the need to explore the genetic variations in the components of the thyroid hormone pathway in ASD children. To achieve this objective, we performed genetic analysis of ligand binding domain of THRA and THRB receptor genes in 30 ASD subjects and in age matched controls from India. Our study for the first time reports novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the THRA and THRB receptor genes of ASD individuals. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1919-1928. ©2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Thyroid hormone (T3) and thyroid receptors (TRα and TRβ) are the major components of the thyroid hormone pathway. The link between thyroid pathway and neuronal development is proven in clinical medicine. Since the thyroid hormone levels in Autistic children are normal, variations in their receptors needs to be explored. To achieve this objective, changes in THRA and THRB receptor genes was studied in 30 ASD and normal children from India. The impact of some of these mutations on receptor function was also studied. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Thyroid Function Within the Normal Range and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åsvold, Bjørn O; Vatten, Lars J; Bjøro, Trine

    2015-01-01

    documented, but conflicting evidence suggests that thyrotropin levels in the upper part of the reference range may be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between differences in thyroid function within the reference range and CHD risk. DESIGN...... known thyroid or cardiovascular disease at baseline. EXPOSURES: Thyroid function as expressed by serum thyrotropin levels at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Hazard ratios (HRs) of CHD mortality and CHD events according to thyrotropin levels after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status....... This finding suggests that differences in thyroid function within the population reference range do not influence the risk of CHD. Increased CHD risk does not appear to be a reason for lowering the upper thyrotropin reference limit....

  13. Thyroid function in HIV patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeddu, Gr.; Calia, G.M.; Lovigu, C.; Mannazzu, M.; Mura, M.S.; Spanu, A.; Solinas, P.; Falchi, A.; Madeddu, G.

    2002-01-01

    correlated with disease severity or treatment time. Conclusion: Thyroid function test abnormalities can thus occur in HAART treated HIV patients, with or not PI; in our cases, these were associated to clinical hyper or hypothyroidism and more frequently to subclinical hypofunction conditions, some also with antithyroid Ab. We suggest HAART could influence both thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. However, a larger number of cases and longitudinal studies are necessary to clarify thyroid function disorder

  14. Impact of Fibrotic Tissue on Shear Wave Velocity in Thyroid: An Ex Vivo Study with Fresh Thyroid Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Fukuhara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to elucidate the correlation between shear wave velocity (SWV and fibrosis in thyroid by precisely assessing pathological structures inside 5 × 5 mm2 regions of interest (ROIs of resected specimens, under conditions that excluded physical artifacts. The materials were unselected thyroid and lymph node specimens resected during thyroid surgery. Immediately after surgery, fresh unfixed thyroid and metastatic lymph node specimens were suspended in gel phantoms, and SWV was measured. Upon pathological examination of each specimen, the extent of fibrosis was graded as none, moderate, or severe. A total of 109 specimens were evaluated: 15 normal thyroid, 16 autoimmune thyroiditis, 40 malignant nodules, 19 benign thyroid nodules, and 19 metastatic lymph nodes. When all specimens were classified according to the degree of fibrosis determined by pathological imaging, the mean SWV was 1.49±0.39 m/s for no fibrosis, 2.13±0.66 m/s for moderate fibrosis, and 2.68±0.82 m/s for severe fibrosis. The SWVs of samples with moderate and severe fibrosis were significantly higher than those of samples without fibrosis. The results of this study demonstrate that fibrosis plays an important role in determining stiffness, as measured by SWV in thyroid.

  15. Hyperthyroidism in patients with ischaemic heart disease after iodine load induced by coronary angiography: Long-term follow-up and influence of baseline thyroid functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Nadia; Rossetto, Ruth; Castagno, Davide; Anselmino, Matteo; Vignolo, Francesca; Parasiliti Caprino, Mirko; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ghigo, Ezio; Garberoglio, Roberto; Grimaldi, Roberto; Maccario, Mauro

    2018-02-01

    To study the effect of a iodine load on thyroid function of patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and the long-term influence of unknown subclinical hyperthyroidism. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is considered an independent risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity of patients with IHD. They routinely undergo coronary angiography with iodine contrast media (ICM) which may induce or even worsen hyperthyroidism. A cross-sectional study followed by a longitudinal study on patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. 810 consecutive IHD outpatients without known thyroid diseases or treatment with drugs influencing thyroid activity undergoing elective coronary angiography. We evaluated thyroid function either before and 1 month after ICM; patients with thyrotoxicosis at baseline or after ICM were then followed up for 1 year. 58 patients had hyperthyroidism at baseline (HB, 7.2%), independently associated to FT4 levels, thyroid nodules and family history of thyroid diseases. After ICM, the prevalence of hyperthyroidism was 81 (10%). Hyperthyroidism after ICM was positively predicted by baseline fT4 levels, thyroid nodules, age over 60, male gender, family history of thyroid diseases. Three months after ICM, 34 patients (4.2%) still showed hyperthyroidism (22 from HB, 13 treated with methimazole). One year after ICM, hyperthyroidism was still present in 20 patients (2.5%, all from HB, 13 treated). The prevalence of spontaneous subclinical hyperthyroidism in IHD is surprisingly elevated and is further increased by iodine load, particularly in patients with thyroid nodules and familial history of thyroid diseases, persisting in a not negligible number of them even after one year. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of Thyroid Disorders During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy by Using Functional Analysis and Ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhshandeh, Mohsen [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdavi, Seyed Rabie [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikoofar, Alireza [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hafte-Tir Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Edraki, Hamid Reza [Department of Radiology, Panzdahe-Khordad Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate thyroid function and vascular changes during radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients treated with primary or postoperative radiotherapy for various cancers in the head and neck region were prospectively evaluated. The serum samples (triiodothyronine [T3], thyroxine [T4], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free triiodothyronine [FT3], and free thyroxine [FT4]), the echo level of the thyroid gland, and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) parameters of the right inferior thyroid artery (RITA) of the patients were measured before and at regular intervals during radiotherapy. The thyroid gland dose-volume histograms of the patients were derived from their computed tomography-based treatment plans. Results: There was a significant fall in TSH level (p < 0.0001) but an increase in FT4 (p < 0.0001) and T4 (p < 0.022) levels during the radiotherapy course. The threshold dose required to produce significant changes was 12 Gy (Biologically Effective Dose in 2-Gy fractions, BED{sub 2}). There were significant rises in the patients' pulsatility index, resistive index, peak systolic velocity, blood volume flow levels, and RITA diameter (p < 0.0001), as detected by CDU during radiotherapy, compared to those parameters measured before the treatment. Hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns (p < 0.0001) were seen during radiotherapy compared to those before treatment. There was significant Pearson's correlation between the CDU parameters and T4, FT4, and TSH levels. Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroiditis is regarded as primary damage to the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis can subsequently result in hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Our results demonstrated that changes in thyroid vessels occur during radiotherapy delivered to patients. Vessel changes also can be attributed to the late effect of radiation on the thyroid gland. The hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns observed in patients

  17. Evaluation of Thyroid Disorders During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy by Using Functional Analysis and Ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhshandeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Bijan; Mahdavi, Seyed Rabie; Nikoofar, Alireza; Edraki, Hamid Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate thyroid function and vascular changes during radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients treated with primary or postoperative radiotherapy for various cancers in the head and neck region were prospectively evaluated. The serum samples (triiodothyronine [T3], thyroxine [T4], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free triiodothyronine [FT3], and free thyroxine [FT4]), the echo level of the thyroid gland, and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) parameters of the right inferior thyroid artery (RITA) of the patients were measured before and at regular intervals during radiotherapy. The thyroid gland dose-volume histograms of the patients were derived from their computed tomography-based treatment plans. Results: There was a significant fall in TSH level (p 2 ). There were significant rises in the patients’ pulsatility index, resistive index, peak systolic velocity, blood volume flow levels, and RITA diameter (p < 0.0001), as detected by CDU during radiotherapy, compared to those parameters measured before the treatment. Hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns (p < 0.0001) were seen during radiotherapy compared to those before treatment. There was significant Pearson’s correlation between the CDU parameters and T4, FT4, and TSH levels. Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroiditis is regarded as primary damage to the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis can subsequently result in hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Our results demonstrated that changes in thyroid vessels occur during radiotherapy delivered to patients. Vessel changes also can be attributed to the late effect of radiation on the thyroid gland. The hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns observed in patients may result from the increase in intrathyroidal flow.

  18. Thyroid function in mothers who gave birth to neonates with transient congenital hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, G.A.; Hakimi, H.; Rezaeian, M.; Gafarzadeh, A.; Rashidinejad, H.; Khaksari, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the thyroid status of mother's of newborns with primary congenital hypothyroidism. Methodology: Thyroid function tests were carried out on 80 mothers of hypothyroid newborns and 80 mothers of non-hypothyroid newborns as control. Results: The mean difference of the tests revealed that mothers of congenitally hypothyroid infants had a lower triiodothyronine resin uptake (T3RU) concentrations compared with the control population. The higher value of free thyroxin index (FTI) in case group showed a tendency to significance. The proportional frequency distribution showed; T3RU and triiodothyronine (T3) had a significant difference, and FTI showed a tendency to significance. There were no significant differences between; thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO) in two groups. Conclusions: These results indicated that at least some cases of primary congenital hypothyroidism were attributable to the maternal thyroid disease. Therefore, we recommend that each pregnant woman should be assessed for thyroid function in region with a high prevalence of thyroid disease. (author)

  19. Sonographic evaluation of thyroiditis with color flow study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, N; Rima, S; Rahman, S; Azad, S A; Karim, M E; Shawkat, S; Ahsan, M; Kamal, M M; Begum, M

    2014-01-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Radiology and Imaging, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Bangladesh in collaboration with the Department of Endocrinology and Department of Histopathology of the same hospital during the period of March 2007 to February 2008 to determine efficacy of ultrasonogram in the evaluation of thyroiditis and to compare its results with color flow Doppler study. For this purpose, a total of 50 patients having clinical suspicion of thyroiditis were enrolled in this study. Ultrasound and color Doppler were done in all these patients. Then all patients underwent for FNAC in the Histopathology department. Correlation between sonographic diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis were observed. Out of these 50 patients 10(20%) were male and 40 (80%) were female with age ranging from 12 to 50 years, highest between 21 to 30 years. The mean age of the patients was 30.42±9.57 years. On unltrasonographic findings of thyroid gland 42.0% patients had regular and 58.0% had irregular margin. Seventy percent had fibrosis, 14.0% had feature of necrosis, 48.0% had lymphadenopathy. Out of all patients 6.0% had normal echogenic feature, 16.0% had increased and 78.0% decreased echogeneic feature. Twelve percent (12.0%) patients had homogeneous and 88.0% had heterogeneous pattern of echogenecity. Thirty eight percent (38%) patients had focal nodules. Sixty percent (60.0%) patients had focal swelling and 40.0% had diffuse swelling. On color flow Doppler 28.0% had normal, 38.0% had increased and 34.0% decreased vascular flow pattern. USG reports revealed that 48.0% had thyromegaly, 36.0% had thyroid nodule, 10.0% had multinodular goiter and 6.0% had thyroid abscess. FNAC diagnosis revealed that 34.0% patients had Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 24.0% had lymphocytic thyroiditis, 18.0% had granulomatous thyroiditis, 6.0% had abscess, 8.0% had goitre and 10.0% nonspecific. USG and CFD are recommended modalities for the diagnosis of

  20. Thyroid Autoimmunity and Function after Treatment with Biological Antirheumatic Agents in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Sofie; Borresen, Stina Willemoes; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    With the increased pro-inflammatory response in both rheumatoid arthritis and thyroid autoimmune diseases, treatment with biological antirheumatic agents (BAAs) of the former may affect the course of the latter. In hepatitis C and cancer patients, treatment with biological agents substantially...... increases the risk of developing thyroid autoimmunity. As the use of BAAs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is increasing, this review aimed to investigate if such use affected thyroid status in rheumatoid arthritis patients. We conducted a systematic literature search and included six studies...... status: a reduction of thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibody concentrations, and a reduction of thyrotropin levels in hypothyroid patients. Despite the small number of studies, they presented compliant data. The BAAs used in rheumatoid arthritis thus did not seem to negatively affect thyroid...

  1. Radioimmunological studies of the thyrotropic function of the hypophysis under the effect of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone in thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulenko, A.D.; Matveenko, E.G.; Simakova, G.M.; Sorokina, V.G.; Golubnichaya, L.P.; Dobrova, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    The synthetic thyrotropin-releasing-hormone was stream-injected intravenously to 124 patients and 16 healthy people in doses of 200 μg. It was tolerated satisfactorily at the first and repeated injections. The radioimmunologic method was used prior to the test and 30 min after it to examine thyrotropin content in blood. In normal state the stimulation would result in 3.5-fold increase in thyrotropin level on the average. The hypophysial reserve of thyrotropin was significantly lower in cases of diffuse toxic goiter in grave and semigrave forms and toxic adenoma. It was significantly higher at primary hypothyrosis and retained at nodular euthyroid goiter, neupocirculatopy dystonia and mild thyrotoxicosis. At thyroid gland disturbances the test with thyrotropin-releasing-hormone is of diagnostic value at primary hypothyrosis in the initial latent period; besides, it can be used for control of substitution therapy and as a supplementary test at thyrotoxicosis

  2. Analysis of pituitary-thyroid functional condition in neurotic type of endemic cretinism in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Peiqin; Yuan Shenyuan; Wang Ruihua; Xiao Feng

    1992-01-01

    The authors reported 57 patients with endemic cretinism from 1981 to 1984, 41 of which were proved to be nervous endemic cretinism. The severe mental disorders were the main manifestations. But thyroid gland function was mostly normal. Tg-Ab was negative. The location size, shape of thyroid and distribution of radioactive 131 I in thyroid gland were normal. The main cause of this disease is deficiency of thyroxine and iodine during embryo period, resulting in irreversible damages in proliferation, differentiation and maturation of nervous system

  3. Assessment of thyroid function in patients with laryngeal carcinoma treated surgically and with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoneczny, J.; Kulczynski, B.; Sowinski, J.

    1975-01-01

    In 40 patients with laryngeal carcinoma after total laryngectomy and radiotherapy the triiodotyronine binding index, total thyroxine level, serum free thyroxine index were determined before, during and after treatment. At the same time thyroid iodine uptake was determined by the routine method. Surgical treatment as well as radiotherapy caused lowering of thyroid functions. These changes had a high tendency for return to normal values, not earlier, however, than 6 months after treatment. The authors stress that endocrine thyroid disturbances may have an important influence on delay of psychic rehabilitation and speech training in laryngectomized patients. (author)

  4. Estrogen receptors in human thyroid gland. An immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, Shaukat A.; Shah, Munawar H.; Jamal, Qamar; Meo, Sultan A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the estrogen receptors (ER) status (present in the nucleous of cell) in the thyroid gland tissues. For this purpose 50 previously diagnosed cases of various thyroid lesions were selected from the Surgical Pathology Records of Pathology Department, Basic Medical Sciences Institute,Jinnah Postgraduate. Medical Center,Karachi,Pakistan between March and August 2000.The staining was performed on formalin fixed paraffin embeded tissues using monoclonal anti-ER anti-body (clone1D5).Out of 50 cases,8 were noduler goiter,9 cases of adenoma 19 papillary carcinoma, 10 follicular and 4 cases were of medullary carcinoma. Surrounding normal tissue was available in 25 (50%) cases, 4 non-neoplastic and 21 neoplastic lesions.Out of 50 cases ,10(20%) and 40(80%) were females, the youngest patient was a 15-year-old female and the eldest patient was a 56-years-old male. Despite the availability of normal thyroid tissue and a wide range of lesions, none of our cases showed the positive staining. In contrary to many earlier reports by immunohistochemical method using monoclonal antibody (clone1D5) on formalin- fixed praffin-embedded thyroid tissues, the ER is not detectable. The effect of Estrogen on thyroid gland may be indirect one. (author)

  5. Toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol to mice: depression of thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumbo, P.R.; Meuten, D.J.; King, M.W.; Tove, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Mice given propylthiouracil, a thyroid inhibitor, and fed a diet containing a nontoxic level of rac-1(3)-palmitoyl glycerol showed the hypothermia and mortality expected for a toxic dose, but did not show these signs when linoleate or oleate was added to the diet. Loss of radioiodine from the whole animal and thyroid gland was slower when mice were fed the toxic palmitoyl glycerol diet than when fed the same diet containing 4% safflower oil. However, mice fed the two diets did not differ in the extent of the incorporation of radioiodine, and essentially all was bound to protein in each case. Follicular thyroid cells from mice fed the potentially toxic diet that contained unsaturated fat were normal in appearance. Conversely, cells from mice fed the toxic diet were smaller and more densely stained, showing evidence of glycoprotein inside the cell. These findings show that the thyroid gland is affected by the palmitoyl glycerol diet. However, the thyroid is not the only organ affected, because giving either thyroxine or triiodothyronine had no effect on the toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol

  6. The association between hypoechogenicity or irregular echo pattern at thyroid ultrasonography and thyroid function in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, Pernille; Knudsen, Nils; Perrild, Hans

    2006-01-01

    without overt thyroid disease. Design: A cross-sectional investigation of 4649 randomly selected adult subjects. Methods: Blood samples were analysed for serum TSH, thyroid hormones and thyroid autoantibodies. US of the thyroid was performed. Results: Participants with decreased echogenicity (n = 379) had...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  8. Thyroid function in changing weather in a subtropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, G K; Sawhney, R C

    1976-08-01

    Serum and 24-hr urine samples were collected on 2 consecutive days during the first week of each month for 1 yr from eight healthy euthyroid men aged 25-37 yr. The means of minimum and maximum environmental temperature for the 30 days period preceding the sample collection represented the temperature for that month. Total serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyrotropin (TSH), and urinary T3 and T4 were measured by specific radioimmunoassays and serum thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) by the radioligand binding assay. The serum TSH and urinary T3 and T4 responses to 100 mug intravenous TRH were studied in five subjects during summer and again during winter. The serum concentration of these hormones and TBG did not reveal significant variations throughout the year. However, the mean urinary excretion of both T3 and T4 during coldest months (January and February), at 0.97 and 1.95 mug/24 hr, respectively were significantly higher than the corresponding values (T3, 0.48; T4, 1.18 mug/24 hr) during the hottest months (May-July). The TSH, and urinary T3 and T4 responses to identical doses of TRH during summer and winter did not differ significantly. Since urinary T3 and T4 indirectly reflect the prevailing unbound serum levels of these hormones, it is likely that the greater availability of free and biologically active thyroid hormones could help the body to adapt to cold by increasing nonshivering thermogenesis.

  9. Unstimulated Thyroid Function Indices of Nigerians With Secondary Amenorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, C.U.; Giwa-Osagie, O.F.; Fregene, A.O.; Olajide, T.O.

    1988-01-01

    The unstimulated plasma thyroid indices of triiodothyronine uptake (T3U), thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine index (FTI), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin levels were measured in 56 patients who were complaining of secondary amenorrhea, and in 40 control patients. No significant differences were noted in the plasma indices between the two groups. Mean ± standard error plasma prolactin levels in patients with secondary amenorrhea and in the control patients were 21.8 ± 2 ng/mL and 10.5 ng/mL, respectively. Twenty-two (39 percent) patients who were complaining of amenorrhea had hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea. The thyroid indices of these patients did not differ significantly from the control group. PMID:3385789

  10. Study on the interaction between leucine-enkephalin and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fengying; Chen Jialun; Chen Mingdao; Tang Jinfeng; Li Jiping

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible interaction between leucine enkephalin and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Methods: Mice models of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism were produced. Serum thyroid hormonal levels (T 3 , T 4 , TSH, TRH), the leucine enkephalin content of the whole brain and 5-HT of the hypothalamus were determined in the animals sacrificed on different days after the animal models were established. Results: In hyperthyroid rats, the levels of T 3 , T 4 increased progressively (P 3 , T 4 levels were persistent lower (P < 0.001) along with gradually increasing of serum TSH and TRH levels while pituitary TSh hypothalamus TRH content decreased gradually (P < 0.01), but rose back when reaching the nadir, Besides, LEK elevated and 5-HT decreased (P<0.01). Conclusion: The thyroid functional hormonal changes are not necessarily accompanied by a corresponding increase or decrease of brain LEK

  11. The evaluation of free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3) in the routine diagnosis of thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passath, A.; Leb, G.; Goebel, R.

    1985-01-01

    The validity of the free thyroid hormone parameters (FT 4 and FT 3 ) was verified in a random sample of 154 ambulatory patients with thyroid conditions. The ''euthyroid range'' of FT 4 was between 15.67 and 30.66 pmol/l; median 21.98 pmol/l. The distribution of the FT 4 readings peaked on the left and sloped to the right (log normal). In our laboratory, the ''euthyroid reference range'' of FT 4 is between 10-28 pmol/l. The ''euthyroid range'' of FT 3 extended from 4.6 to 9.7 pmol/l; median 6.63 pmol/l. The distribution of the readings was likewise log normal. The values of FT 4 and FT 3 are not significantly influenced by TBG concentration anomalies in otherwise healthy thyroid patients. For purposes of discrimination between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism, FT 3 (95%) and FT 4 (90%) are better suited than the corresponding quotients for the free hormone fraction or the total hormone concentrations. On the other hand, the free hormone parameters are less suitable for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. These results were deduced theoretically from mathematical function analyses between the TBG-independent free hormone parameters and the TBG-dependent hormone concentrations. (orig.) [de

  12. [Analysis on iodine nutritional status and thyroid function in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Wang, Yanling; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Yancai; Huang, Dahong; Liang, Liping; Ren, Xudong; Dou, Yugui; Zhu, Xiaonan

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the iodine nutritional status and thyroid function of pregnant women during different periods of pregnancy, to provide evidence for guiding iodine supplementation for them. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 90 pregnant women in Wuwei City from April 2009 to January 2010. The morning blood samples and random urine samples were collected, and the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroid hormone (FT4), thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb), thyroid microsomal antibodies (TMAb) in blood samples and iodine in urine samples were detected. The medians of urinary iodine were 231.49, 158.25 and 328.35 microg/L for women in early, middle and late period of pregnancy, The ratio of urinary iodine below 150 microg/L were 39.29%, 45.16% and 25.81%, respectively. The FT3, FT4 levels in the first trimester were higher than those in the third trimester (P 0.05). The positive rate of TGAb and TMAb antibody of pregnant women in different period of time were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The incidence of thyroid function disorder was significantly different in different gestation periods. Generally, the iodine nutritional status of these pregnant women was appropriate, but there was a tendency towards hypothyroid in some women. Monitoring urinary iodine and thyroid function in pregnant women should be carried out regularly.

  13. Iodine concentration calculated by dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) as a functional parameter to evaluate thyroid metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, Duong Duc; Nakajima, Takahito; Otake, Hidenori; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2017-07-19

    Thyroid function in patients with Grave's disease is usually evaluated by thyroid scintigraphy with radioactive iodine. Recently, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with two different energy X-rays can calculate iodine concentrations and can be applied for iodine measurements in thyroid glands. This study aimed to assess the potential use of DECT for the functional assessment of the thyroid gland. Thirteen patients with Grave's disease treated at our hospital from May to September 2015 were included in this retrospective study. Before treatments, all subjects had undergone both iodine scintigraphy [three and 24 h after oral administration of 123 I (20 μCi)] and non-enhanced DECT. The region of interests (ROIs) were placed in both lobes of the thyroid glands, and CT values (HU: Hounsfield unit) and iodine concentrations (mg/mL) calculated from DECT images were measured. The correlation between CT values and iodine concentrations from DECT in the thyroid gland was evaluated and then the iodine concentrations were compared with radioactive iodine uptake ratios by thyroid scintigraphy. Mean (±SD) 123 I uptake increased from 46.3 (±22.2) % (range, 11.1-80.1) at 3 h, to 66.5 (±15.2) % (range, 40.0-86.1) at 24 h (p hyperthyroid patients.

