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Sample records for thyroid cancer based

  1. Risk of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Liang; Cheng, Shih-Ping; Lin, Hui-Wen; Lai, Yuen-Liang

    2014-03-01

    The causative relationship between autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer remains a controversial issue. The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis. From the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005) of Taiwan, we identified adult patients newly diagnosed with thyroiditis between 2004 and 2009 (n = 1,654). The comparison cohort (n = 8,270) included five randomly selected age- and sex-matched controls for each patient in the study cohort. All patients were followed up from the date of cohort entry until they developed thyroid cancer or to the end of 2010. Multivariate Cox regression was used to assess the risk of developing thyroid cancer. A total of 1,000 bootstrap replicates were created for internal validation. A total of 35 patients developed thyroid cancer during the study period, of whom 24 were from the thyroiditis cohort and 11 were from the comparison cohort (incidence 353 and 22 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the hazard ratio (HR) for thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis was 13.24 (95 % CI 6.40-27.39). Excluding cancers occurring within 1 year of follow-up, the HR remained significantly increased (6.64; 95 % CI 2.35-18.75). Hypothyroidism was not an independent factor associated with the occurrence of thyroid cancer. We found an increased risk for the development of thyroid cancer after a diagnosis of thyroiditis, independent of comorbidities.

  2. Progress in molecular-based management of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingzhao; Haugen, Bryan R; Schlumberger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Substantial developments have occurred in the past 5–10 years in clinical translational research of thyroid cancer. Diagnostic molecular markers, such as RET-PTC, RAS, and BRAFV600E mutations; galectin 3; and a new gene expression classifier, are outstanding examples that have improved diagnosis of thyroid nodules. BRAF mutation is a prognostic genetic marker that has improved risk stratification and hence tailored management of patients with thyroid cancer, including those with conventionally low risks. Novel molecular-targeted treatments hold great promise for radioiodine-refractory and surgically inoperable thyroid cancers as shown in clinical trials; such treatments are likely to become a component of the standard treatment regimen for patients with thyroid cancer in the near future. These novel molecular-based management strategies for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer are the most exciting developments in this unprecedented era of molecular thyroid-cancer medicine. PMID:23668556

  3. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  4. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

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    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid cancer ...

  5. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive type of thyroid cancer that ...

  6. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  7. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child or being exposed to radiation from an atomic bomb. The cancer may occur as soon as 5 years ... thyroid cancer, drugs may be given to prevent the body from making thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that can ...

  8. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000331.htm Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma To use the sharing features on ... the lower neck. Causes About 80% of all thyroid cancers diagnosed in the United States are the papillary ...

  9. Cabozantinib (thyroid cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat a certain type of thyroid cancer that is getting worse and that has spread ... only gives information about cabozantinib capsules (Cometriq) for thyroid cancer. If you are using this medication for advanced ...

  10. Thyroid Cancer Statistics | Did You Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid cancer represents the 8th most common cancer in the United States. Did you know that this cancer, located at the base of the throat in the thyroid gland, is highly treatable and usually curable?

  11. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  12. [Autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krátký, Jan; Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Association between autoimmune thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer remains not clear. Although both diseases often occur simultaneously in histological samples, it is not yet clear whether CLT can be regarded as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy. This review focus on the known epidemiological and molecular genetics links between both diseases. Most studies have shown a significant association between thyroid cancer and positive antibodies to thyroglobulin and histological evidence of CLT, as well. Both disorders share some risk factors (greater incidence in women, in areas with adequate supply of iodine and in patients after radiotherapy of the neck) and molecular genetics linkage. For example: RET/PTC rearrangements could be more often found in carcinomas associated with CLT, but this mutation could be found in benign lesions such as CLT, as well. CLT seems to be a positive prognostic factor in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is associated with less invasive forms of tumor, lower occurrence of infiltrated lymphatic nodes and a lower risk of recurrence.

  13. Personalized Medicine Based on Theranostic Radioiodine Molecular Imaging for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging based personalized therapy has been a fascinating concept for individualized therapeutic strategy, which is able to attain the highest efficacy and reduce adverse effects in certain patients. Theranostics, which integrates diagnostic testing to detect molecular targets for particular therapeutic modalities, is one of the key technologies that contribute to the success of personalized medicine. Although the term "theranostics" was used after the second millennium, its basic principle was applied more than 70 years ago in the field of thyroidology with radioiodine molecular imaging. Differentiated thyroid cancer, which arises from follicular cells in the thyroid, is the most common endocrine malignancy, and theranostic radioiodine has been successfully applied to diagnose and treat differentiated thyroid cancer, the applications of which were included in the guidelines published by various thyroid or nuclear medicine societies. Through better pathophysiologic understanding of thyroid cancer and advancements in nuclear technologies, theranostic radioiodine contributes more to modern tailored personalized management by providing high therapeutic effect and by avoiding significant adverse effects in differentiated thyroid cancer. This review details the inception of theranostic radioiodine and recent radioiodine applications for differentiated thyroid cancer management as a prototype of personalized medicine based on molecular imaging.

  14. Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beral, V.

    1997-01-01

    The author's presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences

  15. Radiation and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Edward

    2014-01-01

    An International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer took place on 21-23 February 2014 in Tokyo, Japan, to support the efforts of the Fukushima Prefecture and the Japanese government in enhancing public health measures following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. The workshop, which was designed to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of thyroid cancer in children and of radiation-induced thyroid cancer (papillary carcinoma) in particular, was co-organised by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (MOE), the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It brought together the world's top experts in the field, including medical doctors, epidemiologists and radiological risk assessment specialists from ten countries. Although rare, thyroid cancer occurs naturally, with the risk of developing a thyroid cancer increasing with age. Cases are usually identified when a thyroid carcinogenic nodule grows enough to be felt with a patient's fingers, at which point the patient visits a medical doctor to identify the nature of the growth. In many countries around the world, the incidence rate of naturally occurring thyroid cancer is on the order of less than 1 per year per 100 000 children (from ages 0 to 18). Statistically, this rate appears to be increasing in many countries, with young girls slightly more at risk than young boys. A second but very different means of detecting thyroid cancer cases is through thyroid ultrasound screening examinations on subjects who do not demonstrate any symptoms. Ultrasound screening is a more sensitive approach that can detect very small nodules (< 5 mm) and cysts (< 20 mm) which would not normally be perceived through simple palpitation. However, because thyroid ultrasound screening examinations are much more effective, the number of thyroid cancer cases per examination will normally be larger than the number per capita found through national cancer

  16. Trends in Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Korean Children (1999-2012) Based on Palpation and Nonpalpation Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Young; Jang, Hye Won; Joung, Ji Young; Park, Sun-Mi; Jeong, Dae Joon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer is increasing in several populations; however, contributing factors have not been adequately discussed. Objectives Our aim was to identify trends of childhood thyroid cancer based on the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database and to elucidate changes in detection methods of cancers using a single-center database. Methods Data from the KCCR and Statistics Korea between 1999 and 2012 were used to calculate the crude incidence of thyroid cancer in children. To analyze detection methods for cancers, pediatric patients (aged 0-19 years, n = 126) who underwent thyroid surgery for thyroid cancers at our institution were identified. Subjects were divided into two groups by detection method: (1) palpation group and (2) screening group. Results The crude incidence of childhood thyroid cancer increased from 0.5 per 100,000 in 1999 to 1.7 in 2012. The proportion of thyroid cancer among total cancers also increased from 4.4% in 1999 to 10.6% in 2012. Among 126 children from our institution, 91 cases (72%) were identified as palpable neck masses, and the remainder were discovered during imaging studies. The numbers in both groups gradually increased during the study period. Conclusions The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer has steadily increased in Korea. Regarding the detection methods of cancers, most tumors are detected by palpation rather than screening, although the rate of masses identified during screening has increased. PMID:26835429

  17. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  18. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer Cabozantinib-S-Malate Caprelsa (Vandetanib) Cometriq (Cabozantinib-S-Malate) Doxorubicin ...

  19. Thyroid cancer incidence among Asian immigrants to Ontario, Canada: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Baiju R; Griffiths, Rebecca; Hall, Stephen F

    2017-09-01

    The highest rates of thyroid cancer are observed in Pacific Island nations as well as Australia and Asian countries bordering the Pacific. The objective of this study was to determine the risk for thyroid cancer among immigrants to Canada from Southeast and East Asia compared with immigrants from other regions and nonimmigrants. This was a population-based, longitudinal cohort study using health care administrative data to examine all residents of Ontario without pre-existing thyroid cancer. Individuals were followed from January 1997 or 5 years after they became eligible for health care coverage in Ontario, whichever came later. Patients were followed until March 2015 for incident-differentiated thyroid cancer, and then for recurrence. The study followed 14,659,733 individuals for a median of 17 years. Thyroid cancer incidence was 43.8 cases per 100,000 person-years among Southeast Asian immigrants, 28.6 cases per 100,000 person-years among East Asian immigrants, 21.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among other immigrants, and 14.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among nonimmigrants. Incidence was highest among immigrants from the Philippines (52.7 cases per 100,000 person-years), South Korea (33.5 cases per 100,000 person-years), and China (30.0 cases per 100,000 person-years). Adjusted hazard ratios for thyroid cancer compared with nonimmigrants were 2.66 (95% confidence interval, 2.48-2.84) for Southeast Asian immigrants, 1.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.00) for East Asian immigrants, and 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.57) for other immigrants. Immigrants were more likely to have papillary histology and stage I cancer. East Asian immigrants, but not Southeast Asian immigrants, had a lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.94] and 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.26], respectively). Immigrants from Southeast and East Asia had markedly higher thyroid cancer incidence than nonimmigrants. At particularly elevated

  20. General Information about Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child or being exposed to radiation from an atomic bomb. The cancer may occur as soon as 5 years ... thyroid cancer, drugs may be given to prevent the body from making thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that can ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child or being exposed to radiation from an atomic bomb. The cancer may occur as soon as 5 years ... thyroid cancer, drugs may be given to prevent the body from making thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that can ...

  2. Thyroid Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package thyroid implements a risk prediction model developed by NCI researchers to calculate the absolute risk of developing a second primary thyroid cancer (SPTC) in individuals who were diagnosed with a cancer during their childhood.

  3. Treatment of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronetskij, I.B.

    1990-01-01

    Peculiarities of thyroid cancer, producing direct influence on selection of treatment procedure are enumerated. It is shown that surgical treatment is the determining way of treatment, which is supplemented with hormonotherapy in case of differentiated forms of the tumor. In case of anaplasia cancer, sarcomas, propagation of tumor beyond the limits of the organ, inoperable processes, treatment of recurrences and functional inactivity of bone metastases the remote control gamma-therapy should be performed. Therapy by radioactive iodine is shown for the treatment of remote iodine-concentrating metastases for devitalization of residual thyroid tissue after thyroidectomy

  4. Thyroid cancer: experiences of Cancer Institute, Madras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R. Ravi; Mahajan, V.; Ganesh, M.S.; Ayyappan, S.; Suresh, V.; Suryasen, S.

    1999-01-01

    It has been long recognized that Thyroid Cancer (TC) envelopes under its umbrella a spectrum of cancers from the relatively indolent well differentiated papillary and follicular cancers to the aggressive and rapidly fatal anaplastic cancers. Medullary cancers fall in between the two extremes. Recently, poor prognostic variants of well-differentiated cancers have been described. There is also a move to define a group of poorly differentiated TC including the insular variants distinguishing them from anaplastic carcinomas. Of the 1168 patients with thyroid nodules seen at the Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai between 1956 and 1996, 670 cases proved to be malignant either cytologically or histologically. This report is based on the follow-up of these patients which at 10 years was 75%

  5. [Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: Brazilian consensus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa M Zanini; Rosário, Pedro W; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common manifestation of thyroid diseases. It is estimated that approximately 10% of adults have palpable thyroid nodules with the frequency increasing throughout life. The major concern on nodule evaluation is the risk of malignancy (5-10%). Differentiated thyroid carcinoma accounts for 90% of all thyroid malignant neoplasias. Although most patients with cancer have a favorable outcome, some individuals present an aggressive form of the disease and poor prognostic despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Here, a set of clinical guidelines for the evaluation and management of patients with thyroid nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer was developed through consensus by 8 member of the Department of Thyroid, Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia. The participants are from different reference medical centers within Brazil, to reflect different practice patterns. Each committee participant was initially assigned to write a section of the document and to submit it to the chairperson, who revised and assembled the sections into a complete draft document, which was then circulated among all committee members for further revision. All committee members further revised and refined the document. The guidelines were developed based on the expert opinion of the committee participants, as well as on previously published information.

  6. Hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer risk: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, N-C; Chou, C-W; Weng, S-F; Yang, C-Y; Yen, F-C; Lee, S-Y; Wang, J-J; Tien, K-J

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the differentiation and growth of many tissues in the body. We investigated the association between hyperthyroidism and cancer risk in Taiwan. A random sample of 1 000 000 individuals from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database was enrolled. We found 17 033 patients to have newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism between 2000 and 2005. These patients were recruited along with a match cohort of 34 066 patients without hyperthyroidism. Starting from index date, we followed up all patients for 4 years to identify those who developed cancer. During the 4-year follow-up study, cancer was diagnosed in 1.23% of patients with hyperthyroidism and 1.02% of the member of the comparison cohort. Regression analysis showed that patients with hyperthyroidism were at greater risk of cancer incidence, especially thyroid cancer, compared the comparison cohort (HR: 1.213; 95% CI: 1.022-1.440; phyperthyroidism remained at increased risk of cancer incidence and thyroid cancer (Adjusted HR: 1.206; 95% CI: 1.015-1.433 and 6.803; 95% CI: 3.584-12.91, respectively) (both phyperthyroidism, the greater the risk of thyroid cancer. This 4-year follow up study suggests that patients with hyperthyroidism are at increased risk of cancer, especially thyroid cancer. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. The WHO activities on thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.; Cardis, E.

    1996-01-01

    The WHO has been involved in activities related to thyroid disease in populations exposed to Chernobyl fallout since 1991. The International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident, based in Geneva, undertook a pilot project on screening for thyroid disease and the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health responded to claims from Belarus of an increase of childhood thyroid cancer. Since then the WHO has been developing the public health response in partnership with scientists and physicians in Belarus and a number of centres of excellence outside the CIS specializing in the disciplines relevant to the problem. In 1993 the International Thyroid Project was initiated in partnership with the International Agency for Cancer Research. The activities developed with scientists and physicians in Belarus to respond to the increase are described. The increase in thyroid cancer and its implications for future accidents have been addressed. Revised advice on stable iodine prophylaxis has been formulated

  8. Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroiditis Resources Thyroiditis Brochure PDF Thyroiditis FAQs PDF En Español Tiroiditis El folleto de Tiroiditis Tiroiditis, Preguntas Frecuentes (FAQ) Search ...

  9. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-06-13

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Radiotherapy did not increase thyroid cancer risk among women with breast cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an increased risk of thyroid cancer exists among women with breast cancer in Taiwan, particularly among those receiving RT. We used data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan for the investigation. The breast cancer cohort contained 55,318 women (including 28,187 who received RT and 27,131 who received no RT), each of whom was randomly frequency matched according to age and index year with three women without breast cancer from the general population. Cox's proportion hazards regression analysis was conducted to estimate the effects of breast cancer with or without RT treatment on subsequent thyroid cancer risk. We found that women with breast cancer exhibited a significantly higher risk of subsequent thyroid cancer (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.60-2.44). The two groups (with or without RT) in the breast cancer cohort exhibited significantly increased risks. However, in the breast cancer cohort, the risk of thyroid cancer among women who received RT was not significantly higher than that of women who received no RT (aHR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.90-1.83). Stratified analysis according to age revealed that only younger women with breast cancer (20-54 y) had a significantly higher risk of developing thyroid cancer. This study determined that Taiwanese women with breast cancer had a higher risk of developing thyroid cancer; however, RT seems to not play a crucial role in this possible relationship. © 2015 UICC.

  11. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Pathology and Risk for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparodis, Rodis; Imam, Shahnawaz; Todorova-Koteva, Kristina; Staii, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) has been found to coexist with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in surgical specimens, but an association between the two conditions has been discounted by the medical literature. Therefore, we performed this study to determine any potential relationship between HT and the risk of developing DTC. Methods: We collected data for thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) titers, surgical pathology, and weight-based levothyroxine (LT4) replacement dose for patients who were referred for thyroid surgery. Patients with HT at final pathology were studied further. To estimate thyroid function, patients with preoperative hypothyroid HT (Hypo-HT) were divided into three equal groups based on their LT4 replacement: LT4-Low (1.43 μg/kg). A group of preoperatively euthyroid (Euth-HT) patients but with HT by pathology was also studied. All subjects were also grouped based on their TPO-Ab titer in TPO-high (titer >1:1000) or TPO-low/negative (titer thyroid glands (LT4-Low) but not in fully hypothyroid HT (LT4-Mid and LT4-High). High TPO-Ab titers appear to protect against DTC in patients with HT. PMID:24708347

  12. Controversial Issues in Thyroid Cancer Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, R Michael

    2018-04-13

    The lack of prospective randomized clinical trials for most management topics in differentiated thyroid cancer force us to make management recommendations based on retrospective observational data which is often incomplete, subject to selection bias, and conflicting. Therefore, it is not surprising that many aspects of thyroid cancer management remain controversial and not well defined. This review will examine the controversies surrounding three important topics in thyroid cancer management: (1) the option of thyroid lobectomy as initial therapy for thyroid cancer, (2) the proper use of preoperative neck imaging to optimize the completeness of the initial surgical procedure, and (3) the selective use RAI therapy as remnant ablation, adjuvant treatment or treatment of known persistent/recurrent disease. As thyroid cancer management moves toward a much more risk adapted approach to personalized management recommendations, clinicians and patients must balance the risks and benefits of the potential management options to arrive at a management plan that is optimized based on both patient preferences/values and the philosophy/experience of the local disease management team. Copyright © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  13. Clinical presentation of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    The clinical manifestation of thyroid cancer (TC) as seen at the Nuclear Medicine Department, where the patients investigated prior to diagnosis of disease are clinically suspected to harbor malignancy and mostly referred for scintigraphic investigations are presented

  14. Sorafenib for Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from an international phase III trial that compared sorafenib (Nexavar®) and a placebo for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer that is no longer responding to treatment with radioactive iodine

  15. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer: New studies based on an old idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    We have presented evidence that the functional thyroid follicles (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Recent studies have been designed to investigate: whether cell number-dependent inhibition of promotion-progression is mediated by remote hormonal feed-back, local cell-cell interactions, or both; the cell population kinetics of the clonogen subpopulation during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and the effect of prolonged exposure to high levels of TSH (thyrotropin) on the capacity of the clonogens to give rise to functional FU. The results indicate that local cell-cell interactions play an important role in the cell number-dependent suppression of neoplastic promotion-progression. They also show that if sufficient thyroid cells are grafted, the thyroid-pituitary axis can be reestablished in thyroidectomized rats fed normal diets. In such animals given iodine deficient diets, the FU that develop in the thyroid grafts shift their secretory pattern to increase the ratio of T3 (triiodothyronine) to T4 (thyroxine), and thus conserve the available iodine. Finally, the clonogenic subpopulation is conserved during both goitrogenesis and goiter involution. When they are transplanted to thyroidectomized recipients, clonogens from two types of goiters form FU that are morphologically indistinguishable from those that develop in grafts of normal thyroid clonogens. Furthermore, the secretion of T3 and T4 by such grafts is dependent on the grafted clonogen number, and hence FU formation, and not on the total number of thyroid cells transplanted. We conclude that the thyroid clonogens, the presumptive cancer progenitor cells, have many of the characteristics of stem cells

  16. Application of Metabolomics in Thyroid Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wojakowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with four major types distinguished on the basis of histopathological features: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Classification of thyroid cancer is the primary step in the assessment of prognosis and selection of the treatment. However, in some cases, cytological and histological patterns are inconclusive; hence, classification based on histopathology could be supported by molecular biomarkers, including markers identified with the use of high-throughput “omics” techniques. Beside genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, metabolomic approach emerges as the most downstream attitude reflecting phenotypic changes and alterations in pathophysiological states of biological systems. Metabolomics using mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques allows qualitative and quantitative profiling of small molecules present in biological systems. This approach can be applied to reveal metabolic differences between different types of thyroid cancer and to identify new potential candidates for molecular biomarkers. In this review, we consider current results concerning application of metabolomics in the field of thyroid cancer research. Recent studies show that metabolomics can provide significant information about the discrimination between different types of thyroid lesions. In the near future, one could expect a further progress in thyroid cancer metabolomics leading to development of molecular markers and improvement of the tumor types classification and diagnosis.

  17. Precision Medicine Approach to Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: Advances in Targeted Drug Therapy Based on Specific Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Hilda; Fallah, Parviz; Naderi Sohi, Alireza; Tavakoli, Rezvan; Naderi, Mahmood; Soleimani, Masoud; Larijani, Bagher; Haghpanah, Vahid

    2017-03-01

    Personalized medicine is a set of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches in which medical interventions are carried out based on individual patient characteristics. As life expectancy increases in developed and developing countries, the incidence of diseases such as cancer goes up among people in the community. Cancer is a disease that the response to treatment varies from one person to another and also it is costly for individuals, families, and society. Among thyroid cancers, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive, lethal and unresponsive form of the disease. Unfortunately, current drugs are not targetable, and therefore they have restricted role in ATC treatment. Consequently, mortality of this cancer, despite advances in the field of diagnosis and treatment, is one of the most important challenges in medicine. Cellular, molecular and genetic evidences play an important role in finding more effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Review of these evidences confirms the application of personalized medicine in cancer treatment including ATC. A growing body of evidence has elucidated that cellular and molecular mechanisms of cancer would pave the way for defining new biomarkers for targeted therapy, taking into account individual differences. It should be noted that this approach requires further progress in the fields of basic sciences, pharmacogenetics and drug design. An overview of the most important aspects in individualized anaplastic thyroid cancer treatment will be discussed in this review.

  18. Seaweed consumption and the risk of thyroid cancer in women: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michikawa, Takehiro; Inoue, Manami; Shimazu, Taichi; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-05-01

    Iodine is a suspected risk factor for thyroid cancer. Seaweed accounts for about 80% of Japanese people's iodine intake. We examined the association between seaweed consumption and the risk of thyroid cancer in Japanese women. Women participating in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (n=52 679; age: 40-69 years) were followed up for a mean of 14.5 years; 134 new thyroid cancer cases, including 113 papillary carcinoma cases, were identified. Seaweed consumption was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire and divided into three categories: 2 days/week or less (reference); 3-4 days/week; and almost daily. The Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Seaweed consumption was clearly associated with an increased risk of papillary carcinoma (HR for almost daily consumption compared with 2 days/week or less=1.71; 95% CI: 1.01-2.90; trend P=0.04). After stratification for menopausal status, an increased risk was observed in postmenopausal women (papillary carcinoma HR for almost daily consumption compared with 2 days/week or less=3.81, 95% CI: 1.67-8.68; trend Pseaweed consumption and the risk of thyroid cancer (especially for papillary carcinoma) in postmenopausal women.

  19. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, Darrin V; Goyal, Neerav; Camacho, Fabian; Goldenberg, David

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer in the United States has increased rapidly and Pennsylvania is the state with the highest rate of thyroid cancer in the country, although the factors driving this increase are unknown. Moreover, it remains unclear whether the increase in thyroid cancer represents a true increase in disease or is the result of overdiagnosis. To compare the increase in thyroid cancer incidence and tumor characteristics in Pennsylvania with the rest of the United States and gain insight into the factors influencing the increased incidence of thyroid cancer. In a population-based study, data on thyroid cancer from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results 9 (SEER-9) registry and the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry (PCR) from 1985 through 2009 were collected and reviewed for information regarding sex, race, histologic type of thyroid cancer, staging, and tumor size at diagnosis. International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition code C739 (thyroid carcinoma) was used to identify 110,615 records in the SEER-9 registry and 29,030 records in the PCR. Average annual percent change (AAPC) in thyroid cancer incidence across various demographic groups in Pennsylvania. The AAPC for thyroid cancer in Pennsylvania was 7.1% per year (95% CI, 6.3%-7.9%) vs 4.2% (95% CI, 3.7%-4.7%) per year in the remainder of the United States, and trends in incidence were significantly different (P Pennsylvania than in the rest of the nation, as is the rate of tumors that are larger and higher stage at diagnosis. These findings suggest that rising disease burden has contributed to the increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Etiologic factors promoting the rise in thyroid cancer in Pennsylvania must be investigated and may provide insight into the drivers of the national increase in thyroid cancer.

  20. Pathophysiology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.; Nadkarni, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The main physiological function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroid hormones. The primary physiological control over iodine transport, organification and hormone synthesis appears to be through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Regulation of tumor cells, biochemical studies in experimental tumors, role of oxygen free radical and antioxidants, role of proteases in metastasis, influence of growth factors and influence of sex hormones and receptors are discussed

  1. Use of Ultrasound in the Management of Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, John I.; Solorzano, Carmen C.

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the utility of ultrasound in evaluating thyroid nodules, staging thyroid cancer, determining the extent of surgery needed in thyroid cancer patients, and the surveillance of patients treated for thyroid cancer.

  2. Mutant HABP2 Causes Non-Medullary Thyroid Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that lies at the base of the throat in front of the windpipe. A member of the endocrine system, the thyroid secretes hormones to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, and metabolism. Cancer of the thyroid is the most common endocrine cancer and the eighth most common cancer in the U.S. An estimated 63,450 Americans will be diagnosed with thyroid cancer this year. The vast majority is of follicular cell origin, and the remaining cancer originates from parafollicular cells, so called medullary thyroid cancer.

  3. Ionizing radiation and thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, P. (Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine); Holm, L.E. (Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    1994-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide the primary data source on cancer risk in man after exposure to ionizing radiation. The present paper discusses methodological difficulties in epidemiological studies and reviews current epidemiological knowledge on radiation-induced thyroid cancer. Most studies of radiation-induced cancer are of a ''historical observational'' type and are also non-experimental in design. Seldom is there an opportunity to consider other factors playing on cancer risk. Since many of the study subjects were exposed a long time ago there could also be difficulties in calculating the radiation doses, and to identify and follow the exposed subjects. Short exposure to low doses of gamma radiation can induce thyroid cancer in children, whereas a relationship between protracted low-dose exposure and thyroid cancer has not been established so far. The most important future issues concerning radiation-induced thyroid cancer are the risks following low radiation doses and/or protracted radiation exposure and cancer risks after [sup 131]I exposure in childhood. (authors). 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Responses to Overdiagnosis in Thyroid Cancer Screening among Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Yoon Young; Yoon, Hyo Joong; Choi, Eunji; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Yeol; Choi, Kui Son

    2016-07-01

    Communicating the harms and benefits of thyroid screening is necessary to help individuals decide on whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening. This study was conducted to assess changes in thyroid cancer screening intention in response to receiving information about overdiagnosis and to determine factors with the greatest influence thereon. Data were acquired from subjects included in the 2013 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey. Of the 4,100 respondents in the 2013 KNCSS, women were randomly subsampled and an additional face-to-face interview was conducted. Finally, a total of 586 female subjects were included in this study. Intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening was assessed before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Prior awareness of overdiagnosis in thyroid cancer screening was 27.8%. The majority of subjects intended to undergo thyroid cancer screening before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis (87% and 74%, respectively). Only a small number of subjects changed their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening from positive to negative after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Women of higher education level and Medical Aid Program recipients reported being significantly more likely to change their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening afterreceiving information on overdiagnosis,whilewomen with stronger beliefs on the efficacy of cancer screening were less likely to change their intention. Women in Korea appeared to be less concerned about overdiagnosis when deciding whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening.

  5. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: Their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki Hyun

    2013-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  6. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  7. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: Their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki Hyun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  8. Nodal metastasis in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The biological behavior and hence the prognosis of thyroid cancer (TC) depends among other factors on the extent of spread of the disease outside the thyroid bed. This effect is controversial, especially for nodal metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDC). Nodal metastasis at the time of initial diagnosis behaves differently depending on the histology, age of the patient, presence of extrathyroidal extension, and the sex of the individual. The type of the surgery, administration of 131 I and thyroxin suppression also to some extent influence the rate of recurrence and mortality. Experience has shown that it is not as innocuous as a small intrathyroidal tumor without any invasion outside the thyroid bed and due consideration should be accorded to the management strategies for handling patients with nodal metastasis

  9. [Modeling a clinical process for differentiated thyroid cancer health care in Hospital Base Valdivia, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Schwerter, C; Torres-Andrade, M C; Méndez, C A; Márquez-Manzano, M

    2016-01-01

    To design a clinical process model in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer in order to improve accessibility to this treatment. Based on modified Participatory Action Research, a model design process was conducted using a literature review and meetings with organisations committed to the redesigning process, and to agree an improved and feasible process. The process map was constructed by participatory action including, characterisation of the value chain, fault detection in the flow of the process, relevant documents and process for proposing modifications and approvals necessary for this purpose. Links were established between the main process and the support and strategic processes. The participatory model helped to cut the waiting times for diagnosis and treatment of this disease from 12 to 4 months. For each unit to be able to fully visualise the map of the process and understand their contribution as a set of integrated contributions and not fragmented, helps in the comprehensive management of patients and operation processes based on the hierarchical and dominant organisational model in Chilean hospitals. To analyse and remodel clinical processes by participatory action helps to limit failures in the fluidity of care of the patients, by presenting each participating unit with a general view of the process, the problems, and the possible solutions. Furthermore, this approach helps to clarify the process in order to make it more efficient, to harmonise relationships, and to improve coordination in order to optimise patient care. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Possibilities traditional and liquid-based cytology combined with immunocytochemical detection of some molecular markers in the preoperative diagnosis of well-differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina S. Berjozkina

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion. The diagnostic accuracy of the method of liquid-based cytology is higher than the traditional method of cytology. ICC expression of Ki-67 method has 81.8% of sensitivity and 100% of specificity for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Conjoint definition HS Ki-67 and liquid-based cytology increases the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of well-differentiated thyroid cancer preoperative to 100%. There no detected relations between the expression of galectin-3, NFM, Ki-67 and the presence an autoimmune process in the thyroid.

  11. Radiation and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debra, D.W. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    It should be the policy in all institutions and practices which administered head and neck irradiation to identify from its records those individuals so treated and to seek them out and advise them to have a thyroid evaluation. Physicians engaged in the general care of adults should incorporate questioning about head and neck irradiation into their history-taking. Further, they should direct the patient to inquire of his parents or guardian if a negative history is obtained. Records regarding the type of radiation given and dosimetry should be sought. Irradiated patients should have a thorough examination, including careful palpation of the thyroid and adjacent node-bearing areas. A chest film should be made and a thyroid scan performed. Surgery should be recommended to all who have the findings mentioned in the text above. For those who do not, it is recommended that they be placed on a suppressive dose of thyroid hormone (sodium L-thyroxine 0.15 to 0.25 mg/day) and that serum TSH levels be measured to ascertain suppression. The patient probably should have a careful examination of his thyroid gland performed annually throughout his life. The occurrence of any nodules should be grounds for surgery, unless a satisfactory and certain alternative explanation can be found

  12. Sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Sara M; Benson, Carol B; Arthaud, Dylan M; Alexander, Erik K; Frates, Mary C

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether the sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer differs in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Patients with histologically proven thyroid cancer who had thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies measured and sonography performed preoperatively were included. We evaluated each nodule for size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo, and vascularity and evaluated the background heterogeneity of the gland. There were 162 thyroid cancers in 145 patients. Forty-two patients (29.0%) had Hashimoto thyroiditis with positive TPO antibodies, and 103 patients (71.0%) had negative TPO antibodies. The background echogenicity was more often heterogeneous in TPO antibody-positive patients compared to those who had negative TPO antibodies (57.1% versus 26.2%; P= .0005). Comparing cancers in TPO antibody-positive to TPO antibody-negative patients, there was no significant difference in the size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo presence, calcification presence and type, or vascularity of the cancerous nodule (P > .05). Among TPO antibody-positive patients, comparing thyroid cancerous nodules in patients with heterogeneous glands to those with homogeneous glands, there was no significant difference in any sonographic characteristic except the margin of the nodule, which was more often irregular or poorly defined in heterogeneous glands and more often smooth in homogeneous glands (Pthyroid cancer are similar in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Among patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid cancer, the sonographic appearance of the cancerous nodule is similar, except that cancerous nodule margins are more likely to be irregular or poorly defined when the gland is heterogeneous. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2010-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

  14. Surgical management of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakih, A.R.; Mistry, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The differentiated management of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with lymph node and/or systemic metastases is very much a treatable cancer. Interaction between the surgeon and the nuclear medicine specialist is essential to ensure quality survival in these patient. This review is confined to surgical aspects and is based on experience with 417 patients who were operated for DTC at the Tata Memorial Hospital between 1971 and 1985

  15. Thyroid autoantibodies and differentiated thyroid cancer: revue of 662 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izembart, M.; Dagousset, F.; Chevalier, A.; Hassid, V.; Leger, A.; Barritault, L.; Clerc, J.

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid autoantibodies is clearly increased in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate frequency and evolution of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal (anti-peroxidase) autoantibodies in 662 patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with 131 radioiodine. Ours results obtained with 'classical' methods confirmed others earlier reports. When using more sensitive methods to detect thyroglobulin antibodies we obtained an increase in positive results and a more frequent association with anti-microsomal antibodies. Antibodies became undetectable with a variable period, ranging from a few months to 13 years in one case. If we suppose that the disappearance of antibodies is linked to the thyroid tissue disappearance, thyroid cancer follow up ought to include anti-thyroglobulin and anti-peroxidase antibodies, both directed against thyroid antigens. A decrease of both antibodies seems to indicate a favorable prognostic factor whereas an increase may suggest relapse. (author)

  16. Human thyroid cancer induction by ionizing radiation: summary of studies based on external irradiation and radioactive iodines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    To provide a context for the Chernobyl thyroid cancer experience, a summary of the findings from other studies is given. The data on external radiation and thyroid cancer come primarily from studies of children irradiated for a variety of benign medical conditions and the Japanese atomic bomb cohort. Unfortunately, only small amounts of data are currently available on thyroid cancer following radioactive iodine exposure in childhood. In order to predict the risk of thyroid cancer in the Chernobyl experience, a number of radiation-related factors need to be considered: the magnitude of radiation risk from available studies; shape of the dose-response curve; variations in risk by gender, time since irradiation, and age at irradiation; the effects of dose fractionation or dose protraction. Other considerations pertaining to the frequency of thyroid cancer and its outcome are thyroid-tumor surveillance effects and background iodine intake. The data to date suggest that 131 I produces less thyroid cancer than a comparable dose of external radiation, but the Chernobyl experience will provide extensive new information on this issue. Principles are discussed as to how to maximize the scientific validity and informativeness of Chernobyl thyroid studies

  17. Epigenetic modulators of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodero, Sandra; Delgado-Álvarez, Elías; Díaz-Naya, Lucía; Martín Nieto, Alicia; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro

    2017-01-01

    There are some well known factors involved in the etiology of thyroid cancer, including iodine deficiency, radiation exposure at early ages, or some genetic changes. However, epigenetic modulators that may contribute to development of these tumors and be helpful to for both their diagnosis and treatment have recently been discovered. The currently known changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs in each type of thyroid carcinoma are reviewed here. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Mutations in Cancer and Resistance to Thyroid Hormone: Perspective and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan D. Rosen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone, operating through its receptors, plays crucial roles in the control of normal human physiology and development; deviations from the norm can give rise to disease. Clinical endocrinologists often must confront and correct the consequences of inappropriately high or low thyroid hormone synthesis. Although more rare, disruptions in thyroid hormone endocrinology due to aberrations in the receptor also have severe medical consequences. This review will focus on the afflictions that are caused by, or are closely associated with, mutated thyroid hormone receptors. These include Resistance to Thyroid Hormone Syndrome, erythroleukemia, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal clear cell carcinoma, and thyroid cancer. We will describe current views on the molecular bases of these diseases, and what distinguishes the neoplastic from the non-neoplastic. We will also touch on studies that implicate alterations in receptor expression, and thyroid hormone levels, in certain oncogenic processes.

  19. Thyroid cancer: an Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, D.H.; Samuel, A.M.; Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    Despite the fact that cancer of the thyroid gland is a rare disease it has attracted a lot of attention. It is one of the few disease where radioactive isotopes are used not only for detection but also for treatment of the disease. The Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) is the apex of all the departments of nuclear medicines in India. It was established in 1963 in the precincts of the Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) which is the primer cancer centre of this country. This book is a collation of the combined experience of the TMH and the RMC. The objectives are two fold, viz. (1) an introspective analysis of our experience and (2) to offer a book of ready reference to anyone dealing with any aspect of thyroid cancer. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  20. Nodular Graves' disease with medullary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shoukat Hussain; Rather, Tanveer Ahmed; Makhdoomi, Rumana; Malik, Dharmender

    2015-01-01

    Co-existence of thyroid nodules with Graves' disease has been reported in various studies. 10-15% of such nodules harbor thyroid cancer with papillary thyroid cancer being the commonest. Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) in nodules associated with Graves' disease is rare. On literature survey, we came across 11 such cases reported so far. We report a 62-year-old female with Graves' disease who also had a thyroid nodule that on fine-needle aspiration cytology and the subsequent postthyroidectomy histopathological examination was reported to be MTC.

  1. Thyroid disorders and breast cancer risk in Asian population: a nationwide population-based case-control study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Huei; Lin, Ching-Heng; Luo, Xun; Lin, Tseng-Hsi

    2018-03-30

    To evaluate whether hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism increases the risk of subsequent breast cancer in an Asian population. Nationwide population-based case-control study. All healthcare facilities in Taiwan. A total of 103 466 women (mean age 53.3 years) were enrolled. 51 733 adult women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer without a previous cancer history between 2006 and 2011 were identified and included in our study. 51 733 women with no cancer diagnosis prior to the index date were age matched as controls. Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism prior to the diagnosis of breast cancer or the same index date was identified, age, histories of thyroid disease treatment, oestrogen use and radioactive iodine treatment were adjusted. To identify risk differences in developing breast cancer among patients with a medical history of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. There was a significantly increased risk of breast cancer in women with hyperthyroidism under the age of 55 years (age hypothyroidism also showed an increased risk of breast cancer (OR 1.19, P=0.029) without statistical significance after stratification by age group (age 55 years). Treatment for thyroid disorders did not alter the association in subgroup analyses (P=0.857; 0.262, respectively). Asian women under 55 years of age with history of hyperthyroidism have a significantly increased risk of breast cancer regardless of treatment. Women with history of hypothyroidism may also have an increased risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de; Drozdovitch, V.; Bouville, A.; Paoaafaite, J.; Teuri, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from t he FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  3. Editorial: Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.

    1996-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131 I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by Western pathologists, and because the known high frequency of papillary microcarcinoms in adults raised the possibility that the reported incidence was resulted form increased ascertainment and not a true increase in incidence. 14 refs

  4. Etiology of thyroid cancer: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narkar, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Thyroid cancer, although a relatively rare tumor, is the most common cancer of the endocrine glands. The identification of genetic factors important in the pathogesis of thyroid cancer could provide molecular tools for a better differential diagnosis between the different histotypes. Characterisation of mechanisms by which mutated proteins transduce mitogenic and de-differentiating signals might suggest novel therapeutic approaches for controlling cell growth and restoring thyroid differentiated functions

  5. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Nitipir; Lucian Alecu; Iulian Slavu; Raluca Tulin; Radu C. Jecan

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the...

  6. 131I therapy of thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Farahati, J.

    1999-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a rare malignancy with wide inter ethnic and geographic variations. In Germany thyroid carcinoma is the 13. most frequent malignancy (2.7 new cases yearly per 100,000 inhabitants). The overall temporal incidence is increasing slightly in recent years. The most common types of cancer are papillary (60-80%) and follicular cancers (10-20%). The relevant prognostic indicators are tumor stage and distant metastases. The mean survival rates in papillary thyroid cancer usually exceed 90%, whereas in follicular thyroid cancer they amount to approximately 80%. The standard treatment procedure in differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid cancer consists of total thyroidectomy followed by adjuvant ablative therapy with radioiodine. Only in papillary thyroid cancer stage pT 1 N 0 M 0 lobectomy alone is considered to be appropriate. In patients with locally invasive differentiated thyroid cancers stage pT 4 adjuvant percutaneous radiation therapy is a treatment option. Radioiodine therapy has to be performed under the stimulative influence of TSH. Usually TSH suppressive medication with Levothyroxine has to be withdrawn approximately 4 weeks prior to radioiodine therapy. In the future, exogenous stimulation by recombinant TSH may be used instead of thyroid hormone withdrawal. It has been proved by different studies that ablative radioiodine therapy reduces the frequency of recurrences and tumor spread in patients with thyroid cancer significantly. In patients with distant metastases, up to 50% of complete responses may be achieved with radioiodine treatment

  7. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Erik K.; Bible, Keith C.; Doherty, Gerard M.; Mandel, Susan J.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W.; Sawka, Anna M.; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G.; Sherman, Steven I.; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: The specific clinical questions addressed in these guidelines were based on prior versions of the guidelines, stakeholder input, and input of task force members. Task force panel members were educated on knowledge synthesis methods, including electronic database searching, review and selection of relevant citations, and critical appraisal of selected studies. Published English language articles on adults were eligible for inclusion. The American College of Physicians Guideline Grading System was used for critical appraisal of evidence and grading strength of recommendations for therapeutic interventions. We developed a similarly formatted system to appraise the quality of such studies and resultant recommendations. The guideline panel had complete editorial independence from the ATA. Competing interests of guideline task force members were regularly updated, managed, and communicated to the ATA and task force members. Results: The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, use of molecular markers, and management of benign thyroid nodules. Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to screening for thyroid cancer, staging and risk assessment, surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation and therapy

  8. Thyroid Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are four types of thyroid cancer. These are papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Papillary is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Find evidence-based information on thyroid cancer treatment, screening, research, genetics, and statistics.

  9. Evolution of thyroid cancer occurrence in metropolitan France. Assessment over 25 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogel, Agnes; Caserio-Schonemann, Celine; Cherie-Challine, Laurence; Rudant, Jeremie; Bloch, Juliette; Thuret, Anne; Colonna, Marc; Uhry, Zoe; Kudjawu, Yao; Danzon, Arlette; Lacour, Brigitte; Schvartz, Claire; Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc; Borson-Chazot, Francoise; Sassolas, Genevieve; Hafdi-Nejjari, Zakia; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Guenel, Pascal; Vathaire, Florent de; Guillas, Gwenaelle; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Clero, Enora; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Bedouche, Lallia; Belot, Aurelien; Fieffe, Sandrine; Dalac, Audrey; Goncalves, Katia; Kaplan, Martine; Pochart, Jean-Marie; Desenclos, Jean-Claude

    2011-04-01

    After a presentation of the epidemiological context of thyroid cancer in France, this report, based on cancer record data, analyzes the occurrence of thyroid cancers between 1982 and 2006. It discusses the contribution and limits of medical-administrative data for the epidemiological monitoring of thyroid cancer occurrence between 1997 and 2009. It proposes a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancers in two districts (Marne and Ardennes) between 1975 and 2008, and a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancer for children under 14 between 2000 and 2008. It proposes an estimation of thyroid cancer occurrence in Corsica between 1998 and 2006. It reports and discusses a pilot study performed in two regions (Ile de France and Nord Pas-de-Calais), based on a multi-source system of cancer monitoring (SMSC), and comments studies on risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancers in France

  10. Screening for thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, S.; Ashizawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    In the screening of the thyroid diseases in the radiation exposed cohort, it is essential to make correct diagnosis and to measure radiation dose in every subjects in the cohort and to analyze the dose response relationship by the most appropriate statistical method. Thus, thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma and autoimmune hypothyroidism were confirmed to be radiation-induced thyroid diseases among atomic bomb survivors. A group of investigators from Nagasaki university have been working in the thyroid part of Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project, and more than 80000 children were screened in 5 diagnostic centers (Mogilev, Gomel, Kiev, Korosten and Klincy). In order to make correct diagnosis, thyroid echo-tomography, measurements of serum levels of free thyroxine, TSH, titers of anti-thyroid antibodies were performed in every children in the cohort and aspiration biopsy was performed when necessary. Whole body Cs 137 radioactivity was also determined in every subjects. Children with thyroid cancer confirmed by histology (biopsy or operation) were 2 in Mogilev, 19 in Gomel, 6 in Kiev, 5 in Korosten and 4 in Klincy (until 1994). Since children screened in each center were less than 20000, prevalence of thyroid cancer was remarkably high (lowest 100 and highest 1000/million children) when compared to the other parts of the world (0.2 to 5/million/year). However, there was no dose response relationship between the prevalence of cancer or nodule and whole body Cs 137 radioactivity. Although a significant correlation between thyroid cancer and reconstructed thyroid I 131 dose was presented, there are no previous reports to prove that I 131 produces thyroid cancer in human. Investigation on external radiation and short lived isotopes along with I 131 may be important to elucidate the cause of thyroid cancer

  11. Thyroid cancer in children in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidchik, E.P.; Drobyshevskaya, I.M.; Cherstvoy, E.D.; Astakhova, L.N.; Vorontsova, T.V.; Okeanov, A.E.; Germenchuk, M.

    1996-01-01

    Pediatric thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 390 patients in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident. The morbidity rates increased by 55.7 times as compared with the 10 year pre-accident period. Thyroid cancer in children is highly aggressive disease accompanied by surrounding tissues and metastatic involvement of lymph nodes

  12. Imaging strategy in differentiated thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Thi Thanh Ha

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on clinical dilemmas, which the clinician faces in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with a specific emphasis on the role of current and new diagnostic imaging. Thyroid cancer is a rare disease, but it is the most common endocrine malignancy of

  13. Health-related quality of life and disease specific symptoms in long-term thyroid cancer survivors : A study from the population-based PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, O.; Haak, H.R.; Buffart, L.M.; Nieuwlaat, W.-A.; Oranje, W.A.; Mols, F.; Kuijpens, J.L.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Given the longevity of thyroid cancer patients, any impairment in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) during the follow-up period is of considerable concern. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to assess (thyroid cancer specific) HRQoL among long-term thyroid cancer survivors

  14. Thyroid cancers: a three year retrospective histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Than-Than-Htwe; Maung-Ko

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory based retrospective study was done on thyroid tissue specimen that were received from the surgically removed thyroid swellings of various reasons. It was a three year study from 1996-1998 with a total number of cases as (n=1690). Cases were between the age range of 8-88 years including both sexes. A routine histopathological examination was done according to the standard WHO classification, using conventional methods and techniques of specimen sectioning and processing. Occurrence of thyroid cancer among total cases of thyroid dysfunction is highly significant (P 0.860). The results obtained were discussed. (author)

  15. Employment and insurance outcomes and factors associated with employment among long-term thyroid cancer survivors: a population-based study from the PROFILES registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminga, S J; Bültmann, U; Husson, O; Kuijpens, J L P; Frings-Dresen, M H W; de Boer, A G E M

    2016-04-01

    To obtain insight into employment and insurance outcomes of thyroid cancer survivors and to examine the association between not having employment and other factors including quality of life. In this cross-sectional population-based study, long-term thyroid cancer survivors from the Netherlands participated. Clinical data were collected from the cancer registry. Information on employment, insurance, socio-demographic characteristics, long-term side effects, and quality of life was collected with questionnaires. Of the 223 cancer survivors (response rate 87 %), 71 % were employed. Of the cancer survivors who tried to obtain insurance, 6 % reported problems with obtaining health care insurance, 62 % with life insurance, and 16 % with a mortgage. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (OR 1.07, CI 1.02-1.11), higher level of fatigue (OR 1.07, CI 1.01-1.14), and lower educational level (OR 3.22, CI 1.46-7.09) were associated with not having employment. Employment was associated with higher quality of life. Many thyroid cancer survivors face problems when obtaining a life insurance, and older, fatigued, and lower educated thyroid cancer survivors may be at risk for not having employment.

  16. Individualised dosimetry in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer based on external dose-rate. Optimisation of the number of measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Ballesteros, J A; Torres-Espallardo, I; Borrelli, P; Rivas-Sanchez, A; Bello, P; Martí-Bonmatí, L

    2016-01-01

    To compare the results of individual dosimetry in differentiated thyroid cancer patients treated with (131)I at our centre with the established limits and dosimetry results of published studies. Analysis of the optimal number of measurements necessary to reduce the impact of dosimetry for the comfort of the patient and, secondly, on the workload of health workers. Dosimetry was performed in the Nuclear Medicine Department of the University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, on 29 patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer and treated with activities between 1.02 and 5.51 GBq (mean 2.68 GBq) of (131)I. The Spanish Society of Medical Physics (SEFM) protocol was used, based on measurements of external dose rate adjusted to a bi-exponential curve according to a two compartment model. Different dosimetries were performed on each patient, taking different selections of the available measurements in order to find the optimal number. Results are well below the dosimetry limits, and are consistent with those obtained in other centres. The number of measurements can be reduced from 5, as proposed in the SEFM protocol, to 4 without significant loss of accuracy. Further reducing measures may be justified in individual cases. The values obtained for the dosimetry quantities are significantly below the established limits. A reduction in measurements can be assumed at the cost of a moderate increase in uncertainty, benefiting the patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  17. Thyroid Cancer Presenting with Concomitant Metastatic Breast Cancer in the Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chen Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid is an unusual site to find cancer metastasis. When it does occur, such cancer spread is often manifested in multiple metastases and generally suggests a poor prognosis. We presented here a 49-year-old woman recently diagnosed with thyroid cancer, who had been treated for stage IIA breast cancer 8 years ago. After radical right thyroidectomy and left subtotal thyroidectomy, her pathological report showed papillary thyroid carcinoma, right thyroid, with concomitant metastatic breast carcinoma. This is the first case of which we are aware involving coexisting thyroid cancer and metastatic breast cancer in the ipsilateral lobe. Moreover, the circumstances of this case show a very unique clinical course compared with previous studies. Given the unusual circumstances of our case, we further discuss the relationship between thyroid cancer and breast cancer.

  18. Pulmonary metastasis in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Rajashekharrao, B.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Although thyroid cancer (TC) in its differentiated form is generally associated with a good prognosis and a near normal life expectancy, a subset of patients especially with distant metastatic disease may run an aggressive course leading to poor survival and early death. The clinical presentation and the manner in which the disease progresses differs with the site and type of the metastatic disease. The behaviour and course of skeletal metastasis has been described elsewhere. The biological behaviour and treatment of pulmonary metastatic disease is focussed on

  19. Ultrasonography survey and thyroid cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Peter; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Ulanovsky, Alexander [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Department of Radiation Sciences, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Thyroid cancer is one of the major health concerns after the accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station (NPS). Currently, ultrasonography surveys are being performed for persons residing in the Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the accident with an age of up to 18 years. Here, the expected thyroid cancer prevalence in the Fukushima Prefecture is assessed based on an ultrasonography survey of Ukrainians, who were exposed at an age of up to 18 years to {sup 131}I released during the Chernobyl NPS accident, and on differences in equipment and study protocol in the two surveys. Radiation risk of thyroid cancer incidence among survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and preliminary estimates of thyroid dose due to the Fukushima accident were used for the prediction of baseline and radiation-related thyroid cancer risks. We estimate a prevalence of thyroid cancer of 0.027 % (95 % CI 0.010 %; 0.050 %) for the first screening campaign in the Fukushima Prefecture. Compared with the incidence rate in Japan in 2007, the ultrasonography survey is predicted to increase baseline thyroid cancer incidence by a factor of 7.4 (95 % CI 0.95; 17.3). Under the condition of continued screening, thyroid cancer during the first fifty years after the accident is predicted to be detected for about 2 % of the screened population. The prediction of radiation-related thyroid cancer in the most exposed fraction (a few ten thousand persons) of the screened population of the Fukushima Prefecture has a large uncertainty with the best estimates of the average risk of 0.1-0.3 %, depending on average dose. (orig.)

  20. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients

  1. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  2. Thyroid cancer outcomes in Filipino patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Lukas H; Shah, Manish; Eski, Spiro; Walfish, Paul G; Freeman, Jeremy L

    2010-02-01

    To compare the outcomes of patients having thyroid cancer among Filipinos vs non-Filipinos. Retrospective medical record review. High-volume tertiary referral center in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A total of 499 patients with thyroid cancer (36 Filipino and 463 non-Filipino) treated at Mount Sinai Hospital from January 1, 1984, to August 31, 2003, with a minimum 5-year follow-up period and a minimum 1.0-cm tumor size. Patients were identified from a thyroid cancer database. Data on patient, tumor, and treatment factors were collected along with outcomes. The presence of thyroid cancer recurrence, the rate of death from disease, and the time to recurrence. The 2 groups were similar for sex, age, history of head and neck radiation exposure, family history of thyroid cancer, follow-up time, tumor size, tumor pathologic findings, presence of tumor multifocality, stage of primary disease, type of thyroid surgery, use of postoperative radioactive iodine therapy, and use of external beam radiation therapy. Filipino patients experienced a thyroid cancer recurrence rate of 25% compared with 9.5% for non-Filipino patients (odds ratio, 3.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-7.49; P = .004). On multivariate analysis, the increased risk of thyroid cancer recurrence persisted for Filipino patients (odds ratio, 6.99; 95% confidence interval, 2.31-21.07; P Filipino patients and non-Filipino patients regarding the rate of death from disease (5.6% vs 1.9%) and the time to recurrence (52.6 vs 53.1 months). Filipino patients have a significantly higher risk of thyroid cancer recurrence compared with non-Filipino patients. However, no significant difference was noted in the time to recurrence or the rate of death from disease. These findings justify a more aggressive initial management and follow-up regimen for Filipino patients with thyroid cancer.

  3. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F L; de Freitas, Mariana L; Ferreira, Andrea C F

    2017-06-12

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer.

