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Sample records for thymol menthol salicylic

  1. Design, scale up and safe piloting of thymol hydrogenation and menthol racemisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudas, J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogenation of thymol and the racemisation of a menthol mixture were investigated as part of the development of novel process for the production of l-menthol. The key innovation in this l-menthol process is the enzymatic resolution of l...

  2. Design, Scale up and Safe Piloting of Thymol Hydrogenation and Menthol Racemisation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudas, J.; Hanika, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2009), s. 83-90 ISSN 0263-8762 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : thymol hydrogenation * menthol racemisation * trickle-bed reactor Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.223, year: 2009

  3. Validation of a method for simultaneous determination of menthol and methyl salicylate in pharmaceuticals by capillary gas chromatography with cool on-column injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzek, Jan; Czekaj, Janusz Sławomir; Rzeszutko, Włodzimierz

    2003-01-01

    The conditions for the identification and quantitative determination of menthol and methyl salicylate in ointment Balsamum Mentholi Compositum on a hydrocarbon-ester base (vaseline-lanolin), have been established by using capillary gas chromatography with cool on-column injection and flame ionization detection (FID). The good separation of menthol (tR = 7.2 min), methyl salicylate (tR = 8.7 min) and thymol (tR = 12.3 min) and camphor (tR = 6.0 min), used as alternative internal standards, beside vehiculum constituents (peak of tR = 15.8 min) was obtained. The method features a high sensitivity - detection limit for menthol and methyl salicylate was 0.1 ng and 5.0 ng, respectively, high accuracy, precision and recovery for active substances: 100.0% +/- 2.2%, when camphor was used as an internal standard.

  4. Antimicrobial potency of single and combined mupirocin and monoterpenes, thymol, menthol and 1,8-cineole against Staphylococcus aureus planktonic and biofilm growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifer, Domagoj; Mužinić, Vedran; Klarić, Maja Šegvić

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most commonly isolated microbes in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) that can be complicated due to the formation of a staphylococcal biofilm. In this study, we investigated antimicrobial efficacy of single mupirocin and three types of monoterpenes (thymol, menthol and 1,8-cineole) as well as mupirocin-monoterpene combinations against S. aureus ATCC 29213 and 5 methicilin-resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) grown in planktonic and biofilm form. MIC against planktonic bacteria as well as minimum biofilm-eliminating concentrations (MBECs) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) were determined by TTC and MTT reduction assay, respectively. The MICs of mupirocin (0.125-0.156 μg ml(-1)) were three orders of magnitude lower than the MICs of monoterpenes, which were as follows: thymol (0.250-0.375 mg ml(-1)) > menthol (1 mg ml(-1)) > 1,8-cineole (4-8 mg ml(-1)). Mupirocin-monoterpene combinations showed indifferent effect as compared with MICs of single substances. Mupirocin (0.016-2 mg ml(-1)) failed to destroy the biofilm. The MBECs of thymol and menthol were two- to sixfold higher than their MICs, while 1,8-cineole exerted a weak antibiofilm effect with MBECs 16- to 64-fold higher than MICs. Mixture of mupirocin and 1,8 cineole exerted a potentiated biofilm-eliminating effect, mupirocin-menthol showed antagonism, while effect of thymol-mupirocin mixture was inconclusive. MBICs of antimicrobials were close to their MICs, except 1,8-cineole, MBIC was about three- to fivefold higher. Dominant synergy was observed for mixtures of mupirocin and menthol or thymol, whereas mupirocin-1,8-cineol exerted an indifferent or additive biofilm inhibitory effect. Particular combinations of mupirocin and the monoterpenes could be applied in CRS therapy in order to eliminate or prevent bacterial biofilm growth.

  5. The Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatiles Methyl Salicylate and Menthol Positively affect Growth and Pathogenicity of Entomopathogenic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongwen; Qasim, Muhammad; Hussain, Mubasher; Akutse, Komivi Senyo; Avery, Pasco Bruce; Dash, Chandra Kanta; Wang, Liande

    2017-01-01

    Some herbivore-induced-plant volatiles (HIPVs) compounds are vital for the functioning of an ecosystem, by triggering multi-trophic interactions for natural enemies, plants and herbivores. However, the effect of these chemicals, which play a crucial role in regulating the multi-trophic interactions between plant-herbivore-entomopathogenic fungi, is still unknown. To fill this scientific gap, we therefore investigated how these chemicals influence the entomopathogenic fungi growth and efficacy. In this study, Lipaphis erysimi induced Arabidopsis thaliana HIPVs were collected using headspace system and detected with GC-MS, and then analyzed the effects of these HIPVs chemicals on Lecanicillium lecanii strain V3450. We found that the HIPVs menthol and methyl salicylate at 1 and 10 nmol·ml-1 improved many performance aspects of the fungus, such as germination, sporulation, appressorial formation as well as its pathogenicity and virulence. These findings are not only important for understanding the multi-trophic interactions in an ecosystem, but also would contribute for developing new and easier procedures for conidial mass production as well as improve the pathogenicity and virulence of entomopathogenic fungi in biological pest management strategies.

  6. Menthol and Menthone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Karina A; Zaia, Maurício G; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Castro, Cynthia A; Correia, Ricardo de O; Pinto, Fábio G; Rossi, Karina N Z P; Avó, Lucimar R S; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda F

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma mansoni , an intravascular trematode. Schistosomiasis treatment is limited to just one drug, Praziquantel (PZQ). Thus, studies on new antischistosomal compounds are of fundamental importance to disease control. Here we report on the effects of Mentha piperita L. compounds - menthol and menthone - in association with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in the regulation of hepatic fibrosis caused by schistosomiasis granulomas. Six different groups of Swiss rats were infected with 80 cercariae. Two groups received only menthol and menthol treatment at different concentrations (30 and 50 mg/kg); two groups received treatment with the same concentration of menthol and menthol, but associated the ASA. All groups received treatment for 14 consecutive days from the 35 days after the parasitic infection. In addition, three other groups were used: uninfected and untreated group, infected and untreated group and infected group treated with the commercial drug (single dose). Parasitological, cytological and histological analyses were performed. Results showed a significant reduction on the number of eosinophils found in the peritoneal cavity lavage (LPC) in all treated groups and on the number of eosinophils found in the blood of PZQ treated group, in the blood of the group treated with 30 mg/kg of Mentaliv ® and in the blood of group treated with 50 mg/kg Mentaliv ® + ASA when compared to the infected group. All treated groups presented a reduction in the parasite load, represented by the number of S. mansoni eggs, in the experimental group treated with 30 mg/kg of menthol and menthone a 62.80% reduction was observed and in the experimental group treated with 50 mg/kg of menthol and menthone + ASA a reduction of 64.21% was observed. In the liver histological analysis we observed that all Mentaliv ® treated groups expressed a unique cytological profile, with diffused cells through the granuloma. In the

  7. Menthol Content in US Marketed Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jiu; Taylor, Kenneth M; Lisko, Joseph G; Tran, Hang; Watson, Clifford H; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-07-01

    In 2011 menthol cigarettes accounted for 32 percent of the market in the United States, but there are few literature reports that provide measured menthol data for commercial cigarettes. To assess current menthol application levels in the US cigarette market, menthol levels in cigarettes labeled or not labeled to contain menthol was determined for a variety of contemporary domestic cigarette products. We measured the menthol content of 45 whole cigarettes using a validated gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. In 23 cigarette brands labeled as menthol products, the menthol levels of the whole cigarette ranged from 2.9 to 19.6mg/cigarette, with three products having higher levels of menthol relative to the other menthol products. The menthol levels for 22 cigarette products not labeled to contain menthol ranged from 0.002 to 0.07mg/cigarette. The type of packaging (soft vs. hard pack) for a given cigarette product does not appear to affect menthol levels based on the current limited data. Menthol levels in cigarette products labeled as containing menthol are approximately 50- to 5000-fold higher than those in cigarette products not labeled as containing menthol. In general, menthol content appears to occur within discrete ranges for both mentholated and nonmentholated cigarettes. This study shows that menthol may be present in non-mentholated cigarettes and adds to the understanding of how menthol may be used in cigarette products. It is the first systematic study from the same laboratory which will readily enable comparison among menthol and non-menthol cigarettes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Positive correlation between menthol content and in vitro menthol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Menthol is a highly valued monoterpene produced by Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) as a natural product with wide applications ... types and the level of tolerance to externally supplied menthol of explants of these genotypes in culture medium. The easy use ... pharmaceuticals, food, confectionery and beverages. There-.

  9. Positive correlation between menthol content and in vitro menthol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    A positive correlation was observed in the present study between menthol content in oils of evaluated geno- types and the level of .... In this case, menthol the major monoterpene component of the essential oil, which is known to be cytotoxic to the plant at higher con- centrations, is expected to be produced up to a level that.

  10. Positive correlation between menthol content and in vitro menthol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Menthol is a highly valued monoterpene produced by Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) as a natural product with wide applications in cosmetics, confectionery, flavours, beverages and therapeutics. Selection of high menthol yielding genotypes is therefore the ultimate objective of all genetic improvement programmes in ...

  11. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rising Joshua

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be perceived as safer choices than non-menthol cigarettes. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between menthol cigarette advertising campaigns and the perceptions of these products held by consumers. The marketing of menthol cigarettes has been higher in publications and venues whose target audiences are Blacks/African Americans. Finally, there appears to have been changes in cigarette menthol content over the past decade, which has been viewed by some researchers as an effort to attract different types of smokers.

  12. Cellular and Molecular Targets of Menthol Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Oz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Menthol belongs to monoterpene class of a structurally diverse group of phytochemicals found in plant-derived essential oils. Menthol is widely used in pharmaceuticals, confectionary, oral hygiene products, pesticides, cosmetics, and as a flavoring agent. In addition, menthol is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Recently, there has been renewed awareness in comprehending the biological and pharmacological effects of menthol. TRP channels have been demonstrated to mediate the cooling actions of menthol. There has been new evidence demonstrating that menthol can significantly influence the functional characteristics of a number of different kinds of ligand and voltage-gated ion channels, indicating that at least some of the biological and pharmacological effects of menthol can be mediated by alterations in cellular excitability. In this article, we examine the results of earlier studies on the actions of menthol with voltage and ligand-gated ion channels.

  13. (-)-Menthol biosynthesis and molecular genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Davis, Edward M.; Ringer, Kerry L.; Wildung, Mark R.

    2005-12-01

    (-)-Menthol is the most familiar of the monoterpenes as both a pure natural product and as the principal and characteristic constituent of the essential oil of peppermint ( Mentha x piperita). In this paper, we review the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of (-)-menthol production in peppermint. In Mentha species, essential oil biosynthesis and storage is restricted to the peltate glandular trichomes (oil glands) on the aerial surfaces of the plant. A mechanical method for the isolation of metabolically functional oil glands, has provided a system for precursor feeding studies to elucidate pathway steps, as well as a highly enriched source of the relevant biosynthetic enzymes and of their corresponding transcripts with which cDNA libraries have been constructed to permit cloning and characterization of key structural genes. The biosynthesis of (-)-menthol from primary metabolism requires eight enzymatic steps, and involves the formation and subsequent cyclization of the universal monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate to the parent olefin (-)-(4 S)-limonene as the first committed reaction of the sequence. Following hydroxylation at C3, a series of four redox transformations and an isomerization occur in a general “allylic oxidation-conjugate reduction” scheme that installs three chiral centers on the substituted cyclohexanoid ring to yield (-)-(1 R, 3 R, 4 S)-menthol. The properties of each enzyme and gene of menthol biosynthesis are described, as are their probable evolutionary origins in primary metabolism. The organization of menthol biosynthesis is complex in involving four subcellular compartments, and regulation of the pathway appears to reside largely at the level of gene expression. Genetic engineering to up-regulate a flux-limiting step and down-regulate a side route reaction has led to improvement in the composition and yield of peppermint oil.

  14. Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues.

  15. Anthelmintic effect of thymol and thymol acetate on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes and their toxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibson Paz Pinheiro André

    Full Text Available Abstract Thymol is a monoterpene and acetylation form of this compound can reduce the toxicity and enhance its biological effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of thymol and thymol acetate (TA on egg, larva and adult Haemonchus contortus and the cuticular changes, acute toxicity in mice and the efficacy on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. In vitro tests results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA and followed by comparison with Tukey test or Bonferroni. The efficacy of in vivo test was calculated by the BootStreet program. In the egg hatch test (EHT, thymol (0.5 mg/mL and TA (4 mg/mL inhibited larval hatching by 98% and 67.1%, respectively. Thymol and TA (8 mg/mL inhibited 100% of larval development. Thymol and TA (800 µg/mL reduced the motility of adult worms, by 100% and 83.4%, respectively. Thymol caused cuticular changes in adult worm teguments. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 of thymol and TA were 1,350.9 mg/kg and 4,144.4 mg/kg, respectively. Thymol and TA reduced sheep egg count per gram of faeces (epg by 59.8% and 76.2%, respectively. In in vitro tests thymol presented better anthelmintic activity than TA. However TA was less toxic and in in vivo test efficacy was similar.

  16. Anthelmintic effect of thymol and thymol acetate on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes and their toxicity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    André, Weibson Paz Pinheiro; Cavalcante, Géssica Soares; Ribeiro, Wesley Lyeverton Correia; Santos, Jessica Maria Leite dos; Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Paula, Haroldo César Beserra de; Morais, Selene Maia de; Melo, Janaina Viana de; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Thymol is a monoterpene and acetylation form of this compound can reduce the toxicity and enhance its biological effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of thymol and thymol acetate (TA) on egg, larva and adult Haemonchus contortus and the cuticular changes, acute toxicity in mice and the efficacy on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. In vitro tests results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and followed by comparison with Tukey test or Bonferroni. T...

  17. Salicylate Hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-09

    Apr 9, 1974 ... process appeared to be under control, the patient's fever disappeared and the sedimentation rate began to fall. Three weeks later (while still on 10 g salicylates a day) the patient suddenly developed a temperature of 39,5°<; and complained of anorexia and nausea. A maculopapular diffuse skin rash was ...

  18. What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carter, Lawrence P; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-07-01

      The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on menthol cigarettes.   Convenience sample of adolescent and adult smokers recruited from an online survey panel.   United States, 2010.   A total of 471 adolescent and adult current cigarette smokers.   Respondents were asked a series of questions about how they might react if menthol cigarettes were banned. In addition, participants completed a simulation purchase task to estimate the demand for menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across a range of prices.   Overall, 36.1% of respondents said they always (18.9%) or usually (17.2%) smoked menthol cigarettes. When asked how they might respond to a ban on menthol cigarettes, 35% of current menthol smokers said they would stop smoking, and 25% said they would 'find a way to buy a menthol brand'. Those who reported they might quit tended to have greater current intentions to quit [odds ratio (OR) = 4.47], while those who reported that they might seek illicit menthol cigarettes were far less likely to report current intentions to quit (OR = 0.06). Estimates for demand elasticity for preferred cigarette type were similar for menthol (α = 0.0051) and non-menthol (α = 0.0049) smokers. Demand elasticity and peak consumption were related to usual cigarette type and cigarettes smoked per day, but did not appear to differ by race, gender or age.   Preliminary evidence suggests that a significant minority of smokers of menthol cigarettes in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if such cigarettes were banned. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Methyl salicylate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) is a chemical that smells like wintergreen. It is used in many over-the- ... ache creams. It is related to aspirin. Methyl salicylate overdose occurs when someone swallows a dangerous amount ...

  20. Evaluation of Potential Effect of Menthol Solution on Oral Hygiene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To test the effect of menthol extract on the oral hygiene status of dental students of Faculty of Dentistry, Al- Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq. Methods: A solution (18 mg %) of menthol was prepared by dissolving menthol crystals in absolute ethanol. Chlorhexidine (CHX, 0.2 %) and deionized water were used ...