  14. Function of thyroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in radioiodine treated thyrotoxic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helds, A.; Lerhs, E.; Bolshevica, J.; Ozols, V.

    1980-01-01

    431 thyrotoxic patients were examined at varying intervals after therapy with 131 I. Relapses of thyrotoxicosis were noted in 30 patients (7%), hypothyroidism in 63 patients (14.4%) and the remaining 338 were euthyroid. A peculiar clinical picture of postradiation hyperthyroidism was ascertained. The euthyroid patients had a lower protein bound iodine concentration than normal individuals (4.9 +- 1.7 and 6.0 +- 1.64 mg/100 ml, respectively) and a negative thyroid response after TRH stimulation in 87 per cent. (author)

  15. Cytomorphological Spectrum of Thyroiditis: A Review of 110 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rahul; Gambhir, Anushree; Kaur, Supreet; Pandey, Aditi; Shetty, Abhinav; Naragude, Piyusha

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Different types of thyroiditis may share some parallel clinical and biochemical features. Timely intervention can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. Aim Aim of this study is to find the frequency of various thyroiditis, study the cytomorphological features and correlate with clinical findings including radiological findings, thyroid function test, and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (Anti-TPO antibodies). Materials and Methods The study included consecutive 110 cases of thyroiditis. Detailed cytomorphological features were studied and correlated with ultrasonography findings, thyroid function test, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO) and histopathological features where thyroidectomy specimens were received for histopathological examination. Results The majority were Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n = 100) and females (n = 103). Other forms of thyroiditis were Hashimoto's thyroiditis with colloid goiter (n = 5), De Quervain's thyroiditis (n = 3), and one case each of postpartum thyroiditis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis with associated malignancy. The majority of patients were in the age group of 21–40 (n = 70) and the majority (n = 73) had diffuse enlargement of thyroid. The majority of patients were hypothyroid (n = 52). The serum anti-TPO antibodies were elevated in 47 patients out of 71 patients. In the 48 patients who underwent ultrasonography, 38 were diagnosed as having thyroiditis. The most consistent cytomorphological features seen in fine-needle aspiration smears of Hashimoto's thyroiditis were increased background lymphocytes, lymphocytic infiltration of thyroid follicular cell clusters, and Hurthle cells. Conclusion The diagnostic cytological features in Hashimoto's thyroiditis are increased background lymphocytes, lymphocytic infiltration of thyroid follicular cell clusters, and Hurthle cells. FNAC remains the “Gold Standard” for diagnosing Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Clinical history, thyroid function, and biochemical

  16. Thyroid Autoantibodies and the Clinical Presentation of Moyamoya Disease: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanterna, Luigi A; Galliani, Silvia; Zangari, Rosalia; Conti, Luciano; Brembilla, Carlo; Gritti, Paolo; Colleoni, Maria Luisa; Bernucci, Claudio

    2018-05-01

    Moyamoya is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by the progressive occlusion of the intracranial carotid artery. Thyroid autoantibodies have been found to be associated with the disease, but their clinical significance has never been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid autoantibodies and the clinical presentation of moyamoya. This is a prospective study including 37 patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) or unilateral moyamoya (uMM). Thyroid function and thyroid autoantibodies (e.g., antithyroperoxidase and antithyroglobulin) were investigated. We studied the effect of gender, age, type of moyamoya (uMM versus MMD), and thyroid autoantibodies on the clinical presentation, dichotomized into aggressive (hemorrhage, major stroke, or frequent transient ischemic attack [TIA]) and nonaggressive presentation (headache, rare TIAs, and incidental diagnosis) according to the criteria of the Research Committee on Spontaneous Occlusion of the Circle of Willis. Of the 37 patients included in the study, the autoantibodies were elevated in 9 (24.3%). An aggressive presentation occurred in 21 patients (hemorrhage in 11, major stroke in 9, frequent TIAs in 1). The autoantibodies were elevated in 8 of the 21 patients (38.09%) with an aggressive presentation and in 1 of those presenting with minor symptoms (6.2%). The presence of elevated autoantibodies was the only variable associated with an aggressive presentation in the multivariate logistic analysis (P = .048). When the serum concentration of the thyroid autoantibodies is increased, the patients have a higher risk of an aggressive presentation. Our results support the hypothesis that activation of immune-mediated processes affects the moyamoya physiopathology. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A NOTE ON HEAT TOLERANCE AND THYROID FUNCTION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johnson, 1957). Yousef, Hahn & Johnson (1968) stated that the inverse relationship betrveen thyroid activity and suitability of environment provides a means of adaptation to environments above or below thermoneutral tempera- ture. ... lute-Ames Company). At 12h00 rectal and skin temperatures were recorded using ...

  18. Thyrotoxicosis caused by functioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma. A rare and elusive cause of hyperthyroidism with low radioactive iodine uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ober, K.P.; Cowan, R.J.; Sevier, R.E.; Poole, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with progressively worsening thyrotoxicosis, refractory to medical therapy, is described. Repeated measurements of thyroidal RAI uptake over a 13 month period were low consistently and could not be explained by iodine ingestion, thyroiditis, or administration of exogenous thyroid hormone. An I-131 scan ultimately revealed striking activity at the base of the skull, reflecting ectopic excessive production of thyroid hormone by a solitary functioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma. The thyrotoxic state resolved after large doses of therapeutic I-131. Typical features of this rare cause of hyperthyroidism are discussed

  19. Assessment of thyroid function in children, adults and pregnant and lactating women after long-term salt iodisation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaohui; Li, Mu; Liu, Lixiang; Shen, Hongmei; Kelly, Patrick J; Wang, Yanling; Chen, Zhihui; Wang, Jinbiao; Li, Weidong; Chen, Huixin; Xiao, Bangzhong; Han, Yunfeng; Liu, Shoujun; Liu, Peng

    2018-06-01

    Universal salt iodisation (USI) has been successfully implemented in China for more than 15 years. Recent evidence suggests that the definition of 'adequate iodine' (100-199 µg/l) be revised to 'sufficient iodine' (100-299 µg/l) based on the median urinary iodine concentration (MUI) in school-age children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in populations after long-term salt iodisation and examine whether the definition of adequate iodine can be broadened to sufficient iodine based on the thyroid function in four population groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in six provinces in the northern, central and southern regions of China. Four population groups consisting of 657 children, 755 adults, 347 pregnant women and 348 lactating women were recruited. Three spot urinary samples were collected over a 10-d period and blood samples were collected on the 1st day. In the study, among the adults, pregnant women and lactating women, the prevalence rates of elevated thyroglobulin antibody and thyroid microsomal antibody levels were 12·4, 8·5 and 7·8 %, and 12·1, 9·1 and 9·1 %, respectively. Abnormally high thyroid dysfunction prevalence was not observed after more than 15 years of USI in China because the thyroid dysfunction rates were all <5 %. The recommended range should be cautiously broadened from adequate iodine to sufficient iodine according to the MUI of school-age children considering the high levels of hormones and antibodies in the other populations. Adults, particularly pregnant women positive for thyroid antibodies, should be closely monitored.

  20. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies: Experience at a single university referral hospital centre in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of I-131 therapy in patients suffering from various types of functional autonomies of the thyroid gland. The efficacy and adverse effects of radioiodine therapy are presented. Seven hundred ninety-nine patients (age range= 33 to 86 years; average age= 58.7 years; Male: Female = 7.4:1) with unifocal, multifocal and disseminated functional autonomies of thyroid gland were treated with at least one therapeutic dose of I-131. Baseline Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scans, radioactive iodine uptake studies and ultrasonography were performed in all cases prior to radio iodine therapy. Baseline serum total and free thyroxine (T-T4 and F-T4), total triiodothyronine (T-T3) and TSH levels were estimated in all cases. Effective half life of radio iodine in the thyroids was also determined in all patients prior to therapy and a few patients were subjected to TRH stimulation tests. Following treatment all patients were evaluated after a period of 4-6 months. Further follow up evaluations were done at one year in 545 patients and at two years in 254 patients. Complete elimination of functional autonomy was achieved in 733 (91.74%) patients with a single therapeutic dose of I-131, while 62 (7.76%) patients required two doses of I-131 and only 4 (0.5%) patients required three therapeutic doses of I-131. Following I-131 therapy, the suppression of TSH levels in serum disappeared in 607 (76%) of treated patients. An average volume reduction of 38% was noted in the thyroid gland following I-131. Side effects were minimal and only a few patients complained of transient neck pressure, pain and neck swelling. Postradiation hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 36 patients (4.5%). We conclude that radio iodine treatment is the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the thyroid functional autonomies. The results of our approach show that the radioiodine therapy of the thyroid functional autonomies is safe, with low incidence of adverse effects

  1. [Effects of maternal hyperthyroidism and antithyroid drug therapy on thyroid function of newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiao-lan; Bai, Yao; Xun, Yun-hua; Dai, Wei-xin; Guo, Zhi-sheng

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the incidence of abnormal thyroid function of newborns and maternal hyperthyroidism with antithyroid drug therapy. The clinical data of 35 neonates born to mothers with hyperthyroidism from 1983 to 2003 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. According to the maternal thyroid function and the antithyroid drugs taken during pregnancy, subjects were divided into different groups. The proportion of abnormal thyroid function in newborn was 48.6% (17/35). The prevalences of primary hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinemia, and central hypothyroidism were 29.4%, 29.4%, 35.3%, and 5.9%, respectively. The incidence of abnormal thyroid function of neonates whose mothers did not take the antithyroid drugs (ATDs) until the third trimester of pregnancy was significantly higher than those without and with ATDs during the first or second trimester (P hyperthyroid mothers did not take ATDs until the third trimester of pregnancy may be increased. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of hyperthyroidism in pregnant women are essential for the prevention of neonatal thyroid functional abnormality.

  2. Variations in thyroid functions following the development of cancer consequent to neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleker, R.J.T.M.; Bikkers, T.H.A.

    1978-06-01

    The authors describe the results of thyroid irradiation tests, which include the TRH test (TRH = thyroid stimulating hormone), and results are quoted on a group of 43 patients, of various ages. Details are included of the medication in each case. Other tests applied include E.C.G. tests, X-ray photographs, studies of the accumulation of antibodies near the thyroid, immuno-electrophoretic surveys and I-131 isotope pick-up by scanning of a radio-active tracer. The tracer activity is checked at intervals of 5, 24 and 48 hours. (G.C.)

  3. Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function in Intact Juvenile Rats Exposed to 3-Nitro-1,2,4-Trazol-5-One (NTO), February-June 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    vivo effects on androgen-dependent tissues in young rats (i.e., prochloraz) similar to the effects of NTO in the present study have feminized male...the potential to interact with the endocrine system in vivo by identifying effects on pubertal development and thyroid function in the intact juvenile...estrogen or thyroid active compound under the test conditions. The observed testicular toxicity and the effects on the androgen-dependent reproductive

  4. Influence of neural monitoring during thyroid surgery on nerve integrity and postoperative vocal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsman, A F; Warhurst, S; Fraser, S; Novakovic, D; Sidhu, S B

    2018-06-01

    Integrity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) can be checked by intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) after visualization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and nature of voice dysfunction following thyroid surgery with routine IONM. Thyroidectomies were performed with routine division of strap muscles and nerve monitoring to confirm integrity of the RLN and EBSLN following dissection. Patients were assessed for vocal function before surgery and at 1 and 3 months after operation. Assessment included use of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) 10, maximum phonation time, fundamental frequency, pitch range, harmonic to noise ratio, cepstral peak prominence and smoothed cepstral peak prominence. A total of 172 nerves at risk were analysed in 102 consecutive patients undergoing elective thyroid surgery. In 23·3 per cent of EBSLNs and 0·6 per cent of RLNs nerve identification required the assistance of IONM in addition to visualization. Nerve integrity was confirmed during surgery for 98·8 per cent of EBSLNs and 98·3 per cent of RLNs. There were no differences between preoperative and postoperative VHI-10 scores. Acoustic voice assessment showed small changes in maximum phonation time at 1 and 3 months after surgery. Where there is routine division of strap muscles, thyroidectomy using nerve monitoring confirmation of RLN and EBSLN function following dissection results in no clinically significant voice change.

  5. Computerized study with 201Tl of the gold thyroid node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palermo, F.; Saitta, B.; Coghetto, F.; Tiberio, M.; Caldato, L.

    1982-01-01

    Because of its physical and potassium-metabolic characteristics 201 Tl is more suitable than 131 Cs for radioisotopic studies of the cold thyroid nodule, with the further diagnostic possibility of quantitatively assessing intranodular behaviour for a specific differentiation among different kinds of neoformations. Using a gamma-camera on line with a computer data processing device, sequential scintiscans were recorded for the first 20-30 min after i.v. administration of 15-20 μCi/kg of radiothallium; delayed sequences were taken at 40-60 min if intranodular uptake appeared. A quantitative appraisal was made of the differential 201 Tl uptake-ratio between nodule and healthy thyroid tissue (density-index) and the multiparameter analysis of thyroid time/activity curves generated on the relative regions of interest (ROIs). This computerized study, in 120 out of 293 patients submitted to this radiothallium test, has shown a) diagnostic agreement between clinical-histological and radioisotopic findings in 76 out of 79 colloid-cystic or degenerative neoformations, in all 16 malignant and in 23 out of 25 hyperplastic benign nodules; b) significant statistical difference of the density-index in solid versus cystic but not between benign and malignant nodules; c) different 201 Tl kinetics behaviour in different kinds of solid thyroid lesions with a satisfactory statistical difference of the radiothallium nodular dissappearance-index. (orig.) [de

  6. Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Thyroid Function Parameters in Depressed Patients

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    M Akbari

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A considerable portion of patients with depressive disorders do not respond properly to medical treatment and need Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT. On the other hand, as some beneficial effects of ECT are attributed to increase in thyroid hormones, levothyronin is used as an adjuvant prior to ECT. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function changes after ECT. Methods: This was an out come study done on depressed patients attending the psychiatric clinic who were resistant to medical therapy and therefore candidates for ECT. Blood samples were drawn before the first and the last ECT and serum levels of T3, T4, T3RU and TSH were measured. Results: Thirty-one patients (19 males and 12 females were enrolled the study. Serum levels of T3 and T3RU significantly increased by ECT (p-values of 0.0001 and 0.029, respectively. T3 increased in all 31 patients and this was true for both genders and all age groups and also for various durations of depression, but T4 and TSH levels decreased significantly (p-values of 0.025 and 0.0001, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed that some effects of ECT may be primarily due to increased T3 levels and other parameters change accordingly. These findings need to be confirmed by further studies

  7. Influence of thyroid hormones on biochemical parameters of liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal level of thyroid hormones is important for normal hepatic function and thyroid dysfunction may modulate metabolic function of liver. The purpose of this study is to determine whether liver function is associated with subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. Thyroid and liver function tests were evaluated in 47 patients with ...

  8. Influence of excessive iodine intake on the thyroid function and spectrum of thyroid abnormalities in population of Turinsk, Sverdlovsk Region, of Russia

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    Aleksey V. Kiyaev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous surveys showed chronic iodine excess - median urinary iodine concentration (UIC over 500 mcg/l — supposedly due to water contamination in population of Turinsk, a town in Sverdlovsk Region of Russia. Aim. Conduct an assessment of the effects of chronic iodine excess on thyroid function and spectrum of thyroid abnormalities in schoolchildren and adults. Materials and methods. Assessment was conducted in 100 schoolchildren and 100 adults residing in Turinsk and 97 schoolchildren and 100 adults in the control site (city of Pervouralsk with optimal UIC. Assessment included thyroid ultrasonogrpahy, urinary iodine and dry spot TSH in schoolchildren and TSH and TPO-ab in adults. Iodine was also measured in random water samples from 10 households in Turinsk. Results. Median UIC in schoolchildren in Turinsk (719 mcg/l was significantly higher (129 mcg/l than in Pervouralsk resulting in higher prevalence of thyroid enlargement and TSH level. In adults TSH level as well as prevalence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis were higher in residents of Turinsk compared to control group from Pervouralsk. Conclusions. Iodine excess alters thyroid function in schoolchildren and adults increasing prevalence of thyroid enlargement in children and autoimmune thyroidis in adults.

  9. Color-coded duplex sonography in the study of thyroid pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguissola, R.; Bozzini, A.; Campani, R.; Bottinelli, O.; Genovese, E.; Guglielmoni, B.; Fulle, I.; Bandi, G.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined 110 patients with suspected pathologic conditions of the thyroid by means of color-coded duplex US. In addition to the information yielded by conventional US, this technique allows organ vascularization to be demonstrated. Five normal patients were considered as a control group: no tissue vascularization was demonstrated in these cases. In 8 patients presenting with carcinoma or recurrences, vascularization was markedly increased both peripheral and central to the nodule. A few doubts are still to be solved as to the diagnostic value of color-coded duplex US in the evaluation of non-carcinomas nodular pathologic conditions. As a matter of fact, non-functioning avascular adenomas can be demonstrated only in a very low percentage of cases (66%). Color-coded duplex US proved extremely sensitive and specific in depicting malignant neoplasms. Moreover, the use of fine.needle biopsy could be optimized and subsequently reduced. Color-coded duplex US proved to be markedly superior to othe rmethods and techniques in the study of thyroid diseases, especially thyroiditis and multiple pathologic conditions. The simultaneous presence of hypocapture at scintigraphy and peripheral and central vascularization in a single nodule or within multinodular struma at color-Doppler was highly suggestive of malignant thyroid neoplasm. Color-coded duplex US is a low-cost technique, which can be performed on an outpatient basis. Moreover, it is not invasive, nor does it damage the thyroid. That is why its use is almost mandatory in the study of pathologic conditions of the thyroid

  10. Clinical study of color Doppler sonography in Graves' disease blood flow changes after thyroid arteries embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Wenquan; Li Weiduo; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei; Huang Yonghui; Guo Wenbo; Li Jiaping

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the color doppler image characteristics of thyroid arteries pre- and post-interventional procedure and to assess the clinical efficacy in Gnaves' disease. Methods: 11 from 31 patients diagnosed as Graves' disease undertaken thyroid arteries embolization, were analyzed. Color Doppler sonography was applied to monitor the pre-and post- procedure thyroid size and diameters of thyroid arteries. Power Doppler was used to detect the Vmax, Vmin, RI and blood flow. Results: After thyroid arteries embolization, the size and vascularity of thyroids were reduced. The thyroid arteries showed shrinkage and stoppage blood flow at the embolized site. The changes of RI, blood parameters of Vmax, Vmin and diameters of the thyroid arteries pre- and post-procedure turned out to be statistically significant for clinical restriction. Conclusion: The color Doppler sonography plays an important role for preoperative diagnosis and predicting the prognosis

  11. A histological autopsy study of the thyroid gland in HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is therefore postulated the thyroid gland would be involved in AIDS patients. This study focused on the histologic appearances of the thyroid gland in HIV and AIDS patients on post mortem. The findings will provide evidence based recommendations on the management of thyroid diseases in the HIV infected in Zambia.

  12. Relational Stability in the Expression of Normality, Variation, and Control of Thyroid Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoermann, Rudolf; Midgley, John E. M.; Larisch, Rolf; Dietrich, Johannes W.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone concentrations only become sufficient to maintain a euthyroid state through appropriate stimulation by pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In such a dynamic system under constant high pressure, guarding against overstimulation becomes vital. Therefore, several defensive mechanisms protect against accidental overstimulation, such as plasma protein binding, conversion of T4 into the more active T3, active transmembrane transport, counter-regulatory activities of reverse T3 and thyronamines, and negative hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid feedback control of TSH. TSH has gained a dominant but misguided role in interpreting thyroid function testing in assuming that its exceptional sensitivity thereby translates into superior diagnostic performance. However, TSH-dependent thyroid disease classification is heavily influenced by statistical analytic techniques such as uni- or multivariate-defined normality. This demands a separation of its conjoint roles as a sensitive screening test and accurate diagnostic tool. Homeostatic equilibria (set points) in healthy subjects are less variable and do not follow a pattern of random variation, rather indicating signs of early and progressive homeostatic control across the euthyroid range. In the event of imminent thyroid failure with a reduced FT4 output per unit TSH, conversion efficiency increases in order to maintain FT3 stability. In such situations, T3 stability takes priority over set point maintenance. This suggests a concept of relational stability. These findings have important implications for both TSH reference limits and treatment targets for patients on levothyroxine. The use of archival markers is proposed to facilitate the homeostatic interpretation of all parameters. PMID:27872610

  13. Lipoprotein(a Levels in Thyroid Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop-Radu Cristina Corina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the serum levels of Lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] in subjects with thyroid disorders, as well as to investigate their relationship with lipid profile and the markers of thyroid function and autoimmunity, admitting that elevated Lp(a levels and dyslipidemia caused by thyroid disorders synergistically increased the atherogenic process.

  14. Fluoride exposure and indicators of thyroid functioning in the Canadian population: implications for community water fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, Amanda M; Hosein, F Shaun; Quiñonez, Carlos; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-10-01

    There are concerns that altered thyroid functioning could be the result of ingesting too much fluoride. Community water fluoridation (CWF) is an important source of fluoride exposure. Our objectives were to examine the association between fluoride exposure and (1) diagnosis of a thyroid condition and (2) indicators of thyroid functioning among a national population-based sample of Canadians. We analysed data from Cycles 2 and 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Logistic regression was used to assess associations between fluoride from urine and tap water samples and the diagnosis of a thyroid condition. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between fluoride exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level (low/normal/high). Other available variables permitted additional exploratory analyses among the subset of participants for whom we could discern some fluoride exposure from drinking water and/or dental products. There was no evidence of a relationship between fluoride exposure (from urine and tap water) and the diagnosis of a thyroid condition. There was no statistically significant association between fluoride exposure and abnormal (low or high) TSH levels relative to normal TSH levels. Rerunning the models with the sample constrained to the subset of participants for whom we could discern some source(s) of fluoride exposure from drinking water and/or dental products revealed no significant associations. These analyses suggest that, at the population level, fluoride exposure is not associated with impaired thyroid functioning in a time and place where multiple sources of fluoride exposure, including CWF, exist. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Thyroid function in girls with menstrual disturbances in iodine-deficiency region

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    O Konstantinova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimate the functional state of the female adolescent thyroid with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine deficiency regions, 130 female adolescents with irregular menstrual cycle were examined. Hypothyroidism incidence (in them was 16.9%. In addition we considered TSH range 2.5–4.0 mU/l (highly normal TSH level the extent of which was 12.3%. High extent of antibody carriage to the thyroid (31.3% in girls with irregular menses, having high blood TSH level. There were no statistical differences between the structure of menstrual dysfunction and menstrual duration depending on thyroid function (p = 0.2383, respectively, as well as the average values of estradiol levels depending on TSH level (p = 0.3213. Thus, the influence of highly normal TSH on menstrual function development in female adolescents.