  4. Increased Prevalence of Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis in Korean Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Park, Sohee; Lee, Joo Young; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Kui-Sun; Lee, You Jin; Chung, Ki- Wook; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, some reports have suggested that papillary thyroid cancers are more frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study investigated a potential increase in the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods We used national epidemiological survey data on thyroid cancer patients diagnosed in 1999, 2005, and 2008. A retrospective medical record survey was conducted by representative sampling of a national cancer incidence database. The analysis included 5,378 papillary thyroid cancer patients aged 20–79 years. We calculated the age-standardized prevalence and age-adjusted prevalence ratios using a binomial regression model with a log link for the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients by sex for each year. Results The prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients was 4.0% and 12.8% for men and women in 1999, 6.5% and 24.6% in 2005, and 10.7% and 27.6% in 2008, respectively. Between 1999 and 2008, the age-standardized prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased 4.1-fold in male patients and 2.0-fold in female patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The prevalence of other thyroid diseases, however, did not increase in either gender. Conclusions Among Korean papillary thyroid cancer patients, the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased between 1999 and 2008, whereas the prevalence of other thyroid disorders did not change. PMID:24927027

  5. Total Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancer Followed by Thyroid Storm due to Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody Stimulation of Metastatic Thyroid Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Graves disease (GD) is an autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of antibodies against the thyrotropin receptor (TRAB), which stimulate the thyroid gland to produce excess thyroid hormone. Theoretically, TRAB could stimulate highly differentiated thyroid cancer tissue and...... treatment continued until after the fourth RAI dose. Hypothyroidism did not occur until following the fifth RAI treatment. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: We present a patient initially diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis and subsequently with metastatic follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer. It is suggested...... that TRAB stimulated the highly differentiated extrathyroidal metastatic thyroid tissue to produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormone, delayed diagnosis, and potential aggravation of the course of thyroid cancer....

  6. Increased 18F-FDG uptake mimicking thyroid cancer in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Daniel T.; Kneifel, Stefan; Merrill, Griff; Goerres, Gerhard W.; Stoeckli, Sandro J.; Padberg, Barbara-C.

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old patient with a known paravertebral malignant schwannoma, sent to us for postoperative staging. A combined whole-body PET/CT scan showed only poor 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the region of the primary tumor but distinct increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the left and right thyroid gland. Thyroid sonography showed two hypoechogenic nodules. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of one nodule showed oxyphil transformed cells, compatible with malignancy. Based on these findings, the patient underwent a subtotal thyroidectomy. Histopathology of the specimen revealed a chronic follicular Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This case demonstrates that Hashimoto's thyroiditis can mimic thyroid cancer in PET but also in sonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy. (orig.)

  7. Thyroid Cancer and Tumor Collaborative Registry (TCCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shats, Oleg; Goldner, Whitney; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Smith, Russell B; Sherman, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A multicenter, web-based Thyroid Cancer and Tumor Collaborative Registry (TCCR, http://tccr.unmc.edu) allows for the collection and management of various data on thyroid cancer (TC) and thyroid nodule (TN) patients. The TCCR is coupled with OpenSpecimen, an open-source biobank management system, to annotate biospecimens obtained from the TCCR subjects. The demographic, lifestyle, physical activity, dietary habits, family history, medical history, and quality of life data are provided and may be entered into the registry by subjects. Information on diagnosis, treatment, and outcome is entered by the clinical personnel. The TCCR uses advanced technical and organizational practices, such as (i) metadata-driven software architecture (design); (ii) modern standards and best practices for data sharing and interoperability (standardization); (iii) Agile methodology (project management); (iv) Software as a Service (SaaS) as a software distribution model (operation); and (v) the confederation principle as a business model (governance). This allowed us to create a secure, reliable, user-friendly, and self-sustainable system for TC and TN data collection and management that is compatible with various end-user devices and easily adaptable to a rapidly changing environment. Currently, the TCCR contains data on 2,261 subjects and data on more than 28,000 biospecimens. Data and biological samples collected by the TCCR are used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against TC.

  8. Epidemiological studies of thyroid cancer in the CIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, G W [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Despite the great international interest in Chernobyl and the need for quantitative risk information on the carcinogenic effectiveness of the radio iodines, there has been relatively little epidemiological research on thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident. The reasons for this are many, diverse, and difficult to eliminate, although some progress is being made. Among them are the natural priority of public health concerns, a weak infrastructure for conducting studies in chronic disease epidemiology, and the difficulty of assigning thyroid dose estimates to individuals for study. In spite of the difficulties a number of significant studies have been begun or are planned, and several valuable reports have appeared. From the descriptive studies it is now known that the latent period for thyroid cancer in children exposed to radio iodines is not 5 to 10, but probably three years, that the magnitude of the increase in thyroid cancer among children is beyond anything previously experienced or expected, and that there is a strong correlation between thyroid cancer and environmental radiocesium contamination levels in the Gomel region of Belarus, and between thyroid cancer and average regional levels of I{sup 131} dose to the thyroid in Ukraine. However, even today, there is very little hard scientific information on the relation of thyroid cancer in children and their exposure to the radio iodines in the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This is information that only well-designed scientific epidemiological studies, based on firm dose estimates, could be expected to provide. With that purpose in mind, the US has planned with Belarus and Ukraine long-term cohort studies of many thousands of subjects with thyroid activity measurements.

  9. Epidemiological studies of thyroid cancer in the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the great international interest in Chernobyl and the need for quantitative risk information on the carcinogenic effectiveness of the radio iodines, there has been relatively little epidemiological research on thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident. The reasons for this are many, diverse, and difficult to eliminate, although some progress is being made. Among them are the natural priority of public health concerns, a weak infrastructure for conducting studies in chronic disease epidemiology, and the difficulty of assigning thyroid dose estimates to individuals for study. In spite of the difficulties a number of significant studies have been begun or are planned, and several valuable reports have appeared. From the descriptive studies it is now known that the latent period for thyroid cancer in children exposed to radio iodines is not 5 to 10, but probably three years, that the magnitude of the increase in thyroid cancer among children is beyond anything previously experienced or expected, and that there is a strong correlation between thyroid cancer and environmental radiocesium contamination levels in the Gomel region of Belarus, and between thyroid cancer and average regional levels of I 131 dose to the thyroid in Ukraine. However, even today, there is very little hard scientific information on the relation of thyroid cancer in children and their exposure to the radio iodines in the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This is information that only well-designed scientific epidemiological studies, based on firm dose estimates, could be expected to provide. With that purpose in mind, the US has planned with Belarus and Ukraine long-term cohort studies of many thousands of subjects with thyroid activity measurements

  10. Benign Thyroid Conditions Associated with Increased Risk of Thyroid Cancer Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a new study from the National Cancer Institute and Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark, researchers report an association between diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland), two benign thyroid conditions, and increased risk of differentiated thyroid cancer.

  11. Management Guidelines for Children with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gary L; Waguespack, Steven G; Bauer, Andrew J; Angelos, Peter; Benvenga, Salvatore; Cerutti, Janete M; Dinauer, Catherine A; Hamilton, Jill; Hay, Ian D; Luster, Markus; Parisi, Marguerite T; Rachmiel, Marianna; Thompson, Geoffrey B; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-07-01

    Previous guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules and cancers were geared toward adults. Compared with thyroid neoplasms in adults, however, those in the pediatric population exhibit differences in pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and long-term outcomes. Furthermore, therapy that may be recommended for an adult may not be appropriate for a child who is at low risk for death but at higher risk for long-term harm from overly aggressive treatment. For these reasons, unique guidelines for children and adolescents with thyroid tumors are needed. A task force commissioned by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) developed a series of clinically relevant questions pertaining to the management of children with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Using an extensive literature search, primarily focused on studies that included subjects ≤18 years of age, the task force identified and reviewed relevant articles through April 2014. Recommendations were made based upon scientific evidence and expert opinion and were graded using a modified schema from the United States Preventive Services Task Force. These inaugural guidelines provide recommendations for the evaluation and management of thyroid nodules in children and adolescents, including the role and interpretation of ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration cytology, and the management of benign nodules. Recommendations for the evaluation, treatment, and follow-up of children and adolescents with DTC are outlined and include preoperative staging, surgical management, postoperative staging, the role of radioactive iodine therapy, and goals for thyrotropin suppression. Management algorithms are proposed and separate recommendations for papillary and follicular thyroid cancers are provided. In response to our charge as an independent task force appointed by the ATA, we developed recommendations based on scientific evidence and expert opinion for the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in

  12. Thyroid cancer following diagnostic iodine-131 administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, P.; Holm, L.-E.; Boice, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    To provide quantitative data on the risk of thyroid cancer following 131 I exposure, 34104 patients administered 131 I for diagnostic purposes were followed for up to 40 years. Mean thyroid dose was estimated as 1.1 Gy, and 67 thyroid cancers occurred in contrast to 49.7 expected [standardized incidence ratio (SIR)=1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.71]. Excess cancers were apparent only among patients referred because of a suspected thyroid tumor and no increased risk was seen among those referred for other reasons. Further, risk was not related to radiation dose to the thyroid gland, time since exposure, or age at exposure. The slight excess of thyroid cancer, then appeared due to the underlying thyroid condition and not radiation exposure. Among those under age 20 years when 131 I was administered, a small excess risk (3 cancers vs 1.8 expected) was about 2-10 times lower than that predicted from A-bomb data. These data suggest that protraction of dose may result in a lower risk than acute x-ray exposure of the same total dose

  13. Rising incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore not solely due to micropapillary subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulin, J H; Aizhen, J; Kuo, S M; Tan, W B; Ngiam, K Y; Parameswaran, R

    2018-04-01

    Introduction The annual incidence of thyroid cancer is known to vary with geographic area, age and gender. The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been attributed to increase in detection of micropapillary subtype, among other factors. The aim of the study was to investigate time trends in the incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore, an iodine-sufficient area. Materials and methods Data retrieved from the Singapore National Cancer Registry on all thyroid cancers that were diagnosed from 1974 to 2013 were reviewed. We studied the time trends of thyroid cancer based on gender, race, pathology and treatment modalities where available. Results The age-standardised incidence rate of thyroid cancer increased to 5.6/100,000 in 2013 from 2.5/100,000 in 1974. Thyroid cancer appeared to be more common in women, with a higher incidence in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians. Papillary carcinoma is the most common subtype. The percentage of papillary microcarcinoma has remained relatively stable at around 38% of all papillary cancers between 2007 and 2013. Although the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased since 1974, the mortality rate has remained stable. Conclusion This trend of increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore compares with other published series; however, the rise seen was not solely due to micropapillary type. Thyroid cancer was also more common in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians for reasons that needs to be studied further.

  14. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Thomas-Teinturier, Cecile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Hopital Bicetre, Bicetre (France); Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Veres, Cristina [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Pacquement, Helene [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Jackson, Angela [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Munzer, Martine; N' Guyen, Tan Dat [Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bondiau, Pierre-Yves [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne [Centre Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Bridier, Andre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Vathaire, Florent de, E-mail: florent.devathaire@igr.fr [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  15. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Thomas-Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Veres, Cristina; Pacquement, Hélène; Jackson, Angela; Munzer, Martine; N'Guyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Bridier, André; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Schlumberger, Martin; Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vathaire, Florent de

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  16. Graves' Disease that Developed Shortly after Surgery for Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hea Min; Park, Soon Hyun; Lee, Jae Min; Park, Kang Seo

    2013-09-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that may present with various clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism. Patients with Graves' disease have a greater number of thyroid nodules and a higher incidence of thyroid cancer compared with patients with normal thyroid activity. However, cases in which patients are diagnosed with recurrence of Graves' disease shortly after partial thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer are very rare. Here we report a case of hyperthyroid Graves' disease that occurred after partial thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. In this case, the patient developed hyperthyroidism 9 months after right hemithyroidectomy, and antithyroglobulin autoantibody and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor stimulating autoantibody were positive. Therefore, we diagnosed Graves' disease on the basis of the laboratory test results and thyroid ultrasonography findings. The patient was treated with and maintained on antithyroid drugs. The mechanism of the recurrence of Graves' disease in this patient is still unclear. The mechanism may have been the improper response of the immune system after partial thyroidectomy. To precisely determine the mechanisms in Graves' disease after partial thyroidectomy, further studies based on a greater number of cases are needed.

  17. Graves' Disease that Developed Shortly after Surgery for Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea Min Yu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that may present with various clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism. Patients with Graves' disease have a greater number of thyroid nodules and a higher incidence of thyroid cancer compared with patients with normal thyroid activity. However, cases in which patients are diagnosed with recurrence of Graves' disease shortly after partial thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer are very rare. Here we report a case of hyperthyroid Graves' disease that occurred after partial thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. In this case, the patient developed hyperthyroidism 9 months after right hemithyroidectomy, and antithyroglobulin autoantibody and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor stimulating autoantibody were positive. Therefore, we diagnosed Graves' disease on the basis of the laboratory test results and thyroid ultrasonography findings. The patient was treated with and maintained on antithyroid drugs. The mechanism of the recurrence of Graves' disease in this patient is still unclear. The mechanism may have been the improper response of the immune system after partial thyroidectomy. To precisely determine the mechanisms in Graves' disease after partial thyroidectomy, further studies based on a greater number of cases are needed.

  18. WOMEN IN CANCER THEMATIC REVIEW: Thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer: does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Hannah; Boelaert, Kristien

    2016-11-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and the incidence is increasing rapidly worldwide. Appropriate diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with thyroid tumours are critical. Fine needle aspiration cytology remains the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid cancer, and although there have been significant refinements to this technique, diagnostic surgery is often required for patients suspected to have malignancy. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is higher in patients with malignant thyroid nodules than in those with benign disease, and TSH is proportionally increased in more aggressive tumours. Importantly, we have shown that the pre-operative serum TSH concentration independently predicts the presence of malignancy in subjects presenting with thyroid nodules. Establishing the use of TSH measurements in algorithms identifying high-risk thyroid nodules in routine clinical practice represents an exciting, cost-efficient and non-invasive approach to optimise thyroid cancer diagnosis. Binding of TSH to receptors on thyrocytes stimulates a number of growth promoting pathways both in normal and malignant thyroid cells, and TSH suppression with high doses of levothyroxine is routinely used after thyroidectomy to prevent cancer recurrence, especially in high-risk tumours. This review examines the relationship between serum TSH and thyroid cancer and reflects on the clinical potential of TSH measurements in diagnosis and disease monitoring. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. Thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica. 1998 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc

    2012-07-01

    In France, Corsica appears to be one of the most exposed regions to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Taking into account the scientific knowledge at that time, it was decided to focus studies on thyroid cancers. A study was carried out in order to estimate thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica for the periods 1998-2001 and 2002-2006. The study identified incident thyroid cancer cases between 1998 and 2006 among residents in Corsica. Data were collected using information from the hospitals (PMSI) and the local health insurance funds (ALD). Cases were validated through medical records before inclusion in the study. Over the period of study, 342 cases of thyroid cancer, rather women and relatively young patients, were identified in Corsica. Incidence rate of the thyroid cancer was high, but stable among men, and with a slight increase among women, particularly between 2002 and 2006. However, incidence rate and clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer in Corsica are not exceptional and are similar to those in other French districts. (authors)

  20. Beyond radioiodine: novel therapies in advanced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, Bryan R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Thyroid cancer is a relatively common endocrine malignancy. Fortunately, many patients do well with standard therapy including surgery and radioiodine. A minority of patients have poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma that is unresponsive to radioiodine therapy. Redifferentiation agents that 'reprogram ' these tumors to concentrate radioiodine would be of great value in treating patients with advanced thyroid cancer. The retinoid isotretinoin is the most extensively studied of these agents. It appears that 20-40% of patients respond to isotretinoin treatment by concentration of radioiodine in metastatic tumors, but the clinical utility of this redifferentiation is still unclear. In vitro studies suggest that the retinoid receptors RARβ and RXRγ are required for this effect. Abnormal DNA methylation may be an early event in thyroid tumorigenesis and methylation of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) may play a role in loss of iodine concentration in these tumors. Inhibitors of methylation (5-azacytidine, phenylacetate and sodium butyrate) have been shown to increase NIS expression and iodine uptake in cell culture models, but published trials in humans are not yet available. Histone acetylation is required for efficient transcription of genes necessary for differentiated function. Proteins that cause histone deacetylation inhibit gene transcription and differentiated function. Inhibitors of histone deacetylation (depsipeptide, trichostatin A) have been shown to increase NIS expression and iodine uptake in poorly differentiated and undifferentiated cell lines. Finally, commonly used agents such as thiazolidine diones (diabetes) and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (hypercholesterolemia) have shown promise in preliminary in vitro studies in advanced thyroid cancer cell lines. Our own work has focused on receptor-selective retinoids and thiazolidine diones as potential therapy in patients with advanced thyroid cancer based on nuclear hormone receptor

  1. Thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J; Schneider, A B

    2000-04-01

    The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs for radiation-induced oncogenesis and the magnitude of the risk from external radiation is well understood. This is not the case for internal radiation derived from the radioiodines, a matter of practical importance because of medical use and potential accidental exposure. This article reviews current knowledge derived from the follow-up of patients receiving diagnostic or therapeutic 131I and populations exposed to radioactive fallout. The latter includes the nuclear power station accident at Chernobyl and the results of atomic bomb development and testing at Hanford, the Nevada Test Site and the Marshall Islands. The most cogent information comes from Chernobyl where an epidemic of childhood thyroid cancer has followed exposure to radioiodine that was mainly 131I. Although much has been learned from this experience about the nature of radioiodine induced thyroid cancer in young children, the reconstruction of thyroid radiation doses is too preliminary to provide accurate knowledge of the risk in comparison to that from external radiation. In the Marshall Islands, much of the exposure was from short-lived radioiodines as well as external radiation, obviating the possibility to determine the risk from 131I. Exposure to 131I in the continental United States from atomic bomb testing is expected to have caused some thyroid cancers, but only in the immediate vicinity of the Nevada Test Site has any evidence of radiation-induced thyroid neoplasms been adduced. This evidence is minimally significant statistically, and not significant for thyroid cancer per se. Medical use of radioiodine has not been observed to cause thyroid cancer but very few of the patients studied were young children, the group most sensitive to thyroid radiation. Despite these limitations, this information is sufficient to make some suggestions concerning protective measures in the case of nuclear accidents and the follow up of individuals who

  2. I-131 Dose Response for Incident Thyroid Cancers in Ukraine Related to the Chornobyl Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Alina V.; Tronko, Mykola D.; Hatch, Maureen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I.; Oliynik, Valery A.; Lubin, Jay H.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Tereschenko, Valery P.; McConnell, Robert J.; Zamotaeva, Galina A.; O?Kane, Patrick; Bouville, Andre C.; Chaykovskaya, Ludmila V.; Greenebaum, Ellen; Paster, Ihor P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Current knowledge about Chornobyl-related thyroid cancer risks comes from ecological studies based on grouped doses, case?control studies, and studies of prevalent cancers. Objective: To address this limitation, we evaluated the dose?response relationship for incident thyroid cancers using measurement-based individual iodine-131 (I-131) thyroid dose estimates in a prospective analytic cohort study. Methods: The cohort consists of individuals < 18 years of age on 26 April 1986 who ...

  3. Thyroid cancer treatment : Long-term effects and new developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is increasingly common. This is especially the case for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which has a favorable prognosis. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radioiodine treatment, and life-long administration of relatively high doses of thyroid hormone.

  4. Introduction to European comments on "Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarzab, Barbara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Guest Editors of Thyroid Research supplement devoted to medullary thyroid cancer present the history on how the discussion about "Medullary Thyroid Cancer: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association" was initiated and subsequently widely commented before and during European Thyroid...... Association - Cancer Research Network Meeting in Lisbon. It is explained why it has been decided to publish the manuscripts within the supplement - to document voices from the discussion and popularize them....

  5. [Current situation and thoughts on radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of thyroid cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Dong, W W

    2017-08-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was originally used primarily for the treatment of regional metastatic lymph nodes from recurrent thyroid cancers in the field of thyroid surgery. In recent years it is gradually used to treat a part of benign thyroid nodules. However, the domestic issues resulting from indiscriminately enlarged RFA indication and lack of standardization of therapy become more and more prominent, including initial treatment of operable thyroid cancers by RFA, which is against by the current consensus about RFA for patients with thyroid nodules and management guidelines for patients with thyroid cancers. Therefore, RFA should be avoided for initial treatment of operable thyroid cancers before the introduction of guidelines based on evidence-based medicine.

  6. Thyroid Cancer Incidences From Selected South America Population-Based Cancer Registries: An Age-Period-Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Karin da Mota Borges

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The incidence of thyroid cancer (TC has increased substantially worldwide. However, there is a lack of knowledge about age-period-cohort (APC effects on incidence rates in South American countries. This study describes the TC incidence trends and analyzes APC effects in Cali, Colombia; Costa Rica; Goiânia, Brazil; and Quito, Ecuador. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series, and the crude and age-standardized incidence rates were calculated. Trends were assessed using the estimated annual percentage change, and APC models were estimated using Poisson regression for individuals between age 20 and 79 years. Results: An increasing trend in age-standardized incidence rates was observed among women from Goiânia (9.2%, Costa Rica (5.7%, Quito (4.0%, and Cali (3.4%, and in men from Goiânia (10.0% and Costa Rica (3.4%. The APC modeling showed that there was a period effect in all regions and for both sexes. Increasing rate ratios were observed among women over the periods. The best fit model was the APC model in women from all regions and in men from Quito, whereas the age-cohort model showed a better fit in men from Cali and Costa Rica, and the age-drift model showed a better fit among men from Goiânia. Conclusion: These findings suggest that overdiagnosis is a possible explanation for the observed increasing pattern of TC incidence. However, some environmental exposures may also have contributed to the observed increase.

  7. Evolution of thyroid cancer occurrence in metropolitan France. Assessment over 25 years; evolution de l'incidence du cancer de la thyroide en France metropolitaine. Bilan sur 25 ans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogel, Agnes; Caserio-Schonemann, Celine; Cherie-Challine, Laurence; Rudant, Jeremie; Bloch, Juliette; Thuret, Anne [Unite cancer, Departement des maladies chroniques et traumatismes - DMCT, Institut de veille sanitaire - InVS (France); Colonna, Marc [Registre des cancers de l' Isere, Reseau francais des registres de cancer (Francim) (France); Uhry, Zoe; Kudjawu, Yao; Danzon, Arlette [Unite cancer, DMCT, InVS (France); Lacour, Brigitte [Registre national des tumeurs solides de l' enfant, Francim (France); Schvartz, Claire [Registre des cancers de la thyroide Marne-Ardennes, Francim (France); Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc [Cellule interregionale d' epidemiologie - Cire Sud (France); Borson-Chazot, Francoise; Sassolas, Genevieve; Hafdi-Nejjari, Zakia [Registre des cancers thyroidiens de la region Rhone-Alpes (France); Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Guenel, Pascal; Vathaire, Florent de; Guillas, Gwenaelle; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Clero, Enora; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Bedouche, Lallia [Institut national de la sante et de la recherche medicale (Inserm) U1018 (France); Belot, Aurelien [Unite Cancer, DMCT, InVS (France); Hospices civils de Lyon - HCL (France); Fieffe, Sandrine; Dalac, Audrey; Goncalves, Katia; Kaplan, Martine; Pochart, Jean-Marie [Registre des cancers de la thyroide Marne-Ardennes, Francim, Centre de luttre contre le cancer de Reims (France); Desenclos, Jean-Claude [Direction scientifique, InVS (France)

    2011-04-15

    After a presentation of the epidemiological context of thyroid cancer in France, this report, based on cancer record data, analyzes the occurrence of thyroid cancers between 1982 and 2006. It discusses the contribution and limits of medical-administrative data for the epidemiological monitoring of thyroid cancer occurrence between 1997 and 2009. It proposes a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancers in two districts (Marne and Ardennes) between 1975 and 2008, and a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancer for children under 14 between 2000 and 2008. It proposes an estimation of thyroid cancer occurrence in Corsica between 1998 and 2006. It reports and discusses a pilot study performed in two regions (Ile de France and Nord Pas-de-Calais), based on a multi-source system of cancer monitoring (SMSC), and comments studies on risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancers in France

  8. Hyperthyroidism, hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule, and thyroid cancer in a young female: a rare and unusual coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán-Martínez, José; Uzcategui, María; Corder, Eric; Castillo, Manuel; Sostre, Samuel; Alicea, Luz

    2010-03-01

    The prevalence of concomitant thyroid carcinoma with Grave's disease has been reported to range from 0 to 10%. Many controversies exist in the literature regarding the diagnostic workup and management in these types of patients. We are reporting a case of a 31 year old woman who had Graves' disease, a palpable thyroid nodule, and results from a thyroid scan revealed a "hot" nodule. Interestingly, an ultrasound guided FNA of the "hot" nodule showed papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Finally, a total thyroidectomy showed multilobar tumor involvement. The diagnostic tools employed to establish the proper management strategy for this patient were based on data in the literature that is full of discrepancies. The fact that Grave's disease occurs concomitantly with thyroid cancer, specifically the papillary type, is an indisputably rare combination. One rare feature on our clinical case was the reported malignancy of a papillary carcinoma within a "hot" nodule which usually is much less that 1%. Many studies describe an increasing incidence of Grave's disease patients with concomitant papillary thyroid carcinoma. One possible explanation for these findings could be improvements in medical technology of screening tools. We propose that, thyroid ultrasonography should be integrated in the diagnostic workup in patients presenting with Graves' disease, especially in those presenting with palpable nodules. Fine needle biopsy should not be restricted to cold nodules.

  9. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiravova, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Uk, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  10. [Intracellular signaling mechanisms in thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Terán, Paul; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Suárez-Cuenca, Juan Antonio; Luna-Ceballos, Rosa Isela; Erazo Valle-Solís, Aura

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, the papillary variant accounts for 80-90% of all diagnosed cases. In the development of papillary thyroid cancer, BRAF and RAS genes are mainly affected, resulting in a modification of the system of intracellular signaling proteins known as «protein kinase mitogen-activated» (MAPK) which consist of «modules» of internal signaling proteins (Receptor/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK) from the cell membrane to the nucleus. In thyroid cancer, these signanling proteins regulate diverse cellular processes such as differentiation, growth, development and apoptosis. MAPK play an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer as they are used as molecular biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic and as possible therapeutic molecular targets. Mutations in BRAF gene have been correlated with poor response to treatment with traditional chemotherapy and as an indicator of poor prognosis. To review the molecular mechanisms involved in intracellular signaling of BRAF and RAS genes in thyroid cancer. Molecular therapy research is in progress for this type of cancer as new molecules have been developed in order to inhibit any of the components of the signaling pathway (RET/PTC)/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK; with special emphasis on the (RET/PTC)/Ras/Raf section, which is a major effector of ERK pathway. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Management of recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Recently, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have become available for the treatment of recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer. However, a number of clinical challenges that impact the use of VEGFR-targeted TKI in daily clinical practice have arisen. Toxicity is considerable, to the extent that most physicians hesitate to start VEGFR-targeted TKI and prefer to continue a watch-and-wait approach until the patient's disease markedly worsens. This delayed use of VEGFR-targeted TKI leads to a higher incidence of serious adverse events than was reported in clinical trials. Moreover, the watch-and-wait approach has several demerits, including a worsening of quality of life, worsening of outcomes in patients of older age or with follicular thyroid cancer and increased risk of brain metastasis or bleeding. Thus, optimal timing for the start of VEGFR-targeted TKI requires careful consideration. Moreover, management of VEGFR-targeted TKI toxicities requires appropriate supportive care, well-organised infrastructure in the outpatient clinic and patient education. Future treatment will progress to precision medicine based on molecular testing. Promotion of precision medicine requires the establishment of a system of easy access to molecular testing and the promotion of translational research for the development of new drugs.

  12. Childhood Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood thyroid cancer treatment usually includes surgery and may include radioactive iodine therapy, targeted therapy, and hormone replacement therapy. Learn more about the diagnosis and treatment of childhood thyroid cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  13. An improved quantitative measurement for thyroid cancer detection based on elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jianrui; Cheng, H.D.; Huang Jianhua; Zhang Yingtao; Liu Jiafeng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate color thyroid elastograms quantitatively and objectively. Materials and methods: 125 cases (56 malignant and 69 benign) were collected with the HITACHI Vision 900 system (Hitachi Medical System, Tokyo, Japan) and a liner-array-transducer of 6–13 MHz. Standard of reference was cytology (FNA—fine needle aspiration) or histology (core biopsy). The original color thyroid elastograms were transferred from red, green, blue (RGB) color space to hue, saturation, value (HSV) color space. Then, hard area ratio was defined. Finally, a SVM classifier was used to classify thyroid nodules into benign and malignant. The relation between the performance and hard threshold was fully investigated and studied. Results: The classification accuracy changed with the hard threshold, and reached maximum (95.2%) at some values (from 144 to 152). It was higher than strain ratio (87.2%) and color score (83.2%). It was also higher than the one of our previous study (93.6%). Conclusion: The hard area ratio is an important feature of elastogram, and appropriately selected hard threshold can improve classification accuracy.

  14. Molecular pathogenesis and mechanisms of thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingzhao

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine malignancy. There has been exciting progress in understanding its molecular pathogenesis in recent years, as best exemplified by the elucidation of the fundamental role of several major signalling pathways and related molecular derangements. Central to these mechanisms are the genetic and epigenetic alterations in these pathways, such as mutation, gene copy-number gain and aberrant gene methylation. Many of these molecular alterations represent novel diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers and therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer, which provide unprecedented opportunities for further research and clinical development of novel treatment strategies for this cancer. PMID:23429735

  15. Predictive factors of thyroid cancer in patients with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Meng; Wu, Mu Chao; Shang, Chang Zhen; Wang, Xiao Yi; Zhang, Jing Lu; Cheng, Hua; Xu, Ming Tong; Yan, Li

    2014-01-01

    The best preoperative examination in Graves' disease with thyroid cancer still remains uncertain. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of thyroid cancer in Graves' disease patients, and to identify the predictive factors and ultrasonographic features of thyroid cancer that may aid the preoperative diagnosis in Graves' disease. This retrospective study included 423 patients with Graves' disease who underwent surgical treatment from 2002 to 2012 at our institution. The clinical features and ultrasonographic findings of thyroid nodules were recorded. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was determined according to the pathological results. Thyroid cancer was discovered in 58 of the 423 (13.7 %) surgically treated Graves' disease patients; 46 of those 58 patients had thyroid nodules, and the other 12 patients were diagnosed with incidentally discovered thyroid carcinomas without thyroid nodules. Among the 58 patients with thyroid cancer, papillary microcarcinomas were discovered in 50 patients, and multifocality and lymph node involvement were detected in the other 8 patients. Multivariate regression analysis showed younger age was the only significant factor predictive of metastatic thyroid cancer. Ultrasonographic findings of calcification and intranodular blood flow in thyroid nodules indicate that they are more likely to harbor thyroid cancers. Because the influencing factor of metastatic thyroid cancers in Graves' disease is young age, every suspicious nodule in Graves' disease patients should be evaluated and treated carefully, especially in younger patients because of the potential for metastasis.

  16. Laboratory investigations in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of in vitro tests for diagnosis of primary thyroid tumor is negligible. However, monitoring the adequacy of thyroxin replacement and assess the functional aspects of metastatic disease is necessary using the routinely available hormonal tests. Serum thyroglobulin as a tumor marker for monitoring metastatic disease is a well-established and indispensable procedure in all thyroid clinics worldwide

  17. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nitipir

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the most frequent age at presentation, the predominance of one sex over the other, the incidence of malignant thyroid disease, and the relative risk for each sex to develop thyroid carcinoma. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was higher for women than for men, with a higher relative risk in the female subgroup. Incidence was also highest in the 50-60-year-old group. Given that studies show better survival for women and for younger patients, even when presenting with advanced disease, compared with older, male patients, such prognostic indicators should be a factor in the treatment decision.

  18. Hazard of the radiation induced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, Ye.Ye.

    2001-01-01

    The level of thyroid cancer in Belarus before Chernobyl accident was low and made in different age and sex groups 0,03-2,5 (male) and 0,1-3,9 (female) per 100000 correspondingly. Different risk factors, which can influence the thyroid cancer development, are being taken into account. They are the factors of environment (strong external irradiation, long-time irradiation for medical purposes or in result of disaster), endo gen factors (hormonal, reproductive, genetic predisposition), some medicinal preparations and other. The protective effect of vegetable and fish consumption was found out. Among the factors of thyroid cancer development one of the most important is radiation. There is a point of view, which assumes that one of the reasons of thyroid cancer cases increase among the population of developed countries is increase of radiation induced thyroid cancer. The results of first research testify the influence of radiation factor on thyroid cancer development. During the period 1920 -1960 in the USA X-ray therapy was applied for the treatment of different good-quality diseases. Thyroid got in the zone of irradiation during the complex treatment with using of radiation. The results of the research of 1970 revealed that 70% of children with thyroid cancer were exposed to radiation in children's age. The subsequent researches of by-effects from the side of a thyroid at beam therapy of various diseases alongside with the results of the estimation of consequences of inhabitants of Hiroshima and Nagasaki irradiation owing to nuclear bombardment have shown the influence of irradiation of a thyroid on cancer development. High quantity of radio-epidemiological researches was directed to the studying of the consequences of thyroid external irradiation at young age. In all carried out researches the quantity of observed thyroid cancer cases among irradiated people has exceeded number of expected. The influence of thyroid internal irradiation by I-131 at young age was

  19. Hyperfunction Thyroid Nodules: Their Risk for Becoming or Being Associated with Thyroid Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji-hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study....

  20. Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: update on the Brazilian consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro Weslley; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa Maria Z; Maia, Ana Luiza; Vaisman, Mário

    2013-06-01

    Thyroid nodules are frequent findings, especially when sensitive imaging methods are used. Although thyroid cancer is relatively rare, its incidence is increasing, particularly in terms of small tumors, which have an uncertain clinical relevance. Most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer exhibit satisfactory clinical outcomes when treatment is appropriate, and their mortality rate is similar to that of the overall population. However, relapse occurs in a considerable fraction of these patients, and some patients stop responding to conventional treatment and eventually die from their disease. Therefore, the challenge is how to identify the individuals who require more aggressive disease management while sparing the majority of patients from unnecessary treatments and procedures. We have updated the Brazilian Consensus that was published in 2007, emphasizing the diagnostic and therapeutic advances that the participants, representing several Brazilian university centers, consider most relevant in clinical practice. The formulation of the present guidelines was based on the participants' experience and a review of the relevant literature.

  1. Involvement of Aberrant Glycosylation in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Miyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modification reactions and nearly half of all known proteins in eukaryotes are glycosylated. In fact, changes in oligosaccharides structures are associated with many physiological and pathological events, including cell growth, migration and differentiation, and tumor invasion. Therefore, functional glycomics, which is a comprehensive study of the structures and functions of glycans, is attracting the increasing attention of scientists in various fields of life science. In cases of thyroid cancer, the biological characters and prognosis are completely different in each type of histopathology, and their oligosaccharide structures as well as the expression of glycosyltransferases are also different. In this review, we summarized our previous papers on oligosaccharides and thyroid cancers and discussed a possible function of oligosaccharides in the carcinogenesis in thyroid cancer.

  2. Risk of second primary cancer following differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthe, Emmanuelle; Berthet, Pascaline; Bardet, Stephane; Henry-Amar, Michel; Michels, Jean-Jacques; Rame, Jean-Pierre; Babin, Emmanuel; Icard, Philippe; Samama, Guy; Galateau-Salle, Francoise; Mahoudeau, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Concerns remain over the risk of cancer following differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its causes. Iodine-131 ( 131 I) and external irradiation are known to have potential carcinogenic effects. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease which may be associated with other malignancies. We investigated the incidence of second cancer and its aetiology in a cohort of 875 patients (146 men, 729 women) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma originating from Basse-Normandie, France. Cancer incidence was compared with that of the general population of the Departement du Calvados matched for age, gender and period. The cumulative proportion of second cancer was estimated using the life-table method. Factors that correlated with the risk of second cancer were studied using the Cox model. After a median follow-up of 8 years, 58 second cancers had been observed. Compared with general population incidence rates, there was an overall increased risk of second cancer in women [standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.52; P 0.20). Increased risk related to cancers of the genitourinary tract (SIR=3.31; P 131 I was related to the risk. These data confirm that women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are at risk of developing a second cancer of the genitourinary tract and kidney. Only age and medical history of primary cancer before thyroid carcinoma are risk factors for second cancer. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of primary cancer therapy should be considered. (orig.)

  3. Molecular targeted therapies of aggressive thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martina eFerrari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC that arise from follicular cells account > 90% of thyroid cancer (TC [papillary thyroid cancer (PTC 90%, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC 10%], while medullary thyroid cancer (MTC accounts < 5%. Complete total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for PTC, FTC and MTC. Radioiodine is routinely recommended in high-risk patients and considered in intermediate risk DTC patients. DTC cancer cells, during tumor progression, may lose the iodide uptake ability, becoming resistant to radioiodine, with a significant worsening of the prognosis. The lack of specific and effective drugs for aggressive and metastatic DTC and MTC leads to additional efforts towards the development of new drugs.Several genetic alterations in different molecular pathways in TC have been shown in the last decades, associated with TC development and progression. Rearranged during transfection (RET/PTC gene rearrangements, RET mutations, BRAF mutations, RAS mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways determinant in the development of TC. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs are small organic compounds inhibiting tyrosine kinases auto-phosphorylation and activation, most of them are multikinase inhibitors. TKIs act on the above-mentioned molecular pathways involved in growth, angiogenesis, local and distant spread of TC. TKIs are emerging as new therapies of aggressive TC, including DTC, MTC and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC, being capable of inducing clinical responses and stabilization of disease. Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of MTC, while sorafenib and lenvatinib for DTC refractory to radioiodine. These drugs prolong median progression-free survival, but until now no significant increase has been observed on overall survival; side effects are common. New efforts are made to find new more effective and safe compounds, and to personalize

  4. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulong Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The initiation of thyroid cancer is often triggered by a genetic mutation in the phosphortidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway, such as RAS and BRAF, or by the rearrangement of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase genes such as RET/PTC. The sonic hedgehog (Shh pathway is evolutionarily conserved and plays an important role in the embryonic development of normal tissues and organs. Gene mutations in the Shh pathway are involved in basal cell carcinomas (BCC. Activation of the Shh pathway due to overexpression of the genes encoding the components of this pathway stimulates the growth and spread of a wide range of cancer types. The Shh pathway also plays an important role in cancer stem cell (CSC self-renewal. GDC-0449 and LDE-225, two inhibitors of this pathway, have been approved for treating BCC and are being tested as a single agent or in combination with other drugs for treating various other cancers. Here, we review the recent findings on activation of the Shh pathway in thyroid cancer and its role in maintaining thyroid CSC self-renewal. We also summarize the recent developments on crosstalk of the Shh pathway with the MAPK and PI3K oncogenic pathways, and its implications for combination therapy.

  5. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiulong; Lu, Yurong; Li, Yi; Prinz, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The initiation of thyroid cancer is often triggered by a genetic mutation in the phosphortidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, such as RAS and BRAF, or by the rearrangement of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase genes such as RET/PTC. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway is evolutionarily conserved and plays an important role in the embryonic development of normal tissues and organs. Gene mutations in the Shh pathway are involved in basal cell carcinomas (BCC). Activation of the Shh pathway due to overexpression of the genes encoding the components of this pathway stimulates the growth and spread of a wide range of cancer types. The Shh pathway also plays an important role in cancer stem cell (CSC) self-renewal. GDC-0449 and LDE-225, two inhibitors of this pathway, have been approved for treating BCC and are being tested as a single agent or in combination with other drugs for treating various other cancers. Here, we review the recent findings on activation of the Shh pathway in thyroid cancer and its role in maintaining thyroid CSC self-renewal. We also summarize the recent developments on crosstalk of the Shh pathway with the MAPK and PI3K oncogenic pathways, and its implications for combination therapy. PMID:29163356

  6. Investigative procedures in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the procedures is to establish the likelihood of malignancy in the thyroid gland prior to surgery and detect metastases after surgery. Thyroid imaging is discussed in the context of (a) its role in the diagnosis of the primary disease (b) in the investigation of post-operative residual disease and (c) its role in the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy

  7. Screening for thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood and young adult cancer treated with neck radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonorezos, Emily S; Barnea, Dana; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Chou, Joanne F; Sklar, Charles A; Elkin, Elena B; Wong, Richard J; Li, Duan; Tuttle, R Michael; Korenstein, Deborah; Wolden, Suzanne L; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2017-06-01

    The optimal method of screening for thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood and young adult cancer exposed to neck radiation remains controversial. Outcome data for a physical exam-based screening approach are lacking. We conducted a retrospective review of adult survivors of childhood and young adult cancer with a history of neck radiation followed in the Adult Long-Term Follow-Up Clinic at Memorial Sloan Kettering between November 2005 and August 2014. Eligible patients underwent a physical exam of the thyroid and were followed for at least 1 year afterwards. Ineligible patients were those with prior diagnosis of benign or malignant thyroid nodules. During a median follow-up of 3.1 years (range 0-9.4 years), 106 ultrasounds and 2277 physical exams were performed among 585 patients. Forty survivors had an abnormal thyroid physical exam median of 21 years from radiotherapy; 50% of those with an abnormal exam were survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma, 60% had radiation at ages 10-19, and 53% were female. Ultimately, 24 underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA). Surgery revealed papillary carcinoma in seven survivors; six are currently free of disease and one with active disease is undergoing watchful waiting. Among those with one or more annual visits, representing 1732 person-years of follow-up, no cases of thyroid cancer were diagnosed within a year of normal physical exam. These findings support the application of annual physical exam without routine ultrasound for thyroid cancer screening among survivors with a history of neck radiation. Survivors with a history of neck radiation may not require routine thyroid ultrasound for thyroid cancer screening. Among adult survivors of childhood and young adult cancer with a history of radiation therapy to the neck, annual physical exam is an acceptable thyroid cancer screening strategy.

  8. Primary hyperparathyroidism and nonmedullary thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linos, D.A.; van Heerden, J.A.; Edis, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Of 2,058 patients who had surgically proven primary hyperparathyroidism at the Mayo Clinic from 1965 through 1979, 51 or 2.5 percent had associated nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma. A history of radiation exposure to the head and neck was obtained in 14 of 43 patients questioned. Thyroid disease consisted of grade 1 papillary adenocarcinoma in 48 cases and pure follicular adenocarcinoma in 3 cases. The parathyroid disease included 41 single adenomas and 5 cases of parathyroid hyperplasia; 5 patients had 2 adenomas. At follow-up, none of the patients had evidence of metastatic thyroid carcinoma. Ten patients were receiving calcium or vitamin D supplementation for protracted hypocalcemia presumably due to the increased insult to the parathyroids from combined bilateral thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy. More consecutive thyroidectomy, along with parathyroid autotransplantation when indicated, will provide definitive treatment of the thyroid cancer and at the same time minimize the risk of postoperative hypoparathyroidism

  9. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Bryan R; Alexander, Erik K; Bible, Keith C; Doherty, Gerard M; Mandel, Susan J; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W; Sawka, Anna M; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G; Sherman, Steven I; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L; Tuttle, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and d...

  10. COMBINED SURGERY OF SPREAD THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zh. Brzhezovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of treating of 99 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer spreading beyond the capsule of the organ were analysed. In most cases with spreading the tumor to the tracheal rings performing of organ-preserving operations (from “window-like” tracheal resections to circular tracheal resection with intertracheal anastomosis is possible. Choosing of type of operation to be performed depends on localisation and spread of tumor invasion of trachea, pharynx and esophagus. Using of combined operations in patients with locally-spread thyroid cancer allows to achieve long and stable remission in most of the cases.

  11. Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaoglou, A.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    In January 1992, under the Radiation Protection Research Action, a Panel of experts was set up to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased incidence of thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl at the time of the nuclear reactor accident on 26 April 1986. The report written by this Panel documents their findings with their respect to the occurrence of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus and the Northern Ukraine. The Panel arrives to a consensus opinion and makes strong recommendations for urgent technical and humanitarian assistance and research cooperation. The Panel report and the response of the European Commission to these recommendations are discussed. (Author). 1 ref

  12. Hyperthyroidism in patients with thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil Dutt; Kumar, Gaurav; Guner, Karen; Kaddour, Hesham

    2016-06-01

    We present a retrospective case series of patients with hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Our goal was to look at their clinical characteristics and outcomes to determine which patients would require further investigation. We reviewed the case notes of all patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of thyroid cancer and biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism who had been treated at a thyroid cancer center from January 2006 through October 2013. During that time, 66 patients had been diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Of these, 8 patients (12%)-all women, aged 29 to 87 years (mean: 55.6; median: 50.5)-had biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism. Among these 8 patients, 4 had an autonomously functioning toxic nodule (AFTN), 3 were diagnosed with Graves disease, and 1 had a toxic multinodular goiter. Five patients had suspicious features on preoperative ultrasonography. All 8 patients were diagnosed with the papillary type of thyroid carcinoma. The mean size of the tumor in the 4 patients with AFTN was significantly larger than it was in those with Graves disease (42.3 ± 23.8 mm vs. 3.8 ± 1.6; p = 0.04). The 3 patients with Graves disease all had incidentally found papillary microcarcinoma. Between these two groups, the patients with AFTN had a poorer prognosis; 2 of them had extracapsular invasion and lymph node metastasis, and another died of her disease. We found that the incidence of hyperthyroidism in thyroid cancer patients was relatively high (12%). In contrast to what has previously been reported in the literature, patients with AFTN seem to have more aggressive disease and poorer outcomes than do patients with Graves disease. Any suspicious nodule associated with hyperthyroidism should be evaluated carefully.

  13. Risk of thyroid cancer among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Tenet, Vanessa; Cardis, Elisabeth; Ivanov, Viktor K.; Chekin, Sergei; Malakhova, Irina V.; Polyakov, Semion; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Stengrevics, Aivars; Tekkel, Mare; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Gavrilin, Yuri; Golovanov, Ivan; Krjuchkov, Viktor P.; Tukov, Aleksandr R.; Maceika, Evaldas; Mirkhaidarov, Anatoly K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: While the increased risk of thyroid cancer is well demonstrated in people exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated areas around the Chernobyl power plant, following the accident which took place on 26 April 1986, the effect of exposure on adults remains unclear. A collaborative case-control study of thyroid cancer was set-up, nested within cohorts of Belarus, Russian and Baltic countries liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, to evaluate the radiation-induced risk of this disease among liquidators, and to assess the roles of screening and of radiation exposures in the observed increased thyroid cancer incidence among liquidators. The study population consisted of the cohorts of approximately 66,000 Belarus, 65,000 Russian and 15,000 Baltic countries liquidators who took part in the clean-up activities on the reactor site and in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 1987. The liquidators were mainly exposed to external radiation, although substantial dose to the thyroid from iodine isotopes may have been received by liquidators who worked in May-June 1986 and by those who resided in the most contaminated territories of Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects by use of a standardized questionnaire that was administrated during a face-to-face interview with the study subject and/or a proxy (a relative or a colleague). The interview included questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and on potential risk and confounding factors for thyroid cancer. A method of analytical dose reconstruction, entitled RADRUE (Realistic Analytical Dose Reconstruction with Uncertainty Estimation) was developed within the study and applied to estimate individual doses to the thyroid from external radiation and related uncertainties for each subject. Approaches to derive individual thyroid dose estimates from inhaled and

  14. American Thyroid Association statement on preoperative imaging for thyroid cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Michael W; Bauer, Andrew J; Bernet, Victor A; Ferris, Robert L; Loevner, Laurie A; Mandel, Susan J; Orloff, Lisa A; Randolph, Gregory W; Steward, David L

    2015-01-01

    The success of surgery for thyroid cancer hinges on thorough and accurate preoperative imaging, which enables complete clearance of the primary tumor and affected lymph node compartments. This working group was charged by the Surgical Affairs Committee of the American Thyroid Association to examine the available literature and to review the most appropriate imaging studies for the planning of initial and revision surgery for thyroid cancer. Ultrasound remains the most important imaging modality in the evaluation of thyroid cancer, and should be used routinely to assess both the primary tumor and all associated cervical lymph node basins preoperatively. Positive lymph nodes may be distinguished from normal nodes based upon size, shape, echogenicity, hypervascularity, loss of hilar architecture, and the presence of calcifications. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of suspicious lymph nodes may be useful in guiding the extent of surgery. Cross-sectional imaging (computed tomography with contrast or magnetic resonance imaging) may be considered in select circumstances to better characterize tumor invasion and bulky, inferiorly located, or posteriorly located lymph nodes, or when ultrasound expertise is not available. The above recommendations are applicable to both initial and revision surgery. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) or PET-CT may be helpful in cases of recurrent cancer with positive tumor markers and negative anatomic imaging.

  15. Thyroid cancer in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturniolo, Giacomo; Vermiglio, Francesco; Moleti, Mariacarla

    2017-01-01

    Ectopy is the most common embryogenetic defect of the thyroid gland, representing between 48 and 61% of all thyroid dysgeneses. Persistence of thyroid tissue in the context of a thyroglossal duct remnant and lingual thyroid tissue are the most common defects. Although most cases of ectopic thyroid are asymptomatic, any disease affecting the thyroid may potentially involve the ectopic tissue, including malignancies. The prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst is around 1% of patients affected with the above thyroid ectopies. We here review the current literature concerning primary thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid tissue on thyroglossal duct cysts and lingual thyroid. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The value of ultrasound in the follow-up of thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedbæk, Finn Noe; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    The value of ultrasound in the follow-up of thyroid cancer The commonly used tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system is designed to predict death and not recurrence. Based on this, patients with thyroid cancer are grouped into risk categories at the time of initial treatment. However, recent......-up is measurement of plasma-thyroglobulin concentration and ultrasound of the neck focusing on the thyroid bed and classification of lymph nodes according to their location and high risk signs....

  17. Radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Rajashekharrao, B.

    1999-01-01

    Radioiodine ( 131 I) therapy has been in use for the treatment of thyroid diseases. Although the use of 131 I has been in vogue for a long time, its use in therapy for well-differentiated thyroid cancer is still controversial. This is because, thyroid cancers (TC) are generally slow growing tumors, with low mortality and normal spans of survival. To record recurrence and mortality, long-term follow-up studies over a period of two to three decades are needed to establish definite conclusions on the acceptable modes of treatment. The most reliable conclusions regarding 131 I treatment are obtained from studies reported on a large series of patients followed over a period of 3 decades or more from a single institute with a more or less unchanged protocol of management

  18. Childhood Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood thyroid cancer usually presents as a thyroid mass with or without painless cervical adenopathy. It may occur as part of a tumor predisposition syndrome such as multiple endocrine neoplasia or DICER1 syndrome. Get detailed information about the risk factors, histopathology, molecular features, presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  19. Pre-operative diagnosis of thyroid cancer: Clinical, radiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis or exclusion of cancer in the thyroid nodule remains a clinical dilemma for general surgeons and endocrinologists. Nodular disease of the thyroid is very common, while cancer is rare; a definite diagnosis of either is difficult to make. The general prevalence of thyroid nodules is very high. They are detectable ...

  20. Thyroid cancer in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M.F.; Nahar, N.; Haque, F.S.; Alam, F.; Hasan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The coexistence of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer is a rare event. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the association of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Method: From 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2006, a total of 388 new hyperthyroid patients attended the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound for radioiodine therapy. Eighty-two of them were selected before radioiodine therapy, on the basis of findings on palpation and ultrasound (USG) examination, to undergo fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for cytological diagnosis. USG examination was performed to localize and mark the position of nodule/nodules for FNAC and, in cases of nonpalpable nodules, USG guided FNAC was done. In the case of non-nodular patients, guided FNAC was done in sonographically suspicious areas. Results: FNAC report was positive for thyroid cancer in 4 patients. Histopathology examination revealed the presence of papillary carcinoma. Among the four positive cases, one had multi-nodular goitre, two had uni-nodular goiters and one had no nodule. Another patient had a negative FNAC report but due to a huge goiter, the patient underwent surgery and histopathology revealed the presence of papillary carcinoma. Conclusion: Although the occurrence of thyroid cancer in hyperthyroid patients is rare, the presence of a nodule should be carefully evaluated to exclude the presence of concurrent malignancy. FNAC (USG guided in case of non-palpable nodules) is found helpful before radioiodine therapy or surgery. (author)

  1. Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy in Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; Brouwers, Adrienne; Links, Thera; Hubalewska‐Dydejczyk, Alicja; Signore, Alberto; de Jong, Marion; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Buscombe, John; Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor originating from the calcitonin‐secreting C cells. Surgery, consisting of a total thyroidectomy and an extensive lymph node dissection, is the only effective treatment in MTC; however, metastases are frequently found in the regional cervical

  2. Motesanib diphosphate in progressive differentiated thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherman, Steven I; Wirth, Lori J; Droz, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is characteristic of differentiated thyroid cancer and is associated with aggressive tumor behavior and a poor clinical outcome. Motesanib diphosphate (AMG 706) is a novel oral inhibitor of VEGF receptors, platelet-derived gr...

  3. Molecular perspectives in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, C; Groussin, L

    2015-02-01

    Progress in understanding the molecular genetics of thyroid cancer in the last 20 years has accelerated recently with the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies known as Next-Generation Sequencing. Besides classical molecular abnormalities involving the MAPK (Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase) and PI3K (PhosphoInositide 3-Kinase) pathways that play a key role in follicular-derived thyroid tumorigenesis, new molecular abnormalities have been discovered. The major advances in recent years have been the discovery of new somatic driver gene point mutations (such as RASAL1 [RAS protein activator Like 1] mutations in follicular cancer) and/or mutations that have prognostic value (such as TERT [Telomerase reverse transcriptase] promoter mutations); new chromosomal rearrangements, usually having close connection with exposure to ionizing radiation (such as ALK [Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase] rearrangements); and deregulation of some gene or microRNA expression representing a molecular signature. Progress made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of thyroid cancer offers new perspectives for the diagnosis of the benign or malignant status of a thyroid nodule, to refine prognosis and offer new perspectives of targeted therapy for radioiodine-refractory cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Thyroid cancer: experiences at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, V.M.; Gangadharan, P.; Nair, Krishnan M.