  1. Menthol cigarettes: moving toward a broader definition of harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Phillip; Clark, Pamela I

    2010-12-01

    The current practice of the tobacco industry of primarily focusing on the extent that menthol cigarettes contribute or do not contribute to excess morbidity and mortality in various diseases does not, in and of itself, fully illuminate the harm caused by these products. In fact, this practice actually masks and obscures the public health harm associated with menthol cigarettes. Given this, this commentary develops and presents a broader definition of harm in which to view menthol cigarettes and as the necessary and underlying rationale of why this candy-flavored ingredient should be removed from all tobacco products. This paper relies on the scientific presentations of the 2nd Conference on Menthol Cigarettes, and the peer-reviewed literature on menthol cigarettes. A broader definition of harm from menthol cigarettes must be analyzed from a broad public health perspective and take into account youth uptake and initiation, menthol's ability to augment addiction through unique sensory properties, spurious health messages associated with these products, menthol's role in cessation inhibition and relapse promotion, and the blatant predatory marketing of these products to the most vulnerable sectors of society. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should apply the same logic that outlawed other candy flavorings and apply it to menthol cigarettes; in the end, all candy flavorings, including menthol, only serve to make the poisons inherent in tobacco smoke go down easier. Additionally, the mobilization of communities most affected by the menthol cigarettes, the FDA, and candy flavorings and the tobacco industry's machinations will be discussed.

  2. Biocatalytic enantiomeric resolution of l-menthol from an eight isomeric menthol mixture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available was sought to preferentially esterify l-menthol in hexane, hence simplifying separation from this diasteromeric mix through distillation. From an initial screen of over 70 enzyme preparations, a commercial Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase (Amano AK...

  3. The health effects of menthol cigarettes as compared to non-menthol cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the 1920s, menthol has been added to cigarettes and used as a characterizing flavor. The health effects of cigarette smoking are well documented, however the health effects of menthol cigarettes as compared to non-menthol cigarettes is less well studied. This review discusses menthol’s effects on 1 biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure, 2 toxicity and cellular effects, 3 lung function and respiration, 4 pulmonary and/or vascular function, 5 allergic reactions and inflammation, and 6 tobacco-related diseases. It is concluded that menthol is a biologically active compound that has effects by itself and in conjunction with nicotine, however much of the data on the other areas of interest are inconclusive and firm conclusions cannot be drawn.

  4. Tissue-specific gene-expression patterns of genes associated with thymol/carvacrol biosynthesis in thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their differential changes upon treatment with abiotic elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdi, Mohammad; Malekzadeh-Mashhady, Atefe; Maroufi, Asad; Crocoll, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is known to produce a variety of phenolic monoterpenes such as thymol and carvacrol. Thymol and carvacrol are health-promoting, biocide and antitoxin compounds and have been considered as the main constituents of essential oils in T. vulgaris. To improve our understanding of the regulation of monoterpene biosynthesis in thyme, the expression of genes related to thymol and carvacrol biosynthesis in different tissues and in response to abiotic elicitors was analyzed. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA), trans-cinnamic acid (tCA) and UV-C irradiation were applied to T. vulgare leaves and transcript levels of early (DXR) and late (TvTPS1, CYP71D178 and CYP71D180) biosynthetic genes of thymol and carvacrol were measured. The results showed that early step and late step genes in thymol/carvacrol biosynthesis are differentially regulated. DXR was not found to be exclusively expressed in glandular trichomes; in contrast, biosynthetic genes including γ-terpinene synthase (TvTPS1) and two cytochrome P450s, CYP71D178 and CYP71D180, were preferentially expressed in glandular secretory trichomes. The high expression of late biosynthetic genes in glandular trichomes, which also contain the highest concentration of thymol and carvacrol, suggests that glandular trichomes are the structure in which thymol/carvacrol biosynthesis and accumulation occur. Our results indicate that in addition to abiotic elicitors, developmental and spatial factors also play a key role in the biosynthesis of thymol and carvacrol, most likely relating to glandular trichome density and/or activity. Hence optimization of these factors could be considered as a useful strategy to achieve high yield of valuable compounds in T. vulgare or other closely related plant species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Menthol binding and inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Al Kury, Lina; Shuba, Yaroslav; Mahgoub, Mohamed; Howarth, Frank C; Sadek, Bassem; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca(2+)-free bathing solution containing Ba(2+). Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [(125)I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca(2+) transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner.

  6. Menthol Cigarettes, Time to First Cigarette, and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to determine if menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers differ with respect to time to first cigarette (TTFC and successful smoking cessation via a meta-analysis of published results. For 13 independent estimates, menthol smokers were slightly but statistically significantly more likely to exhibit TTFC ≤ 5 min (random-effects odds ratio (OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–1.21, while 17 independent estimates provided a non-significant difference for TTFC ≤ 30 min (random-effects OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96–1.16. For cessation studies, meta-analysis of 30 published estimates indicated a decreased likelihood for menthol cigarette smokers to quit (random-effects OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96. There was no difference between cessation rates for Caucasian menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers, but the results support that African American menthol cigarette smokers find it more difficult to quit. Adjustment of cessation for socioeconomic status eliminated any statistically significant advantage for smoking cessation in non-menthol smokers. In conclusion, these results suggest that the observed differences in cessation rates between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are likely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and also suggest that TTFC may not be a robust predictor of successful smoking cessation.

  7. Menthol binding and inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Ashoor

    Full Text Available Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca(2+-dependent Cl(- channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca(2+ chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca(2+-free bathing solution containing Ba(2+. Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [(125I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca(2+ transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner.

  8. Menthol: a simple monoterpene with remarkable biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamatou, Guy P P; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Lawrence, Brian M

    2013-12-01

    Menthol is a cyclic monoterpene alcohol which possesses well-known cooling characteristics and a residual minty smell of the oil remnants from which it was obtained. Because of these attributes it is one of the most important flavouring additives besides vanilla and citrus. Due to this reason it is used in a variety of consumer products ranging from confections such as chocolate and chewing gum to oral-care products such as toothpaste as well as in over-the-counter medicinal products for its cooling and biological effects. Its cooling effects are not exclusive to medicinal use. Approximately one quarter of the cigarettes on the market contain menthol and small amounts of menthol are even included in non-mentholated cigarettes. Natural menthol is isolated exclusively from Mentha canadensis, but can also be synthesised on industrial scale through various processes. Although menthol exists in eight stereoisomeric forms, (-)-menthol from the natural source and synthesised menthol with the same structure is the most preferred isomer. The demand for menthol is high and it was previously estimated that the worldwide use of menthol was 30-32,000 metric tonnes per annum. Menthol is not a predominant compound of the essential oils as it can only be found as a constituent of a limited number of aromatic plants. These plants are known to exhibit biological activity in vitro and in vivo such as antibacterial, antifungal, antipruritic, anticancer and analgesic effects, and are also an effective fumigant. In addition, menthol is one of the most effective terpenes used to enhance the dermal penetration of pharmaceuticals. This review summarises the chemical and biological properties of menthol and highlights its cooling effects and toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative effect of thymol or its glucose conjugate, thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside, on Campylobacter in avian gut contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Sharon V R; Harvey, Roger B; Byrd, J Allen; Petrujkić, Branko T; Sedej, Ivana; Beier, Ross C; Phillips, Timothy D; Hume, Michael E; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important human food-borne pathogen that can contaminate meat and poultry during processing. Consequently, strategies are sought to reduce the carriage of C. jejuni in food animals before they arrive at the abattoir. Thymol is a natural product that reduces survivability of Campylobacter in vitro, but its rapid absorption from the proximal alimentary tract limits its bactericidal efficacy in vivo. Thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside is more resistant to absorption than free thymol, but its administration to chickens has not been reported. In the present studies, 1 mM thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside was shown to exhibit near equal anti-Campylobacter activity as 1 mM thymol when incubated anaerobically in avian crop or cecal contents in vitro, resulting in reductions of 1.10-2.32 log10 colony forming units mL(-1) in C. jejuni concentrations after 24 h incubation. In a follow-up live animal study, oral administration of thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside, but not free thymol, significantly lowered (>10-fold) recovery of Campylobacter from the crop of market-aged broilers when compared to placebo-treated controls (n = 6 broilers/treatment). Neither thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside nor thymol affected recovery of Campylobacter from cecal contents of the treated broilers. These results indicate that rapid absorption or passage of free thymol from the crop precluded its anti-Campylobacter activity at this site and throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. Conversely, lower recovery of Campylobacter from the crop of birds treated with thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside indicates this conjugate was retained and able to be hydrolyzed to biologically active free thymol at this site as intended, yet was not sufficiently protected to allow passage of efficacious amounts of the intact glycoside to the lower gut. Nevertheless, these results warrant further research to see if higher doses or encapsulation of thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside or similar glycosides may yield an

  10. Salicylic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the package label for more information.Apply a small amount of the salicylic acid product to one or two small areas you want to treat for 3 days ... know that children and teenagers who have chicken pox or the flu should not use topical salicylic ...

  11. Comparisons of three nicotine dependence scales in a multiethnic sample of young adult menthol and non-menthol smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Pohkrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Pagano, Ian; Vallone, Donna; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Sterling, Kymberle; Fryer, Craig S; Moolchan, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have compared nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers in a multiethnic sample of young adult daily cigarette smokers. This study examines differences in nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers and the associations of nicotine dependence with quitting behaviors among Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and White cigarette smokers aged 18-35. Craigslist.org, newspaper advertisements, and peer-to-peer referrals were used to recruit daily smokers (n = 186) into a lab-based study. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS), and the brief Wisconsin Inventory for Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine differences in nicotine dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers and the relationship between each nicotine dependence scale with self-efficacy to quit, quit attempt in the past 12 months, and number of attempts. Menthol smokers were more likely to report difficulty refraining from smoking in places where forbidden (p = .04) and had higher scores on social/environmental goads subscale of the WISDM (p = .0005). Two-way interaction models of the FTND and menthol status showed that menthol smokers with higher levels of dependence were more likely to have tried to quit smoking in the past 12 months (p = .02), but were less likely to have had multiple quit attempts (p = .01). Components of the FTND and WISDM distinguish levels of dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers. Higher FTND scores were associated with having a quit attempt, but fewer quit attempts among menthol smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Menthol cigarettes and the public health standard: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Collins, Lauren K; Niaura, Raymond S; Gagosian, Stacey Y; Abrams, David B

    2017-12-29

    Although menthol was not banned under the Tobacco Control Act, the law made it clear that this did not prevent the Food and Drug Administration from issuing a product standard to ban menthol to protect public health. The purpose of this review was to update the evidence synthesis regarding the role of menthol in initiation, dependence and cessation. A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature on menthol cigarettes via a PubMed search through May 9, 2017. The National Cancer Institute's Bibliography of Literature on Menthol and Tobacco and the FDA's 2011 report and 2013 addendum were reviewed for additional publications. Included articles addressing initiation, dependence, and cessation were synthesized based on study design and quality, consistency of evidence across populations and over time, coherence of findings across studies, and plausibility of the findings. Eighty-two studies on menthol cigarette initiation (n = 46), dependence (n = 14), and cessation (n = 34) were included. Large, representative studies show an association between menthol and youth smoking that is consistent in magnitude and direction. One longitudinal and eight cross-sectional studies demonstrate that menthol smokers report increased nicotine dependence compared to non-menthol smokers. Ten studies support the temporal relationship between menthol and reduced smoking cessation, as they measure cessation success at follow-up. The strength and consistency of the associations in these studies support that the removal of menthol from cigarettes is likely to reduce youth smoking initiation, improve smoking cessation outcomes in adult smokers, and in turn, benefit public health.

  13. Evaluation of Potential Effect of Menthol Solution on Oral Hygiene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To test the effect of menthol extract on the oral hygiene status of dental students of Faculty of. Dentistry ... positive and Gram-negative bacteria [9]. .... animals, which in turn indicates that this substance is well tolerated. Elimination of menthol extract from oral cavity. The volunteers in the study group had mean age.

  14. Differential trends in cigarette smoking in the USA: is menthol slowing progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Gary A; Villanti, Andrea C; Mowery, Paul D; Sevilimedu, Varadan; Niaura, Raymond S; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B

    2015-01-01

    Mentholated cigarettes are at least as dangerous to an individual's health as non-mentholated varieties. The addition of menthol to cigarettes reduces perceived harshness of smoke, which can facilitate initiation. Here, we examine correlates of menthol use, national trends in smoking menthol and non-menthol cigarettes, and brand preferences over time. We estimated menthol cigarette use during 2004-2010 using annual data on persons ≥12 years old from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We adjusted self-reported menthol status for selected brands that were either exclusively menthol or non-menthol, based on sales data. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. Among cigarette smokers, menthol cigarette use was more common among 12-17 year olds (56.7%) and 18-25 year olds (45.0%) than among older persons (range 30.5% to 34.7%). In a multivariable analysis, menthol use was associated with being younger, female and of non-Caucasian race/ethnicity. Among all adolescents, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes decreased from 2004-2010, while menthol smoking rates remained constant; among all young adults, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes also declined, while menthol smoking rates increased. The use of Camel menthol and Marlboro menthol increased among adolescent and young adult smokers, particularly non-Hispanic Caucasians, during the study period. Young people are heavy consumers of mentholated cigarettes. Progress in reducing youth smoking has likely been attenuated by the sale and marketing of mentholated cigarettes, including emerging varieties of established youth brands. This study should inform the Food and Drug Administration regarding the potential public health impact of a menthol ban. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. The effect of inhaled menthol on upper airway resistance in humans: A randomized controlled crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effie J Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Menthol (l-menthol is a naturally-occurring cold receptor agonist commonly used to provide symptomatic relief for upper airway congestion. Menthol can also reduce the sensation of dyspnea. It is unclear whether the physiological action of menthol in dyspnea reduction is through its cold receptor agonist effect or whether associated mechanical changes occur in the upper airway.

  16. Public opinion about FDA regulation of menthol and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Biener, Lois

    2015-12-01

    Regulations that reduce nicotine and eliminate menthol in cigarettes have been proposed to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as product alterations that could reduce smoking prevalence in the USA. This study sought to assess the public response to either action. A mail survey of a representative sample of 1074 adults was conducted in two major metropolitan areas to determine the level of support for immediate, gradual or no reduction of menthol and nicotine in cigarettes. There was more support for reducing nicotine (79%) than for reducing or removing menthol (59.5%). Most smokers (59.2%; 95% CI 50.7 to 67.2) and 36% of non-smokers (95% CI 31.7 to 40.8) opposed eliminating menthol, but few smokers (23.8%) or non-smokers (20.3%) were opposed to reducing nicotine. Logistic regression showed no significant effect of smoking status on support for reductions in nicotine, but that smokers were significantly less supportive than non-smokers of FDA action on menthol (OR=0.32, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.49). A significant race by smoking status interaction showed that African-American smokers were more supportive of removing menthol than non-African-American smokers. The greater smoker support for reductions in nicotine than menthol could be due to inaccurate beliefs about the disease risk associated with the two substances (ie, a belief that nicotine is more harmful than menthol), or to greater awareness of the sensory role that menthol plays in smokers' satisfaction. In any case, if FDA goes ahead with regulations to remove menthol, it will be important to develop strategies to reduce smoker resistance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate and other salicylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Thormann, Henrik; Goossens, An

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from salicylates present in topical products is uncommon. Most publications about ACD from salicylates are case reports describing only a few patients. Cross-reactivity between salicylates is not commonly reported. This article describes allergic contact dermatitis...

  18. Choice alters Drosophila oviposition site preference on menthol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehbia Abed-Vieillard

    2013-09-01

    Food choice and preference relies on multiple sensory systems that are under the control of genes and sensory experience. Exposure to specific nutrients and nutrient-related molecules can change food preference in vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, larval exposure of several holometabolous insects to menthol can change their adult response to this molecule. However, studies involving Drosophila melanogaster exposure to menthol produced controversial results due maybe to methodological differences. Here, we compared the oviposition-site preference of wild-type D. melanogaster lines freely or forcibly exposed to menthol-rich food. After 12 generations, oviposition-site preference diverged between the two lines. Counterintuitively, menthol ‘forced’ lines showed a persistent aversion to menthol whereas ‘free choice’ lines exhibited a decreased aversion to menthol-rich food. This effect was specific to menthol since the ‘free choice’ lines showed unaltered responses to caffeine and sucrose. This suggests that the genetic factors underlying Drosophila oviposition site preference are more rapidly influenced when flies have a choice between alternative sources compared to flies permanently exposed to the same aversive substance.