  16. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Thyroid Function Tests in North American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Colleen M; McClean, Michael D; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N; He, Xue-Mei; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice M; Webster, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that are added to many consumer products. Multiple animal studies have shown PBDEs to be thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors. Epidemiologic evidence of PBDE exposure associated with TH disruption has been inconclusive. We used repeated measures to estimate associations between serum PBDE concentrations and THs in a North American adult cohort. From 2010 to 2011, we collected ≤ 3 serum samples at approximately 6-month intervals from 52 healthy adult office workers from Boston, Massachusetts, for analysis of PBDE congeners and THs. The geometric mean sum concentrations of the most prevalent PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-153) were 22 ng/g lipid in winter 2010, 23 ng/g lipid in summer 2010, and 19 ng/g lipid in winter 2011. BDE-47 was the predominant congener. Based on a multivariable mixed regression model, we estimated that on average, a 1-ng/g serum increase in BDE-47 was associated with a 2.6-μg/dL decrease in total thyroxine (T4) (95% CI: -4.7, -0.35). Total T4 was inversely associated with each PBDE congener. Serum concentrations of PBDEs were not strongly associated with total triiodothyronine (T3), free T4, or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). These results are consistent with those from animal studies showing that exposure to PBDEs is associated with a decrease in serum T4. Because the other TH concentrations did not appear to be associated with BDE exposures, our findings do not indicate effects on the pituitary-thyroid axis. Taken together, our findings suggest that PBDE exposure might decrease the binding of T4 to serum T4 binding proteins. Makey CM, McClean MD, Braverman LE, Pearce EN, He XM, Sjödin A, Weinberg JM, Webster TF. 2016. Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and thyroid function tests in North American adults. Environ Health Perspect 124:420-425; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509755.

  17. The importance of the ligation of the inferior thyroid artery in parathyroid function after subtotal thyroidectomy

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    Araujo Filho Vergilius José Furtado de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We prospectively studied the effects of the ligation of the inferior thyroid artery (ITA on postoperative hypoparathyroidism in 48 patients who underwent functional subtotal thyroidectomy. Patients were randomized into two groups: A, with bilateral ligation of the ITA and B, without ligation of the ITA. Parathyroid function was checked preoperatively and after surgery by clinical examination and measurement of total calcium, intact PTH, urinary calcium, and AMPc. RESULTS: A significant incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia occurred: 17% in group A and 13% in B on the 4th postoperative day. Six months later, the incidence was 5% in Group A and 0% in Group B. These differences were not statistically significant between the two groups, and neither were any of the other clinical and laboratory observations. CONCLUSION: The ligation of the ITA was not an important causal factor for the occurrence of postoperative hypocalcemia after subtotal thyroidectomy.

  18. The role of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons on thyroid hormone disruption and cognitive function: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builee, T L; Hatherill, J R

    2004-11-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential to normal brain development, influencing behavior and cognitive function in both adult and children. It is suggested that conditions found in TH abnormalities such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH) share symptomatic behavioral impulses found in cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other cognitive disorders. Disrupters of TH are various and prevalent in the environment. This paper reviews the mechanisms of TH disruption caused by the general class of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAH)'s acting as thyroid disrupters (TD). PHAHs influence the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, as mimicry agents affecting synthesis and secretion of TH. Exposure to PHAH induces liver microsomal enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) resulting in accelerated clearance of TH. PHAHs can compromise function of transport and receptor binding proteins such as transthyretin and aryl hydrocarbon receptors (Ahr). Glucose metabolism and catecholamine synthesis are disrupted in the brain by the presence of PHAH. Further, PHAH can alter brain growth and development by perturbing cytoskeletal formation, thereby affecting neuronal migration, elongation and branching. The complex relationships between PHAH and cognitive function are examined in regard to the disruption of T4 regulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, blood, brain, neurons, liver and pre and postnatal development.

  19. Reversible changes in brain glucose metabolism following thyroid function normalization in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Q; Zhang, S; Guan, Y H; Ye, H Y; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Q Y; Xue, R D; Zeng, M F; Zuo, C T; Li, Y M

    2011-01-01

    Patients with hyperthyroidism frequently present with regional cerebral metabolic changes, but the consequences of endocrine-induced brain changes after thyroid function normalization are unclear. We hypothesized that the changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism are related to thyroid hormone levels in patients with hyperthyroid, and some of these changes can be reversed with antithyroid therapy. Relative regional cerebral glucose metabolism was compared between 10 new-onset untreated patients with hyperthyroidism and 20 healthy control participants by using brain FDG-PET scans. Levels of emotional distress were evaluated by using the SAS and SDS. Patients were treated with methimazole. A follow-up PET scan was performed to assess metabolic changes of the brain when thyroid functions normalized. Compared with controls, patients exhibited lower activity in the limbic system, frontal lobes, and temporal lobes before antithyroid treatment. There were positive correlations between scores of depression and regional metabolism in the cingulate and paracentral lobule. The severity of depression and anxiety covaried negatively with pretreatment activity in the inferior temporal and inferior parietal gyri respectively. Compared with the hyperthyroid status, patients with normalized thyroid functions showed an increased metabolism in the left parahippocampal, fusiform, and right superior frontal gyri. The decrease in both FT3 and FT4 was associated with increased activity in the left parahippocampal and right superior frontal gyri. The changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism are related to thyroid hormone levels in patients with hyperthyroidism, and some cerebral hypometabolism can be improved after antithyroid therapy.

  20. Dual thyroid ectopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Akeely, Mohammed H.

    2003-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid gland is a rare embryological fault of thyroid development .Dual ectopic thyroid is more rare and only 8 cases have been reported in the literature. The author presents a case of dual ectopic thyroid in a 16 year old boy with an anterior red neck mass, which is gradually growing in size particularly in last 2 years. The initial diagnosis was thyroglossal duct cyst. Thyroid function test revealed elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone. Ultrasound of the neck did not show thyroid gland in its normal pre tracheal position. Thyroid scan (Technetium 99)revealed the diagnosis of dual thyroid ectopia(lingual and subhyoid). (author)

  1. Real-time elastography in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules: relationship with TSH levels, scintigraphy, and ultrasound patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Paone, Gaetano; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Ceriani, Luca; Giovanella, Luca

    2017-12-01

    Real-time elastography has been proposed to increase the sensitivity of ultrasound and improve the detection of thyroid nodules at risk of malignancy. To date sparse data on real-time elastography assessment of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules exist. Here, we investigated the potential role of real-time elastography in autonomously functioning thyroid nodule assessment. Specifically, the correlation between serum hormones and real-time elastography score, as well as other clinical and ultrasound features, was analyzed. Patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule identified by I-123 scintigraphy from September 2015 to July 2016 and undergoing ultrasound, real-time elastography, and thyroid function evaluation were selected. All autonomously functioning thyroid nodule were classified as RTE I (prevalence of red or green color with blue in up to 25% of the nodule area), RTE II (blue in 25-75%), or RTE III (blue in more than 75%). The association between suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone and patient's age, nodule's size, ultrasound presentation, and real-time elastography scoring was analyzed by Odds Ratio in univariate fashion and multivariate model. A number of 47 subjects with single autonomously functioning thyroid nodule were enrolled. Median age of 63 years, median size of 2.0 cm, and suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone levels in 32% of cases were found. Those nodules classified by ultrasound at high risk underwent fine-needle aspiration cytology and cancer was excluded. At real-time elastography evaluation, a 45% of autonomously functioning thyroid nodule had a hard appearance (RTE III) and had thyroid stimulating hormone significantly lower than the other (p < 0.0001). A model of multivariate logistic regression including nodule's size, ultrasound characteristics, and elastographic presentation showed that only RTE III was significantly associated with suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (Odds Ratio of 50). Autonomously

  2. Cytomorphologic spectrum of Hashimoto′s thyroiditis and its clinical correlation: A retrospective study of 52 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish S Chandanwale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hashimoto′s thyroiditis (HT is an autoimmune disease and it is more prevalent in Asians. The incidence of HT seems to be increasing in the recent times. It is one of the most common cause of hypothyroidism. The purpose of this study is to review the cytomorphologic spectrum of HT and correlate it with clinical findings including thyroid function and antibody profile. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the fine-needle aspiration (FNA features of 52 HT patients. Based on cytomorphologic features patients were categorized into three groups. Clinical findings including thyroid function and thyroid peroxidase (TPO antibody profile were correlated with cytomorphologic features in all three groups. Results: Majority of the patients were females and in 2 nd , 3 rd and 4 th decades. Diffuse goiter and thyroid hypofunction were the common findings. Significant number of patients had thyroid hyperfunction. Increased lymphocytes on the background and lymphocytic infiltration of thyroid follicular cell clusters in cytology smears were diagnostic of HT. The 32 patients showed elevated titers of TPO antibodies. In the early stages and mild form of the disease, results of thyroid function and anti TPO antibodies are quite variable. Conclusions: HT is a disease of young and middle age and mostly occur in females. Clinical findings alone may not be adequate for definitive diagnosis. FNA is the gold standard for diagnosis. In the presence of abundant colloid, follicular hyperplasia or co-existing neoplasm, careful interpretation of cytology smears should be done. Aspiration from more than one site minimizes the diagnostic pitfalls.

  3. Dynamic changes of central thyroid functions in the management of Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogansen, Sema Ciftci; Yalin, Gulsah Yenidunya; Canbaz, Bulent; Tanrikulu, Seher; Yarman, Sema

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of central thyroid dysfunctions in Cushing's syndrome (CS). We also aimed to evaluate the frequency of hyperthyroidism due to the syndrome of the inappropriate secretion of TSH (SITSH), which was recently defined in patients with insufficient hydrocortisone replacement after surgery. We evaluated thyroid functions (TSH and free thyroxine [fT4]) at the time of diagnosis, during the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis recovery, and after surgery in 35 patients with CS. The patients were separated into two groups: ACTH-dependent CS (group 1, n = 20) and ACTH-independent CS (group 2, n = 15). Patients' clinical and laboratory findings were evaluated in five visits in the outpatient clinic of the endocrinology department. The frequency of baseline suppressed TSH levels and central hypothyroidism were determined to be 37% (n = 13) and 26% (n = 9), respectively. A negative correlation was found between baseline cortisol and TSH levels (r = -0.45, p = 0.006). All patients with central hypothyroidism and suppressed TSH levels showed recovery at the first visit without levothyroxine treatment. SITSH was not detected in any of the patients during the postoperative period. No correlation was found between prednisolone replacement after surgery and TSH or fT4 levels on each visit. Suppressed TSH levels and central hypothyroidism may be detected in CS, independent of etiology. SITSH was not detected in the early postoperative period due to our adequate prednisolone replacement doses.

  4. Reciprocal changes in parathyroid hormone and thyroid function after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.S.; Nussbaum, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with negative calcium balance, normal to increased serum calcium concentrations, and decreased cortical bone mass. There is no agreement concerning serum PTH levels in such patients. In this study, we measured serum PTH concentrations using a newly developed sensitive 2-site immunoradiometric assay in 17 hyperthyroid patients before and after radioiodine therapy. The mean serum PTH and calcium concentrations were 28 +/- 15 (+/- SD) ng/L (normal range, 12-65 ng/L) and 2.4 +/- 0.5 mmol/L (normal range, 2.1-2.6 mmol/L) before therapy. After therapy serum PTH concentrations increased in 16 of the 17 patients. The increase in serum PTH was greater in the 9 patients who became hypothyroid rapidly (29 +/- 15 to 75 +/- 29 ng/L) compared with that in the 8 patients who became euthyroid gradually (26 +/- 16 to 45 +/- 24 ng/L). Serum PTH rose along with TSH as the patients became hypothyroid after radioiodine, and both serum PTH and TSH fell when L-T4 therapy was given. The reciprocal changes in serum PTH concentrations and thyroid function over time suggest a strong association of bone mineral metabolism and thyroid status

  5. Reciprocal changes in parathyroid hormone and thyroid function after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.; Nussbaum, S.R.

    1989-06-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with negative calcium balance, normal to increased serum calcium concentrations, and decreased cortical bone mass. There is no agreement concerning serum PTH levels in such patients. In this study, we measured serum PTH concentrations using a newly developed sensitive 2-site immunoradiometric assay in 17 hyperthyroid patients before and after radioiodine therapy. The mean serum PTH and calcium concentrations were 28 +/- 15 (+/- SD) ng/L (normal range, 12-65 ng/L) and 2.4 +/- 0.5 mmol/L (normal range, 2.1-2.6 mmol/L) before therapy. After therapy serum PTH concentrations increased in 16 of the 17 patients. The increase in serum PTH was greater in the 9 patients who became hypothyroid rapidly (29 +/- 15 to 75 +/- 29 ng/L) compared with that in the 8 patients who became euthyroid gradually (26 +/- 16 to 45 +/- 24 ng/L). Serum PTH rose along with TSH as the patients became hypothyroid after radioiodine, and both serum PTH and TSH fell when L-T4 therapy was given. The reciprocal changes in serum PTH concentrations and thyroid function over time suggest a strong association of bone mineral metabolism and thyroid status.

  6. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study: an international cooperative scientific study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Simon, S L; Trott, K R; Fujimori, K; Nakashima, N; Arisawa, K; Schoemaker, M J

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer.

  7. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study. An international cooperative scientific study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Arisawa, Kokichi [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Simon, S.L.; Trott, K.R.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Schoemaker, M.J.

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer. (author)

  8. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study. An international cooperative scientific study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Arisawa, Kokichi; Simon, S.L.; Trott, K.R.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Schoemaker, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer. (author)

  9. Estado actual y perspectiva de las pruebas relacionadas con el estudio de la función tiroidea Present state and prospects of tests related to the thyroid function study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Alavez Martín

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades tiroideas pueden ser diagnosticadas, en la mayoría de los casos, por la clínica. Sin embargo, existen situaciones que requieren de las pruebas de función tiroidea con el fin de valorar correctamente al paciente en las etapas iniciales de la disfunción de esta glàndula, con el fin de establecer el tratamiento adecuado de forma individual y el seguimiento de la evolución de la enfermedad. En esta revisión hacemos referencia a las pruebas empleadas para valorar el estado de la función tiroidea y se señalan sus ventajas, limitaciones y tendencias actuales. La determinación de TSH por procederes de segunda y tercera generaciones permite establecer el diagnóstico del hipertiroidismo e hipotiroidismo primarios, aún en las formas subclínicas de ambos, al mostrar inhibición o hipersecreción, respectivamente, así como la dosis adecuada de l-levotiroxina y orientar a una causa hipofisaria de esta disfunción. La determinación de T4 es de gran valor para conocer la intensidad de la disfunción tiroidea y para valorar la eficacia del tratamiento en las primeras semanas de iniciado. La determinación de T3 tiene su principal indicación ante la sospecha de la presencia del llamado hipertiroidismo por T3. La determinación de T4 y T3 totales da lugar a una interpretación incorrecta en cuanto a las situaciones que modifican la globulina transportadora de tiroxina (TBG. La tendencia actual es al empleo de TSHs como prueba inicial para el diagnóstico de la disfunción tiroidea, la cual se debe indicar teniendo siempre en cuenta la clínica y, de ser necesario, asociarla a la determinación de T4 o T3 libres.The thyroid diseases may be diagnosed in most of cases by the clinics. However, there are circumstances that required thyroid function tests to correctly assess the patient in initial stages of thyroid dysfunction and give an adequate treatment on an individual basis and the follow-up of the disease. This review makes

  10. Thyroid size change by CT monitoring after sorafenib or sunitinib treatment in patients with renal cell carcinoma: Comparison with thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Satoru; Maeda, Tetsuo; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Fujii, Masahiko; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Hypothyroidism is a common complication in patients receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We evaluated the relationship between thyroid size evident on CT and thyroid function in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Materials and methods: Forty-two patients with metastatic RCC receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sorafenib n = 25; sunitinib n = 17) and, followed-up for ≥12 months were eligible. Patients who had ever shown an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of >10 mU/l were defined as having “hypothyroidism”. CT scans were performed before, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the start of treatment. The area of the thyroid in the maximum section at each examination was measured and compared with that before treatment. Using repeated-measures ANOVA, differences in thyroid size were compared over time between patients with and without “hypothyroidism”, in relation to the type of drug employed. Results: Twenty-one patients (sorafenib 9, sunitinib 12) developed “hypothyroidism” 95 ± 88 days (range 12–315 days) after the start of treatment. In such patients, the thyroid was reduced in size to 89 ± 16% after 3 months, 81 ± 21% after 6 months, 71 ± 21% after 9 months and 68 ± 21% after 12 months, whereas the patients without “hypothyroidism” maintained a thyroid size of 90 ± 12% even after 12 months (p = 0.0030). Among the patients with “hypothyroidism”, those treated with sunitinib tended to show greater thyroid size reduction than those with sorafenib (59 ± 23% vs. 79 ± 13%, after 12 months). Conclusion: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors cause an apparent thyroid size reduction in patients with “hypothyroidism”

  11. Thyroid size change by CT monitoring after sorafenib or sunitinib treatment in patients with renal cell carcinoma: Comparison with thyroid function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kitajima@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Takahashi, Satoru; Maeda, Tetsuo; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Fujii, Masahiko [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato [Department of Urology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: Hypothyroidism is a common complication in patients receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We evaluated the relationship between thyroid size evident on CT and thyroid function in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Materials and methods: Forty-two patients with metastatic RCC receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sorafenib n = 25; sunitinib n = 17) and, followed-up for ≥12 months were eligible. Patients who had ever shown an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of >10 mU/l were defined as having “hypothyroidism”. CT scans were performed before, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the start of treatment. The area of the thyroid in the maximum section at each examination was measured and compared with that before treatment. Using repeated-measures ANOVA, differences in thyroid size were compared over time between patients with and without “hypothyroidism”, in relation to the type of drug employed. Results: Twenty-one patients (sorafenib 9, sunitinib 12) developed “hypothyroidism” 95 ± 88 days (range 12–315 days) after the start of treatment. In such patients, the thyroid was reduced in size to 89 ± 16% after 3 months, 81 ± 21% after 6 months, 71 ± 21% after 9 months and 68 ± 21% after 12 months, whereas the patients without “hypothyroidism” maintained a thyroid size of 90 ± 12% even after 12 months (p = 0.0030). Among the patients with “hypothyroidism”, those treated with sunitinib tended to show greater thyroid size reduction than those with sorafenib (59 ± 23% vs. 79 ± 13%, after 12 months). Conclusion: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors cause an apparent thyroid size reduction in patients with “hypothyroidism”.

  12. Retrospective study of thyroid cancer treatment: aims and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosmikova, K.; Hermanska, J.; Jirsa, L.; Karny, M.; Samal, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although opinions preferring individual administration of activity in the treatment of thyroid cancer with 131 I predominate, sufficient quantitative arguments in favor of this approach are unavailable as yet. Therefore, a retrospective study involving statistical processing was proposed with the aim to evaluate the relations between available data of the patients and success of treatment. Ideally, recommendations regarding activity to be administered in dependence on the biophysical status of the patient should emerge from the study

  13. Association of thyroid function with human serum ghrelin and leptin levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinping; Xu Hao; Wu Qiulian

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of different status of thyroid function (hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism as well as euthyroid status) on serum ghrelin and leptin levels. Methods: The levels of serum ghrelin and leptin were determined by radio immunoassay in 46 untreated subjects with hyperthyroidism, 15 hyperthyroid patients achieved a euthyroid status after radioiodine 131 I therapy, 21 cases of hypothyroidism and 18 cases of normal controls, respectively. Meanwhile, the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ), free thyroxine (FT 4 ) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured by chemiluminescence immune assay. Results: (1) The levels of serum ghrelin in untreated hyperthyroidism were significantly lower than those in hyperthyroid patients achieved a euthyroid status (t=3.21, P 3 (r=-0.29, P 4 (r=-0.26, P< 0.05), positively correlated with serum TSH (r=0.36, P<0.05); serum leptin levels did not correlate with thyroid hormone. Conclusion: The levels of serum ghrelin were differently under different thyroid functional status and correlated with thyroid hormone, while serum leptin were not. (authors)

  14. Interconnection between thyroid hormone signalling pathways and parvovirus cytotoxic functions.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanacker, J M; Laudet, V; Adelmant, G; Stéhelin, D; Rommelaere, J

    1993-01-01

    Nonstructural (NS) proteins of autonomous parvoviruses can repress expression driven by heterologous promoters, an activity which thus far has not been separated from their cytotoxic effects. It is shown here that, in transient transfection assays, the NS-1 protein of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) activates the promoter of the human c-erbA1 gene, encoding the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor alpha. The endogenous c-erbA1 promoter is also a target for induction upon MVMp infection. M...

  15. Early thyroxine treatment in Down syndrome and thyroid function later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaveling-Soonawala, Nitash; Witteveen, M Emma; Marchal, Jan Pieter; Klouwer, Femke C C; Ikelaar, Nadine A; Smets, Anne M J B; van Rijn, Rick R; Endert, Erik; Fliers, Eric; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul

    2017-05-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis set point develops during the fetal period and first two years of life. We hypothesized that thyroxine treatment during these first two years, in the context of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in children with Down syndrome, may have influenced the HPT axis set point and may also have influenced the development of Down syndrome-associated autoimmune thyroiditis. We included 123 children with Down syndrome 8.7 years after the end of an RCT comparing thyroxine treatment vs placebo and performed thyroid function tests and thyroid ultrasound. We analyzed TSH and FT4 concentrations in the subgroup of 71 children who were currently not on thyroid medication and had no evidence of autoimmune thyroiditis. TSH concentrations did not differ, but FT4 was significantly higher in the thyroxine-treated group than that in the placebo group (14.1 vs 13.0 pmol/L; P  = 0.02). There was an increase in anti-TPO positivity, from 1% at age 12 months to 6% at age 24 months and 25% at age 10.7 years with a greater percentage of children with anti-TPO positivity in the placebo group (32%) compared with the thyroxine-treated group (18.5%) ( P  = 0.12). Thyroid volume at age 10.7 years (mean: 3.4 mL; range: 0.5-7.5 mL) was significantly lower ( P  treatment during the first two years of life led to a mild increase in FT4 almost 9 years later on and may point to an interesting new mechanism influencing the maturing HPT axis set point. Furthermore, there was a trend toward less development of thyroid autoimmunity in the thyroxine treatment group, suggesting a protective effect of the early thyroxine treatment. Lastly, thyroid volume was low possibly reflecting Down-specific thyroid hypoplasia. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Radioactive iodine treatment of a functional thyroid carcinoma producing hyperthyroidism in a dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.E.; Kintzer, P.P.; Hurley, J.R.; Becker, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I) was used in the treatment of a 12-year-old female dog with hyperthyroidism resulting from a large, unresectable (and metastatic) thyroid carcinoma associated with signs of severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, nervousness) and high basal serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations, as well as thyroid radioiodine kinetic studies that showed a high radioiodine uptake into the thyroid (% thyroid uptake) and markedly increased serum concentrations of protein-bound iodine-131 (PB/sup 131/I) after /sup 131/I tracer injection. Thyroid imaging revealed diffuse radionuclide accumulation by the tumor, which involved both thyroid lobes. The dog was treated with three large doses of radioiodine (/sup 131/I), ranging from 60 to 75 mCi, given at intervals of 5 to 7 months. The dog became euthyroid, and the size of the tumor decreased by approximately 25% after each /sup 131/I treatment, improving the severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea, but both the hyperthyroid state and breathing difficulty recurred within a few months of each treatment. The dog was euthanatized 5 months after the last treatment because of progressive tracheal compression and pulmonary metastasis.