    1999-01-01

    Above 300 thyroid cancers are seen at the Regional Cancer Centre annually. There has been an increase in the number of TC registered over the years. This is at least partly due to improved diagnostic services and availability of 131 I therapy. Almost 90 % of the cases seen at the Centre are well-differentiated cancers

  5. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B are rare genetic diseases, which lead to the development of medullary thyroid cancer, usually in childhood. Surgery is the only standard treatment.

  6. Pattern of second primary malignancies in thyroid cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... Many factors, including relatively young age of thyroid cancer diagnoses and improved survival, .... leukemia (CML), about 16.7% of malignancies occurred in .... thyroid neoplasia in children is a recognized result of direct.

  7. The thyroid cancer policy model: A mathematical simulation model of papillary thyroid carcinoma in The U.S. population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Lubitz

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer affects over ½ million people in the U.S. and the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased worldwide at a rate higher than any other cancer, while survival has remained largely unchanged. The aim of this research was to develop, calibrate and verify a mathematical disease model to simulate the natural history of papillary thyroid cancer, which will serve as a platform to assess the effectiveness of clinical and cancer control interventions.Herein, we modeled the natural pre-clinical course of both benign and malignant thyroid nodules with biologically relevant health states from normal to detected nodule. Using established calibration techniques, optimal parameter sets for tumor growth characteristics, development rate, and detection rate were used to fit Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER incidence data and other calibration targets.Model outputs compared to calibration targets demonstrating sufficient calibration fit and model validation are presented including primary targets of SEER incidence data and size distribution at detection of malignancy. Additionally, we show the predicted underlying benign and malignant prevalence of nodules in the population, the probability of detection based on size of nodule, and estimates of growth over time in both benign and malignant nodules.This comprehensive model provides a dynamic platform employable for future comparative effectiveness research. Future model analyses will test and assess various clinical management strategies to improve patient outcomes related to thyroid cancer and optimize resource utilization for patients with thyroid nodules.

  8. Coexistence of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Taşkesen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid cancer can be associated with thyrotoxicosis caused by Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter, or toxic nodular goiter. The aim of this study was considered to be endemic in our region have received the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer is detected thyroidectomy performed and patients were retrospectively evaluate. Methods: We retrospectively studied 69 patients assessed for hyperthyroidism between 2006 and 2012. Clinical hyperthyroidism was diagnosed by elevated tri-iodothyronine/thyroxine (T3/T4 ratios and low thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels, with clinical signs and symptoms. The criteria for surgery were cytological evidence of malignancy, a goiter causing symptoms of tracheal or esophageal compression, side effects of antithyroid drug therapy, or Graves’ disease with multiple relapses after therapy withdrawal or responsiveness to antithyroid drugs. Results: Totally 69 patients were included. In 20 (28.9% patients there was toxic multinodular goiter, in 28 (40.6% Graves’s disease, and in 21 (30.5% patients there was toxic nodular goiter. Of these patients, 12 (17.4% had thyroid cancer. Conclusions: As a result; low likelihood of malignancy in patients with hyperthyroidism, though suspicious lesions detected in the lymph nodes and neck adenopathies be examined in detail.

  9. The management of differentiated thyroid cancer in Europe in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldet, L.; Jaffiol, C.; Percheron, C.; Manderscheid, J.-C.; Coste-Seignovert, B.; Glinoer, D.

    1989-01-01

    In order to know how thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancers are investigated and treated in 1988, an international inquiry was performed by mean of a questionnaire based on a well-defined case report of a 35-year-old female with a solitary small thyroid nodule. Clinicians were asked to indicate their diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the reported case and to some variations. Analysis of the 157 responses from thyroid experts showed that three in vitro tests (sensitive-TSH, free T 4 and total T 4 ) and three in vivo tests ( 99m Tc or radioiodide scintiscan, fine needle aspiration and ultrasonography) were performed most frequently. In the case of a solid and cold nodule and in the absence of fine needle aspiration results, 19% of respondents advocated suppressive therapy and 81% surgery. In the same clinical case, but whom fine needle aspiration had been performed and cytology was benign, surgery was advocated by 24%, suppressive therapy by 48% and a regular follow-up without treatment by 28% of respondents. When surgery was performed and the diagnosis was a differentiated thyroid cancer, (near) total thyroidectomy was more frequently chosen than partial thyroidectomy in both papillary (60 and 40%, respectively, of respondents) and follicular (74 and 26%, respectively, of respondents) cancers; 80% of clinicians did not change their surgical technique in relation to histological type of the tumour. Total thyroidectomy was more often recommended in most of the clinical or anatomical variations compared with the basic case repot. Pre- og postoperative hormonal therapy was initiated with L-T 4 and TSH suppression was controlled by sensitive-TSH and thyroblobulin determinations. After total thyroidectomy, 131 I was used with similar modalities for papillary and follicular cancers to ablate a thyroid remnant. (author)

  10. External radiotherapy in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the management of thyroid carcinoma (TC) of any histological type, surgery is the primary mode of treatment. The second modality for the management is treatment with radioactive iodine ( 131 I), especially, when the tumor has the ability to concentrate 131 I. External radiotherapy has a limited use in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). It is useful in the management of bulky residual tissue which is not completely resected, metastatic disease which does not concentrated radioiodine and as a palliative treatment for reliving pain in patients with distant metastases. The ER as an adjuvant treatment in both anaplastic and medullary carcinoma has a significant role to play and should be used more frequently than is presently being advocated and practiced

  11. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Rodriguez, Maria Teresa; Sinconegui Gomez, Belkys; Cruz Cruz, Anaisa

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery. The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more

  12. [Clinico-pathological features of papillary thyroid cancer coexistent with Hashimoto's thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Sarolta; Győry, Ferenc; Nagy, Endre; Méhes, Gábor; Molnár, Csaba

    2017-02-01

    Former studies suggest the frequent coexistence of Hashimoto's thyreoditis with papillary thyroid cancer, frequently featured by multifocal carcinogenesis but lower clinical stages compared to thyroid cancers lacking thyroiditis. We examined the clinico-pathological correlations between Hashimoto's thyroditis and papillary thyroid cancer in our region in the North-Eastern part of Hungary. We included a total of 230 patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent thyroid surgery at the Surgical Department of the University of Debrecen. Patients' sex, age, multifocality of thyroid cancer and clinical stage were evaluated. Cases included 40 patients (17.4%) with (4 male, 36 female) and 190 (82.6%) patients without HT (44 male, 146 female). Hashimoto's thyroiditis related thyroid cancer was almost exclusively associated with the papillary histological type. Multifocality of papillary cancer was significantly more frequent with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis (16/40; 40.0%) compared to cases uninvolved (45/190; 23.7%; p = 0.034). In contrast, lymph node metastasis was significantly less frequent among patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (4 pN1 [36.4%]; 7 pN0 [63.6%]) then without it (34 pN1 [82.9%]; 7 pN0 [17.1%]; p = 0.002). Higher frequency and multifocality of papillary thyroid cancer might be the consequence of preexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis to be considered as a preneoplastic stimulus supporting carcinogenesis, though the exact pathomechanism of this correlation is not clear yet. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(5), 178-182.

  13. Hashimoto's thyroiditis predicts outcome in intrathyroidal papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Vincenzo; Sciammarella, Concetta; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Gambardella, Claudio; Bellevicine, Claudio; Grasso, Marica; Conzo, Giovanni; Docimo, Giovanni; Botti, Gerardo; Losito, Simona; Troncone, Giancarlo; De Palma, Maurizio; Giacomelli, Laura; Pezzullo, Luciano; Colao, Annamaria; Faggiano, Antongiulio

    2017-09-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) seems to have favourable prognostic impact on papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), but data were obtained analysing all disease stages. Given that HT-related microenvironment involves solely the thyroid, we aimed to assess the relationship between HT, as detected through pathological assessment, and outcome in intrathyroidal PTC. This was a multicentre, retrospective, observational study including 301 PTC with no evidence of extrathyroidal disease. Primary study endpoint was the rate of clinical remission. Auxiliary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). HT was detected in 42.5% of the cohort and was associated to female gender, smaller tumour size, lower rate of aggressive PTC variants and less frequent post-surgery radio-iodine administration. HT showed relationship with significantly higher rate of clinical remission ( P  < 0.001, OR 4, 95% CI 1.78-8.94). PTCs with concomitant HT had significantly longer RFS, as compared with non-HT tumours ( P  = 0.004). After adjustment for other parameters affecting disease outcome at univariate analysis (age at diagnosis, histology, tumour size and multifocality), prognostic effect of HT remained significant ( P  = 0.006, OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.39-7.72). To verify whether HT could optimise the identification of PTCs with unfavourable outcome, we assessed the accuracy of 'non-HT status' as negative prognostic marker, demonstrating poor capability of identifying patients not maintaining clinical remission until final follow-up (probability of no clinical remission in PTCs without HT: 21.05%, 95% CI 15.20-27.93). In conclusion, our data show that HT represents an independent prognostic parameter in intrathyroidal PTC, but cannot improve prognostic specificity. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. [Thyroid cancer in patients with Grave's Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mssrouri, R; Benamr, S; Essadel, A; Mdaghri, J; Mohammadine, El H; Lahlou, M-K; Taghy, A; Belmahi, A; Chad, B

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of thyroid carcinoma in patients operated on for Graves' disease, to identify criteria which may predict malignancy, and to develop a practical approach to determine the extensiveness of thyroidectomy. Retrospective study of all patients who underwent thyroidectomy for Graves' disease between 1995 and 2005. 547 patients underwent subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves' disease during this period. Post-operative pathology examination revealed six cases of thyroid cancer (1.1%). All six cases had differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary carcinoma in 3 cases, follicular carcinoma in 2 cases and papillo-follicular carcinoma in 1 case). The indication for initial thyroidectomy was a palpable thyroid nodule in 3 cases (50%), failure of medical treatment for Grave's disease in 2 cases (33%), and signs of goiter compression in 1 case (17%). Five patients underwent re-operative total thyroidectomy. This study shows that while malignancy in Grave's disease is uncommon, the presence of thyroid nodule(s) in patients with Grave's disease may be considered as an indication for radical surgery. The most adequate radical surgery in this situation is to perform a total thyroidectomy.

  15. The Association between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Gyun Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is also increasing. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of T2DM on thyroid cancer. Methods. A case-control study was performed. A total of 415 healthy controls with thyroid ultrasound screening and physician consultation were selected from the Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS. Among patients with thyroid cancer who were enrolled in T-CALOS, 415 patients were matched to the control group according to age and sex. We assessed the effects of T2DM, T2DM duration, and T2DM medication on thyroid cancer. Results. Women with T2DM had lower odds of thyroid cancer than women without T2DM (odds ratio [OR]: 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20–0.81. Individuals receiving T2DM medication had higher odds of thyroid cancer compared to those without T2DM medication (OR: 5.21, 95% CI: 1.58–17.15. Individuals with T2DM duration <6 years had lower odds of thyroid cancer compared to those without T2DM (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34–0.97. Conclusions. Individuals with early T2DM are presumed to have a low incidence of thyroid cancer, and this effect seems to last up to 6 years after diagnosis of T2DM.

  16. New strategies for the treatment of undifferentiated thyroid cancer and poorly differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvenal, Guillermo J.

    2006-01-01

    Undifferentiated thyroid cancer, which accounts for about 5-10% of thyroid cancer cases, is a very aggressive tumor with no effective treatment, since it lacks iodine uptake and does not respond to radio or chemotherapy. The prognosis of these patients is bad, due to the rapid growth of the tumor and the early development of metastasis. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are involved in the genetic changes that underlie thyroid cancer, as all kinds of tumors. The characterization of these proteins is being exploited to delineate new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this cancer. This work is focused on those compounds or therapeutic approaches that are being used in clinical essays or in animal models. (author) [es

  17. Increased 18F-FDG uptake mimicking thyroid cancer in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Daniel T.; Kneifel, Stefan; Merrill, Griff; Goerres, Gerhard W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Stoeckli, Sandro J. [Clinic of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Padberg, Barbara-C. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2003-09-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old patient with a known paravertebral malignant schwannoma, sent to us for postoperative staging. A combined whole-body PET/CT scan showed only poor {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the region of the primary tumor but distinct increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the left and right thyroid gland. Thyroid sonography showed two hypoechogenic nodules. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of one nodule showed oxyphil transformed cells, compatible with malignancy. Based on these findings, the patient underwent a subtotal thyroidectomy. Histopathology of the specimen revealed a chronic follicular Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This case demonstrates that Hashimoto's thyroiditis can mimic thyroid cancer in PET but also in sonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy. (orig.)

  18. Thyroid cancer: Natural history, management strategies and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaha, Ashok R.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To understand the natural history of thyroid cancer and high risk groups; To define the biological behavior of thyroid cancer and relate it to various prognostic factors and risk groups; To divide the management strategies into conservation, radical surgery and radioactive iodine treatment; To define the role of external radiation therapy and the management of complex and advanced thyroid cancer; To analyze the results of management of anaplastic thyroid cancer and make a plea for combined modality treatment; To define the current role of genetic studies in medullary thyroid cancer. At the end of this refresher course, the attendees will be able to understand the natural history, the prognostic factors and risk groups and surgical and combined modality treatment in thyroid cancer

  19. Neutron therapy of resistant thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choynzonov, E. L.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Musabaeva, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons c. The study included 45 patients with thyroid gland cancers who received the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy alone with the use of 6.3 MeV fast neutrons generated within U-120 cyclotron. The clinical trial of neutron-photon therapy used alone and in combination with the surgery for the patients with aggressive forms of thyroid cancer showed feasibility of increasing the effectiveness of treatment due to the reduction in the incidence of local recurrences. In addition, satisfactory treatment tolerance and absence of severe specific complications dictate the necessity of prospective studies to improve treatment outcomes.

  20. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccarelli, C.; Pacini, F.; Lippi, F.; Elisei, R.; Arganini, M.; Miccoli, P.; Pinchera, A.

    1988-01-01

    We report on 49 patients younger than 18 years at diagnosis, of 776 patients with thyroid cancer, seen in our institution in the last 17 years. Female/male ratio was 2.2:1. Histologic type was papillary in 44, follicular in 4, and medullary in 1. Initial treatment was near-total thyroidectomy with or without neck dissection. Surgical complications (vocal cord palsy, permanent hypoparathyroidism, or both) were found in 25 patients and were usually associated with more advanced primary tumors. At surgery, node metastases were present in 73% of the patients and lung metastases, detected by chest x ray films, in 6%. Patients were treated with thyroid suppressive therapy and, except the one with medullary cancer, with radioiodine (131I) therapy. After a mean follow-up of 7.7 +/- 4.4 years (range, 1 to 17 years), one patient with lung metastases died of respiratory failure. Of 36 patients who have been followed up more than 4 years, 22 (61.1%) are now cured, and 14 have metastases (to lymph nodes, 2; to nodes and lung, 10; and to lung, 2). Since 1977 serum thyroglobulin (Tg) was used routinely as a tumor marker for differentiated thyroid cancer. After operation, Tg was elevated in all patients both not receiving (mean +/- SE, 902 +/- 380 ng/ml) and receiving (44 +/- 15 ng/ml) suppressive therapy; after 131I treatment, serum Tg dropped to 104 +/- 50 and 7.3 +/- 1.7 ng/ml, without and with suppressive therapy, respectively. Of 11 patients with lung metastases treated with 131I, respiratory function, as assessed by means of spirometry, was normal in three, mildly reduced in six, and severely impaired in two (including the one who died). In conclusion, our study indicates that thyroid cancer in young patients is rather advanced at initial examination and usually associated with node and, less frequently, lung metastases

  1. Targeted Therapy Shows Benefit in Rare Type of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment with the multitargeted agent vandetanib (Caprelsa) improved progression-free survival in patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), according to findings from a randomized clinical trial.

  2. Thyroid cancer following 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Iwao

    1980-01-01

    A women aged 37 who had thyroid cancer after 131 I therapy for hyperthyroidism was reported. She had received various conservative therapies and surgical treatments for hyperthyroidism for 10 years before 131 I therapy. Similar cases were picked out from many reports, and their clinical characteristics were discussed. The incidence of thyroid cancer after 131 I therapy, age and sex of patients, dosage of 131 I, histological changes after the irradiation of 131 I, sites of thyroid cancer, and the relationship between 131 I therapy and the occurrence time of thyroid cancer were also considered. (Tsunoda, M.)

  3. Thyroid cancer in child (about 9 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ech-Charraq, I.; Ben Rais, N.

    2009-01-01

    Children thyroid cancer is a very uncommon affection. Its incidence has sharply risen among the patients who underwent therapeutic irradiation and after the Chernobylsk accident in the contaminated regions. Our study consists of emphasizing the distinctive features of children thyroid cancer on the epidemiological, clinical and para clinical aspects, in order to discuss diagnostic difficulties, prognostic elements as well as a therapeutic approach. Through a study conducted in the nuclear medical department of Rabat, we brought together 9 cases of thyroid cancer in children aged between 11 and 15 years old. In our series, the average age is 13 years, with a feminine prevalence. A family notion of goitre is reported in one case, without notion of irradiation, the revealing mode is mainly an euthyroid goitre and the cervical adenopathies, with good general health conditions being maintained. The scintigraphy showed a cold nodule, witch anatomo-pathological examination is papillary carcinoma. Extensive surgery, ira therapy and substitute hormonal treatment combined allowed a high recovery rate among our patients, with no side effects. The medium-term evolution was positive even in metastases cases. The prognostic is generally good, especially in the differentiated forms. (authors)

  4. Association between Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Thyroid Cancer in 64,628 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resende de Paiva, Christina; Grønhøj, Christian; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) is increasing although explanatory causes are lacking. A link between cancer and inflammation is well documented but unclear for autoimmune thyroid diseases and TC. We aimed to systematically review the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT......) and papillary, follicular, medullary, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma (TL). METHODS: PubMed, OVID Medline, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library were searched from 1955 to 2016. The inclusion criteria were age >18 years, ≥20 cases of HT or TC. We collectively examined the incidence of HT...... in TC and of TC in HT. RESULTS: We identified 36 studies (64,628 subjects) published between 1955 and 2016 from 13 countries. We found a relative risk (RR) of HT among papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) of 2.36 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.55-3.29, p 

  5. Expression of stanniocalcin 1 in thyroid side population cells and thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, Suguru; Sasaki, Yoshihito; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Seo, Daekwan; Miyakoshi, Masaaki; Murata, Tsubasa; Ozaki, Takashi; Kakudo, Kennichi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ylaya, Kris; Cheng, Sheue-yann; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Hewitt, Stephen M; Ward, Jerrold M; Kimura, Shioko

    2015-04-01

    Mouse thyroid side population (SP) cells consist of a minor population of mouse thyroid cells that may have multipotent thyroid stem cell characteristics. However the nature of thyroid SP cells remains elusive, particularly in relation to thyroid cancer. Stanniocalcin (STC) 1 and 2 are secreted glycoproteins known to regulate serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis. In recent years, the relationship of STC1/2 expression to cancer has been described in various tissues. Microarray analysis was carried out to determine genes up- and down-regulated in thyroid SP cells as compared with non-SP cells. Among genes up-regulated, stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) was chosen for study because of its expression in various thyroid cells by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Gene expression analysis revealed that genes known to be highly expressed in cancer cells and/or involved in cancer invasion/metastasis were markedly up-regulated in SP cells from both intact as well as partial thyroidectomized thyroids. Among these genes, expression of STC1 was found in five human thyroid carcinoma-derived cell lines as revealed by analysis of mRNA and protein, and its expression was inversely correlated with the differentiation status of the cells. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated higher expression of STC1 in the thyroid tumor cell line and thyroid tumor tissues from humans and mice. These results suggest that SP cells contain a population of cells that express genes also highly expressed in cancer cells including Stc1, which warrants further study on the role of SP cells and/or STC1 expression in thyroid cancer.

  6. Effects of the chernobyl disaster on thyroid cancer incidence in Turkey after 22 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Hasan; Cakabay, Bahri; Bayrak, Ferit; Evrenkaya, Tülay

    2011-01-01

    Background. Separate studies involving people who survived atomic bombs have shown that the risk for cancer remains high after 40 years, compared with the risk in the general population. An elevated risk may also remain in regions of Turkey near the Chernobyl disaster. Patients and Methods. A multidisciplinary study conducted in 2008, 22 years after the Chernobyl disaster, examined the thyroid cancer incidence in Rize, a province of Turkey located on the shore of the middle Black Sea. Approximately 100,000 people were screened, and a fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 89 patients. Results. Based on postoperative histopathological examinations, thyroid cancer was diagnosed in six of the 100,000 people screened. Conclusion. Given a thyroid cancer frequency of approximately 8 in 100,000 in the Turkish population, according to the Turkish Cancer Research Association, the rate in Rize reflects no increase in the thyroid cancer incidence 22 years after the Chernobyl disaster.

  7. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  8. Recent advances in managing differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamartina, Livia; Grani, Giorgio; Durante, Cosimo; Filetti, Sebastiano

    2018-01-01

    The main clinical challenge in the management of thyroid cancer is to avoid over-treatment and over-diagnosis in patients with lower-risk disease while promptly identifying those patients with more advanced or high-risk disease requiring aggressive treatment. In recent years, novel clinical and molecular data have emerged, allowing the development of new staging systems, predictive and prognostic tools, and treatment approaches. There has been a notable shift toward more conservative management of low- and intermediate-risk patients, characterized by less extensive surgery, more selective use of radioisotopes (for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes), and less intensive follow-up. Furthermore, the histologic classification; tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) staging; and American Thyroid Association risk stratification systems have been refined, and this has increased the number of patients in the low- and intermediate-risk categories. There is now a need for new, prospective data to clarify how these changing practices will impact long-term outcomes of patients with thyroid cancer, and new follow-up strategies and biomarkers are still under investigation. On the other hand, patients with more advanced or high-risk disease have a broader portfolio of options in terms of treatments and therapeutic agents, including multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitors, more selective BRAF or MEK inhibitors, combination therapies, and immunotherapy.

  9. A review on thyroid cancer during pregnancy: Multitasking is required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Khaled

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed during pregnancy after breast cancer. The goal of management is to control malignancy and prevent maternal and fetal complications as a result of maternal hypothyroidism. The role of female sex hormones as an etiologic factor was investigated, with no clear association. Pregnancy can cause an increase in size of a previously existed thyroid nodule through the structural similarity between TSH and BHCG, and the normally expressed estrogen receptors on thyroid gland cells. Effect of pregnancy on development and prognosis of differentiated thyroid malignancies (papillary and follicular has also been studied. The prognosis of thyroid cancer is not worse in patients diagnosed during pregnancy or those who got pregnant after curative treatment. Termination of pregnancy is not indicated at all, surgery can be delayed till after delivery except in rapidly growing aggressive tumors. While radioactive iodine ablation is absolutely contra-indicated, the new systemic therapies are not well studied during pregnancy. However, almost all these new agents are classified as FDA category C or D and are better to be avoided. The effect of pregnancy on other types of thyroid cancer (medullary and anaplastic thyroid tumors is not well studied because of very low incidence with pregnancy. The endocrinological management of thyroid cancer during pregnancy is of utmost importance. The hypothyroidism after total thyroidectomy can cause fetal hypothyroidism. Therefore, the management of thyroid cancer related to pregnancy needs a multidisciplinary team.

  10. Association between Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Thyroid Cancer in 64,628 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resende de Paiva, Christina; Grønhøj, Christian; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) is increasing although explanatory causes are lacking. A link between cancer and inflammation is well documented but unclear for autoimmune thyroid diseases and TC. We aimed to systematically review the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT...... in TC and of TC in HT. RESULTS: We identified 36 studies (64,628 subjects) published between 1955 and 2016 from 13 countries. We found a relative risk (RR) of HT among papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) of 2.36 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.55-3.29, p ....07-1.85, p = 0.016), and an RR of TL among HT of 9.74 (95% CI 3.93-24.13, p thyroid cancer....

  11. Thyroid dosimetry after the Chernobyl accident and thyroid cancer in iodine deficient areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybinski, Z [Jagiellonian Univ., Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Endocrinology

    1996-08-01

    Of the radionuclides generated from 235-U and 239-Pu in a core of the nuclear reactor, radioiodines particularly 131-I, is the most significant in view of its huge quantities, easy dispersion and cumulation in the human thyroid in case of a nuclear accident. After nuclear accident in Chernobyl 20-50 million Ci of 131-I was released. Depending on the dose absorbed to the thyroid, 131-I can cause a late appearance of a thyroid nodule or cancer and/or thyroid destruction leading to hypothyroidism. Thyroid irradiation may origin from two sources: external cumulative radiation mainly of gamma type and internal related to 131-I cumulation. So far most information on the risk factors of the thyroid cancer due to is related to from external radiation, but there is no scientific basis to believe that internal radiation cannot induce the thyroid cancer. Thyroid dosimetry after Chernobyl accident in near and far field is essential for calculation of the thyroid cancer risk coefficient due to radiation. 1 tab.

  12. Technological innovations in surgical approach for thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Lo, Chung-Yau

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, surgeons have witnessed dramatic changes in surgical practice as a result of the introduction of new technological advancement. Some of these changes include refinement of techniques in thyroid cancer surgery. The development of various endoscopic thyroidectomy techniques, the addition of the da Vinci robot, and the use of operative adjuncts in thyroid surgery, such as intraoperative neuromonitoring and quick intraoperative parathyroid hormone, have made thyroid cancer surgery not only safer and better accepted by patients with thyroid cancer but also offer them more surgical treatment options.

  13. The Increasing Incidence of Thyroid Cancer: The Influence of Access to Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Andrew G.; Tosteson, Tor D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rapidly rising incidence of papillary thyroid cancer may be due to overdiagnosis of a reservoir of subclinical disease. To conclude that overdiagnosis is occurring, evidence for an association between access to health care and the incidence of cancer is necessary. Methods We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data to examine U.S. papillary thyroid cancer incidence trends in Medicare-age and non–Medicare-age cohorts over three decades. We performed an ecologic analysis across 497 U.S. counties, examining the association of nine county-level socioeconomic markers of health care access and the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer. Results Papillary thyroid cancer incidence is rising most rapidly in Americans over age 65 years (annual percentage change, 8.8%), who have broad health insurance coverage through Medicare. Among those under 65, in whom health insurance coverage is not universal, the rate of increase has been slower (annual percentage change, 6.4%). Over three decades, the mortality rate from thyroid cancer has not changed. Across U.S. counties, incidence ranged widely, from 0 to 29.7 per 100,000. County papillary thyroid cancer incidence was significantly correlated with all nine sociodemographic markers of health care access: it was positively correlated with rates of college education, white-collar employment, and family income; and negatively correlated with the percentage of residents who were uninsured, in poverty, unemployed, of nonwhite ethnicity, non-English speaking, and lacking high school education. Conclusion Markers for higher levels of health care access, both sociodemographic and age-based, are associated with higher papillary thyroid cancer incidence rates. More papillary thyroid cancers are diagnosed among populations with wider access to healthcare. Despite the threefold increase in incidence over three decades, the mortality rate remains unchanged. Together with the large subclinical reservoir of

  14. Thyroid cancer risk is not increased in diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated thyroid cancer risk with regards to diabetes status and diabetes duration, and with the use of anti-diabetic drugs including sulfonylurea, metformin, insulin, acarbose, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, by using a population-based reimbursement database in Taiwan. METHODS: A random sample of 1,000,000 subjects covered by the National Health Insurance was recruited. After excluding patients with type 1 diabetes, 999730 subjects (495673 men and 504057 women were recruited into the analyses. Logistic regression estimated the odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI for independent variables including age, sex, diabetes status/duration, anti-diabetic drugs, other medications, comorbidities, living regions, occupation and examinations that might potentially lead to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in various models. RESULTS: The diabetic patients had a significantly higher probability of receiving potential detection examinations (6.38% vs. 5.83%, P<0.0001. After multivariable-adjustment, the OR (95% CI for diabetes status was 0.816 (0.652-1.021; and for diabetes duration <1 year, 1-3 years, 3-5 years and ≥ 5 years vs. non-diabetes was 0.071 (0.010-0.507, 0.450 (0.250-0.813, 0.374 (0.203-0.689 and 1.159 (0.914-1.470, respectively. Among the anti-diabetic agents, only sulfonylurea was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, OR (95% CI: 1.882 (1.202-2.947. The OR (95% CI for insulin, metformin, acarbose, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone was 1.701 (0.860-3.364, 0.696 (0.419-1.155, 0.581 (0.202-1.674, 0.522 (0.069-3.926 and 0.669 (0.230-1.948, respectively. Furthermore, patients with benign thyroid disease or other cancer, living in Kao-Ping/Eastern regions, or receiving potential detection examinations might have a significantly higher risk; and male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, vascular complications or use of statin, aspirin or non-steroidal anti

  15. Thyroid cancer characteristics in the population surrounding Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neerav; Camacho, Fabian; Mangano, Joseph; Goldenberg, David

    2012-06-01

    To determine differences in disease characteristics between the thyroid cancer populations in the area around the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant and the rest of the state of Pennsylvania. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Data from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry from 1985 to 2008 were reviewed and information regarding age at diagnosis, sex, race, residential status, county of residence, thyroid pathology, thyroid surgery, and staging was recorded. Dauphin, Lancaster, and York counties were defined as the TMI area. Records of 26,357 thyroid cancer patients were reviewed, with 2,611 patients within the TMI area. A higher proportion of papillary thyroid cancer (P < .001) and lower proportion of follicular thyroid cancer (P < .001) were noted in the TMI area population. Thyroid cancer cases from the TMI area were found to be more likely to be diagnosed before the age of 65 years (P < .001), be Pennsylvania born (P < .001), be well differentiated (P < .001), be <10 mm in size (P < .001), and be localized without spread (P < .001). Although the TMI area shows a higher incidence of thyroid cancer as compared to the rest of the state, this was not statistically significant. The TMI population showed a higher proportion of papillary thyroid cancer and less aggressive pathology and earlier diagnosis compared to the rest of Pennsylvania. No statistically significant difference in thyroid cancer incidence was noted. Overall, the study does not show a clear link with more advanced thyroid cancer and proximity to the TMI nuclear reactors. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Spectrum of thyroid lesions in hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia over 11years and a review of thyroid cancers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Nor Hayati; Omar, Effat; Naing, Nyi Nyi

    2009-01-01

    Endemic goitre is a major concern in many nations including Malaysia. Seven states in the country have been identified by Ministry of Health of Malaysia to have high incidence of goitre and one of these is Kelantan. This is a retrospective study over an 11-year period from 1994 to 2004 on all thyroid specimens submitted to the Pathology Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), in Kelantan. Epidemiological data were retrieved from the patients' records and pathology findings from the pathology reports. During this period, Department of Pathology HUSM received a total of 1,486 thyroid specimens. The female to male ratio was 6:1 and the median age was 40.0 years. The duration of goitre ranged from one to 15 years. Histopathological examination showed 71.9 percent were non-neoplastic and 28.1 percent neoplastic lesions. The hospital-based incidence of nodular hyperplasia was 9.9 per 100,000 admitted patients per year. The hospital-based incidence of all types of malignant thyroid cancers was 3.5 per 100,000. The most common malignancy was papillary carcinoma 76.6 percent. The majority of the cancers (59.5 percent) occurred in a background of nodular hyperplasia. Thyroid cancers made up 4.9 percent of all cancers seen in HUSM. This study suggests that malignant thyroid lesions arising from multi-nodular goitre are high in a population living in an iodine-deficiency area.

  17. Benign breast disease and risk of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juhua; Hendryx, Michael; Nassir, Rami; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Lane, Dorothy; Margolis, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    It has been suggested that breast and thyroid diseases may be linked. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between benign breast disease and subsequent risk of thyroid cancer. Postmenopausal women (n = 133,875) aged 50-79 years were followed up for a mean of 14 years. Benign breast disease was defined by history of biopsy. Incident thyroid cancer cases were confirmed by medical record review. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios. There were 370 incident thyroid cancer cases during the follow-up period. Compared to women without BBD, women with BBD had a significant increased risk of thyroid cancer after adjusting for potential confounders (HR 1.38 95% CI 1.10-1.73), especially for women with more than two biopsies (HR 1.59 95% CI 1.10-2.26). There were no significant differences in thyroid tumor size, stage or histologic types between women with and without BBD. Our large prospective study observed that postmenopausal women with BBD had an increased risk for thyroid cancer compared with women without BBD. A more detailed investigation of thyroid cancer risk according to different subtypes of benign breast disease is needed to better understand the association observed between thyroid and benign breast diseases.

  18. Serum Thyroglobulin Doubling Time in Progressive Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, R.M.; Jentzen, W.; Nagarajah, J.; Bockisch, A.; Gorges, R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor marker doubling time (DT) has been proposed as a prognostic marker for various types of cancer. The present study analyzed the DT of the thyroid-specific tumor marker thyroglobulin (Tg), focusing on patients with progressive differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). METHODS: A total of

  19. Dabrafenib Plus Trametinib Approved for Melanoma, Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    FDA recently approved the combination of dabrafenib (Taflinar) and trametinib (Mekinist) to treat some patients with melanoma and anaplastic thyroid cancer whose tumors have a mutation in the BRAF gene. As this Cancer Currents blog post explains, this is the first treatment approved specifically for anaplastic thyroid

  20. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-07-14

    Jul 14, 2016 ... Moreover, HUWE1 was found to be down-regulated in human thyroid cancer tissues ... Methods. 2.1 Cell culture and treatment. Human thyroid cancer cell lines (WRO, FTC133, .... water and the quality of RNA was evaluated by gel electro- ... and the preparations stored at ‑80°C for subsequent analysis.

  1. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Musabaeva, L. I., E-mail: musabaevaLI@oncology.tomsk.ru; Lisin, V. A., E-mail: Lisin@oncology.tomsk.ru; Novikov, V. A., E-mail: dr.vanovikov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  2. HIGH PREVALENCE OF AGENT ORANGE EXPOSURE AMONG THYROID CANCER PATIENTS IN THE NATIONAL VA HEALTHCARE SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Karen T; Sawicki, Mark P; Wang, Marilene B; Hershman, Jerome M; Leung, Angela M

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and the most rapidly increasing cancer in the U.S. Little is known regarding the epidemiology and characteristics of patients with thyroid cancer within the national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) integrated healthcare system. The aim of this study was to further understand the characteristics of thyroid cancer patients in the VHA population, particularly in relation to Agent Orange exposure. This is a descriptive analysis of the VA (Veterans Affairs) Corporate Data Warehouse database from all U.S. VHA healthcare sites from October1, 1999, to December 31, 2013. Information was extracted for all thyroid cancer patients based on International Classification of Diseases-ninth revision diagnosis codes; histologic subtypes of thyroid cancer were not available. There were 19,592 patients (86% men, 76% white, 58% married, 42% Vietnam-era Veteran) in the VHA system with a diagnosis of thyroid cancer within this 14-year study period. The gender-stratified prevalence rates of thyroid cancer among the Veteran population during the study period were 1:1,114 (women) and 1:1,023 (men), which were lower for women but similar for men, when compared to the U.S. general population in 2011 (1:350 for women and 1:1,219 for men). There was a significantly higher proportion of self-reported Agent Orange exposure among thyroid cancer patients (10.0%), compared to the general VHA population (6.2%) (PAgent Orange exposure compared to the overall national VA patient population. T4 = thyroxine TCDD = 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone VA = Veterans Affairs VHA = Veterans Health Administration.

  3. The effect of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on patients with thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Ma, Xiao-Peng; Deng, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Zheng-Rong; Wei, Hou-Qing; Wang, Xi-Hong; Chen, Hao

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and malignant tumors of the thyroid. A retrospective review of 647 patients who underwent thyroid surgery at the Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery in Anhui Provincial Hospital, China in 2012 was performed. The clinicopathological characteristics of patients with thyroid malignancies and CLT were collected. CLT was diagnosed by histopathological method. Among 647 patients, 144 patients had thyroid malignancies and 108 patients had been diagnosed with CLT. Moreover, in total, 44 patients had thyroid malignancies coexistent with CLT: forty-one (93.2%) patients had been diagnosed with the papillary thyroid cancer (PTC); two (4.5%) patients suffered from medullary carcinoma; and one (2.3%) patient suffered from lymphoma. The morbidity of thyroid malignancies in patients with CLT was significantly higher than that in patients without CLT (40.7% versus 18.6%; P CLT compared with those without CLT (P CLT and without CLT. Female predominance was observed in patients with CLT. CLT may have no effect on the progression of thyroid malignant tumor. Nevertheless, the influences of CLT on the prognosis of the thyroid carcinoma still need to be investigated with a larger sample size.

  4. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been found to be dysregulated in various cancer typeand its functions in ... investigated by knocking down HUWE1 in three authentic thyroid cancer cell lines, ... overexpression of HUWE1 significantly inhibited tumourgrowth in vivo using ...

  5. Thyroid Radiation Dose and Other Risk Factors of Thyroid Carcinoma Following Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vathaire, Florent; Haddy, Nadia; Allodji, Rodrigue S; Hawkins, Mike; Guibout, Catherine; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Pacquement, Hélène; Diop, Fara; Kalhouche, Amar; Benadjaoud, Mohamedamine; Winter, David; Jackson, Angela; Bezin Mai-Quynh, Giao; Benabdennebi, Aymen; Llanas, Damien; Veres, Cristina; Munzer, Martine; Nguyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Deutsch, Eric; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Schlumberger, Martin; Diallo, Ibrahima; Rubino, Carole

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is a frequent complication of childhood cancer radiotherapy. The dose response to thyroid radiation dose is now well established, but the potential modifier effect of other factors requires additional investigation. This study aimed to investigate the role of potential modifiers of the dose response. We followed a cohort of 4338 5-year survivors of solid childhood cancer treated before 1986 over an average of 27 years. The dose received by the thyroid gland and some other anatomical sites during radiotherapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual conditions in which irradiation was delivered. Fifty-five patients developed thyroid carcinoma. The risk of thyroid carcinoma increased with a radiation dose to the thyroid of up to two tenths of Gy, then leveled off for higher doses. When taking into account the thyroid radiation dose, a surgical or radiological splenectomy (>20 Gy to the spleen) increased thyroid cancer risk (relative risk [RR] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.0), high radiation doses (>5 Gy) to pituitary gland lowered this risk (RR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6). Patients who received nitrosourea chemotherapy had a 6.6-fold (95% CI, 2.5-15.7) higher risk than those who did not. The excess RR per Gy of radiation to the thyroid was 4.7 (95% CI, 1.7-22.6). It was 7.6 (95% CI, 1.6-33.3) if body mass index at time of interview was equal or higher than 25 kg/m(2), and 4.1 (95% CI, 0.9-17.7) if not (P for interaction = .1). Predicting thyroid cancer risk following childhood cancer radiation therapy probably requires the assessment of more than just the radiation dose to the thyroid. Chemotherapy, splenectomy, radiation dose to pituitary gland, and obesity also play a role.

  6. Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal; Irradiations de la thyroide et cancers thyroidiens. Revue bibliographique critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitauxa, F. [CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil, Faculte X. Bichat, Lab. de Biophysique, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 93 - Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France)

    2007-07-15

    The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

  7. Autoimmunity in differentiated thyroid cancer: significance and related clinical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Coexistence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and thyroid autoimmune diseases could represent a mere coincidence due to the frequent occurrence of autoimmunity, but there may also be a pathological and causative link between the two conditions. The coincidence of DTC with Hashimoto's disease...... has been variably reported at between 0.5 and 22.5% and of DTC with Graves' disease between 0 and 9.8%. In this review available evidence for thyroid autoimmunity in DTC is summarized and it is concluded that thyroid cancer does coexist with thyroid autoimmunity, implying that patients treated...... TgAb measurements may be used as a surrogate marker for recurrence of thyroid cancer during the long-term monitoring of DTC patients....

  8. Autoimmunity in differentiated thyroid cancer: significance and related clinical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2010-01-01

    Coexistence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and thyroid autoimmune diseases could represent a mere coincidence due to the frequent occurrence of autoimmunity, but there may also be a pathological and causative link between the two conditions. The coincidence of DTC with Hashimoto's disease...... has been variably reported at between 0.5 and 22.5% and of DTC with Graves' disease between 0 and 9.8%. In this review available evidence for thyroid autoimmunity in DTC is summarized and it is concluded that thyroid cancer does coexist with thyroid autoimmunity, implying that patients treated...... TgAb measurements may be used as a surrogate marker for recurrence of thyroid cancer during the long-term monitoring of DTC patients....

  9. Analysis results of thyroid cancer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Toshihide

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the results of the thyroid screening test of the 'Fukushima citizens' health survey' that were published by the prefecture on February 15, 2016. The subjects of the 'prior survey' were the residents who were born in Fukushima Prefecture between April 2, 1992 and April 1, 2011, namely, Fukushima residents of approximately 0-year-old to 18-year-old at the time of the Fukushima nuclear accident on March 11, 2011. The subjects of the 'full-scale survey' included the subjects of the prior survey and about one-year residents after March 11, 2011. The annual thyroid cancer incidence of persons between 0-year-old to 19-year-old all over Japan was set at annually three person per millions at the prior survey on the basis of the data (2003 - 2007) published by the Japan National Cancer Center, but it was change to five per millions according to the full-scale survey. The thyroid cancer external comparable incidence ratio in the prior survey was 20 to 50 times, an order of magnitude higher, and it was low at 6 to 38 times in the full-scale survey. Due to the change of the setting of the standard rate of incidence, the incidence in the full-scale survey was underestimated. By the way, the aggregated data of diagnostic results in the full-scale survey is in the middle stage. There is a need for the announcement that links the scientifically valid results from Fukushima Prefecture to the effective measures in the future. In addition, the comprehension of leukemia cases, and radiation protection measures with a priority on pregnant women and young people are desired. (A.O.)

  10. Radioiodine and radiotherapy in the management of thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radioiodine is an important adjuvant treatment in the management of resectable papillary and follicular thyroid cancers in all patients except those with the best prognostic features. External radiation is also an important adjuvant therapy in these patients, especially those with tumors that extend beyond the thyroid gland and invade the trachea, esophagus, nerves, and blood vessels; it is especially important in treating patients whose tumors do not concentrate radioiodine. Radioiodine may be curative in patients with microscopic distant metastases demonstrated by radioiodine scanning. Even unresectable primary papillary and follicular cancers may be eradicated by combined therapy with radioiodine and radiotherapy. Radioiodine plays no significant role in the treatment of medullary or anaplastic thyroid cancers, but external radiation may eradicate microscopic thyroid bed or nodal disease when persistent disease is indicated by elevated calcitonin levels in medullary thyroid cancer patients. Anaplastic thyroid cancers are usually unresectable and are not eradicated by conventional radiotherapy or by any of the novel radiation techniques, with or without chemotherapy. In all types of thyroid cancer, external radiotherapy may produce beneficial palliative results in patients with distant metastases, but the use of radioiodine should always be explored in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer patients. 30 references

  11. Epidemiological studies on postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid cancer in Southeastern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.P. Kuijpens (Hans)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe studies described in this thesis concentrate OIl epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and related topics, and on epidemiological and treatment aspects of thyroid cancer. The studies were petfonned in the southeastern part of the

  12. Primary surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dralle, H; Machens, A

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) are malignancies of follicular cell derivation. Histopathologically and oncologically, DTC fall into two broad tumor categories: papillary (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC). These major tumor categories, based on clinical manifestation and biological behavior, are further subdivided into low-risk [papillary microcarcinoma (mPTC); minimally invasive follicular cancer (MIFTC)] and high-risk DTC [PTC>1 cm or metastatic; MIFTC with histopathological angioinvasion; widely invasive FTC (WIFTC)]. Recently, a surgical approach has been adopted that differentiates between low-risk and high-risk DTC. The rationale behind this new concept is to better balance oncologic risk (high vs low) with the surgical morbidity attendant to the procedure (recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism). This surgical risk is larger with routine total thyroidectomy (TT) and central node dissection (CND) than with less than TT or TT without CND.Whereas TT with CND remains the treatment of choice for high-risk DTC with metastases, the extent of thyroid resection and lymph node dissection can be reduced in low-risk PTC and FTC without demonstrable loss of oncological benefit. In the new millennium, the surgical approach to DTC, especially low-risk PTC and FTC, has undergone considerable change, resulting in less extensive procedures. This risk-adapted strategy relies not only on the skillful histopathologic detection of multifocality in PTC and vascular invasion in MIFTC, but likewise necessitates diligent follow-up to spot and adequately treat local recurrences and distant metastases as they become clinically apparent.

  13. Dermatologic radiotherapy and thyroid cancer. Dose measurements and risk quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1983-01-01

    Thyroid doses for various dermatologic radiation techniques were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters and ionization rate meters in an Alderson-Rando anthropomorphic phantom. The effects of changes in radiation quality and of the use or nonuse of treatment cones and thyroid shields were evaluated in detail. The results indicate that the potential risk of radiogenic thyroid cancer is very small when proper radiation protection measures are used. The probability of radiogenic thyroid cancer developing and the potential mortality risk were assessed quantitatively for each measurement. The quantification of radiation risks allows comparisons with risks of other therapeutic modalities and the common hazards of daily life

  14. Temporary ovarian failure in thyroid cancer patients after thyroid remnant ablation with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.P.; Izembart, M.; Marliac, V.; Dagousset, F.; Merceron, R.E.; Vulpillat, M.; Vallee, G.

    1989-01-01

    We studied ovarian function retrospectively in 66 women who had regular menstrual cycles before undergoing complete thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer and subsequent thyroid remnant ablation with 131 I. Eighteen women developed temporary amenorrhea accompanied by increased serum gonadotropin concentrations during the first year after 131 I therapy. No correlation was found between the radioactive iodine dose absorbed, thyroid uptake before treatment, oral contraceptive use, or thyroid autoimmunity. Only age was a determining factor, with the older women being the most affected. We conclude that radioiodine ablation therapy is followed by transient ovarian failure, especially in older women

  15. Temporary ovarian failure in thyroid cancer patients after thyroid remnant ablation with radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, J.P.; Izembart, M.; Marliac, V.; Dagousset, F.; Merceron, R.E.; Vulpillat, M.; Vallee, G.

    1989-07-01

    We studied ovarian function retrospectively in 66 women who had regular menstrual cycles before undergoing complete thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer and subsequent thyroid remnant ablation with /sup 131/I. Eighteen women developed temporary amenorrhea accompanied by increased serum gonadotropin concentrations during the first year after /sup 131/I therapy. No correlation was found between the radioactive iodine dose absorbed, thyroid uptake before treatment, oral contraceptive use, or thyroid autoimmunity. Only age was a determining factor, with the older women being the most affected. We conclude that radioiodine ablation therapy is followed by transient ovarian failure, especially in older women.

  16. Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to the Thyroid, Presenting Like Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Pollak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis of uterine cancer to the head and neck is extremely rare. We report what we believe to be the first documented case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma metastasizing to the thyroid gland. An 80-year-old woman was referred to the otolaryngology service with a rapidly growing neck mass. The mass appeared to originate from the thyroid gland. Her clinical presentation was consistent with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A tracheostomy was performed. An open biopsy established the diagnosis of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, consistent with a gynecologic primary. The patient had undergone a hysterectomy 5 years prior for endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The thyroid tumor histology and immunophenotype corresponded well with her prior endometrial carcinoma, indicating that the thyroid mass was a metastasis from the endometrial primary. Radiotherapy appears to offer good local disease control in this rare case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma metastatic to the thyroid.

  17. Standardized Thyroid Cancer Mortality in Korea between 1985 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Mi; Kim, Tae Yong; Jang, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Hyemi; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2014-12-29

    The prevalence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea. However, there is no published report focusing on thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. In this study, we aimed to evaluate standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea (the Statistical Office of Korea). Population and mortality data from 1985 to 2010 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized rates of thyroid cancer mortality were calculated according to the standard population of Korea, as well as World Health Organization (WHO) standard population and International Cancer Survival Standard (ICSS) population weights. The crude thyroid cancer mortality rate increased from 0.1 to 0.7 per 100,000 between 1985 and 2010. The pattern was the same for both sexes. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for thyroid cancer for Korean resident registration population increased from 0.19 to 0.67 between 1985 and 2000. However, it decreased slightly, from 0.67 to 0.55, between 2000 and 2010. When mortality was adjusted using the WHO standard population and ICSS population weights, the ASMR similarly increased until 2000, and then decreased between 2000 and 2010. Thyroid cancer mortality increased until 2000 in Korea. It started to decrease from 2000.

  18. Standardized Thyroid Cancer Mortality in Korea between 1985 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mi Choi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe prevalence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea. However, there is no published report focusing on thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. In this study, we aimed to evaluate standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea (the Statistical Office of Korea.MethodsPopulation and mortality data from 1985 to 2010 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized rates of thyroid cancer mortality were calculated according to the standard population of Korea, as well as World Health Organization (WHO standard population and International Cancer Survival Standard (ICSS population weights.ResultsThe crude thyroid cancer mortality rate increased from 0.1 to 0.7 per 100,000 between 1985 and 2010. The pattern was the same for both sexes. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR for thyroid cancer for Korean resident registration population increased from 0.19 to 0.67 between 1985 and 2000. However, it decreased slightly, from 0.67 to 0.55, between 2000 and 2010. When mortality was adjusted using the WHO standard population and ICSS population weights, the ASMR similarly increased until 2000, and then decreased between 2000 and 2010.ConclusionThyroid cancer mortality increased until 2000 in Korea. It started to decrease from 2000.

  19. HER2-positive male breast cancer with thyroid cancer: an institutional report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Pooja; Bui, Marilyn M; Minton, Susan; Loftus, Loretta; Carter, W Bradford; Laronga, Christine; Ismail-Khan, Roohi

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare finding of two male breast cancer patients with HER2-positive breast cancer who also developed thyroid cancer. We reviewed 45 male breast cancer patients treated in our institution from 2003 to 2008. Only five male breast cancer patients were HER2-positive. In reviewing the published data, we found no cases of thyroid cancer and concurrent breast cancer in men. However, breast cancer and thyroid cancer have shown close association in women. This finding therefore provokes speculation as to whether we should investigate whether women with HER2-positive breast cancer are at a higher risk for thyroid cancer. Although this observation seems to be clinically prevalent, publications are sparse in clinical research areas linking thyroid cancer to breast cancer.