  19. Synthesis of isotopically labelled salicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.; Pryor, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    [ 13 C-carboxyl]Salicylic acid has been prepared by carbonation of 2-benzyloxybromobenzene followed by reductive debenzylation. Deuterium and tritium labelled salicylic acid and 2 H 2 / 13 C-salicylic acid were prepared by reduction of the 3,5-dibromo derivatives using Raney Ni-Al. Deuterium labelled salicylic acid containing up to four deuterium atoms was prepared by catalytic exchange with Raney Ni-Al in 5% NaOD/D 2 O. (author)

  20. The intersection of gender and race/ethnicity in smoking behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubbin, Catherine; Soobader, Mah-Jabeen; LeClere, Felicia B

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether menthol is related to initiation, quantity or quitting, we examined differences in smoking behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity, and adjusting for age, income and educational attainment. Cross-sectional, using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and Cancer Control Supplement. United States. Black, Hispanic and white women and men aged 25-64 years. For each group, we examined (i) proportion of menthol smokers (comparing current and former smokers); (ii) age of initiation, cigarettes smoked per day and quit attempt in the past year (comparing menthol and non-menthol current smokers); and (iii) time since quitting (comparing menthol and non-menthol former smokers). We calculated predicted values for each demographic group, adjusting for age, income and educational attainment. After adjusting for age, income and education, black (compared with Hispanic and white) and female (compared with male) smokers were more likely to choose menthol cigarettes. There was only one statistically significant difference in age of initiation, cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts or time since quitting between menthol and non-menthol smokers: white women who smoked menthol cigarettes reported longer cessation compared with those who smoked non-menthol cigarettes. The results do not support the hypothesis that menthol smokers initiate earlier, smoke more or have a harder time quitting compared with non-menthol smokers. A menthol additive and the marketing of it, given the clear demographic preferences demonstrated here, however, may be responsible for enticing the groups least likely to smoke into this addictive behavior. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. The Fungicidal Activity of Thymol against Fusarium graminearum via Inducing Lipid Peroxidation and Disrupting Ergosterol Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thymol is a natural plant-derived compound that has been widely used in pharmaceutical and food preservation applications. However, the antifungal mechanism for thymol against phytopathogens remains unclear. In this study, we identified the antifungal action of thymol against Fusarium graminearum, an economically important phytopathogen showing severe resistance to traditional chemical fungicides. The sensitivity of thymol on different F. graminearum isolates was screened. The hyphal growth, as well as conidial production and germination, were quantified under thymol treatment. Histochemical, microscopic, and biochemical approaches were applied to investigate thymol-induced cell membrane damage. The average EC50 value of thymol for 59 F. graminearum isolates was 26.3 μg·mL−1. Thymol strongly inhibited conidial production and hyphal growth. Thymol-induced cell membrane damage was indicated by propidium iodide (PI staining, morphological observation, relative conductivity, and glycerol measurement. Thymol induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA concentration and a remarkable decrease in ergosterol content. Taken together, thymol showed potential antifungal activity against F. graminearum due to the cell membrane damage originating from lipid peroxidation and the disturbance of ergosterol biosynthesis. These results not only shed new light on the antifungal mechanism of thymol, but also imply a promising alternative for the control of Fusarium head blight (FHB disease caused by F. graminearum.

  2. Surface activity of thymol: implications for an eventual pharmacological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Mariela E; Turina, Anahí del V; García, Daniel A; Nolan, M Verónica; Perillo, María A

    2004-03-15

    In the present work, we studied the ability of thymol to affect the organization of model membranes and the activity of an intrinsic membrane protein, the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)-R). In this last aspect, we tried to elucidate if the action mechanism of this terpene at the molecular level, involves its binding to the receptor protein, changes in the organization of the receptor molecular environment, or both. The self-aggregation of thymol in water with a critical micellar concentration approximately = 4 microM and its ability to penetrate in monomolecular layers of soybean phosphatidylcholine (sPC) at the air-water interface, even at surface pressures above the equilibrium, lateral pressure of natural bilayers were demonstrated. Thymol affected the self-aggregation of Triton X-100 and the topology of sPC vesicles. It also increased the polarity of the membrane environment sensed by the electrochromic dye merocyanine. A dipolar moment of 1.341 Debye was calculated from its energy-minimized structure. Its effect on the binding of [3H]-flunitrazepam ([3H]-FNZ) to chick brain synaptosomal membranes changed qualitatively from a tendency to the inhibition to a clear activatory regime, up on changing the phase state of the terpene (from a monomeric to a self-aggregated state). Above its CMC, thymol increased the affinity of the binding of [3H]-FNZ (K(d-control)= 2.9, K(d-thymol)= 1.7 nM) without changing the receptor density (B(max-control)= 910, B(max-thymol)= 895 fmol/mg protein). The activatory effect of thymol on the binding of [ [3H]-FNZ was observed even in the presence of the allosteric activator gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at a concentration of maximal activity, and was blocked by the GABA antagonist bicuculline. Changes in the dipolar arrangement and in the molecular packing of GABA(A)-R environment are discussed as possible mediators of the action mechanism of thymol.

  3. Thymol Hydrogenation in Bench Scale Trickle Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudas, J.; Hanika, Jiří; Lepuru, J.; Barkhuysen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2005), s. 255-262 ISSN 0352-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : thymol hydrogenation * trickle bed reactor * gas-liquid-solid reaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2005

  4. Assessment of the Larvicidal potentials of Thymol derivatives on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: Thymol (1) a major constituent of the South Eastern Nigeria variety of ocimum gratissimum popularly known as nchawu (scent leaf) was converted to its O-methyl (2), O-ethyl (3), acetate (4) and the. Benzyloxy (5) derivatives that are characterized by their spectral data such as infra red, proton n.m.r. and mass.

  5. Adolescent menthol smokers: will they be a harder target for cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchan, Eric T

    2004-02-01

    Menthol smoking may influence the development of tobacco addiction and related health consequences, yet limited data on menthol smoking by youth are available. We assessed usual brand menthol preference by Baltimore-area teenage smokers applying to a smoking cessation study between September 1999 and December 2002. Of a biethnic (Black and White) sample of 593 youths (mean age=15.5+/-1.4 years, 51% female, 45% African American), the overwhelming majority (93%) were menthol smokers. Menthol preference rates were highest among African American girls and lowest among White boys. Overall, a statistically significant association was found between ethnicity and menthol preference, chi2 (df=1)=19.4, page in either ethnic group. These findings of overwhelming menthol preference in a treatment-seeking sample of adolescents warrant further research on the developmental trajectory, cessation, and health-related impact of menthol smoking by youth.

  6. Tobacco industry control of menthol in cigarettes and targeting of adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslake, Jennifer M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Alpert, Hillel R; Koh, Howard K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2008-09-01

    We examined whether tobacco manufacturers manipulate the menthol content of cigarettes in an effort to target adolescents and young adults. We analyzed data from tobacco industry documents describing menthol product development, results of laboratory testing of US menthol brands, market research reports, and the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The tobacco industry attracted new smokers by promoting cigarettes with lower menthol content, which were popular with adolescents and young adults, and provided cigarettes with higher menthol content to long-term smokers. Menthol cigarette sales remained stable from 2000 to 2005 in the United States, despite a 22% decline in overall packs sold. Tobacco companies manipulate the sensory characteristics of cigarettes, including menthol content, thereby facilitating smoking initiation and nicotine dependence. Menthol brands that have used this strategy have been the most successful in attracting youth and young adult smokers and have grown in popularity.

  7. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Marie M. Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates 1 the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2 the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175. A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000. The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000. After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04. The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02 in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers.

  8. Extraction of thymol from different varieties of thyme plants using green solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva Bermejo, David; Angelov, Ivan; Vicente, Gonzalo; Stateva, Roumiana P; Rodriguez García-Risco, Mónica; Reglero, Guillermo; Ibañez, Elena; Fornari, Tiziana

    2015-11-01

    Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is the main monoterpene phenol found in thyme essential oil. This compound has revealed several biological properties, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this work, a comparison was made between the performance of different green solvents (ethanol, limonene and ethyl lactate), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at different conditions, to extract thymol from three different varieties of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis and Thymus citriodorus). Additionally, new solubility data of thymol in limonene and ethanol at ambient pressure and temperatures in the range 30-43 °C are reported. The highest thymol recoveries were attained with T. vulgaris (7-11 mg g(-1)). No thymol could be quantified in the PLE samples of T. citriodorus. The highest concentrations of thymol in the extracts were obtained with limonene. Thymol is very soluble in both solvents, particularly in ethanol (∼900 mg g(-1) at ∼40 °C), and is the main compound (in terms of peak area) present in the essential oil extracts obtained. The three solvents show good capacity to extract thymol from T. vulgaris and T. zygis by PLE. Although PLE proved to be a suitable technology to extract thymol from thyme plants, the highest concentrations of thymol were obtained by SFE with supercritical CO2 . © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. A cross-sectional study on tobacco use and dependence among women: Does menthol matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Judith; Rees, Vaughan W; Reid, Kathleen; Wong, Jeannie; Kinnunen, Taru

    2012-11-27

    The question of whether mentholation of cigarettes enhances tobacco dependence has generated conflicting findings. Potential mediating factors in a putative relationship between menthol use and tobacco dependence may include race and gender. While an association between menthol use and dependence is mixed, research on the role of race solely among women smokers is scarce. This study examined whether women menthol smokers have higher tobacco use and dependence than non-menthol smokers. Further, the study investigated differences between White and African American smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 928 women seeking tobacco dependence treatment in Boston, Massachusetts. Measures obtained included preferred brand and menthol content, dependence markers (cigarettes per day (CPD); time to first cigarette in the morning; number of and longest previous quit attempts) and smoking history (age of initiation; years smoking; menthol or non-menthol cigarette preference). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to detect interactions between menthol preference by race for continuous variables, and Pearson's chi-squared test was used for analyses with dichotomous variables. A greater proportion of menthol smokers smoked their first cigarette within five minutes of waking (p preferences. However, African American smokers smoked fewer CPD (pbrand for longer (p= .04). Women menthol smokers showed signs of greater tobacco dependence than non-menthol smokers. African Americans smoked fewer CPD but nevertheless had evidence of greater dependence.

  10. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions: a review of tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J

    2011-05-01

    To examine tobacco industry marketing of menthol cigarettes and to determine what the tobacco industry knew about consumer perceptions of menthol. A snowball sampling design was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 28 February and 27 April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results from the major US tobacco companies and affiliated organisations. A collection of 953 documents from the 1930s to the first decade of the 21st century relevant to 1 or more of the research questions were qualitatively analysed, as follows: (1) are/were menthol cigarettes marketed with health reassurance messages? (2) What other messages come from menthol cigarette advertising? (3) How do smokers view menthol cigarettes? (4) Were menthol cigarettes marketed to specific populations? Menthol cigarettes were marketed as, and are perceived by consumers to be, healthier than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol cigarettes are also marketed to specific social and demographic groups, including African-Americans, young people and women, and are perceived by consumers to signal social group belonging. The tobacco industry knew consumers perceived menthol as healthier than non-menthol cigarettes, and this was the intent behind marketing. Marketing emphasising menthol attracts consumers who may not otherwise progress to regular smoking, including young, inexperienced users and those who find 'regular' cigarettes undesirable. Such marketing may also appeal to health-concerned smokers who might otherwise quit.

  11. A cross-sectional study on tobacco use and dependence among women: Does menthol matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenbloom Judith

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of whether mentholation of cigarettes enhances tobacco dependence has generated conflicting findings. Potential mediating factors in a putative relationship between menthol use and tobacco dependence may include race and gender. While an association between menthol use and dependence is mixed, research on the role of race solely among women smokers is scarce. This study examined whether women menthol smokers have higher tobacco use and dependence than non-menthol smokers. Further, the study investigated differences between White and African American smokers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 928 women seeking tobacco dependence treatment in Boston, Massachusetts. Measures obtained included preferred brand and menthol content, dependence markers (cigarettes per day (CPD; time to first cigarette in the morning; number of and longest previous quit attempts and smoking history (age of initiation; years smoking; menthol or non-menthol cigarette preference. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to detect interactions between menthol preference by race for continuous variables, and Pearson’s chi-squared test was used for analyses with dichotomous variables. Results A greater proportion of menthol smokers smoked their first cigarette within five minutes of waking (p Conclusions Women menthol smokers showed signs of greater tobacco dependence than non-menthol smokers. African Americans smoked fewer CPD but nevertheless had evidence of greater dependence.

  12. Characterization of Thymol blue Radiochromic dosimeters for high dose applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras M. Aldweri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymol blue (TB solutions and Thymol blue Polyvinyl Alcohol (TB-PVA films have been introduced as Radiochromic dosimeter for high dose applications. The dosimeters were irradiated with gamma ray (60Co source from 5 to 30 kGy for film, and from 0.150 kGy to 4 kGy for solution. The optical density of unirradiated and irradiated TB solution as well as TB-PVA film dosimeters were studied in terms of absorbance at 434 nm using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The effects of scan temperature, light pre-gamma irradiation, dose rate, relative humidity and stability of the absorbance of solutions and films after irradiation were investigated. We found the dose sensitivity of TB solution and TB-PVA film dosimeters increases significantly with increases of the absorbed dose as well as with the increases of TB dye concentrations. The useful dose range of developed TB solutions and TB-PVA films dosimeters is in the range 0.125–1 kGy and of 5–20 kGy, respectively. Keywords: Dose sensitivity, Radio-chromic dosimeter, Thymol blue, Absorbance, Concentrations

  13. Biotransformation of thymol by hairy roots of transgenic Polygonum multiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quan-Feng; Jia, Jun-Zhang; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Yu, Rong-Min

    2009-10-01

    The exogenous substrate, thymol, was firstly biotransformed by using suspension hairy roots of transgenic Polygonum multflorum, and its biotransformed situation was also investigated. After five days co-cultivated period, the transformed product was isolated by Thin Layer Chromatograph and Column Chromatograph, with the structure elucidated by physic-chemical methods and spectra data. Meanwhile, the time course of biotransformation (T-C) for thymol was also measured by HPLC to illuminate its bio-transformed situation. The glycosylated product, namely DMP, was isolated and purified, which structure was determined as 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl) phenyl- beta-D-glucopyranoside. And the distribution of DMP in the medium or culture was varied in different co-cultivated periods, and for five days co-cultivated period, it mainly existed in the medium. The hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum were able to convert the aromatic exogenous substrate, thymol, into its glycoside. Furthermore, the time course indicated the relationship between DMP and co-cultivated period.

  14. Menthol differs from other terpenic essential oil constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolassa, Norbert

    2013-02-01

    The European Medicines Agency concluded that there is a risk of suppositories containing terpenic derivatives, which are used to treat coughs and colds, inducing neurological disorders, especially convulsions, in infants and small children. Terpenic derivatives are found in essential oils obtained from plants and include camphor, eucalyptol (syn. 1,8-cineol), thujone, and menthol. Chemistry, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of these compounds are clearly different and explain the appearance of convulsions following camphor, thujone, and eucalyptus oil overdose/poisoning, whereas no convulsions have been reported in cases of menthol overdose/poisoning in accordance with the pharmacological properties of menthol. Thus, a general verdict on all terpenic derivatives without differentiation appears inappropriate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Salicylate toxicity model of tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzberg, Daniel; Salvi, Richard J.; Allman, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    Salicylate, the active component of the common drug aspirin, has mild analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects at moderate doses. At higher doses, however, salicylate temporarily induces moderate hearing loss and the perception of a high-pitch ringing in humans and animals. This phantom perception of sound known as tinnitus is qualitatively similar to the persistent subjective tinnitus induced by high-level noise exposure, ototoxic drugs, or aging, which affects ∼14% of the general population. For over a quarter century, auditory scientists have used the salicylate toxicity model to investigate candidate biochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying phantom sound perception. In this review, we summarize some of the intriguing biochemical and physiological effects associated with salicylate-induced tinnitus, some of which occur in the periphery and others in the central nervous system. The relevance and general utility of the salicylate toxicity model in understanding phantom sound perception in general are discussed. PMID:22557950

  16. Salicylate toxicity model of tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eStolzberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Salicylate, the active component of the common drug aspirin, has mild analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects at moderate doses. At higher doses, however, salicylate temporarily induces moderate hearing loss and the perception of a high-pitch ringing in humans and animals. This phantom perception of sound known as tinnitus is qualitatively similar to the persistent subjective tinnitus induced by high-level noise exposure, ototoxic drugs or aging which affects ~14% of the general population. For over a quarter century, auditory scientists have used the salicylate toxicity model to investigate candidate biochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying phantom sound perception. In this review, we summarize some of the intriguing biochemical and physiological effects associated with salicylate-induced tinnitus, some of which occur in the periphery and others in the central nervous system. The relevance and general utility of the salicylate toxicity model in understanding phantom sound perception in general are discussed.