  17. Radioactive iodine treatment of a functional thyroid carcinoma producing hyperthyroidism in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.E.; Kintzer, P.P.; Hurley, J.R.; Becker, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive iodine ( 131 I) was used in the treatment of a 12-year-old female dog with hyperthyroidism resulting from a large, unresectable (and metastatic) thyroid carcinoma associated with signs of severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, nervousness) and high basal serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations, as well as thyroid radioiodine kinetic studies that showed a high radioiodine uptake into the thyroid (% thyroid uptake) and markedly increased serum concentrations of protein-bound iodine-131 (PB 131 I) after 131 I tracer injection. Thyroid imaging revealed diffuse radionuclide accumulation by the tumor, which involved both thyroid lobes. The dog was treated with three large doses of radioiodine ( 131 I), ranging from 60 to 75 mCi, given at intervals of 5 to 7 months. The dog became euthyroid, and the size of the tumor decreased by approximately 25% after each 131 I treatment, improving the severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea, but both the hyperthyroid state and breathing difficulty recurred within a few months of each treatment. The dog was euthanatized 5 months after the last treatment because of progressive tracheal compression and pulmonary metastasis

  18. External radiotherapy prior to thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallquist, A.; Loefroth, P.O.; Hardell, L.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study previous radiotherapy of malignant diseases as a risk factor for thyroid cancer. By using the Swedish Cancer Registry all cases of thyroid cancer with another malignant disease at least one year previously and living within the catchment area of the hospital were traced. During 1959-1989 a total of 1056 cases of thyroid cancer were identified. Of these, 37 had had another previous malignant disease and they constituted the cases in this study. As controls four persons with at least two malignant diseases, thyroid cancer excluded, were selected for each case from the same cancer registry. Ten (27.0%) of the 37 patients with thyroid cancer as a second tumor had earlier been irradiated with the treatment dose including the thyroid gland as compared with 34 (24.5%) of the 139 control patients. Eight of the ten cases with previous irradiation of the thyroid gland had papillary cancer. The median latency was 13 years. The estimated radiation dose in the thyroid varied between 3 and 40 Gy. External radiotherapy gave a crude odds ratio of 1.1 with 95% confidence interval = 0.5-2.8 for thyroid cancer. The weighted odds ratio was calculated to 2.3 with confidence interval = 0.5-8.9. This case-control study gave a nonsignificantly increased odds ratio for thyroid cancer in patients with external radiotherapy including the thyroid gland. 26 refs., 4 tabs

  19. Effects of Thyroid Hormone on Left Ventricular Volume and Function in Hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of thyroid hormone on the left ventricular (LV) volume and function in man with untreated hyperthyroidism and to determine the effects of successful therapy for thyrotoxicosis on the ventricular pathophysiology. In the present study, equilibrium ralhianuclide cardiac angiography was performed and LV volume index, ejection phase indexes of LV performance, serum thyroid hormone levels and other hemodynamic parameters were measured in 28 normal subjects and 39 patients with hyperthyroidism before treatment and again every 4 weeks for the first 2 months after the initiation of effective therapy. The result obtained were as follows; 1) In the untreated hyperthyroid state heart rate, blood volume, cardiac index and stroke volume index (97±14 beats/min, 73.5±11.8 ml/kg, 6.9±1.4 l/min/m2 and 77.6±13.8 ml/m2, respectively) were increased significantly compared to those in normal control (74±12 beats/min, 65.6±14.8 ml/kg, 3.8±1.2 l/min/m2 and 56.6±13.2 ml/m2 respectively). (Mean±SD). 2) There was a significant increase in LV end-diastolic volume index in patients with hyperthyroidism (30.5±7.5 for hyperthyroid group compared to a normal control of 22.2±6.5; P<0.001), whereas end-systolic volume index remained unchanged 9.6±3.6 and 8.8±3.3 respectively. 3) In patients with hyperthyroidism, LV ejection fraction was 70.0±5.6%, fractional shortening 32.9±5.1%, mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (mean Vcf) 1.34±0.31 circ/sec and maximum ejection rate 3.47±0.80. All the ejection phase indexes were significantly greater than those in normal control (65.2±5.7%, 28.8±3.2%, 0.88±0.37 circ/sec and 2.27±0.50, respectively; p<0.001). 4) Effective therapy produced significant decrease in all the values of serum thyroid hormone concenrations (p<0.001), hemodynamic parameters (p<0.001), end-diastolic volume index (p<0.01) and ejection phase indexes of LV contractility in patients with hyperthyroidism

  20. Evaluation of blood glucose and thyroid function in Sudanese diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarib, M.O.A.

    2008-03-01

    This study composes of two parts. The first one is a survey of thyroid abnormalities, and the second one is experiment to estimate the level of thyroid hormones (T 4 , T 3 , TSH) among diabetic population and the relationship between the level of glucose, thyroid hormones and lipid profile (TC, LDL, TG, HDL) and comparison of the results with non diabetic group. The survey part of the study to determine the thyroid abnormalities, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism clinical or subclinical. Also the study group was divided in to two groups according to insulin requirement. Type I is insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and type II is non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The study subjects selected for this study consist of one hundred Sudanese diabetic patients, they had mean age of 46.51±10.672 years, a mean height of 162.06±10.77 cm and a mean weight of 73.47±14.91 kg. Fifty healthy non-diabetic people without endocrine disease were chosen as controls. Glucose, and thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine (total T 4 and T 3 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured. In addition hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) were also measured in both groups. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was calculated for each sample. Physical examinations such as height, weight, and history of diabetes, family history, treatment were recorded in both groups. Determination of serum hormones concentration was carried out using highly sensitive RIA technique. While determination of blood glucose, hemoglobin, and lipid profile was carried out using enzymatic colorimetric method. The results of this study showed that: 13 patients of the population screened had thyroid disease. The commonest diagnosis was sub clinical hyperthyroidism (6%), followed by sub clinical hypothyroidism (5%) and hyperthyroidism (2%). Female patients with diabetes had the highest annual risk of developing thyroid disease but all patient

  1. Evaluation of blood glucose and thyroid function in Sudanese diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarib, M O.A. [Department of Biochemistry, Atomic Energy Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2008-03-15

    This study composes of two parts. The first one is a survey of thyroid abnormalities, and the second one is experiment to estimate the level of thyroid hormones (T{sub 4}, T{sub 3}, TSH) among diabetic population and the relationship between the level of glucose, thyroid hormones and lipid profile (TC, LDL, TG, HDL) and comparison of the results with non diabetic group. The survey part of the study to determine the thyroid abnormalities, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism clinical or subclinical. Also the study group was divided in to two groups according to insulin requirement. Type I is insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and type II is non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The study subjects selected for this study consist of one hundred Sudanese diabetic patients, they had mean age of 46.51{+-}10.672 years, a mean height of 162.06{+-}10.77 cm and a mean weight of 73.47{+-}14.91 kg. Fifty healthy non-diabetic people without endocrine disease were chosen as controls. Glucose, and thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine (total T{sub 4} and T{sub 3}) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured. In addition hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) were also measured in both groups. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was calculated for each sample. Physical examinations such as height, weight, and history of diabetes, family history, treatment were recorded in both groups. Determination of serum hormones concentration was carried out using highly sensitive RIA technique. While determination of blood glucose, hemoglobin, and lipid profile was carried out using enzymatic colorimetric method. The results of this study showed that: 13 patients of the population screened had thyroid disease. The commonest diagnosis was sub clinical hyperthyroidism (6%), followed by sub clinical hypothyroidism (5%) and hyperthyroidism (2%). Female patients with diabetes had the highest annual risk of developing thyroid

  2. Molecular mechanisms of thyroid tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, K.; Fuehrer, D.

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are the most frequent endocrine disorder and occur in approximately 30% of the German population. Thyroid nodular disease constitutes a very heterogeneous entity. A striking diversity of possible functional and morphological features of a thyroid tumour derived from the same thyroid ancestor cell, is a hallmark of thyroid tumorigenesis and is due to specific genetic alterations. Defects in known candidate genes can be found in up to 70% of differentiated thyroid carcinomas and determine the respective cancer phenotype. Papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) harbour BRAF (or much less frequently RAS) mutations in sporadically occurring tumours, while radiation-induced PTC display chromosomal rearrangements such as RET, TRK, APR9 / BRAF. These genetic events results in constitutive MAPKinase activation. Follicular thyroid cancers (FTC) harbour RAS mutations or PAX8/ PPARγ rearrangements, both of which, however have also been identified in follicular adenoma. In addition, recent studies show, that activation of PI3K/AKT signalling occurs with high frequency in follicular thyroid tumours. Undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancers (ATC) display genetic features of FTC or PTC, in addition to aberant activation of multiple tyrosinkinase pathways (overexpression or mutations in PI3K and MAPK pathways). This underscores the concept of a sequential evolution of ATC from differentiated thyroid cancer, a process widely conceived to be triggered by p53 inactivation. In contrast, the molecular pathogenesis of benign thyroid tumours, in particular cold thyroid nodules is less known, except for toxic thyroid nodules, which arise from constitutive activation of cAMP signalling, predominantly through TSHR mutations. (orig.)

  3. Functional and morphological imaging of thyroid associated eye disease. Data evaluation by means of image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, H.

    2002-08-01

    Aim: to recognize the structures that show an uptake of a 99mTc-labeled octreotide tracer within the orbit and head in patients with thyroid associated eye disease relying on image fusion. Methods: A series of 18 patients presenting the signs and symptoms of thyroid associated eye disease were studied. Functional imaging was done with 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC, a newly in-house developed tracer. Both whole body as well as single photon emission tomographies (SPECT) of the head were obtained in each patient. Parallel to nuclear medicine imaging, morphological imaging was done using either computed tomography or magnetic resonance. Results: By means of image fusion farther more information on the functional status of the patients was obtained. All areas showing an uptake could be anatomically identified, revealing a series of organs that had not yet been consideren in this disease. The organs presenting tracer uptake showed characteristic forms as described below: - eye glass sign: lacrimal gland and lacrimal ducts - scissors sign: eye muscles, rectus sup. and inf. - arch on CT: muscle displacement - Omega sign: tonsils and salivary glands - W- sign: tonsils and salivary glands Conclusions: By means of image fusion it was possible to recognize that a series of organs of the neck and head express somatostatin receptors. We interpret these results as a sign of inflammation of the lacrimal glands, the lacrimal ducts, the cervical lymphatics, the anterior portions of the extra ocular eye muscles and muscles of the posterior cervical region. Somatostatin uptake in these sturctures reflects the prescence of specific receptors which reflect the immuno regulating function of the peptide. (author)

  4. Age and Menopausal Status Affect Osteoprotegerin and Osteocalcin Levels in Women Differently, Irrespective of Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Shinkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoprotegerin (OPG and osteocalcin (OC are essential bone proteins. Recent studies have demonstrated that they are not secreted solely by bone cells; they play roles in the vascular function and energy metabolism, and they are influenced by multiple factors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of menopause and age on OPG and OC in women with different thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Material and Methods We studied 49 women with elevated TSH, 26 with suppressed TSH, and 67 age-matched euthyroid controls. Of them 64 were menstruating and 78 postmenopausal. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, serum TSH, free thyroxin (FT4, OPG, and OC were measured. Results Generally, both OPG and OC were higher in the postmenopausal women than in the menstruating subjects (OPG 3.85 ± 1.49 pmol/L vs. 5.84 ± 2.42 pmol/L, P < 0.001; OC 8.84 ± 3.70 ng/dL vs. 12.87 ± 6.45 ng/dL, P < 0.001, and within the two thyroid dysfunction subgroups and the controls (all P < 0.05. OPG correlated with age (postmenopausal rho = 0.57, P < 0.001; premenopausal rho = 0.31, P = 0.015. Among the premenopausal subjects, OPG was higher in those with low TSH than in the controls ( P = 0.048. OC correlated negatively with BMI and WC in the postmenopausal group (Spearman rho = –-0.25, P = 0.03 and rho = –-0.42, P < 0.001 respectively. OC was higher in the postmenopausal subjects with low TSH than in those with elevated TSH ( P = 0.024, and correlated positively with FT4 (rho = 0.40, P = 0.002 and negatively with TSH (rho = -0.29, P = 0.013. CONCLUSIONS In women, OPG and OC depended differently on age and menopause and, to a lesser extent, on the thyroid function and body composition.

  5. Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in a patient with a single functioning kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sun Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF is a rare disease characterized by the presence of fibroinflammatory tissue around the abdominal aorta and ureteral entrapment in most cases. Idiopathic RPF is frequently reported in association with autoimmune diseases; however, there have been few reports of idiopathic RPF associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Here, we report a case of idiopathic RPF with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in a patient with a single functioning kidney, which was successfully treated by corticosteroid therapy and transient intraureteral stent insertion with a double-J catheter.

  6. Thyrocyte-specific Gq/G11 deficiency impairs thyroid function and prevents goiter development

    OpenAIRE

    Kero, Jukka; Ahmed, Kashan; Wettschureck, Nina; Tunaru, Sorin; Wintermantel, Tim; Greiner, Erich; Schütz, Günther; Offermanns, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The function of the adult thyroid is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which acts through a G protein–coupled receptor. Overactivation of the TSH receptor results in hyperthyroidism and goiter. The Gs-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclase–dependent cAMP formation has been regarded as the principal intracellular signaling mechanism mediating the action of TSH. Here we show that the Gq/G11-mediated signaling pathway plays an unexpected and essential role in the regulation of th...

  7. [Correlations of central nervous system and thyroid function under chronic emotional stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiragova, M G; Arkhangel'skaia, M I

    1982-06-01

    Experiments on cats exposed to chronic emotional stress induced during one week by 4-hour immobilization of the animals in conjunction with aperiodic electrocutaneous stimulation were made to study correlations of the time course of changes in the EEG of the cortical and subcortical structures and the content of thyroxin in the peripheral blood at varying time of the experiments. It was demonstrated that in the course of stress, the EEG manifests the cycles of "burst" activity of slow waves, which are first recorded in the posterior hypothalamus and then get generalized. This is accompanied by a significantly high thyroxin secretion. As the stress exposures are repeated, the EEG changes become dominant, also corresponding with high thyroxin secretion. After the experiments are over, the cycles of "burst" activity accompanied by enhanced thyroid function are still recordable over several days.

  8. CLINICAL STUDY OF HASHIMOTO’S THYROIDITIS & ITS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnaiah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis is a well-known clinical condition affecting the thyroid gland predominantly in women during 4 th decade & is often under diagnosed due its wide spectrum of clinical features. It could present as a multinodular goitre, diffuse goitre, or as a solitary nodule with features of Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism or Euthyroid state. AIMS 1. To detect HT by FNAC, Antibody titers finally by Histopathology of excised Thyroid gland. 2. To know its various clinical features. 3. To study Sex ratio & Age it affects. 4. Management i.e. by conservative or surgical. 5. Complications & malignant transformation including Lymphomas. MATERIALS & METHODS 60 patients were taken for 2 years’ period from March 2014 to Feb 2016 attending Government General Hospital-Nizamabad; Telangana State. OBSERVATIONS  56 case are females, 4 cases are males; common age is 30-39 yrs., >50 yrs.-2 cases.  All cases presented with swelling in front of neck, only 5 had toxicity, 2 had obstructive symptoms. None had voice change.  36 Cases- 60% had MNG, 18 Cases- 30% diffuse goitre and 6 cases- 10%- solitary nodule.  The Hypothyroid, Euthyroid & Hyperthyroid state here are 48%, 44% & 8% comparative to Fenn et al -44%, 47% and 7%,  FNAC- was positive 90% here where as Lakshman Rao et al study has 77%.  We had 80% Anti Thyroid Antibodies positivity, others shown 63% and 84%. MANAGEMENT All are put on Hormone-Thyroxine replacement or suppression therapy and all patients found to be clinically Euthyroid during follow up. All patients showed decrease in size of gland except those with MNG. 8 patients underwent surgery- Subtotal Thyroidectomy. Of these 6 were Colloid goiters, later on diagnosed as HT by final HPE. One case was operated for cosmetic reason and the other for obstructive symptoms which was noticed to be lymphoma after HPE.

  9. Septin 7 immunoexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igci, Yusuf Ziya; Erkilic, Suna; Arslan, Ahmet

    2014-07-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type among thyroid cancers. The diagnosis of PTC may be challenging when follicular variant (FVPTC) of this disease is present due to the resemblance of nuclear properties of the classical type (CVPTC). However, making use of ancillary molecular markers in the diagnosis of PTC may help. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the SEPT7 protein expression in PTC. A total of 55 paraffin block tissue samples comprising encapsulated FVPTC (FVPTC(e), n=25), and CVPTC (n=15), and benign hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HypN, n=15) were used in this study. Nuclear, cytoplasmic, and overall (total) SEPT7 protein expression levels were determined by using immunohistochemistry. Nuclear, cytoplasmic, and overall SEPT7 expressions (p=0.02, p=0.001, p=0.002, respectively) were significantly lower in FVPTC(e) tissues when compared to HypN. In CVPTC group, nuclear expression was significantly lower (p=0.004) while overall and cytoplasmic expressions were not changed (p>0.05). In HypN group, highest nuclear (mean=2.73), cytoplasmic (mean=2.86), and overall (mean=2.86) expression scores were detected. Significantly lower SEPT7 expression in all expressional categories in FVPTC(e) group may be a sign of different molecular signature in this type of tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Thyroid malignancy among goitrous thyroid lesions: a review of hospital-based studies in Malaysia and Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htwe, T T

    2012-03-01

    Endemic goitre is a major concern in many parts of the world, including Southeast Asia. Goitrous thyroid lesion is postulated as a precursor lesion to thyroid cancer (TC). This paper reviews the prevalence rates and characteristics of TC among cases of goitrous thyroid-swelling in different parts of Malaysia and Myanmar. Recorded data from hospital-based retrospective studies of thyroid cases, whose study periods ranged from three to 11 years, were analysed. These included research findings from the author's publications as well as other published review articles of retrospective analyses. The incidence of TC varies among gender, age, race/ethnicity and histological type. There appears to be a higher rate of occurrence among females aged 21-60 years. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the more common histological type compared to follicular cancer. This review also presents a descriptive analysis and discussion on studies conducted in other countries. Further exploration is warranted in order to uncover the possible risk factors for the rising incidence of TC.

  11. [Effect of emotional-algesic stress on the hormonal function of thyroid and parathyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuripka, V I; Belokon', L E; Iakushev, V S

    1989-01-01

    Experiments on 215 Wistar rats have revealed that the state of the endured stress is an essential factor inducing disturbance in functioning of the hypothalamus-adenohypophysis-thyroid gland system accompanied by disturbance in regulation of the thyrotropin and triiodothyronine formation under conditions of myocardium necrosis development.

  12. Thyroid function disorders--Guidelines of the Netherlands Association of Internal Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A. F.; Berghout, A.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Kooy, A.; Smits, J. W. A.; Hermus, A. R. M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid function disorders are common with a female to male ratio of 4 to 1. In adult women primary hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis have a prevalence of 3.5/1000 and 0.8/1000, respectively. This guideline is aimed at secondary care providers especially internists, but also contains relevant

  13. relationship of thyroid and adrenal function to growth rate in bos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of thyroid function, lower energy turnover and therefore thermal stability of B. indicus breeds (Fuller, 1969). The significant negative correlations between growth rates and plasma cortisol levels agree with the finding that cattle with low levels of glucocorticoid activity tend to grow more rapidly (Purchas, 1970; Hafs et ai. 1971) ...

  14. Disappearance of some autonomously functioning thyroid nodules following TSH stimulation: Pathogenetic hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vattimo, A.; Pisani, M.; Martini, G.

    1983-04-01

    The disappearance of a hot nodule following TSH stimulation has been observed in 6 subjects with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule, in the thyroid scan obtained using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate and /sup 131/I. These findings have been related by many workers to the hyperreactivity of the nodular tissue to TSH: the disappearance of the nodule is due to a more rapid turnover of the tracer. In this work a new pathogenetic hypothesis is proposed: the disappearance of hot thyroid nodules might be due to ischaemia induced by the reaction of the healthy tissue, which had previously been inhibited. This hypothesis is confirmed by the scans performed shortly after administration of the tracers.

  15. Disappearance of some autonomously functioning thyroid nodules following TSH stimulation: Pathogenetic hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vattimo, A.; Pisani, M.; Martini, G.

    1983-01-01

    The disappearance of a hot nodule following TSH stimulation has been observed in 6 subjects with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule, in the thyroid scan obtained using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate and 131 I. These findings have been related by many workers to the hyperreactivity of the nodular tissue to TSH: the disappearance of the nodule is due to a more rapid turnover of the tracer. In this work a new pathogenetic hypothesis is proposed: the disappearance of hot thyroid nodules might be due to ischaemia induced by the reaction of the healthy tissue, which had previously been inhibited. This hypothesis is confirmed by the scans performed shortly after administration of the tracers. (orig.) [de

  16. Some parameters of thyroid function in Dutch-Miranda rats submitted to chronic treatment of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenfeld, T.G.P.; Moura, E.G. de; Rosenthal, D.

    1986-01-01

    Some aspects of thyroid function in rats whose blood lithium levels were maintained are investigated. At therapeutic levels during 1,5 to 2 months. Adult young male rats (isogenic Dutch-Miranda) of the same litter were randomly distributed into paired experimental and control groups of 3 animals. The animals were fed comercial chow and received tap water or LiCl 12,5 mM in distiled water to drink, ad-libitum. At the end of experimental period each animal received an intraperitoneal tracer dosis of I-131 (5-6 uCi), 72 h later their thyroids were removed, weighed and counted to determine the I-131 uptake. The pooled thyroids of each group were homogeneized and supernadant and particulate fractions were separed by centrifugation. TPO activity was determined in the pseudosolubilized particulate feaction. (Author) [pt

  17. The influence of elevated iodine supply on the autonomously functioning thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, W.; Kutzim, H.; Wellner, U.