  20. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Omry-Orbach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but

  1. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Christoph; Yasumura, Seiji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimura, Hiroki; Matsui, Shiro; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Schuez, Joachim; Miyauchi; Gamhewage, Gaya; Van Deventer, Emilie; Kurihara, Osamu; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, M.; Akiba, S.; Chung, Jae Hoon; Jacob, Peter; Ulanovsky, Alexander; Kaiser, Christian; Bouville, Andre; Hatch, Maureen; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Shore, Roy; Furukawa, Kyoji; Imaizumi, Misa; Ivanov, Victor; Tronko, Mykola; Bogdanova, T.; Oliynik, V.; Shpak, V.; Tereshchenko, V.; Zurnadzgy, L.; Zamotaeva, G.; Mabuchi, K.; Hatch, M.; Bouville, A.; Brenner, A.; Likhtarev, I.; Gulak, L.; Shchepotin, I.; Demidchik, Yuri; Fridman, M.; Vaswani, Ashok; Sobue, Tomotaka; Yoshinaga, Shinji; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Miyakawa, Megumi; Momose, Takumaro; Siemann, Michael; Lazo, Ted; ); Lochard, Jacques; Schneider, Thierry; Takamura, Noboru; Bolch, Wesley

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this workshop was to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of radiation-induced thyroid cancer, and to share knowledge and experience in this area in order to support the efforts of the Japanese government and the Fukushima Prefecture to enhance public health. Experience in holding effective social dialogues, in order to best understand and appropriately address social concerns, was also a workshop focus. The workshop began with a half-day tutorial session, followed by two days of plenary presentations and discussion, including panel sessions summarising the results of each session. A closing panel provided overall results and conclusions from the workshop. A Rapporteur provided a workshop summary report and assisted the session co-chairs in summarising key points. This document brings together the available presentations (slides), dealing with: 1.1 - Overview of Radiation-induced Thyroid Cancer (C. Reiners); 1.2 - Overview of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (S. Yasumura); 1.3 - Overview of Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancer in the Context of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident (J. Schuez); 1.4 - Overview of the Clinical Features of Thyroid Cancer (Miyauchi); 1.5 - Dialogue with Stakeholders in Complex Radiological Circumstances (G. Gamhewage); 1.6 - Session 1 (tutorial session): Radiation and Thyroid Cancer - Summary Discussion and Questions. 2.1 - WHO Thyroid Dose Estimation (E. van Deventer); 2.2 - Basic Survey External Dose Estimation (T. Ishikawa); 2.3 - NIRS Estimation of Internal Dose to the Thyroid (O. Kurihara); 2.4 - Estimation of Internal Dose to the Thyroid (S. Tokonami); 3.1 - FMU Thyroid Ultrasound Surveys in the Fukushima Prefecture (S. Suzuki); 3.2 - FMU Thyroid Ultrasound Surveys in the Yamanashi Prefecture and Review of Latent Thyroid (H. Shimura); 3.3 - Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Korea: Results of Recent Surveys (J. H. Chung); 4.1 - Ultrasonography Surveys and Thyroid Cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture (P

  2. Guidelines for a national epidemiological surveillance system of thyroid cancer in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    At the request of the French Department of Health, a multidisciplinary Thyroid Cancer Committee, coordinated by the French Public Health Agency analysed the observed increase of thyroid cancer incidence in France and outlined the limits of the present case registration system. This Committee set up guidelines to improve the national surveillance system of thyroid cancer. The Committee analysed 4 models for the incidence survey, 3 of which have been excluded: a poor cost-benefit ratio precludes the constitution of a national registry dedicated to thyroid cancer; however, the Committee has recommended this model that still exists for thyroid cancer of the youth(under 19 years old), a national system base exclusively on pathological data would only be relevant after significant improvement of data collection, obligatory of all cases of thyroid cancer is inappropriate considering the fit prognosis of this cancer. A two level system is proposed with continuous registration of incident caes through the National Hospital Discharge survey, specific focused analysis of clinical and pathological data in case of a cluster alert in any given area. Whatever the system, it seems necessary to in general: propose a unique health registration number per patient, improve access to medical data, organize a national standardised collection of pathological findings, follow up the diagnosis practices related to thyroid cancer that have an impact on incidence rates. In conclusion, a reliable incidence survey and a follow up of diagnostic practices and of risk factors may provide a relevant model of epidemiological survey of thyroid cancers in France but such a system requires a long lasting strategic and financial involvement. (author)

  3. The incidence of thyroid cancer at thyroidectomy materials in Malatya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Şahin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancyof the endocrine organs. It accounts for 1% of allcancer. Environmental, genetic and hormonal factors playan important role in its etiology. The aim of this study is toinvestigate the incidence of thyroid cancer and types atthyroidectomy materials in the city of Malatya.Methods: The pathology reports of thyroid surgical materials,which were sent to Inonu University Medical FacultyPathology Department retrospectively from the archivesbetween the years January 2007 and May 2013. Postoperativehistopathologic examinations of 543 cases wereevaluated for 6 years period.Results: 128 (23.5% of 543 cases male and 415 (76.5%were female. The youngest patient was 10, the oldest patientwas 89 years-old, and the average age is 48.1±15.2.Histopathological examination of 346 (64% cases of nodularhyperplasia, 20 (4% cases of diffuse hyperplasia, 13(2.4% cases of lymphocytic thyroiditis, 164 (30.2% patienthad thyroid tumors. The 164 tumors on the 57 (35%cases benign, 107 (65% cases were malign. As a typeof cancer 88 (53.6% cases papillary carcinoma, 10 (6%cases follicular carcinoma, 1 (0.6% case medullary carcinoma,3 (1.8% cases were anaplastic carcinoma.Conclusion: Thyroid cancer incidence is 19.7% at thyroidectomymaterials in the city of Malatya and most cancersis seen as a type of thyroid papillary carcinoma.Key words: Goitre, thyroid cancer, papillary carcinoma

  4. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    A major effort has been devoted to studies of the origins of radiogenic and hormonally-induced cancer at the cellular level in vivo. The studies has provided evidence that the functional thyroid follicules (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Transplantation assays indicate that the clonogens comprise 1% of the cells in monodispersed suspensions of normal thyroid tissue. Carcinogenesis studies show that neoplastic initiation of thyroid clonogens by radiation is a commo event. Promotion-progression to cancer from radiation initiated clonogens has, however, been shown to be inversely related to the total grafted thyroid cell number. It is thus important to further define the physiology and population kinetics of the thyroid clonogens under different hormonal conditions both in situ and following transplantion. This report briefly summarizes recent data on (a) local cell-cell and remote hormonal feedback interactions during neoplastic promotion of initiated cells among the progeny of grafted clonogens in multicellular FU; (b) clonogenic cell population kinetics in situ during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and (c) the reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary hormonal feedback system in thyroid cell-grafted thyroidectomized rats and its dependence on the formation of FU by the grafted clonogens. These results support the conclusion that the thyroid gland contains a small sub-population of clonogenic epithelial cells which posess many stem cell-like characteristics. (N.K.)

  5. Endogenous Thyrotropin and Triiodothyronine Concentrations in Individuals with Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsouli-Maktabi, Hala; Soldin, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormone suppression therapy is associated with decreased recurrence rates and improved survival in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Recently higher baseline thyrotropin (TSH) levels have been found to be associated with a postoperative diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer. Our objective was to confirm whether preoperative TSH levels were higher in patients who were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer after undergoing thyroidectomy, compared with patients who were found to have benign disease. We also sought to determine whether thyroid hormone levels were lower in the patients with malignancy. Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of a prospective study. The study setting was the General Clinical Research Center of an Academic Medical Center. Participants were 50 euthyroid patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Thyroxine, triiodothyronine (T3), and TSH levels were documented in patients prior to their scheduled thyroidectomy. Following thyroidectomy, patients were divided into those with a histologic diagnosis of either differentiated thyroid cancer or benign disease. Preoperative thyroid profiles were correlated with patients' postoperative diagnoses. Results All patients had a normal serum TSH concentration preoperatively. One-third of the group was diagnosed with thyroid cancer as a result of their thyroidectomy. These patients had a higher serum TSH level (mean = 1.50 mIU/L, CI 1.22–1.78 mIU/L) than patients with benign disease (mean = 1.01 mIU/mL, CI 0.84–1.18 mIU/L). There was a greater risk of having thyroid cancer in patients with TSH levels in the upper three quartiles of TSH values, compared with patients with TSH concentrations in the lowest quartile of TSH values (odd ratio = 8.7, CI 2.2–33.7). Patients with a thyroid cancer diagnosis also had lower T3 concentrations measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (mean = 112.6 ng/dL, CI 103.8–121.4

  6. Does the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Increase in Thyroid Cancer Survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Hee; Huh, Jin-Young; Lim, Dong-Jun; Kang, Moo-Il

    2017-07-01

    The steep rise in thyroid cancer observed in recent decades has caused an increase in the population of long-term thyroid cancer survivors. Other than recurrences of cancer, the long-term health consequences of surviving thyroid cancer, particularly metabolic syndrome, have not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of metabolic syndrome in thyroid cancer survivors. Population-based data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were used for the analysis. The data of KNHANES IV-VI from 2007-2014 were obtained. After excluding subjects who were under 19 years old, whose fasting interval was less than 8 hours, and whose data for predefined variables including metabolic syndrome components were incomplete, 34,347 subjects were analyzed. The incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components were evaluated in three groups: subjects with no history of thyroid cancer, subjects diagnosed with thyroid cancer within 3 years of the survey date, and subjects diagnosed more than 3 years before the survey date. Thyroid cancer diagnoses were made within 3 years of the survey date for 95 subjects (group 1, short-term survivors) and more than 3 years earlier than the survey date for 60 subjects (group 2, long-term survivors). Metabolic syndrome was frequently observed with clinical significance (odds ratio [OR] 1.986 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-3.70], p = 0.030) in short-term survivors compared with subjects with no thyroid cancer history. Risks for having high blood pressure and high fasting glucose were estimated to be higher in the short-term survivor group (OR 2.115 [CI 1.23-3.64], p = 0.006 and OR 1.792 [CI 1.03-3.11], p = 0.038, respectively). No significant associations were noticed in the long-term survivor group when compared with the group with no thyroid cancer history. Risks for metabolic syndrome, especially high blood pressure and high fasting glucose, were increased in short

  7. X-ray medical diagnostics and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsenova, T.; Chobanova, N.; Pavlova, A; Bajrakova, A.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical epidemiological study for assessment of X-ray medical diagnosis as a risk factor for thyroid cancer (TC) has been carried out. The data from the investigation of 90 TC cases and 180 controls matched by sex and age are used. The risk assessment is based on the distribution of investigated persons according to thyroid gland irradiation (as an equivalent dose cumulated from the procedures) and the number of different procedures of organs and systems. There is a significantly increased risk for TC from diagnostic lung examinations; fluoroscopy (OR=3.49, 95% CI=1.66±7.39, p=0.0002) and radiography (OR=2.48, 95% CI=1.05±5.86, p=0.02) (author)

  8. Thyroid cancer incidence in Lithuania over the period of 1978-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakiene, I.; Kuprionis, G.; Makstiene, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In areas not associated with nuclear fallout, the annual incidence of thyroid cancer ranges between 2.0-3.8 cases per 100 000 in women and 1.2-2.6 per 100 000 in men. The incidence of thyroid cancers in Belarus and Ukraine rose just 4 years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Though, the radioactive clouds passed over Lithuania but it is still unclear whether the rise in incidence of thyroid cancer in our patients is due to this irradiation or iodine deficiency or due to increased diagnostic activity. Population-based data on thyroid carcinomas was obtained from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry to analyse the incidence of thyroid cancers in Lithuania for the period of 1978-2003. The incidence rate (IR) was calculated based on the number of newly diagnosed cases in the calendar year per 100 000 inhabitants depending on sex. Additionally we analysed the association between histopathological types of thyroid carcinoma, disease severity as expressed by TNM classification (according to ICD-10), age and gender. For this purpose our database included a total of 354 cases of thyroid carcinoma (47 males-13.3% and 307 females-86.7%) admitted to the Kaunas Medical University Hospital during the period of 2001-July 2003. Since 1990 a significant rise of the thyroid cancer incidence affecting mainly women of > 40 years of age have been observed. 78 newly diagnosed cases of thyroid cancer (18 male and 60 female) were registered in 1990. The IR value is 1.0 in men and 3.1 in women. During the period from 1991 to 1995 the IR varied from 1.1 to 1.7 in men and from 3.6 to 5.8 in women. The increase in the number of cancer cases in women was observed year by year between 1996-2000, reaching 138 (IR 7.1), while the increase in men was not so obvious during the same period. Thyroid cancer incidence is still increasing and was 9.8 for women and 2.7 for men in the year 2001. In spite of increased incidence of thyroid cancer, morbidity between 1992-2000 did not increase

  9. Non-thyroid cancer in Northern Ukraine in the post-Chernobyl period: Short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, M; Ostroumova, E; Brenner, A; Federenko, Z; Gorokh, Y; Zvinchuk, O; Shpak, V; Tereschenko, V; Tronko, M; Mabuchi, K

    2015-06-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Ukraine in 1986 led to widespread radioactive releases into the environment - primarily of radioiodines and cesium - heavily affecting the northern portions of the country, with settlement-averaged thyroid doses estimated to range from 10 mGy to more than 10 Gy. The increased risk of thyroid cancer among exposed children and adolescents is well established but the impact of radioactive contamination on the risk of other types of cancer is much less certain. To provide data on a public health issue of major importance, we have analyzed the incidence of non-thyroid cancers during the post-Chernobyl period in a well-defined cohort of 13,203 individuals who were <18 years of age at the time of the accident. The report is based on standardized incidence ratio (SIR) analysis of 43 non-thyroid cancers identified through linkage with the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine for the period 1998 through 2009. We compared the observed and expected number of cases in three cancer groupings: all solid cancers excluding thyroid, leukemia, and lymphoma. Our analyses found no evidence of a statistically significant elevation in cancer risks in this cohort exposed at radiosensitive ages, although the cancer trends, particularly for leukemia (SIR=1.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.69; 4.13), should continue to be monitored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Role of STAT3 in Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosonkina, Nadiya; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In, E-mail: jipark@mcw.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States)

    2014-03-06

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and its global incidence rates are rapidly increasing. Although the mortality of thyroid cancer is relatively low, its rate of recurrence or persistence is relatively high, contributing to incurability and morbidity of the disease. Thyroid cancer is mainly treated by surgery and radioiodine remnant ablation, which is effective only for non-metastasized primary tumors. Therefore, better understanding of the molecular targets available in this tumor is necessary. Similarly to many other tumor types, oncogenic molecular alterations in thyroid epithelium include aberrant signal transduction of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (also known as protein kinase B), NF-κB, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. However, the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) pathway, a well-known mediator of tumorigenesis in different tumor types, is relatively less understood in thyroid cancer. Intriguingly, recent studies have demonstrated that, in thyroid cancer, the JAK/STAT3 pathway may function in the context of tumor suppression rather than promoting tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an update of STAT3 function in thyroid cancer and discuss some of the evidences that support this hypothesis.

  11. Differentiated thyroid cancer following radioiodide 131I therapy of hyperthyroidism: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, J; Soumar, J; Zeman, V; Nahodil, V; Zamrazil, V; Smejkal, V Jr

    1978-01-01

    Differentiated (papillary) thyroid cancer was detected 17 years following radioiodide 131I treatment for toxic multinodular goiter. Twenty-one cases of thyroid cancers with previous 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism were summarized. This combination is rare compared to the incidence of thyroid cancers following external irradiation. This may be due to higher absorbed dose to thyroid in 131I treatment.

  12. Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, Anjum; Godward, Sara; Williams, Dillwyn; Siddique, Iqbal; Al-Saleh, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours. Methods. To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth ± three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait. Results. Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p=0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend <0.0001). The association did not vary appreciably by age, gender, nationality, level of education, or parity. Discussion. These findings, based on self-report by cases/controls, provide some support to the hypothesis that exposure to dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available.

  13. Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memon, Anjum (Div. of Primary Care and Public Health, Brighton and Sussex Medical School (United Kingdom)), E-mail: a.memon@bsms.ac.uk; Godward, Sara (Dept. of Public Health and Primary Care, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Williams, Dillwyn (Thyroid Carcinogenesis Research Group, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Siddique, Iqbal (Dept. of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait)); Al-Saleh, Khalid (Kuwait Cancer Control Centre, Ministry of Health (Kuwait))

    2010-05-15

    The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours. Methods. To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth +- three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait. Results. Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p=0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend <0.0001). The association did not vary appreciably by age, gender, nationality, level of education, or parity. Discussion. These findings, based on self-report by cases/controls, provide some support to the hypothesis that exposure to dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available.

  14. Thyroid cancer: relationship to radiation exposure and to pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asteris, G.T.; DeGroot, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    Exposure to radiation results in an increased occurrence of nodularity to the thyroid and, more important, the development of cancer in a significant proportion of patients. Near-total thyroidectomy is recommended in those patients with a history of irradiation who are found on physical examination of the thyroid to have one or more nodules. Although pregnancy appears to have no effect on the course of thyroid carcinoma and the tumor has no effect on pregnancy, because of the numerous stimuli to thyroid growth during pregnancy, we feel that pregnancy is best avoided by women with known residual disease

  15. Non-medical exposure to radioiodines and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindie, Elif; Leenhardt, Laurence; Aurengo, Andre; Vitaux, Francoise; Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Bok, B.; Grosclaude, Pascale; Galle, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred 32 years after the accidental exposure of Marshall islanders, resulted in the exposure of neighbouring populations to a mixture of iodine isotopes and in an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. The highest thyroid doses were received by the youngest age groups. This review describes the existing evidence, and examines factors that may have increased the risk. It also stresses problems with contemporary thyroid measurements, and the lack of information on the sensitivity of the thyroid to short-lived iodine isotopes and iodine-131. Practical considerations for nuclear physicians, epidemiologists and thyroidologists are discussed in the light of this major accident. (orig.)

  16. Non-medical exposure to radioiodines and thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindie, Elif [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Saint-Antoine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (France); Leenhardt, Laurence; Aurengo, Andre [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (France); Vitaux, Francoise [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France); Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Bok, B. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Beaujon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, 100 avenue du General Leclerc, 92110 Clichy (France); Grosclaude, Pascale [Reseau Francais des Registres de Cancers, Toulouse (France); Galle, Pierre [Service de Physique et Chimie Biologiques, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire d' Alfort (France)

    2002-08-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred 32 years after the accidental exposure of Marshall islanders, resulted in the exposure of neighbouring populations to a mixture of iodine isotopes and in an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. The highest thyroid doses were received by the youngest age groups. This review describes the existing evidence, and examines factors that may have increased the risk. It also stresses problems with contemporary thyroid measurements, and the lack of information on the sensitivity of the thyroid to short-lived iodine isotopes and iodine-131. Practical considerations for nuclear physicians, epidemiologists and thyroidologists are discussed in the light of this major accident. (orig.)

  17. Less is More: Comparing the 2015 and 2009 American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brian W; Yousman, Wina; Wong, Wei Xiang; Cheng, Cheng; McAninch, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    The American Thyroid Association (ATA) has recently revised its guidance pertaining to thyroid nodules and follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer. The 2015 guidelines are massive in both scope and scale, with changes in the organizational approach to risk stratification of nodules and cancer, as well as multiple sections covering new material. This review highlights the major structural and organizational changes, focusing attention on the most dramatically changed recommendations, that is, those recommendations that clinicians will find striking because they call for significant divergence from prior clinical practice. The revised approach to thyroid nodule risk stratification is based on sonographic pattern, with an emphasis on pattern rather than growth in the long-term surveillance of nodules. Accumulating data have also been incorporated into an updated risk stratification scheme for thyroid cancer that increases the size of the low-risk pool, in part because low-volume lymph nodal metastases are now considered low risk. The most fundamentally altered recommendation is that lobectomy might be considered as the initial surgical approach for follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers from 1 to 4 cm in size. The underlying theme of the 2015 ATA guidelines is that "less is more." As these new recommendations are adopted, fewer fine-needle aspiration biopsies will need to be done, less extensive surgeries will become more common, less radioactive iodine will be used either for treatment or for diagnostics, and less stimulated thyroglobulin testing will be done. Mastery of these guidelines will help clinicians know when it is reasonable to do less, thus providing responsibly individualized therapy for their patients.

  18. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident: Incidence, prognosis of progress, risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, E.; Kenigsberg, J.; Golovneva, A.; Demidchik, E.

    1997-01-01

    Starting from 1990, an increasing number of persons, suffering from thyroid cancer was diagnosed in Belarus. These persons were exposed to radiation in 1986 due to the Chernobyl Accident and were children and adolescents at the time of the accident. This paper gives an overview of the total number of thyroid cancer cases observed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident among the persons exposed to radiation under 18 years of age. Duration of the latent period and background incidence rate are under discussion. Based on the most reliable data about thyroid doses and incidence rate among the persons exposed to radiation under 6 years of age, the estimation of risk coefficient for radiation induced thyroid cancer was carried out. For childhood exposure from I-131, the excess absolute risk per 10,0000 PYGy was 4.5 (author)

  19. MINIMALLY INVASIVE OPEN THYROIDECTOMY IN THYROID CANCER WITH COEXISTENT HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Nenkov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the minimally invasive thyroidectomy challenges is the application of this technique in the surgical treatment of thyroid cancer. The use of minimally invasive open approach in co-existence of thyroid cancer with Hashimoto thyroiditis is well known provocation to the skills of the surgeon working in the field of thyroid surgery.Aim: To report our results and to present the possibilities of minimally invasive open approach in the surgical treatment of thyroid carcinoma and coexistent Hashimoto thyroiditis. Patients and methods: For the period from 2008 to 2011, 641 patients were operated on in our clinic using minimally invasive open approach. In 32 of these patients presence of Hashimoto thyroiditis was found in combination with thyroid cancer. All patients were females, 26 to 46 years age. Patients were selected according to designed and accepted for our institution criteria. The procedures were performed using ultrasound (harmonic shears (Harmonic Focus® and Harmonic Ace®, Ethicon Endo-Surgery. The operative time, incidence, type and severity of complications, length of hospital stay, safety and reliability of the surgical procedure were analyzed. Results: The operative incision length in all cases was between 2.0-2.5 cm. In 27 patients papillary thyroid carcinoma and in 5 patients – follicular variant of the neoplasm were found. The tumor size ranged between 0.5 and 1.5 cm. In all patients total thyroidectomy using harmonic scalpel was performed. Lymph node metastases in the central neck compartment were not found in any of the cases. The rate, type and severity of complications did not exceed those for patients who underwent conventional thyroidectomy. All patients leaved the hospital in the first 24 postoperative hours. The follow-up did not reveal remnant thyroid tissue in thyroid gland bed or recurrence of the disease.Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of minimally invasive open approach with

  20. High incidence of thyroid cancer among patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldrymidis, Dimitrios; Papadakis, Georgios; Tsakonas, Georgios; Kaldrymidis, Philippos; Flaskas, Theofanis; Seretis, Andreas; Pantazi, Eleni; Kostoglou-Athanassiou, Ifigenia; Peppa, Melpomeni; Roussou, Paraskevi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of thyroid, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. In this study we determined the prevalence of malignant neoplasms in patients with acromegaly. Cancer risk was evaluated in a cohort of 110 patients (M/F 48/62, age 58.63±13.8 years, range 30-86) with acromegaly. Mean age at diagnosis of acromegaly was 46.37±13.11 years. Mean period of time since diagnosis of acromegaly was 12.26+9.6 years. From 110 patients, cancer was diagnosed in 26 (23.6%) patients. Thyroid cancer was the most common cancer and was diagnosed in 13 patients (11.8%); other cancers encountered were gastric cancer (N=2), endometrial cancer (N-2), and breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer (N-2), myelodysplastic syndrome, renal cell carcinoma, lung cancer and pancreatic carcinoma, one case each. Age, gender, age at the time of diagnosis of acromegaly, tumor size of pituitary adenoma and duration of disease were not associated with cancer development. This study suggests that patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of thyroid cancer and therefore they should undergo regular screening with hormonal and ultrasound evaluation of the thyroid and FNAB when required.

  1. Clinical impact of molecular analysis on thyroid cancer management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wreesmann, Volkert B.; Singh, Bhuvanesh

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid cancer constitutes a progressive continuum of disease ranging from indolent well-differentiated carcinomas to aggressive poorly differentiated carcinomas and universally fatal anaplastic carcinomas. The wide divergence in clinical behavior is poorly predicted for by current

  2. Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancer in an Area of Epidemic Thyroid Goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossu, A.; Paliogiannis, P.; Scognamillo, F.; Attene, F.; Trignano, M.; Tanda, F.; Budroni, M.; Cesaraccio, R.; Palmieri, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and describe the epidemiological characteristics and trends of thyroid cancer in the province of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy), an area with epidemic thyroid goiter, in the period 1992-2010. Data were obtained from the local tumor registry which makes part of a wider registry web, coordinated today by the Italian Association for Tumor Registries. An increasing trend in the incidence of thyroid cancer in the province of Sassari was evidenced. This trend seems to follow the general worldwide trend and does not seem to be related to the high incidence of thyroid goiter in the area. The frequencies of the different histological subtypes were similar to those reported in numerous national and international reports. Women are affected earlier than men and, therefore, suffer greater professional, economic, and social impacts. Overall mortality is low and a relative 5-year survival is excellent, especially in comparison to other malignancies

  3. Recovery of NIS expression in thyroid cancer cells by overexpression of Pax8 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presta, Ivan; Filetti, Sebastiano; Russo, Diego; Arturi, Franco; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Mattei, Tiziana; Scarpelli, Daniela; Tosi, Emanuele; Scipioni, Angela; Celano, Marilena; Gulino, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Recovery of iodide uptake in thyroid cancer cells by means of obtaining the functional expression of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) represents an innovative strategy for the treatment of poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. However, the NIS gene expression alone is not always sufficient to restore radioiodine concentration ability in these tumour cells. In this study, the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma ARO cells were stably transfected with a Pax8 gene expression vector. A quantitative RT-PCR was performed to assess the thyroid specific gene expression in selected clones. The presence of NIS protein was detected by Western blot and localized by immunofluorescence. A iodide uptake assay was also performed to verify the functional effect of NIS induction and differentiation switch. The clones overexpressing Pax8 showed the re-activation of several thyroid specific genes including NIS, Pendrin, Thyroglobulin, TPO and TTF1. In ARO-Pax8 clones NIS protein was also localized both in cell cytoplasm and membrane. Thus, the ability to uptake the radioiodine was partially restored, associated to a high rate of efflux. In addition, ARO cells expressing Pax8 presented a lower rate of cell growth. These finding demonstrate that induction of Pax8 expression may determine a re-differentiation of thyroid cancer cells, including a partial recovery of iodide uptake, fundamental requisite for a radioiodine-based therapeutic approach for thyroid tumours

  4. Perspectives of development of thyroid cancers in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Paretzke, H.G.; Heidenreich, W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview on the total number if thyroid cancers observed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident among children, discusses possible sources of the observed increase over expected cases and compares these observations with predictive calculations using different risk coefficients published in the literature. To this purpose exposure estimates of the thyroid are made for children living in three selected areas. Different radioecological, dosimetric and other reasons make it very difficult to obtain reliable dose estimates for these victims, and the use of published risk coefficients for the assessment of future developments of the thyroid cancer incidence rates results in predictions which do not agree too well with the observations

  5. Update on Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Morphological, Molecular, and Genetic Features of the Most Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Ragazzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer. It shows a wide spectrum of morphological presentations and the diagnosis could be challenging due to its high degree of dedifferentiation. Molecular and genetic features of ATC are widely heterogeneous as well and many efforts have been made to find a common profile in order to clarify its cancerogenetic process. A comprehensive review of the current literature is here performed, focusing on histopathological and genetic features.

  6. Thyroid cancer in South Africa - an indicator of regional iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Because follicular thyroid cancers predominate in iodine-deficient and papillary cancers predominate in iodine·replete populations. we have analysed national and regional (former Transvaal) incidences of these cancer types as a surrogate measure of the population iodine nutritional status in South Africa.

  7. Radiation and risk for thyroid cancer: atypical findings of a community thyroid recall program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, W.; Miller, M.; Sanislow, C.; Fishbeck, W.

    1982-01-01

    Screening of 553 persons for thyroid disease by scan and physical exam was performed. Group I (245) had documented irradiation, with most (85%) receiving 300 R for lymphoid hyperplasia. Group II (308) had only a history of prior irradiation. Abnormal glands were found in 17 of 245 (7%) of Group I with 7 of 245 (3%) having nodular disease. No cancers were found in six of eight (75%) persons with nodular disease having surgery. Abnormal glands were found in 45/308 (14.6%) of Group II with 16/308 (5.2%) having nodular disease. Twelve of 16 (75%) with nodular disease from Group II had surgery and three thyroid cancers were found; in addition, one person from this group had a history of prior surgery for thyroid cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer in Group I was 0%, Group II was 1.3%, and the combined incidence was 0.7%. The relatively low incidence of thyroid cancer observed is attributed to the relatively late average age at time of irradiation; 22 years for Group 1, 13 years for Group II

  8. Clinical Experiences with Radiation Induced Thyroid Cancer after Chernobyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Reiners

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The risk of developing thyroid cancer increases considerably after exposure to external or internal radiation, especially in children below the age of 10. After the Chernobyl reactor accident, the yearly incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus increased to approximately 40 per 1.000.000 in girls and to roughly 20 per 1.000.000 in boys compared to approximately 0.5 cases per 1.000.000 prior to the accident. Typically, young children with thyroid cancer after radiation exposure present in ≈95% of the cases as papillary cancers, in ≈50% as invasive tumors growing outside the thyroid capsule, in ≈65% with lymph node metastases and in ≈15% with distant metastases. A joint Belarusian-German project starting in April 1993 that combined treatment with surgery and radioiodine was organized in 237 selected children from Belarus who were exposed to the Chernobyl fallout and had advanced stages of thyroid cancer. The study group included 141 girls and 96 boys. Their median age at the time of the accident was 1.7 years; whereas the median age at the time of diagnosis was 12.4 years. With the exception of two cases with follicular histology, the majority of the patients had been diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancers. In 63%, the tumor had grown outside the thyroid capsule and invaded the tissue of the neck (pT4. Nearly all of the selected cases (96% showed-up with lymph node metastases (pN1 and 43% of the patients with distant metastases mainly to the lungs (pM1. In 58% of the children, complete remissions of thyroid cancer could be achieved until December 31st 2010 and in 34% of the children, stable partial remissions; in the remaining 8% of the patients, partial remissions were observed. The risk of radiation-induced thyroid cancer increased considerably in children and adolescents who were affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident. In spite of the fact, that thyroid cancers in young children seem to behave more aggressively than in

  9. Thyroid cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1958-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Ezaki, Haruo; Ron, E.; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Lubin, J.; Asano, Masahide.

    1992-06-01

    One hundred and twelve cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1958-79 among the extended Life Span Study cohort in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were studied. There was a statistically significant association between thyroid cancer incidence and exposure to atomic bomb radiation. The adjusted excess relative risk (ERR) per gray was 1.1 (95% confidence interval=0.3-2.5) and the adjusted absolute risk per 10 4 PYGy was 0.59 (95% confidence interval=0.2-1.7). Based on a comparison of the deviances obtained from relative and absolute risk models, a simple linear relative risk model appeared to fit the data better than an absolute risk model; however, it would not be appropriate to conclude that the data conform strictly to a relative risk pattern. The incidence of thyroid cancer among the members of the Adult Health Study (AHS) population, who have received biennial medical examinations at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, since 1958, was 70% higher than that among the rest of the extended LSS cohort after adjustments for city, sex, log age, calendar year, and Dosimetry System 1986 dose. There was no significant difference between the slope of the dose-response curve for AHS and non-AHS participants, although the estimated ERRs at 1 Gy for the AHS and non-AHS population were 1.6 and 0.3, respectively. The elevated risk appeared to be confined to women, and there was an increasing risk with decreasing attained age and age at exposure. (J.P.N.)

  10. Thyroid cancer and multiple primary tumors in the SEER cancer registries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronckers, Cécile M.; McCarron, Peter; Ron, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence rates have increased steadily in the United States and elsewhere. Radiation exposure at a young age is a strong risk factor, but otherwise the etiology is unclear. To explore etiologic clues, we studied the risk of thyroid cancer after an earlier primary cancer, as well as

  11. Positive thyroid cancer scintigraphy using technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, J.; Nyvltova, O.; Blazek, T.; Vlcek, P.; Racek, P.; Novak, Z.; Preiningerova, M.; Hubackova, M.; Krizova, M.; Zimak, J.; Bilek, R.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of detecting thyroid cancer recurrences without the need for withdrawal of thyroid suppressive treatment. Upper-body or whole-body scintigraphy was performed in a group of 200 patients evaluated for differentiated thyroid cancers in 1993 and 1994 using technetium-99m sestamibi. Scans were performed 20-30 min following i.v. administration of 500 MBq of 99m Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI). Bone and lung metastases were detected with very high sensitivity and specificity, with a very high predictive value of negative results and a somewhat lower predictive value of positive results. The sensitivity and specificity of findings in the neck were lower but the predictive value of negative results was high. Whole-body scans with 99m Tc-MIBI are a useful tool in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, for the detection of distant metastatic lesions. (orig.)

  12. Thyroid cancer due to biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvão, T.; Castro, N.; Teixeira, D.; Matuo, R.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is considered the most common in the region of the head and neck. It can be caused by spontaneous mutations, but also by ionizing radiation. The effect of ionizing radiation on the thyroid has been studied for several decades. The exact cause of the cancer is not known, but people with certain risk factors are more vulnerable, such as exposure to radiation, family history and age over 40 years. The thyroid is susceptible to the effects of radiation and is involved in the field of diagnostic or therapeutic irradiation, and may present functional and structural changes. Radiation can act in different ways, such as inhibiting or activating specific functions of the follicular epithelium, reducing the number of functioning follicles, altering vascularization or vascular permeability and inducing immune reactions. These morphological and histological changes may be related to the development of thyroid cancer

  13. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate and Cancer: Lessons from Thyroid Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kid Törnquist

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sphingomyelin is found in the cell membrane of all eukaryotic cells, and was for a long time considered merely as a structural component. However, during the last two decades, metabolites of sphingomyelin, especially sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P, have proven to be physiologically significant regulators of cell function. Through its five different G protein-coupled receptors, S1P regulates a wide array of cellular processes, ranging from stimulating cellular proliferation and migration, to the inhibition of apoptosis and induction of angiogenesis and modulation of cellular calcium homeostasis. Many of the processes regulated by S1P are important for normal cell physiology, but may also induce severe pathological conditions, especially in malignancies like cancer. Thus, understanding S1P signaling mechanisms has been the aim of a multitude of investigations. Great interest has also been shown in understanding the action of sphingosine kinase (SphK, i.e., the kinase phosphorylating sphingosine to S1P, and the interactions between S1P and growth factor signaling. In the present review, we will discuss recent findings regarding the possible importance of S1P and SphK in the etiology of thyroid cancer. Although clinical data is still scarce, our in vitro findings suggest that S1P may function as a “double-edged sword”, as the receptor profile of thyroid cancer cells largely determines whether S1P stimulates or blocks cellular migration. We will also discuss the interactions between S1P- and VEGF-evoked signaling, and the importance of a S1P1-VEGF receptor 2 complex in thyroid cancer cells.

  14. Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer--a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, S; Reinertsen, K V; Knutstad, K; Olsen, D R; Fosså, S D

    2011-06-09

    To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC) patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT). In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT)-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT technique. Matched patients in Controls remained free for hypothyroidism. Based on each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH) the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were then estimated (V20, V30, V40 and V50) together with the individual mean thyroid dose over the whole gland (MeanTotGy). The mean and median thyroid dose for the included patients was about 30 Gy, subsequently the total volume of the thyroid gland (VolTotGy) and the absolute volumes (cm3) receiving respectively thyroid gland receivingthyroid glands after loco-radiotherapy of BC, the risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism depends on the volume of the thyroid gland.

  15. Thyroid cancer in Belarus: the epidemiological situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, T.; Bleuer, J.P.; Averkin, J.I.; Okeanov, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Starting in 1990, an increasing number of children were diagnosed as suffering from thyroid cancer in regions close to the Chernobyl nuclear accident site, and this increase is continuing. But still today, doubts about the significance of this increase are being voiced. Using data from the Belarus epidemiological cancer registration system up to 1994, the geographic distribution, time and cohort trends, age distribution and other characteristics of this epidemic are reviewed. Results show that the geographic distribution is similar to that of iodine-131 following the accident; that when looking at cohorts of children born in the same years incidence has steadily increased since 1990; and that deviations from this pattern might be explained by active case finding.The most likely interpretation of these results is that of a causal association with radiation exposure related to the Chernobyl accident, but possible modifying factors should be examined closely. The most likely future course of the epidemic is an increasing number of cases among those exposed in childhood, and public health measures should take this into account

  16. Results of Screening in Familial Non-Medullary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Yang, Lily; Merkel, Roxanne; Patel, Dhaval; Nilubol, Naris; Merino, Maria J; Skarulis, Monica; Sadowski, Samira M; Kebebew, Electron

    2017-08-01

    Although a family history of thyroid cancer is one of the main risk factors for thyroid cancer, the benefit of screening individuals with a family history of thyroid cancer is not known. A prospective cohort study was performed with yearly screening using neck ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodule(s) >0.5 cm in at-risk individuals whose relatives were diagnosed with familial non-medullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC). The eligibility criteria were the presence of thyroid cancer in two or more first-degree relatives and being older than seven years of age. Twenty-five kindred were enrolled in the study (12 families with two members affected, and 13 with three or more members affected at enrollment). Thyroid cancer was detected by screening in 4.6% (2/43) of at-risk individuals from families with two members affected, and in 22.7% (15/66) of at-risk members from families with three or more patients affected (p = 0.01). FNMTC detected by screening was characterized by a smaller tumor size (0.7 ± 0.5 cm vs. 1.5 ± 1.1 cm; p = 0.006), a lower rate of central neck lymph node metastases (17.6% vs. 51.1%; p = 0.02), less extensive surgery (hemithyroidectomy 23.5% vs. 0%; p = 0.002), and a lower rate of radioactive iodine therapy (23.5% vs. 79%; p thyroid ultrasound should be considered in kindred with three or more family members affected by FNMTC. Since active screening might be associated with the risk of overtreatment, it should be implemented with caution, specifically in elderly individuals.

  17. Current Advances in Thyroid Cancer Management. Are We Ready for the Epidemic Rise of Diagnoses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Rusinek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A rising incidence of thyroid cancers (TCs mainly small tumors, observed during recent years, lead to many controversies regarding treatment strategies. TCs represent a distinct molecular background and clinical outcome. Although in most cases TCs are characterized by a good prognosis, there are some aggressive forms, which do not respond to standard treatment. There are still some questions, which have to be resolved to avoid dangerous simplifications in the clinical management. In this article, we focused on the current advantages in preoperative molecular diagnostic tests and histopathological examination including noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP. We discussed the controversies regarding the extent of thyroid surgery and adjuvant radioiodine therapy, as well as new treatment modalities for radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC. Considering medullary thyroid cancer (MTC, we analyzed a clinical management based on histopathology and RET (ret proto-oncogene mutation genotype, disease follow-up with a special attention to serum calcitonin doubling time as an important prognostic marker, and targeted therapy applied in advanced MTC. In addition, we provided some data regarding anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC, a highly lethal neoplasm, which lead to death in nearly 100% of patients due to the lack of effective treatment options.

  18. The treatment landscape in thyroid cancer: a focus on cabozantinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitzman SP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Steven P Weitzman, Maria E Cabanillas Department of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Although patients with thyroid cancer generally fare well, there is a subset for which this is not necessarily true. Progress in understanding the molecular aberrations in thyroid cancer has led to a change in the management of these cases. Since 2011, four multikinase inhibitors (MKIs have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for thyroid cancer – cabozantinib and vandetanib for medullary thyroid cancer and sorafenib and lenvatinib for differentiated thyroid cancer. This change in the treatment landscape has raised challenges for practitioners who may not be familiar with the use of MKIs or with the treatment and natural history of advanced thyroid cancer in general. This article reviews the epidemiology, molecular drivers, and initial treatment of patients with thyroid cancer and offers practical guidance to assist with the determination of when to appropriately start an MKI. As an example, cabozantinib and its efficacy are discussed in detail. Close monitoring is required for all patients on targeted agents to assess for adverse effects and response to therapy. An approach to managing drug-related adverse events is detailed. Since these drugs are not curative and have not yet proven to prolong overall survival, it is critical to weigh the risks and benefits of treatment at every visit. The potential value of changing to a different agent following failure of an MKI is also addressed. Keywords: chemotherapy, adverse event, targeted therapy, kinase inhibitor, VEGF, RET

  19. Tc-99m-Labeled-rhTSH Analogue (TR1401) for Imaging Poorly Differentiated Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, Filippo; Manni, Isabella; Piaggio, Giulia; Balogh, Lajos; Weintraub, Bruce D.; Szkudlinski, Mariusz W.; Fremont, Valerie; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Signore, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differentiated thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid follicular cells are frequent tumors of the thyroid with relatively good prognosis due to improved surgical techniques and follow-up procedures. Poorly differentiated thyroid cancers, which lose iodine uptake ability, in most

  20. The value of ultrasound in the follow-up of thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedbæk, Finn Noe; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    The value of ultrasound in the follow-up of thyroid cancer The commonly used tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system is designed to predict death and not recurrence. Based on this, patients with thyroid cancer are grouped into risk categories at the time of initial treatment. However, recent...... guidelines proposed a novel staging system focusing on microscopic invasion into the perithyroidal tissues, neck lymph node involvement and 131I uptake outside the thyroid bed following treatment. This risk re-assessment improves the prediction of recurrent/persistent disease. The cornerstone in the follow......-up is measurement of plasma-thyroglobulin concentration and ultrasound of the neck focusing on the thyroid bed and classification of lymph nodes according to their location and high risk signs....

  1. ANALYSIS OF RELAPSE RATE AND METASTASES OF HIGH DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savenok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  Analysis of rate of relapses and metastases with well-differentiated thyroid cancer was performed for patients in 2009 to 2013. The study involved 189 patients with thyroid cancer including 98 (51.9 % patients suffering from papillary thyroid cancer, 77 (40.7 % patients suffering from follicular thyroid cancer, and 14 (7.4 % patients suffering from medullary thyroid cancer. 2.04 % of the 98 patients suffering from papillary thyroid cancer manifested a relapse, and lymphogenic metastases of cancer were revealed with 1.0 % of patients. With follicular thyroid cancer (n = 77, lymphogenic metastases were registered in 7.8 % of cases, relapses were revealed in 1.3 % of cases. This analysis demonstrated that observation of patients for 5 years revealed a higher percentage of metastases with patients that suffered from follicular thyroid cancer.

  2. Hyperfunctioning thyroid cancer: a five-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Monalisa Ferreira; Casulari, Luiz Augusto

    2010-02-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer rarely occurs in association with hyperfunctioning nodules. We describe a case of a 47-year-old woman who developed symptoms of hyperthyroidism associated with a palpable thyroid nodule. Thyroid scintigraphy showed an autonomous nodule, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy was suggestive of papillary carcinoma. Laboratorial findings were consistent with the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. The patient underwent thyroidectomy and a papillary carcinoma of 3.0 x 3.0 x 2.0 cm, follicular variant, was described by histological examination. The surrounding thyroid tissue was normal. Postoperatively, the patient received 100 mCi of (131)I, and whole body scans detected only residual uptake. No evidence of metastasis was detected during five years of follow-up. Hot thyroid nodules rarely harbor malignancies, and this case illustrated that, when a carcinoma occurs the prognosis seems to be very good with no evidence of metastatic dissemination during a long-term follow-up.

  3. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1α, Akt, TGF-β1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1α and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-β1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-β1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1α. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1α.

  4. The application of Silver nanoparticle based SERS in diagnosing thyroid tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zufang; Chen Rong; Chen Guannan; Lin Duo; Xi Gangqin; Chen Yongjian; Lin Hongxin; Lei Jinping [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Li Zuanfang, E-mail: chenr@fjnu.edu.cn [Academy of Integrative Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is proved to be a powerful analytical tool for investigation of biological tissue. In this study, SERS based on Ag nanoparticles was used to investigate the normal and cancerous thyroid tissue. Preliminary results indicated that Raman peaks and the spectra profile from both normal and cancerous tissues showed a basic similarity, obvious differences are that, first, Raman peaks 563cm{sup -1}, 1449cm{sup -1} and 1587cm{sup -1} in cancerous tissue decreased obviously compared with the normal thyroid tissue. Besides, Raman peaks 1004cm{sup -1} and 1128cm{sup -1} might be specific peaks for normal thyroid tissue, whereas 1294cm{sup -1} might attribute to specific peak for cancerous thyroid tissue. In addition, some peaks in normal thyroid tissue appeared to have shifted in cancerous tissue. Intensity ratio of 656cm{sup -1} vs. 725cm{sup -1} in normal tissue are significantly different from cancerous tissue (P<0.005), and it can be a reference for spectroscopic diagnostics of thyroid tissue. This study demonstrates that SERS can be used to monitor the changes at molecular level as well as a complementary tool in thyroid histopathology.

  5. I-131 dose response for incident thyroid cancers in Ukraine related to the Chornobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Alina V; Tronko, Mykola D; Hatch, Maureen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I; Oliynik, Valery A; Lubin, Jay H; Zablotska, Lydia B; Tereschenko, Valery P; McConnell, Robert J; Zamotaeva, Galina A; O'Kane, Patrick; Bouville, Andre C; Chaykovskaya, Ludmila V; Greenebaum, Ellen; Paster, Ihor P; Shpak, Victor M; Ron, Elaine

    2011-07-01

    Current knowledge about Chornobyl-related thyroid cancer risks comes from ecological studies based on grouped doses, case-control studies, and studies of prevalent cancers. To address this limitation, we evaluated the dose-response relationship for incident thyroid cancers using measurement-based individual iodine-131 (I-131) thyroid dose estimates in a prospective analytic cohort study. The cohort consists of individuals radioactivity measurements taken within 2 months after the accident, environmental transport models, and interview data. Excess radiation risks were estimated using Poisson regression models. Sixty-five incident thyroid cancers were diagnosed during the second through fourth screenings and 73,004 person-years (PY) of observation. The dose-response relationship was consistent with linearity on relative and absolute scales, although the excess relative risk (ERR) model described data better than did the excess absolute risk (EAR) model. The ERR per gray was 1.91 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43-6.34], and the EAR per 10⁴ PY/Gy was 2.21 (95% CI, 0.04-5.78). The ERR per gray varied significantly by oblast of residence but not by time since exposure, use of iodine prophylaxis, iodine status, sex, age, or tumor size. I-131-related thyroid cancer risks persisted for two decades after exposure, with no evidence of decrease during the observation period. The radiation risks, although smaller, are compatible with those of retrospective and ecological post-Chornobyl studies.

  6. Diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal uptake in the thyroid gland identified by using FDG-PET. Prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Seiji; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Hiromatsu, Yuji; Kaida, Hayato; Miyake, Ikuyo; Uchida, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the prevalence of incidental thyroid diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in healthy subjects who underwent cancer screening on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and also to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We carried out a retrospective review of 1626 subjects who underwent PET scanning at our institution. Diffuse uptake was defined as FDG uptake in the whole thyroid gland, whereas diffuse-plus-focal uptake was defined as a thyroid lesion with both diffuse uptake and focal FDG uptake. The maximum standardized uptake value of the thyroid lesions was recorded and reviewed. In each selected subject with positive thyroid FDG uptake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, and thyroid antibodies were measured. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on patients with a definite nodule using ultrasonography. Twenty-nine subjects (1.78%) were identified as having either diffuse FDG uptake (n=25, 1.53%) or diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake (n=4, 0.24%). All subjects with diffuse FDG uptake were diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In 1 of the 25 subjects with diffuse FDG uptake and two of the four with diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake, histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, PET scan did not detect papillary carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in one of the three subjects. Our results suggest that although diffuse FDG uptake usually indicates Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the risk of thyroid cancer must be recognized in both diffuse FDG uptake and diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake on PET scan. (author)

  7. [Current situation and thinking of diagnosis and treatment in some types of thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X Y; Yu, Y; Li, D P; Dong, L

    2017-04-07

    As arising incidence of thyroid cancer, the treatment for thyroid carcinoma is becoming increasingly standardized. But there are different opinions on the treatment for some types of thyroid cancers, including the determination of operative opportunity, surgical method, and follow-up observation plan. There are mainly two categories of patients, namely the patients diagnosed as familial thyroid cancer mutation carriers through family screening, including medullary thyroid carcinoma and familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma, and the patients with thyroid microcarcinoma that can be observed after diagnosed by fine needle biopsy cytology. We will discuss current situation for the diagnosis and treatment of these patients.

  8. Estimation of variation in spontaneous childhood thyroid cancer incidence in Ukraine before and after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Tronko, N.; Bogdanova, T.; Ron, E.

    2004-01-01

    The first pulications on unusually high thyroid cancer incidence rate among children and adolescent of northen Ukraine appeared in 1990, that is, four years after the Chernobyl accident. At about the same time, similar information was reported from Belarus and some time later for the contaminated areas of Russia. Although there is an apparent association between thyroid cancer incidence and dose to the thyroid for persons born in the years 1968-1986, it is difficult to quantify this relationship. To estimate the risk associated with radiation exposure from Chernobyl it is important to have an adequate follow-up period and to know the expected (spontaneous) level of thyroid cancer incidence rate in the populations that are considered. The gradual and geographically non uniform introduction of modern ultrasound techniques to detect thyroid nodules that took place in Ukraine after the year 1990 complicates the understanding of changes in thyroid cancer incidence rates over time and geographical regions (oblasts). The spontaneous thyroid cancer incidence rates in Ukraine for the periods 198-1989 and 1990-2000 by region, age and gender are estimated in this paper. The estimation of the time variation and age-sex dependency of the spontaneous thyroid cancer incidence rates are based on the following available information: (a) thyroid cancer cases diagnosed in variousUkrainian oblasts for the period 1981-2000, (b) thyroid nodularity incidence rates for the period 1990-2001; and (c) spatial distribution of the I-131cumulative ground deposition in April-May 1986. Changes in thyroid cancer incidence rates due to the influence of technical improvement in diagnostic tools and screening of children without symptoms (i.e. trend-screening-factors) are estimated for the period 1990-2000 for different oblasts in Ukraine. Statistically significant differences between expected (spontaneous) and observed thyroid cancer incidence rates are observed for the oblasts where intensive

  9. Detecting thyroid cancer: utopia or reality; possibilities for thallium 201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.; Beauduin, M.; Gigot, J.F.; Schmitz, A.

    1986-01-01

    Faced with a diagnosis of cold thyroid nodule as evidenced by routine scintigraphy, the clinician has to determine whether this nodule is malignant or not. This is a serious problem since, according to literature, 7-20 per cent of cold thyroid nodules are malignant. In 1982 some Japanese authors demonstrated the possibility of using 201 T1 in diagnosing thyroid tumors. This study refers to 120 patients who underwent an operation for thyroid disorders characterized by the presence of one or several cold nodules (as evaluated with conventional scintigraphy) and enables a comparison between a thorough evaluation of the thyroidal status and the 201 T1 scintigrams. These were obtained with a gamma-camera using a pinhole collimator. If a cold nodule is positive with 201 T1, surgery is incontestably indicated, as such a finding correlates with the existence of a thyroid tumor (benign follicular adenoma or carcinoma) in 89.5 per cent of the observed cases. In the cancer group the sensibility of the Thallium test is of 85 per cent and its specificity 80 per cent. We may assert that there is a very low risk of Thallium negative (old) nodules being malignant. The pre-operative 201 T1 scintigraphy is easy to perform in any Nuclear Medicine department. Nowadays, the combination of aspiration cytology and 201 T1 scintigraphy should make it possible to make an accurate diagnosis in the vast majority of differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid cancers [fr

  10. Screening for early detection of radiation-associated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Lubin, E.

    1984-01-01

    In the 1950s, approximately 20,000 Israeli children received scalp irradiation as treatment for tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp). To evaluate the necessity and feasibility of early screening of these individuals for thyroid cancer, a small pilot program was undertaken. The examination consisted of a thorough palpation of the thyroid gland and the surrounding area. A sup(99m)Tc thyroid scan and thyroid function tests were performed on individuals in whom palpation suggested a nodular abnormality. A multidisciplinary committee then made a recommendation for or against surgery. A total of 443 persons were screened, and nodular abnormalities of the thyroid were detected in 24 (5.4%). Of these persons, nine displayed symptomatology or reported knowledge of a thyroid condition; despite this, three of them were not receiving treatment. This left 18 subjects - 15 new cases and 3 previously untreated patients - needing follow-up care. Altogether nine persons were recommended for surgery, but one refused. All eight of the excised lesions were benign: four colloid nodules and four adenomas. While the screening program was feasible, the fact that no cancers were detected suggested that in a population exposed to a very low dose of radiation, thyroid screening may not be justified on a large scale.

  11. Nitrate intake and the risk of thyroid cancer and thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mary H; Kilfoy, Briseis A; Weyer, Peter J; Anderson, Kristin E; Folsom, Aaron R; Cerhan, James R

    2010-05-01

    Nitrate is a contaminant of drinking water in agricultural areas and is found at high levels in some vegetables. Nitrate competes with uptake of iodide by the thyroid, thus potentially affecting thyroid function. We investigated the association of nitrate intake from public water supplies and diet with the risk of thyroid cancer and self-reported hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in a cohort of 21,977 older women in Iowa who were enrolled in 1986 and who had used the same water supply for >10 years. We estimated nitrate ingestion from drinking water using a public database of nitrate measurements (1955-1988). Dietary nitrate intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and levels from the published literature. Cancer incidence was determined through 2004. We found an increased risk of thyroid cancer with higher average nitrate levels in public water supplies and with longer consumption of water exceeding 5 mg/L nitrate-N (for >or=5 years at >5 mg/L, relative risk [RR] = 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-6.2]). We observed no association with prevalence of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Increasing intake of dietary nitrate was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, RR = 2.9 [1.0-8.1]; P for trend = 0.046) and with the prevalence of hypothyroidism (odds ratio = 1.2 [95% CI = 1.1-1.4]), but not hyperthyroidism. Nitrate may play a role in the etiology of thyroid cancer and warrants further study.

  12. Cancer risk and clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid nodules harboring thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, Sann Y; Riedlinger, Gregory; Abbott, Collette E; Seethala, Raja; Ohori, N Paul; Nikiforova, Marina N; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Hodak, Steven P

    2018-05-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene mutations play a critical role in thyroid cell proliferation and function. They are found in 20%-82% of hyperfunctioning nodules, hyperfunctioning follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), and papillary thyroid cancers (PTC). The diagnostic importance of TSHR mutation testing in fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens remains unstudied. To examine the association of TSHR mutations with the functional status and surgical outcomes of thyroid nodules, we evaluated 703 consecutive thyroid FNA samples with indeterminate cytology for TSHR mutations using next-generation sequencing. Testing for EZH1 mutations was performed in selected cases. The molecular diagnostic testing was done as part of standard of care treatment, and did not require informed consent. TSHR mutations were detected in 31 (4.4%) nodules and were located in exons 281-640, with codon 486 being the most common. Allelic frequency ranged from 3% to 45%. Of 16 cases (12 benign, 3 FTC, 1 PTC) with surgical correlation, 15 had solitary TSHR mutations and 1 PTC had comutation with BRAF V600E. Hyperthyroidism was confirmed in all 3 FTC (2 overt, 1 subclinical). Of 5 nodules with solitary TSHR mutations detected at high allelic frequency, 3 (60%) were FTC. Those at low allelic frequency (3%-22%) were benign. EZH1 mutations were detected in 2 of 4 TSHR-mutant malignant nodules and neither of 2 benign nodules. We report that TSHR mutations occur in ∼5% thyroid nodules in a large consecutive series with indeterminate cytology. TSHR mutations may be associated with an increased cancer risk when present at high allelic frequency, even when the nodule is hyperfunctioning. Benign nodules were however most strongly correlated with TSHR mutations at low allelic frequency. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer: AIIMS experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, A.K.; Nair, P.G.G.; ); Bal, C.S.; Pant, G.S.; Basu, A.K.