  17. Estimation of the Retention of Menthol in the Respiratory Tract of Menthol Cigarette Smokers: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Melissa Hagan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Le menthol a été mesuré dans des cigarettes, dans des préparations de fumée de cigarettes ainsi que dans le sang et l'urine de fumeurs, mais l'efficacité de rétention par le fumeur du menthol délivré dans la fumée n'a fait l'objet d'aucun rapport jusqu'à présent. Treize fumeurs ont participé à une étude destinée à déterminer l'efficacité de dépôt et de rétention du menthol de la fumée de cigarette dans les voies respiratoires lors du fumage de cigarettes mentholées. Le présent document décrit les résultats obtenus pendant la mesure des analytes dans la fumée de cigarette exhalée. Le solanésol, la nicotine et le menthol dans la fumée exhalée ont été collectés en utilisant une pompe assistée par dépression pendant la session de fumage, au cours de laquelle chaque participant a fumé trois cigarettes mentholées en l'espace d'une heure. Les analytes ont été quantifiés en utilisant une méthode de chromatographie en phase liquide à haute performance (CLHP pour le solanésol et une méthode de chromatographie en phase gazeuse avec détection par ionisation de flamme (CPG-DIF pour la nicotine et le menthol. Les mégots de cigarette ont été collectés après le fumage et comparés à ceux des cigarettes fumées par machine pour fournir une estimation des expositions au niveau de la bouche aux composants de la fumée pendant un fumage normal. Une moyenne de 93% du menthol, 97% de la nicotine et 64% du solanésol délivrés dans la fumée ont été retenus par les fumeurs d'une cigarette mentholée. Les résultats pour le solanésol et la nicotine dans cette étude concordaient avec des valeurs précédemment publiées pour des fumeurs de cigarettes non-mentholées. Les résultats obtenus dans cette étude confirment l'utilité générale de la technique d'exposition au niveau de la bouche pour évaluer les expositions des fumeurs aux composants du flux principal de la fumée et concordent avec un ensemble

  18. Menthol evokes Ca2+ signals and induces oxidative stress independently of the presence of TRPM8 (menthol receptor in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Nazıroğlu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Menthol is a naturally occurring monoterpene alcohol possessing remarkable biological properties including antipruritic, analgesic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and cooling effects. Here, we examined the menthol-evoked Ca2+ signals in breast and prostate cancer cell lines. The effect of menthol (50–500 µM was predicted to be mediated by the transient receptor potential ion channel melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8. However, the intensity of menthol-evoked Ca2+ signals did not correlate with the expression levels of TRPM8 in breast and prostate cancer cells indicating a TRPM8-independent signaling pathway. Menthol-evoked Ca2+ signals were analyzed in detail in Du 145 prostate cancer cells, as well as in CRISPR/Cas9 TRPM8-knockout Du 145 cells. Menthol (500 µM induced Ca2+ oscillations in both cell lines, thus independent of TRPM8, which were however dependent on the production of inositol trisphosphate. Results based on pharmacological tools point to an involvement of the purinergic pathway in menthol-evoked Ca2+ responses. Finally, menthol (50–500 µM decreased cell viability and induced oxidative stress independently of the presence of TRPM8 channels, despite that temperature-evoked TRPM8-mediated inward currents were significantly decreased in TRPM8-knockout Du 145 cells compared to wild type Du 145 cells. Keywords: Ca2+ oscillations, TRPM8, Menthol, Oxidative stress, Purinergic signaling

  19. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  20. Studying the interactive effects of menthol and nicotine among youth: An examination using e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Green, Barry G; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Jatlow, Peter; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Buta, Eugenia; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2017-11-01

    Tobacco products containing menthol are widely used by youth. We used e-cigarettes to conduct an experimental evaluation of the independent and interactive effects of menthol and nicotine among youth. Pilot chemosensory experiments with fourteen e-cigarette users identified low (barely perceptible, 0.5%) and high (similar to commercial e-liquid, 3.5%) menthol concentrations. Sixty e-cigarette users were randomized to a nicotine concentration (0mg/ml, 6mg/ml, 12mg/ml) and participated in 3 laboratory sessions. During each session, they received their assigned nicotine concentration, along with one of three menthol concentrations in random counterbalanced order across sessions (0, 0.5%, 3.5%), and participated in three fixed-dose, and an ad-lib, puffing period. Urinary menthol glucuronide and salivary nicotine levels validated menthol and nicotine exposure. We examined changes in e-cigarette liking/wanting and taste, coolness, stimulant effects, nicotine withdrawal and ad-lib use. Overall, the high concentration of menthol (3.5%) significantly increased e-cigarette liking/wanting relative to no menthol (pnicotine* menthol interactions (p=0.06), with an increase in liking/wanting when 3.5% menthol was combined with 12mg/ml nicotine, but not 6mg/ml nicotine. Importantly, both 0.5% and 3.5% menthol concentrations significantly improved taste and increased coolness. We did not observe nicotine or menthol-related changes in stimulant effects, nicotine withdrawal symptoms or ad-lib use. Menthol, even at very low doses, alters the appeal of e-cigarettes among youth. Further, menthol enhances positive rewarding effects of high nicotine-containing e-cigarettes among youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In Their Own Words: Young Adults' Menthol Cigarette Initiation, Perceptions, Experiences and Regulation Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Evans, Kiameesha R; Harrell, Melissa B; Loukas, Alexandra; Lewis, M Jane; Delnevo, Cristine D; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-02-17

    Menthol cigarettes are disproportionately used by young people and have been called smoking starter products. However, limited qualitative research exists on young adults' perceptions of and experiences with these products, with much of it based on document reviews of the tobacco industry's research. We conducted six focus groups with young adult (ages 18-24) menthol smokers in New Jersey (half with black smokers) between December 2014 and March 2015. Participants were asked open-ended questions about their menthol smoking initiation, preference reasons, substitution behaviors, and perceptions of menthol cigarette risks and regulation. Participants' menthol cigarette initiation and preference were influenced by their perceived popularity, brand recognition, taste, smoothness, satisfaction and access (including as "loosies," typically available for Newport). Some believed menthol cigarettes were less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes when initiating smoking. Many currently believed menthol cigarettes were more harmful because they contained extra "additives," were stronger (ie, requiring fewer cigarettes to feel satisfied), and/or based on hearsay. Many had tried new brand Camel Crush, which was perceived to be especially minty, fun, and attractive for newer smokers. While some used non-menthol cigarettes when menthols were unavailable, many said they would never or almost never substitute. Many acknowledged a menthol cigarettes ban would likely help them quit smoking, even though they did not support the idea. Menthol cigarette initiation is influenced by an interplay of multiple factors including their sensory properties, marketing, perceived popularity and availability. The FDA should continue to pursue closing this flavored cigarette loophole. In this first qualitative study of menthol cigarette use among young adults, we found further evidence that menthol cigarettes can act as starter products because they are perceived as easier to smoke and taste and smell

  2. Physiological and biochemical performances of menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Terng Wang

    Full Text Available The unique mutualism between corals and their photosynthetic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp. is the driving force behind functional assemblages of coral reefs. However, the respective roles of hosts and Symbiodinium in this endosymbiotic association, particularly in response to environmental challenges (e.g., high sea surface temperatures, remain unsettled. One of the key obstacles is to produce and maintain aposymbiotic coral hosts for experimental purposes. In this study, a simple and gentle protocol to generate aposymbiotic coral hosts (Isopora palifera and Stylophora pistillata was developed using repeated incubation in menthol/artificial seawater (ASW medium under light and in ASW in darkness, which depleted more than 99% of Symbiodinium from the host within 4∼8 days. As indicated by the respiration rate, energy metabolism (by malate dehydrogenase activity, and nitrogen metabolism (by glutamate dehydrogenase activity and profiles of free amino acids, the physiological and biochemical performances of the menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals were comparable to their symbiotic counterparts without nutrient supplementation (e.g., for Stylophora or with a nutrient supplement containing glycerol, vitamins, and a host mimic of free amino acid mixture (e.g., for Isopora. Differences in biochemical responses to menthol-induced bleaching between Stylophora and Isopora were attributed to the former digesting Symbiodinium rather than expelling the algae live as found in the latter species. Our studies showed that menthol could successfully bleach corals and provided aposymbiotic corals for further exploration of coral-alga symbioses.

  3. High-Pressure Equilibrium of Menthol + CO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Stateva, R.P.; Galushko, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-9 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : menthol * solubility * melting point depression Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.189, year: 2007

  4. TRPM8 mediates cold and menthol allergies associated with mast cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yeongyo; Jang, Yongwoo; Yang, Young Duk; Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Yunjong; Oh, Uhtaek

    2010-10-01

    Exposure to low temperatures often causes allergic responses or urticaria. Similarly, menthol, a common food additive is also known to cause urticaria, asthma, and rhinitis. However, despite the obvious clinical implications, the molecular mechanisms responsible for inducing allergic responses to low temperatures and menthol have not been determined. Because a non-selective cation channel, transient receptor potential subtype M8 (TRPM8) is activated by cold and menthol, we hypothesized that this channel mediates cold- and menthol-induced histamine release in mast cells. Here, we report that TRPM8 is expressed in the basophilic leukemia mast cell line, RBL-2H3, and that exposure to menthol or low temperatures induced Ca(2+) influx in RBL-2H3 cells, which was reversed by a TRPM8 blocker. Furthermore, menthol, a TRPM8 agonist, induced the dose-dependent release of histamine from RBL-2H3 cells. When TRPM8 transcripts were reduced by siRNA (small interfering RNA), menthol- and cold-induced Ca(2+) influx and histamine release were significantly reduced. In addition, subcutaneous injection of menthol evoked scratching, a typical histamine-induced response which was reversed by a TRPM8 blocker. Thus, our findings indicate that TRPM8 mediates the menthol- and cold-induced allergic responses of mast cells, and suggest that TRPM8 antagonists be viewed as potential treatments for cold- and menthol-induced allergies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancing effect of menthol on nicotine self-administration in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Lisa; Harrison, Erin; Gong, Yongzhen; Avusula, Ramachandram; Lee, Jonathan; Zhang, Meiyu; Rousselle, Thomas; Lage, Janice; Liu, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Tobacco smoking is a leading preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Menthol is a significant flavoring additive in tobacco products. Clinical evidence suggests that menthol may promote tobacco smoking and nicotine dependence. However, it is unclear whether menthol enhances the reinforcing actions of nicotine and thus facilitates nicotine consumption. This study employed a rat model of nicotine self-administration to examine the effects of menthol on nicotine-taking behavior. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in daily 1-h sessions to press a lever for intravenous nicotine self-administration under a fixed-ratio 5 schedule of reinforcement. In separate groups, rats self-administered nicotine at four different doses (0.0075, 0.015, 0.03, and 0.06 mg/kg/infusion). Five minutes prior to the two test sessions, menthol (5 mg/kg) or its vehicle was administered intraperitoneally in all rats in a counterbalanced design within each group. In separate rats that self-administered 0.015 mg/kg/infusion nicotine, menthol dose-response function was determined. Menthol was also tested on food self-administration. Results An inverted U-shaped nicotine dose-response curve was observed. Menthol pretreatment shifted the nicotine dose-response curve to the left. The facilitating effect of menthol on the self-administration of 0.015 mg/kg/infusion nicotine was dose-dependent, whereas it produced similar effects at doses above the threshold of 2.5 mg/kg. Menthol tended to suppress the self-administration of food pellets. Conclusions These data demonstrate that menthol enhances the reinforcing effects of nicotine, and the effect of menthol was specific to nicotine. The findings suggest that menthol directly facilitates nicotine consumption, thereby contributing to tobacco smoking. PMID:27473365

  6. Characterization of Thymol blue Radiochromic dosimeters for high dose applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldweri, Feras M.; Abuzayed, Manar H.; Al-Ajaleen, Musab S.; Rabaeh, Khalid A.

    2018-03-01

    Thymol blue (TB) solutions and Thymol blue Polyvinyl Alcohol (TB-PVA) films have been introduced as Radiochromic dosimeter for high dose applications. The dosimeters were irradiated with gamma ray (60Co source) from 5 to 30 kGy for film, and from 0.150 kGy to 4 kGy for solution. The optical density of unirradiated and irradiated TB solution as well as TB-PVA film dosimeters were studied in terms of absorbance at 434 nm using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The effects of scan temperature, light pre-gamma irradiation, dose rate, relative humidity and stability of the absorbance of solutions and films after irradiation were investigated. We found the dose sensitivity of TB solution and TB-PVA film dosimeters increases significantly with increases of the absorbed dose as well as with the increases of TB dye concentrations. The useful dose range of developed TB solutions and TB-PVA films dosimeters is in the range 0.125-1 kGy and of 5-20 kGy, respectively.

  7. Menthol facilitates the intravenous self-administration of nicotine in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengfei eWang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Menthol is preferred by approximately 25% of smokers and is the most common flavoring additive in tobacco and electronic cigarettes. Although some clinical studies have suggested that menthol facilitates the initiation of smoking and enhances the dependence on nicotine, many controversies remain. Using licking as the operant behavior, we found that adolescent rats self-administering nicotine (30 μg/kg/infusion, free base, i.v. with contingent oral menthol (60 μl, 0.01% w/v obtained significantly more infusions than rats receiving a vehicle cue or rats self-administering i.v. saline with a menthol cue. Rats yoked to their menthol-nicotine masters emitted significantly fewer licks on the active spouts, indicating that contingent pairing between nicotine and menthol is required for sustained nicotine intake. Rats that self-administered nicotine with a menthol cue also exhibited a long-lasting extinction burst and robust reinstatement behavior, neither of which were observed in rats that self-administered saline with a menthol cue. The cooling sensation of menthol is induced by activating the transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8 channel. When WS-23, an odorless agonist of the TRPM8 channel, was used as a contingent cue for nicotine, the rats obtained a similar number of nicotine infusions as the rats that were provided a menthol cue and exhibited a strong preference for the active spout. In contrast, highly appetitive taste and odor cues failed to support nicotine self-administration. These data indicated that menthol, likely by inducing a cooling sensation, becomes a potent conditioned reinforcer when it is contingently delivered with nicotine. Together, these results provide a key behavioral mechanism by which menthol promotes the use of tobacco products or electronic cigarettes.

  8. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions: a review of tobacco industry documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine tobacco industry marketing of menthol cigarettes and to determine what the tobacco industry knew about consumer perceptions of menthol. Methods A snowball sampling design was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 28 February and 27 April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results from the major US tobacco companies and affiliated organisations. A collection of 953 documents from the 1930s to the first decade of the 21st century relevant to 1 or more of the research questions were qualitatively analysed, as follows: (1) are/were menthol cigarettes marketed with health reassurance messages? (2) What other messages come from menthol cigarette advertising? (3) How do smokers view menthol cigarettes? (4) Were menthol cigarettes marketed to specific populations? Results Menthol cigarettes were marketed as, and are perceived by consumers to be, healthier than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol cigarettes are also marketed to specific social and demographic groups, including African–Americans, young people and women, and are perceived by consumers to signal social group belonging. Conclusions The tobacco industry knew consumers perceived menthol as healthier than non-menthol cigarettes, and this was the intent behind marketing. Marketing emphasising menthol attracts consumers who may not otherwise progress to regular smoking, including young, inexperienced users and those who find ‘regular’ cigarettes undesirable. Such marketing may also appeal to health-concerned smokers who might otherwise quit. PMID:21504928

  9. Electrospinning of functional poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyar, Tamer; Besenbacher, Flemming [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000, Aarhus C (Denmark); Nur, Yusuf; Hacaloglu, Jale [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, 06530 (Turkey)], E-mail: tamer@inano.dk, E-mail: tamer@unam.bilkent.edu.tr

    2009-03-25

    Electrospinning of nanofibers with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) is particularly attractive since distinct properties can be obtained by combining the nanofibers with specific functions of the CD-ICs. Here we report on the electrospinning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes (CD-menthol-ICs). These CD-menthol-IC functionalized nanofibers were developed with the purpose of producing functional nanofibers that contain fragrances/flavors with high temperature stability, and menthol was used as a model fragrance/flavor material. The PMMA nanofibers were electrospun with CD-menthol-ICs using three type of CD: {alpha}-CD, {beta}-CD, and {gamma}-CD. Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry (DP-MS) studies showed that the thermal evaporation of menthol occurred over a very high and a broad temperature range (100-355 deg. C) for PMMA/CDmenthol-IC nanowebs, demonstrating the complexation of menthol with the CD cavity and its high temperature stability. Furthermore, as the size of CD cavity increased in the order {alpha}-CD<{beta}-CD<{gamma}-CD, the thermal evolution of menthol shifted to higher temperatures, suggesting that the strength of interaction between menthol and the CD cavity is in the order {gamma}-CD>{beta}-CD>{alpha}-CD.