    1984-01-01

    A pharmacokinetic two-compartment model of iodine metabolism has been established on the basis of data from the literature and our own experimental investigations. By this model it is possible to estimate the effect either of prolonged elevation of iodide supply or of a single administration of a high dose of inorganic iodide in the presence of autonomously functioning thyroid tissue. Prolonged elevation of iodide supply in regions of iodine deficiency will cause manifest hyperthyroidism in many cases of thyroidal autonomy (cases with facultative hyperthyroidism). The administration of a single high dose of iodide, as it is proposed for the situation of an accident in a nuclear power station (100 mg NaI) in order to reduce the radiation burden to the surrounding population, carries almost no risk in cases of thyroid autonomy. (orig.) [de

  18. Influence of different thyroid functional statuses on human serum IL-8, TNF levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Feng; Jiao Yanxiang; Guang Yancen; Zhang Zhu; Wei Cuiying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different statuses of thyroid function (hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism as well as euthyroid status) on serum IL-8, TNF levels. Methods: Serum IL-8, TNF levels of 95 hyperthyroidism patients (41 males, 54 females), 53 hypothyroidism patients (23 males, 30 females), 45 euthyroid controls (24 males, 21 females) were measured with RIA. Results: 1. Serum IL-8 levels in hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease) patients were significantly higher than those in controls. (F=2.93, p 0.05). IL-8 and TNF levels were also not correlated to age and thyroid hormone levels. Conclusion: Both IL-8 and TNF took part in many auto-immure pathological processes including hyper-and hypo-thyroidism

  19. Neonatal thyroid function in Seveso 25 years after maternal exposure to dioxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Baccarelli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal hypothyroidism has been associated in animal models with maternal exposure to several environmental contaminants; however, evidence for such an association in humans is inconsistent. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a persistent and widespread toxic environmental contaminant, is associated with modified neonatal thyroid function in a large, highly exposed population in Seveso, Italy.Between 1994 and 2005, in individuals exposed to TCDD after the 1976 Seveso accident we conducted: (i a residence-based population study on 1,014 children born to the 1,772 women of reproductive age in the most contaminated zones (A, very high contamination; B, high contamination, and 1,772 age-matched women from the surrounding noncontaminated area (reference; (ii a biomarker study on 51 mother-child pairs for whom recent maternal plasma dioxin measurements were available. Neonatal blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (b-TSH was measured on all children. We performed crude and multivariate analyses adjusting for gender, birth weight, birth order, maternal age, hospital, and type of delivery. Mean neonatal b-TSH was 0.98 microU/ml (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-1.08 in the reference area (n = 533, 1.35 microU/ml (95% CI 1.22-1.49 in zone B (n = 425, and 1.66 microU/ml (95% CI 1.19-2.31 in zone A (n = 56 (p 5 microU/ml was 2.8% in the reference area, 4.9% in zone B, and 16.1% in zone A (p < 0.001. Neonatal b-TSH was correlated with current maternal plasma TCDD (n = 51, beta = 0.47, p < 0.001 and plasma toxic equivalents of coplanar dioxin-like compounds (n = 51, beta = 0.45, p = 0.005.Our data indicate that environmental contaminants such as dioxins have a long-lasting capability to modify neonatal thyroid function after the initial exposure.

  20. Thyroid Function Within the Normal Range, Subclinical Hypothyroidism, and the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Christine; da Costa, Bruno R; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Feller, Martin; Floriani, Carmen; Bauer, Douglas C; Cappola, Anne R; Heckbert, Susan R; Ceresini, Graziano; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Peeters, Robin P; Luben, Robert; Völzke, Henry; Dörr, Marcus; Walsh, John P; Bremner, Alexandra; Iacoviello, Massimo; Macfarlane, Peter; Heeringa, Jan; Stott, David J; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Magnani, Jared W; Aujesky, Drahomir; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2017-11-28

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a highly prevalent disorder leading to heart failure, stroke, and death. Enhanced understanding of modifiable risk factors may yield opportunities for prevention. The risk of AF is increased in subclinical hyperthyroidism, but it is uncertain whether variations in thyroid function within the normal range or subclinical hypothyroidism are also associated with AF. We conducted a systematic review and obtained individual participant data from prospective cohort studies that measured thyroid function at baseline and assessed incident AF. Studies were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from inception to July 27, 2016. The euthyroid state was defined as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.45 to 4.49 mIU/L, and subclinical hypothyroidism as TSH 4.5 to 19.9 mIU/L with free thyroxine (fT4) levels within reference range. The association of TSH levels in the euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid range with incident AF was examined by using Cox proportional hazards models. In euthyroid participants, we additionally examined the association between fT4 levels and incident AF. Of 30 085 participants from 11 cohorts (278 955 person-years of follow-up), 1958 (6.5%) had subclinical hypothyroidism and 2574 individuals (8.6%) developed AF during follow-up. TSH at baseline was not significantly associated with incident AF in euthyroid participants or those with subclinical hypothyroidism. Higher fT4 levels at baseline in euthyroid individuals were associated with increased AF risk in age- and sex-adjusted analyses (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.66, for the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile of fT4; P for trend ≤0.001 across quartiles). Estimates did not substantially differ after further adjustment for preexisting cardiovascular disease. In euthyroid individuals, higher circulating fT4 levels, but not TSH levels, are associated with increased risk of incident AF. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Interconnection between thyroid hormone signalling pathways and parvovirus cytotoxic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, J M; Laudet, V; Adelmant, G; Stéhelin, D; Rommelaere, J

    1993-01-01

    Nonstructural (NS) proteins of autonomous parvoviruses can repress expression driven by heterologous promoters, an activity which thus far has not been separated from their cytotoxic effects. It is shown here that, in transient transfection assays, the NS-1 protein of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) activates the promoter of the human c-erbA1 gene, encoding the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor alpha. The endogenous c-erbA1 promoter is also a target for induction upon MVMp infection. Moreover, T3 was found to up-modulate the level of cell sensitivity to parvovirus attack. These data suggest an interconnection between T3 signalling and NS cytotoxic pathways. Images PMID:8230488

  2. Assessment of status of thyroid function in patients of beta thalassemia major, reporting to OPD of military hospital, rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehanzeb, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the status of thyroid functions in patients of Beta Thalassemia Major, reporting to OPD of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Paediatric Outpatients Department of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from 1st Jan to 30th Jun 2012. Material and Methods: After taking informed consent from the parents of all the children fulfilling the inclusion criteria, detailed history was taken and blood samples were drawn by strict aseptic means. Samples taken from these patients included complete blood and thyroid profile (serum thyroxine T4, triiodothyronine T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone TSH). These blood samples were labeled and sent to Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi for analysis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Primary hypothyroidism was defined by TSH levels >4IU/ml. Statistical analysis was done at the end of study using SPSS version 10. Significance for association was calculated using student t-test. Results: Sixty patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria out of these sixty four patients lost the follow up while 56 patients completed the study. Out of 56 patients, 21 (37.5 percent) had biochemical evidence of hypothyroidism. Mean Ferritin level was 3924 +- 1247ng/ml in hypothyroid and 3136 +- 1387ng/ml in euthyroid patients indicating a significant difference in mean serum ferritin levels between hypothyroid patients and others. Conclusion: The study demonstrates hypothyroidism in a significant number of hyper transfused Beta- thalassemic patients, emphasizing the importance of monitoring thyroid functions in thalassemic patients, particularly in those receiving suboptimal chelation. (author)

  3. Histopathologic reproducibility of thyroid disease in an epidemiologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Griffel, B.; Liban, E.; Modan, B.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the long-term effects of childhood scalp irradiation demonstrated a significantly increased risk of thyroid tumors in the irradiated population. Because of the complexity of thyroid cancer diagnosis, a histopathologic slide review of 59 of the 68 patients (irradiated and nonirradiated) with thyroid disease was undertaken. The review revealed 90% agreement (kappa = +0.85, P less than 0.01) between the original and review diagnosis. Four of 27 cases previously diagnosed as malignant were reclassified as benign, yielding a cancer misdiagnosis rate of 14.8%. All four of the misdiagnosed cancers were of follicular or mixed papillary-follicular type. As a result of the histologic review, the ratio of malignant to benign tumors decreased from 2.55 to 1.75. Since disagreement in diagnosis was similar in the irradiated and nonirradiated groups, the relative risk of radiation-associated neoplasms did not change substantially. The histopathologic review shows that although there were some problems in diagnostic reproducibility, they were not statistically significant and did not alter our previous conclusions regarding radiation exposure. However, a 15% reduction in the number of malignancies might affect epidemiologic studies with an external comparison as well as geographic or temporal comparisons

  4. Age impact on autoimmune thyroid disease in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid autoimmune disease, a widespread phenomenon in female population, impairs thyroid function during pregnancy. Identifying cases, which will develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy, is crucial in the follow-up process. The study group comprised 108 females, with ages between 20-40 years; with known inactive autoimmune thyroid disease, before pregnancy that became pregnant in the study follow-up period. They were monitored by means of clinical, hormonal and immunological assays. Supplemental therapy with thyroid hormones was used, where needed. Maternal age and level of anti-thyroid antibodies were used to predict thyroid functional impairment.

  5. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective, case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly

  6. Iodine Intake and Thyroid Function in Pregnant Women in a Private Clinical Practice in Northwestern Sydney before Mandatory Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Blumenthal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The primary objective of the study was to assess the iodine nutritional status, and its effect on thyroid function, of pregnant women in a private obstetrical practice in Sydney. Methods. It was a cross-sectional study undertaken between November 2007 and March 2009. Blood samples were taken from 367 women at their first antenatal visit between 7 and 11 weeks gestation for measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and free thyroxine (FT4 levels and spot urine samples for urinary iodine excretion were taken at the same time as blood collection. Results. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC for all women was 81 μg/l (interquartile range 41–169 μg/l. 71.9% of the women exhibited a UIC of <150 μg/l. 26% of the women had a UIC <50 μg/l, and 12% had a UIC <20 μg/l. The only detectable influences on UIC were daily milk intake and pregnancy supplements. There was no statistically significant association between UIC and thyroid function and no evidence for an effect of iodine intake on thyroid function. Conclusions. There is a high prevalence of mild to moderate iodine deficiency in women in Western Sydney but no evidence for a significant adverse effect on thyroid function. The 6.5% prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism is unlikely to be due to iodine deficiency.

  7. Substantial interobserver variation of thyroid volume and function by visual evaluation of thyroid (99m)Tc scintigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Kerstin; Grupe, Peter; Boel-Jørgensen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is much used in the evaluation of patients with nodular goitre. We investigated the ability of experienced observers to estimate the thyroid 24-h (131)I uptake (RAIU) and the thyroid volume by visual evaluation of the scintigram.......(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is much used in the evaluation of patients with nodular goitre. We investigated the ability of experienced observers to estimate the thyroid 24-h (131)I uptake (RAIU) and the thyroid volume by visual evaluation of the scintigram....

  8. The spectrum of thyroid disease and risk of new onset atrial fibrillation: a large population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmer, Christian; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Hansen, Morten Lock; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager; Faber, Jens; Hansen, Peter Riis; Pedersen, Ole Dyg; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2012-11-27

    To examine the risk of atrial fibrillation in relation to the whole spectrum of thyroid function in a large cohort of patients. Population based cohort study of general practice patients identified by linkage of nationwide registries at the individual level. Primary care patients in the city of Copenhagen. Registry data for 586,460 adults who had their thyroid function evaluated for the first time by their general practitioner during 2000-10 and who were without previously recorded thyroid disease or atrial fibrillation. Poisson regression models used to estimate risk of atrial fibrillation by thyroid function. Of the 586,460 individuals in the study population (mean (SD) age 50.2 (16.9) years, 39% men), 562,461 (96.0%) were euthyroid, 1670 (0.3%) had overt hypothyroidism, 12,087 (2.0%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, 3966 (0.7%) had overt hyperthyroidism, and 6276 (1.0%) had subclinical hyperthyroidism. Compared with the euthyroid individuals, the risk of atrial fibrillation increased with decreasing levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from high normal euthyroidism (incidence rate ratio 1.12 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.21)) to subclinical hyperthyroidism with reduced TSH (1.16 (0.99 to 1.36)) and subclinical hyperthyroidism with supressed TSH (1.41 (1.25 to 1.59)). Both overt and subclinical hypothyroidism were associated with a lower risk of atrial fibrillation. The risk of atrial fibrillation was closely associated with thyroid activity, with a low risk in overt hypothyroidism, high risk in hyperthyroidism, and a TSH level dependent association with risk of atrial fibrillation across the spectrum of subclinical thyroid disease.

  9. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Aloe vera on Antioxidant Status and Thyroid Functions in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, E. M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the antioxidant status and thyroid functions of female albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) when exposed to 3.0 Gy of gamma ray (dose rats = 0.696 Gy/min.) as s single dose and the role of 0.25 ml Aloe vera whole leaf juice filtrate/kg body weight against the damage caused by gamma irradiation. Total number of 50 female albino rats were equally divided into 5 groups; normal control group, irradiated group, Aloe vera administered group, irradiated rats followed by Aloe vera administration for 1 week and the 5th group is the irradiated rats followed by Aloe vera administration for 2 weeks starting from 24 h post-irradiation. Total antioxidant capacity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were measured in serum of all groups. The results of this study revealed that 3.0 Gy of gamma irradiation resulted in a highly significant reduction in serum total antioxidant capacity (39.89%), highly significant increase in TBARs (29.19%) and a significant increase in serum T3 and T4 levels (8.21 and 25.51%, respectively) compared to control group. There was a non-significant change in serum total anti-oxidant capacity and TBARs, and a highly significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels (31.00 and 36.57%) in rats administered Aloe vera alone. Concerning rats administered Aloe vera whole leaf juice filtrate post-irradiation, serum total anti-oxidant capacity and TBARs were restored to the normal levels after 2 weeks. Serum levels of T3 and T4 (represent thyroid functions) were restored to the normal levels after 1 week and found to be inhibited (20.41 and 22.62%, respectively) after 2 weeks of administration. (author)

  10. Age-dependent association of thyroid function with brain morphology and microstructural organization : Evidence from brain imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaker, Layal; Cremers, Lotte G M; Korevaar, Tim I.M.; De Groot, Marius; Dehghan, Abbas; Franco, Oscar H.; Niessen, W.J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Peeters, Robin P.; Vernooij, Meike W.

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is crucial during neurodevelopment, but high levels of TH have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. No data on the association of thyroid function with brain imaging in the general population are available. We therefore investigated the association of

  11. ABCC-NIH adult health study Hiroshima 1958 to 1959 thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, D R; Hamilton, H B; Tamagaki, Hideya; Beebe, G W

    1962-04-01

    In the matched sample for the Adult Health Study 5553 participants were examined in the ABCC clinic in Hiroshima, Japan during the sixteen month period from July 1958 through October 1959. Thyroid disease was diagnosed for 169 subjects, 152 of whom were female. Simple nontoxic goiter was the most frequently seen thyroid disorder comprising 47 percent of the total, with a sex ratio of 8 to 1 in favor of females. Hiroshima is a coastal city where iodine deficiencies seem unlikely and the various etiological possibilities responsible for nontoxic goiter were reviewed and discussed. Hyperthyroidism was observed in 16 patients of whom 13 were females. One patient with hypothyroidism and 5 with chronic thyroiditis diagnosed by biopsy were seen in the study. Single thyroid nodules were found in 39 patients; the biopsy diagnoses of 19 were listed, 8 of whom were shown to have thyroid carcinoma. Carcinoma of the thyroid was diagnosed microscopically in 12 patients, constituting 7 percent of the total number with thyroid disorders. It was concluded that thyroid disease in Hiroshima warrants further study and it will be of particular interest to carefully observe the Adult Health Study group for the incidence of thyroid nodules and thyroid carcinoma.

  12. Management of concomitant hyperparathyroidism and thyroid diseases in the elderly patients: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panarese, Alessandra; D'Andrea, Vito; Pontone, Stefano; Favoriti, Pasqualino; Pironi, Daniele; Arcieri, Stefano; Filippini, Angelo; Sorrenti, Salvatore

    2017-02-01

    Thyroid disease and hyperparathyroidism are the most common endocrine disorders. The incidence of thyroid disease in patients with hyperparathyroidism ranges in the different series from 17 to 84%, and thyroid cancer occurs with an incidence ranging from 2 to 15%. The aim of our study was to analyze the management of elderly patients with concomitant thyroid and parathyroid disease in order to define the best surgical therapeutic strategy and avoid reoperations associated with a higher risk of complications. All consecutive patients (64 patients, age range 60-75 years), undergoing surgery for hyperparathyroidism, from January 2011 to June 2014, were retrospectively evaluated. Enrolled patients were divided into two study groups of patients affected by hyperparathyroidism with or without a concomitant thyroid disease. Out of 64 patients enrolled in our study (24 men, age range 60-75 years), affected by hyperparathyroidism, 34 had an associated thyroid disease and were treated with total thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy. The group, who underwent parathyroidectomy associated with thyroidectomy, had no greater complications than the group receiving only parathyroidectomy. Thyroid disease must be excluded in patients affected by hyperparathyroidism. It is difficult to determine whether hyperparathyroidism can be considered a risk factor for thyroid disease, but an accurate preoperative study is essential for a surgery able to treat both thyroid and parathyroid disease. In this way, we avoid the elderly patient, with associated morbidity and increased surgical risk, to undergo a reoperation for thyroid disease, burdened with major complications.

  13. Study on the thyroid function of thoroughbred horses by means of 'in vitro' 125I-T3 modified and 125I-T4 tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.W. de

    1975-01-01

    Sera of 71 animals, divided in groups of males and females, in repose and after activity were studied. The method to establish the percentage of the 125 I-lyothyronine retention in resin (Test 125 I-T 3 or T 3 ) was modified by the use of 0.2 ml of serum on the resin column, after addition of the marked hormone. This modification served to prove that thoroughbred equines show binding of the I-lyothyronine to the serum four times reduced, indicating, therefore, that these animals have four times more ligation sites of triidothyronin saturation in the serum, when compared with the results obtained from human beings. The variance analysis applied to the T 3 Test showed no significant results at the 95% level as regards to activity. For the 71 animals, the author has found an average of 50.30% of the 125 I-Lyothyronine in resin retention, being the confidence interval for this group between 48.75% and 51.85% to a 95% confidence coefficient. Evaluating the results of the T 4 Test by means of the variance analysis, we noticed that the male and female groups in repose differed statistically from the groups after activity to a 95% confidence coefficient. The author has grouped the results of the T 4 Test of 32 equines, 18 males and 14 females, in repose, obtaining an average of 0.61 mcg and 0.51 mcg and 0.71 mcg T 4 /100 ml as confidence interval to a 95% confidence coefficient. We have listed 39 results of T 4 Test, being 23 males and 61 Females, after activity, obtaining an average of 2.01 mcg of thyroxin by 100 ml of serum and 1.72 mcg and 2.30 T 4 /100 ml as confidence interval to a 95% confidence coefficient

  14. Study on serum thyroid peroxidase antibody levels in autoimmune thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhixiang; Zheng Lan; Xu Shujin; Guan Jinghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) in patients with hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and simple goiter. Methods: Serum TPO-Ab, TMA,TGA and FT 3 , FT 4 , TSH levels were measured with radioimmunoassay(RIA) in 69 patients with hyperthyroidism, 53 patients with hypothyroidism, 45 patients with simple goiter and 20 controls. Results: The positive rate of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) (82%-92.5%) was higher than that of thyroidglobulim antibody(TGA) (44.2%) and thyroid microsome antibody(TMA) (60.4-69.8%) in all patients with AICD. Conclusion: TPO-Ab could be taken as an important indicator in assessment of treatment and prognosis in patients with auto- immune thyroid diseases. (authors)

  15. SPECTRUM OF THYROID CARCINOMAS IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Sepuri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of cancer cases. In the Indian subcontinent, thyroid carcinoma exhibits a varied disease profile and geographic differences in the pattern of cancer, the knowledge of which impacts a more favourable clinical outcome. The present study aims to profile Thyroid carcinoma in areas of age, gender, geographic domicile, morphology & clinical features and referral paradigm of cases in King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, the tertiary referral hospital for coastal Andhra Pradesh. METHODS & MATERIALS The Retrospective Study 1988-2004 includes 188 patients who attended Department of Nuclear Medicine for pre & postoperative nuclear scan, thyroid carcinoma treatment protocol, whose clinical features, relevant laboratory data, histopathological reports & prognosis were analysed. RESULTS Papillary thyroid carcinoma was present in 79% and Follicular thyroid carcinoma in 19%, Anaplastic & Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma in 2% of cases (n=188, male to female ratio 1:0.62. Coastal city of Visakhapatnam recorded highest 59% of cases who were in their 3rd and 4th decades. West Godavari District had lowest at 5%. Clinical presentation of cases of Thyroid carcinoma as a Nodule (61% which was the most common form lead to maximum number of referrals (n=82 from the Department of Surgery, King George Hospital. CONCLUSION In coastal Andhra Pradesh, papillary thyroid carcinoma was the most dominant form. Women were more affected than men. Painless thyroid nodule was the most common clinical feature. Coastal city of Visakhapatnam recorded highest number of cases and maximum referrals were from Department of Surgery.

  16. Thyroid function in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the thyroid and pituitary hormone levels in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling (21 days. The dams and pups were divided into 2 groups: a control group fed a diet containing 22% protein that supplies the necessary amount of protein for the rat and is the usual content of protein in most commercial rat chow, and a diet group fed a low-protein (8% diet in which the protein was substituted by an isocaloric amount of starch. After weaning all dams and pups received the 22% protein diet. Two hours before sacrifice of pups aged 21, 30 and 60 days, a tracer dose (0.6 µCi of 125I was injected (ip into each animal. Blood and thyroid glands of pups were collected for the determination of serum T4, T3 and TSH and radioiodine uptake. Low protein diet caused a slight decrease in radioiodine uptake at 21 days, and a significant decrease in T3 levels (128 ± 14 vs 74 ± 9 ng/dl, P<0.05, while T4 levels did not change and TSH was increased slightly. At 30 days, T3 and TSH did not change while there was a significant increase in both T4 levels (4.8 ± 0.3 vs 6.1 ± 0.2 µg/dl, P<0.05 and in radioiodine uptake levels (0.34 ± 0.02 vs 0.50 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. At 60 days serum T3, T4 and TSH levels were normal, but radioiodine uptake was still significantly increased (0.33 ± 0.02 vs 0.41 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. Thus, it seems that protein malnutrition of the dams during suckling causes hypothyroidism in the pups at 21 days that has a compensatory mechanism increasing thyroid function after refeeding with a 22% protein diet. The radioiodine uptake still remained altered at 60 days, when all the hormonal serum levels returned to the normal values, suggesting a permanent change in the thyroid function

  17. Impact of iodized oil injection during pregnancy on thyroid function tests of offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadat, N.; Sheikholeslam, R.; Azizi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that injection of iodized oil in pregnant women can be used as a prophylactic strategy for iodine deficiency disorders and may improve the growth indices of their offspring. Since administration of pharmacological doses of iodine may lead occasionally to large goiter and rarely to hypothyroidism, in the present study the thyroid function tests of neonates and infants born to women who had received 480 mg iodized oil intramuscularly during pregnancy were assessed and compared to those of a control group. Off 277 cord blood samples obtained from Mazandaran and Khohkiluyeh-Boyerahmad provinces, 125 made up the case (injected) and 152 the control (non-injected) group. Of 1026 blood samples of the neonates and infants from Mazandaran province. 544 made up the case and 482 the control group. Serum T 4 , T 3 and TSH concentrations were measured with RIA kits. in the cord blood samples, mean serum T 4 in cases who had received iodized oil was lower than that of the control group:140± 32 vs. 149± 33 nmol/L, respectively; p 3 and TSH were not however different. In the neonates and infants, T 4 and T 3 concentrations were significantly higher in the case than control group:178± 40 vs. 168± and 3.5±0,02 nmol/L, respectively, both p 3 and decreased TSH were seen in infants of mothers who were injected in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Injection of iodized oil in pregnant women does not cause hypothyroidism in the offsprings, however it does cause a transient increase in serum thyroid hormones and a decrease in TSH concentrations

  18. A study on the incidence of thyroid cancer in gender ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Eun Suk; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Yang, Oh Nam

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are an endocrine disease often found in clinical practice, and patients with thyroid nodules found by chance have rapidly increased alongside development of thyroid ultrasound techniques for health examination purposes. This study analyzes the subjects’ general characteristics, thyroid ultrasounds, and fine needle aspiration cytology in order to find out the relationship between male and female thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer frequency. An ultrasound examination of the thyroid was performed for 32,973 individuals who visited the K Hospital of Health Examination. Subjects have no history of thyroid disease and are 20 years old or over. Data of general characteristics, diabetes) was collected by a written survey completed by the subject, and the ultrasound of the thyroid (thyroid nodules existence, size, number) and FNAC was used to find out the malignancy rate. Frequency of patients with thyroid nodule was 4,611 (26.1%) in men and 5,341 (34.9%) in women between 32,973 individuals. Women’s prevalence rate is significantly higher than men, and the prevalence rate significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The prevalence of multiple nodules was significantly higher in women (43.5%) than in men (35.6%), and significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The fine needle aspiration cytology was performed in 692 (men 342, women 350) subjects who showed signs of malignancy through ultrasound. Prevalence of malignancy of the nodules was higher in men (33.3%) than in women (29.4%) although it is not statistically significant. It is known that thyroid nodule prevalence in women is much higher than in men. But this study shows the men’s prevalence rate was not too low compared with women, and the men showed a rather higher malignancy rate in nodules than women. It is considered that the role of thyroid ultrasound is both important in men and women

  19. A study on the incidence of thyroid cancer in gender ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Eun Suk; Lim, Cheong Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Oh Nam [Dept. of Radiology, Mokpo Science University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Thyroid nodules are an endocrine disease often found in clinical practice, and patients with thyroid nodules found by chance have rapidly increased alongside development of thyroid ultrasound techniques for health examination purposes. This study analyzes the subjects’ general characteristics, thyroid ultrasounds, and fine needle aspiration cytology in order to find out the relationship between male and female thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer frequency. An ultrasound examination of the thyroid was performed for 32,973 individuals who visited the K Hospital of Health Examination. Subjects have no history of thyroid disease and are 20 years old or over. Data of general characteristics, diabetes) was collected by a written survey completed by the subject, and the ultrasound of the thyroid (thyroid nodules existence, size, number) and FNAC was used to find out the malignancy rate. Frequency of patients with thyroid nodule was 4,611 (26.1%) in men and 5,341 (34.9%) in women between 32,973 individuals. Women’s prevalence rate is significantly higher than men, and the prevalence rate significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The prevalence of multiple nodules was significantly higher in women (43.5%) than in men (35.6%), and significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The fine needle aspiration cytology was performed in 692 (men 342, women 350) subjects who showed signs of malignancy through ultrasound. Prevalence of malignancy of the nodules was higher in men (33.3%) than in women (29.4%) although it is not statistically significant. It is known that thyroid nodule prevalence in women is much higher than in men. But this study shows the men’s prevalence rate was not too low compared with women, and the men showed a rather higher malignancy rate in nodules than women. It is considered that the role of thyroid ultrasound is both important in men and women.