    1999-01-01

    After a slow start in late sixties, the procedure of 131 I therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC) has gained increasing popularity with every passing year at All India Institute of Medical Sciences. This has become an integral part of TC management at AIIMS like at most other centres all over the world. There is a general consensus that near total thyroidectomy along with 131 I therapy and suppressive doses of thyroid hormones provide the best mode of treatment for DTC

  14. Nuclear medicine in the assessment of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, G.-C.; Franc, B.; O'Connor, A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite modern multi-modality treatment, 10-30% of patients treated for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) ultimately develop local recurrence or metastatic disease. These malignancies are frequently slow-growing and secondary surgical resection is often undertaken along with radioactive iodine treatment. Correlation of radiological imaging with nuclear medicine studies is essential for individualized treatment planning, and to optimize this management. Radiologists should be familiar with the interpretation of various nuclear medicine studies used to image differentiated thyroid neoplasms

  15. Papillary Thyroid Cancer: The Good and Bad of the "Good Cancer".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, Reese W; Bushman, Norah M; Orne, Jason; Balentine, Courtney J; Wendt, Elizabeth; Saucke, Megan; Pitt, Susan C; Macdonald, Cameron L; Connor, Nadine P; Sippel, Rebecca S

    2017-07-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer is often described as the "good cancer" because of its treatability and relatively favorable survival rates. This study sought to characterize the thoughts of papillary thyroid cancer patients as they relate to having the "good cancer." This qualitative study included 31 papillary thyroid cancer patients enrolled in an ongoing randomized trial. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants at the preoperative visit and two weeks, six weeks, six months, and one year after thyroidectomy. Grounded theory was used, inductively coding the first 113 interview transcripts with NVivo 11. The concept of thyroid cancer as "good cancer" emerged unprompted from 94% (n = 29) of participants, mostly concentrated around the time of diagnosis. Patients encountered this perception from healthcare providers, Internet research, friends, and preconceived ideas about other cancers. While patients generally appreciated optimism, this perspective also generated negative feelings. It eased the diagnosis of cancer but created confusion when individual experiences varied from expectations. Despite initially feeling reassured, participants described feeling the "good cancer" characterization invalidated their fears of having cancer. Thyroid cancer patients expressed that they did not want to hear that it's "only thyroid cancer" and that it's "no big deal," because "cancer is cancer," and it is significant. Patients with papillary thyroid cancer commonly confront the perception that their malignancy is "good," but the favorable prognosis and treatability of the disease do not comprehensively represent their cancer fight. The "good cancer" perception is at the root of many mixed and confusing emotions. Clinicians emphasize optimistic outcomes, hoping to comfort, but they might inadvertently invalidate the impact thyroid cancer has on patients' lives.

  16. The diagnosis of cancer in thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. Surgery, repeat biopsy or specimen consultation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Stanek-Widera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA is the only diagnostic method that allows a preoperative diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. An unequivocal diagnosis of a malignant change is achievable only in cases in which all cytological criteria of carcinoma are met. The aim of the study was to evaluate the necessity of repeat thyroid FNA in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma verified on consultative examination (CE. We analyzed cytology reports of thyroid FNA and CE that resulted in the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma. Evaluation of the correlation of the cytological diagnosis with the histopathology report was based on data obtained after the surgery. Between 2010 and 2015 in the Institute of Oncology (IO there were 184 cancers diagnosed on CE or in thyroid FNA performed primarily in IO. Additionally, 74 patients were subjected to repeat biopsy after confirmation of cancer in CE. Histopathological diagnosis of cancer was obtained in 62 (100% cases that were doubly confirmed with cytological examination. The remaining 12 patients were operated on outside the institute. From 110 FNA primarily performed in the IO, histopathological verification was achievable in 92 cases, from which 92 (100% provided a confirmation of cancer, and the remaining 18 patients were operated on outside the institute. High (100% specificity of cancer diagnosis in FNA established primarily and verified on CE (second independent assessment indicates that repeat FNA in order to confirm the diagnosis is unnecessary.

  17. [Thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Camille; Groussin, Lionel

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of thyroiditis encompasses a broad spectrum of thyroid disorders. Analysis of signs and symptoms, biochemical changes, neck ultrasound characteristics and radioactive iodine uptake values allows an accurate diagnosis. Recent studies of the whole genome have helped to identify many susceptibility genes for autoimmune thyroiditis. However, none of these genes contribute to a significant increase in risk of developing this thyroiditis. Clinical awareness of the characteristic presentations of exceptional thyroiditis (acute suppurative thyroiditis, Riedel's thyroiditis) is an important issue. Selenium administration seems to be beneficial for reducing the incidence of thyroiditis. Finally, certain drug-induced thyroiditis remains a therapeutic challenge for the physician.

  18. Unusual manifestations of well-differentiated thyroid cancer: case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, E.M.; Barrenechea, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To present two unusual cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas Methods:Data gathering thru medical records, diagnostic examinations and laboratory results. Well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) are among the most common type of all thyroid cancers. These case reports were done because of the fact that both cases showed unusual presentations clinically. The first case had a histopathologic report of papillary cancer of the thyroid with some of the typical features of WDTC but within a month's time from the near-total thyroidectomy procedure, there was progression of the neck enlargement, compression symptoms and eventually stridor. I-131 total body scan showed only a small focus of residual neck tissues in the neck with no distant metastasis. Tracheostomy was done and another debulking of the multiple nodules which showed papillary cancer again this time with some anaplastic cells. The second case is a follicular WDTC who also underwent total thyroidectomy after presenting symptoms of soft tissue metastasis at the left buttocks which turned out to be follicular in origin. After total thyroidectomy, I-131 total body scan showed multiple skeleta/soft tissue metastases. These cases are presented to keep in mind that well-differentiated thyroid cancer may not be all the time slow growing and that it should not be taken for granted in terms of treatment. (authors)

  19. [Consensus statement for accreditation of multidisciplinary thyroid cancer units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan José; Galofré, Juan Carlos; Oleaga, Amelia; Grande, Enrique; Mitjavila, Mercedes; Moreno, Pablo

    2016-03-01

    Thyroid cancer is the leading endocrine system tumor. Great advances have recently been made in understanding of the origin of these tumors and the molecular biology that makes them grow and proliferate, which have been associated to improvements in diagnostic procedures and increased availability of effective local and systemic treatments. All of the above makes thyroid cancer a paradigm of how different specialties should work together to achieve the greatest benefit for the patients. Coordination of all the procedures and patient flows should continue throughout diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up, and is essential for further optimization of resources and time. This manuscript was prepared at the request of the Working Group on Thyroid Cancer of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition, and is aimed to provide a consensus document on the definition, composition, requirements, structure, and operation of a multidisciplinary team for the comprehensive care of patients with thyroid cancer. For this purpose, we have included contributions by several professionals from different specialties with experience in thyroid cancer treatment at centers where multidisciplinary teams have been working for years, with the aim of developing a practical consensus applicable in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Thyroid Function Tests Leer en Español Thyroid Function Tests FUNCTION HOW DOES THE THYROID GLAND FUNCTION? ... Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Function Tests Resources Thyroid Function Tests Brochure PDF En ...

  1. Initiative For Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis: Decision Support System For Anaplast Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Ahmed Chandio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high level exposure of biomedical image analysis, Medical image mining has become one of the well-established research area(s of machine learning. AI (Artificial Intelligence techniques have been vastly used to solve the complex classification problems of thyroid cancer. Since the persistence of copycat chromatin properties and unavailability of nuclei measurement techniques, it is really problem for doctors to determine the initial phases of nuclei enlargement and to assess the early changes of chromatin distribution. For example involvement of multiple transparent overlapping of nuclei may become the cause of confusion to infer the growth pattern of nuclei variations. Un-decidable nuclei eccentric properties may become one of the leading causes for misdiagnosis in Anaplast cancers. In-order to mitigate all above stated problems this paper proposes a novel methodology so called “Decision Support System for Anaplast Thyroid Cancer” and it proposes a medical data preparation algorithm AD (Analpast_Cancers which helps to select the appropriate features of Anaplast cancers such as (1 enlargement of nuclei, (2 persistence of irregularity in nuclei and existence of hyper chromatin. Proposed methodology comprises over four major layers, first layer deals with the noise reduction, detection of nuclei edges and object clusters. Second layer selects the features of object of interest such as nuclei enlargement, irregularity and hyper chromatin. Third layer constructs the decision model to extract the hidden patterns of disease associated variables and final layer evaluates the performance evaluation by using confusion matrix, precision and recall measures. The overall classification accuracy is measured about 97.2% with 10-k fold cross validation.

  2. Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Saraiva

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22 were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F, free thyroxine (T4F, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, antiperoxidase antibody (TPO, and estradiol (E2. Estrogen receptor ß (ERß was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P < 0.05. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was the most frequent disorder in patients (31%; hypothyroidism (8% and positive anti-TPO antibodies (19% were also found. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the only dysfunction (18% found in controls. Hyperthyroidism was associated with postmenopausal patients, as shown by significantly higher mean T3 and T4 values and lower TSH levels in this group of breast cancer patients than in controls. The majority of positive ERß tumors were clustered in the postmenopausal patients and all cases presenting subclinical hyperthyroidism in this subgroup concomitantly exhibited Erß-positive tumors. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was present in only one of 6 premenopausal patients. We show here that postmenopausal breast cancer patients have a significantly increased thyroid hormone/E2 ratio (P < 0.05, suggesting a possible tumor growth-promoting effect caused by this misbalance.

  3. Stem cell biology in thyroid cancer: Insights for novel therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parisha; Bhatia; Koji; Tsumagari; Zakaria; Y; Abd; Elmageed; Paul; Friedlander; Joseph; F; Buell; Emad; Kandil

    2014-01-01

    Currently, thyroid cancer is one of the most common endocrine cancer in the United States. A recent involvement of sub-population of stem cells, cancer stem cells, has been proposed in different histological types of thyroid cancer. Because of their ability of self-renewal and differentiation into various specialized cells in the body, these putative cells drive tumor genesis, metastatic activity and are responsible to provide chemo- and radioresistant nature to the cancer cells in the thyroid gland. Our Review was conducted from previously published literature to provide latest apprises to investigate the role of embryonic, somatic and cancer stem cells, and discusses the hypothesis of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Different methods for their identification and isolation through stemness markers using various in vivo and in vitro methods such as flow cytometry, thyrosphere formation assay, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 efflux-pump mediated Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion have been discussed. The review also outlines various setbacks that still remain to target these tumor initiating cells. Future perspectives of therapeutic strategies and their potential to treat advanced stages of thyroid cancer are also disclosed in this review.

  4. The incidence of second primary tumors in thyroid cancer patients is increased, but not related to treatment of thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, Robbert B. T.; Smit, Jan W. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Stokkel, Marcel P. M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of second primary tumors in patients treated for thyroid cancer. Furthermore, we wanted to assess the standardized risk rates for all second primary tumors, but especially for breast cancer, as data in the literature indicate an excessive risk

  5. Thyroid doses in Belarus resulting from the Chernobyl accident: comparison of the estimates based on direct thyroid measurements and on measurements of 131I in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinkarev, Sergey; Gavrilin, Yury; Khrouch, Valery; Savkin, Mikhail; Bouville, Andre; Luckyanov, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    A substantial increase of childhood cancer cases observed in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia after the Chernobyl accident has been associated with thyroid exposure to radio iodines following the accident. A large number of direct thyroid measurements (i.e. measurement of the exposure rate near the thyroid of the subject)were conducted in Belarus during a few weeks after the accident. Individual thyroid doses based on results of the direct thyroid measurements were estimated for about 126,000 Belarusian residents and settlement-average thyroid doses for adults were calculated for 426 contaminated settlements in Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts. Another set of settlement-average thyroid doses for adults was estimated based on results of activity measurements in milk samples for 28 settlements (with not less than 2 spectrometric measurements) and 155 settlements (with not less than 5 total beta-activity measurements) in Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts. Concentrations of 131 I in milk were derived from these measurements. In the estimation of this set of thyroid doses, it was assumed that adults consumed 0.5 L d -1 of milk locally produced. The two sets of dose estimates were compared for 47 settlements, for which simultaneously were available a dose estimate based on thyroid measurements and a dose estimate based either on spectrometric or radiometric milk data. The settlement average thyroid doses based on milk activity measurements were higher than those based on direct thyroid measurements by a factor of 1.8 for total beta-activity measurements (30 settlements were compared) and by a factor of 2.4 for spectrometric measurements (17 settlements). This systematic difference can be explained by overestimation of the milk consumption rate used in the calculation of the milk-based thyroid doses and/or by application of individual countermeasures by people. (author)

  6. Thyroglobulin in thyroid cancer: does it make a difference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Luis, T.O.L.; Santiago, J.F.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a disease with varied rates of growth and prognosis. A number of factors, including adequacy of follow-up after surgery, impact on the overall morbidity and mortality. Thyroglobulin (Tg) as tumor marker has been used in the surveillance of thyroid cancer particularly the differentiated type. It has a distinctive role in influencing decision-making whether to monitor thyroid medical suppression periodically or to implement further therapeutic interventions in the face of recurrent disease. We have made an anlysis of 60 thyroid cancer cases where Tg was used to discriminate between those likely to have recurrence or not. A Tg value of 10 ng/ml showed recurrences (83.3%) (p<0.001). On this basis, a practical guide in the form of an algorithm was formulated to help physicians in resolving contentious issues in post-operative management. In summary, Tg makes a lot of difference in the approach to diagnosis and further treatment of recurrent thyroid cancer and offers itself as a cost-effective and efficient determinant for long-term optimal outcome. (author)

  7. Resveratrol Sensitizes Selectively Thyroid Cancer Cell to 131-Iodine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study, the radiosensitizing effect of resveratrol as a natural product was investigated on cell toxicity induced by 131I in thyroid cancer cell. Methods. Human thyroid cancer cell and human nonmalignant fibroblast cell (HFFF2 were treated with 131I and/or resveratrol at different concentrations for 48 h. The cell proliferation was measured by determination of the percent of the survival cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results. Findings of this study show that resveratrol enhanced the cell death induced by 131I on thyroid cancer cell. Also, resveratrol exhibited a protective effect on normal cells against 131I toxicity. Conclusion. This result indicates a promising effect of resveratrol on improvement of cellular toxicity during iodine therapy.

  8. Occuptional radiation exposures and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Mina [Dankook University Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Young [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Jae Kwan [National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Young Won [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures and accounted for 7.4 million worldwide in 2008. Ionizing radiation is the confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. The aims of the study is to evaluate the association between occupational practices including radiation exposure and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists. We found no significant association between the risk of thyroid cancer and the majority of work practices among diagnostic radiation technologists in general. However workers performing fluoroscopy and interventional procedures showed increased risks although the lack of a clear exposure– response gradient makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Future studies with larger sample size and detailed work practices implementation are needed to clarify the role of occupational radiation work in thyroid cancer carcinogenesis.

  9. Thyroid cancer in children in Belarus after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.F.

    1993-01-01

    The accident to the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in April 1986 led to the exposure of substantial populations in northern Ukraine and southern Belarus to radioactive fallout. Recently, increases in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer have been reported from these areas. The possible casual association between exposure to the isotopes of iodine in the fallout and the increased thyroid cancer is examined, with a view to predicting the public health consequences of this aspect of the accident. The reported increases are shown to be consistent with a casual association and, if this is established, then a substantial increase in thyroid cancer can be expected over the next 50 years in the exposed populations. This conclusion underlines the urgent need for research to establish beyond doubt the origin of the reported increases and to formulate and appropriate public health response, including exploration of possible mitigating measures for the future 5 refs, 3 figs

  10. Occuptional radiation exposures and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin; Ha, Mina; Kim, Jae Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Jin, Young Won

    2016-01-01

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures and accounted for 7.4 million worldwide in 2008. Ionizing radiation is the confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. The aims of the study is to evaluate the association between occupational practices including radiation exposure and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists. We found no significant association between the risk of thyroid cancer and the majority of work practices among diagnostic radiation technologists in general. However workers performing fluoroscopy and interventional procedures showed increased risks although the lack of a clear exposure– response gradient makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Future studies with larger sample size and detailed work practices implementation are needed to clarify the role of occupational radiation work in thyroid cancer carcinogenesis.

  11. Updated guidelines on the preoperative staging of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Recent studies have provided prognostic information and recommendations for staging thyroid cancers that have changed the staging and management guidelines for the disease. Consequently, minimal extrathyroidal extension (ETE) was removed from the T3 stage classification in the eighth edition of the TNM staging system by the American Joint Committee on Cancer. New T categories have been subsequently added, including T3a, defined as a tumor >4 cm in its greatest dimension, limited to the thyroid gland, and T3b, defined as a tumor of any size with gross ETE invading only the strap muscles. In this article, the author reviews the changes in the TNM staging system for thyroid cancer, with an emphasis on ultrasonography in preoperative staging.

  12. Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Multidisciplinary Management at the Colombian National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garavito, Gloria; Llamas O, Augusto; Cadena, Enrique; De Los Reyes, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant disease of the endocrine system. Two hundred and twenty-one new cases were diagnosed at the National Cancer Institute of Colombia (NCI) in 2006, roughly 4% of all new cancer cases. Weekly multidisciplinary decision-making meetings on thyroid cancer management have been held at the NCI since 1994. This article covers the body of knowledge gathered through 14 years of interdisciplinary collaboration where experience has been combined with the best available evidence.

  13. New Drug Candidate Targeting the 4A1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor for Medullary Thyroid Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC is a relatively rare thyroid cancer responsible for a substantial fraction of thyroid cancer mortality. More effective therapeutic drugs with low toxicity for MTC are urgently needed. Orphan nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1 plays a pivotal role in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of a variety of tumor cells. Based on the NR4A1 protein structure, 2-imino-6-methoxy-2H-chromene-3-carbothioamide (IMCA was identified from the Specs compounds database using the protein structure-guided virtual screening approach. Computationally-based molecular modeling studies suggested that IMCA has a high affinity for the ligand binding pocket of NR4A1. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide] and apoptosis assays demonstrated that IMCA resulted in significant thyroid cancer cell death. Immunofluorescence assays showed that IMCA induced NR4A1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in thyroid cancer cell lines, which may be involved in the cell apoptotic process. In this study, the quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that the IMCA-induced upregulation of sestrin1 and sestrin2 was dose-dependent in thyroid cancer cell lines. Western blot showed that IMCA increased phosphorylation of adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and decreased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K, which is the key enzyme in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway. The experimental results suggest that IMCA is a drug candidate for MTC therapy and may work by increasing the nuclear export of NR4A1 to the cytoplasm and the tumor protein 53 (p53-sestrins-AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway.

  14. New Drug Candidate Targeting the 4A1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor for Medullary Thyroid Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Wen; Wang, Qun; Li, Qinpei; Wang, Huijuan; Wang, Jun; Teng, Tieshan; Chen, Mingliang; Ji, Ailing; Li, Yanzhang

    2018-03-02

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a relatively rare thyroid cancer responsible for a substantial fraction of thyroid cancer mortality. More effective therapeutic drugs with low toxicity for MTC are urgently needed. Orphan nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) plays a pivotal role in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of a variety of tumor cells. Based on the NR4A1 protein structure, 2-imino-6-methoxy-2H-chromene-3-carbothioamide (IMCA) was identified from the Specs compounds database using the protein structure-guided virtual screening approach. Computationally-based molecular modeling studies suggested that IMCA has a high affinity for the ligand binding pocket of NR4A1. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide] and apoptosis assays demonstrated that IMCA resulted in significant thyroid cancer cell death. Immunofluorescence assays showed that IMCA induced NR4A1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in thyroid cancer cell lines, which may be involved in the cell apoptotic process. In this study, the quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that the IMCA-induced upregulation of sestrin1 and sestrin2 was dose-dependent in thyroid cancer cell lines. Western blot showed that IMCA increased phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and decreased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), which is the key enzyme in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The experimental results suggest that IMCA is a drug candidate for MTC therapy and may work by increasing the nuclear export of NR4A1 to the cytoplasm and the tumor protein 53 (p53)-sestrins-AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway.

  15. Changes in standardized mortality rates from thyroid cancer in Korea between 1985 and 2015: Analysis of Korean national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Mi; Kim, Won Gu; Kwon, Hyemi; Jeon, Min Ji; Han, Minkyu; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Hong, Sang Mo; Hong, Eun-Gyoung; Kim, Won Bae

    2017-12-15

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea; however, most previous studies suggested that the mortality rate for thyroid cancer remained stable. The objective of the current study was to evaluate recent changes in standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea. Population and mortality data from 1985 through 2015 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) from thyroid cancer per 100,000 population were calculated based on the World Health Organization standard population. In Korea, the ASMRs from thyroid cancer increased from 0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.18) per 100,000 in 1985 to 0.85 (95% CI, 0.83-0.86) per 100,000 in 2004, which was the highest among all countries. Subsequently, the ASMRs continuously decreased to 0.42 (95% CI, 0.41-0.43) per 100,000 between 2004 and 2015. The estimated annual percent change (APC) from 1985 to 2004 was 7.94 (95% CI, 6.43-9.46), and the corresponding value from 2004 to 2015 was -4.10 (95% CI, -5.76 to -2.40). Changes in the ASMRs reflected similar patterns in men (1985-2003: APC, 8.51; 2003-2015: APC, -4.32) and women (1985-2004: APC, 7.62; 2004-2015: APC, -4.38) and were also observed in older patients (aged ≥ 55 years). Thyroid cancer mortality in Korea increased until 2004 and then continuously decreased until 2015. Increases in the early diagnosis of thyroid cancer, changes in exposure to risk factors, and standardization in diagnosis and treatment may be associated with the decrease in thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. Cancer 2017; 123:4808-14. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  16. Thyroid Cancer after Childhood Exposure to External Radiation: An Updated Pooled Analysis of 12 Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Lene H. S.; Holmberg, Erik; Anderson, Harald; Pottern, Linda; Sadetzki, Siegal; Adams, M. Jacob; Sakata, Ritsu; Schneider, Arthur B.; Inskip, Peter; Bhatti, Parveen; Johansson, Robert; Neta, Gila; Shore, Roy; de Vathaire, Florent; Damber, Lena; Kleinerman, Ruth; Hawkins, Michael M.; Tucker, Margaret; Lundell, Marie; Lubin, Jay H.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have causally linked external thyroid radiation exposure in childhood with thyroid cancer. In 1995, investigators conducted relative risk analyses of pooled data from seven epidemiologic studies. Doses were mostly 50 Gy. We pooled data from 12 studies of thyroid cancer patients who were exposed to radiation in childhood (ages <20 years), more than doubling the data, including 1,070 (927 exposed) thyroid cancers and 5.3 million (3.4 million exposed) person-years. Relative risks increased supralinearly through 2–4 Gy, leveled off between 10–30 Gy and declined thereafter, remaining significantly elevated above 50 Gy. There was a significant relative risk trend for doses <0.10 Gy (P < 0.01), with no departure from linearity (P = 0.36). We observed radiogenic effects for both papillary and nonpapillary tumors. Estimates of excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) were homogeneous by sex (P = 0.35) and number of radiation treatments (P = 0.84) and increased with decreasing age at the time of exposure. The ERR/Gy estimate was significant within ten years of radiation exposure, 2.76 (95% CI, 0.94–4.98), based on 42 exposed cases, and remained elevated 50 years and more after exposure. Finally, exposure to chemotherapy was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, with results supporting a nonsynergistic (additive) association with radiation. PMID:27128740

  17. Treatment of non-uptaking 131I thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongli

    2005-01-01

    Normally, thyroid cancer is a disease with a good prognosis, but about 30% the of tumors dedifferentiate and may finally develop into highly malignant thyroid carcinoma with a mean survival time of less than 8 months. Due to the loss of thyroid-specific functions associated with dedifferentiation. These tumors are inaccessible to standard therapeutic procedures such as radioiodine therapy and thyroxine-mediated thyrotropin suppression. Medullary thyroid carcinomas are also highly aggressive. Here, therapy is limited to surgery, and no alternative is left if patients do not respond to this standard procedures. Several novel approaches are currently being tested for the treatment of thyroid cancer. Many of them utilize methods of gene therapy: 1) reintroduction of the tumor suppressor p53; 2) suicide gene therapy; 3) antitumor immune response by expression of an adenovirus-delivered interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene; 4) immune response by DNA vaccination against the tumor marker calcitonin; 5) transduction of the thyroid sodium/iodine transporter gene to make tissues that do not accumulate iodide treatable by radioiodide therapy; 6) blocking of the expression of the oncogene c-myc by antisense oligonuleotides; 7) radioimmunotherapy by a radiolabelled antibody; 8) retinoic acid is used for a redifferentiation therapy, and 9) somatostatin. (authors)

  18. Overdiagnosis of thyroid cancer in the Marne and Ardennes Departments of France from 1975 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Martin, Caroline; Dramé, Moustapha; Dabakuyo, Sandrine; Kanagaratnam, Lukshe; Arveux, Patrick; Schvartz, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Incidence of thyroid cancer has increased considerably in France in recent years, but the mortality rate has declined only slightly. Part of this increased incidence could be attributable to overdiagnosis. We aimed to estimate the contribution of overdiagnosis to the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer. Incidence rates were calculated based on data from the specialised Marnes-Ardennes thyroid cancer registry, for cancers diagnosed between 1975 and 2014, by age category and by five-year period. The population was divided into two groups according to pTNM classification at diagnosis (i.e. localised or invasive). Overdiagnosis was defined as the difference in incidence rates between the invasive cancer and localised cancer groups. This rate was then divided by the incidence rate in the localised cancer group for the most recent period (2010-2014) to obtain the proportion of cancers attributable to overdiagnosis. In total, 2008 patients were included. The proportion of incidence attributable to overdiagnosis for the period 2010-2014 was estimated at 7 and 62% in men and women aged < 50 years respectively, and at 65 and 73% respectively in men and women aged ≥ 50 years. We observed a high proportion of cancers attributable to overdiagnosis. This finding raises the issue of patient management, with the risk of overtreatment, and the repercussions on quality of life for patients diagnosed with cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. DNA content in radiation-associated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorowski, R.A.; Deaconson, T.F.; Vetsch, R.; Cerletty, J.M.; Wilson, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    DNA content has been reported to be of prognostic significance in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Since malignant tumors with irradiation as an initiator often contain DNA aberrations, the DNA content of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma in patients with a prior history of low-dose head and neck irradiation was determined and compared with similar nonradiation-associated lesions. The DNA content of thyroid cancers from 53 patients was determined with use of flow cytometry. Sixteen radiation-associated thyroid carcinomas (11 papillary, 3 follicular, and 2 medullary) all were diploid. In a group of 37 nonradiation-associated tumors, 10 were aneuploid (10 of 29 papillary carcinomas and 0 of 2 follicular or 6 medullary carcinomas). This difference in DNA content is significant (p less than 0.02, Fisher's exact test). These findings were unexpected and suggest that if the initiating irradiation causes a DNA aberration, this aberration is not reflected in DNA content as measured by means of flow cytometry

  20. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S

    2011-01-01

    Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia...... are at increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and NHL. We included the entire adult Danish population (14 years of age or older), in a 28-year follow-up period from 1980 through 2007, composed of 6 542 639 persons; during this period, 18 834 developed adult leukemia, 4561 developed thyroid...... cancer, 13 362 developed brain cancer, and 15 967 developed NHL. In nested studies using Cox regression models on individual participant data, we found that, after adult leukemia, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios were 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-8.5) for thyroid cancer, 1.9 (95% CI, 1...

  1. Radioiodine treatment in children with thyroid cancer from Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Biko, J.; Geworski, L.; Olthoff, M.; Demidchik, E.P.; Streffer, C.; Paretzke, H.; Voigt, G.; Kenigsberg, Y.; Bauer, W.; Heinemann, G.; Pfob, H.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1st of April 1993 and 15th of November 1995, 95 children from Belarus with most advanced stages of thyroid cancer have been treated totally 305 times with radioiodine in Germany. In spite of a high frequency of advanced tumor stages pT4 (82%), lymph node metastases (95%) and distant metastases (55%) in those selected children, the preliminary results of radioiodine treatment are promising. In 55% of the children complete remission and in 44% partial remission of thyroid cancer could be achieved. In no case progressive disease under treatment has been observed

  2. [Enviromental factors in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubetta, L; Costa, A

    1978-07-14

    Local factors with a possible influence on the frequency and histological type of thyroid cancer are examined in the light of cases observed at the Mauriziano Hospital in the last 10 years. The overall number of cases has been increasing and papilliferous forms have been more common than follicular forms. Iodine deficiency and thyrotropin hyper-stimulation encourage onset and account for the higher frequency of thyroid cancer in endemic areas, where, however, follicular forms are more common. Ironising radiation is a direct cause, particularly of papilliferous forms arising after exposure during youth.

  3. Thyroid malignancy among goitrous thyroid lesions: a review of hospital-based studies in Malaysia and Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htwe, T T

    2012-03-01

    Endemic goitre is a major concern in many parts of the world, including Southeast Asia. Goitrous thyroid lesion is postulated as a precursor lesion to thyroid cancer (TC). This paper reviews the prevalence rates and characteristics of TC among cases of goitrous thyroid-swelling in different parts of Malaysia and Myanmar. Recorded data from hospital-based retrospective studies of thyroid cases, whose study periods ranged from three to 11 years, were analysed. These included research findings from the author's publications as well as other published review articles of retrospective analyses. The incidence of TC varies among gender, age, race/ethnicity and histological type. There appears to be a higher rate of occurrence among females aged 21-60 years. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the more common histological type compared to follicular cancer. This review also presents a descriptive analysis and discussion on studies conducted in other countries. Further exploration is warranted in order to uncover the possible risk factors for the rising incidence of TC.

  4. Surgical techniques for the atomic bomb survivors of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Dohi, Kiyohiko; Noso, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    As for proper surgical techniques for radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis, this paper explains with a focus on the Hiroshima University cases, with an addition of the cases of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Takeichi Clinic. The definitive diagnosis of thyroid cancer is usually carried out by echo-guided aspiration biopsy cytology, but Takeichi Clinic faces the surgery by preparing 'thyroid - cervical lymph node map' by combining this technique with CT and MRI. As the surgery examples at Hiroshima University, 259 cases during 1955-1972 and 363 cases during 1965-1982 were taken up, and the survival rate and cancer death rate classified by tissue types for 10 years after the initial operations were shown in a table. Dead patients were mostly the surgery cases of senior persons of 60 years in age or older, and the death rate for surgery cases of the persons of 19 years old or younger was only 1.9% at 6 cases. Higher cancer death rate was seen in the cases of papillary cancer of more than 5 cm in size, where extra glandular infiltration could not be curated or cut out, and 64/318 cases of patients had a recurrence of cancer at thyroid gland. The mortality rate up to 20 years after the surgery of atomic bomb survivors was not significantly different from that of non-victims. Information on the multicentric cancerous focuses and microscopic cancer in the thyroid gland, as well as the tissue types and high risk of cancer death were described from the cases of Hiroshima University and Takeichi Clinic. The thyroid cancer of radiation exposure victims often results in papillary cancer, and the following are described related with this: (1) selection of ablation method, (2) method to protect the parathyroid tissue, and (3) method to prevent damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve and superior laryngeal nerve. The surgical procedure to perform the neck outside area lymph node dissection due to the quasi-subtotal or quasi-complete removal of the thyroid gland is

  5. Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer-a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, S; Reinertsen, KV; Knutstad, K; Olsen, DR; Fosså, SD

    2011-01-01

    To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC) patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT). In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT)-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT technique. Matched patients in Controls remained free for hypothyroidism. Based on each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH) the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were then estimated (V20, V30, V40 and V50) together with the individual mean thyroid dose over the whole gland (MeanTotGy). The mean and median thyroid dose for the included patients was about 30 Gy, subsequently the total volume of the thyroid gland (VolTotGy) and the absolute volumes (cm 3 ) receiving respectively < 30 Gy and ≥ 30 Gy were calculated (Vol < 30 and Vol ≥ 30) and analyzed. No statistically significant inter-group differences were found between V20, V30, V40 and V50Gy or the median of MeanTotGy. The median VolTotGy in Controls was 2.3 times above VolTotGy in Cases (ρ = 0.003), with large inter-individual variations in both groups. The volume of the thyroid gland receiving < 30 Gy in Controls was almost 2.5 times greater than the comparable figure in Cases. We concluded that in patients with small thyroid glands after loco-radiotherapy of BC, the risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism depends on the volume of the thyroid gland

  6. Epigenetics modifications and therapeutic prospects in human thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graziella eCatalano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available At present no successful treatment is available for advanced thyroid cancer, which comprises poorly differentiated, anaplastic, and metastatic or recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer not responding to radioiodine. In the last few years, biologically targeted therapies for advanced thyroid carcinomas have been proposed on the basis of the recognition of key oncogenic mutations. Although the results of several phase II trials look promising, none of the patients treated had a complete response, and only a minority of them had a partial response, suggesting that the treatment is, at best, effective in stabilizing patients with progressive disease. Epigenetic refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without any alteration in the primary DNA sequence. The epigenetic processes establish and maintain the global and local chroma¬tin states that determine gene expression. Epigenetic abnormalities are present in almost all cancers and, together with genetic changes, drive tumour progression. Various genes involved in the control of cell proliferation and invasion (p16INK4A, RASSF1A,PTEN, Rap1GAP, TIMP3, DAPK, RARβ2, E-cadherin, and CITED1 as well as genes specific of thyroid differentiation (Na+/I- symport, TSH receptor, pendrin, SL5A8, and TTF-1 present aberrant methylation in thyroid cancer.This review deals with the most frequent epigenetic alterations in thyroid cancer and focuses on epigenetic therapy, whose goal is to target the chromatin in rapidly dividing tumour cells and potentially restore normal cell functions. Experimental data and clinical trials, especially using deacetylase inhibitors and demethylating agents, are discussed.

  7. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Surgery Resources Thyroid Surgery Brochure PDF Thyroid Surgery FAQs PDF En Español Cirugia De La Tiroides El folleto de Cirugia De La Tiroides Search Thyroid ...

  8. Impact of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on the prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughattas, S.; Chatti, K.; Degdegui, M.; Hasine, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The association of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and differentiated thyroid cancer, and its prognosis significance remain controversial. We investigate the prognosis impact of this association by reviewing our series of patients being followed for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) at the department of nuclear medicine of Sahloul. Among the 350 patients followed in our department, 30 (8.5%) had histologically proved CLT, with infiltration of the non- tumoral thyroid tissue. A second group of 60 patients (without evidence of lymphocytic infiltration) was selected randomly and used as controls. The median of follow-up for these two groups was 4 years. The frequency of papillary thyroid cancer was significantly higher in the group with CTL (90% vs 74%; p=0.05). The larger diameter of the tumor didn't differ significantly (p= 0.36) between the group with TLC (mean=2.7; SD=1.98) and the control group 3.08 (SD=1.66). There was also no significant difference in capsular infiltration (37% vs 36%; p=0.96), nodal metastases (47% vs 43%; p=0.74), multicentric tumors (37% vs 38%; p=0.99) and bilateral tumors (20% vs 22%; p=0.9). At initial presentation, distant metastases were less frequent in patients with coexisting CLT and DTC (3% vs 12%, p<1%). Nevertheless, if we consider only patients with papillary thyroid cancer, the difference was not statistically significant (0% vs 6%; p=0.23). During the follow-up (mean 4 years), there was no significant difference in nodal relapse (20% vs 8% p=0.1), and distant metastasis (6% vs 3%: p=0.45). No death was noted in the first group, and two were observed in the second (patients with follicular thyroid cancer). The most striking result of this study is the total absence of significant impact of CLT on the prognosis of DTC. Our results seem to be on opposite to those of the majority of authors, underlying the complexity of this entity. We think that some factors specific to our population (iodine diet, ethnical

  9. Cancer of the thyroid and 131I fallout in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftedal, P.; Lund, E.

    1983-01-01

    From 1953 to 1962 Norway received relatively high levels of radioactive fallout. On the basis of extensive measurements in air, precipitation, food and humans, the dose to the thyroid due to 131 I has been calculated. Cancer registration in Norway is practically completely efficient because of obligatory notification of the Cancer Registry by physicians, pathology laboratories, and the Central Bureau of Statistics of all cases or death certificates concerning cancer. Analysis of the Cancer Registry data from 1953 to 1980 concerning birth cohorts 1936 to 1961 indicates an overall increasing trend in thyroid cancer morbidity, most pronounced in female cohorts born 1930-50. The highest, most abrupt irregularities reveal a coincidence of high numbers with high 131 I content in milk consumed during the years of prepuberty and puberty. Possible interpretations are discussed. (author)

  10. Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Rodriguez, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy. (Author)

  11. Completeness and validity in a national clinical thyroid cancer database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2014-01-01

    cancer database: DATHYRCA. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: National prospective cohort. Denmark; population 5.5 million. Completeness of case ascertainment was estimated by the independent case ascertainment method using three governmental registries as a reference. The reabstracted record method was used...... to appraise the validity. For validity assessment 100 cases were randomly selected from the DATHYRCA database; medical records were used as a reference. RESULT: The database held 1934 cases of thyroid carcinoma and completeness of case ascertainment was estimated to 90.9%. Completeness of registration......BACKGROUND: Although a prospective national clinical thyroid cancer database (DATHYRCA) has been active in Denmark since January 1, 1996, no assessment of data quality has been performed. The purpose of the study was to evaluate completeness and data validity in the Danish national clinical thyroid...

  12. Biotinidase is a novel marker for papillary thyroid cancer aggressiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony K-C So

    Full Text Available Biotinidase was identified in secretome analysis of thyroid cancer cell lines using proteomics. The goal of the current study was to analyze the expression of biotinidase in thyroid cancer tissues and fine needle aspiration (FNA samples to evaluate its diagnostic and prognostic potential in thyroid cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of biotinidase was carried out in 129 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC, 34 benign thyroid tissues and 43 FNA samples and correlated with patients' prognosis. Overall biotinidase expression was decreased in PTC compared to benign nodules (p = 0.001. Comparison of aggressive and non-aggressive PTC showed decrease in overall biotinidase expression in the former (p = 0.001. Loss of overall biotinidase expression was associated with poor disease free survival (p = 0.019, Hazards ratio (HR = 3.1. We examined the effect of subcellular compartmentalization of nuclear and cytoplasmic biotinidase on patient survival. Decreased nuclear expression of biotinidase was observed in PTC as compared to benign tissues (p<0.001. Upon stratification within PTC, nuclear expression was reduced in aggressive as compared to non-aggressive tumors (p<0.001. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significant association of loss of nuclear biotinidase expression with reduced disease free survival (p = 0.014, HR = 5.4. Cytoplasmic biotinidase expression was reduced in aggressive thyroid cancers in comparison with non-aggressive tumors (p = 0.002, Odds ratio (OR = 0.29 which was evident by its significant association with advanced T stage (p = 0.003, OR = 0.28, nodal metastasis (p<0.001, OR = 0.16, advanced TNM stage (p<0.001, OR = 0.21 and extrathyroidal extension (p = 0.001, OR = 0.23. However, in multivariate analysis extrathyroidal extension emerged as the most significant prognostic marker for aggressive thyroid carcinomas (p = 0.015, HR = 12.8. In conclusion, loss of overall

  13. Heavy metals in the volcanic environment and thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneri, R; Malandrino, P; Gianì, F; Russo, M; Vigneri, P

    2017-12-05

    In the last two decades thyroid cancer incidence has increased worldwide more than any other cancer. Overdiagnosis of subclinical microcarcinomas has certainly contributed to this increase but many evidences indicate that a true increase, possibly due to environmental factors, has also occurred. Thyroid cancer incidence is markedly increased in volcanic areas. Thus, the volcanic environment is a good model to investigate the possible factors favoring thyroid cancer. In the volcanic area of Mt. Etna in Sicily, as well as in other volcanic areas, a non-anthropogenic pollution with heavy metals has been documented, a consequence of gas, ash and lava emission. Soil, water and atmosphere contamination, via the food chain, biocontaminate the residents as documented by high levels in the urines and the scalp hair compared to individuals living in adjacent non-volcanic areas. Trace amounts of metals are essential nutrients but, at higher concentrations, can be toxic for living cells. Metals can behave both as endocrine disruptors, perturbing the hormonal system, and as carcinogens, promoting malignant transformation. Similarly to other carcinogens, the transforming effect of heavy metals is higher in developing organisms as the fetus (contaminated via the mother) and individuals in early childhood. In the last decades environment metal pollution has greatly increased in industrialized countries. Although still within the "normal" limits for each single metal the hormesis effect (heavy metal activity at very low concentration because of biphasic, non linear cell response) and the possible potentiation effect resulting from the mixture of different metals acting synergistically can explain cell damage at very low concentrations. The effect of metals on the human thyroid is poorly studied: for some heavy metals no data are available. The scarce studies that have been performed mainly focus on metal effect as thyroid endocrine disruptors. The metal concentration in tissues has

  14. Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The Philippine General Hospital Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Edward N. Lo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWell-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC is the most common form of thyroid malignancy. While it is typically associated with good prognosis, it may exhibit higher recurrence and mortality rates in selected groups, particularly Filipinos. This paper aims to describe the experience of a Philippine Hospital in managing patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.MethodsWe performed a retrospective cohort study of 723 patients with WDTC (649 papillary and 79 follicular, evaluating the clinicopathologic profiles, ultrasound features, management received, tumor recurrence, and eventual outcome over a mean follow-up period of 5 years.ResultsThe mean age at diagnosis was 44±13 years (range, 18 to 82, with a majority of cases occurring in the younger age group (<45 years. Most tumors were between 2 and 4 cm in size. The majority of papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs, 63.2% and follicular thyroid cancers (FTCs, 54.4% initially presented as stage 1, with a greater proportion of FTC cases (12.7% vs. 3.7% presenting with distant metastases. Nodal metastases at presentation were more frequent among patients with PTC (29.9% vs. 7.6%. A majority of cases were treated by complete thyroidectomy, followed by radioactive iodine therapy and thyroid stimulating hormone suppression, resulting in a disease-free state. Excluding patients with distant metastases at presentation, the recurrence rates for papillary and FTC were 30.1% and 18.8%, respectively.ConclusionOverall, PTC among Filipinos was associated with a more aggressive and recurrent behavior. FTC among Filipinos appeared to behave similarly with other racial groups.

  15. Nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Levi, Ana M; Rogado, Jacobo; Sanchez-Torres, Jose Miguel; Colomer, Ramón; Marazuela, Mónica

    2018-06-14

    Nivolumab is an anti-cancer monoclonal antibody that inhibits PD1 and modulates T-cell response. It has been shown to significantly improve survival in several types of cancer, but clinical trials have also reported an increased risk of developing immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). Endocrine IRAEs may be particularly relevant. To comprehensively evaluate the clinical presentation of endocrine IRAEs in patients with lung cancer treated with nivolumab. Potential risk factors are analyzed, and strategies for IRAE management are proposed. Forty consecutive patients treated with nivolumab for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were studied, paying particular attention to development of endocrine IRAEs (thyroid, hypophyseal, adrenal, or pancreatic) and clinical outcome. Thyroid function changes were found in 9 patients (22.5%), of which six developed hypothyroidism and three had hyperthyroidism after a median of 3.8 and 2.3 cycles of nivolumab respectively. Only one patient had thyroid-related symptoms. Thyroid autoimmunity was negative in all cases. Hyperthyroid patients showed no uptake in iodine scintigraphy, and their hormone values returned to normal in less than six months. Nivolumab was discontinued for toxicity in one patient. One patient with hyperthyroidism also developed autoimmune diabetes, and one patient with hypothyroidism also had hypogonadism. After a median follow-up of 7.6 months, 25 patients (62.5%) showed response to nivolumab. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed no differences between patients who developed thyroid changes and those who did not. Thyroid changes after treatment with nivolumab are common and warrant active laboratory monitoring. The underlying mechanisms and their relevance deserve further research. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezaki, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Takeichi, N.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to tumors of the head and neck has been studied in detail for the thyroid and salivary gland. It has been deomonstrated by animal experiments and studies conducted on those undergoing radiation therapy of the neck during childhood, and on those exposed to radioactive fallout from hydrogen-bomb tests in the Marshall Islands, that thyroid neoplasms can be induced by radiation. Although it was assumed that radiation would ahve a similar effect on the salivary gland located near the thyroid gland, it was in the 1970s that studies were commenced on the salivary gland. A study of the Adult Health Study population presented data which show that the incidence of salivary gland tumors was 9.3-fold higher in the group exposed to 300+ rad than in the control group and when confined only to malignant tumors the incidence was 21.8-fold higher

  17. Risk stratification and prediction of cancer of focal thyroid fluorodeoxyglucose uptake during cancer evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo-Hyun; Na, Min-A.; Kim, In-Joo; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki

    2010-01-01

    Focal thyroid incidentaloma by F-18 2-deoxy-2-F18-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has been reported 1-4% of cancer patients and normal healthy population, with a risk of cancer ranging 14-50%. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid incidentaloma in F-18 FDG PET/CT and risk of cancer, usefulness of visual and SUV max and SUV mean differentiating malignant nodules and to define the predictable variables. A total 159 patients with focal thyroid FDG incidentaloma during cancer evaluation with non-thyroid cancer were enrolled. After F-18 PET/CT, we analyzed the image visually and obtained semiquantitative indices. The incidence of focal FDG thyroid incidentaloma is 1.36% and cancer risk is 23.3%. The incidence of focal thyroid FDG uptake was significantly higher in women (2.88 vs. 0.31%; X 2 =136.4, p max (malignant: median 4.53, range 2.1-12.0; benign: median 3.08, range 1.6-35, p=0.0093). However, SUV mean have no statistical differences (malignant: median 2.17, range 1.77-3.19; benign: median 2.05, range 1.15-5.77, p=0.0541). In ROC analyses, the optimal visual grades were >grade 3, and the optimal semiquantitative indices were 4.46 for SUV max , 2.03 for SUV mean . The visual grade was superior to other variables for the differentiation malignant from benign thyroid incidentalomas. The size and visual grade was the potent predictor by logistic regression analysis. Focal thyroid FDG incidentalomas in non-thyroid cancer patients during evaluation have a high risk of malignancy. The size and visual grade are potential predictors for malignant thyroid incidentaloma. (author)

  18. Decreased staging of differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowczyk, M; Janicki, A; Dworacki, G; Szczepanek-Parulska, E; Danieluk, M; Barnett, J; Antonik, M; Kałużna, M; Bromińska, B; Czepczyński, R; Bączyk, M; Ziemnicka, K; Ruchała, M

    2018-04-04

    The biological association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has not been elucidated yet. The aim of the study was to assess whether the presence of CLT exerts any influence on clinical or histological presentation of DTC. Nine hundred and seven consecutive patients with DTC treated in the years 1998-2016 were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of concomitant CLT. The statistical differences were analysed. Out of 907 patients included in the study, 331 were diagnosed with DTC and CLT (studied group), while 576 patients with DTC but without CLT constituted a control group. The distribution of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer did not differ. In CLT group, the prevalence of pT1 was greater than for pT2-pT4 DTC (P = 0.0003; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.27-2.24) compared to controls (68.3 vs. 56.1%, respectively). The presence of multifocal lesions was similar. The thyroid capsule infiltration without extrathyroidal invasion (P CLT (P = 0.004; OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.17-2.34) as well as nodal involvement (P = 0.048; OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.42-0.99). The collected data indicate a protective role of CLT in preventing the spread of the DTC. The presence of CLT might limit tumour growth to the primary site.

  19. Thyroid cancer: experiences at Uttar Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    The highest incidence of goitre and also carcinoma of the thyroid was found to be in Terai. Although patients having thyroid carcinoma are being treated since 1964, because of the poor follow-up of the patients, only 1140 patients seen over 20 years (1978-1997) have been included in the study. Of the 217 cases of anaplastic carcinomas, surgery was feasible in only 19.4% (43/217) of cases. Even in these cases, the disease recurred within a short period to poor results. The main treatment has been external beam radiotherapy with doxorubicin as a radiosensitiser

  20. External radiotherapy prior to thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallquist, A.; Loefroth, P.O.; Hardell, L.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study previous radiotherapy of malignant diseases as a risk factor for thyroid cancer. By using the Swedish Cancer Registry all cases of thyroid cancer with another malignant disease at least one year previously and living within the catchment area of the hospital were traced. During 1959-1989 a total of 1056 cases of thyroid cancer were identified. Of these, 37 had had another previous malignant disease and they constituted the cases in this study. As controls four persons with at least two malignant diseases, thyroid cancer excluded, were selected for each case from the same cancer registry. Ten (27.0%) of the 37 patients with thyroid cancer as a second tumor had earlier been irradiated with the treatment dose including the thyroid gland as compared with 34 (24.5%) of the 139 control patients. Eight of the ten cases with previous irradiation of the thyroid gland had papillary cancer. The median latency was 13 years. The estimated radiation dose in the thyroid varied between 3 and 40 Gy. External radiotherapy gave a crude odds ratio of 1.1 with 95% confidence interval = 0.5-2.8 for thyroid cancer. The weighted odds ratio was calculated to 2.3 with confidence interval = 0.5-8.9. This case-control study gave a nonsignificantly increased odds ratio for thyroid cancer in patients with external radiotherapy including the thyroid gland. 26 refs., 4 tabs

  1. History of thyroid disease and survival of ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Cannioto, Rikki A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from in vitro studies suggest that increased exposure to thyroid hormones can influence progression of ovarian tumours. However, epidemiologic evidence on this topic is limited. METHODS: We pooled data from 11 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Using mult...

  2. Breast cancer metastasis to thyroid: a retrospective analysis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Retrospective analysis of data from breast cancer patients with thyroid metastasis (TM). Methods: The ... parenchyma with gathering of calcification that reduced in size, revealing the sensitiveness of TM to chemotherapy. Conclusion: US ..... patients.16-18. Most common sites of primary tumors are renal cell car-.

  3. Nuclear medicine in thyroid cancer management: A practical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    Thyroid cancers are now being diagnosed at an earlier stage and treatments together with follow-up strategies are more effective. However this is not consistent throughout the world. The practice does differ considerably from country to country and region to region. Many International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Members States can benefit from the lessons learned and improve overall patient management of thyroid cancers. The IAEA has significantly enhanced the capabilities of many Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Functional imaging using nuclear medicine procedures has become an indispensable tool for the diagnosis, treatment planning and management of patients. In terms of treatment, the use of radioiodine ( 131 I) has been central to thyroid cancer and has been successfully used for over six decades. Over the years the IAEA has also assisted many Member States to develop indigenous manufacturing of radioiodine therefore reducing the barriers for the care of patients. This publication is a culmination of efforts by more than twenty international experts in the field to produce a global perspective on the subject. Views expressed are those of individual experts involved and are intended to assist national or regional authorities in decisions regarding the frameworks for effective treatment of thyroid cancer

  4. Diagnosis and management of differentiated thyroid cancer using molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Robert L; Ferris, Robert L; Pribitkin, Edmund A; Sherman, Steven I; Steward, David L; Nikiforov, Yuri E

    2013-04-01

    To define molecular biology in clinical practice for diagnosis, surgical management, and prognostication of differentiated thyroid cancer. Ovid Medline 2006-2012 Manuscripts with clinical correlates. Papillary thyroid carcinomas harbor point mutations of the BRAF and RAS genes or RET/PTC rearrangements, all of which activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These mutually exclusive mutations are found in 70% of PTC. BRAF mutation is found in 45% of papillary thyroid cancer and is highly specific. Follicular carcinomas are known to harbor RAS mutation or PAX8/PPARγ rearrangement. These mutations are also mutually exclusive and identified in 70% of follicular carcinomas. Molecular classifiers measure the expression of a large number of genes on a microarray chip providing a substantial negative predictive value pending further validation. 1) 20% to 30% of cytologically classified Follicular Neoplasms and Follicular Lesion of Undetermined Significance collectively are malignant on final pathology. Approximately 70% to 80% of thyroid lobectomies performed solely for diagnostic purposes are benign. Molecular alteration testing may reduce the number of unnecessary thyroid procedures, 2) may reduce the number of completion thyroidectomies, and 3) may lead to more individualized operative and postoperative management. Molecular testing for BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPARγ for follicular lesion of undetermined significance and follicular neoplasm improve specificity, whereas molecular classifiers may add negative predictive value to fine needle aspiration diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina M Drozd

    Full Text Available One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  6. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M; Saenko, Vladimir A; Brenner, Alina V; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V; Demidchik, Yuri E; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  7. Sympathetic Nerve Injury in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Diamantis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The double innervation of the thyroid comes from the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Injury rates during surgery are at 30% but can be minimized by upwardly preparing the thyroid vessels at the level of thyroid capsule. Several factors have been accused of increasing the risk of injury including age and tumor size. Our aim was to investigate of there is indeed any possible correlations between these factors and a possible increase in injury rates following thyroidectomy. Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Statistical correlation was observed for a positive relationship between injury of the sympathetic nerve and thyroid malignancy surgery (p < 0.001; I2 = 74% No statistical correlations were observed for a negative or positive relationship between injury of the sympathetic nerve and tumor size. There was also no statistically significant value observed for the correlation of the patients’ age with the risk of sympathetic nerve injury (p = 0.388. Lack of significant correlation reported could be due to the small number of studies and great heterogeneity between them.

  8. p53 in differentiation of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyama, Toshio; Ito, Takashi; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Hayashi, Yuzo; Dohi, Kiyohiko.

    1993-01-01

    P53 is a tumor suppressor gene with such a recessive nature and is inactivated in many carcinomas. DNA was extracted from 10 primary papillary adenocarcinomas and eight undifferentiated carcinomas of the thyroid, using three 5 μm sliced paraffin segments, and then amplified by PCR. The products were analyzed for mutations in the p53 gene exons 5 to 8 by the direct sequencing method and for allelic deletion by the RFLP method. In five human thyroid carcinomas, DNA was extracted from each tissue and analyzed. Mutations in the p53 gene exons 5 to 8 and p53 gene deletions were not detected in the 10 papillary adenocarcinomas, mutations were detected in seven of eight cases and allelic deletions was detected in three of the five cases examined. In each of the five cases which had both differentiated and undifferentiated tissues in the same tumor, p53 gene mutations were not detected in the differentiated tissues while mutations and gene deletions were detected in the undifferentiated sections. The p53 gene was analyzed using paraffin-embedded tissues by the combined use of the direct sequencing and PCR methods and by the RFLP method. It was found that the progression of human thyroid carcinoma is closely related to the p53 genetic changes. Furthermore, the analysis of differentiated and undifferentiated tissues in the same tumor showed that human undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas develop from differentiated carcinomas. (J.P.N.)