  10. The role of menthol in cigarettes as a reinforcer of smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahijevych, Karen; Garrett, Bridgette E

    2010-12-01

    The World Health Organization has identified several additives such as menthol in the manufacturing of cigarettes to specifically reduce smoke harshness. These additives may have important implications for reinforcing smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize research related to the role of menthol's sensory characteristics in strengthening the reinforcing effects of nicotine in cigarettes and the impact on nicotine addiction and smoking behavior. Research reports from 2002 to 2010 on the addictive potential of menthol cigarettes were reviewed that included qualitative focus groups, self-reports and biomarkers of nicotine dependence, human laboratory, and epidemiological studies. Positive sensory effects of menthol cigarette use were identified via reports of early smoking experiences and as a potential starter product for smoking uptake in youth. Menthol cigarettes may serve as a conditioned stimulus that reinforces the rewarding effects of smoking. Nicotine dependence measured by shorter time-to-first cigarette upon waking was increased with menthol cigarette use in most of the studies reviewed. Smoking quit rates provide additional indicators of nicotine dependence, and the majority of the studies reviewed provided evidence of lower quit rates or higher relapse rates among menthol cigarette smokers. The effects of menthol cigarette use in increasing the reinforcing effects of nicotine on smoking behavior were evidenced in both qualitative and quantitative empirical studies. These findings have implications for enhanced prevention and cessation efforts in menthol smokers.

  11. A Multiscale Study on the Penetration Enhancement Mechanism of Menthol to Osthole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shufang; Wang, Ran; Wan, Guang; Wu, Zhimin; Guo, Shujuan; Dai, Xingxing; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-11-28

    Menthol is a widely used penetration enhancer in clinical medicine due to its high efficiency and relative safety. However, details of the penetration enhancement mechanism of menthol on the molecular level is rarely involved in the discussion. In this work, the penetration enhancement (PE) mechanism of menthol is explored by a multiscale method containing molecular dynamics simulations, in vitro penetration experiments, and transmission electron microscopy. Osthole is chosen to be the tested drug due to its common use in external preparations and because it often accompanies menthol as a PE in the preparations. The results show that menthol in each testing concentration can impair the lipid packing of stratum corneum (SC) and promote osthole permeating into SC, and the penetration promoting effect has an optimal concentration. At a low concentration, menthol causes the bilayer to relax with a reduction in thickness and increment in the lipid headgroup area. At a high concentration, menthol destroys the bilayer structure of SC and causes lipids to form a reversed micelle structure. The penetration enhancement mechanism of menthol is characterized mainly by the disruption of the highly ordered SC lipid in low concentrations and an improvement in the partitioning of drugs into the SC in high concentrations. The results can provide some assistance for additional studies and applications of menthol as a penetration enhancer.

  12. 21 CFR 556.590 - Salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salicylic acid. 556.590 Section 556.590 Food and... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.590 Salicylic acid. A tolerance of zero is established for residues of salicylic acid in milk from dairy animals. ...

  13. Effects of Menthol on Nicotine Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacology and Dependence in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir D Alsharari

    Full Text Available Although menthol, a common flavoring additive to cigarettes, has been found to impact the addictive properties of nicotine cigarettes in smokers little is known about its pharmacological and molecular actions in the brain. Studies were undertaken to examine whether the systemic administration of menthol would modulate nicotine pharmacokinetics, acute pharmacological effects (antinociception and hypothermia and withdrawal in male ICR mice. In addition, we examined changes in the brain levels of nicotinic receptors of rodents exposed to nicotine and menthol. Administration of i.p. menthol significantly decreased nicotine's clearance (2-fold decrease and increased its AUC compared to i.p. vehicle treatment. In addition, menthol pretreatment prolonged the duration of nicotine-induced antinociception and hypothermia (2.5 mg/kg, s.c. for periods up to 180 min post-nicotine administration. Repeated administration of menthol with nicotine increased the intensity of mecamylamine-precipitated withdrawal signs in mice exposed chronically to nicotine. The potentiation of withdrawal intensity by menthol was accompanied by a significant increase in nicotine plasma levels in these mice. Western blot analyses of α4 and β2 nAChR subunit expression suggests that chronic menthol impacts the levels and distribution of these nicotinic subunits in various brain regions. In particular, co-administration of menthol and nicotine appears to promote significant increase in β2 and α4 nAChR subunit expression in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum of mice. Surprisingly, chronic injections of menthol alone to mice caused an upregulation of β2 and α4 nAChR subunit levels in these brain regions. Because the addition of menthol to tobacco products has been suggested to augment their addictive potential, the current findings reveal several new pharmacological molecular adaptations that may contribute to its unique addictive profile.

  14. Effects of Thymol and Carvacrol, Constituents of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil, on the Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachini-Queiroz, Fernanda Carolina; Kummer, Raquel; Estevão-Silva, Camila Fernanda; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Cunha, Joice Maria; Grespan, Renata; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae) is an aromatic and medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine, phytopharmaceutical preparations, food preservatives, and as an aromatic ingredient. The effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) and its isolated constituents thymol and cavacrol (CVL) were studied in the following experimental models: ear edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, and chemotaxis in vitro. In the pleurisy model, TEO, CVL, and thymol significantly inhibited inflammatory edema. However, only TEO and CVL inhibited leukocyte migration. In the in vitro chemotaxis experiment, CVL inhibited leukocyte migration, whereas thymol exerted a potent chemoattractant effect. In the ear edema model, CVL (10 mg/ear), applied topically, reduced edema formation, exerting a topical anti-inflammatory effect. Thymol did not reduce edema formation but rather presented an irritative response, probably dependent on histamine and prostanoid release. Our data suggest that the antiinflammatory effects of TEO and CVL are attributable to the inhibition of inflammatory edema and leukocyte migration. PMID:22919415

  15. Effect of menthol coated craft paper on corrosion of copper in HCl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Natural menthol was coated on craft paper by impregnation and studied as volatile corrosion inhibitor for copper in hydrochloric acid environment. The effect of menthol on copper corrosion was studied by gravimetric and electrochemical methods such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical.

  16. Seasonal variation in abiotic factors and toxicity of thymol against the snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of thymol against Lymnaea acuminata was conducted in each month of the year 2010-2011. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values of a molluscicide thymol were determined, with the concomitant estimation of levels of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and electrical conductivity, both in control and test water. On the basis of a 24h toxicity assay, it was observed that 24h LC50 value of 6.41 mg/l in month of May, was most effective in killing the snails, while the thymol was least effective in month of April, when its 24h LC50 was 15.25 mg/l. There was a significant positive correlation between LC50 of thymol and levels of carbon dioxide/ pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was noted between LC50 of thymol and dissolved oxygen/ temperature of test water in the same months. In order to confirm that relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not coincidental, activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, acid phosphatase (ACP and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in the nervous tissue of control as well as sublethal thymol (60% of 24hLC50 treated snail, were assayed during each of the 12 months of the same year. A significant positive rank correlation was noted between AChE/ACP/ALP activity and corresponding sublethal treatment of thymol. Maximum inhibition of AChE, ACP and ALP activity was observed in the month of May. This study shows conclusively that the best time to control the L. acuminata population with thymol is during the month of May to July.

  17. Radioprotective Effect of Thymol Against Salivary Glands Dysfunction Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Yarmand, Fateme; Motallebnejad, Mina; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Moslemi, Dariush; Bijani, Ali; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of thymol as a natural product against salivary glands dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation in rats. The rats were treated with thymol at dose of 50 mg/Kg before exposure to ionizing radiation at dose 15 Gy. Salivary gland function was evaluated with radioisotope scintigraphy and then salivary gland to background counts ratio was calculated. Ionizing radiation caused significant salivary glands dysfunction at the 3th and...

  18. The menthol marketing mix: targeted promotions for focus communities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Tess Boley; Wright, La Tanisha; Crawford, George

    2010-12-01

    This study analyzes tobacco industry menthol marketing strategies aimed at urban predominantly Black populations. Data are drawn from an interview with a former Brown & Williamson Tobacco Company trade marketing manager, tobacco industry documents on Kool promotions in urban areas, and public health literature on tobacco marketing. Tobacco companies recognize the growth potential for the menthol segment in these urban communities. They have higher levels of price discounts and signage, exert tight controls over the retail environment, and use hip-hop lifestyle to associate menthol products with urban nightlife, music, fame, and cultural edginess among younger smokers. Tobacco companies regard the urban Black menthol segment as one of the few markets in which they can grow sales despite declines elsewhere in the United States. Consequently, this population is surrounded by intense and integrated levels of marketing. We need strong monitoring, regulation, and enforcement efforts that will counter the industry's use of menthol at multiple levels in urban environments.

  19. Thymol reduces oxidative stress, aortic intimal thickening, and inflammation-related gene expression in hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Mei Yu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis plays a key role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, and is often associated with oxidative stress and local inflammation. Thymol, a major polyphenolic compound in thyme, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we measured the in vitro antioxidant activity of thymol, and investigated the effect of thymol on high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. New Zealand white rabbits were fed with regular chow, high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HC, T3, or T6 (HC with thymol supplementation at 3 mg/kg/d or 6 mg/kg/d, respectively for 8 weeks. Aortic intimal thickening, serum lipid parameters, multiple inflammatory markers, proinflammatory cytokines, and atherosclerosis-associated indicators were significantly increased in the HC group but decreased upon thymol supplementation. In summary, thymol exhibits antioxidant activity, and may suppress the progression of high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis by reducing aortic intimal lipid lesion, lowering serum lipids and oxidative stress, and alleviating inflammation-related responses.

  20. Lavender-thymol as a new topical aromatherapy preparation for episiotomy: A randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, T; Barakat, R; Ragab, A; Badria, F; Badawy, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of topical lavender-thymol in promoting episiotomy healing. This placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomised clinical trial involved 60 primiparous women. REEDA score was used to evaluate the outcome of the trial. On the 7th post-partum day, women in Placebo-treated group had worse Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge and Approximation (REEDA) score of 3.93 ± 3.65 compared with those in Lavender-thymol-treated group (2.03 ± 1.7) with significant difference (P = 0.013). Visual analogue Scale (VAS) score for pain at episiotomy in Lavender-thymol-treated group was 3.5 ± 1.9, whereas in Placebo-treated group it was 2.1 ± 2.2 (p = 0.011) for dyschezia, 3.8 ± 1.7 and 2.8 ± 1.6 in Placebo- and Lavender-thymol-treated women, respectively (p = 0.023). At 7th post-partum week, dyspareunia was more severe in Placebo-treated group compared with that in Lavender-thymol-treated group (5.3 ± 2.7 vs 2.7 ± 1.5 and p aromatherapy using lavender-thymol was highly effective, suitable and safe for episiotomy wound care with little or no expected side effects compared with that using placebo.

  1. Effect of thymol and linalool fumigation on postharvest diseases of table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mi Ho; Kim, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hyo-Won; Keum, Yoong Soo; Chun, Se Chul

    2014-09-01

    Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as 0℃. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol (30 µg/mL) and linalool (120 µg/mL) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that 30 µg/mL thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage.

  2. Antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segvić Klarić, M; Kosalec, I; Mastelić, J; Piecková, E; Pepeljnak, S

    2007-01-01

    To characterize antifungal activities of essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and pure thymol, as comparative substance, on different mould species isolated from damp dwellings. Fifty samples of wall scrapes were collected from damp dwellings in Zagreb, the capital of Croatia. The members of the following mould genera were recovered from the samples: Aspergillus (44%), Penicillium (18%) Alternaria, Ulocladium, Absidia and Mucor (8%) Cladosporium, Trichoderma and Rhizopus (6%), and Chaetomium (2%). Two strains of Stachybotrys chartarum were isolated from damp dwellings in Slovakia. Antifungal activities of the thyme essential oil, which contains p-cymene (36.5%), thymol (33.0%) and 1,8-cineole (11.3%) as main components, and pure thymol were determined by the dilution method and exposure to vaporous phase of the oil. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of both thymol and essential oil were bellow 20 microg ml(-1), except for Mucor spp. (50.20 microg ml(-1)). Thymol exhibited approximately three-times stronger inhibition than essential oil of thyme. The vaporous phase of the thyme essential oil (82 microg l(-1)) in glass chambers strongly suppressed the sporulation of moulds during 60 days of exposure. The thyme essential oil possesses a wide range spectrum of fungicidal activity. The vaporous phase of the oil exhibited long-lasting suppressive activity on moulds from damp dwellings. Essential oil of thyme and thymol could be used for disinfection of mouldy walls in the dwellings in low concentration.

  3. Overall Content of Salicylic Acid and Salicylates in Food Available on the European Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kęszycka, Paulina K; Szkop, Michał; Gajewska, Danuta

    2017-12-20

    The study aimed to determine the salicylates content in 112 products available on the European market. Quantitative determination of free and conjugated forms of salicylic acid in food was performed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The salicylates contents ranged from 0 to 1675.79 (μg/100 g). The results of this study confirm the presence of salicylates in food products, as well as a broad content diversity of these compounds depending on the species, variety, and method of processing the food items. The results can be very helpful for nutritionists and dieticians in planning low-salicylates or high-salicylates diets.

  4. [scpA the new salicylate hydroxylase gene localized on salicylate/caprolactam degradation plasmids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, A V; Volkova, O V; Puntus, I F; Esikova, T Z; Kosheleva, I A; Boronin, A M

    2013-01-01

    Both caprolactam and salicylate biodegradation by Pseudomonas salicylate/caprolactam degraders is controlled by large conjugative plasmids (SAL/CAP). Some of these plasmids determined to be the members of IncP-7 group. The new salicylate 1-hydroxylase gene (scpA) on SAL/CAP-plasmids has been detected and partially sequenced. Gene scpA was equally related to closest homologs nahG (NAH7), salA (P. reinekei MT1) and nahU (pND6-1), but identity of scpA to these genes did not exceed 72-74%. Synthesis of salicylate 1-hydroxylase ScpA was not induced by salicylate. This enzyme had wide substrate specificity and exhibited highest specific activity with 4-methylsalicylate and nonsubstituted salicylate. Besides pseudomonad's salicylate degradative conjugative plasmids without "classical" nah2-operon and harboring only salicylate 1-hydroxylase gene nahU have been firstly described.

  5. Electrospinning of functional poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyar, Tamer; Besenbacher, Flemming; Nur, Yusuf; Hacaloglu, Jale

    2009-01-01

    Electrospinning of nanofibers with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) is particularly attractive since distinct properties can be obtained by combining the nanofibers with specific functions of the CD-ICs. Here we report on the electrospinning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes (CD-menthol-ICs). These CD-menthol-IC functionalized nanofibers were developed with the purpose of producing functional nanofibers that contain fragrances/flavors with high temperature stability, and menthol was used as a model fragrance/flavor material. The PMMA nanofibers were electrospun with CD-menthol-ICs using three type of CD: α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD. Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry (DP-MS) studies showed that the thermal evaporation of menthol occurred over a very high and a broad temperature range (100-355 deg. C) for PMMA/CDmenthol-IC nanowebs, demonstrating the complexation of menthol with the CD cavity and its high temperature stability. Furthermore, as the size of CD cavity increased in the order α-CD β-CD>α-CD.