  20. Vitiligo and overt thyroid diseases: A nationwide population-based study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jung Min; Lee, June Hyunkyung; Yun, Jae Seung; Han, Byeol; Han, Tae Young

    2017-05-01

    Associations between vitiligo and thyroid diseases have been reported repeatedly. We investigated the associations between vitiligo and overt autoimmune thyroid diseases and thyroid cancer using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database. We defined patients with vitiligo as those whose records showed ≥4 physician contacts between 2009 and 2013 in which vitiligo was the principal diagnosis. We also established an age- and sex-matched control group without vitiligo (2 per 1 vitiligo patient). The outcomes of interest were concurrent Graves disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis (the patients were taking relevant thyroid medications) and thyroid cancer. The study enrolled 73,336 vitiligo patients and 146,672 controls. Patients with vitiligo were at increased risks of Graves disease (odds ratio [OR] 2.610 [95% confidence interval {CI} 2.319-02.938]), Hashimoto thyroiditis (OR 1.609 [95% CI 1.437-1.802]), and thyroid cancer (OR 1.127 [95% CI 1.022-1.242]), compared with the controls. The associations were consistently stronger in males and younger patients. Individual clinical information was not available, and the homogeneous population may limit the generalizability of the results. Vitiligo was significantly associated with overt autoimmune thyroid diseases and overt thyroid cancer. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System features of follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma: a single-center study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Won; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Dong Hyun; Baek, Jin Wook; Lee, Yoo Jin; Baek, Hye Jin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic efficacy of Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) features for distinguishing follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). From January 2013 to July 2016, 46 follicular neoplasms in 45 patients who underwent preoperative thyroid ultrasonography (US) and thyroid surgery were included. The US features of each thyroid nodule were retrospectively evaluated by a single radiologist using a picture archiving and communication system. The diagnostic indices of K-TIRADS for follicular neoplasms were calculated according to whether K-TIRADS category 4 lesions were excluded or classified as benign or malignant. Of the 46 follicular neoplasms (mean size, 3.1±1.6 cm), 37 were FTAs (mean size, 3.1±1.7 cm) and nine were FTCs (mean size, 3.0±1.5 cm). A statistically significant difference was found between FTAs and FTCs regarding the margin (P=0.035), while no significant differences were observed in the composition, echogenicity, shape, orientation, calcification, or vascularity of the lesions (P<0.05). The FTAs belonged to K-TIRADS categories 3 (n=22) and 4 (n=15), while the FTCs belonged to K-TIRADS categories 3 (n=4), 4 (n=4), and 5 (n=1). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of K-TIRADS categories between FTAs and FTCs (P=0.184).K-TIRADS features were not helpful for distinguishing FTA from FTC, although follicular neoplasms showed a high prevalence of K-TIRADS categories 3 and 4

  2. Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System features of follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma: a single-center study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Won; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Dong Hyun; Baek, Jin Wook; Lee, Yoo Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Hye Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic efficacy of Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) features for distinguishing follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). From January 2013 to July 2016, 46 follicular neoplasms in 45 patients who underwent preoperative thyroid ultrasonography (US) and thyroid surgery were included. The US features of each thyroid nodule were retrospectively evaluated by a single radiologist using a picture archiving and communication system. The diagnostic indices of K-TIRADS for follicular neoplasms were calculated according to whether K-TIRADS category 4 lesions were excluded or classified as benign or malignant. Of the 46 follicular neoplasms (mean size, 3.1±1.6 cm), 37 were FTAs (mean size, 3.1±1.7 cm) and nine were FTCs (mean size, 3.0±1.5 cm). A statistically significant difference was found between FTAs and FTCs regarding the margin (P=0.035), while no significant differences were observed in the composition, echogenicity, shape, orientation, calcification, or vascularity of the lesions (P<0.05). The FTAs belonged to K-TIRADS categories 3 (n=22) and 4 (n=15), while the FTCs belonged to K-TIRADS categories 3 (n=4), 4 (n=4), and 5 (n=1). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of K-TIRADS categories between FTAs and FTCs (P=0.184).K-TIRADS features were not helpful for distinguishing FTA from FTC, although follicular neoplasms showed a high prevalence of K-TIRADS categories 3 and 4.

  3. The increased risk of globus pharyngeus in patients with chronic thyroiditis: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahatay, S; Ayan, A; Aydin, U; Ince, S; Emer, O; Alagoz, E

    2015-12-01

    A correlation between globus pharyngeus and thyroid gland inflammation has been mentioned in previous studies. However, the potential risk of globus pharyngeus in chronic thyroiditis patients has not been shown so far. The aim of this study is to investigate a possible association between chronic thyroiditis and globus pharyngeus. The study was performed in an ultrasound (US) center of a tertiary health care institution. Ninety-two patients who were under examination for suspected thyroid pathologies or undergoing follow-up for a previously diagnosed thyroid disease were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the existence of globus symptoms. Subsequently, all patients underwent high-resolution thyroid ultrasounds. The patients whose ultrasound findings were suggestive of chronic thyroiditis constituted the second subgroup. The demographic data of the patients and other ultrasound findings including the volume of the thyroid glands and nodules, if any, were noted as well. Sixty-seven female (73%) and 25 male (27%) patients were enrolled in the study. Thirty-two (35%) of the 92 patients constituted the globus pharyngeus group according to their responses to the questionnaire and the US findings were concordant with chronic thyroiditis in 36 (39%) patients. The correlation between chronic thyroiditis and globus sensation was significant (p = 0.004), and the odds ratio was calculated as 3.7 (95% CI = 1.5-9.11). Other parameters including age, sex, thyroid volume and nodule status were not significantly related to globus pharyngeus in this particular patient series. In the presented study, the risk of globus pharyngeus occurrence was calculated as 3.7-fold higher in patients with chronic thyroiditis. Being a preliminary report, it is necessary to confirm this finding and understand the pathophysiological mechanism via further investigations with a larger patient series.

  4. BCNT studies for application to the undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, Maria A.; Viaggi, Mabel E.; Cabrini, Romulo L.; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Farias, Silvia S.; Belli, Carolina; Larripa, Irene; Gangitano, David

    2000-01-01

    Undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) lacks an effective treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the selective uptake of 10 B-boronated compounds by some tumours, followed by irradiation with an appropriate neutron beam. The radioactive boron originated ( 11 B) decays releasing 7 Li, gamma rays and alpha particles, and these latter will destroy the tumour. In order to explore the possibility of applying BNCT to UTC we have studied the biodistribution of BPA. Animal Model: To develop an animal model of undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC), which may be useful to study of BNCT. The UTC human cell line ARO was implanted into the back of the nude mice. We performed successive passages in mouse after tumor culturing in order to obtain an animal model similar to the human tumor. We studied the kinetics and the tumoral histology, the capability to induce metastasis, the biokinetics of in vitro growth, as well as cytogenetic and molecular aspects. Histological specimens of tumor showed extensive viability with high mitotic activity. At 117 days, the tumors reached a size of 1700 mm 3 and showed a central necrotic portion with a thin layer of viable cells presence of micro metastasis could be observed in the lung. The kinetics of growth both in vivo and in vitro showed that when the number of passages in mouse increases the growth rate decreases. The cytogenetic and molecular studies did not show differences between the original line and the sublines that could explain this phenotypic change. Moreover, the cytogenetic studies proved that the ARO cell line and its sublines showed a complex clonal karyotype including structural alterations with deletions and translocations involving chromosomes 5, 7, 8, 9p, 11p, 17q 19p, and 20q that were consistent with earlier reported data in UTC. In vivo BNCT studies: ARO cells were transplanted into the scapular region of NIH nude mice, and after 2 weeks BPA (350 or 600 mg/kg bw) was injected via i.p. The

  5. Thyroid Function in Pregnant Women With Moderate to Severe Alcohol Consumption Is Related to Infant Developmental Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten A. Donald

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD have an estimated global prevalence of 2–5% of births, but prevalence is reported to be as high as 15.5% for FASD in certain high-risk communities in South Africa. Preclinical studies demonstrate that alcohol consumption during pregnancy interferes with thyroid hormone availability and function and negatively impacts exposed offspring. Very little is currently reported on this phenomenon in humans.MethodsThis pilot study was embedded in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a multi-disciplinary longitudinal birth cohort study investigating the early biological and psychosocial determinants of child health in South Africa. Twenty one mothers and their children with moderate–severe prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE and 19 mothers and their children with no alcohol exposure were investigated. Maternal exposure history and blood samples were collected in mid-pregnancy and analyzed for serum-free thyroxin (FT4, free triiodothyronine (FT3, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH. Children were assessed with formally measured growth parameters and development was evaluated using the Bayley III Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID III at 6 and 24 months of age.ResultsWhile there were no significant differences in serum TSH and FT4 between groups, FT3 levels were significantly higher in mothers with moderate–severe prenatal alcohol use. In abstinent pregnant women, levels of FT4 were significantly correlated with infants’ scores on cognitive measures at 6 and 24 months of age and with levels of gross motor skills at 24 months. However, in mothers with alcohol use, FT4 levels were not correlated with any cognitive or motor skills, but FT3 levels were significantly associated with scores on children’s social-emotional development at 24 months of age.DiscussionThyroid function in PAE is sufficiently disrupted to lead to alterations in serum FT3 levels. The contrast in findings between

  6. Thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, Koji

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the correlation between thyroid disease, other than cancer, and radiation in the literature. Radiation-induced thyroid disturbance is discussed in the context of external and internal irradiation. External irradiation of 10 to 40 Gy may lower thyroid function several months or years later. Oral administration of I-131 is widely given to patients with Basedow's disease; it may also lower thyroid function with increasing radiation doses. When giving 70 Gy or more of I-131, hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 20-30% and at least 10%. Thyroiditis induced with internal I-131 irradiation has also been reported, but no data is available concerning external irradiation-induced thyroiditis. The incidence of nodular goiter was found to be several ten times higher with external irradiation than internal irradiation. Thyroid disturbance is correlated with A-bomb survivors. A-bomb radiation can be divided into early radiation within one minute after A-bombing and the subsequent residual radiation. Nodular goiter was significantly more frequent in the exposed group than the non-exposed group; it increased with increasing radiation doses and younger age (20 years or less) at the time of exposure. The incidence of decrease in thyroid function was higher with increasing radiation doses. However, in the case of Nagasaki, the incidence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the low-dose exposed group, especially A-bomb survivors aged 10-39 at the time of exposure and women. (N.K.)

  7. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter [Clinic and Policlinic for Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. {sup 131}I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  8. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. 131 I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  9. Glucoregulatory function of thyroid hormones: role of pancreatic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.J.B.; Burger, A.G.; Ferrannini, E.; Jequier, E.; Acheson, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glucose metabolism was investigated in humans before and 14 days after 300 micrograms L-thyroxine (T4)/day using a sequential clamp protocol during short-term somatostatin infusion (500 micrograms/h, 0-6 h) at euglycemia (0-2.5 h), at 165 mg/dl (2.5-6 h), and during insulin infusion (1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1, 4.5-6 h). T4 treatment increased plasma T4 (+96%) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3, +50%), energy expenditure (+8%), glucose turnover (+32%), and glucose oxidation (Glucox +87%) but decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (-96%) and nonoxidative glucose metabolism (Glucnonox, -30%) at unchanged lipid oxidation (Lipox). During somatostatin and euglycemia glucose production (Ra, -67%) and disposal (Rd, -28%) both decreased in euthyroid subjects but remained at -22% and -5%, respectively, after T4 treatment. Glucox (control, -20%; +T4, -25%) fell and Lipox increased (control, +42%; +T4, +45%) in both groups, whereas Glucnonox decreased before (-36%) but increased after T4 (+57%). During somatostatin infusion and hyperglycemia Rd (control, +144%; +T4, +84%) and Glucnonox (control, +326%; +T4, +233%) increased, whereas Glucox and Lipox remained unchanged. Insulin further increased Rd (+76%), Glucox (+155%), and Glucnonox (+50%) but decreased Ra (-43%) and Lipox (-43%). All these effects were enhanced by T4 (Rd, +38%; Glucox, +45%; Glucnonox, +35%; Ra, +40%; Lipox, +11%). Our data provide evidence that, in humans, T3 stimulates Ra and Rd, which is in part independent of pancreatic hormones

  10. A cross-sectional study on thyroid status in North Indian elderly outpatients with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several population based studies have demonstrated an association between hypo-or hyperthyroidism and dementia in last two decades. As a consequence, thyroid stimulating hormone has become part of the screening laboratory test for dementia. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between thyroid function and Alzheimer′s disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD and to determine the risk of AD and VaD in clinically euthyroid patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional hospital based study was carried out in subjects diagnosed with AD/VaD and were assessed for thyroid status as routine screening test. Results: Free T3, free T4 and TSH were studied in 114 AD patients (mean age: 65 years, 35 VaD patients (mean age: 62 years and 105 control subjects (mean age: 62 years. In AD group, TSH levels were significantly lower than controls (P = 0.00 and for each unit increase in TSH level, the odds of having dementia decreased by 37.1%. No such relation was seen in VaD. Conclusion: The results suggest a consistent association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and AD.

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body ...

  12. Chernobyl accident: revision of individual thyroid dose estimates for the children included in the cohort of the Belarusian-American study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minenko, Victor; Shemyakina, Elena; Tretyakevich, Sergey

    2000-01-01

    The observed sharp increase in the number of childhood-thyroid-cancer cases in Belarus that has occurred since the Chernobyl accident stimulated the undertaking in 1994 of a long-term American-Belarusian cohort study. That epidemiological study is aimed at revealing the carcinogenic effectiveness of 131 I (the main contributor to the thyroid exposure) and at estimating the risk coefficient of thyroid disease, especially thyroid cancer, as a function of age at exposure. It is planned to follow actively 15,000 children (aged 0-18 at the time of the accident) sampled among about 40,000 who had their thyroid measured in vivo in 1986. Such direct thyroid measurements provide the basis for the initial thyroid dose estimates that have been established for the 40,000 children in the absence of personal interviews. As of August 1999, approximately 5,000 cohort subjects have been screened and interviewed. The initial estimates of individual thyroid dose are being revised for all of the cohort subjects that have been screened. The revision procedure of the 131 I thyroid dose assessment consists of two parts: (1) re-analysis of the direct thyroid measurements and (2) analysis of the responses to the personal interview which were conducted in order to determine the kinetics of the radioiodine intake by the cohort subjects. Revised estimates of thyroid dose resulting from 131 I intake are presented for a sample of 1,000 subjects residing in various areas of Belarus. The reason for the differences between the initial and the revised thyroid dose estimates are discussed. In addition to the estimation of the internal thyroid dose from 131 I, three minor contributors to the thyroid exposure are considered separately: (1) the internal exposure resulting from intake of short-lived radioiodines and radiotelluriums, (2) the internal exposure resulting from intake of other radionuclides (mainly radiocesiums), and (3) external exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Examples

  13. Tiratricol-induced periodic paralysis: a review of nutraceuticals affecting thyroid function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Lehman, Janna; Charitou, Marina M; Klein, Irwin

    2011-01-01

    To review the potential adverse effects of thyroid hormone-based nutraceuticals and describe a case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) after abuse of a dietary supplement containing 3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid (tiratricol). We review the literature on potential dangers and therapeutic misadventures of thyroid hormone-based nutraceuticals and present the clinical, laboratory, and radiologic data of a bodybuilder in whom hypokalemic TPP developed after use of "Triax Metabolic Accelerator". A 23-year-old white man developed lower extremity paralysis, diaphoresis, and palpitations in the setting of low serum potassium levels. Laboratory results showed suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, low levels of free and total thyroxine, low total triiodothyronine level, and very low 24-hour radioiodine uptake. The patient ultimately admitted to taking a supplement containing tiratricol for approximately 2 months, and hypokalemic TPP was diagnosed. He was treated with potassium supplementation and a β-adrenergic blocking agent, which completely resolved his symptoms. Results of thyroid function tests normalized or approached normal 1 week after hospitalization, and future use of dietary supplements was strongly discouraged. Despite 2 warnings by the US Food and Drug Administration, products containing tiratricol are still available for sale on the Internet. This report illustrates both an unusual adverse effect of a nutraceutical containing tiratricol and the importance of educating our patients about the risks versus benefits of using these widely available but loosely regulated products.

  14. What Do Korean Women Know and Want to Know about Thyroid Cancer? A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bomyee; Park, Jae Young; Shin, Hye Young; Park, Sang Hee; Choi, Eun-Bi; Yoo, Jisu; Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing debate about overdiagnosis and overtreatment of thyroid cancer in Korea, information to guide decisions on whether or not to undergo screening for and treatment of abnormal lesions of the thyroid is lacking. Moreover, studies have yet to outline what lay people know and want to know about thyroid cancer. The primary aim of this study was to explore general awareness of thyroid cancer among Korean women, their sources of information, and their satisfaction with the information they are provided. The secondary aim was to investigate information needs about thyroid cancer. A qualitative study using focus group interviews was conducted. Twenty-nine women were divided into four groups: (1) participants who had never undergone thyroid ultrasound screening; (2) those who had undergone screening, (3) those who continued to undergo regular check-ups with ultrasonography for benign nodules of the thyroid; and (4) participants who had undergone surgery for thyroid cancer. A widespread lack of awareness of information on thyroid cancer was noted among participants in groups 1 and 2 who were not well aware of thyroid cancer and generally recognized it as a'good cancer'. Surprisingly, instead of doctors and medical personnel, most participants reported obtaining information from acquaintances and media outlets. Moreover, most participants described dissatisfaction with their experience with screening and a lack of explanation on treatment and test results from medical personnel. Women in Korea seek reliable information on thyroid cancer that could help them to better understand the disease and make informed decisions regarding screening and treatment. More effort is needed from medical personnel to communicate the implications of thyroid cancer, screening results, and treatments thereof to lay people.

  15. Clinic-cytologic study of conjunctivochalasis and its relation to thyroid autoimmune diseases: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Sandra Flavia Fiorentini; de Sousa, Luciene B; Vieira, Luis A; Chiamollera, Maria I; Barros, Jeison de N

    2006-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of conjunctivochalasis in patients with immune thyroid diseases, to determine whether there is any association between the 2 diseases, and to determine cytologic study of conjunctivochalasis through the cytology impression test. A clinical prospective cohort study carried out by the External Diseases Department in the Ophthalmology Sector and the Thyroid Department in the Endocrinology Sector at Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP). The patients included were divided into 2 groups following these inclusion criteria: a control group of 25 patients without thyroid diseases, confirmed after clinical and laboratory examinations (thyroid hormones), or any other ocular diseases. The study group consisted of 31 patients with thyroid diseases, the diagnosis of which was confirmed by the Endocrinology Sector. The thyroidopathies included were autoimmune diseases but excluded nonautoimmune diseases. A protocol endorsed by the UNIFESP was followed, using clinical and ophthalmological history, biomicroscopy, and impression cytology. Fifty-two percent of patients without thyroid diseases and 88% of patients with thyroid diseases presented with conjunctivochalasis. The risk ratio was 1.705 (Pr > chi(2) = 0.0038), indicating that there is an association between them. For the impression cytology in inferior bulbar conjunctiva, there was an association between the result of the impression cytology and conjunctivochalasis (Pearson chi(2) = 10.1190 Pr = 0.006). The prevalence of conjunctivochalasis in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases was 88%. Patients with autoimmune thyroidopathy presented higher percentages of conjunctivochalasis than the control group, confirming the association between them. The cytologic study showed the highest prevalence of abnormal surface features in eyes with conjunctivochalasis.