  9. Thyroid and hypophysial function in radiation therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimova, T.P.; Lozinskaya, I.N.

    1984-01-01

    In breast cancer a decrease in triiodothyronine concentration was revealed with the normal level of thyroxine that may be associated with the disturbed peripharal metabolism into triiodothyronine. The lowering of thyroid functional activity is noted during radiation therapy of patients at menopause. Administration of thyroidin during radiation therapy to elderly patients with the 3 stage of the disease compensated for hormone deficiency producing a sparing effect on the thyroid, and influenced the therapeutic results favorably. A high level of the somatotropic hormone was observed in patients, of the reproductive age and at menopause, the level of insulin was increased in all the patients

  10. Incidence of thyroid cancer in women in relation to previous exposure to radiation therapy and history of thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTiernan, A.M.; Weiss, N.S.; Daling, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Female residents of 13 counties of Western Washington, in whom papillary, follicular, or mixed papillary-follicular thyroid carcinomas had been diagnosed between 1974 and 1979 were interviewed regarding their medical and reproductive histories and past exposure to radiation treatments. For comparison, a random sample of women from the same population was interviewed. Women who had received radiation treatments to the head or neck prior to 5 years before interview were 16.5 times (95% confidence interval . 8.1-33.5) more likely than unexposed women to develop cancer. The relative risk (RR) was highest for papillary cancer (19.4) but also was elevated substantially for follicular and mixed papillary-follicular tumors. Women first irradiated at age 19 years or younger had a much higher RR than did women irradiated at age 20 or older. Regardless of prior radiation exposure, women who ever had had a goiter were at increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. Women who had ever developed a goiter had 17 times the risk of developing follicular cancer and almost 7 times the risk of developing papillary cancer as compared with women who never had had a goiter. Risk of thyroid cancer was elevated even among women who had had a history of goiter many years prior to diagnosis. A history of thyroid nodules was also a risk factor for papillary and mixed thyroid cancer. Neither a history of hypothyroidism nor hyperthyroidism was found to increase the risk of thyroid cancer

  11. POSTOPERATIVE TREATMENT OF THYROID CANCER WITH RADIOACTIVE IODINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahd, William H.; Koplowitz, Jerry M.

    1963-06-15

    Experiences in the postoperative treatment of thyroid cancer with radioactive iodine since 1949 are reviewed. Forty-five patients received therapeutic amounts of I/sup 131/ and were followed for more than one year. Cancer metastases were localized by means of the mechanical scintiscanner after patients had received large tracer doses of I/sup 131/ preceded by injections of thyrotropic hormone. A consistent therapeutic regimen was followed involving four basic modalities of therapy: surgical thyroidectomy, thyrotropic hormone stimulation, cancerocidal doses of I/sup 131/ and thyroid extract administration. Twenty-nine patients in the series had proved metastatic lesions; 11 died, 18 are living, and 41% have lived 5 or more years. All patients who were free of metastases after initial thyroid surgery are alive. No complications from I/sup 131/ therapy were observed. This is attributed to the conservative dosage regimen employed. The results of the use of I/sup 131/ in the postoperative treatment of thyroid cancer in other reported series are also reviewed. (P.C.H.)

  12. Nuclear detonation, thyroid cancer and potassium iodide prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent nuclear disaster at Japan has raised global concerns about effects of radioactive leakage in the environment, associated hazards, and how they can be prevented. In this article, we have tried to explain about the guidelines laid down by World Health Organization for a potassium iodide prophylaxis following a nuclear disaster, and its mechanism of action in preventing thyroid cancer. Data was collected mainly from the studies carried out during the Chernobyl disaster of Russia in 1986 and the hazardous effects especially on the thyroid gland were studied. It was seen that radioactive iodine leakage from the nuclear plants mainly affected the thyroid gland, and especially children were at a higher risk at developing the cancers. Potassium Iodide prophylaxis can be administered in order to prevent an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancers in the population of an area affected by a nuclear disaster. However, one has to be cautious while giving it, as using it without indication has its own risks.

  13. Genetic Alterations in Hungarian Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiás, Bálint; Halászlaki, Csaba; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János P; Árvai, Kristóf; Horváth, Péter; Takács, István; Nagy, Zsolt; Horváth, Evelin; Horányi, János; Járay, Balázs; Székely, Eszter; Székely, Tamás; Győri, Gabriella; Putz, Zsuzsanna; Dank, Magdolna; Valkusz, Zsuzsanna; Vasas, Béla; Iványi, Béla; Lakatos, Péter

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancers is increasing worldwide. Some somatic oncogene mutations (BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS) as well as gene translocations (RET/PTC, PAX8/PPAR-gamma) have been associated with the development of thyroid cancer. In our study, we analyzed these genetic alterations in 394 thyroid tissue samples (197 papillary carcinomas and 197 healthy). The somatic mutations and translocations were detected by Light Cycler melting method and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction techniques, respectively. In tumorous samples, 86 BRAF (44.2%), 5 NRAS (3.1%), 2 HRAS (1.0%) and 1 KRAS (0.5%) mutations were found, as well as 9 RET/PTC1 (4.6%) and 1 RET/PTC3 (0.5%) translocations. No genetic alteration was seen in the non tumorous control thyroid tissues. No correlation was detected between the genetic variants and the pathological subtypes of papillary cancer as well as the severity of the disease. Our results are only partly concordant with the data found in the literature.

  14. [Analysis of Incidence and Mortality of Thyroid Cancer in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Zheng, R S; Wang, N; Zeng, H M; Yuan, Y N; Zhang, S W; Li, H C; Liu, S; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2017-11-23

    Objective: To evaluate the incidence and mortality status of thyroid cancer in China, 2013. Methods: Incidence and mortality data of thyroid cancer were derived from 255 population-based cancer registries in China. Age-specific and age standardized incidence and mortality rates of thyroid cancer in different areas (urban and rural) with different gender were calculated based on the stratification of area (urban and rural), gender, age and tumor position. Chinese census in 2000 and the world Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. The incident cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and national population data in 2013. Results: The estimates of new cancer incident cases and deaths were 143.9 thousand and 6 500, respectively. The crude incidence rate was 10.58/100 000 (Male 5.12/100 000, Female 16.32/100 000). Age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 8.82/100 000 and 7.67/100 000, respectively. Male to female ratio was 1∶3.2. The crude incidence rate in urban and rural areas were 15.03/100 000 and 5.41/100 000, respectively. After adjustment by China standard population, the rate in urban areas was 2.57 times higher than that of rural areas. The crude mortality rate of thyroid cancer was 0.48/100 000 (Male 0.33/100 000, Female 0.63/100 000). Age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 0.33/100 000 and 0.32/100 000, respectively. The crude mortality rate in urban and rural areas were 0.57/100 000 and 0.38/100 000, respectively. After adjustment by China standard population, the rate in urban areas was 1.41 times higher than that of rural areas. The cumulative incidence and mortality rates (0-74 years old) were 0.74% and 0.03%, respectively. According to the data from 255 cancer registries, papillary carcinoma is the main pathology type, which accounted

  15. Local reactions to radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, L.A.; du Cret, R.P.; Mariash, C.N. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of local complications resulting from radioiodine ablation of thyroid cancer in patients with a residual intact thyroid lobe to that in patients who had more extensive surgical treatment prior to radioiodine administration. We retrospectively studied 59 patients who had received 131I between 1979 and 1989. The patients were divided into two groups, depending on the extent of their previous surgical thyroid excision. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with a lobectomy or hemithyroidectomy before the ablative radioiodine dose, and Group 2 comprised 49 patients with more extensive thyroid excision (near-total or subtotal thyroidectomy) before the radioiodine treatment. Sixty percent of the 10 patients in Group 1 experienced some degree of neck pain or tenderness following radioiodine ablation of their residual thyroid. In one case, the local reaction was very severe and accompanied by the development of transient hyperthyroidism. There was only a 6% local complication rate in the patients who had undergone more extensive thyroid excision before ablative therapy (p less than 0.001), and none had a severe reaction. Patients with only unilateral surgical excision before radioiodine therapy have a higher rate of local complications than do patients treated with more extensive surgery prior to radioiodine ablation. If radioiodine is to be employed in such patients, they should be informed of this possible complication. Since evidence supports a dose effect in the pathogenesis of the complications, we recommend using a dose of less than 30 mCi for the initial ablation in these patients even though it may be necessary to repeat this dose to complete thyroid ablation.

  16. Local reactions to radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, L.A.; du Cret, R.P.; Mariash, C.N.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of local complications resulting from radioiodine ablation of thyroid cancer in patients with a residual intact thyroid lobe to that in patients who had more extensive surgical treatment prior to radioiodine administration. We retrospectively studied 59 patients who had received 131I between 1979 and 1989. The patients were divided into two groups, depending on the extent of their previous surgical thyroid excision. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with a lobectomy or hemithyroidectomy before the ablative radioiodine dose, and Group 2 comprised 49 patients with more extensive thyroid excision (near-total or subtotal thyroidectomy) before the radioiodine treatment. Sixty percent of the 10 patients in Group 1 experienced some degree of neck pain or tenderness following radioiodine ablation of their residual thyroid. In one case, the local reaction was very severe and accompanied by the development of transient hyperthyroidism. There was only a 6% local complication rate in the patients who had undergone more extensive thyroid excision before ablative therapy (p less than 0.001), and none had a severe reaction. Patients with only unilateral surgical excision before radioiodine therapy have a higher rate of local complications than do patients treated with more extensive surgery prior to radioiodine ablation. If radioiodine is to be employed in such patients, they should be informed of this possible complication. Since evidence supports a dose effect in the pathogenesis of the complications, we recommend using a dose of less than 30 mCi for the initial ablation in these patients even though it may be necessary to repeat this dose to complete thyroid ablation

  17. Thyroid dysfunction following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.L.; Tiver, K.W.; Boyages, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency of hypothyroidism (both subclinical and clinical) following external beam radiotherapy to the whole of the thyroid gland in the treatment of squamous cell cancers of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: One hundred and four patients who had completed radiotherapy 30 days to 5 years earlier (84 patients) or who were scheduled for radiotherapy (20 patients) had a single measurement of serum-free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone levels between August 1991 and May 1992. Results: None of the 20 patients assessed prior to treatment showed thyroid dysfunction. Twenty of 84 (23.8%) previously treated patients had subclinical (9.5%) or clinical (14.3%) hypothyroidism. By 5 years, up to 40% of patients may become hypothyroid. Thyroid underactivity was significantly more common in patients having both laryngectomy (including hemi-thyroidectomy) and radiotherapy compared to radiotherapy alone (p < 0.001). Hypothyroidism had not been suspected clinically in any patient tested. Conclusion: In view of the frequency and potential morbidity of this complication, thyroid function testing should become a routine part of posttreatment follow-up for these patients

  18. Dietary habits during the 2 months following the Chernobyl accident and differentiated thyroid cancer risk in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaard, Constance; Rubino, Carole; Souchard, Vincent; Maillard, Stéphane; Ren, Yan; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Sassolas, Geneviève; Schvartz, Claire; Colonna, Marc; Lacour, Brigitte; Woronoff, Anne Sophie; Velten, Michel; Marrer, Emilie; Bailly, Laurent; Mariné Barjoan, Eugènia; Schlumberger, Martin; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Bouville, Andre; Orgiazzi, Jacques; Adjadj, Elisabeth; de Vathaire, Florent

    2018-02-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident occurred in Ukraine on April 26th 1986. In France, the radioactive fallout and thyroid radiation doses were much lower than in highly contaminated areas. However, a number of risk projections have suggested that a small excess in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) might occur in eastern France due to this low-level fallout. In order to investigate this potential impact, a case-control study on DTC risk factors was started in 2005, focusing on cases who were less than 15 years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident. Here, we aim to evaluate the relationship between some specific reports of potentially contaminated food between April and June 1986 - in particular fresh dairy products and leafy vegetables - and DTC risk. After excluding subjects who were not born before the Chernobyl accident, the study included 747 cases of DTC matched with 815 controls. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regression models and were reported for all participants, for women only, for papillary cancer only, and excluding microcarcinomas. The DTC risk was slightly higher for participants who had consumed locally produced leafy vegetables. However, this association was not stronger in the more contaminated areas than in the others. Conversely, the reported consumption of fresh dairy products was not statistically associated with DTC risk. Because the increase in DTC risk associated with a higher consumption of locally produced vegetables was not more important in the most contaminated areas, our study lacked power to provide evidence for a strong association between consumption of potentially contaminated food and DTC risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S

    2011-01-01

    .2-3.1) for brain cancer, and 3.3 (95% CI, 2.5-4.4) for NHL. Corresponding hazard ratios after childhood leukemia were 10.4 (95% CI, 0.4-223) for thyroid cancer, 7.2 (95% CI, 2.0-26) for brain cancer, and 6.5 (95% CI, 0.4-110) for NHL. Patients with adult leukemia have excess risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer......Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia...... are at increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and NHL. We included the entire adult Danish population (14 years of age or older), in a 28-year follow-up period from 1980 through 2007, composed of 6 542 639 persons; during this period, 18 834 developed adult leukemia, 4561 developed thyroid...

  20. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer in Sicily: The Role of Environmental Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Tavarelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAnaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is a rare but extremely aggressive cancer of the thyroid, contributing up to 30–40% of thyroid cancer-specific mortality. We analyzed ATC characteristics and survival rates in Sicily to evaluate the possible influence of environmental factors. With this aim, data regarding ATC incidences in urban/rural and industrial, iodine-deficient, and volcanic vs control areas were compared in Sicily as well as ATC data from Sicily and USA.MethodsUsing the Sicilian Register of Thyroid Cancer (SRTC database incidence, age, gender, tumor size and histotype, extrathyroidal extension, stage, and coexistence with pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC were evaluated in different areas of Sicily and also compared with Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data in USA.ResultsForty-three ATCs were identified in Sicily in the period 2002–2009. In our series only age <70 years at diagnosis (p = 0.01, coexistence with DTC (p = 0.027 and tumor size ≤6 cm (p = 0.012 were significant factors for increased survival at univariate analysis (only age at multivariate analysis. No difference in ATC incidence was found in urban vs rural areas and in iodine-deficient and industrial vs control areas. By contrast, in the volcanic area of Sicily, where DTC incidence is doubled relative to the rest of the island, also ATC incidence was increased. ATC data in Sicily were similar to those reported in the same period in the USA where overall survival rate at 6 and 12 months, however, was smaller.ConclusionThe similar ATC data observed in Sicily and USA (having different genetic background and lifestyle and the increased ATC incidence in the volcanic area of Sicily paralleling the increased incidence of papillary thyroid cancer are compatible with the possibility that casual additional mutations, more frequent in a background of increased cell replication like DCT, are the major causes of ATC rather than

  1. The Breast-Thyroid Cancer Link: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Sarah M.; White, Michael G.; Hong, Susan; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Kaplan, Edwin L.; Angelos, Peter; Kulkarni, Swati A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Grogan, Raymon H.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of thyroid cancer in women with a history of breast cancer are higher than expected. Similarly, rates of breast cancer in those with a history of thyroid cancer are increased. Explanations for these associations include detection bias, shared hormonal risk factors, treatment effect, and genetic susceptibility. With increasing numbers of breast and thyroid cancer survivors clinicians should be particularly cognizant of this association. Here we perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature utilizing PubMed and Scopus search engines to identify all publications studying the incidence of breast cancer as a secondary malignancy following a diagnosis of thyroid cancer or thyroid cancer following a diagnosis of breast cancer. This demonstrated an increased risk of thyroid cancer as a secondary malignancy following breast cancer (OR=1.55, 95% CI [1.44,1.67]) and an increased risk of breast cancer as a secondary malignancy following thyroid cancer (OR= 1.32, 95% CI [1.23,1.42]). There is a clear increase in the odds of developing either thyroid or breast cancer as a secondary malignancy after diagnosis with the other. Here we review this association and current hypothesis as to the cause of this correlation. PMID:26908594

  2. Increased risk of thyroid diseases in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: A nationwide population-based Study in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seung Yun

    Full Text Available We investigated the association between autoimmune thyroid disease and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE using nationwide insurance claims data for the entire Korean population. Claims data for the period 2009-2013 were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database. SLE and thyroid disease were identified using the International Classification of Diseases codes and medication information. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between SLE and thyroid disease. The study used records from 17,495 patients with SLE and 52,485 age- and sex-matched control subjects. A greater prevalence of Graves' disease (0.94% vs. 0.46%, P < 0.001, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (2.68% vs. 0.80%, P < 0.001, and thyroid cancer (1.81% vs. 1.30%, P < 0.001 was observed in SLE patients than in control subjects. Multivariate regression analyses demonstrated that SLE was significantly associated with an increased risk of both autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid cancer (Graves' disease: odds ratio [OR] 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70-2.53; Hashimoto's thyroiditis: OR 3.42, 95% CI 3.00-3.91; thyroid cancer: OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.22-1.60. Age- and sex- stratified analyses revealed that the risk of autoimmune thyroid disease in SLE patients was increased for all age groups and the female group. An association between thyroid cancer and SLE was identified only in the 20- to 59-year-old age group and in the female group. Using a large population-based study, we demonstrated that patients with SLE are at a greater risk of developing thyroid disease than matched control individuals.

  3. Combination - breast cancer and thyroid gland cancer in the Semipalatinsk region of the Republic Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandybaev, M.N.; Adylkhanov, T.A.; Aliev, B.Kh.; Zejnelova, L.T.; Musinov, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    It was analysed data of medicine analysis on study of combination breast and thyroid gland cancer. The paper presents results obtained by personnel of the Semipalatinsk Cancer Clinic. The obtained data indicate that breast cancer morbidity within Semipalatinsk region significantly surpass that of the whole Republic of Kazakhstan. Within 1991-2004, thyroid gland cancer has increased by factor of three. At the same time, decrease of death rate was indicated for the ills of both locations. Decrease of lifetime in ills with breast and thyroid gland cancer resulted in more frequent registration in them initially-multiple malignant tumors. Syntrochronous initially-multiple malignant tumors of breast occur 6 times rare than meta-chronous cancer and have bad prediction of survivability. (author)

  4. Predicting Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancers from incoming data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Data on childhood thyroid cancers contracted in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia's Bryansk and Kaluga regions have been analysed under the working hypothesis that the excess cancers have been caused by iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout. It is postulated that the variation in latency period between different individuals is most likely to conform to either a normal or a normal logarithmic distribution. Optimal values of the mean and geometric mean latency period, together with their associated standard deviations, have been found using Belarus data. Both resulting distributions predict significant incidence of childhood thyroid cancer much earlier than ten years after the accident, a length of time widely understood in the past to be the approximate minimum for the development of a radiation-induced, solid tumour. The two distributions incorporating these optimal values have been tested against independent data from the Ukraine and Russian and each distribution has passed the statistical tests to date. Predictions are given for the annual incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in each country and for the total number of excess cases over all years. Tolerances are assigned to the latter figure. (Author)

  5. Radiotherapy and subsequent thyroid cancer in German childhood cancer survivors: a nested case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finke, Isabelle; Scholz-Kreisel, Peter; Hennewig, Ulrike; Blettner, Maria; Spix, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is associated with a risk of subsequent neoplasms (SN) in childhood cancer survivors. It has been shown that children’s thyroid glands are especially susceptible. The aim is to quantify the risk of a second neck neoplasm after primary cancer radiotherapy with emphasis on thyroid cancer. We performed a nested case–control study: 29 individuals, diagnosed with a solid SN in the neck region, including 17 with thyroid cancer, in 1980–2002 and 57 matched controls with single neoplasms were selected from the database of the German Childhood Cancer Registry. We investigated the risk associated with radiotherapy exposure given per body region, adjusted for chemotherapy. 16/17 (94.1 %) thyroid SN cases, 9/12 (75 %) other neck SN cases and 34/57 (59.6 %) controls received radiotherapy, with median doses of 27.8, 25 and 24 Gy, respectively. Radiotherapy exposure to the neck region increased the risk of the other neck SNs by 4.2 % (OR = 1.042/Gy (95 %-CI 0.980-1.109)) and of thyroid SN by 5.1 % (OR = 1.051/Gy (95 %-CI 0.984-1.123)), and radiotherapy to the neck or spine region increased the thyroid risk by 6.6 % (OR = 1.066/Gy (95 %-CI 1.010-1.125)). Chemotherapy was not a confounder. Exposure to other body regions was not associated with increased risk. Radiotherapy in the neck or spine region increases the risk of thyroid cancer, while neck exposure increases the risk of any other solid SN to a similar extent. Other studies showed a decreasing risk of subsequent thyroid cancer for very high doses; we cannot confirm this

  6. Management of recurrent and persistent metastatic lymph nodes in well-differentiated thyroid cancer: a multifactorial decision-making guide for the Thyroid Cancer Care Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urken, Mark L; Milas, Mira; Randolph, Gregory W; Tufano, Ralph; Bergman, Donald; Bernet, Victor; Brett, Elise M; Brierley, James D; Cobin, Rhoda; Doherty, Gerard; Klopper, Joshua; Lee, Stephanie; Machac, Josef; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Orloff, Lisa A; Ross, Douglas; Smallridge, Robert C; Terris, David J; Clain, Jason B; Tuttle, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) recurs in up to 30% of patients. Guidelines from the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) provide valuable parameters for the management of recurrent disease, but fail to guide the clinician as to the multitude of factors that should be taken into account. The Thyroid Cancer Care Collaborative (TCCC) is a web-based repository of a patient's clinical information. Ten clinical decision-making modules (CDMMs) process this information and display individualized treatment recommendations. We conducted a review of the literature and analysis of the management of patients with recurrent/persistent WDTC. Surgery remains the most common treatment in recurrent/persistent WDTC and can be performed with limited morbidity in experienced hands. However, careful observation may be the recommended course in select patients. Reoperation yields biochemical remission rates between 21% and 66%. There is a reported 1.2% incidence of permanent unexpected nerve paralysis and a 3.5% incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism. External beam radiotherapy and percutaneous ethanol ablation have been reported as therapeutic alternatives. Radioactive iodine as a primary therapy has been reported previously for metastatic lymph nodes, but is currently advocated by the ATA as an adjuvant to surgery. The management of recurrent lymph nodes is a multifactorial decision and is best determined by a multidisciplinary team. The CDMMs allow for easy adoption of contemporary knowledge, making this information accessible to both patient and clinician. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sericeous thyroglobulin and whole body thyroid scan in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, G.; Cano, R.; Morales, R.; Huanca, M.; Postigo, J.; Farfan, J.

    1994-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor among endocrine diseases. it has an incidence of 1,87 cases per hundred thousand habitants. Thyroglobulin is an iodo glycoprotein useful in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Total body scan is a well established method to localize distant functioning metastases. We report the concordance of this two methods in 22 patients attending to the Nuclear Medicine Center and proceeding from the Head and Neck Department of INEN, which had undergone total thyroidectomy, received a I-131 ablative dose, performed a total body scan and determined the thyroglobulin concentration fourteen were female patients and the same number were accounted as high risk patients. We conclude for the studied population, that an excellent correlation between thyroglobulin and scans was noted and that 6,5 ng/ml will be used as a cut-off point for the thyroglobulin determination. (authors). 40 refs., 5 tabs

  8. Radiation risk assessment of the thyroid cancer in Ukrainian children exposed due to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, B.; Likhtarev, I.; Kairo, I.; Tronko, N.; Oleynik, V.; Bogdanova, T.

    1996-01-01

    The children's thyroid exposure to radioiodine is one of the most serious consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The collective dose to children aged 0-18 in the entire Ukraine was estimated to be 400000 person-Gy. The dose estimates were calculated on the basis of measurements of thyroid content of 131 I for about 108000 people in Ukraine aged 0-18 years in May-June 1986. Up to the end of 1994, 542 thyroid cancers throughout the Ukraine have been reported in children and young adults who were aged 0-18 at the time of the accident. Rates of thyroid cancer have climbed, from about 0.7 per million children aged 0-14 in 1986 to more 7 per million in 1994. Rates increased most in region closest to Pripyat'. Between 1990 and 1994, 9 of the 14,580 people who had been children at the time of the accident in Pripyat' developed thyroid cancer. This corresponds to an annual incidence of 123 cases per million persons. The estimated average thyroid dose in Ukrainian children varies by several orders of magnitude. There is a more than 30-fold gradient in thyroid cancer incidence rates corresponding to the gradient in thyroid doses from 131 I. A preliminary investigation shows an excess in the annual incidence rate of thyroid cancer, throughout the northern territory of Ukraine, corresponding to the average doses to thyroid from 131 I. Coefficients of regression of excess cancers versus thyroid dose have been calculated

  9. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  10. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  11. Thyroid cancer incidence among Swedish patients exposed to diagnostic doses of iodine-131: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    The level of risk associated with I-131 is not well defined but appears lower than equivalent doses of x-rays. To provide quantitative data on the risk of thyroid cancer following I-131 exposure, 34,104 patients surviving ≅ 5 years after I-131 administration between 1950-69 for diagnostic purposes were studied. The mean thyroid dose was estimated to be 1.1 Gy (range 0-40.5). A significantly increased risk of a subsequent thyroid cancer was found, however, the excess rates were based entirely on patients referred because of a suspicion of a thyroid tumor. There was no suggestion of an increasing risk with increasing dose or time since exposure. No significant excess risk was found among those less than 20 years of age at exposure. The absence of a risk among those over age 20 is consistent with studies of A-bomb survivors and implies that any type of exposure to ionizing radiation later in life is associated with a minimal cancer risk. (author). 23 refs, 4 tabs

  12. Thyroid cancer incidence among Swedish patients exposed to diagnostic doses of iodine-131: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, P E [Karolinska Hospital, Stockhom (Sweden). Dept. of General Oncology; Holm, L E [National Inst. of Public Health, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-08-01

    The level of risk associated with I-131 is not well defined but appears lower than equivalent doses of x-rays. To provide quantitative data on the risk of thyroid cancer following I-131 exposure, 34,104 patients surviving {approx_equal} 5 years after I-131 administration between 1950-69 for diagnostic purposes were studied. The mean thyroid dose was estimated to be 1.1 Gy (range 0-40.5). A significantly increased risk of a subsequent thyroid cancer was found, however, the excess rates were based entirely on patients referred because of a suspicion of a thyroid tumor. There was no suggestion of an increasing risk with increasing dose or time since exposure. No significant excess risk was found among those less than 20 years of age at exposure. The absence of a risk among those over age 20 is consistent with studies of A-bomb survivors and implies that any type of exposure to ionizing radiation later in life is associated with a minimal cancer risk. (author). 23 refs, 4 tabs.

  13. Radioiodine therapy in skeletal metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer: a Johannesburg experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Sindy Perumal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim.The purpose of this study was to examine the outcome of patients with skeletal metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma and analyse the effect of variables that influence the prognosis of this disease. Method. We retrospectively reviewed 352 patients treated and followed-up at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital’s thyroid cancer clinic from 1982 - 1999. Findings. Skeletal metastases were diagnosed in 24 (6.8%, 17 at presentation to the thyroid clinic, and 7 at follow-up. Patients’ ages ranged from 30 - 77 years (mean 53.9 years and the female:male ratio was 3.8:1. Based on the original pathology reports from resected tumours, 9 were papillary and 15 were follicular cancers. Twenty-three of the 24 patients underwent thyroid surgery as the initial management – total thyroidectomy in 18, subtotal thyroidectomy in 3, and lobectomy plus neck dissection in one. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was based on lobectomy in a single subject. Radioactive iodine (RAI was used as part of the original treatment; external radiation therapy (XRT was mainly used to alleviate severe symptoms. Twenty-one patients (87.5% were treated with RAI; 11 (45.8% received radiotherapy. Seven patients died – 4 from neurological disease directly associated with bone metastases. Of the 17 surviving patients, 2 appeared to be disease-free, 8 were asymptomatic despite overt bony disease, and 7 had persistent symptoms which much improved in 5. Bone metastases were uncommon, and follicular cancer predominated in this survey. Conclusion. RAI therapy improves quality of life in most patients. There is a place for XRT.

  14. The Effect of Thyroiditis on the Yield of Central Compartment Lymph Nodes in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Victoria; Yen, Tina W F; Rose, Brian T; Fareau, Gilbert G; Misustin, Sarah M; Evans, Douglas B; Wang, Tracy S

    2015-12-01

    In patients who have undergone thyroidectomy and central compartment neck dissection (CCND) for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), visualization of enlarged lymph nodes may lead to more extensive CCND. This study sought to determine the effect of patient age and the presence of thyroiditis on the number of malignant and total lymph nodes resected in patients who underwent CCND for PTC. This retrospective review examined a prospective database of patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and CCND for PTC between April 2009 and June 2013 and had thyroiditis on the final pathology. The patients were categorized into age groups by decade (18-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and ≥60 years) and compared with a control group of patients matched by age, gender, and tumor size. Of 74 patients with thyroiditis, 64 (87 %) were women. The median age of the patients was 47.5 years (range 18.2-72.0 years). The patients with thyroiditis had more lymph nodes resected than those without thyroiditis (median 11 vs 7; p thyroiditis and PTC who underwent CCND had more lymph nodes resected but a had lower proportion of metastatic lymph nodes than those without thyroiditis. Given the relatively low yield of malignant cervical lymphadenopathy, a more judicious approach to CCND might be considered, particularly for the youngest and oldest patients with PTC and thyroiditis.

  15. The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer and noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharpf, Joseph; Kamani, Dipti; Sadow, Peter M; Randolph, Gregory W

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is a new terminology proposed for encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC). Recently, thyroid cancer incidence has increased dramatically, without affecting related mortality rate. This increase is widely attributed to the intensified surveillance leading to a substantial increase in the diagnosis of small classic papillary thyroid cancers and EFVPTCs. Recent studies emphasize the indolent behavior of the EFVPTC. Recently, there has been a reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entity. The financial and emotional burden of 'cancer' diagnosis and treatment can be significant. This review recapitulates the literature supporting the reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entity, and reviews standardized diagnostic criteria for EFVPTC. The information highlighted in this review will affect surgical decision making and may promote the offering of hemithyroidectomy over a total thyroidectomy to some patients with 'indeterminate' cytopathological category; postoperative radioiodine ablation will not be required for NIFTP patients.

  16. Effect of Thyrotropin Suppression Therapy on Bone in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Papaleontiou, Maria; Hawley, Sarah T.; Haymart, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The thyroid cancer incidence is rising. Despite current guidelines, controversy exists regarding the degree and duration of thyrotropin suppression therapy. Also, its potential skeletal effects remain a concern to physicians caring for thyroid cancer patients. We conducted a review of published data to evaluate existing studies focusing on the skeletal effects of thyrotropin suppression therapy in thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods. A systematic search of the PubMed, O...

  17. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxon, H.; Thomas, S.; Buncher, C.; Book, S.; Hertzberg, V.

    1985-01-01

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131 I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to 131 I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

  18. Molecular markers in well-differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Anil K; Vaish, Richa; Vaidya, Abhishek; Nixon, Iain J; Williams, Michelle D; Vander Poorten, Vincent; López, Fernando; Angelos, Peter; Shaha, Ashok R; Khafif, Avi; Skalova, Alena; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Hunt, Jennifer L; Ferlito, Alfio

    2018-06-01

    Thyroid nodules are of common occurrence in the general population. About a fourth of these nodules are indeterminate on aspiration cytology placing many a patient at risk of unwanted surgery. The purpose of this review is to discuss various molecular markers described to date and place their role in proper perspective. This review covers the fundamental role of the signaling pathways and genetic changes involved in thyroid carcinogenesis. The current literature on the prognostic significance of these markers is also described. PubMed was used to search relevant articles. The key terms "thyroid nodules", "thyroid cancer papillary", "carcinoma papillary follicular", "carcinoma papillary", "adenocarcinoma follicular" were searched in MeSH, and "molecular markers", "molecular testing", mutation, BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, PAX 8, miRNA, NIFTP in title and abstract fields. Multiple combinations were done and a group of experts in the subject from the International Head and Neck Scientific Group extracted the relevant articles and formulated the review. There has been considerable progress in the understanding of thyroid carcinogenesis and the emergence of numerous molecular markers in the recent years with potential to be used in the diagnostic algorithm of these nodules. However, their precise role in routine clinical practice continues to be a contentious issue. Majority of the studies in this context are retrospective and impact of these mutations is not independent of other prognostic factors making the interpretation difficult. The prevalence of these mutations in thyroid nodule is high and it is a continuously evolving field. Clinicians should stay informed as recommendation on the use of these markers is expected to evolve.

  19. Sustained ERK inhibition maximizes responses of BrafV600E thyroid cancers to radioiodine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagarajah, J.; Le, M.; Knauf, J.A.; Ferrandino, G.; Montero-Conde, C.; Pillarsetty, N.; Bolaender, A.; Irwin, C.; Krishnamoorthy, G.P.; Saqcena, M.; Larson, S.M.; Ho, A.L.; Seshan, V.; Ishii, N.; Carrasco, N.; Rosen, N.; Weber, W.A.; Fagin, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Radioiodide (RAI) therapy of thyroid cancer exploits the relatively selective ability of thyroid cells to transport and accumulate iodide. Iodide uptake requires expression of critical genes that are involved in various steps of thyroid hormone biosynthesis. ERK signaling, which is markedly

  20. Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: Possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at the determination of molecular changes associated with thyroid cancers among children who suffered effects from the Chernobyl nuclear accident will be overviewed. We intend to discuss whether any radiation signatures are associated with radiation-induced childhood thyroid cancers. PMID:25483826

  1. Increased Global DNA Hypomethylation in Distant Metastatic and Dedifferentiated Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther N; Zafon, Carles; Villalmanzo, Núria; Iglesias, Carmela; van Hemel, Bettien M; Klein Hesselink, Mariëlle S; Montero-Conde, Cristina; Buj, Raquel; Mauricio, Dídac; Peinado, Miguel A; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Reverter, Jordi L; Robledo, Mercedes; Links, Thera P; Jordà, Mireia

    Context: Global DNA hypomethylation is a major event for the development and progression of cancer, although the significance in thyroid cancer remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate its role in thyroid cancer progression and its potential as a prognostic marker. Methods: Global

  2. Radiation safety procedures in radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajashekharrao, B.; Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    During any administration of radioactive materials, it is imperative to always be conversant with any forbidden radiation health safety practices. This need is amplified when dealing with therapeutic amount of radionuclides. Among all the procedures dealing with the use of radiopharmaceuticals, it is easiest to think of 131 I, since this is the most widely used unsealed source of a radiopharmaceutical for treatment of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism and carries with it most of the problems associated with therapy applications

  3. Retrospective study of thyroid cancer treatment: aims and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosmikova, K.; Hermanska, J.; Jirsa, L.; Karny, M.; Samal, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although opinions preferring individual administration of activity in the treatment of thyroid cancer with 131 I predominate, sufficient quantitative arguments in favor of this approach are unavailable as yet. Therefore, a retrospective study involving statistical processing was proposed with the aim to evaluate the relations between available data of the patients and success of treatment. Ideally, recommendations regarding activity to be administered in dependence on the biophysical status of the patient should emerge from the study

  4. Thyroid cancer in toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter

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    Cerci C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Many authors have claimed that hyperthyroidism protects against thyroid cancer and believed that the incidence of malignancy is lower in patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG than in those with non-toxic multinodular goiter. But in recent studies, it was reported that the incidence of malignancy with TMG is not as low as previously thought. Aim : To compare the thyroid cancer incidence in patients with toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. Settings and Design : Histology reports of patients treated surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter were reviewed to identify the thyroid cancer incidence. Patients having a history of neck irradiation or radioactive iodine therapy were excluded from the study. Materials and Methods : We reviewed 294 patients operated between 2001-2005 from toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. One hundred and twenty-four of them were toxic and 170 were non-toxic. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed by elevated tri-iodothyroinine / thyroxine ratios and low thyroid-stimulating hormone with clinical signs and symptoms. All patients were evaluated with ultrasonography and scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration biopsy. Statistical Analysis Used : Significance of the various parameters was calculated by using ANOVA test. Results : The incidence of malignancy was 9% in the toxic and 10.58% in the non-toxic multinodular goiter group. Any significant difference in the incidence of cancer and tumor size between the two groups could not be detected. Conclusions : The incidence of malignancy in toxic multinodular goiter is not very low as thought earlier and is nearly the same in non-toxic multinodular goiter.

  5. Thyroid exposure in Ukrainian and White Russian children following the Chernobyl disaster and the resultant risk of acquiring thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.

    2005-01-01

    After a presentation of the main strong and weak points of various studies on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl disaster this study summarises the results of a recent ecological study. 175,800 measurements of 1 31I activity in the human thyroid gland performed in the contaminated regions of the Ukraine and White Russia during the first weeks after the Chernobyl disaster served as a starting point for this study on thyroid exposure in Ukrainian and White Russian children following the Chernobyl disaster and the resultant risk of acquiring thyroid cancer. More than 10 measurements were performed in each of altogether 1,114 locations. Age and sex-specific doses were calculated for each of these locations within the 1968-85 birth cohort. 95% of all dose values were within the range of 0.017 to 0.69 Gy. Since 1990 the incidence of thyroid cancer within the study area has increased at a markedly higher rate than one would expect on the basis of the cohort members' growing age. In the period from 1990 to 2001 1,091 cases of surgery for thyroid cancer were reported. The additional absolute risk per 10 4 PY Gy was calculated as 2.5 (95% CI: 2.3;2.9). The additional relative risk per dose was calculated as 10 (95% CI: 8;12) Gy -1 . These results are consistent with risk values found for thyroid cancer after external exposure during childhood. Assuming that the calculated risk values also apply for the intervention level of 0.05 Gy at which iodine tablets are distributed in the event of a major release of radioiodide this means that within the period of 4 to 15 years following the exposure 3 additional cases of thyroid cancer are expected to occur within a collective of 20,000 children and adolescents. This is equivalent to a 50% increase in the spontaneous incidence of the disease

  6. American Thyroid Association Guidelines on the Management of Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Task Force Review and Recommendation on the Proposed Renaming of Encapsulated Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Without Invasion to Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Bryan R; Sawka, Anna M; Alexander, Erik K; Bible, Keith C; Caturegli, Patrizio; Doherty, Gerard M; Mandel, Susan J; Morris, John C; Nassar, Aziza; Pacini, Furio; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn; Sherman, Steven I; Somerset, Hilary; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L; Wartofsky, Leonard; Williams, Michelle D

    2017-04-01

    American Thyroid Association (ATA) leadership asked the ATA Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Guidelines Task Force to review, comment on, and make recommendations related to the suggested new classification of encapsulated follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (eFVPTC) without capsular or vascular invasion to noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). The task force consists of members from the 2015 guidelines task force with the recusal of three members who were authors on the paper under review. Four pathologists and one endocrinologist were added for this specific review. The manuscript proposing the new classification and related literature were assessed. It is recommended that the histopathologic nomenclature for eFVPTC without invasion be reclassified as a NIFTP, given the excellent prognosis of this neoplastic variant. This is a weak recommendation based on moderate-quality evidence. It is also noted that prospective studies are needed to validate the observed patient outcomes (and test performance in predicting thyroid cancer outcomes), as well as implications on patients' psychosocial health and economics.

  7. Targeted Therapy for Medullary Thyroid Cancer: A Review

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    S. R. Priya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid cancers (MTCs constitute between 2 and 5% of all thyroid cancers. The 10-year overall survival (OS rate of patients with localized disease is around 95% while that of patients with regional stage disease is about 75%. Only 20% of patients with distant metastases at diagnosis survive 10 years which is significantly lower than for differentiated thyroid cancers. Cases with regional metastases at presentation have high recurrence rates. Adjuvant external radiation confers local control but not improved OS. The management of residual, recurrent, or metastatic disease till a few years ago was re-surgery with local measures such as radiation. Chemotherapy was used with marginal benefit. The development of targeted therapy has brought in a major advantage in management of such patients. Two drugs—vandetanib and cabozantinib—have been approved for use in progressive or metastatic MTC. In addition, several drugs acting on other steps of the molecular pathway are being investigated with promising results. Targeted radionuclide therapy also provides an effective treatment option with good quality of life. This review covers the rationale of targeted therapy for MTC, present treatment options, drugs and methods under investigation, as well as an outline of the adverse effects and their management.

  8. CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells are undifferentiated, radioresistant and survive radioiodide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Chien-Chih; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Yang, An-Hang; Liu, Ching-Sheng; Chi, Chin-Wen; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Fan; Ho, Jennifer H.; Lee, Chen-Hsen; Lee, Oscar K.

    2013-01-01

    131 I therapy is regularly used following surgery as a part of thyroid cancer management. Despite an overall relatively good prognosis, recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer is not rare. CD133-expressing cells have been shown to mark thyroid cancer stem cells that possess the characteristics of stem cells and have the ability to initiate tumours. However, no studies have addressed the influence of CD133-expressing cells on radioiodide therapy of the thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CD133 + cells contribute to the radioresistance of thyroid cancer and thus potentiate future recurrence and metastasis. Thyroid cancer cell lines were analysed for CD133 expression, radiosensitivity and gene expression. The anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line ARO showed a higher percentage of CD133 + cells and higher radioresistance. After γ-irradiation of the cells, the CD133 + population was enriched due to the higher apoptotic rate of CD133 - cells. In vivo 131 I treatment of ARO tumour resulted in an elevated expression of CD133, Oct4, Nanog, Lin28 and Glut1 genes. After isolation, CD133 + cells exhibited higher radioresistance and higher expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Lin28 and Glut1 in the cell line or primarily cultured papillary thyroid cancer cells, and lower expression of various thyroid-specific genes, namely NIS, Tg, TPO, TSHR, TTF1 and Pax8. This study demonstrates the existence of CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells which show a higher radioresistance and are in an undifferentiated status. These cells possess a greater potential to survive radiotherapy and may contribute to the recurrence of thyroid cancer. A future therapeutic approach for radioresistant thyroid cancer may focus on the selective eradication of CD133 + cells. (orig.)

  9. Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2011-12-01

    The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation.

  10. Thyroid cancer in a patient with Lynch syndrome - case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazekas-Lavu, Monika; Parker, Andrew; Spigelman, Allan D; Scott, Rodney J; Epstein, Richard J; Jensen, Michael; Samaras, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Lynch syndrome describes a familial cancer syndrome comprising germline mutations in one of four DNA mismatch repair genes, MLH1 , MSH2 , MSH6 , and PMS2 and is characterized by colorectal, endometrial, and other epithelial malignancies. Thyroid cancer is not usually considered to be part of the constellation of Lynch syndrome cancers nor have Lynch syndrome tumor gene mutations been reported in thyroid malignancies. This study reports a woman with Lynch syndrome (colonic cancer and a DNA mismatch repair mutation in the MSH2 gene) with a synchronous papillary thyroid cancer. Six years later, she developed metachronous breast cancer. Metastatic bone disease developed after 3 years, and the disease burden was due to both breast and thyroid diseases. Despite multiple interventions for both metastatic breast and thyroid diseases, the patient's metastatic burden progressed and she died of leptomeningeal metastatic disease. Two prior case reports suggested thyroid cancer may be an extraintestinal malignancy of the Lynch syndrome cancer group. Hence, this study examined the genetic relationship between the patient's known Lynch syndrome and her thyroid cancer. The thyroid cancer tissue showed normal expression of MSH2 , suggesting that the tumor was not due to the oncogenic mutation of Lynch syndrome, and molecular analysis confirmed BRAF V600E mutation. Although in this case the thyroid cancer was sporadic, it raises the importance of considering cancer genetics in familial cancer syndromes when other cancers do not fit the criteria of the syndrome. Careful documentation of other malignancies in patients with thyroid cancer and their families would assist in better understanding of any potential association. Appropriate genetic testing will clarify whether a common pathogenic mechanism links seemingly unrelated cancers.

  11. The clinical features of papillary thyroid cancer in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patients from an area with a high prevalence of Hashimoto’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ling

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to identify the clinicopathological factors of co-existing papillary thyroid cancer (PTC in patients with Hashimoto���s thyroiditis (HT and provide information to aid in the diagnosis of such patients. Methods This study included 6109 patients treated in a university-based tertiary care cancer hospital over a 3-year period. All of the patients were categorised based on their final diagnosis. Several clinicopathological factors, such as age, gender, nodular size, invasive status, central compartment lymph node metastasis (CLNM and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level, were compared between the various groups of patients. Results There were 653 patients with a final diagnosis of HT. More PTC was found in those with HT (58.3%; 381 of 653 than those without HT (2416 of 5456; 44.3%; p Conclusion PTC and HT have a close relationship in this region of highly prevalent HT disease. Based on the results of our study, we hypothesise that long-term HT leads to elevated serum TSH, which is the real risk factor for thyroid cancer.

  12. Thyroid Cancer in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Ramon

    1999-01-01

    24 cases were revised, of patient with thyroid tumors in the period understood between 1983 and 1995. Of these tumors 14 were papillars, 3 medullar, 3 children with high levels of thyro calcitonine, 2 with follicular adenomas, a boy with hyperplasia and a doubtful cytology to the one who two years later it was made a total thyroidectomy. Most of the patients were bigger than the 10 years, globally there was not great difference in the distribution for sex, being lightly bigger the number of patient of feminine sex; in the medullar, the relationship was of 2:1 feminine: Masculine, similar to that reported in the literature. To the date, they are alive and without illness 12 patients; 3 evolve with lung metastasis, 2 (with lung metastasis) they abandoned the controls, 3 died with illness and 1 present metastasis and cardiac illness. Iodine 1 31 was used in eleven patients

  13. Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute. (2014). Thyroid Cancer . Bomeli, S.R., LeBeau, S.O., Ferris, R.L. (2010). Evalution of a Thyroid Nodule . ... Institute. (2014). Thyroid Cancer . Bomeli, S.R., LeBeau, S.O., Ferris, R.L. (2010). Evalution of a Thyroid Nodule . ...

  14. Thyroid scintigraphy for the detection of radiation-induced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puylaert, J.B.; Pauwels, E.K.; Goslings, B.M.; Van Daal, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy with Tc-99m pertechnetate was performed in 249 patients who received radiation therapy for abnormalities in the head or neck in order to determine the role of this examination in the detection of abnormal nodules arising from cancer. These patients received a mean total dose of about 10.1 Gy. The mean follow-up period was 39 years. All patients underwent physical examination without prior knowledge of the scintigram. Scintigrams were evaluated without prior knowledge of the physical examination. In 158 cases, both the physical examination and scintigraphy were negative. In 64 cases, both examinations were positive. In ten patients, the physical examination was positive and scintigraphy was negative and vice versa in 17 patients. Of 249 patients, 28 ultimately underwent thyroid surgery; a total of four had carcinoma. A cost-benefit relationship as to routine scintigraphy as a screening procedure is presented. If patients are first screened by palpation, a number of abnormal nodules will be missed. In addition, a considerable number with positive palpation would probably undergo surgery unnecessarily. From a clinical and financial point of view, it is believed that scintigraphy is the examination of choice for screening for radiation-induced thyroid malignancies

  15. Cytokine production in patients with papillary thyroid cancer and associated autoimmune Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivancevic-Simonovic, Snezana; Mihaljevic, Olgica; Majstorovic, Ivana; Popovic, Suzana; Markovic, Slavica; Milosevic-Djordjevic, Olivera; Jovanovic, Zorica; Mijatovic-Teodorovic, Ljiljana; Mihajlovic, Dusan; Colic, Miodrag

    2015-08-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is the most frequent thyroid autoimmune disease, while papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is one of the most common endocrine malignancies. A few patients with HT also develop PTC. The aim of this study was to analyze cytokine profiles in patients with PTC accompanied with autoimmune HT in comparison with those in patients with PTC alone or HT alone and healthy subjects. Cytokine levels were determined in supernatants obtained from phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated whole blood cultures in vitro. The concentrations of selected cytokines: Th1-interferon gamma (IFN-γ); Th2-interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 5 (IL-5), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interleukin 13 (IL-13); Th9-interleukin 9 (IL-9); and Th17-interleukin 17 (IL-17A) were measured using multiplex cytokine detection systems for human Th1/Th2/Th9/Th17/Th22. We found that PTC patients with HT produced significantly higher concentrations of IL-4, IL-6, IL-9, IL-13 and IFN-γ than PTC patients without HT. In conclusion, autoimmune HT affects the cytokine profile of patients with PTC by stimulating secretion of Th1/Th2/Th9 types of cytokines. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratios in PTC patients with associated autoimmune HT indicate a marked shift toward Th2 immunity.

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of Detecting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Thyroid Cancer Patients Who Underwent Thyroid Surgery: Comparison of Ultrasonography, Positron Emission Tomography/CT, Contrast Enhanced CT, and Anti-Thyroid Antibody

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    Kim, Young Gyun; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee; Nam, Sang Been [Dept. of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US), F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), contrast enhanced CT (CECT), serum anti-thyroid antibody for detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis in thyroid cancer patients who underwent neck surgery. A total of 150 patients with suspicious for thyroid cancer, who had previously undergone US guided needle aspiration of thyroid, were evaluated with the use of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. The four studies were performed within two months before neck surgery. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed by histopathological results. The diagnostic accuracy of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 51 out of the 150 patients, following neck surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of US were 76.5%, 92.9%, 84.8%, 88.5%, and 87.3%, respectively. The corresponding values of PET/CT were 37.3%, 96.0%, 82.6%, 74.8%, and 76.0%, and CECT were 62.7%, 89.9%, 76.2%, 82.4%, and 80.7%, and serum anti-thyroid antibody level were 90.2%, 93.9%, 88.5%, 94.9%, and 92.7%, respectively. McNemar test revealed significant difference among PET/CT and others, but no significant differences among US, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. Overall, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed most accurate diagnostic performance. In detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed higher diagnostic accuracy than others. US also showed relatively high diagnostic accuracy.

  17. Diagnostic Accuracy of Detecting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Thyroid Cancer Patients Who Underwent Thyroid Surgery: Comparison of Ultrasonography, Positron Emission Tomography/CT, Contrast Enhanced CT, and Anti-Thyroid Antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Gyun; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee; Nam, Sang Been

    2012-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US), F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), contrast enhanced CT (CECT), serum anti-thyroid antibody for detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis in thyroid cancer patients who underwent neck surgery. A total of 150 patients with suspicious for thyroid cancer, who had previously undergone US guided needle aspiration of thyroid, were evaluated with the use of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. The four studies were performed within two months before neck surgery. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed by histopathological results. The diagnostic accuracy of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 51 out of the 150 patients, following neck surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of US were 76.5%, 92.9%, 84.8%, 88.5%, and 87.3%, respectively. The corresponding values of PET/CT were 37.3%, 96.0%, 82.6%, 74.8%, and 76.0%, and CECT were 62.7%, 89.9%, 76.2%, 82.4%, and 80.7%, and serum anti-thyroid antibody level were 90.2%, 93.9%, 88.5%, 94.9%, and 92.7%, respectively. McNemar test revealed significant difference among PET/CT and others, but no significant differences among US, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. Overall, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed most accurate diagnostic performance. In detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed higher diagnostic accuracy than others. US also showed relatively high diagnostic accuracy.

  18. What Do Korean Women Know and Want to Know about Thyroid Cancer? A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bomyee; Park, Jae Young; Shin, Hye Young; Park, Sang Hee; Choi, Eun-Bi; Yoo, Jisu; Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing debate about overdiagnosis and overtreatment of thyroid cancer in Korea, information to guide decisions on whether or not to undergo screening for and treatment of abnormal lesions of the thyroid is lacking. Moreover, studies have yet to outline what lay people know and want to know about thyroid cancer. The primary aim of this study was to explore general awareness of thyroid cancer among Korean women, their sources of information, and their satisfaction with the information they are provided. The secondary aim was to investigate information needs about thyroid cancer. A qualitative study using focus group interviews was conducted. Twenty-nine women were divided into four groups: (1) participants who had never undergone thyroid ultrasound screening; (2) those who had undergone screening, (3) those who continued to undergo regular check-ups with ultrasonography for benign nodules of the thyroid; and (4) participants who had undergone surgery for thyroid cancer. A widespread lack of awareness of information on thyroid cancer was noted among participants in groups 1 and 2 who were not well aware of thyroid cancer and generally recognized it as a'good cancer'. Surprisingly, instead of doctors and medical personnel, most participants reported obtaining information from acquaintances and media outlets. Moreover, most participants described dissatisfaction with their experience with screening and a lack of explanation on treatment and test results from medical personnel. Women in Korea seek reliable information on thyroid cancer that could help them to better understand the disease and make informed decisions regarding screening and treatment. More effort is needed from medical personnel to communicate the implications of thyroid cancer, screening results, and treatments thereof to lay people.