  6. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF L-MENTHOL IN THE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPIC PROCEDURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hitomi; Hikichi, Takuto; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Watanabe, K O; Nakamura, Jun; Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Waragai, Yuichi; Konno, Naoki; Asama, Hiroyuki; Takasumi, Mika; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2015-01-01

    Peppermint oil, which suppresses gastric peristalsis during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), is effective for determining the margin of a gastric tumor. This study was conducted to evaluate the utility of an L-menthol preparation for suppressing gastric peristalsis and for diagnosing gastric tumors. The study examined 124 patients who underwent EGD between January and April 2012. After 20 mL of 0.8% L-menthol was sprayed directly onto the mucosal surface of the gastric antrum, the degree of peristalsis suppression in the antrum was evaluated. The effectiveness of L-menthol for identifying new gastric tumors and determining tumor margins was also evaluated. Gastric peristalsis was suppressed in 88.5% (69/78) of patients, with complete suppression of peristalsis achieved in 78.2%. L-menthol exerted a higher peristalsis-suppressive effect in patients with endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy (93.3%, 56/60) than in patients without atrophy (72.2%, 13/18) (p = .014). L-menthol application caused the detection of new gastric tumors in 1.6% (2/124) of patients and clarification of the margin of three lesions (in 3 patients) identified as having an unclear margin before L-menthol application. These results suggest that L-menthol is effective for suppressing gastric peristalsis during EGD and suggest that it is useful for identifying gastric tumors and for determining tumor margins.

  7. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T

    2015-01-01

    in poisoning. We conducted a systematic literature review followed by data extraction and summarized findings, following a predetermined format. The entire work group voted by a 2-round modified Delphi method to reach consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Salicylate poisoning is a challenging clinical entity associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The indications for extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis are poorly defined. We present a systematic review of the literature along with evidence- and consensus......-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment in salicylate poisoning. METHODS: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup is a multidisciplinary group with international representation whose aim is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments...

  8. Effect of Menthol on Respiratory and Perceptual Responses to Exercise in Firefighter Protective Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired respiration reduces firefighters’ work capacity. This study evaluated the effect of menthol lozenge on respiratory and perceptual responses during exercise in a hot environment. Ten participants wearing firefighter protective gear performed two repeated exercise and rest trials in a counter-balanced order. Exercise consisted of two bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise at a wet bulb global temperature of 35°C. Participants either took 10-mg menthol or control lozenges prior to the beginning of each exercise bout. Respiratory gas exchange, heart rate, thermal sensation, and breathing comfort were continuously recorded. Menthol lozenges significantly increased pulmonary ventilation (menthol: 45.0±6.6 L•min-1 vs. control: 41.4±5.8 L•min-1 and menthol: 52.7±9.7 L•min-1 vs. control: 46.5±7.0 L•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respectively and oxygen consumption (menthol: 26.7±2.0 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 25.2±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 and menthol: 28.8±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 26.9±1.9 ml•kg-1•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respe¬cti¬ve¬ly (p0.05. The ventilatory equivalents though were not different throughout the exercise (p>0.05. Ratings of thermal sensation and breathing comfort were not different (p>0.05. It was concluded that menthol could alter breathing pattern and increase respiratory responses during strenuous exercise in the heat. There was no favorable effect of menthol on respiratory or perceptual responses under exercise-heat stress.

  9. Synthesis and some spectral properties of diphenylsilicon salicylate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis and some spectral properties of diphenylsilicon salicylate and a comparision of the antifungal efficacy of diphenylsilicon chloride, acetate and salicylate and diphenyltin chloride, acetate and salicylate on Candida albicans.

  10. Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt

    1996-02-01

    Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals. First, acetylsalicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets with isopropyl alcohol, then hydrolyzed to salicylic acid with muriatic acid, and finally, the salicylic acid is esterified using ethanol and a boric acid catalyst. The experiment can be directed towards high school or university level students who have sufficient background in organic chemistry to recognize the structures and reactions that are involved.

  11. Synthesis and Chemometrics of Thymol and Carvacrol Derivatives as Larvicides against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Viviane Barros; Travassos, Daniele Lima; Nepel, Angelita; Barison, Andersson; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Scotti, Luciana; Scotti, Marcus Tulius; Mendonça-Junior, Francisco Jaime Bezerra; La Corte dos Santos, Roseli; de Holanda Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral

    2017-01-01

    Background: Thymol and carvacrol have previously demonstrated larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). In view of this fact, it was of our interest to obtain synthetic derivatives and evaluate their larvicidal activity on Ae. aegypti larvae. Methods: Structural modifications were performed on thymol and carvacrol in an effort to understand the functional groups necessary for modulating their activities and to lead possibly to more effective larvae control agents. The derivatives were further subjected to SAR and computational studies (molecular modeling and chemometric tools (CPCA and PCA)) to extract structural information regarding their larvicidal properties. Field collected and Rockefeller populations of Ae. aegypti were used. Results: Carvacrol and thymol exhibited LC50 of 51 and 58ppm for field collected larvae, respectively. Carvacrol derivatives exhibited LC50 ranging from 39 to 169ppm, while thymol derivatives exhibited LC50 ranging from 18 to 465ppm. Substitution of the acidic proton of carvacrol by esters, ethers, and acetic acid resulted in either maintenance or reduction of potency. Conclusion: Thymol derivatives were, to a certain extent, more efficient larvicides against Ae. aegypti than carvacrol derivatives, particularly to Rockefeller larvae. The chemometrics tools applied in this study showed that the independent variables indicate a mixed profile. Nevertheless, hydrophobic interactions increased the larvicidal activity. PMID:29062856

  12. Radioprotective Effect of Thymol Against Salivary Glands Dysfunction Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Yarmand, Fateme; Motallebnejad, Mina; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Moslemi, Dariush; Bijani, Ali; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of thymol as a natural product against salivary glands dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation in rats. The rats were treated with thymol at dose of 50 mg/Kg before exposure to ionizing radiation at dose 15 Gy. Salivary gland function was evaluated with radioisotope scintigraphy and then salivary gland to background counts ratio was calculated. Ionizing radiation caused significant salivary glands dysfunction at the 3 th and the 70 th days with reduction in radioactivity uptake in salivary glands. Ratios of salivary gland to background radioactivities were 2.0 ± 0.05, 1.58 ± 0.62 and 1.99 ± 0.07 at 3 th days for control, radiation, and thymol plus radiation groups, respectively. Thymol significantly protected acute and chronic salivary gland dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation in the rats.This finding may have been a promising application of thymol for the protection of salivary glands dysfunction induced by ionizing irradiation in patients exposed to radiation in head and neck cancer therapy.

  13. The broadband microwave spectra of the monoterpenoids thymol and carvacrol: Conformational landscape and internal dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, D.; Shubert, V. A. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Hamburg (Germany); The Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Giuliano, B. M. [Center for Astrobiology, INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Schnell, M., E-mail: melanie.schnell@mpsd.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Hamburg (Germany); The Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-07-21

    The rotational spectra of the monoterpenoids thymol and carvacrol are reported in the frequency range 2–8.5 GHz, obtained with broadband Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. For carvacrol four different conformations were identified in the cold conditions of the molecular jet, whereas only three conformations were observed for thymol. The rotational constants and other molecular parameters are reported and compared with quantum chemical calculations. For both molecules, line splittings due to methyl group internal rotation were observed and the resulting barrier heights could be determined. The experimental barrier heights, 4.0863(25) kJ/mol for trans-carvacrol-A, 4.4024(16) kJ/mol for trans-carvacrol-B, and 0.3699(11) kJ/mol for trans-thymol-A, are compared with similar molecules.

  14. Thymol Ameliorates Cadmium-Induced Phytotoxicity in the Root of Rice (Oryza sativa) Seedling by Decreasing Endogenous Nitric Oxide Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Shi, Zhi Qi; Hu, Liang-Bin; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Han, Fengxiang X; Zhou, Li-Gang; Chen, Jian

    2017-08-30

    Thymol has been developed as medicine and food preservative due to its immune-regulatory effect and antimicrobial activity, respectively. However, little is currently known about the role of thymol in the modulation of plant physiology. In the present study, we applied biochemical and histochemical approaches to investigate thymol-induced tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings against Cd (cadmium) stress. Thymol at 20 μM recovered root growth completely upon CdCl 2 exposure. Thymol pronouncedly decreased Cd-induced ROS accumulation, oxidative injury, cell death, and Cd 2+ accumulation in roots. Pharmaceutical experiments suggested that endogenous NO mediated Cd-induced phytotoxicity. Thymol decreased Cd-induced NO accumulation by suppressing the activity of NOS (nitric oxide synthase) and NR (nitrate reductase) in root. The application of NO donor (SNP, sodium nitroprusside) resulted in the increase in endogenous NO level, which in turn compromised the alleviating effects of thymol on Cd toxicity. Such findings may helpful to illustrate the novel role of thymol in the modulation of plant physiology, which may be applicable to improve crop stress tolerance.

  15. Thymol nanoemulsified by whey protein-maltodextrin conjugates: the enhanced emulsifying capacity and antilisterial properties in milk by propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2013-12-26

    The objective of this research was to enhance the capability of whey protein isolate-maltodextrin conjugates in nanoemulsifying thymol using propylene glycol to improve antilisterial properties in milk. Thymol was predissolved in PG and emulsified in 7% conjugate solution. Transparent dispersions with mean diameters of propylene glycol.

  16. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF L-MENTHOL IN THE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPIC PROCEDURE

    OpenAIRE

    KIKUCHI, HITOMI; HIKICHI, TAKUTO; TAKAGI, TADAYUKI; SUZUKI, REI; WATANABE, KO; NAKAMURA, JUN; SUGIMOTO, MITSURU; WARAGAI, YUICHI; KONNO, NAOKI; ASAMA, HIROYUKI; TAKASUMI, MIKA; WATANABE, HIROSHI; OBARA, KATSUTOSHI; OHIRA, HIROMASA

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Peppermint oil, which suppresses gastric peristalsis during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), is effective for determining the margin of a gastric tumor. This study was conducted to evaluate the utility of an L-menthol preparation for suppressing gastric peristalsis and for diagnosing gastric tumors. Methods: The study examined 124 patients who underwent EGD between January and April 2012. After 20 mL of 0.8% L-menthol was sprayed directly onto the mucosal surface of the gastric antrum, ...

  17. How the industry is marketing menthol cigarettes: the audience, the message and the medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Amanda; Ganz, Ollie; Pearson, Jennifer; Celcis, Nathalie; Vallone, Donna; Villanti, Andrea C

    2015-11-01

    Despite declines in overall US cigarette consumption, the menthol cigarette market share has increased in recent years. Advertising contributes to menthol initiation and use, but little has been done to characterise menthol cigarette advertising outside of the point of sale. Two full-service advertising firms were used to develop a library of menthol cigarette advertisements (ads) over a 9-month period (June 2012-February 2013) in the USA. The volume of ads, media channel (direct mail, print, online, email), estimated spend and households reached was summarised overall and by brand in 2013. Direct mail, email and print ads were coded for content and the target audience of print publications was examined. Over the study period, 205 menthol cigarette ads were identified with estimated expenditures exceeding US$31 million, with 70% spent on direct mail ads. Over 90% of ads promoted Camel, Marlboro and Newport menthol cigarettes. A majority (87%) of direct mail ads contained coupons or other incentives known to appeal to price-sensitive customers. Only two brands' print ads appeared during this period: Newport ads focused on themes of sociability and sexuality, and were placed in magazines targeting African-Americans and younger consumers; American Spirit print ads were placed in general interest magazines and predominantly stressed the 'natural' aspects of their brand. The tobacco industry continues to spend millions of dollars promoting menthol cigarettes through channels that preferentially target vulnerable subgroups, such as African-Americans and younger consumers. Public health campaigns to educate and combat the influence of menthol advertising are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. The marketing of menthol cigarettes in the United States: populations, messages, and channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Charyn D; Robinson, Robert G

    2004-02-01

    This commentary looks at the marketing menthol cigarettes to various targeted populations--women, middle school youth and Asian/Pacific Islander immigrants as well as African Americans. The authors take the position that "ethnic awareness" as evidenced in the advertising of menthol cigarette brands to African Americans is just one of four distinct messages that tobacco marketers have used for what they have termed the "coolness" category. The other messages are: healthy/medicinal; fresh/refreshing/cool/clean/crisp; and youthfulness/silliness and fun. The commentary poses three questions: (a) Are new population segments being steered toward menthol cigarettes using marketing approaches that are similar to what has occurred with African Americans and women? (b) What exactly is the relationship between the marketing of menthol cigarettes and subsequent use of menthol tobacco products by specific population subgroups? (c) Are there lessons to be learned from the marketing of menthol cigarettes that can be used to improve the public health and medical communities' smoking cessation and tobacco use prevention communications efforts?

  19. Protective effects of thymol against nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin with using 99mTc-DMSA in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Asadian, Reza; Naghshvar, Farshad; Azizi, Soheil; Jafarinejad, Mehdi; Noaparast, Zohreh; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Hosseini, Seyed Amir Hossein

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the protective effect of thymol as a natural compound against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by quantitative renal 99mTc-DMSA uptake and compared its effect with histopathology in mice. Mice were divided into six groups as control, cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), thymol+cisplatin (thymol; 50 and 150 mg/kg+cisplatin; 7.5 mg/kg) and thymol (50 and 150 mg/kg). Thymol was orally administrated for two days before cisplatin injection and continued for 4 days. (99m)Tc-DMSA was injected through the tail of mice after the drug administration. The percentage of the injected dose per gram of kidney tissue (%ID/g) was calculated. In other experiment, kidneys of treated mice were assessed for histopathology. 99mTc-DMSA uptake per gram tissue of the kidneys as %ID/g was 85.27±21.81, 45.55±5.50, 65.02±32.21 and 88.46±20.46 in the control, cisplatin, thymol (50 mg/kg)+cisplatin and thymol (150 mg/kg)+cisplatin. Thymol administration with cisplatin resulted in a significant increase in the level of %ID/g. Histopathological examinations showed a protective effect of thymol against cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice. The results showed that thymol significantly attenuates the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice, and 99mTc-DMSA uptake in kidney is a suitable method for assessment of nephrotoxicity in mice.

  20. Field application of menthol for Japanese honey bees, Apis cerana japonica (Hymenoptera: Apidae), to control tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Taro; Sakamoto, Yoshiko

    2016-11-01

    The first record of tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi, in Japan was made in 2010. These mites have since caused serious damage to the colonies of Japanese honey bees, Apis cerana japonica. In the present study, to control the mites on Japanese honey bees with l-menthol, an agent used for European honey bees, Apis mellifera, we investigated (1) the seasonality of menthol efficacy, (2) the overwintering mortality of menthol-treated colonies, and (3) the menthol residue in honey under field conditions in cooperation with private beekeepers of Japanese honey bees. Seasonal menthol efficacy was tested by applying 30 g of l-menthol for 1 month in different seasons. Mite prevalence was measured by dissecting the honey bee thorax. Overwintering mortality was monitored during winter after checking the mite prevalence in autumn, and was compared with that of untreated colonies reported in our previous study. The residual level of menthol in honey was measured by GC-MS. The results showed that the menthol-treated colonies had a smaller rate of increase in mite prevalence than the untreated colonies. The effects of menthol were highest in March and April. The winter mortality was depressed by menthol treatment. Honey samples extracted from the menthol-treated colonies included 0.4 ppm of menthol residue on average. Our findings suggest that menthol treatment is effective for controlling the tracheal mites on Japanese honey bees.

  1. 21 CFR 862.3830 - Salicylate test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salicylate test system. 862.3830 Section 862.3830....3830 Salicylate test system. (a) Identification. A salicylate test system is a device intended to measure salicylates, a class of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs that includes aspirin...