  16. The influence of partial renal function impairment on thyroid hormones level in acute renal failure-ARF patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, S.; Vlajkovic, M.; Rajic, M.; Bogicevic, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of thyroid hormone levels with glomerular and tubular renal function in ARF. In thirty one patients with different underlying diseases, glomerular filtration (GFR) was estimated by measuring 99mTc-DTPA clearance and tubular function by 131I-OIH clearance. The thyroid status was evaluated by radioimmunoassays of T4, FT4, T3, FT3, rT3 and TSH, while the cortisol level was used to indicate the stress role. All the measurements were performed within 7 days as well after 1,3,6 and 12 months from the ARF onset. The results obtained were compared with those of 30 healthy subjects. At the ARF beginning, the impairment of renal function was manifested by the fall of 99mTc-DTPA clearance to 21∫7ml/min and 131I-OIH clearance to 172±34ml/min, while end values were 77±19ml/min and 395±70ml/min, respectively. The hormone analysis within 7 days, showed T3 decrease to 1.21±0.16nmol/l and the increase rT3 to 38±7ng/1ooml, as well as cortisol to 350±71ng/ml, but at the end of the study these hormone levels were normalized. Other hormone levels didn't differ significantly from control values. Regression analysis established significant correlation of 99mTc-DTPA clearance with T3 (r=0.693, p 100, OIH>500), partial recovery (DTPA 51-100, OIH 250-500) and without any recovery (DTPA<50,OIH<250), showed hormone disturbances proportional to the degree of renal function damage. The most severe disorders were found in the third group, where both total and free T4 and T3 were lowered, while rT3 and cortisol elevated at 7th day from ARF onset. After 12 months all these values associated with that of TSH were observed as declined.This study suggests thyroid hormone levels to be dependent on the renal function in ARF. Greater impairment of glomerular related to tubular function appears to be more responsible for thyroid dysfunction, due to uremic toxins retention as well as stress induced by the extreme function failure

  17. Prevalence of incidental thyroid nodules in ultrasound studies of dogs with hypercalcemia (2008-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Rachel E; Bohannon, Laurie K; Feldman, Edward C

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is commonly used to evaluate the cervical region in dogs with hypercalcemia due to suspected hyperparathyroidism. Incidental thyroid nodules may be detected during these studies, however little information has been published to guide clinical decision-making when this occurs. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of incidental thyroid nodules in hypercalcemic dogs undergoing cervical ultrasound at our hospital during the period of 2008-2013. Dogs with a palpable neck mass were excluded. Cervical ultrasound images for each dog were retrieved and reviewed by a board certified veterinary radiologist who was unaware of patient outcome. Presence, number, and dimensions of thyroid nodules were recorded. Results of thyroid nodule aspirate, biopsy or necropsy were recorded from medical records when available. Ninety-one dogs met inclusion criteria. Of these, 14/91 (15%) dogs had at least one thyroid nodule. Mean (± standard deviation) thyroid gland nodule length, width, and height were 1.51 ± 0.74, 0.96 ± 0.73, and 0.75 ± 0.36 cm, respectively. A histologic diagnosis was available for the incidental thyroid lesions in eight dogs, including one dog with two nodules. Confirmed diagnoses for these nodules were thyroid cyst (3/9, 33%), thyroid adenoma (3/9, 33%), thyroid adenocarcinoma (2/9, 22%) and nodular hyperplasia (1/9, 11%). Findings indicated that incidental thyroid nodules may be present in hypercalcemic dogs with no palpable neck mass and no clinical signs of thyroid disease. Some of these nodules may be malignant and therefore a recommendation for cytology or biopsy may be justified. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  18. Comparison of Na+/I- symporter expression rate in malignant and benign thyroid diseases: immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Jeong, Young Jin; Lee, Kyung Eun; Park, Heon Soo; Yoo, Young Hyun; Roh, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have not showed consistent results for the level of expression of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) in thyroid diseases, especially malignant tumor. We undertook this study to evaluate the distribution of NIS expression in malignant thyroid diseases and compare with that in benign thyoid disease. Total patients were 119 cases (Men 15, 48±13 yrs). Total number of samples were 205 pieces. In malignant thyroid disease, there were 153 samples: 90 in papillary carcinoma, 4 in follicular carcinoma, 2 in medullary carcinoma and 57 in metastatic lymph node. In benign thyroid disease, there were 52 samples: 36 in goiter/cyst, 11 in thyroiditis and 5 in follicular adenoma. Using immunohistochemical methods, we probed 205 samples with monoclonal anti-NIS Ab. Grading of staining was scored as 0 (negative or absent), 1 (weakly positive), 2 (moderately positive) or 3 (strongly positive). Expression rate (ER) of NIS positivity in individual disease entity was expressed as percentage of total number divided by number in 2 plus 3 grade. ERs of malignant thyroid diseases were 63% in papillary carcinoma, 81% in metastatic lymph node, 71% in follicular carcinoma and 100% in medullary carcinoma. ERs of benign thyroid disease were 53% in goiter/cyst, 64% in thyroiditis and 40% in follicular adenoma. ER of benign thyroid deceases was higher than benign thyroid diseases (71% vs 54%). Grading of NIS expression in papillary carcinoma or goiter/cyst was heterogeneously distributed in considerable cases. Normal tissue also showed heterogeneous distribution or NIS expression, which was not correlated with that of primary lesion. In papillary thyroid carcinoma, distribution of NIS expression was heterogeneous and increased, and not different compared with that of benign thyroid disease

  19. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and psychiatric disorders: cross-sectional results from the Brazilian Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benseñor, Isabela M; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Sander Diniz, Maria de Fátima; Santos, Itamar S; Brunoni, André R; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2015-01-12

    To evaluate the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and psychiatric disorders using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional study. The study included 12 437 participants from the ELSA-Brasil with normal thyroid function (92·8%), 193 (1·4%) with subclinical hyperthyroidism and 784 (5·8%) with subclinical hypothyroidism, totalling 13 414 participants (50·6% of women). The mental health diagnoses of participants were assessed by trained raters using the Clinical Interview Schedule - Revised (CIS-R) and grouped according to the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10). Thyroid dysfunction was assessed using TSH and FT4 as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Logistic models were presented using psychiatric disorders as the dependent variable and subclinical thyroid disorders as the independent variable. All logistic models were corrected for multiple comparisons using Bonferroni correction. After multivariate adjustment for possible confounders, we found a direct association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and panic disorder odds ratio [OR], 2·55; 95% confidence Interval (95% CI), 1·09-5·94; and an inverse association between subclinical hypothyroidism and generalized anxiety disorder (OR, 0·75; 95% CI, 0·59-0·96). However, both lost significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was positively associated with panic disorder and negatively associated with anxiety disorder, although not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. THyROID FUNCTION AMONG HIV/AIDS PATIENTS ON HIGHLy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-12

    Dec 12, 2010 ... longitudinal study would explain the progressive trend of thyroid hormones and implications with ... have multiple causes, vary considerably in different patients, and very .... characteristics were assessed. these included hiv test results, method of .... carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate sources of calories on ...

  1. Disruption of thyroid hormone functions by low dose exposure of tributyltin: an in vitro and in vivo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Shruti; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha

    2014-09-15

    Triorganotins, such as tributyltin chloride (TBTCl), are environmental contaminants that are commonly found in the antifouling paints used in ships and other vessels. The importance of TBTCl as an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) in different animal models is well known; however, its adverse effects on the thyroid gland are less understood. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the thyroid-disrupting effects of this chemical using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. We used HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells for the in vitro studies, as they are a thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-positive and thyroid responsive cell line. For the in vivo studies, Swiss albino male mice were exposed to three doses of TBTCl (0.5, 5 and 50μg/kg/day) for 45days. TBTCl showed a hypo-thyroidal effect in vivo. Low-dose treatment of TBTCl exposure markedly decreased the serum thyroid hormone levels via the down-regulation of the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) genes by 40% and 25%, respectively, while augmenting the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) expression was up-regulated in the thyroid glands of treated mice by 6.6-fold relative to vehicle-treated mice (p<0.05). In the transient transactivation assays, TBTCl suppressed T3 mediated transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, TBTCl was found to decrease the expression of TR. The present study thus indicates that low concentrations of TBTCl suppress TR transcription by disrupting the physiological concentrations of T3/T4, followed by the recruitment of NCoR to TR, providing a novel insight into the thyroid hormone-disrupting effects of this chemical. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gestational urinary bisphenol A and maternal and newborn thyroid hormone concentrations: The HOME Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Megan E.; Webster, Glenys M.; Vuong, Ann M.; Thomas Zoeller, R.; Chen, Aimin; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Braun, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor used in consumer products, may perturb thyroid function. Prenatal BPA exposure may have sex-specific effects on thyroid hormones (THs). Our objectives were to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentrations during pregnancy were associated with THs in maternal or cord serum, and whether these associations differed by newborn sex or maternal iodine status. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at 16 and 26 weeks gestation among pregnant women in the HOME Study (2003–2006, Cincinnati, Ohio). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free and total thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) were measured in maternal serum at 16 weeks (n=181) and cord serum at delivery (n=249). Associations between BPA concentrations and maternal or cord serum TH levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression. Mean maternal urinary BPA was not associated with cord THs in all newborns, but a 10-fold increase in mean BPA was associated with lower cord TSH in girls (percent change=−36.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): −58.4, −1.7%), but not boys (7.8%; 95% CI: −28.5, 62.7%; p-for-effect modification=0.09). We observed no significant associations between 16-week BPA and THs in maternal or cord serum, but 26-week maternal BPA was inversely associated with TSH in girls (−42.9%; 95% CI: −59.9, −18.5%), but not boys (7.6%; 95% CI: −17.3, 40.2%; p-for-effect modification=0.005) at birth. The inverse BPA–TSH relation among girls was stronger, but less precise, among iodine deficient versus sufficient mothers. Prenatal BPA exposure may reduce TSH among newborn girls, particularly when exposure occurs later in gestation. - Highlights: • Examined associations of BPA with thyroid hormones in pregnant women and newborns. • Assessed effect modification of BPA–thyroid hormone associations by newborn sex. • Greater BPA related to decreased thyroid stimulating hormone in girls' cord serum. • Results may suggest

  3. Gestational urinary bisphenol A and maternal and newborn thyroid hormone concentrations: The HOME Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Megan E., E-mail: megan_romano@brown.edu [Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI (United States); Webster, Glenys M. [Child and Family Research Institute, BC Children' s and Women' s Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Vuong, Ann M. [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomas Zoeller, R. [Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Chen, Aimin [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hoofnagle, Andrew N. [Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Karagas, Margaret R. [Children' s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center and Department of Community and Family Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH (United States); Yolton, Kimberly [Division of General and Community Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lanphear, Bruce P. [Child and Family Research Institute, BC Children' s and Women' s Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Braun, Joseph M. [Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor used in consumer products, may perturb thyroid function. Prenatal BPA exposure may have sex-specific effects on thyroid hormones (THs). Our objectives were to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentrations during pregnancy were associated with THs in maternal or cord serum, and whether these associations differed by newborn sex or maternal iodine status. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at 16 and 26 weeks gestation among pregnant women in the HOME Study (2003–2006, Cincinnati, Ohio). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free and total thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) were measured in maternal serum at 16 weeks (n=181) and cord serum at delivery (n=249). Associations between BPA concentrations and maternal or cord serum TH levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression. Mean maternal urinary BPA was not associated with cord THs in all newborns, but a 10-fold increase in mean BPA was associated with lower cord TSH in girls (percent change=−36.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): −58.4, −1.7%), but not boys (7.8%; 95% CI: −28.5, 62.7%; p-for-effect modification=0.09). We observed no significant associations between 16-week BPA and THs in maternal or cord serum, but 26-week maternal BPA was inversely associated with TSH in girls (−42.9%; 95% CI: −59.9, −18.5%), but not boys (7.6%; 95% CI: −17.3, 40.2%; p-for-effect modification=0.005) at birth. The inverse BPA–TSH relation among girls was stronger, but less precise, among iodine deficient versus sufficient mothers. Prenatal BPA exposure may reduce TSH among newborn girls, particularly when exposure occurs later in gestation. - Highlights: • Examined associations of BPA with thyroid hormones in pregnant women and newborns. • Assessed effect modification of BPA–thyroid hormone associations by newborn sex. • Greater BPA related to decreased thyroid stimulating hormone in girls' cord serum. • Results may

  4. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-01-01

    pregnancy, and 95 took no artificial iodine supplementation. Iodine supplementation (+I) induced opposite variations in thyroid function in the mother and the fetus. In +I mothers, TSH was 7.6% lower than in mothers with no supplementation (P ... in the +I group (P caused by opposite shifts in TSH frequency distribution in mothers and neonates. The association between iodine supplementation and high serum TSH in the neonates was further substantiated by an inverse correlation between thyroglobulin and TSH in cord blood...

  5. Abnormality of thyroid function tests in geriatric population undergoing chronic dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Altay

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Elderly dialysis patients had higher thyroid function test abnormalities than controls. They had lower fT3 levels than controls such as young and middle age chronic dialysis patients. However, what does it mean for clinical process and how its clinical expression is not clearly known, especially in an elderly patients. Large, prospective, randomized and controlled trials are necessary for this topic. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(2.000: 54-58

  6. Effects of growth hormone therapy on thyroid function of growth hormone-deficient adults with and without concomitant thyroxine-substituted central hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, J O; Pedersen, S A; Laurberg, P

    1989-01-01

    Administration of human GH to GH-deficient patients has yielded conflicting results concerning its impact on thyroid function, ranging from increased resting metabolic rate to induction of hypothyroidism. However, most studies have been casuistic or uncontrolled and have used pituitary-derived GH...

  7. Serum thyroglobulin and urinary iodine concentration are the most appropriate indicators of iodine status and thyroid function under conditions of increasing iodine supply in schoolchildren in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Briel, T.; West, C. E.; Hautvast, J. G.; Vulsma, T.; de Vijlder, J. J.; Ategbo, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Iodine deficiency control programs have greatly reduced iodine deficiency disorders worldwide. For monitoring changes in iodine status, different indicators may be used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of indicators of iodine status and thyroid function, thyroglobulin (Tg),

  8. Thyroid disorders in polycystic ovarian syndrome subjects: A tertiary hospital based cross-sectional study from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, the most common endocrinopathy of women in the reproductive age group seems to be adversely affected by associated thyroid dysfunction. Both pose independent risks of ovarian failure and pregnancy related complications. Aims: The present study from Eastern India is, therefore, aimed to investigate the prevalence and etiology of different thyroid disorders in PCOS subjects. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional hospital based survey-single centre observational case-control study. Materials and Methods: This prospective single-center study recruited 106 female patients with hypertrichosis and menstrual abnormality among which 80 patients were defined as having PCOS according to the revised 2003 Rotterdam criteria and comprised the study population. Another 80 age-matched female subjects were studied as the control population. Thyroid function and morphology were evaluated by measurement of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine levels (free T3 and free T4, anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (anti-TPO Ab, clinical examination and ultrasound (USG of thyroid gland. Statistical Analysis Used: It was done by Student′s t-test and Chi-square test using appropriate software (SPSS version 19. Results: This case-control study revealed statistically significant higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis, detected in 18 patients (22.5% vs. 1.25% of control as evidenced by raised anti-TPO antibody levels (means 28.037 ± 9.138 and 25.72 ± 8.27 respectively; P = 0.035. PCOS patients were found to have higher mean TSH level than that of the control group (4.547 ± 2.66 and 2.67 ± 3.11 respectively; P value < 0.05. There was high prevalence of goiter among PCOS patients (27.5% vs. 7.5% of control, P value < 0.001. On thyroid USG a significantly higher percentage of PCOS patients (12.5%; controls 2.5% had hypoechoic USG pattern also compatible with the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis. Conclusions: High

  9. Assessment of laboratory values of thyroid function tests in Sudanese patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, Mansour El Tahir

    1997-01-01

    Thyroid diseases comprise a major health problem in Sudan. Although clinical diagnosis of thyroid diseases often easy, there are many diagnostic difficulties. So, laboratory investigations are essential in certain conditions. 97 Sudanese subjects were included in this study. According to the clinical features, patients were divided into three groups, either hyper or hypothyroid, and the control group. Laboratory diagnosis of these individuals was established in the diagnostic and research laboratory centre in Khartoum teaching hospital. The thyroid hormones studied are T 3 , T 4 , FT 4 (by enzyme immunoassay) and TSH (by the ultrasensitive enzyme immunoassay). Serum T 3 concentration was found to be high in 66% of the hyperthyroid patients, and low in 75% of the hypothyroid patients, and normal in 66.7% of the control group. Serum T 4 concentration was normal in one-third of the hyperthyroid patients, and one-fourth of the hypothyroid patients, and 90.9% of the control group. FT 4 was normal in the control group, low in 95% for the hypothyroid patients, and high in 66% of the hyperthyroid patients. Signs of hyperthyroidism were associated with high hormonal levels more than symptoms do. Hyperkinesis and eye signs had a significant correlation with the hormonal levels. No significant correlation was found between symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism and hormonal levels. So, clinical evaluation of patients is very important before assessing the laboratory values, and the free T 4 is more specific in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. (Author)

  10. [MORPHO-FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE THYROID GLAND AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, V S; Sizova, Ye A; Miroshnikov, S A; Notova, S V; Zavaleyeva, S M

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted on 15 male Wistar rats, which were injected intramuscularly with copper nanoparticle lyosols at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg body weight once a week for 3 months. Thyroid gland was removed 7 days after the last injection and was studied using histological, morphometric and immunohistochemical methods (demonstration of Ki-67 and caspase-3). Animals of the control group (n = 15) were administered distilled water at the same time intervals. It was found that after 1, 2, 3 and 4 injections of copper nanoparticles, the thyroid gland contained an increased number of large cyst-like follicles, while the average thyrocyte height of and the volume of their nuclei were reduced, which indicate a decline in hormone production. After 12 injections of copper nanoparticles, the hyperplastic thyroid gland demonstrated small follicles lined with columnar epithelium, which contained no or small amount of the colloid. The number of mitotically dividing thyrocytes was increased. Parafollicular cells demonstrated an apoptotic dominant. Morphological data suggest goitrogenic effect of multiple doses of copper nanopartides. The data received indicating the readiness of the thyroid cells to the programmed death and its possible depression (absence of signs of thyrocyte apoptosis) at different stages of the experiment confirm the modulating effect of copper on apoptosis.

  11. Thyroid hormone levels and incident chronic kidney disease in euthyroid individuals: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Lee, Won-Young; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kwon, Min-Jung; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rampal, Sanjay; Han, Won Kon; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are associated with higher levels of serum creatinine and with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prospective association between thyroid hormones and kidney function in euthyroid individuals,however, is largely unexplored. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 104 633 South Korean men and women who were free of CKD and proteinuria at baseline and had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease or cancer. At each annual or biennial follow-up visit, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxin (FT4) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The study outcome was incident CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 1032 participants developed incident CKD.There was a positive association between high-normal levels of TSH and increased risk of incident CKD. In fully-adjusted models including baseline eGFR, the hazard ratio comparing the highest vs the lowest quintiles of TSH was 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.55; P for linear trend=0.03]. In spline models, FT3 levels below 3 pg/ml were also associated with increased risk of incident CKD. There was no association between FT4 levels and CKD. In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, high levels of TSH and low levels of FT3, even within the normal range, were modestly associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

  12. Parity and 11-Year Serum Thyrotropin and Thyroid Autoantibody Change: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergved, Lena; Carlé, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    thyrotropin (TSH), as well as change in thyroid peroxidase autoantibody (TPOAb) status. A random sample of 4649 people aged 18-65 years participated in a population-based study in the period 1997-1998. In the study presented here, 1749 non-pregnant women with no history of thyroid disease were included who...

  13. Clinical study on the changes of perioperative serum thyroid hormone during heart surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhonghua; Qian Yongyue; Liu Zengli; Wu Jinchang; Yang Chen

    2002-01-01

    To observe the changes of perioperative serum thyroid hormone and their clinical significance, blood samples were obtained from 20 patients before, during and after heart operations. Thyroid hormones were measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that serum T 3 , T 4 and FT 3 levels significantly declined during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and thereafter. Serum T 3 and T 4 concentrations reached their nadir at the lowest hypothermia of CPB. TSH and FT 4 levels remained normal ranges at postoperative sampling times. Conclusions: CPB would severely affect patients' thyroid function, thus simulated a 'low T 3 syndrome', and low T 3 syndrome would produce side effects on postoperative heart function

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about your thyroid’s size, shape, position and function that is often unattainable using other imaging procedures. ... thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is ...

  15. Clinical studies on thyroid CT number in Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamijo, Keiichi

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate CT Hounsfield unit (H.U.) of the thyroid in hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis. The mean thyroid CT number in 95 controls was 122±18 H.U.(±SD) and did not change significatly with advancing age. The mean thyroid CT number (±SD) of 85±22 H.U. in 60 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease was significantly lower than either in normal controls or 116±22 H.U. in 11 patients with euthyroid Graves' disease. Comparison of thyroid hormones and TSH receptor Ab values of untreated patients with a normal and an abnormally low thyroid CT number showed that serum total and free T 3 were significantly higher in the latter group than the former group. With respect to the effect of methimazol (MMI) on the thyroid CT number, in the untreated 10 patients with a low thyroid CT number, the initial mean CT number was 65±11 H.U. and increased significantly to 76±14 H.U. after treatment with MMI. In contrast, in 6 patients with a normal thyroid CT number prior to therapy, the initial mean thyroid CT number was 102±11 H.U. and fell significantly to 84±16 H.U. after treatment with MMI. The thyroid CT number in destructive thyrotoxicosis is markedly decreased to less than 70 H.U. and the mean values of 57±7 H.U. in 6 patients with silent thyroiditis and of 61±5 H.U. in 7 with subacute thyroiditis differ significantly from Graves' disease. In conclusion, the thyroid CT number is significantly reduced in hyperthyroid Graves' disease, normal in euthyroid Graves' disease and markedly decreased in destructive thyrotoxicosis. The high T-3 value seemed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a decline in the thyroid CT number in Graves' disease. An antithyroid drug therapy caused two different changes in the thyroid CT number, depending on whether the thyroid CT number prior to therapy was normal or low. (author)

  16. Clinical studies on thyroid CT number in Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamijo, Keiichi (Kamijo Thyroid and Pituitary Clinic, Sapporo (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate CT Hounsfield unit (H.U.) of the thyroid in hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis. The mean thyroid CT number in 95 controls was 122[+-]18 H.U.([+-]SD) and did not change significatly with advancing age. The mean thyroid CT number ([+-]SD) of 85[+-]22 H.U. in 60 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease was significantly lower than either in normal controls or 116[+-]22 H.U. in 11 patients with euthyroid Graves' disease. Comparison of thyroid hormones and TSH receptor Ab values of untreated patients with a normal and an abnormally low thyroid CT number showed that serum total and free T[sub 3] were significantly higher in the latter group than the former group. With respect to the effect of methimazol (MMI) on the thyroid CT number, in the untreated 10 patients with a low thyroid CT number, the initial mean CT number was 65[+-]11 H.U. and increased significantly to 76[+-]14 H.U. after treatment with MMI. In contrast, in 6 patients with a normal thyroid CT number prior to therapy, the initial mean thyroid CT number was 102[+-]11 H.U. and fell significantly to 84[+-]16 H.U. after treatment with MMI. The thyroid CT number in destructive thyrotoxicosis is markedly decreased to less than 70 H.U. and the mean values of 57[+-]7 H.U. in 6 patients with silent thyroiditis and of 61[+-]5 H.U. in 7 with subacute thyroiditis differ significantly from Graves' disease. In conclusion, the thyroid CT number is significantly reduced in hyperthyroid Graves' disease, normal in euthyroid Graves' disease and markedly decreased in destructive thyrotoxicosis. The high T-3 value seemed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a decline in the thyroid CT number in Graves' disease. An antithyroid drug therapy caused two different changes in the thyroid CT number, depending on whether the thyroid CT number prior to therapy was normal or low. (author).

  17. Loss of integrity of thyroid morphology and function in children born to mothers with inadequately treated Graves' disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempers, Marlies J. E.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; van Rijn, Rick R.; Smets, Anne M. J. B.; Smit, Bert J.; de Vijlder, Jan J. M.; Vulsma, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Context: Central congenital hypothyroidism (CH-C) in neonates born to mothers with inadequately treated Graves' disease usually needs T-4 supplementation. The thyroid and its regulatory system have not yet been extensively studied after T-4 withdrawal, until we observed disintegrated thyroid glands

  18. Hematological follow-up studies on patients with thyroid neoplasms after 131I therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chone, B.; Engelken, G.; Schenck, P.