  19. Radioiodine Treatment of Well-Differentiated thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrenechea, E.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTCA) in children is quite different from the adult- onset disease in that they are more aggressive at the time of diagnosis and with metastases and has a higher risk for recurrence. Some studies claim it to be less lethal and hence treatment protocols may be different from that of the adult. This study was made to analyze the need for RAI therapy as one of the cornerstone of treatment aside from surgery and thyroid hormone suppression as well as to determine the behavior of WDTCA in children. Results: The incidence of DTCA is varied and ranges from 1-10% in several published series. In the Philippines where thyroid cancer in adults ranks 5th in mortality for both sexes, the incidence is likewise very low, around 0.5-1% for ages 18 years and below in a ten year study. It was predominantly a female population (74%) as compared to the males (26%). Fifteen cases were reviewed and included as most were given RAI (87%). Most presented as a solitary nodule and with lymph node metastases. Thirteen cases were papillary in nature and only two cases were follicular. The incidence of nodal metastases was 53% while lung metastases were seen in 20% of cases. Of the 13 cases that underwent RAI therapy, three cases of lung metastases needed repeat therapy. In the cases with lymph node metastases, 2 cases also had recurrence and which necessitated repeat RAI therapy. The two cases that did not get RAI therapy had progressive disease on follow- up after 5 and 7 years respectively from surgery. Discussion: Primary treatment for DTC should consist of surgery, radioiodine ablation and thyroid hormone suppression. We must rely on pediatric outcome studies and the high frequency of multifocal intrathyroidal disease, loco- regional spread and extra cervical metastases often seen as initial presentations of this particular group. The more advanced disease at diagnosis for children, propensity for recurrence as well as the greater radioiodine

  20. Coexistence of papillary thyroid cancer and Hashimoto thyroiditis in children: report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koibuchi, Harumi; Omoto, Kiyoka; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Toyotsuji, Tomonori; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Kawano, Mikihiko

    2014-07-01

    This report documents 3 pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma cases with associated Hashimoto thyroiditis. In all 3 cases, hypoechoic nodules accompanied by multiple echogenic spots were noted on sonography of the thyroid. Hashimoto thyroiditis was suspected on the basis of positive thyroid autoantibody test results and pathologic examinations of thyroidectomy specimens, which revealed chronic thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration as the background of papillary thyroid carcinoma development. The potential for papillary carcinoma development warrants close follow-up, and meticulous sonographic examinations must be performed in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. What is the gold standard for comprehensive interinstitutional communication of perioperative information for thyroid cancer patients? A comparison of existing electronic health records with the current American Thyroid Association recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Laura L; Tuttle, R Michael; Alon, Eran; Bergman, Donald A; Bernet, Victor; Brett, Elise M; Cobin, Rhoda; Doherty, Gerard; Harris, Jeffrey R; Klopper, Joshua; Lee, Stephanie L; Lupo, Mark; Milas, Mira; Machac, Josef; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Orloff, Lisa; Randolph, Gregory; Ross, Douglas S; Smallridge, Robert C; Terris, David James; Tufano, Ralph P; Mehra, Saral; Scherl, Sophie; Clain, Jason B; Urken, Mark L

    2014-10-01

    effective reporting of the specific domains that they cover in the management of thyroid cancer, as recommended by the ATA. However, the TCCC format is the most comprehensive. The TCCC is a new Web-based disease-specific database to enhance communication of patient information between clinicians in a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant manner. We believe the easy-to-use TCCC format will enhance clinician communication while providing portability of thyroid cancer information for patients.

  2. Combined effect of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and BRAF(V600E) mutation status on aggressiveness in papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-jin; Myong, Jun Pyo; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Chai, Young Jun; Choi, June Young; Min, Hye Sook; Lee, Kyu Eun; Youn, Yeo-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and BRAF(V600E) mutation status in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and to determine their combined association with tumor aggressiveness in PTC. A total of 1780 patients with PTC who underwent surgery were enrolled in this study. Simple and multiple analyses were performed to determine the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and the BRAF(V600E) mutation in PTC. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was present in 11.5% of patients (204/1780) with PTC. Multiple logistic regressions showed that BRAF(V600E) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.493; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.360-0.678) and the female sex (OR = 7.146; 95% CI = 3.408-18.347) were independent factors associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in PTC. BRAF(V600E) mutation and the Hashimoto's thyroiditis-negative PTC group were associated with aggressive disease (OR = 3.069; 95% CI = 1.654-5.916). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was associated less frequently with BRAF(V600E) , and frequently with the female sex in patients with PTC. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and BRAF(V600E) status may help to predict clinical outcome of PTC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis And Cancer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Hajj Boutros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: No consensus exists on the association between Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT and cancer. To resolve this controversy, this review aimed to evaluate the relationship between the two conditions. Methods: Using Pub-Med database, we searched studies relevant to the topic focusing on the association between HT and Papillary Thyroid Cancer (PTC, as well as the association between HT and Primary Thyroid Lymphoma (PTL. Findings: Both HT and PTC are common worldwide, and the two conditions may be closely related. However, the relationship remains controversial. Some studies found that PTC coexisted with HT 2.8-fold more frequently, with variable prevalence ranging from 0.5 to 30%. In contrast to surgical and pathological series that suggested a positive correlation between the two diseases and even a cause-and-effect relationship, the other studies evaluating fine-needle aspirate specimens did not find a statistically significant correlation. On the other hand, the relationship between PTL and HT appears well established. Conclusion: The existing data provide inconsistent evidence favoring a causal relationship between HT and PTC. Prospective studies are needed to further elucidate the relationship. However patients with HT are at risk for PTL. Therefore careful observation and follow-up of HT patients is recommended.

  4. Recent Advances in the Surgical Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunandan Venkat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated thyroid cancers have become one of the fastest growing malignancies in the world. While surgery has remained the cornerstone of management of these tumors, the surgical approach has seen numerous innovations over the past few decades. The use of video-assistance and robotics has revolutionized thyroid surgery. This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the different approaches to thyroid surgery, the utility of prophylactic and therapeutic lymph node dissection, and evidence-based guidelines in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers. Minimally invasive video-ssisted thyroidectomy is both safe and effective in the hands of the trained surgeon and, in selected patient populations, has comparative perioperative morbidity and better cosmesis as compared to conventional open thyroidectomy. It is universally accepted that therapeutic central lymph node dissection should be performed when metastatic lymph nodes are identified on physical exam, ultrasound, or intraoperatively. In the absence of overt nodal metastasis, the role of elective prophylactic central lymph node dissection remains a matter of debate and prospective, randomized studies are warranted to evaluate the utility of this procedure.

  5. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Trott, Klaus R; Simon, Steven L; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Fukao, Akira; Saito, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radio-iodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and 137Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid.

  6. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Fukao, Akira [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Schoemaker, M.J. [Inst. of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surry (United Kingdom); Trott, K.R. [Gray Cancer Inst., Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Simon, S.L. [National Cancer Inst., Rockville, MD (United States); Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Saito, Hiroshi [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-03-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radioiodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and {sup 137}Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid. (author)

  7. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Fukao, Akira; Trott, K.R.; Simon, S.L.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Saito, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radioiodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and 137 Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid. (author)

  8. Thyroid Disease and Surgery in CHEER: The Nation’s Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Practice Based Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Kourosh; Chapurin, Nikita; Schulz, Kris; Shin, Jennifer J.; Pynnonen, Melissa A.; Witsell, David L.; Langman, Alan; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh; Ryan, Sheila E.; Vambutas, Andrea; Wolfley, Anne; Roberts, Rhonda; Lee, Walter T.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives 1) Describe thyroid-related diagnoses and procedures in CHEER across academic and community sites. 2) Compare management of malignant thyroid disease across these sites, and 3) Provide practice based data related to flexible laryngoscopy vocal fold assessment before and after thyroid surgery based on AAO-HNSF Clinical Practice Guidelines. Study Design Review of retrospective data collection (RDC) database of the CHEER network using ICD-9 and CPT codes related to thyroid conditions. Setting Multisite practice based network. Subjects and Methods There were 3,807 thyroid patients (1,392 malignant; 2,415 benign) with 10,160 unique visits identified from 1 year of patient data in the RDC. Analysis was performed for identified cohort of patients using demographics, site characteristics and diagnostic and procedural distribution. Results Mean number of patients with thyroid disease per site was 238 (range 23–715). In community practices, 19% of patients with thyroid disease had cancer versus 45% in the academic setting (pVocal fold function was assessed by flexible laryngoscopy in 34.0% of pre-operative patients and in 3.7% post-operatively. Conclusion This is the first overview of malignant and benign thyroid disease through CHEER. It shows how the RDC can be used alone and with national guidelines to inform of clinical practice patterns in academic and community sites. This demonstrates the potential for future thyroid related studies utilizing the Otolaryngology-H&N Surgery’s practice-based research network. PMID:27371622

  9. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main focus on Swedish data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Michael; Hedendahl, Lena; Ahonen, Mikko; Koppel, Tarmo; Hardell, Lennart

    2016-07-07

    Radiofrequency radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz was evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e. 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO in May 2011. Among the evaluated devices were mobile and cordless phones, since they emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). In addition to the brain, another organ, the thyroid gland, also receives high exposure. The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in many countries, especially the papillary type that is the most radiosensitive type. We used the Swedish Cancer Register to study the incidence of thyroid cancer during 1970-2013 using joinpoint regression analysis. In women, the incidence increased statistically significantly during the whole study period; average annual percentage change (AAPC) +1.19 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) +0.56, +1.83 %). Two joinpoints were detected, 1979 and 2001, with a high increase of the incidence during the last period 2001-2013 with an annual percentage change (APC) of +5.34 % (95 % CI +3.93, +6.77 %). AAPC for all men during 1970-2013 was +0.77 % (95 % CI -0.03, +1.58 %). One joinpoint was detected in 2005 with a statistically significant increase in incidence during 2005-2013; APC +7.56 % (95 % CI +3.34, +11.96 %). Based on NORDCAN data, there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries during the same time period. In both women and men a joinpoint was detected in 2006. The incidence increased during 2006-2013 in women; APC +6.16 % (95 % CI +3.94, +8.42 %) and in men; APC +6.84 % (95 % CI +3.69, +10.08 %), thus showing similar results as the Swedish Cancer Register. Analyses based on data from the Cancer Register showed that the increasing trend in Sweden was mainly caused by thyroid cancer of the papillary type. We postulate that the whole increase cannot be attributed to better diagnostic procedures. Increasing exposure to ionizing

  10. Classification of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer by global RNA profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide and thyroid nodules are a frequent clinical finding. Diagnosing follicular cell-derived cancers is, however, challenging both histopathologically and especially cytopathologically. The advent of high-throughput molecular technologies has...... profiling of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers....... prompted many researchers to explore the transcriptome and, in recent years, also the miRNome in order to generate new molecular classifiers capable of classifying thyroid tumours more accurately than by conventional cytopathological and histopathological methods. This has led to a number of molecular...

  11. Medullary thyroid cancer: RET testing of an archival material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Christian; Jørgensen, Gita; Gerdes, Anne-Marie Axø

    2010-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) might be sporadic (75%) or hereditary (25%). Until the mid nineties the diagnosis of hereditary MTC was based on family history, clinical evaluation, histological detection of C-cell hyperplasia and tumor multifocality. Patients and families with hereditary MTC...

  12. Medullary thyroid cancer: RET testing of an archival material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Christian; Jørgensen, Gita; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) might be sporadic (75%) or hereditary (25%). Until the mid nineties the diagnosis of hereditary MTC was based on family history, clinical evaluation, histological detection of C-cell hyperplasia and tumor multifocality. Patients and families with hereditary MTC...

  13. Molecular Network-Based Identification of Competing Endogenous RNAs in Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjia Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available RNAs may act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs, a critical mechanism in determining gene expression regulations in many cancers. However, the roles of ceRNAs in thyroid carcinoma remains elusive. In this study, we have developed a novel pipeline called Molecular Network-based Identification of ceRNA (MNIceRNA to identify ceRNAs in thyroid carcinoma. MNIceRNA first constructs micro RNA (miRNA–messenger RNA (mRNAlong non-coding RNA (lncRNA networks from miRcode database and weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA, based on which to identify key drivers of differentially expressed RNAs between normal and tumor samples. It then infers ceRNAs of the identified key drivers using the long non-coding competing endogenous database (lnCeDB. We applied the pipeline into The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA thyroid carcinoma data. As a result, 598 lncRNAs, 1025 mRNAs, and 90 microRNA (miRNAs were inferred to be differentially expressed between normal and thyroid cancer samples. We then obtained eight key driver miRNAs, among which hsa-mir-221 and hsa-mir-222 were key driver RNAs identified by both miRNA–mRNA–lncRNA and WGCNA network. In addition, hsa-mir-375 was inferred to be significant for patients’ survival with 34 associated ceRNAs, among which RUNX2, DUSP6 and SEMA3D are known oncogenes regulating cellular proliferation and differentiation in thyroid cancer. These ceRNAs are critical in revealing the secrets behind thyroid cancer progression and may serve as future therapeutic biomarkers.

  14. American Thyroid Association statement on the essential elements of interdisciplinary communication of perioperative information for patients undergoing thyroid cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Sally E; Doherty, Gerard M; Inabnet, William B; Pasieka, Janice L; Randolph, Gregory W; Shaha, Ashok R; Terris, David J; Tufano, Ralph P; Tuttle, R Michael

    2012-04-01

    Thyroid cancer specialists require specific perioperative information to develop a management plan for patients with thyroid cancer, but there is not yet a model for effective interdisciplinary data communication. The American Thyroid Association Surgical Affairs Committee was asked to define a suggested essential perioperative dataset representing the critical information that should be readily available to participating members of the treatment team. To identify and agree upon a multidisciplinary set of critical perioperative findings requiring communication, we examined diverse best-practice documents relating to thyroidectomy and extracted common features felt to enhance precise, direct communication with nonsurgical caregivers. Suggested essential datasets for the preoperative, intraoperative, and immediate postoperative findings and management of patients undergoing surgery for thyroid cancer were identified and are presented. For operative reporting, the essential features of both a dictated narrative format and a synoptic computer format are modeled in detail. The importance of interdisciplinary communication is discussed with regard to the extent of required resection, the final pathology findings, surgical complications, and other factors that may influence risk stratification, adjuvant treatment, and surveillance. Accurate communication of the important findings and sequelae of thyroidectomy for cancer is critical to individualized risk stratification as well as to the clinical issues of thyroid cancer care that are often jointly managed in the postoperative setting. True interdisciplinary care is essential to providing optimal care and surveillance.

  15. Evidence for an Association between Macular Degeneration and Thyroid Cancer in the Aged Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yi; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lin, Jane-Ming; Chang, Yun-Lun; Hsu, Chung-Y; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2018-05-03

    Direct evidence of whether thyroid cancer patients have a higher risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has yet to be investigated. Patients older than 50 years-old and newly diagnosed with thyroid cancer between 2000 and 2008 were identified from the national health insurance research database (NHIRD). We applied time-varying Cox proportional hazard models to assess the association between thyroid cancer and AMD. The multivariable models included conventional cardiovascular risk factors, myopia, vitreous floaters, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and treatment modality of thyroid cancer. The analysis process was stratified by age, gender, and comorbidity. In this study, 5253 patients were included in a thyroid cancer cohort (men 24.5%; median age 59.1 years (53.7⁻67.4 years), and 21,012 matched controls were included in a non-thyroid cancer cohort. The AMD incidence was 40.7 per 10,000 person/year in the thyroid cancer cohort. The thyroid cancer cohort had a higher risk (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.38, 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.09⁻1.75) of AMD than the non-thyroid cohort. Thyroid cancer patients had a higher risk of AMD, especially the male patients (aHR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.38⁻3.14) and the patients with comorbidities (aHR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.09⁻1.74). In conclusion, thyroid cancer patients older than 50 years-old have increased risk of AMD.

  16. Thyroid Lobectomy Is Associated with Excellent Clinical Outcomes in Properly Selected Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients with Primary Tumors Greater Than 1 cm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, Fernanda; Momesso, Denise; Bulzico, Daniel A.; Pessoa, Cencita H. C. N.; da Cruz, Manuel Domingos Gonçalves; Dias, Fernando; Corbo, Rossana; Vaisman, Mario; Tuttle, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective. An individualized risk-based approach to the treatment of thyroid cancer is being extensively discussed in the recent literature. However, controversies about the ideal surgical approach remain an important issue with regard to the impact on prognosis and follow-up strategies. This study was designed to describe clinical outcomes in a cohort of low and intermediate risk thyroid cancer patients treated with thyroid lobectomy. Methods. Retrospective review of 70 patients who underwent lobectomy. Results. After a median follow-up of 11 years, 5 patients (5/70, 7.1%) recurred and 5 had a completion for benign lesions, while 60 patients (86%) continued to be observed without evidence for disease recurrence. Suspicious ultrasound findings were significantly more common in patients that had structural disease recurrence (100% versus 4.3%, P < 0.001). Furthermore, a rising suppressed Tg value over time was also associated with structural disease recurrence (80% versus 21.5%, P = 0.01). After additional therapy, 99% of the patients had no evidence of disease. Conclusions. Properly selected thyroid cancer patients can be treated with lobectomy with excellent clinical outcomes. PMID:24455413

  17. Thyroid Lobectomy Is Associated with Excellent Clinical Outcomes in Properly Selected Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients with Primary Tumors Greater Than 1 cm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vaisman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. An individualized risk-based approach to the treatment of thyroid cancer is being extensively discussed in the recent literature. However, controversies about the ideal surgical approach remain an important issue with regard to the impact on prognosis and follow-up strategies. This study was designed to describe clinical outcomes in a cohort of low and intermediate risk thyroid cancer patients treated with thyroid lobectomy. Methods. Retrospective review of 70 patients who underwent lobectomy. Results. After a median follow-up of 11 years, 5 patients (5/70, 7.1% recurred and 5 had a completion for benign lesions, while 60 patients (86% continued to be observed without evidence for disease recurrence. Suspicious ultrasound findings were significantly more common in patients that had structural disease recurrence (100% versus 4.3%, P<0.001. Furthermore, a rising suppressed Tg value over time was also associated with structural disease recurrence (80% versus 21.5%, P=0.01. After additional therapy, 99% of the patients had no evidence of disease. Conclusions. Properly selected thyroid cancer patients can be treated with lobectomy with excellent clinical outcomes.

  18. SENTINEL LYMPH NODE CONCEPT IN DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC account up to 90% of all thyroid malignacies, and represents the most common malignant tumors of endocrine system. The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, especially small tumors is rapidly increasing during past three decades. At the time of diagnosis, the incidence of lymph node metastases (LNM ranges from 80 to 90%. During the last 15 years, LNM were recognized as bad prognostic factor for both local-regional relapse (LRR and cancer specific survival. There is general agreement that neck dissections are indicated in cases of clinically apparent LNM. The subject of the current controversy is the surgical treatment of occult LNM that remain unrecognized on preoperative diagnosis (cN0. The extent of operations of the lymph nodes ranges from “wait and see” so-called “Western school” principle substantiated the role of applying ablative I131therapy and frequency peroperative complications (recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism, especially for less experienced teams to mutual prophylactic dissection of the central and lateral compartments so-called “Japanese school” due to the limited use of radioactive iodine therapy and significantly lower operating morbidity if dissetion was done during primary operation. Despite high prevalence of occult LNM, existing controversies regarding diagnosis, longterm prognostic impact and extent of lymph node surgery, motivated some authors to apply consept of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNb in DTC, taking into account excellent results of SLN concept in breast cancer and skin melanoma. This review presents the summarized results of relevant studies and three meta-analysis of accuracy and applicability of SLN concept in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  19. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980's. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report

  20. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980`s. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report.

  1. Radiation exposure and risk of pediatric thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Megumi

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive substances were released in air following the Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), of which subsequent medical and pediatric events are reported herein. Many residents who had lived close to the Plant had to dwell in the evacuation area. The risk of their pediatric thyroid cancer has become a subject of anxiety since the incidence of the cancer alone is known to have increased post Chernobyl nuclear accident. The cancer is quite rare in the pediatric field, the tissue type is mostly of differentiated papillocarcinoma, and the long prognosis is reportedly as good as that of the cancer not due to radiation exposure if surgically treated appropriately. After the Accident, Radiation Medical Science Center for Fukushima Health Management Survey was founded in Fukushima Medical University, where the whole lifetime health management of Fukushima prefectural residents is to be continued. Among them, the ultrasonic examination of the thyroid started in Oct. 2011 to 360 thousands children of the age 20 mm cyst or >5 mm solid node. It is important to carefully watch the health of children involving their mental side as they suffer from the experience of ''exposed'', rather than the actual physical effect. (T.T.)

  2. Advanced Tracheal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma with Thyroid Invasion Mimicking Thyroid Cancer Treated with Definitive Radiation: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondos Al Khatib

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old female patient, a breast cancer survivor and a case of unresectable adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea, with thyroid invasion, presented with suprasternal neck swelling mimicking thyroid primary. A literature search was undertaken to highlight this rare presentation. There have been few reports in the literature describing tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma involving the thyroid.

  3. CHIP promotes thyroid cancer proliferation via activation of the MAPK and AKT pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacy, Urumchi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Urumchi, Xinjiang 830000 (China); Liu, Lianyong [Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Punan Hospital, Shanghai 200125 (China); He, Xiaohua; Shen, Yunling; Liu, Xuerong; Wei, Jing; Yu, Fang [Department of Endocrinology, Urumchi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Urumchi, Xinjiang 830000 (China); Tian, Jianqing, E-mail: jianqing0991@163.com [Department of Endocrinology, Urumchi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Urumchi, Xinjiang 830000 (China)

    2016-08-26

    The carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a U box-type ubiquitin ligase that plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including tumor progression. To date, the functional mechanism of CHIP in thyroid cancer remains unknown. Here, we obtained evidence of upregulation of CHIP in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. CHIP overexpression markedly enhanced thyroid cancer cell viability and colony formation in vitro and accelerated tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, CHIP knockdown impaired cell proliferation and tumor growth. Notably, CHIP promoted cell growth through activation of MAPK and AKT pathways, subsequently decreasing p27 and increasing cyclin D1 and p-FOXO3a expression. Our findings collectively indicate that CHIP functions as an oncogene in thyroid cancer, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target for this disease. - Highlights: • CHIP is significantly upregulated in thyroid cancer cells. • Overexpression of CHIP facilitates proliferation and tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer cells. • Silencing of CHIP inhibits the proliferation and tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer cells. • CHIP promotes thyroid cancer cell proliferation via activating the MAPK and AKT pathways.

  4. Features of radionuclide research after thyroidectomy at the thyroid gland cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David В Dolidze

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AimTo clarify the possibility of postoperative radioisotope studies in determining the remnants of thyroid tissue in patients with thyroid carcinoma.Materials and methodsThe work is based on the study results of surgical treatment and postoperative examination of 120 patients with thyroid cancer, at the Botkin hospital during the period from 2007 to 2013. All patients were performed extrafascial intervention. 118 (98.3% patients were provided thyroidectomy (including lymph node dissection. For all patients in the postoperative period after 2–4 weeks were performed thyroid and whole-body scan with iodine and technetium, as well as ultrasound and computed tomography of the neck and the chest cavity.ResultsDuring the research, 16 (13.3% patients after scanning with 123I (7 (5.8% patients, 131I (3 (2.5% patients, 99mTs-Pertechnetate (6 (5% patients and applying them consistently (6 (5% patients received the accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the operation area, as in the midline in the area of the isthmus, and the locations of the right, left and pyramidal thyroid share. These facts were interpreted as an accumulation of the isotope in the remnants of thyroid tissue after surgery. With additional research methods were revealed swelling and infiltration of tissues in 10 (8.3% cases in the sterno-hyoid and sterno-thyroid muscles, and in 6 (5% cases – in the paratracheal and paralaryngeal areas. After fine-needle aspiration biopsy from infiltrative zone was received cytology of nonspecific inflammation. All patients received antiinflammatory and antibiotic therapy with a positive effect. Control ultrasound noted a gradual reduction of the inflammatory infiltrate. After 6 months of thyroid scan was recorded decrease area of uptake, and a year later its complete disappearance.ConclusionsThus, postoperative radionuclide scanning in patients with thyroid gland carcinoma in some cases gives false-positive results, regardless of the type

  5. Diffuse Thyroid Metastasis From Lung Cancer Mimicking Thyroiditis on 99mTc-Pertechnetate Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui; Gao, Shan; Feng, Jinteng; Wang, Yuanbo; Zhang, Guangjian

    2017-09-01

    Possible thyroiditis was suspected in a 56-year-old man who initially presented sore throat because laboratory examinations revealed decreased serum thyroid hormone and the Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy showed no tracer uptake by the thyroid gland. However, subsequent examination demonstrated that the absence of pertechnetate activity in the thyroid was due to complete replacement of thyroid gland by the metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma, which was unknown at the initial presentation.

  6. Absence of survival benefit of radioactive iodine (RAI) after thyroidectomy in low risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, C.; Fieffe, S.; Pochart, J.M.; Bonnetain, F.; Gauthier, M.; Cueff, A.; Crevisy, E.; Dygai-Cochet, I.; Toubeau, M.

    2012-01-01

    After thyroidectomy, the goal of the first dose of radioactive iodine (RAI) is remnant ablation to facilitate the initial staging with the post-therapy scan and to facilitate the early detection of recurrences. The purpose of this study is to the survival benefit of RAI in low-risk thyroid cancer patients. Using Cancer thyroid registry of Marne Ardennes (1041 patients) and hospital data base of centre Leclerc (257 patients), we included all differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients at low risk from 1975 to 2005. Median follow-up was 10.3 years, during which 19 recurrences, 61 other malignant diseases and 105 deaths were registered. 387 patients (30%) received no RAI and 911 had RAI (70%). If we confirmed that some clinical characteristics were associated with RAI intake, the study failed to demonstrate any survival benefit of RAI in low risk DTC patients

  7. Absence of survival benefit of radioactive iodine (RAI) after thyroidectomy in low risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, C.; Fieffe, S.; Pochart, J.M. [Endocrinology Nuclear Medicine, Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bonnetain, F.; Gauthier, M.; Cueff, A. [Statistics and Epidemiology, Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Dijon (France); Crevisy, E.; Dygai-Cochet, I.; Toubeau, M. [Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Dijon (France)

    2012-07-01

    After thyroidectomy, the goal of the first dose of radioactive iodine (RAI) is remnant ablation to facilitate the initial staging with the post-therapy scan and to facilitate the early detection of recurrences. The purpose of this study is to the survival benefit of RAI in low-risk thyroid cancer patients. Using Cancer thyroid registry of Marne Ardennes (1041 patients) and hospital data base of centre Leclerc (257 patients), we included all differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients at low risk from 1975 to 2005. Median follow-up was 10.3 years, during which 19 recurrences, 61 other malignant diseases and 105 deaths were registered. 387 patients (30%) received no RAI and 911 had RAI (70%). If we confirmed that some clinical characteristics were associated with RAI intake, the study failed to demonstrate any survival benefit of RAI in low risk DTC patients

  8. Screening effects on thyroid cancer risk estimates for populations affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Kaiser, J. C.; Vavilov, S.E.; Bogdanova, T.; Tronko, N. D.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation calculations are performed in order to explore the ecological bias in studies as they are performed with settlement specific data in the aftemath of the Chernobyl accident. Based on methods, that were developed by Lubin for exploring the ecologic bias due to smoking in indoor radon studies of lung cancer, the influence of the introduction of ultrasound devices and enhanced medical surveillance on the detection and reporting of thyroid cancer cases was investigated. Calculations were performed by simulating thyroid doses of one million children in a total of 744 settlements and assuming a linear dependence of the risk on dose and various scenarios of the screening. The dose distributions simulate the distributions similar to those used in previous ecologic studies of the thyroid cancer risk in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. The ecologic bias was defined as the ratio of risk coefficients derived from an ecological study to the corresponding risk factor in the underlying risl model. the ecologic bias was estimated for each of the screening scenarios. Analytical equations were derived that allow the exact numerical compuation of the bias which is determined by covariance terms between the increased detection and reporting on one side and thyroid dose values (individual and averaged for the settlements) on the other side. Nested in th epopulation data, a cohort study was simulated with 10 000 individuals and an average thyroid dose of 0.3 Gy. the present study underlines the different scopes of the ecologic and cohort study designs perfomed in the aftermed of the Chernobyl accident. Whereas the ecologic studies give an estimate of the excess thyroid cancer risks per unit dose under the conditions of a health care system as it is typical for the affected countries after the Chernobyl accident, the cohort study gives risk estimates within a well screened cohort. Due to the strong screening effects, excess absoulte risks in the ecological study cohort are

  9. Ultrasonography diagnosis and imaging-based management of thyroid nodules: Revised Korean society of thyroid radiology consensus statement and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Hee [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jung Hwan [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-06-15

    The rate of detection of thyroid nodules and carcinomas has increased with the widespread use of ultrasonography (US), which is the mainstay for the detection and risk stratification of thyroid nodules as well as for providing guidance for their biopsy and nonsurgical treatment. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) published their first recommendations for the US-based diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules in 2011. These recommendations have been used as the standard guidelines for the past several years in Korea. Lately, the application of US has been further emphasized for the personalized management of patients with thyroid nodules. The Task Force on Thyroid Nodules of the KSThR has revised the recommendations for the ultrasound diagnosis and imaging-based management of thyroid nodules. The review and recommendations in this report have been based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature and the consensus of experts.

  10. Targeting thyroid cancer with acid-triggered release of doxorubicin from silicon dioxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li SJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Shijie Li,1 Daqi Zhang,1 Shihou Sheng,2 Hui Sun1 1Department of Thyroid Surgery, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Colorectal and Anal Surgery, China–Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Chang Chun, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Currently, therapy for thyroid cancer mainly involves surgery and radioiodine therapy. However, chemotherapy can be used in advanced and aggressive thyroid cancer that cannot be treated by other options. Nevertheless, a major obstacle to the successful treatment of thyroid cancer is the delivery of drugs to the thyroid gland. Here, we present an example of the construction of silicon dioxide nanoparticles with thyroid–stimulating-hormone receptor-targeting ligand that can specifically target the thyroid cancer. Doxorubicin nanoparticles can be triggered by acid to release the drug payload for cancer therapy. These nanoparticles shrink the tumor size in vivo with less toxic side effects. This research paves the way toward effective chemotherapy for thyroid cancer. Keywords: thyroid cancer, silicon dioxide nanoparticle, doxorubicin, acid-triggered release

  11. Sustained ERK inhibition maximizes responses of BrafV600E thyroid cancers to radioiodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajah, James; Le, Mina; Knauf, Jeffrey A; Ferrandino, Giuseppe; Montero-Conde, Cristina; Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Bolaender, Alexander; Irwin, Christopher; Krishnamoorthy, Gnana Prakasam; Saqcena, Mahesh; Larson, Steven M; Ho, Alan L; Seshan, Venkatraman; Ishii, Nobuya; Carrasco, Nancy; Rosen, Neal; Weber, Wolfgang A; Fagin, James A

    2016-11-01

    Radioiodide (RAI) therapy of thyroid cancer exploits the relatively selective ability of thyroid cells to transport and accumulate iodide. Iodide uptake requires expression of critical genes that are involved in various steps of thyroid hormone biosynthesis. ERK signaling, which is markedly increased in thyroid cancer cells driven by oncogenic BRAF, represses the genetic program that enables iodide transport. Here, we determined that a critical threshold for inhibition of MAPK signaling is required to optimally restore expression of thyroid differentiation genes in thyroid cells and in mice with BrafV600E-induced thyroid cancer. Although the MEK inhibitor selumetinib transiently inhibited ERK signaling, which subsequently rebounded, the MEK inhibitor CKI suppressed ERK signaling in a sustained manner by preventing RAF reactivation. A small increase in ERK inhibition markedly increased the expression of thyroid differentiation genes, increased iodide accumulation in cancer cells, and thereby improved responses to RAI therapy. Only a short exposure to the drug was necessary to obtain a maximal response to RAI. These data suggest that potent inhibition of ERK signaling is required to adequately induce iodide uptake and indicate that this is a promising strategy for the treatment of BRAF-mutant thyroid cancer.

  12. Thyroid cancer in a patient with Lynch syndrome – case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazekas-Lavu M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monika Fazekas-Lavu,1 Andrew Parker,2 Allan D Spigelman,3,4 Rodney J Scott,5 Richard J Epstein,6 Michael Jensen,7 Katherine Samaras1,8 1Department of Endocrinology, 2Department of Pathology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia; 3Hereditary Cancer Clinic, St Vincent’s Cancer Genetics Service, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia; 4University of NSW, St Vincent’s Clinical School, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia; 5Division of Molecular Medicine, Pathology North, John Hunter Hospital and The Hunter Medical Research Institute, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 6Department of Oncology, 7Department of Oncological Surgery/General Surgery, St Vincent’s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia; 8Diabetes and Metabolism Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia Abstract: Lynch syndrome describes a familial cancer syndrome comprising germline mutations in one of four DNA mismatch repair genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 and is characterized by colorectal, endometrial, and other epithelial malignancies. Thyroid cancer is not usually considered to be part of the constellation of Lynch syndrome cancers nor have Lynch syndrome tumor gene mutations been reported in thyroid malignancies. This study reports a woman with Lynch syndrome (colonic cancer and a DNA mismatch repair mutation in the MSH2 gene with a synchronous papillary thyroid cancer. Six years later, she developed metachronous breast cancer. Metastatic bone disease developed after 3 years, and the disease burden was due to both breast and thyroid diseases. Despite multiple interventions for both metastatic breast and thyroid diseases, the patient’s metastatic burden progressed and she died of leptomeningeal metastatic disease. Two prior case reports suggested thyroid cancer may be an extraintestinal malignancy of the Lynch syndrome cancer group. Hence, this study examined the genetic relationship between the patient’s known Lynch syndrome and her

  13. {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism: a cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chien-Mu [Taipei Medical University - Shuang Ho Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Doyle, Pat [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London (United Kingdom); Tsan, Yu-Tse [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Taichung (China); Chung Shan Medical University, School of Medicine, Taichung (China); Lee, Chang-Hsing [Ton Yen General Hospital, Department of Occupational Medicine, Hsinchu County (China); Wang, Jung-Der [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Tainan (China); Chen, Pau-Chung [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Department of Public Health, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Taipei (China); Collaboration: Health Data Analysis in Taiwan (hDATa) Research Group

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the association between {sup 131}I therapy for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1997-2008. The data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The cumulative {sup 131}I dose in each patient was calculated. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a proportional hazards model to estimate the effect of {sup 131}I therapy on the risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism in the cohort. A total of 8,946 patients with thyroid cancer were eligible for the final analysis. Among these patients, 8 developed primary hyperparathyroidism during the follow-up period that represented 38,248 person-years giving an incidence rate of 20.9 per 10{sup 5} person-years. {sup 131}I was used in the treatment of 6,153 patients (68.8 %) with a median cumulative dose of 3.7 GBq. The adjusted HRs were 0.21 (95% CI 0.02-1.86) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.10-2.10) for those receiving a cumulative {sup 131}I dose of 0.1-3.6 GBq and ≥3.7 GBq, respectively, compared to no therapy. The risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism did not increase with increasing {sup 131}I dose (test for trend p = 0.51). No interaction was found between {sup 131}I dose and age (p = 0.94) or {sup 131}I dose and sex (p = 0.99). {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer did not increase risk of primary hyperparathyroidism during a 10-year follow-up in this study population. Further research with a longer follow-up period is needed to assess late adverse effects beyond 10 years. (orig.)

  14. 131I treatment for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism: a cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chien-Mu; Doyle, Pat; Tsan, Yu-Tse; Lee, Chang-Hsing; Wang, Jung-Der; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the association between 131 I therapy for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1997-2008. The data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The cumulative 131 I dose in each patient was calculated. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a proportional hazards model to estimate the effect of 131 I therapy on the risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism in the cohort. A total of 8,946 patients with thyroid cancer were eligible for the final analysis. Among these patients, 8 developed primary hyperparathyroidism during the follow-up period that represented 38,248 person-years giving an incidence rate of 20.9 per 10 5 person-years. 131 I was used in the treatment of 6,153 patients (68.8 %) with a median cumulative dose of 3.7 GBq. The adjusted HRs were 0.21 (95% CI 0.02-1.86) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.10-2.10) for those receiving a cumulative 131 I dose of 0.1-3.6 GBq and ≥3.7 GBq, respectively, compared to no therapy. The risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism did not increase with increasing 131 I dose (test for trend p = 0.51). No interaction was found between 131 I dose and age (p = 0.94) or 131 I dose and sex (p = 0.99). 131 I treatment for thyroid cancer did not increase risk of primary hyperparathyroidism during a 10-year follow-up in this study population. Further research with a longer follow-up period is needed to assess late adverse effects beyond 10 years. (orig.)

  15. 131I treatment for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Mu; Doyle, Pat; Tsan, Yu-Tse; Lee, Chang-Hsing; Wang, Jung-Der; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the association between (131)I therapy for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1997-2008. The data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The cumulative (131)I dose in each patient was calculated. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a proportional hazards model to estimate the effect of (131)I therapy on the risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism in the cohort. A total of 8,946 patients with thyroid cancer were eligible for the final analysis. Among these patients, 8 developed primary hyperparathyroidism during the follow-up period that represented 38,248 person-years giving an incidence rate of 20.9 per 10(5) person-years. (131)I was used in the treatment of 6,153 patients (68.8%) with a median cumulative dose of 3.7 GBq. The adjusted HRs were 0.21 (95% CI 0.02-1.86) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.10-2.10) for those receiving a cumulative (131)I dose of 0.1-3.6 GBq and ≥3.7 GBq, respectively, compared to no therapy. The risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism did not increase with increasing (131)I dose (test for trend p = 0.51). No interaction was found between (131)I dose and age (p = 0.94) or (131)I dose and sex (p = 0.99). (131)I treatment for thyroid cancer did not increase risk of primary hyperparathyroidism during a 10-year follow-up in this study population. Further research with a longer follow-up period is needed to assess late adverse effects beyond 10 years.

  16. Chyle fistula in advanced and metastatic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Carlos S; Sánchez, Juan Guillermo; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo

    2017-10-01

    Chyle fistula (CF) is a rare but challenging condition for the surgeon and the patient's health. A retrospective review of single surgeon's case load in a 12-year period is presented, reviewing the case of those patients presenting with a CF. Three patients were found during this study period from more than 1,050 surgeries performed due to thyroid cancer. Patients underwent extensive lymph node dissection for advanced, metastatic and infiltrative disease. In all patients, a long hospital stay and surgical re-interventions were required. A description of the management of CF is presented along with a review of current Literature.

  17. Cell lines radiosensitization of thyroid cancer by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, M; Dagrosa, M A; Rossich, L; Casal, M; Pisarev, M A; Thomasz, L; Juvenal G J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasia. Surgical resection and radioactive iodine is an effective treatment for well-differentiated tumors. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC-I) are agents that cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins and as a consequence remodeling of chromatin structure. They can induce growth arrest, differentiation and apoptotic cell death in different tumor cells. The use of HDAC-I agents could be of utility to enhance the response to external radiation therapy of those thyroid cancers that are refractory to most conventional therapeutic treatments. Objective: To study the effect of HDAC-I as radiosensitizers for the treatment of thyroid cancer and their ability to induce differentiation of thyroid cancer cells. Materials and methods: The human thyroid follicular (WRO) and papillary (TPC-1) carcinoma cell lines were seeded and incubated with increasing doses (0, 0.3, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM) of the HDAC-I sodium butirate (NaB) and valproic acid (VA) to evaluate cell proliferation and iodide uptake. Cells were irradiated with a 60 Co γ-ray source (1 ± 5% Gy/min) and postirradiation survival was quantified with the colony formation assay. Survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) was calculated for each cell line. Cell cycle and cell death were evaluated at a dose of 3 Gy. Iodide uptake, PCR analysis and transient transfection studies were performed. Results: Cell proliferation was not significantly suppressed after 24 hours of incubation with both drugs at all assayed doses. Iodide uptake was not modified after incubation with HDAC-I of both cell lines. SF2 was reduced from 68 ± 1.6 % in the control WRO cells to 42 ± 3.8 % (P<0.001) in NaB-treated cells. In TPC-1 SF2 was reduced from 32 ± 1.1 % in the control cells to 24 ± 0.8 % (P<0.01). In VA-treated cells SF2 was reduced from 69 ± 0.02 % in control WRO cells to 56 ± 0.01 % (P<0.01) and from 31 ± 2 % in control TPC-1 cells to 11 ± 1 % (P<0.01). There was an arrest

  18. Clusters of Adolescent and Young Adult Thyroid Cancer in Florida Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raid Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thyroid cancer is a common cancer in adolescents and young adults ranking 4th in frequency. Thyroid cancer has captured the interest of epidemiologists because of its strong association to environmental factors. The goal of this study is to identify thyroid cancer clusters in Florida for the period 2000–2008. This will guide further discovery of potential risk factors within areas of the cluster compared to areas not in cluster. Methods. Thyroid cancer cases for ages 15–39 were obtained from the Florida Cancer Data System. Next, using the purely spatial Poisson analysis function in SaTScan, the geographic distribution of thyroid cancer cases by county was assessed for clusters. The reference population was obtained from the Census Bureau 2010, which enabled controlling for population age, sex, and race. Results. Two statistically significant clusters of thyroid cancer clusters were found in Florida: one in southern Florida (SF (relative risk of 1.26; P value of <0.001 and the other in northwestern Florida (NWF (relative risk of 1.71; P value of 0.012. These clusters persisted after controlling for demographics including sex, age, race. Conclusion. In summary, we found evidence of thyroid cancer clustering in South Florida and North West Florida for adolescents and young adult.

  19. Occurrence of Endocrine and Thyroid Cancers Among Alaska Native People, 1969-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Sarah H; Lanier, Anne P; Southworth, Molly B

    2018-04-01

    Nationwide, the incidence of thyroid cancer is lower among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people than among U.S. whites (USW). However, little is known about the incidence of thyroid or other endocrine cancers specifically among Alaska Native (AN) people. Data were examined from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Alaska Native Tumor Registry on endocrine cancers diagnosed among AN people from 1969-2013, with a specific focus on thyroid cancers. Frequencies of endocrine cancers by site and also of thyroid cancers by histology, size, and stage at diagnosis were evaluated. Distributions were compared to USW (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 Registries) using the chi-square test. Five-year average annual age-adjusted incidence rates of thyroid cancers were calculated, stratified by histology, age, and five-year period of diagnosis, and compared to those observed among USW. Five-year cause-specific survival was evaluated using cause of death data from the National Death Index Plus from the National Center for Health Statistics. During the 45-year period (1969-2013), 224 endocrine cancers were diagnosed among AN people, of which 210 (94%) were thyroid cancers. Compared to USW, AN people were diagnosed at a slightly younger age, had a higher proportion of thyroid cancers diagnosed with a size of 20-40 mm, and a larger proportion of patients with regional metastases. More than 85% of AN thyroid cancers were of papillary histology. The incidence of thyroid cancers was similar between AN people and USW, and appeared to increase among AN people over the period of surveillance. Finally, five-year cause-specific survival rate was 100% for papillary carcinoma patients and 86.3% [confidence interval 54.7-96.5] for follicular thyroid cancer patients. This study is the first report of endocrine cancers and the first detailed examination of thyroid cancer among AN people. The incidence of thyroid cancer was similar among

  20. Thyroglobulin measurement using highly sensitive assays in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovanella, Luca; Clark, Penelope M; Chiovato, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the most common endocrine cancer and its incidence has increased in recent decades. Initial treatment usually consists of total thyroidectomy followed by ablation of thyroid remnants by iodine-131. As thyroid cells are assumed to be the only source...... at low concentrations now allows detection of very low Tg concentrations reflecting minimal amounts of thyroid tissue without the need for TSH stimulation. Use of these highly sensitive Tg assays has not yet been incorporated into clinical guidelines but they will, we believe, be used by physicians...

  1. Thyroid dysfunction and neoplasia in children receiving neck irradiation for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, I.D.; Black, T.L.; Thompson, E.I.; Pratt, C.; Rao, B.; Hustu, O.

    1985-01-01

    The reported relationship of radiation exposure and thyroid carcinoma stimulated this retrospective study of 298 patients treated at St. Jude Children's Hospital with radiation therapy to the neck for childhood cancer to identify patients who developed subsequent thyroid abnormalities. This series includes 153 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 95 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with lymphoepithelioma, and 22 with miscellaneous tumors. Inclusion in the study required 5 years of disease-free survival following therapy for their original tumor, which included thyroid irradiation. Follow-up has been 100%. Most patients also received chemotherapy. Seventeen patients were found to have decreased thyroid reserve with normal levels of free triiodothyroxine (T3) or free thyroxin, (T4) and an elevated level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In nine patients hypothyroidism developed, with decreased T3 or T4 levels and an elevated level of TSH. One hyperthyroid patient was identified. Two patients had thyroiditis, and seven had thyroid neoplasms: (carcinoma in two, adenoma in two, colloid nodule in one, and undiagnosed nodules in two). This survey has demonstrated an increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid neoplasia when compared to the general population. The importance of long-term follow-up for thyroid disease is emphasized in patients who have received thyroid irradiation. The possible role of subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH elevation coupled with radiation damage to the thyroid gland as a model for the development of neoplastic disease is discussed

  2. An Interesting Case of Retropharyngeal Lymph Nodal Metastases in a Case of Iodine-Refractory Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harisankar, Chidambaram Natrajan Balasubramanian; Vijayabhaskar, Ramakrishnan

    2018-01-01

    Metastases to cervical lymph node are fairly common in differentiated thyroid cancer. In iodine-refractory disease, the disease may persist in the thyroid bed, cervical lymph nodes, lungs, or the bones commonly. Retropharyngeal lymph nodal involvement in thyroid cancer is unusual and may even be the presenting complaint. We represent a case of iodine-refractory thyroid cancer with retropharyngeal lymph nodal involvement in addition to lung metastases.

  3. Evaluating for a geospatial relationship between radon levels and thyroid cancer in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neerav; Camacho, Fabian; Mangano, Joseph; Goldenberg, David

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether there is an association between radon levels and the rise in incidence of thyroid cancer in Pennsylvania. Epidemiological study of the state of Pennsylvania. We used information from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry and the Pennsylvania Department of Energy. From the registry, information regarding thyroid incidence by county and zip code was recorded. Information regarding radon levels per county was recorded from the state. Poisson regression models were fit predicting county-level thyroid incidence and change as a function of radon/lagged radon levels. To account for measurement error in the radon levels, a Bayesian Model extending the Poisson models was fit. Geospatial clustering analysis was also performed. No association was noted between cumulative radon levels and thyroid incidence. In the Poisson modeling, no significant association was noted between county radon level and thyroid cancer incidence (P = .23). Looking for a lag between the radon level and its effect, no significant effect was seen with a lag of 0 to 6 years between exposure and effect (P = .063 to P = .59). The Bayesian models also failed to show a statistically significant association. A cluster of high thyroid cancer incidence was found in western Pennsylvania. Through a variety of models, no association was elicited between annual radon levels recorded in Pennsylvania and the rising incidence of thyroid cancer. However, a cluster of thyroid cancer incidence was found in western Pennsylvania. Further studies may be helpful in looking for other exposures or associations. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Small cell lung cancer with metastasis to the thyroid in a patient with toxic multinodular goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgu, Eylem Sercan; Gen, Ramazan; Ilvan, Ahmet; Ozge, Cengiz; Polat, Ayşe; Vayisoglu, Yusuf

    2012-11-01

    Thyroid metastasis of lung cancer is rarely observed in clinical practice. The primary cancers which metastasize to the thyroid gland are mostly renal cell carcinoma, lung cancer, and breast cancer. Transient destructive thyrotoxicosis is caused by massive metastasis of extrathyroid tumors. We herein present a case report of a patient with small cell carcinoma of lung with metastasis to the thyroid and thyrotoxicosis due to toxic multinodular goiter. A 66-year-old man complained of swelling around the right side of the neck, dyspnea, progressive weight loss, and palpitation starting since 3 months before his admission. The patient was diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of lung with metastasis to the thyroid and thyrotoxicosis due to toxic multinodular goiter. The case report presented here illustrates the challenge of making a definitive and adequate diagnosis, particularly if the patient presents with 2 potential causes of thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid scintigraphy is an important tool for differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis.

  5. Thyroid cancer post radioactive iodine treatment for hyperthyroidism - case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eyadeh, Abdallah A; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon; Etewi, Suzan; Al-Omari, Ahmed; Al-Asa'd, Rania Atallah; Haddad, Fares Halim

    2017-01-01

    To assess the rate of thyroid cancer and mortality rate in a cohort of patients who received RAI¹³¹ treatment for hyperthyroidism and to report the index cases' characteristics and management MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cohort of 264 patients who received RAI¹³¹ treatment for different causes of thyrotoxicosis were followed up over a period of 18 years (1996-2014) by physical exam, radiological evaluation and serial thyroid function tests. During the follow up period, three cases of thyroid cancer were identified. The prevalence of thyroid cancer was 1.136% of cases who received RAI¹³¹. The relative risk was 378.79 (95% CI: 76.8 effect relationship between RAI and thyroid cancer could be established, these cases highlights the importance of life-long surveillance of patients who receive RAI¹³¹.

  6. EBP1 suppresses growth, migration, and invasion of thyroid cancer cells through upregulating RASAL expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Li, Zhenjie; Li, Liujuan; Peng, Haiying; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-11-01

    Ebp1, a protein identified by its interactions with the ErbB3 receptor, has been characterized as a negative regulator of cancers. RAS GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP), RASAL1, was recently identified as a major tumor suppressor in thyroid cancer. In this study, we examined EBP1 expression in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cells. We found that compared with normal thyroid cells, TPC1, WRO, and FTC133 thyroid tumor cells exhibited lower EBP1 expression at messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. We then investigated the effects of forced EBP1 expression on growth, migration, and invasiveness of thyroid tumor cells. By using MTT and Boyden chamber assays, we showed that EBP1 overexpression dramatically reduced growth rate, migration, and invasiveness of K1 and FTC133 thyroid tumor cells. Furthermore, we explored the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of EBP1 on the cells by disclosing the correlation of EBP1 and RASAL1 expression. RASAL expression was elevated in thyroid tumor cells overexpressing EBP1. Knockdown RASAL by transduction of RASAL1 shRNA lentiviral particles markedly reduced RASAL levels with restoration of EBP1, and RASAL1 knockdown abrogated the effects of forced EBP1 expression on cell growth, migration, and invasiveness of thyroid tumor cells. These findings suggest that Ebp1 suppressed thyroid cancer cell lines by upregulating RASRAL expression.

  7. Incidence of thyroid cancer surrounding Three Mile Island nuclear facility: the 30-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roger J; De Simone, Nicole F; Slotkin, Jaime F; Henson, Baker L

    2013-08-01

    Original data reported a potential increased incidence of thyroid cancer surrounding the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear facility. A causal link to the accident, however, was indeterminate. Our objective was to determine if data 30 years later will change original conclusions, explore thyroid cancer incidence rates near nuclear power plants, and better understand effects of chronic low level radiation. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Retrospective data for specific Pennsylvania counties were provided by the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry Dataset for thyroid cancer using the Epidemiological Query and Mapping System search engine. Our study examines thyroid cancer incidence from 1985 through 2009 analyzed by year, county, and age. Thirty years after the TMI accident, an increased incidence of thyroid cancer is seen in counties south of TMI and in high-risk age groups. The average incidence rates from 1990 through 2009 were greater than expected in York, Lancaster, Adams, and Chester Counties. Thyroid cancer incidence since the TMI accident was greater than expected in the counties analyzed when compared to local and national population growth. This supports a link to chronic low level radiation exposure and thyroid cancer development. Despite these findings, a direct correlation to the accident remains uncertain as incidence rates may coincide with other factors, and original data were limited. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Dietary patterns, goitrogenic food, and thyroid cancer: a case-control study in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cléro, Énora; Doyon, Françoise; Chungue, Vaïana; Rachédi, Frédérique; Boissin, Jean-Louis; Sebbag, Joseph; Shan, Larrys; Rubino, Carole; de Vathaire, Florent

    2012-01-01

    French Polynesia has one of the world's highest thyroid cancer incidence rates. A case-control study among native residents of French Polynesia included 229 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, and 371 population controls. Dietary patterns and goitrogenic food consumption (cabbage, cassava) were analyzed. We used a factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and a conditional logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between dietary patterns or food items and thyroid cancer risk. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified: traditional Polynesian and Western. A nonsignificant inverse association was observed between the traditional Polynesian dietary pattern and thyroid cancer risk. The Western pattern was not associated with thyroid cancer risk. Cassava consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, a traditional Polynesian dietary pattern led to a weak reduced risk of thyroid cancer in French Polynesia. The protective effect of cassava on this cancer does not seem to be substantially different from that of cabbage, which was the main goitrogenic food studied to date.

  9. Axitinib treatment in advanced RAI-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and refractory medullary thyroid cancer (MTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdevila, Jaume; Trigo, José Manuel; Aller, Javier; Manzano, José Luís; Adrián, Silvia García; Llopis, Carles Zafón; Reig, Òscar; Bohn, Uriel; Cajal, Teresa Ramón Y; Duran-Poveda, Manuel; Astorga, Beatriz González; López-Alfonso, Ana; Martínez, Javier Medina; Porras, Ignacio; Reina, Juan Jose; Palacios, Nuria; Grande, Enrique; Cillán, Elena; Matos, Ignacio; Grau, Juan Jose

    2017-10-01

    Axitinib, an antiangiogenic multikinase inhibitor (MKI), was evaluated in the compassionate use programme (CUP) in Spain (October 2012-November 2014). 47 patients with advanced radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, n  = 34) or medullary thyroid cancer (MTC, n  = 13) with documented disease progression were treated with axitinib 5 mg b.i.d. The primary efficacy endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1. Progression-free survival (PFS) and adverse events (AEs) were secondary objectives. Regulatory authorities validated the CUP, and all patients signed informed consent form. Axitinib was administered as first-line therapy in 17 patients (36.2%), as second-line in 18 patients (38.3%) and as third/fourth-line in 12 patients (25.5%). With a median follow-up of 11.5 months (0-24.3), ORR was 27.7% (DTC: 29.4% and MTC: 23.1%) and median PFS was 8.1 months (95% CI: 4.1-12.2) (DTC: 7.4 months (95% CI: 3.1-11.8) and MTC: 9.4 months (95% CI: 4.8-13.9)). Better outcomes were reported with first-line axitinib, with an ORR of 53% and a median PFS of 13.6 months compared with 16.7% and 10.6 months as second-line treatment. Twelve (25.5%) patients required dose reduction to 3 mg b.i.d. All-grade AEs included asthenia (53.2%), diarrhoea (36.2%), hypertension (31.9%) and mucositis (29.8%); grade 3/4 AEs included anorexia (6.4%), diarrhoea (4.3%) and cardiac toxicity (4.3%). Axitinib had a tolerable safety profile and clinically meaningful activity in refractory and progressive thyroid cancer regardless of histology as first-line therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first time that cross-resistance between MKIs is suggested in thyroid cancer, highlighting the importance of prospective sequential clinical studies. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. Detecting thyroid cancer: utopia or reality? or Possibilities for thallium 201 in thyroid oncopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.; Beauduin, M.; Gigot, J.F.; Schmitz, A.; Pluygers, E.