  2. Thymol nanoemulsions incorporated in quinoa protein/chitosan edible films; antifungal effect in cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Nancy; Vera, Paola; López, Luis; Yazdani-Pedram, Mehrdad; Tapia, Cristian; Abugoch, Lilian

    2018-04-25

    Thymol nanoemulsions were produced by spontaneous emulsification, ultrasound, and a combination of both methods. The best result in terms of size and polydispersion was spontaneous emulsification where thymol was efficiently encapsulated, the nanoemulsions inhibited Botrytis cinerea at 110 ppm of thymol. A 10% dilution of this nanoemulsion in water was used to prepare quinoa-chitosan films. The film microstructure was porous and heterogeneous. The tensile strength of the film was significantly lower but its mean elongation at break was similar to that of the control film. The water vapour permeability was similar to that of the control film. The effect of nanoemulsion-thymol-quinoa protein/chitosan coating on mould growth in inoculated cherry tomatoes was evaluated. Compared with control samples (tomatoes without coating and those coated with quinoa protein/chitosan), tomatoes with this coating and inoculated with B. cinerea showed a significant decrease in fungal growth after 7 days at 5 °C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Swelling kinetics and impregnation of PLA with thymol under supercritical CO2 conditions

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    Milovanović Stoja L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was aimed to study swelling kinetics of polylactic acid (PLA and its impregnation with thymol in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 medium. The influences of temperature and soaking time on the swelling kinetics and impregnation yield of PLA cylindrical disc and film were investigated. Swelling experiments were performed in a high pressure view cell at 10 MPa and temperatures of 40°C, 60°C and 75°C for 2 to 24 h. On the basis of swelling kinetics, pressure of 10 MPa and temperature of 40°C were chosen for supercritical solvent impregnation (SSI of the PLA samples during 2 to24 h. The highest swelling extent was observed for the PLA monolith after 24 h treatment with pure scCO2 (7.5% and scCO2 with thymol (118.3%. It was shown that sufficiently high amount of thymol can be loaded into both PLA monolith and film using SSI after only 2 h (10.0% and 6.6%, respectively. Monolith and film of PLA impregnated with thymol could be suitable for active food packaging and sterile medical disposables.

  4. Effects of Thymol and Carvacrol, Constituents of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil, on the Inflammatory Response

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    Fernanda Carolina Fachini-Queiroz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae is an aromatic and medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine, phytopharmaceutical preparations, food preservatives, and as an aromatic ingredient. The effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO and its isolated constituents thymol and cavacrol (CVL were studied in the following experimental models: ear edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, and chemotaxis in vitro. In the pleurisy model, TEO, CVL, and thymol significantly inhibited inflammatory edema. However, only TEO and CVL inhibited leukocyte migration. In the in vitro chemotaxis experiment, CVL inhibited leukocyte migration, whereas thymol exerted a potent chemoattractant effect. In the ear edema model, CVL (10 mg/ear, applied topically, reduced edema formation, exerting a topical anti-inflammatory effect. Thymol did not reduce edema formation but rather presented an irritative response, probably dependent on histamine and prostanoid release. Our data suggest that the antiinflammatory effects of TEO and CVL are attributable to the inhibition of inflammatory edema and leukocyte migration.

  5. Plant oils thymol and eugenol affect cattle and swine waste emissions differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N; Lindsay, A D

    2004-01-01

    Wastes generated from the production of cattle and swine in confined facilities create the potential for surface and groundwater pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, transmission of pathogens to food and water sources, and odor. It is our hypothesis that something which inhibits microbial fermentation in livestock wastes will be beneficial to solving some of the environmental problems. Our work has concentrated on the use of antimicrobial plant oils, thymol, thyme oil, carvacrol, eugenol and clove oil. Anaerobic one-litre flasks with a working volume of 0.5 L cattle or swine manure were used to evaluate the effect of thymol and eugenol on production of fermentation gas, short-chain volatile fatty acids, lactate, and bacterial populations. Either oil at 0.2% in both wastes essentially stopped all production of gas and volatile fatty acids, and eliminated all fecal coliform bacteria. In cattle but not swine waste, thymol prevented the accumulation of lactate. However, eugenol stimulated lactate formation in cattle and swine wastes. Thus, eugenol may offer a distinct advantage over thymol, because lactate accumulation in the wastes causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. We conclude that plant oils may offer solutions to controlling various environmental problems associated with livestock wastes, assuming that they are cost-effective.

  6. In vitro antifungal effect of mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine and thymol

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    Ashish Shrestha

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: Antimicrobial agents used in the study had good in vitro activity against the two Candida species. Mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine showed superior antifungal and fungicidal activities compared to the thymol-containing mouth rinse. Both antimicrobial agents may be suggested for use as topical antifungal agents.

  7. Thymus ciliatus--the highest thymol containing essential oil of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabouche, Ahmed; Ghannadi, Alireza; Kabouche, Zahia

    2009-09-01

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Thymus ciliatus Desf. collected at Batna (Eastern Algeria) in May 2008 was investigated by GC and GC/MS. Eighteen components, representing 99.6% of the essential oil, were detected of which thymol (79.1%) and p-cymene (5.6%) were the major components.

  8. Growth modeling to control (in vitro) Fusarium verticillioides and Rhizopus stolonifer with thymol and carvacrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Velasco, Carlos E; Navarro-Cruz, Addí R; Vera-López, Obdulia; Palou, Enrique; Avila-Sosa, Raul

    2017-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity (in vitro) of thymol and carvacrol alone or in mixtures against Fusarium verticillioides and Rhizopus stolonifer, and to obtain primary growth models. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated with fungal radial growth with thymol or carvacrol concentrations (0-1600mg/l). Mixtures were evaluated using concentrations below MIC values. Radial growth curves were described by the modified Gompertz equation. MIC values of carvacrol were 200mg/l for both fungi. Meanwhile, MIC values of thymol were between 500 and 400mg/l for F. verticillioides and R. stolonifer, respectively. A synergistic effect below MIC concentrations for carvacrol (100mg/l) and thymol (100-375mg/l) was observed. Significant differences (p<0.05) between the Gompertz parameters for the antimicrobial concentrations and their tested mixtures established an inverse relationship between antimicrobial concentration and mycelial development of both fungi. Modified Gompertz parameters can be useful to determine fungistatic concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Antagonistic effects of lipids against the bactericidal activity of thymol-beta-D-glucopyranoside

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gut of food-producing animals is a reservoir for zoonotic pathogens. Thymol is bactericidal against Salmonella, E. coli, and Campylobacter, but its rapid absorption from the proximal gut reveals a need for protective technologies to deliver effective concentrations to the lower gut where the pa...

  10. Phyto-fungicides: Structure activity relationships of the thymol derivatives against Rhizoctonia solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thymol, the key component of thyme oil and its derivatives were evaluated for their structure activity relationship as fungicide against Rhizoctonia solani. Since plant based chemicals are considered as “Generally Recognized as Safe” (GRAS) chemicals, there is a great potential to use phytochemicals...

  11. Effect of a thymol application on olfactory memory and gene expression levels in the brain of the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnafé, Elsa; Drouard, Florian; Hotier, Lucie; Carayon, Jean-Luc; Marty, Pierre; Treilhou, Michel; Armengaud, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Essential oils are used by beekeepers to control the Varroa mites that infest honeybee colonies. So, bees can be exposed to thymol formulations in the hive. The effects of the monoterpenoid thymol were explored on olfactory memory and gene expression in the brain of the honeybee. In bees previously exposed to thymol (10 or 100 ng/bee), the specificity of the response to the conditioned stimulus (CS) was lost 24 h after learning. Besides, the octopamine receptor OA1 gene Amoa1 showed a significant decrease of expression 3 h after exposure with 10 or 100 ng/bee of thymol. With the same doses, expression of Rdl gene, coding for a GABA receptor subunit, was not significantly modified but the trpl gene was upregulated 1 and 24 h after exposure to thymol. These data indicated that the genes coding for the cellular targets of thymol could be rapidly regulated after exposure to this molecule. Memory and sensory processes should be investigated in bees after chronic exposure in the hive to thymol-based preparations.

  12. Subinhibitory concentrations of thymol reduce enterotoxins A and B and alpha-hemolysin production in Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

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    Jiazhang Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeting bacterial virulence factors is now gaining interest as an alternative strategy to develop new types of anti-infective agents. It has been shown that thymol, when used at low concentrations, can inhibit the TSST-1 secretion in Staphylococcus aureus. However, there are no data on the effect of thymol on the production of other exotoxins (e.g., alpha-hemolysin and enterotoxins by S. aureus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Secretion of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB in both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates cultured with graded subinhibitory concentrations of thymol was detected by immunoblot analysis. Hemolysin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF release assays were performed to elucidate the biological relevance of changes in alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB secretion induced by thymol. In addition, the influence of thymol on the transcription of hla, sea, and seb (the genes encoding alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB, respectively was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Thymol inhibited transcription of hla, sea and seb in S. aureus, resulting in a reduction of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB secretion and, thus, a reduction in hemolytic and TNF-inducing activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Subinhibitory concentrations of thymol decreased the production of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB in both MSSA and MRSA in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that thymol may be useful for the treatment of S. aureus infections when used in combination with beta-lactams and glycopeptide antibiotics, which induce expression of alpha-hemolysin and enterotoxins at subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, the structure of thymol may potentially be used as a basic structure for development of drugs aimed against these bacterial virulence factors.

  13. Subinhibitory Concentrations of Thymol Reduce Enterotoxins A and B and α-Hemolysin Production in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hua; Feng, Haihua; Jiang, Youshuai; Xia, Lijie; Dong, Jing; Lu, Jing; Yu, Lu; Deng, Xuming

    2010-01-01

    Background Targeting bacterial virulence factors is now gaining interest as an alternative strategy to develop new types of anti-infective agents. It has been shown that thymol, when used at low concentrations, can inhibit the TSST-1 secretion in Staphylococcus aureus. However, there are no data on the effect of thymol on the production of other exotoxins (e.g., α-hemolysin and enterotoxins) by S. aureus. Methodology/Principal Findings Secretion of α-hemolysin, SEA and SEB in both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates cultured with graded subinhibitory concentrations of thymol was detected by immunoblot analysis. Hemolysin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release assays were performed to elucidate the biological relevance of changes in α-hemolysin, SEA and SEB secretion induced by thymol. In addition, the influence of thymol on the transcription of hla, sea, and seb (the genes encoding α-hemolysin, SEA and SEB, respectively) was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Thymol inhibited transcription of hla, sea and seb in S. aureus, resulting in a reduction of α-hemolysin, SEA and SEB secretion and, thus, a reduction in hemolytic and TNF-inducing activities. Conclusions/Significance Subinhibitory concentrations of thymol decreased the production of α-hemolysin, SEA and SEB in both MSSA and MRSA in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that thymol may be useful for the treatment of S. aureus infections when used in combination with β-lactams and glycopeptide antibiotics, which induce expression of α-hemolysin and enterotoxins at subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, the structure of thymol may potentially be used as a basic structure for development of drugs aimed against these bacterial virulence factors. PMID:20305813

  14. Subinhibitory concentrations of thymol reduce enterotoxins A and B and alpha-hemolysin production in Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiazhang; Wang, Dacheng; Xiang, Hua; Feng, Haihua; Jiang, Youshuai; Xia, Lijie; Dong, Jing; Lu, Jing; Yu, Lu; Deng, Xuming

    2010-03-17

    Targeting bacterial virulence factors is now gaining interest as an alternative strategy to develop new types of anti-infective agents. It has been shown that thymol, when used at low concentrations, can inhibit the TSST-1 secretion in Staphylococcus aureus. However, there are no data on the effect of thymol on the production of other exotoxins (e.g., alpha-hemolysin and enterotoxins) by S. aureus. Secretion of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB in both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates cultured with graded subinhibitory concentrations of thymol was detected by immunoblot analysis. Hemolysin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release assays were performed to elucidate the biological relevance of changes in alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB secretion induced by thymol. In addition, the influence of thymol on the transcription of hla, sea, and seb (the genes encoding alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB, respectively) was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Thymol inhibited transcription of hla, sea and seb in S. aureus, resulting in a reduction of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB secretion and, thus, a reduction in hemolytic and TNF-inducing activities. Subinhibitory concentrations of thymol decreased the production of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB in both MSSA and MRSA in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that thymol may be useful for the treatment of S. aureus infections when used in combination with beta-lactams and glycopeptide antibiotics, which induce expression of alpha-hemolysin and enterotoxins at subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, the structure of thymol may potentially be used as a basic structure for development of drugs aimed against these bacterial virulence factors.

  15. Fly emergence from manure of Japanese quail fed thymol- or isoeugenol-supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch Ianniello, I; Horenstein, M Battán; Lábaque, M C; Luna, A; Marin, R H; Gleiser, R M

    2014-10-01

    Many problems in poultry production are caused by a combination of interrelated factors such as management, stress, nutrition, and exposure to pathogens. Saprophagous flies that develop in poultry manure are a potential route of pathogen transmission. Besides being a nuisance, defecation and regurgitation of flies soil equipment and structures and can reduce light levels of lighting fixtures. These effects clearly affect management and may contribute to reductions in poultry egg production, health, and welfare. Many essential oils or their main components have bioactive effects such as natural repellents and insecticides, antioxidants, anticholesterolemics, and antimicrobials. This study evaluated if supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol as functional food could alter the production of flies from manure. Dropping samples deposited by quail fed with a supplementation of 2,000 mg of thymol or isoeugenol per kg of feed or no supplement (control) were collected. Each sample was incubated inside an emergence cage that was inspected daily to collect emerging adult flies. Fewer flies emerged from droppings of quail fed a thymol-supplemented diet (P = 0.01) and there was a tendency to a lower emergence from droppings of isoeugenol-fed quail (P = 0.09). The number of positive containers for Musca domestica was smaller from quail droppings of thymol- (P = 0.02) or isoeugenol- (P = 0.01) supplemented feed than from the control counterparts, suggesting an oviposition repellent effect. Supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol has an overall moderate effect against flies, reducing M. domestica emergence. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

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    Lee Peter N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8, with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5, females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5, White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4

  17. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8), with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5), females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5), White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4) or Black people (0.90, 0

  18. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Trong, Than; Riera, Florence; Rinaldi, Kévin; Briki, Walid; Hue, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions. Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol) beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature) (28.7°C±0. 5°C), Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C) or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C). Trial time, core temperature (Tco), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) were assessed. Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol. A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone). Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE) between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  19. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Tran Trong

    Full Text Available A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions.Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature (28.7°C±0. 5°C, Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C. Trial time, core temperature (Tco, heart rate (HR, rate of perceived exertion (RPE, thermal sensation (TS and thermal comfort (TC were assessed.Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol.A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone. Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  20. Why We Must Continue to Investigate Menthol's Role in the African American Smoking Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Linda A; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Clanton, Mark S; Moolchan, Eric T; Fagan, Pebbles

    2016-04-01

    The disproportionate burden of tobacco use among African Americans is largely unexplained. The unexplained disparities, referred to as the African American smoking paradox, includes several phenomena. Despite their social disadvantage, African American youth have lower smoking prevalence rates, initiate smoking at older ages, and during adulthood, smoking rates are comparable to whites. Smoking frequency and intensity among African American youth and adults are lower compared to whites and American Indian and Alaska Natives, but tobacco-caused morbidity and mortality rates are disproportionately higher. Disease prediction models have not explained disease causal pathways in African Americans. It has been hypothesized that menthol cigarette smoking, which is disproportionately high among African Americans, may help to explain several components of the African American smoking paradox. This article provides an overview of the potential role that menthol plays in the African American smoking paradox. We also discuss the research needed to better understand this unresolved puzzle. We examined prior synthesis reports and reviewed the literature in PubMed on the menthol compound and menthol cigarette smoking in African Americans. The pharmacological and physiological effects of menthol and their interaction with biological and genetic factors may indirectly contribute to the disproportionate burden of cigarette use and diseases among African Americans. Future studies that examine taste sensitivity, the menthol compound, and their effects on smoking and chronic disease would provide valuable information on how to reduce the tobacco burden among African Americans. Our study highlights four counterintuitive observations related to the smoking risk profiles and chronic disease outcomes among African Americans. The extant literature provides strong evidence of their existence and shows that long-standing paradoxes have been largely unaffected by changes in the social

  1. The influence of thymol+DMSO on survival, growth and reproduction of Bradybaena similaris (Mollusca: Bradybaenidae

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    Paula Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821, commonly known as the Asian trampsnail, is a terrestrial snail native to Asia, introduced in other regions of the world. In Brazil, populations of this land snail are distributed from the state of Amapá in the North to Rio Grande do Sul in the South. This species acts as an intermediate host for parasites and is a difficult-to-control agricultural pest as well, causing great losses to crops and ornamental plant cultivation. This land snail is easily reared in the laboratory and has been successfully used as a biological model in studies that aim at verifying molluscicidal effects of plant extracts. Several studies have demonstrated that B. similaris, like many other species of land and freshwater snails, is physiologically adapted to survival over transitory unfavorable environmental conditions. Moreover, this species seems to have a life history strategy characterized by a short life span and a maximal opportunistic reproductive effort during transient favorable periods. Such biological features may potentially lead to the inefficacy of control attempts and, simultaneously, make this species able to repopulate sites previously treated with biocides. For this reason, studies that aim at verifying the effect of molluscicides on the reproduction, growth and survival of molluscs are greatly required. Molluscicides of plant origin may represent a safe and effective way of controlling these animals. Thymol is a substance of plant origin which has bactericidal, fungicidal and anti-inflammatory properties and has been presented as a promissory biocide of mollusc species. The aim of this work was to assess the molluscicidal property of thymol in combination with DMSO against eggs and adults of B. similaris. During 120 days, we evaluated the effect of thymol+DMSO at different concentrations (2.5 g/L and 5 g/L on the hatching success, hatchling survival, growth and reproduction of B. similaris under laboratory

  2. Changes of Thymoquinone, Thymol, and Malondialdehyde Content of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. in Response to Indonesia Tropical Altitude Variation

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    Herlina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Black cumin cultivated in many subtropical regions in the world, including Asia, Middle East, and North Africa. The most active constituent of black cumin is thymoquinone representing 18.4%–24% of the volatile oil and thymol. Data about thymoquinone and thymol came from the country of origin, but no data from tropical region. This study aimed to analyze the production of chlorophyll, thymoquinone, thymol, and malondialdehyde from black cumin cultivated at three altitudes of Indonesian tropical region. The result showed that Kuwait accession cultivated at middle altitude contains the highest levels of thymoquinone (2940.43 mg/kg, and the highest levels of thymol were found in India accession cultivated at high altitude (141.46 mg/kg. Data showed that the level of malondialdehyde at low (220 meter above sea level [masl] and middle (560 masl altitudes is higher than high (1.280 masl altitude.