    1978-01-01

    Based on 391 thyroid neoplasms diagnostic hematological follow-up studies were registered in 34 patients with an overall J-131-dose of more than 500 mCi including the following parameters: 1. Peripheral blood control. 2. Bone marrow aspiration. 3. Cell volume distribution size of leukocytes after preparative enrichment. If in doubt a bone marrow scintigraphy was added. The adjunctive diagnostic procedure was correlated with histological criteria of thyroid carcinoma and J-131 retention after therapeutic application of radioiodine. In particular, a case report is given regarding a patient of 66 years with follicular thyroid carcinoma receiving 990 mCi J-131 during a period of 11 years after having had total thyroidectomy twice. The development of acute leucemia followed by death happened 16 years later. The moment of bone marrow transformation was determined exactly. The value of blood parameters can be calculated as follows: 1. Peripheral blood controls are limited by lack of efficiency. 2. Biopsy of bone marrow can detect hypoplastic alteration being latent in circulating blood for some years, even of J-131 cumulation dose below 500 mCi. 3. The analysis of distribution size of leukocytes represents a functional aspect after radiation induced in injury of bone marrow. (author)

  19. Paradoxical effects of radioiodine therapy in functional thyroid autonomy and mild immunothyropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, S.; Rudolph, F.; Prillwitz, A.; Groth, P.; Schuemichen, C.

    1998-01-01

    Aim: To examine all cases with Graves' disease after radioiodine therapy of autonomously functioning thyroid tissue (AFFT) in order to find the cause. Methods: We retrospectively studied 1428 pts who were treated between 11/93 and 3/97 with radioiodine for AFTT and who underwent at least one control examination. Results: 15 (1.1%) of all pts developed Graves' disease 8.4 (4-13) months after radioiodine therapy. There was no direct suggestion of Graves' disease (TRAK negative, no endocrine ophthalmopathy) in any pt at the time of radioiodine therapy. More detailed analysis of anamnestic data, however, revealed evidence that immunothyropathy predated radioiodine therapy in 11 of the 15 pts. Paradoxical effects of radioiodine therapy manifested as an increase in immunothyropathy 14 pts, a deterioration in metabolism in 11 pts and a first occurrence of endocrine ophthalmopathy in 5 pts. Conclusion: Exacerbation of preexisting, functional primarily insignificant immunothyropathia is held responsible in most cases for the observed paradoxical effects after radioiodine therapy, resulting in radiation-induced manifest Graves' disease; however no therapeutical consequences are recommended. (orig.) [de

  20. Hyperparathyroidism and thyroid disease. A study of their association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffer, S.S.; Szpunar, W.E.; Block, M.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of hyperparathyroidism was prospectively evaluated in a group of patients with thyroid disease, and the incidence of thyroid disease was retrospectively evaluated in a group of patients specifically referred for evaluation of hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism was ten times more frequent in thyroid patients than expected in a general medical population and was especially prevalent in patients with nodular goiter. The incidence of thyroid disease in patients with hyperparathyroidism was 38.8%. Although radiation therapy was shown to be a factor in these associations, it alone could not explain the observed frequency

  1. The Changes of Serum TSH in Various States of Thyroid Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Heung Kyu

    1975-01-01

    The serum concentrations of thyrotropin (TSH) were measured by means of radioimmunoassay, in 98 cases of normal controls, 51 cases of hyperthyroidism, 80 cases of primary hypothyroidism and 4 cases of secondary hypothyroidism to evaluate the diagnostic significance in various functional states of the thyroid. The obtained data were analyzed in correlation with other thyroid function test values in various phases of the functional thyroid diseases. The results were as follows: 1) The serum TSH concentration in normal control group was (1.3-8.0 μU/ml). 2) The measurement of serum TSH was more significant in diagnostic accuracy compared with that of serum T 4 (75.0±12.2%). Free T-4 Index (64.2±15.2%), serum T 3 (41.0±21.0%) or T 3 resin uptake (41.1±15.8%) in evaluation of primary hypothyroidism. 3) In case of overt hypothyroidism, the serum TSH and T 4 were both abnormal, compatible with the clinical diagnosis, while in case of preclinical or mild hypothyroidism, the serum T 4 (41.2±23.8% or 50.0±25.0%) was much less reliable than serum TSH. 4) In the treatment of primary hypothyroidism with desiccated thyroid, the administration of 1 grain of the hormone per day was sufficient to suppress the serum concentration of TSH to normal range. It showed that the measurement of serum TSH concentration was a significant criteria in evaluating the efficiency of the treatment of hypothyroidism. 5) The measurement of serum TSH concentration is a very significant method in the early detection of hypothyroidism induced during or after the treatment of the hyperthyroidism with antithyroid drugs or radioactive Iodine ( 131 I).

  2. [Thyroid nodule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Jérôme

    2005-01-31

    The thyroid nodule is a frequent, most often benign, chronic, multifocal and slowly progressive disease. The first line strategy is to diagnose cancerous nodules (thyroid nodules is controversial since the prognosis of thyroid cancer is excellent for lesions measuring less than 20 mm. Though imaging accuracy is quite limited in assessing the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, both ultrasounds (US) and thyroid scan are helpful to enhance nodular identification (>30%), to sort the nodules relevant for cytological sampling and to optimize the follow-up, the major source of health costs. Suspicious and non contributive FNAs must have a control FNA within 6 months. Nodules with a non suspicious FNA (>85%) require long term follow-up. This follow-up is mainly morphological. New or evolutive nodules, as assessed by palpation or US, will require iterative FNAs or should be considered for surgery. In patients with hyperfunctioning nodules on the scan (10 to 20%), a yearly evaluation of the TSH level is sufficient. These nodules account either for autonomously functioning ones, which slowly develop towards thyrotoxicosis, or for hyperplastic nodules frequently disclosing a lymphocytic thyroiditis. Morbidity due to thyroid autonomy is still underestimated especially in aging patients with TSH levels thyroid nodule is suggested.

  3. Is Primary Hyperparathyroidism a Risk Factor for Papillary Thyroid Cancer? An Exemplar Study and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinamon, Udi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is associated with several cancer types, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. Objective To explore further the relation between PHPT and PTC. Methods By considering patients with PHPT as extra-suspicious for PTC, we studied an exemplar group of patients with PHPT with a small (≤1 cm thyroid nodule, which was negative in preoperative cytologic examination. During parathyroidectomy, a frozen section biopsy of the thyroid nodule confirmed PTC, as did the final surgical specimen, revealing that the preoperative cytology was false-negative. Additionally, relevant reports retrieved from the English literature addressing thyroid cancer and hyperparathyroidism were reviewed and processed. Results Four patients with PHPT were studied. Three had a multifocal thyroid disease, and three had neck lymph node metastasis. Processing previous report data supported an association between PHPT and PTC. Although thyroid nodularity among patients with PHPT was similar to the general population, PTC incidence was higher. This was true also for patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Conclusions This study emphasized that PHPT should be considered as a noteworthy risk factor for PTC. Fine needle aspiration of a thyroid nodule is the most valuable diagnostic procedure for thyroid cancer. Yet, false-negative results were reported in up to 10% of cases, especially in small, subcentimeter nodules. In line with our data and the literature, patients with PHPT should have both a detailed ultrasound addressing the thyroid and cytology of any thyroid nodule, including small subcentimeter lesions. Moreover, surgical flexibility, allowing intraoperative thyroid nodule sampling, should be considered even for “innocent” nodules.

  4. Study of Achilles Tendon Reflex in Normal Korean and Various Thyroid Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jin Yung; Kim, Kwang Won; Yae, Sung Bo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to establish the diagnostic value of Achilles tendon reflex and to determine the normal value of Achilles tendon reflex time in normal Korean, the author measured the Achilles tendon reflex time by photomotograph. This study was carried out in 272 cases with various thyroid diseases and 340 normal Korean. 1) The Achilles tendon reflex time in normal Korean was like this, between 11 years old and 20 years old; male (62 cases); 250±27 msec, female (36 cases); 266±27 msec, between 21 years old and 30 years old; male (38 cases); 271±27 msec, female (21 cases); 284±27 msec, between 31 years old and 40 years old; male (26 cases); 275±25 msec, female (29 cases); 291±27 msec, between 41 years old and 50 years old; male (20 cases); 286±35 msec, female (24 cases); 307±42 msec, between 51 years old and 60 years old, male (20 cases); 296±33 msec, female (20 cases); 318±46 msec, over 61 years; male (24 cases) 301±33 msec, female (20 cases); 325±35 msec. The Achilles tendon reflex time was delayed with increasing age and delayed in the female. 2) The Achilles tendon reflex time was markedly shortened to 221±20 msec in untreated hyperthyroidism. 3) The Achilles tendon reflex time was markedly delayed to 435±59 msec in hypothyroidism. 4) The Achilles tendon reflex time was not changed significantly in other thyroid diseases with norms thyroid function. 5) The Achilles tendon reflex time showed good correlationship with ETR, T 3 RU, 131 I thyroid uptake and serum TSH. 6) Reproducibility of Achilles tendon reflex time was good, and no significant difference between left and right was noted. 7) Diagnostic accuracy of Achilles tendon reflex time was 71% in hyperthyroidism and 90% in hypothyroidism. 8) The Achilles tendon reflex time showed useful test to evaluate the clinical course of the hyperthyroidism.

  5. Structural functional associations of the orbit in thyroid eye disease: Kalman filters to track extraocular rectal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nelson, Katrina; Mundy, Kevin; Luo, Yifu; Harrigan, Robert L.; Damon, Steve; Fabbri, Daniel; Mawn, Louise; Landman, Bennett

    2016-03-01

    Pathologies of the optic nerve and orbit impact millions of Americans and quantitative assessment of the orbital structures on 3-D imaging would provide objective markers to enhance diagnostic accuracy, improve timely intervention, and eventually preserve visual function. Recent studies have shown that the multi-atlas methodology is suitable for identifying orbital structures, but challenges arise in the identification of the individual extraocular rectus muscles that control eye movement. This is increasingly problematic in diseased eyes, where these muscles often appear to fuse at the back of the orbit (at the resolution of clinical computed tomography imaging) due to inflammation or crowding. We propose the use of Kalman filters to track the muscles in three-dimensions to refine multi-atlas segmentation and resolve ambiguity due to imaging resolution, noise, and artifacts. The purpose of our study is to investigate a method of automatically generating orbital metrics from CT imaging and demonstrate the utility of the approach by correlating structural metrics of the eye orbit with clinical data and visual function measures in subjects with thyroid eye disease. The pilot study demonstrates that automatically calculated orbital metrics are strongly correlated with several clinical characteristics. Moreover, it is shown that the superior, inferior, medial and lateral rectus muscles obtained using Kalman filters are each correlated with different categories of functional deficit. These findings serve as foundation for further investigation in the use of CT imaging in the study, analysis and diagnosis of ocular diseases, specifically thyroid eye disease.

  6. Study on the Usefulness of Ultrasonography for Postpartum Depression and Thyroid Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Yi; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; Park, Mi Ja; You, In Gyu [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Postpartum depression(PPD) of women with depression increased frequency of thyroid disease, and so the correlations for depression and thyroid disease has been the subject of discussed whether. The purpose of this study was to predict the prevalence of PPD and the correlation between PPD and thyroid disease through ultrasonography. January 2010 to November 2011, Obstetrics and Gynecology in M-clinical center admitted 230 patients within 1 year postpartum were enrolled. EPDS by PPD scale depression screening and general characteristics of subjects were investigated and thyroid was examined that ultrasonography and thyroid blood tests. A total of 230 patients non PPD group were 53.0% and PPD group were 47.0%. In ultrasonography, among 27 patients who changed in size of thyroid, non PPD group were 14.8% and PPD group were 85.2%. Among 124 patients who thyroid nodules were presence, non PPD were 35.8% and PPD group were 64.2%. In ultrasonography, PPD group were higher incidence than non PPD group were changes in size of thyroid and the presence of nodules. There was significant difference between the changed in size of thyroid and thyroid nodules were presence the two group. Definitive histopathological diagnosis was benign in 33 patients (non PPD group were 45.5%, PPD group were 54.5%), malignancy in 5 patients (only PPD group were 100%), thyroiditis in 3 patients (non PPD group were 33.3%, PPD group were 66.7%). The results of thyroid blood tests, abnormal TSH level were 7 patients (non PPD group were 28.6%, PPD group were 71.4%) and abnormal Free T4 level were 9 patients (non PPD group were 44.4%, PPD group were 55.6%). There was no significant difference between the abnormal TSH level and Free T4 level of the two group. 5 patients were diagnosed as thyroid dysfunction. Of these, 2 patients were subclinical hyperthyroidism in non PPD group, 2 patients were subclinical hyperthyroidism and 1 patient was subclinical hyperthyroidism in PPD group. This study was

  7. Study on the Usefulness of Ultrasonography for Postpartum Depression and Thyroid Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Yi; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; Park, Mi Ja; You, In Gyu

    2012-01-01

    Postpartum depression(PPD) of women with depression increased frequency of thyroid disease, and so the correlations for depression and thyroid disease has been the subject of discussed whether. The purpose of this study was to predict the prevalence of PPD and the correlation between PPD and thyroid disease through ultrasonography. January 2010 to November 2011, Obstetrics and Gynecology in M-clinical center admitted 230 patients within 1 year postpartum were enrolled. EPDS by PPD scale depression screening and general characteristics of subjects were investigated and thyroid was examined that ultrasonography and thyroid blood tests. A total of 230 patients non PPD group were 53.0% and PPD group were 47.0%. In ultrasonography, among 27 patients who changed in size of thyroid, non PPD group were 14.8% and PPD group were 85.2%. Among 124 patients who thyroid nodules were presence, non PPD were 35.8% and PPD group were 64.2%. In ultrasonography, PPD group were higher incidence than non PPD group were changes in size of thyroid and the presence of nodules. There was significant difference between the changed in size of thyroid and thyroid nodules were presence the two group. Definitive histopathological diagnosis was benign in 33 patients (non PPD group were 45.5%, PPD group were 54.5%), malignancy in 5 patients (only PPD group were 100%), thyroiditis in 3 patients (non PPD group were 33.3%, PPD group were 66.7%). The results of thyroid blood tests, abnormal TSH level were 7 patients (non PPD group were 28.6%, PPD group were 71.4%) and abnormal Free T4 level were 9 patients (non PPD group were 44.4%, PPD group were 55.6%). There was no significant difference between the abnormal TSH level and Free T4 level of the two group. 5 patients were diagnosed as thyroid dysfunction. Of these, 2 patients were subclinical hyperthyroidism in non PPD group, 2 patients were subclinical hyperthyroidism and 1 patient was subclinical hyperthyroidism in PPD group. This study was

  8. Correlation between serum lead and thyroid diseases: papillary thyroid carcinoma, nodular goiter, and thyroid adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Xiang; Liu, Jie; Jin, Langping; Yang, Fan; Wang, Junbo; Wang, Ouchen; Gao, Ying

    2017-10-01

    Studies have showed that lead was associated with human health. However, the effects of lead on thyroid functions are inconsistent, and studies based on Chinese population are fragmentary. To evaluate the correlation between lead and thyroid functions of Chinese with different thyroid diseases, we conducted a hospital-based study. Ninety-six papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 10 nodular goiter (NG), and 7 thyroid adenoma (TA) patients were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, China. Serum triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were evaluated with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Serum lead was assessed with ICP-MASS. Partial correlation was used to explore the correlations of serum lead and thyroid diseases. Compared to PTC, the level of lead was significantly higher in TA, and lower in NG (p lead was negatively correlated with TSH (r s  =  - 0.27, p lead at quartile4 (r s  = 0.61, p lead and FT3 or FT4 in any group. The results suggested that lead might have different etiological roles in these three thyroid diseases.

  9. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies during early gestation and the subsequent risk of first-onset postpartum depression: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseloo, Richard; Kamperman, Astrid M; Bergink, Veerle; Pop, Victor J M

    2018-01-01

    During the postpartum period, women are at risk for the new onset of both auto-immune thyroid disorders and depression. The presence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-ab) during early gestation is predictive for postpartum auto-immune thyroid dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between TPO-ab status during early gestation and first-onset postpartum depression. Prospective cohort study (n = 1075) with follow-up during pregnancy up to one year postpartum. Thyroid function and TPO-ab status were measured during early gestation. Depressive symptomatology was assessed during each trimester and at four time points postpartum with the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS). Women with antenatal depression were not eligible for inclusion. Self-reported postpartum depression was defined with an EDS cut-off of ≥ 13. The cumulative incidence of self-reported first-onset depression in the first postpartum year was 6.3%. A positive TPO-ab status was associated with an increased risk for self-reported first-onset depression at four months postpartum (adjusted OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.3-11.6), but not at other postpartum time points. Prevalence rates of self-reported postpartum depression declined after four months postpartum in the TPO-ab positive group, but remained constant in the TPO-ab negative group. Depression was defined with a self-rating questionnaire (EDS). Women with an increased TPO-ab titer during early gestation are at increased risk for self-reported first-onset depression. The longitudinal pattern of self-reported postpartum depression in the TPO-ab positive group was similar to the typical course of postpartum TPO-ab titers changes. This suggests overlap in the etiology of first-onset postpartum depression and auto-immune thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid function should be evaluated in women with first-onset postpartum depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Hashimoto thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Hashimoto thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hashimoto thyroiditis is a condition that affects the function of ...

  11. The axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), a neotenic amphibian, expresses functional thyroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Rachid; Bertrand, Stéphanie; Marchand, Oriane; Duffraisse, Marilyne; de Luze, Amaury; Vanacker, Jean-Marc; Maraninchi, Marie; Margotat, Alain; Demeneix, Barbara; Laudet, Vincent

    2004-02-01

    Neotenic amphibians such as the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) are often unable to undergo metamorphosis under natural conditions. It is thought that neoteny represents a deviation from the standard course of amphibian ontogeny, affecting the thyroid axis at different levels from the central nervous system to peripheral organs. Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) that bind the thyroid hormone (TH) T(3) have been described in axolotl. However, the full sequences of TR were needed to better characterize the TH response and to be able to assess their functional capacity at the molecular level. We report that each of the alpha and beta axolotl TRs bind both DNA and TH, and they activate transcription in response to TH in a mammalian cell-based transient transfection assay. Moreover, both TRs are expressed in axolotl tissues. Interestingly, each TR gene generates alternatively spliced isoforms, harboring partial or total deletions of the ligand-binding domain, which are expressed in vivo. Further, we found that in the axolotl, TH regulates the expression of stromelysin 3 and collagenase 3, which are TH target genes in Xenopus. Taken together, these results suggest that axolotl TRs are functional and that the molecular basis of neoteny in the axolotl is not linked to a major defect in TH response in peripheral tissues.

  12. Dual role of betel leaf extract on thyroid function in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S; Kar, A

    1998-12-01

    The effects of betel leaf extract (0.10, 0.40, 0.80 and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1 for 15 days) on the alterations in thyroid hormone concentrations. lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were investigated in male Swiss mice. Administration of betel leaf extract exhibited a dual role, depending on the different doses. While the lowest dose decreased thyroxine (T4) and increased serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, reverse effects were observed at two higher doses. Higher doses also increased LPO with a concomitant decrease in SOD and CAT activities. However, with the lowest dose most of these effects were reversed. These findings suggest that betel leaf can be both stimulatory and inhibitory to thyroid function, particularly for T3 generation and lipid peroxidation in male mice, depending on the amount consumed.

  13. Milk production and distribution in low-dose counties for the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmel, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report identifies sources of milk consumed by residents of Ferry, Okanogan, and Stevens Counties. This information will be used by the Hanford thyroid Disease Study to determine whether thyroid disease has been increased among people exposed to past iodine--131 emissions from Hanford Site Facilities

  14. Lithium as adjuvant to radioiodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: clinical and in vitro studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y. Y.; van der Pluijm, G.; Karperien, M.; Stokkel, M. P. M.; Pereira, A. M.; Morreau, J.; Kievit, J.; Romijn, J. A.; Smit, J. W. A.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium has been reported to increase radioactive iodine (RaI) doses in benign thyroid disease and in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). It is not known whether lithium influences the outcome of RaI therapy in DTC. We therefore studied the clinical effects of RaI without and with lithium

  15. Long-term cardiovascular mortality in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma : An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther; Klein Hesselink, Mariëlle; de Bock, Truuske; Gansevoort, Ronald; Bakker, Stephan; Vredeveld, Eline; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; van der Horst, Iwan; Kamphuisen, Pieter Willem; Plukker, John; Links, Thera P.; Lefrandt, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim was to study the risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Secondary aims were to evaluate all-cause mortality and explore the relation between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; also known as thyrotropin) level and these outcome

  16. Practice, efficacy, and costs of thyroid nodule evaluation: a retrospective study in a Dutch university hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, Lotty; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Boers, Maarten; van Tulder, Maurits W.; van Diest, Paul; Lips, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules has markedly reduced the role of thyroid scintigraphy. This is often limited to nondiagnostic or follicular (tumor) FNA classifications. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and cost of such a strategy in a university center. From 1992-1998, 995

  17. Thyroid Function Tests in the Reference Range and Fracture: Individual Participant Analysis of Prospective Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Carole E; Floriani, Carmen; Bauer, Douglas C; da Costa, Bruno R; Segna, Daniel; Blum, Manuel R; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Fink, Howard A; Cappola, Anne R; Syrogiannouli, Lamprini; Peeters, Robin P; Åsvold, Bjørn O; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Luben, Robert N; Bremner, Alexandra P; Gogakos, Apostolos; Eastell, Richard; Kearney, Patricia M; Hoff, Mari; Le Blanc, Erin; Ceresini, Graziano; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Langhammer, Arnulf; Stott, David J; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Williams, Graham R; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Walsh, John P; Aujesky, Drahomir; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased fracture risk, but it is not clear if lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and higher free thyroxine (FT4) in euthyroid individuals are associated with fracture risk. To evaluate the association of TSH and FT4 with incident fractures in euthyroid individuals. Individual participant data analysis. Thirteen prospective cohort studies with baseline examinations between 1981 and 2002. Adults with baseline TSH 0.45 to 4.49 mIU/L. Primary outcome was incident hip fracture. Secondary outcomes were any, nonvertebral, and vertebral fractures. Results were presented as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) adjusted for age and sex. For clinical relevance, we studied TSH according to five categories: 0.45 to 0.99 mIU/L; 1.00 to 1.49 mIU/L; 1.50 to 2.49 mIU/L; 2.50 to 3.49 mIU/L; and 3.50 to 4.49 mIU/L (reference). FT4 was assessed as study-specific standard deviation increase, because assays varied between cohorts. During 659,059 person-years, 2,565 out of 56,835 participants had hip fracture (4.5%; 12 studies with data on hip fracture). The pooled adjusted HR (95% CI) for hip fracture was 1.25 (1.05 to 1.49) for TSH 0.45 to 0.99 mIU/L, 1.19 (1.01 to 1.41) for TSH 1.00 to 1.49 mIU/L, 1.09 (0.93 to 1.28) for TSH 1.50 to 2.49 mIU/L, and 1.12 (0.94 to 1.33) for TSH 2.50 to 3.49 mIU/L (P for trend = 0.004). Hip fracture was also associated with FT4 [HR (95% CI) 1.22 (1.11 to 1.35) per one standard deviation increase in FT4]. FT4 only was associated with any and nonvertebral fractures. Results remained similar in sensitivity analyses. Among euthyroid adults, lower TSH and higher FT4 are associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. These findings may help refine the definition of optimal ranges of thyroid function tests. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  18. [Serum thyroxine-binding protein for determining the