    1985-01-01

    201 Tl uptake by cold thyroid nodules, as evidenced by routine scintigraphy, was investigated in 119 patients. Results show strong correlation (89.5%) of existence of thyroid tumors (benign follicular adenoma and carcinoma) with 202 Tl uptake. (Auth.)

  11. Thyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroidectomy; Thyroidectomy; Subtotal thyroidectomy; Thyroid cancer - thyroidectomy; Papillary cancer - thyroidectomy; Goiter - thyroidectomy; Thyroid nodules - ... Kaplan EL, Angelos P, James BC, Nagar S, Grogan RH. Surgery ...

  12. Positive Surgical Margins in Favorable-Stage Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Catherine E; Drew, Peter A; Morris, Christopher G; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Mendenhall, William M; Amdur, Robert J

    2018-04-16

    The significance of positive margin in favorable-stage well-differentiated thyroid cancer is controversial. We report outcomes of positive-margin patients with a matched-pair comparison to a negative-margin group. A total of 25 patients with classic-histology papillary or follicular carcinoma, total thyroidectomy +/- node dissection, stage T1-3N0-1bM0, positive surgical margin at primary site, adjuvant radioactive iodine (I-131), and age older than 18 years were treated between 2003 and 2013. Endpoints were clinical and biochemical (thyroglobulin-only) recurrence-free survival. Matched-pair analysis involved a 1:1 match with negative-margin cases matched for overall stage and I-131 dose. Recurrence-free survival in positive-margin patients was 71% at 10 years. No patient was successfully salvaged with additional treatment. Only 1 patient died of thyroid cancer. Recurrence-free survival at 10 years was worse with a positive (71%) versus negative (90%) margin (P=0.140). Cure with a microscopically positive margin was suboptimal (71%) despite patients having classic-histology papillary and follicular carcinoma, favorable stage, and moderate-dose I-131 therapy.

  13. Serum thyroglobulin in the management of patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsano, C.P.; Skosey, C.; DeGroot, L.J.; Refetoff, S.

    1982-01-01

    We have reviewed our experience with the management of patients with thyroid cancer to assess the potential benefits of employing the serum thyroglobulin assay in patient management programs and to determine the optimal conditions for this application. Serum thyroglobulin levels were found to be more reliable when obtained from hypothyroid patients. Levels of thyroglobulin greater than 10 ng/mL appeared to be abnormally elevated in both thyroidectomized patients prior to radioactive iodine therapy (group 1) and in thyroidectomized patients after radioactive iodine therapy (group 2). Elevated thyroglobulin levels were found to be useful indicators of the presence of metastatic disease, whereas normal thyroglobulin levels were reliable indicators of the absence of metastases. In group 1 patients, elevated thyroglobulin levels reliably predicted the presence of important total body scan uptake. In group 2 patients, normal thyroglobulin levels reliably predicted the absence of total body scan uptake. The serum thyroglobulin assay can substantially reduce the need for repetitive total body scanning in the follow-up of group 2 patients with thyroid cancer

  14. Aberrantly methylated genes in human papillary thyroid cancer and their association with BRAF/RAS mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko eKikuchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer arises through accumulation of epigenetic and genetic alteration. Aberrant promoter methylation is a common epigenetic mechanism of gene silencing in cancer cells. We here performed genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation of promoter regions by Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, using 14 clinical papillary thyroid cancer samples and 10 normal thyroid samples. Among the 14 papillary cancer cases, 11 showed frequent aberrant methylation, but the other three cases showed no aberrant methylation at all. Distribution of the hypermethylation among cancer samples was non-random, which implied existence of a subset of preferentially methylated papillary thyroid cancer. Among 25 frequently methylated genes, methylation status of six genes (HIST1H3J, POU4F2, SHOX2, PHKG2, TLX3, HOXA7 was validated quantitatively by pyrosequencing. Epigenetic silencing of these genes in methylated papillary thyroid cancer cell lines was confirmed by gene re-expression following treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A, and detected by real-time RT-PCR. Methylation of these six genes was validated by analysis of additional 20 papillary thyroid cancer and 10 normal samples. Among the 34 cancer samples in total, 26 cancer samples with preferential methylation were significantly associated with mutation of BRAF/RAS oncogene (P=0.04, Fisher’s exact test. Thus we identified new genes with frequent epigenetic hypermethylation in papillary thyroid cancer, two subsets of either preferentially methylated or hardly methylated papillary thyroid cancer, with a concomitant occurrence of oncogene mutation and gene methylation. These hypermethylated genes may constitute potential biomarkers for papillary thyroid cancer.

  15. A case report of hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid cancer and rare I-131 avid liver metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunawudhi, Anchisa; Promteangtrong, Chetsadaporn; Chotipanich, Chanisa

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is usually, relatively hypofunctional; most patients with thyroid cancer are clinically euthyroid. The combination of thyroid cancer and thyrotoxicosis is not common. We herein, report a case of follicular thyroid cancer with hyperfunctioning metastasis in a 43-year-old woman who presented with thyrotoxicosis, a cold right thyroid nodule, and low I-131 uptake at the thyroid bed. An additional total body scan with I-131 revealed a large radioiodine avid osteolytic bone metastasis with soft tissue masses and liver metastasis. The patient received treatment with total thyroidectomy, methimazole, and I-131 at a cumulative dose of 600 mCi along with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone before the first I-131 treatment and palliative radiation. The patient had normal liver function test and experienced a mild degree of bone marrow suppression after I-131. At the 2-year follow-up, the patient was still alive with the progression of bone metastases but was doing well with less severe thyrotoxicosis, good ambulation, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. Clinicians should be aware of the unusual concurrent presentation of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid cancer, a differential diagnosis in patients with thyrotoxicosis and low or normal radioiodine uptake over the neck and also potential pitfalls during radionuclide treatment

  16. The risk factor of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1979-01-01

    For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10 - 6 rem - 1 . This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10 - 6 yr - 1 . This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)

  17. Using nuclear medicine technique in thyroid cancer diagnosis with comparison to ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: We used the following tests- thyroid uptake with I-131, Thyroid imaging with I-131 and Thyroid ultrasound and lymph node metastasis ultrasound. The results are as follows: 1.Thyroid uptake with I-131: This test was for the evaluation of normal thyroid tissue and function of thyroid cancer: The mean of uptake were: 12,7% at 2h and 28,53 % at 24 h after addition I-131. There was no relation to I-131 uptake with tumor size. (2) Thyroid imaging with I131: Diagnosis sensitivity was 98,1%. The cold nodules on scintigram were 92,5%. The warm nodules were 16,8%. And there were no hot nodules. (3) Thyroid ultrasound and lymph node metastasis ultrasound. Diagnosis sensitivity was 98,3%. Diagnosis sensitivity of lymph node metastasis is 94,1%, accuracy 96,6%. Nuclear medicine technique contributed very much to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer and other cancer diseases. We are using SPECT and other nuclear medicine technique in oncology diagnosis and follow-up therapy. (author)

  18. Small-molecule MAPK inhibitors restore radioiodine incorporation in mouse thyroid cancers with conditional BRAF activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Debyani; Santos, Elmer; Ryder, Mabel; Knauf, Jeffrey A.; Liao, Xiao-Hui; West, Brian L.; Bollag, Gideon; Kolesnick, Richard; Thin, Tin Htwe; Rosen, Neal; Zanzonico, Pat; Larson, Steven M.; Refetoff, Samuel; Ghossein, Ronald; Fagin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced human thyroid cancers, particularly those that are refractory to treatment with radioiodine (RAI), have a high prevalence of BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) mutations. However, the degree to which these cancers are dependent on BRAF expression is still unclear. To address this question, we generated mice expressing one of the most commonly detected BRAF mutations in human papillary thyroid carcinomas (BRAFV600E) in thyroid follicular cells in a doxycycline-inducible (dox-inducible) manner. Upon dox induction of BRAFV600E, the mice developed highly penetrant and poorly differentiated thyroid tumors. Discontinuation of dox extinguished BRAFV600E expression and reestablished thyroid follicular architecture and normal thyroid histology. Switching on BRAFV600E rapidly induced hypothyroidism and virtually abolished thyroid-specific gene expression and RAI incorporation, all of which were restored to near basal levels upon discontinuation of dox. Treatment of mice with these cancers with small molecule inhibitors of either MEK or mutant BRAF reduced their proliferative index and partially restored thyroid-specific gene expression. Strikingly, treatment with the MAPK pathway inhibitors rendered the tumor cells susceptible to a therapeutic dose of RAI. Our data show that thyroid tumors carrying BRAFV600E mutations are exquisitely dependent on the oncoprotein for viability and that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of its expression or activity is associated with tumor regression and restoration of RAI uptake in vivo in mice. These findings have potentially significant clinical ramifications. PMID:22105174

  19. Ultrasound surveillance for radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello, Enrico; Felicetti, Francesco; Castiglione, Anna; Gallo, Marco; Maletta, Francesca; Isolato, Giuseppe; Biasin, Eleonora; Fagioli, Franca; Corrias, Andrea; Palestini, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    The optimal surveillance strategy to screen for thyroid carcinoma childhood cancer survivors (CCS) at increased risk is still debated. In our clinical practice, beside neck palpation we routinely perform thyroid ultrasound (US). Here we describe the results obtained using this approach. We considered all CCS referred to our long term clinic from November 2001 to September 2014. One hundred and ninety-seven patients who had received radiation therapy involving the thyroid gland underwent US surveillance. Thyroid US started 5 years after radiotherapy and repeated every 3 years, if negative. Among 197 CCS previously irradiated to the thyroid gland, 74 patients (37.5%) developed thyroid nodules, and fine-needle aspiration was performed in 35. In 11 patients the cytological examination was suspicious or diagnostic for malignancy (TIR 4/5), whereas a follicular lesion was diagnosed in nine. Patients with TIR 4/5 cytology were operated and in all cases thyroid cancer diagnosis was confirmed. The nine patients with TIR 3 cytology also underwent surgery and a carcinoma was diagnosed in three of them. Prevalence of thyroid cancer was 7.1%. Tumour size ranged between 4 and 25 mm, but six (43%) were classified T3 because of extra-thyroidal extension. Six patients had nodal metastases; in eight patients the tumour was multifocal. At the time of the study all patients are disease free, without evidence of surgery complications. Applying our US surveillance protocol, the prevalence of radiation-induced thyroid cancer is high. Histological features of the thyroid cancers diagnosed in our cohort suggest that most of them were clinically relevant tumours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO LEVOTHYROXINE THERAPY AFTER SURGERY IN PATIENTS WITH WELL-DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Rumyantsev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Levothyroxine therapy with purpose to suppress thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH after surgery in patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer is implemented since 1937. Accumulated results of levothyroxine suppressive therapy (LST application are attesting its heterogeneous efficacy in various risk groups of tumor recurrence: low, medium and high. Similar risk groups are emphasized towards adverse effect risk due to LST. The more intensivity and duration of TSH suppression the higher risk of adverse effects. First, they include osteopenia or osteoporosis and atrial fibrillation. Contemporary approaches to intensivity and duration of LTS are based on accounting of its potential efficiency into various clinical risk groups of tumor recurrence as well as adverse effects risk groups.

  1. Health profiles and quality of life of 518 survivors of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Pamela N; Stava, Charles; Vassilopoulou-Sellin, Rena

    2003-05-01

    Available literature describes the long-term outcome of thyroid cancer survivors with respect to thyroid cancer but not their overall medical and social well-being. Five hundred eighteen thyroid cancer survivors responded to a survey regarding medical and social impacts of their cancer experience. All had surgery, and 417 (80.5%) also had some radiation. Two thirds (64.5%) reported that cancer created health effects varying by gender and passage of time; neurologic, musculoskeletal, and psychologic problems seemed most prominent. They reported more memory loss and psychologic problems than other cancer survivors and more migraine headaches than both other cancer survivors and the general population. Regarding family and work, they integrated well in society overall. However, unsolicited comments by 24.5% of responders disclosed symptoms reminiscent of thyroid hormone imbalance. Thyroid cancer survivors generally report good health long term but describe distinct, lasting medical problems including symptoms of thyroid dysregulation. The extent and manner in which cancer therapy contributes to the health profile of the group merits further inquiry. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Clinical guidelines for management of thyroid nodule and cancer during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofré, Juan Carlos; Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Alvarez-Escolá, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Special considerations are warranted in management of thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer during pregnancy. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach of thyroid nodules follows the standard practice in non-pregnant women. On the other hand, differentiated thyroid cancer management during pregnancy poses a number of challenges for the mother and fetus. The available data show that pregnancy is not a risk factor for thyroid cancer development or recurrence, although flare-ups cannot be completely ruled out in women with active disease. If surgery is needed, it should be performed during the second term or, preferably, after delivery. A majority of pregnant patients with low-risk disease only need adjustment in levothyroxine therapy. However, women with increased serum thyroglobulin levels before pregnancy or structural disease require regular thyroglobulin measurements and neck ultrasound throughout pregnancy. Pregnancy is an absolute contraindication for radioactive iodine administration. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Implication from thyroid function decreasing during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients: chemosensitization role of triiodothyronine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones have been shown to regulate breast cancer cells growth, the absence or reduction of thyroid hormones in cells could provoke a proliferation arrest in G0-G1 or weak mitochondrial activity, which makes cells insensitive to therapies for cancers through transforming into low metabolism status. This biological phenomenon may help explain why treatment efficacy and prognosis vary among breast cancer patients having hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and normal function. Nevertheless, the abnormal thyroid function in breast cancer patients has been considered being mainly caused by thyroid diseases, few studied influence of chemotherapy on thyroid function and whether its alteration during chemotherapy can influence the respose to chemotherapy is still unclear. So, we aimed to find the alterations of thyroid function and non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) prevalence druing chemotherapy in breast cancer patients, and investigate the influence of thyroid hormones on chemotherapeutic efficacy. Methods Thyroid hormones and NTIS prevalence at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy were analyzed in 685 breast diseases patients (369 breast cancer, 316 breast benign lesions). The influence of thyroid hormones on chemotherapeutic efficacy was evaluated by chemosensitization test, to compare chemotherapeutic efficacy between breast cancer cells with chemotherapeutics plus triiodothyronine (T3) and chemotherapeutics only. Results In breast cancer, NTIS prevalence at the initial diagnosis was higher and increased during chemotherapy, but declined before the next chemotherapeutic course. Thyroid hormones decreased signigicantly during chemotherapy. T3 can enhance the chemosensitivity of MCF-7 to 5-Fu and taxol, with progression from G0-G1 phase to S phase. The similar chemosensitization role of T3 were found in MDA-MB-231. We compared chemotherapeutic efficacy among groups with different usage modes of T3, finding pretreatment with lower dose of T3, using

  4. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Young; Bang, Ye Jin; Ee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well designed future studies given the conflicting results from sensitivity analysis.

  5. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Young [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Ye Jin; Ee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well designed future studies given the conflicting results from sensitivity analysis.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of using a molecular diagnostic test to improve preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafzadeh, Mehdi; Marra, Carlo A; Lynd, Larry D; Wiseman, Sam M

    2012-12-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a safe and inexpensive diagnostic procedure for evaluating thyroid nodules.Up to 25% of the results from an FNAB, however, may not be diagnostic or may be indeterminate, leading to a subsequent diagnostic thyroid surgery. A new molecularly based diagnostic test could potentially reduce indeterminate cytological results and, with high accuracy, provide a definitive diagnosis for cancer in thyroid nodules. The aim of the study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of utilizing a molecular diagnostic (DX) test as an adjunct to FNAB, compared with NoDX, to improve the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. We constructed a patient-level simulation model to estimate the clinical and economic outcomes of using a DX test compared with current practice (NoDX) for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. By using a cost-effectiveness framework, we measured incremental clinical benefits in terms of quality-adjusted life-years and incremental costs over a 10-year time horizon. Assuming 95% sensitivity and specificity of the Dx test when used as an adjunct to FNAB, the utilization of the DX test resulted in a gain of 0.046 quality-adjusted life-years (95% confidence interval 0.019-0.078) and a saving of $1087 (95% confidence interval $691-$1533) in direct costs per patient. If the cost of the Dx test is less than $1087 per test, we expect to save quality-adjusted life-years and reduce costs when it is utilized. Sensitivity of the DX test, compared with specificity, had a larger influence on the overall outcomes. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential regulation of monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression in thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badziong, Julia; Ting, Saskia; Synoracki, Sarah; Tiedje, Vera; Brix, Klaudia; Brabant, Georg; Moeller, Lars Christian; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Fuhrer, Dagmar; Zwanziger, Denise

    2017-09-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) transporters are expressed in thyrocytes and most play a role in TH release. We asked whether expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) and the L-type amino acid transporters LAT2 and LAT4 is changed with thyrocyte dedifferentiation and in hyperfunctioning thyroid tissues. Protein expression and localization of transporters was determined by immunohistochemistry in human thyroid specimen including normal thyroid tissue (NT, n  = 19), follicular adenoma (FA, n  = 44), follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC, n  = 45), papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, n  = 40), anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC, n  = 40) and Graves' disease (GD, n  = 50) by calculating the 'hybrid' (H) score. Regulation of transporter expression was investigated in the rat follicular thyroid cell line PCCL3 under basal and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) conditions. MCT8 and LAT4 were localized at the plasma membrane, while LAT2 transporter showed cytoplasmic localization. MCT8 expression was downregulated in benign and malignant thyroid tumours as compared to NT. In contrast, significant upregulation of MCT8, LAT2 and LAT4 was found in GD. Furthermore, a stronger expression of MCT8 was demonstrated in PCCL3 cells after TSH stimulation. Downregulation of MCT8 in thyroid cancers qualifies MCT8 as a marker of thyroid differentiation. The more variable expression of LATs in distinct thyroid malignancies may be linked with other transporter properties relevant to altered metabolism in cancer cells, i.e. amino acid transport. Consistent upregulation of MCT8 in GD is in line with increased TH release in hyperthyroidism, an assumption supported by our in vitro results showing TSH-dependent upregulation of MCT8. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. Irradiation doses on thyroid gland during the postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akın

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In majority of the node-positive breast cancer patients treated with 3D CRT, the thyroid gland was exposed to considerable doses. On the other hand, for 44% of the patients are at risk for developing thyroid function abnormalities which should be considered during the routine follow-up.

  9. Measurement of Thyroid Dose by TLD arising from Radiotherapy of Breast Cancer Patients from Supraclavicular Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhood B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading global cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Radiotherapy plays a significant role in treatment of breast cancer and reduces locoregional recurrence and eventually improves survival. The treatment fields applied for breast cancer treatment include: tangential, axillary, supraclavicular and internal mammary fields. Objective: In the present study, due to the presence of sensitive organ such as thyroid inside the supraclavicular field, thyroid dose and its effective factors were investigated. Materials and Methods: Thyroid dose of 31 female patients of breast cancer with involved supraclavicular lymph nodes which had undergone radiotherapy were measured. For each patient, three TLD-100 chips were placed on their thyroid gland surface, and thyroid doses of patients were measured. The variables of the study include shield shape, the time of patient’s setup, the technologists’ experience and qualification. Finally, the results were analyzed by ANOVA test using SPSS 11.5 software. Results: The average age of the patients was 46±10 years. The average of thyroid dose of the patients was 140±45 mGy (ranged 288.2 and 80.8 in single fraction. There was a significant relationship between the thyroid dose and shield shape. There was also a significant relationship between the thyroid dose and the patient’s setup time. Conclusion: Beside organ at risk such as thyroid which is in the supraclavicular field, thyroid dose possibility should be reduced. For solving this problem, an appropriate shield shape, the appropriate time of the patient’s setup, etc. could be considered.

  10. Tc-99m imaging in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer patients immediately before I-131 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chi-Jung; Cheng, Cheng-Yi; Shen, Daniel Hueng-Yuan; Kuo, Shou Jen; Wang, Lien-Yen; Lee, Chiang-Hsuan; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chang, Ming-Che; Huang, Wen-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical role of technetium-99m pertechnetate (Tc-99m) imaging in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer patients immediately before radioiodine-131 (I-131) treatment (Tx). Eighty-six consecutive post-total-thyroidectomy patients (15 men, 71 women; mean age: 46.8 years) with pathologically diagnosed differentiated thyroid cancer were retrospectively studied. Tc-99m imaging immediately before I-131 Tx using both patient-based and lesion-based measurements were analyzed and were further compared with those of post-Tx I-131 whole-body scans. For patients with unequivocally positive Tc-99m uptake, the sensitivity was 77% (patient-based) and 59% (site-based). The positive predictive value (PPV) was 100% for both patient-based and site-based measurements. If equivocal Tc-99m uptake was counted as positive, the sensitivity was 83 and 67%, and the PPV was 100 and 99% for patient-based and site-based measurements, respectively. (a) To increase sensitivity yet maintaining high PPV, equivocal Tc-99m uptake should be considered a positive finding. (b) The nearly 100% PPV of Tc-99m imaging immediately before I-131 Tx for remnant detection suggests that Tc-99m imaging not only serves as an alternative to low-dose I-131 scanning in the low-risk post-thyroidectomy patients but also provides a clue for the subsequent I-131 therapeutic dosage and even for the outcome prediction.

  11. Interaction of pathology and molecular characterization of thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, E.D.; Cherstvoy, E.; Egloff, B.; Hoefler, H.; Vecchio, G.; Bogdanova, T.; Bragarnik, M.; Tronko, N.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of joint studies of thyroid cancer in children under 15 years of age between departments in Cambridge, Brussels, Naples and Munich in the European Union, and departments in Minsk, Kiev and Obninsk in the newly independent states of Eastern Europe. The pathology of 264 cases of childhood thyroid cancer out of 430 that have occurred since 1990 in the 3 countries in which high levels of fallout from the Chernobyl accident occurred has been restudied by NIS and EU pathologists. The overall level of agreement reached was about 97%. The diagnosis was supported by immunocytochemistry and ISH for the differentiation markers, thyroglobulin and calcitonin, and the tumors were classified according to the WHO, with papillary carcinomas being further subclassified. 99% of the 134 Belarussian cases were papillary carcinomas, as were 94% of the 114 Ukrainian tumors. All 9 of the Russian cases available for study were papillary in type. 76 of 154 cases of childhood thyroid cancer reviewed over a 30 year period in England and Wales and were also studied, 68% of these were papillary carcinoma. Histological study showed that a subtype of papillary carcinoma, rarely found in adults, with a solid/follicular architecture occurred in children. It was found in 72% of the Belarussian papillary carcinomas, 76% of the Ukrainian cases, but only 40% of the England and Wales cases. Molecular biological studies showed that the proportion of cases of papillary carcinoma expressing the ret gene was not significantly different in the exposed and the unexposed tumors, studies of the type of translocation leading to ret gene expression are not yet conclusive. Ras gene mutations were found as expected in follicular carcinoma, but were absent from any papillary carcinoma, whether from exposed or unexposed cases. TSH receptor mutations, normally found in follicular tumors were not found in any papillary carcinomas, nor were any p53 mutations identified. All these results

  12. Discovery of protein profiles for differentiated thyroid cancer using SELDI TOF MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; Lee, Myung Hoon; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam; Soh, Eui Young

    2003-01-01

    Low sensitivity of diagnostic whole body iodine scintigraphy and intermediate range of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) with or without anti-Tg antibody make it difficult to select the patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who need further treatment. Surfaced Enhanced Laser Desorption /Ionization - Time of Flight - Mass Spectrometry (SELDI TOF MS) is a useful method to evaluate cancer proteome, biomarkers and patterns of biomarkers. In this preliminary study, we evaluated and developed protein profiles for the discrimination between patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and non-cancer controls using SELDI technology. Serum samples from 10 healthy controls and from 14 patients with papillary thyroid cancer before thyroidectomy were analyzed by SELDI MS. Multiple protein peaks detected were analyzed by the computer software to develop a classifier for separating cancer patients form controls. The classifier was then challenged to 24 serum samples to determine the validity and accuracy of the classification system. All patients with papillary thyroid cancer had no other concomitant cancer or thyroiditis. Their serum Tg concentration was 55.8 (1.5 - 249.7) and 2 patients had extra-thyroidal extension. According to the SELDI analysis, protein peaks at 3696 Da, 4178 Da, and 8149 Da were more prominent in cancer patients than controls in various degrees. Among those, protein peak at 4178 Da was determined as classifier by computer software, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for discrimination of cancer patients from controls was 92.9% (13/14), 90% (9/10) and 91.7% respectively. This preliminary study suggests that serum protein profiles of differentiated thyroid cancer can be used for differentiation between cancer patients and non-cancer controls. And further clinical studies in various test sets will offer useful information in selecting patients who require treatment

  13. Discovery of protein profiles for differentiated thyroid cancer using SELDI TOF MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; Lee, Myung Hoon; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam; Soh, Eui Young [College of Medicine, Univ. of Ajou, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Low sensitivity of diagnostic whole body iodine scintigraphy and intermediate range of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) with or without anti-Tg antibody make it difficult to select the patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who need further treatment. Surfaced Enhanced Laser Desorption /Ionization - Time of Flight - Mass Spectrometry (SELDI TOF MS) is a useful method to evaluate cancer proteome, biomarkers and patterns of biomarkers. In this preliminary study, we evaluated and developed protein profiles for the discrimination between patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and non-cancer controls using SELDI technology. Serum samples from 10 healthy controls and from 14 patients with papillary thyroid cancer before thyroidectomy were analyzed by SELDI MS. Multiple protein peaks detected were analyzed by the computer software to develop a classifier for separating cancer patients form controls. The classifier was then challenged to 24 serum samples to determine the validity and accuracy of the classification system. All patients with papillary thyroid cancer had no other concomitant cancer or thyroiditis. Their serum Tg concentration was 55.8 (1.5 - 249.7) and 2 patients had extra-thyroidal extension. According to the SELDI analysis, protein peaks at 3696 Da, 4178 Da, and 8149 Da were more prominent in cancer patients than controls in various degrees. Among those, protein peak at 4178 Da was determined as classifier by computer software, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for discrimination of cancer patients from controls was 92.9% (13/14), 90% (9/10) and 91.7% respectively. This preliminary study suggests that serum protein profiles of differentiated thyroid cancer can be used for differentiation between cancer patients and non-cancer controls. And further clinical studies in various test sets will offer useful information in selecting patients who require treatment.

  14. Metformin blocks progression of obesity-activated thyroid cancer in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongwon; Kim, Won Gu; Zhao, Li; Enomoto, Keisuke; Willingham, Mark; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2016-06-07

    Compelling epidemiologic evidence indicates that obesity is associated with a high risk of human malignancies, including thyroid cancer. We previously demonstrated that a high fat diet (HFD) effectively induces the obese phenotype in a mouse model of aggressive follicular thyroid cancer (ThrbPV/PVPten+/-mice). We showed that HFD promotes cancer progression through aberrant activation of the leptin-JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway. HFD-promoted thyroid cancer progression allowed us to test other molecular targets for therapeutic opportunity for obesity-induced thyroid cancer. Metformin is a widely used drug to treat patients with type II diabetes. It has been shown to reduce incidences of neoplastic diseases and cancer mortality in type II diabetes patients. The present study aimed to test whether metformin could be a therapeutic for obesity-activated thyroid cancer. ThrbPV/PVPten+/-mice were fed HFD together with metformin or vehicle-only, as controls, for 20 weeks. While HFD-ThrbPV/PVPten+/-mice had shorter survival than LFD-treated mice, metformin had no effects on the survival of HFD-ThrbPV/PVPten+/-mice. Remarkably, metformin markedly decreased occurrence of capsular invasion and completely blocked vascular invasion and anaplasia in HFD-ThrbPV/PVPten+/-mice without affecting thyroid tumor growth. The impeded cancer progression was due to the inhibitory effect of metformin on STAT3-ERK-vimentin and fibronectin-integrin signaling to decrease tumor cell invasion and de-differentiation. The present studies provide additional molecular evidence to support the link between obesity and thyroid cancer risk. Importantly, our findings suggest that metformin could be used as an adjuvant in combination with antiproliferative modalities to improve the outcome of patients with obesity-activated thyroid cancer.

  15. Management of hypothyroidism after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres-Barrenchea, Emerita C.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) has been in use for over 40 years to treat hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. There is common knowledge that the aim in hyperthyroidism is to produce normal thyroid functions or render the patient euthyroid. It is the choice in properly selected patients as it is safe, convenient and there is rapid elimination of goiter and symptoms. In thyroid cancer, namely - papillary and follicular or well-differentiated ones, it ablates residual thyroid tissues not removed totally by surgery. This has, in all studies, improved life expectancy. The most important aspect in the use of I-131 for hyperthyroidism is to stress to the patient the need for constant follow-up and the recognition of the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism which is inevitible. Recurrent hyperthyroidism and iatrogenic hypothyroidism are two problems which interact in such a way that trying to solve one leads to exacerbation of the other. Cure follows a logarithmic relationship to activity or absorbed dose, while the hypothyroidism follows a linear relationship. Even though we calculate point for point the administered dose (fixed or preferred dose) hypothyroidism still occurs. Dose calculation schemes have been discussed and it follows that the higher the dose is, the higher the percentage of cure is but the higher the chance is for eventual hypothyroidism. Diagnosis of hypothyroidism is based on clinical history that the patient received RAI for toxicosis, plus signs and symptoms of weight gain, hoarseness, sleepy, sluggish, muscle cramps, fatigue, poor memory and concentration, dry skin, constipation, depression, menstrual irregularities as menorrhagia or amenorrhea and infertility. Physical examination would reveal bradycardia, non-palpable thyroid gland, slow speech, cool dry skin and delayed relaxation of deep tendon reflexes. Biochemical parameters would show as elevated TSH, low T4 and low T3. Management of thyroid hormone replacement involves using levothyroxine sodium

  16. Thyroid cancer from occupational exposures to iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of external irradiation, primarily of children, suggest that the thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive sites for carcinogenesis. However, it has generally been thought that 131 I confers much less risk (per rad) than external radiation because of its low dose-rate. A review of the epidemiologic literature indicates that age at irradiation is also an important variable in defining thyroid cancer risk, with a lesser risk at older ages. The available human studies are reasonably consistent in affirming that risks following 131 I are small. However, the data on 131 I exposure are too sparse, particularly for childhood exposure, to determine how much of the observed diminution in risk is due to older ages at exposure and how much is attributable to the characteristics of 131 I exposure per se, such as low dose-rate. Since most of the existing studies have inadequacies in design, dose levels, dosimetry or number of subjects, additional studies are needed before the risk assessment of 131 I at lower dose levels in adult workers can be regarded as definitive

  17. Diagnostic radiography exposure increases the risk for thyroid microcarcinoma: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Chen, Yingtai; Huang, Huang; Sandler, Jason; Dai, Min; Ma, Shuangge; Udelsman, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence and diagnostic radiography exposures, particularly computed tomography (CT) scanning and nuclear medicine examinations, have increased substantially in the USA. However, very few epidemiologic studies have directly investigated their associations. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Connecticut in 2010-2011, including 462 histologically confirmed incident thyroid cancer cases and 498 population-based controls. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between diagnostic radiography and the risk of thyroid cancer, controlling for potential confounding factors. Exposure to any form of diagnostic radiography was associated with an increased risk of well-differentiated thyroid microcarcinoma [tumor size≤10 mm, odds ratio (OR)=2.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-5.81]. The highest risk increase occurred with nuclear medicine examinations (excluding cardiology tests and thyroid uptake studies; OR=5.47, 95% CI: 2.10-14.23), followed by chest CT scanning (OR=4.30, 95% CI: 1.66-11.14), head and neck CT scanning (OR=3.88, 95% CI: 1.75-8.63), upper gastrointestinal series (OR=3.56, 95% CI: 1.54-8.21), lower gastrointestinal series (OR=3.29, 95% CI: 1.41-7.66), kidney radiography involving dye injection into a vein or artery (OR=3.21, 95% CI: 1.20-8.54), mammography (OR=2.95, 95% CI: 1.14-7.61), chest radiography (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.37-6.29), and abdomen CT scanning (OR=2.54, 95% CI: 1.02-6.30). No significant associations were found between these imaging modalities and thyroid tumors larger than 10 mm. This study provides the first direct evidence that CT scanning and nuclear medicine examinations are associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. The novel finding that an array of diagnostic radiography procedures are associated with thyroid microcarcinomas warrants further investigation.

  18. Radioimmunoassay of CA 19-9 tumor marker in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, V.V.; Slavnov, V.N.; Komissarenko, I.V.; Kovpak, N.A.; Kovalenko, A.E.; Guda, B.B.

    1999-01-01

    Applicability of determining carbohydrate antigen CA 19-9 content in blood serum, tissue extracts, and thyroid tumor aspiration biopsy samples to the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors of thyroid is studied. Radioimmunoassay was used for measurements. It is shown that determination of marker CA 19-9 in blood serum is not informationally capable for the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors. Considerable increase in CA 19-9 concentration was found in tumor aspiration biopsy samples from patients with malignant tumors this fact can be used for preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer [ru

  19. Effects of Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis on the Clinicopathological Features of Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babli, Saleha; Payne, Richard J; Mitmaker, Elliot; Rivera, Juan

    2018-03-01

    The effects of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) on the presentation and outcome of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) have long been a topic of controversy. To evaluate the effect of coexistent CLT on the clinicopathological features of PTC. Retrospective study. All patients with PTC who had been followed by the 2 co-investigators (Juan Rivera and Richard J. Payne) between 2006 and 2011 were included. CLT was present in 35% (166) of the included patients and was associated with a higher proportion of patients with TNM stage I ( p = 0.027) and fewer patients with persistent disease ( p = 0.014) in comparison with the PTC-only group. Analysis of the data based on age (45 years) revealed that in the older group, the presence of CLT was associated with fewer patients with persistent disease ( p = 0.03) and capsular invasion ( p = 0.05). However, in patients CLT was associated with more capsular invasion ( p = 0.003) and extrathyroidal extension ( p = 0.004) compared with the PTC-only group. CLT in patients with PTC was associated with lower-stage disease and less disease persistence in patients >45 years of age. In patients CLT appeared to be associated with unfavorable pathological features.

  20. Evidence of increased chromosomal abnormalities in French Polynesian thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violot, D.; M'kacher, R.; Dossou, J.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de; Parmentier, C.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in thyroid cancer patients before and after radioactive iodine administration in order to assess cytogenetic particularity in Polynesian thyroid cancer patients. Chromosomal abnormalities were studied in 30 Polynesian patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, prior to and 4 days after 131 I administration. Unstable chromosomal abnormalities were counted in peripheral blood lymphocytes using a conventional cytogenetic method. Peripheral blood was irradiated in vitro at different doses (0.5, 1 and 2 Gy) in order to establish the dose-response of the lymphocytes. Control groups were composed of 50 European thyroid cancer patients before and after first administration of 131 I, and of ten European healthy donors. In addition, in vitro irradiation assays were performed at different doses (0.5, 1 and 2 Gy). The relative risk of spontaneous dicentrics before any radiation treatment was 2.9 (95% CI 1.7-5.1) times higher among Polynesian thyroid patients than among European thyroid cancer patients. After in vitro irradiation, the rise in frequency of dicentrics was similar in the Polynesian thyroid cancer group and the European thyroid patients and healthy donors. Four days after administration of 3.7 GBq 131 I, the relative risk for a dicentric per cell was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.5) times higher in Polynesian than in European patients. This can be explained by higher 131 I retention in Polynesian compared with European patients. The results obtained revealed an increased frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in Polynesian thyroid cancer patients compared with European control patients. These preliminary findings are compatible with possible previous environmental aggression and therefore imply a need for further investigations on larger series including, in particular, French Polynesian healthy donors. In addition to French Polynesians, Maori and Hawaiian control groups could be useful. (orig.)

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... typically performed on people who have or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: ... such as lumps (nodules) or inflammation determine whether thyroid cancer has spread beyond the thyroid gland evaluate changes ...

  2. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and electromagnetic fields in relation to the risk of thyroid cancer in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lope, Virginia; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Gustavsson, Per; Floderus, Birgitta; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Silva, Agustín; Pollán, Marina

    2006-08-01

    This study sought to ascertain the risk of thyroid cancer in relation to occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELFMF) in a cohort representative of Sweden's gainfully employed population. A historical cohort of 2 992 166 gainfully employed Swedish male and female workers was followed up from 1971 through 1989. Exposure to ELFMF and ionizing radiation was assessed using three job exposure matrices based on industrial branch or occupational codes. Relative risks (RR) for male and female workers, adjusted for age and geographic area, were computed using log-linear Poisson models. Occupational ELFMF exposure showed no effect on the risk of thyroid cancer in the study. However, female workers exposed to high intensities of ionizing radiation registered a marked excess risk (RR 1.85, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02-3.35]. This trend was not in evidence among the men. While the study confirms the etiologic role of ionizing radiation, with a higher incidence of thyroid cancer being recorded for the most-exposed female workers, our results do not support the possibility of occupational exposure to ELFMF being a risk factor for the development of thyroid cancer.

  3. The role of podoplanin in the biology of differentiated thyroid cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rudzińska

    Full Text Available Podoplanin (PDPN, a mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein specific to the lymphatic system is expressed in a variety of human cancers, and is regarded as a factor promoting tumor progression. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular role of PDPN in the biology of thyroid cancer cells. PDPN expression was evaluated in primary thyroid carcinomas and thyroid carcinoma cell lines by RT-qPCR, Western blotting, IF and IHC. To examine the role of podoplanin in determining a cell's malignant potential (cellular migration, invasion, proliferation, adhesion, motility, apoptosis, a thyroid cancer cell line with silenced PDPN expression was used. We observed that PDPN was solely expressed in the cancer cells of 40% of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC tissues. Moreover, PDPN mRNA and protein were highly expressed in PTC-derived TPC1 and BcPAP cell lines but were not detected in follicular thyroid cancer derived cell lines. PDPN knock-down significantly decreased cellular invasion, and modestly reduced cell migration, while proliferation and adhesion were not affected. Our results demonstrate that PDPN mediates the invasive properties of cells derived from papillary thyroid carcinomas, suggesting that podoplanin might promote PTC progression.

  4. Impact of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis co-existing with differentiated thyroid cancer on the effectiveness of remnants ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughattas, S.; Chatti, K.; Trimeche, M.; Mokni, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Some stages of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) are functionally characterized by an organification defect with large intra thyroid inorganic iodide pool, which can be discharged during perchlorate test. Fluorescent scan study indicates that most patients with CLT have decreased stable iodine store in the thyroid gland. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible consequences of these organification abnormalities during remnants ablation in patients with coexisting differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. We reviewed our series of patients of DTC being followed at the department of nuclear medicine of the university hospital Sahloul. Among the 350 patients with DTC, 30 (8.5%) had histologically proved chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, with infiltration of the non-tumoral thyroid tissue. A second group of 60 patients (without evidence of lymphocytic infiltration) was selected randomly and used as control. The median of follow-up for these two groups was 4 years. All patients had undergone total thyroidectomy followed by scintigraphy 4-6 weeks later. In patients with thyroid remnants, standard ablative dose of 3.7 GBq of I-131 (100 mCi) was administrated with 6 months duration between all therapies, until the negativity of thyroid bed activity on follow up survey scan performed 48 to 72 hours after administering 2 to 3 mCi of I-131. Thyroglobulin (Tg) serum level was not considered as a criterion of ablation, because of the frequency of anti-thyroid antibodies in CLT. In the group with CLT, 3 patients had negative postoperative neck scintigraphy. Complete ablation was achieved with a single standard dose in 14, two standard doses in 5, and more than 200 mCi in two patients (300 in one and 400 in two). In five patients, ablation is not yet achieved. In the control group, ablation was obtained with 100 mCi in 43 patients, 200 mCi in 9, and 300 mCi in 3. In five patients ablation has not been achieved. Considering

  5. Diagnostic and Treatment Patterns Among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Thyroid Cancer in Ontario: 1992-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Jason D; Zuk, Aleksandra M; Wasserman, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is rare in young children, with a sharp increase in incidence among adolescents and young adults between 15 and 29 years of age. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma is increasing worldwide. Limited prospective population-based data are available to describe diagnostic and treatment practices in this age group. This study undertook a population-based review of thyroid carcinoma among 0- to 29-year-old individuals in Ontario, Canada, utilizing linked administrative data to describe the demographic and care patterns over nearly two decades. Cases from the Ontario Cancer Registry were identified and linked to administrative data sources at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Cases diagnosed prior to a patient's 30th birthday between 1992 and 2010 were considered eligible. Billing records identified ultrasonography, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, radioiodine therapy, and surgical approach. A total of 2552 patients aged 0-29 years were diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma during the study period. There was a 2.1-fold increase in standardized incidence rate over the 19 years of this study. Thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed subsequent to a prior malignancy in 47/2552 patients at a median interval of 11.6 years after initial cancer diagnosis. Seventeen individuals developed a second malignancy after treatment for thyroid carcinoma. Most patients (90.44%) underwent preoperative ultrasound (ranging from 1 to 13 preoperative studies). Preoperative thyroid scintigraphy was used in 44% of patients, with a significant decline in usage over the study period. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy usage rose by 20% over the study period, although 26% of patients had no biopsy prior to surgery. Primary total thyroidectomy followed by two-stage thyroidectomy were the most frequently performed procedures, and 56% of patients received therapeutic radioiodine. This study establishes a foundation of diagnostic and practice patterns over nearly two decades. The study

  6. An update in international trends in incidence rates of thyroid cancer, 1973-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Benjamin C; Mitchell, Janeil M; Jeon, Heedo D; Vasilottos, Nektarios; Grogan, Raymon H; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis

    2018-05-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been a reported increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in many countries. We previously reported an increase in thyroid cancer incidence across continents between 1973 and 2002. Here, we provide an update on the international trends in thyroid cancer between 2003 and 2007. We examined thyroid cancer incidence data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) database for the period between 1973 and 2007 from 24 populations in the Americas, Asia, Europe, Africa and Oceania, and report on the time trends as well as the distribution by histologic type and gender worldwide. The incidence of thyroid cancer increased during the period from 1998-2002 to 2003-2007 in the majority of populations examined, with the highest rates observed among women, most notably in Israel and the United States SEER registry, at over 14 per 100,000 people. This update suggests that incidence is rising in a similar fashion across all regions of the world. The histologic and gender distributions in the updated CI5 are consistent with the previous report. Our analysis of the published CI5 data illustrates that the incidence of thyroid cancer increased between 1998-2002 and 2003-2007 in most populations worldwide, and rising rates continue in all regions of the world.

  7. Three cases of thyroid cancer following the diagnosis of testicular cancer: treatment-related complication or genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulou, Pavlina; Bowers, Sarah Pauline; Gibson, Sarah; White, Jeff; Reed, Nick

    2016-05-01

    Large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that the incidence of second primary thyroid cancer in subjects diagnosed and treated for testicular cancer is raised. This finding is strongly associated to treatment with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy and it is explained by their mutagenic effect. On the other hand, inherited cancer susceptibility syndromes inducing both testicular and thyroid cancers denote that these tumours might share common genomic aberrations. We herein present our experience with three cases of metachronous development of thyroid cancer after diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer in our tertiary cancer centre. Our case report contributes to the limited available literature on such findings and aims to raise awareness of the cancer physicians treating these particular tumour types. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Salvage Lenvatinib Therapy in Metastatic Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Ariza, Nicole M; Ryder, Mabel M; Hilger, Crystal R; Bible, Keith C

    2017-07-01

    Historical anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) outcomes have been terrible, with a median survival of only five months and <20% one-year survival. Improved outcomes are now achieved with aggressive initial therapy in stages IVA and IVB disease, but patients with distant metastatic disease (stage IVC) still do poorly; improved therapies are sorely needed. Kinase inhibitors have emerged as promising agents in the therapy of advanced medullary and differentiated thyroid cancer, but there are limited data regarding the use of lenvatinib in ATC. The aim of this study was to delineate clinical outcomes in a series of patients with advanced ATC in response to lenvatinib therapy. A retrospective analysis was conducted involving all lenvatinib-treated Mayo Clinic ATC patients in 2015. Of 28 distinct ATC patients seen in 2015, three (11%) with metastatic disease of ECOG performance status 2-3 were treated with lenvatinib. Two patients were male; age range at ATC diagnosis was 57-84 years. All three patients attained successful local control of their disease with surgery and/or combined chemoradiotherapy. Lenvatinib was offered as the second, third, or fourth line of therapy at the time of metastatic disease progression. Two patients incurred minor responses to therapy, with structural regression of distant metastatic tumor disease soon after starting lenvatinib treatment (at one to two months), while one patient achieved stable disease, but no Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors partial responses resulted. Overall survival after starting lenvatinib was two, six, and seven months. Fatigue and hypertension were prominent, and one patient developed pulmonary emboli while on lenvatinib. This initial single-institution experience suggests that lenvatinib may have some disease-modifying activity in metastatic ATC that is otherwise refractory to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Unfortunately, observed benefits were transient, and toxicities were prominent. Clinical trials are required

  9. Risk of thyroid cancer after exposure to fertility drugs: results from a large Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, C.G.; Jensen, A.; Sharif, H.

    2008-01-01

    of 54 362 women with infertility problems referred to Danish fertility clinics in the period 1963-1998 was established. A detailed data collection including information about type and amount of treatment was conducted. Using case-cohort techniques, we calculated rate ratios (RRs) of thyroid cancer......BACKGROUND: Findings from the few epidemiological studies that have investigated thyroid cancer risk after fertility drugs have been inconclusive. Using data from the largest cohort of infertile women to date, we examined the effects of fertility drugs on thyroid cancer risk. METHODS: A cohort...... associated with different fertility drugs after adjustment for age at first live birth. RESULTS: A total of 29 thyroid cancers were identified during follow-up through 2000. Use of clomiphene [RR = 2.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-4.82] or progesterone (RR = 10.14; 95% CI: 1.93-53.33) was associated...

  10. Detecting and Treating Thyroid Nodules and Cancer Before, During, and After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increases as you age. Most nodules do not cause problems during pregnancy. Yet, pregnancy does cause major changes in the ... or growing quickly. There is no proof that pregnancy causes thyroid cancer to recur (come back) in women ...

  11. The Efficacy of Thyrotropin Suppression Therapy in Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer after Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo-Touk Niveen A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this prospective study was to assess the effect of the TSH suppression on both disease-free and overall survivals in patients with nonmetastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC after total thyroidectomy.

  12. Thyroid exposure, cancer incidence and excess risk in Belarus and Ukraine in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Kaiser, J.C.; Kenigsberg, J.E.; Vavilov, S.E.; Tronko, M.D.; Shinkarev, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of excess thyroid cancer risks are performed based on data for 469 settlements in Belarus and for 719 settlements in Ukraine in which more than 10 measurements of the 1 31I activity in the human thyroid were performed during the first seven weeks after the Chernobyl accident. Methods were developed to derive from the whole set of measurements representative age and gender dependencies of thyroid doses in cities and in rural areas as well as scaling factors for each of the settlements with which estimates of age and gender specific doses for each of the settlements could be derived. The risk analyses is performed with population data for the year 1986 and with all thyroid cancer cases among the birth cohort 1968 to 1985 from the 1188 settlements that were operated in the period 1986 to 2001. In a second study, simulation calculations are performed in order to explore the ecological bias in studies as they are performed with settlement specific data in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. Based on methods, that were developed by Lubin for exploring the ecologic bias due to smoking in indoor radon studies of lung cancer, the possible influence of enhanced medical surveillance of the thyroid (screening effects) was investigated. Calculations were performed by simulating thyroid doses of 366,397 children in a total of 743 settlements and assuming a linear dependence of the risk on dose and various scenarios of the screening. The ecologic bias was estimated for each of the scenarios. Two analytical equations allow the exact numerical computation of the bias which is determined by the screening factor, the number of screened individuals, and some covariance terms in the input data

  13. Mechanisms of therapeutic resistance in cancer (stem cells with emphasis on thyroid cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHombach-Klonisch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tissue invasion, metastasis and therapeutic resistance to anti-cancer treatments are common and main causes of death in cancer patients. Tumor cells mount complex and still poorly understood molecular defense mechanisms to counteract and evade oxygen deprivation, nutritional restrictions as well as radio- and chemotherapeutic treatment regimens aimed at destabilizing their genomes and important cellular processes. In thyroid cancer, as in other tumors, such defense strategies include the reactivation in cancer cells of early developmental programs normally active exclusively in stem cells, the stimulation of cancer stem-like cells resident within the tumor tissue and the recruitment of bone marrow-derived progenitors into the tumor (Thomas et al., 2008;Klonisch et al., 2009;Derwahl, 2011. Metastasis and therapeutic resistance in cancer (stem cells involves the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition- (EMT- mediated enhancement in cellular plasticity, which includes coordinated dynamic biochemical and nuclear changes (Ahmed et al., 2010. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of the role of DNA repair mechanisms contributing to therapeutic resistance in thyroid cancer and highlight the emerging roles of autophagy and damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP responses in EMT and chemoresistance in tumor cells. Finally, we use the stem cell factor and nucleoprotein High Mobility Group A2 (HMGA2 as an example to demonstrate how factors intended to protect stem cells are wielded by cancer (stem cells to gain increased transformative cell plasticity which enhances metastasis, therapeutic resistance and cell survival. Wherever possible, we have included information on these cellular processes and associated factors as they relate to thyroid cancer cells.

  14. Is Primary Hyperparathyroidism a Risk Factor for Papillary Thyroid Cancer? An Exemplar Study and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinamon, Udi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is associated with several cancer types, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. Objective To explore further the relation between PHPT and PTC. Methods By considering patients with PHPT as extra-suspicious for PTC, we studied an exemplar group of patients with PHPT with a small (≤1 cm thyroid nodule, which was negative in preoperative cytologic examination. During parathyroidectomy, a frozen section biopsy of the thyroid nodule confirmed PTC, as did the final surgical specimen, revealing that the preoperative cytology was false-negative. Additionally, relevant reports retrieved from the English literature addressing thyroid cancer and hyperparathyroidism were reviewed and processed. Results Four patients with PHPT were studied. Three had a multifocal thyroid disease, and three had neck lymph node metastasis. Processing previous report data supported an association between PHPT and PTC. Although thyroid nodularity among patients with PHPT was similar to the general population, PTC incidence was higher. This was true also for patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Conclusions This study emphasized that PHPT should be considered as a noteworthy risk factor for PTC. Fine needle aspiration of a thyroid nodule is the most valuable diagnostic procedure for thyroid cancer. Yet, false-negative results were reported in up to 10% of cases, especially in small, subcentimeter nodules. In line with our data and the literature, patients with PHPT should have both a detailed ultrasound addressing the thyroid and cytology of any thyroid nodule, including small subcentimeter lesions. Moreover, surgical flexibility, allowing intraoperative thyroid nodule sampling, should be considered even for “innocent” nodules.

  15. Thyroid cancer following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease: a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroff, S.V.; Fuks, J.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Improved survival resulting from advances in therapy in patients with Hodgkin's disease is associated with long-term morbidity, including the potential for the development of a second solid malignancy. We report a 44-year-old man with an unusually aggressive course of thyroid carcinoma 15 years after treatment for Hodgkin's disease. In a review of the English-language literature, we found 21 cases of thyroid cancer following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease, with latency periods ranging from 6 to 48 years. The development of secondary thyroid cancer after high-dose neck irradiation may be related to hypothyroidism, itself a complication of radiotherapy. Thyroid function should be measured at least once a year in all patients given neck irradiation, with initiation of thyroid hormone replacement if there is evidence of sustained hypothyroidism

  16. A study on the incidence of thyroid cancer in gender ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Eun Suk; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Yang, Oh Nam

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are an endocrine disease often found in clinical practice, and patients with thyroid nodules found by chance have rapidly increased alongside development of thyroid ultrasound techniques for health examination purposes. This study analyzes the subjects’ general characteristics, thyroid ultrasounds, and fine needle aspiration cytology in order to find out the relationship between male and female thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer frequency. An ultrasound examination of the thyroid was performed for 32,973 individuals who visited the K Hospital of Health Examination. Subjects have no history of thyroid disease and are 20 years old or over. Data of general characteristics, diabetes) was collected by a written survey completed by the subject, and the ultrasound of the thyroid (thyroid nodules existence, size, number) and FNAC was used to find out the malignancy rate. Frequency of patients with thyroid nodule was 4,611 (26.1%) in men and 5,341 (34.9%) in women between 32,973 individuals. Women’s prevalence rate is significantly higher than men, and the prevalence rate significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The prevalence of multiple nodules was significantly higher in women (43.5%) than in men (35.6%), and significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The fine needle aspiration cytology was performed in 692 (men 342, women 350) subjects who showed signs of malignancy through ultrasound. Prevalence of malignancy of the nodules was higher in men (33.3%) than in women (29.4%) although it is not statistically significant. It is known that thyroid nodule prevalence in women is much higher than in men. But this study shows the men’s prevalence rate was not too low compared with women, and the men showed a rather higher malignancy rate in nodules than women. It is considered that the role of thyroid ultrasound is both important in men and women

  17. A study on the incidence of thyroid cancer in gender ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Eun Suk; Lim, Cheong Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, O