  3. Fabrication, characterization and antimicrobial activities of thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized by sodium caseinate-chitosan hydrochloride double layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqiong; Niu, Yuge; Luo, Yangchao; Ge, Mei; Yang, Tian; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized with sodium caseinate (SC) and chitosan hydrochloride (CHC) were prepared and characterized. The SC stabilized nanoparticles had well-defined size range and negatively charged surface. Due to the presence of SC, the stabilized zein nanoparticles showed a shift of isoelectric point from 6.18 to 5.05, and had a desirable redispersibility in water at neutral pH after lyophilization. Coating with CHC onto the SC stabilized zein nanoparticles resulted in increased particle size, reversal of zeta potential value from negative to positive, and improved encapsulation efficiency. Both thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles and SC stabilized zein nanoparticles had a spherical shape and smooth surface, while the surfaces of CHC-SC stabilized zein nanoparticles seemed rough and had some clumps. Encapsulated thymol was more effective in suppressing gram-positive bacterium than un-encapsulated thymol for a longer time period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of liquid menthol by hydrogenation of dementholized peppermint oil over Ni catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora L. Manuale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenation of (--menthone and (+-isomenthone was studied at 2.7 MPa and 100 ºC. The objective was to produce a liquid menthol mixture rich in (--menthol from dementholized peppermint oil. Ni-based catalysts were tested and compared for this reaction: a 6 and 12% Ni dispersed into a nonstoichiometric magnesium aluminate (Ni-Mg-Al with spinel structure; b Ni-Raney catalyst. Both types of catalysts were active for (--menthone and (+-isomenthone hydrogenation. Lower conversion but higher selectivity to (--menthol was obtained with Ni-Mg-Al catalysts. However, they rapidly lost their activity. Instead Ni-Raney catalysts kept its original activity even after several hydrogenation runs.

  5. Effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Balilionis, Gytis; Casaru, Catalina; Geary, Colleen; Schumacker, Randall E; Neggers, Yasmin H; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D; Richardson, Mark T; Bishop, Phillip A; Green, James M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the separate effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat. Participants (N = 10) performed three trials in a counterbalanced order, either with 400 mg caffeine, menthol lozenges, or placebo. The simulated firefighting consisted of 2 bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise in the heat with two brief 15-min rest periods between each exercise phase. Exercise induced significant dehydration (>3%) and elevated rectal temperature (>38.9 °C), for all three conditions. Neither caffeine nor menthol reduced perceived exertion compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Mood ratings (i.e., alertness, hedonic tone, tension) significantly deteriorated over time (p benefits in a simulated firefighting paradigm in a hot environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Lippia sidoides essential oil, thymol, p-cymene, myrcene and caryophyllene on rat sciatic nerve excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barbosa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lippia sidoides Cham is a typical herb species of Northeast Brazil with widespread use in folk medicine. The major constituents of the essential oil of L. sidoides (EOLs are thymol, p-cymene, myrcene, and caryophyllene. Several studies have shown that the EOLs and its constituents have pharmacological effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the effects of the EOLs and their main constituents on rat sciatic nerve excitability. The sciatic nerves of adult Wistar rats were dissected and mounted in a moist chamber. Nerves were stimulated by square wave pulses, with an amplitude of 40 V, duration of 100 μs to 0.2 Hz. Both EOLs and thymol inhibited compound action potential (CAP in a concentration-dependent manner. Half maximal inhibitory concentration for CAP peak-to-peak amplitude blockade were 67.85 and 40 µg/mL for EOLs and thymol, respectively. CAP peak-to-peak amplitude was significantly reduced by concentrations ≥60 µg/mL for EOLs and ≥30 µg/mL for thymol. EOLs and thymol in the concentration of 60 µg/mL significantly increased chronaxie and rheobase. The conduction velocities of 1st and 2nd CAP components were also concentration-dependently reduced by EOLs and thymol in the range of 30-100 µg/mL. Differently from EOLs and thymol, p-cymene, myrcene and caryophyllene did not reduce CAP in the higher concentrations of 10 mM. These data demonstrated that EOLs and thymol inhibited neuronal excitability and were promising agents for the development of new drugs for therapeutic use.

  7. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 6: 90-day OECD 413 rat inhalation study with systems toxicology endpoints demonstrates reduced exposure effects of a mentholated version compared with mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Alberto; Lebrun, Stefan; Kogel, Ulrike; Ho, Jenny; Tan, Wei Teck; Titz, Bjoern; Leroy, Patrice; Vuillaume, Gregory; Bera, Monali; Martin, Florian; Rodrigo, Gregory; Esposito, Marco; Dempsey, Ruth; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick

    2016-11-30

    The toxicity of a mentholated version of the Tobacco Heating System (THS2.2M), a candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP), was characterized in a 90-day OECD inhalation study. Differential gene and protein expression analysis of nasal epithelium and lung tissue was also performed to record exposure effects at the molecular level. Rats were exposed to filtered air (sham), to THS2.2M (at 15, 23 and 50 μg nicotine/l), to two mentholated reference cigarettes (MRC) (at 23 μg nicotine/l), or to the 3R4F reference cigarette (at 23 μg nicotine/l). MRCs were designed to meet 3R4F specifications. Test atmosphere analyses demonstrated that aldehydes were reduced by 75%-90% and carbon monoxide by 98% in THS2.2M aerosol compared with MRC smoke; aerosol uptake was confirmed by carboxyhemoglobin and menthol concentrations in blood, and by the quantities of urinary nicotine metabolites. Systemic toxicity and alterations in the respiratory tract were significantly lower in THS2.2M-exposed rats compared with MRC and 3R4F. Pulmonary inflammation and the magnitude of the changes in gene and protein expression were also dramatically lower after THS2.2M exposure compared with MRCs and 3R4F. No menthol-related effects were observed after MRC mainstream smoke-exposure compared with 3R4F. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modern Intermittent Haemodialysis (IHD) is an Effective Method of Removing Salicylate in Chronic Topical Salicylate Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anselm; Mac, Kathy; Aneman, Anders; Wong, Jeffrey; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    There are limited data on modern intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) efficacy on salicylate elimination from topical poisoning. A 54-year-old male sought treatment for dyspnea but was then diagnosed with salicylate toxicity from topical application of Dencorub Extra Strength Heat Gel® for 1 week. Each tube contained 100 g with 26 % methylsalicylate (26 g). Laboratory workup was remarkable for an elevated anion gap of 30 and salicylate concentration of 78.7 mg/dL [5.7 mmol/L (N Salicylate concentrations fell rapidly following initiation of hemodialysis with no rebound observed. Modern high flux IHD is an effective method of removing salicylates in the treatment of chronic topical poisoning.

  9. Exploring the conformational landscape of menthol, menthone, and isomenthone: A microwave study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eSchmitz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rotational spectra of the monoterpenoids menthol, menthone, and isomenthone are reportedin the frequency range of 2−8.5GHz, obtained with broadband Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy.For menthol only one conformation was identified under the cold conditions of the molecularjet, whereas three conformations were observed for menthone and one for isomenthone. Theconformational space of the different molecules was extensively studied using quantum chemicalcalculations, and the results were compared with molecular parameters obtained by the measurements.Finally, a computer program is presented, which was developed to automatically identifydifferent species in a dense broadband microwave spectrum using calculated ab initio rotationalconstants as input.

  10. Effect of carvacrol and thymol on odor emissions from livestock wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N

    2001-01-01

    A majority of the beef cattle and swine in the United States is produced in confined facilities. This generates significant environmental pollutants from the waste produced, including global warming gases, odor, and pathogens. The objectives of this study were to control the fermentation activity and pathogens in cattle and swine wastes with antimicrobial plant essential oils. Anaerobic one litre flasks with a working volume of 0.5 l were used to evaluate the effect of carvacrol and thymol on production of fermentation gas, short-chain volatile fatty acids, lactate, and bacterial populations. In cattle waste, 1 g l(-1) each of carvacrol and thymol completely inhibited the production of volatile fatty acids and lactate over 23 days. In swine waste, 2.5 g l(-1) carvacrol inhibited the production of all volatile fatty acids. We conclude that these essential oils are effective in controlling livestock waste odor emissions and field studies are warranted.

  11. Release and antioxidant activity of carvacrol and thymol from polypropylene active packaging films

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Marina; Beltrán Sanahuja, Ana; Peltzer, Mercedes Ana; Valente, Artur J.M.; Garrigós, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The migration of antioxidant (AO) agents, carvacrol and thymol, from polypropylene (PP) packaging films containing the studied compounds at 80 g/kg separately and an equimolar mixture of them into food simulants was investigated. Fast and reliable analytical procedures were developed and validated for the analysis of the studied AOs in food simulants. For aqueous food simulants, solid phase extraction followed by GC–MS analysis was performed. Fatty food simulants were directly analysed by GC–...

  12. Effect of Thymol on Serum Antioxidant Capacity of Rats Following Myocardial Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohabbat Jamhiri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension- induced cardiac hypertrophy. Plants are a rich source of antioxidant compounds. Thymol is a natural monoterpen phenol which is plentiful in some plants and shows many biological effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of thymol on activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA level and the activity of the inhibition of free radical DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl, following left ventricular hypertrophy in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, rats were divided into hypertrophied group without any treatment (H group and rats pretreated with 25 and 50 mg/kg/day of thymol (Thy25+H and Thy50+H groups, respectively. Intact animals were served as control (Ctl. Animal model of left ventricular hypertrophy was induced by abdominal aortic banding. Serum catalase (CAT activity, malondialdehyde (MDA level and the activity of inhibition of free radicals DPPH were determined by the biochemical methods. Results: In Thy25+H and Thy50+H groups, the CAT activity was increased significantly in serum (p<0.01, vs. Ctl. Also, serum level of MDA was decreased significantly compared to the group H in Thy25+H and Thy50+H groups (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively. The effect of inhibiting DPPH free radicals was increased significantly in Thy25+H and Thy50+H groups compared to the group H (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that thymol as an antioxidant causes cardioprotective effects and as well as prevents left ventricular hypertrophy via augmentation of serum antioxidant capacity.

  13. Cytotoxicity and morphological effects induced by carvacrol and thymol on the human cell line Caco-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, María; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Pichardo, Silvia; Moreno, F Javier; Bermúdez, José María; Aucejo, Susana; Cameán, Ana María

    2014-02-01

    Essential oils used as additives in the food industry due to its flavour, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Therefore, human can be exposed orally to these compounds through the ingestion of foods. In this sense, the present work aims to assess toxicological effects of oregano essential oil on the digestive tract. In concrete, the cytotoxic effects of two components of the oregano essential oils, carvacrol and thymol, and their mixture, on the intestinal cells line Caco-2 after 24 and 48 h of exposure are studied. The basal cytotoxicity endpoints assayed (total protein content, neutral red uptake and the tetrazolium salt reduction) and the annexin/propidium iodide staining indicated that carvacrol and the mixture carvacrol/thymol induced toxic effects. Moreover, a morphological study was performed in order to determine the ultrastructural cellular damages caused by these substances. The main morphological alterations were vacuolated cytoplasm, altered organelles and finally cell death. In addition, although no cytotoxic effects were recorded for thymol at any concentration and time of exposure, ultrastructural changes evidenced cellular damage such as lipid degeneration, mitochondrial damage, nucleolar segregation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioassay-guided fractionation of a thymol-deprived hydrophilic thyme extract and its antispasmodic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbertz, Jonas; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Studt, Lena; Hensel, Andreas; Verspohl, Eugen J

    2012-06-14

    Extracts from Thymus vulgaris L. and Thymus zygis L. are traditionally used for bronchitis, catarrhs of the respiratory tract and supportive treatment of pertussis. A potential spasmolytic effect is thought to be due to the presence of the monoterpenoid phenols thymol and carvacrol in the extract. Based on previous data the present investigation aimed to clarify if thymol-deprived thyme extracts (as been in use within German drug market) have antispasmodic activity. Additionally compounds responsible for this effect had to be identified. Thyme fluid extract was subsequently fractionated by FCPC, LPLC, and HPLC and compounds isolated were identified by spectroscopic methods. Bioassay testing was done by quantification of antispasmodic activity in the preconstricted rat smooth muscle trachea model against papaverin as positive control. Thymol-deprived spissum extract (SE) had good antispasmodic activity (-37%, related to the maximum contraction). Bioassay-guided fractionation indicated that rosmarinic acid and apigenin do not contribute to this effect. Luteolin contributed significantly to the antispasmodic activity (-9%). Thyme extracts have antispasmodic activity, which is at least due to synergistic effects of phenolic volatile oil compounds and the flavone luteolin. Specifications of thyme-containing preparations should refer to this flavone in addition to focusing on the volatile phenols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polarography of uranium(VI)-salicylic acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, El-Maraghy B.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium(VI)-salicylic acid system has been studied polarographically in perchloric acid medium. Varying concentrations of HClO 4 and salicylic acid have been used. The nature of the polarographic waves is irreversible. (author)

  16. Salicylate-spectrophotometric determination of inorganic monochloramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Hui; Chen Zhonglin; Li Xing; Yang Yanling; Li Guibai

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of classical Berthelot reaction, a simple salicylate-spectrophotometric method was developed for quantitative determination of inorganic monochloramine in water samples. With the catalysis of disodium pentacyanonitrosylferrate(III), inorganic monochloramine reacts with salicylate in equimolar to produce indophenol compound which has an intense absorption at 703 nm. Parameters that influence method performance, such as pH, dosage of salicylate and nitroprussiate and reaction time, were modified to enhance the method performance. By using this method, inorganic monochloramine can be distinguished from organic chloramines and other inorganic chlorine species, such as free chlorine, dichloramine, and trichloramine. The molar absorptivities of the final products formed by these compounds are below ±3% of inorganic monochloramine, because of the α-N in them have only one exchangeable hydrogen atom, and cannot react with salicylate to produce the indophenol compound. The upper concentrations of typical ions that do not interfere with the inorganic monochloramine determination are also tested to be much higher than that mostly encountered in actual water treatment. Case study demonstrates that the results obtained from this method are lower than DPD-titrimetric method because the organic chloramines formed by chlorination of organic nitrogenous compounds give no response in the newly established method. And the result measured by salicylate-spectrophotometric method is coincident with theoretical calculation

  17. Iron(III) and aluminium(III) complexes with substituted salicyl-aldehydes and salicylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurchi, Valeria M; Crespo-Alonso, Miriam; Toso, Leonardo; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Crisponi, Guido; Alberti, Giancarla; Biesuz, Raffaela; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Niclós-Gutíerrez, Juan; González-Pérez, Josefa M; Zoroddu, M Antonietta

    2013-11-01

    The chelating properties toward iron(III) and aluminium(III) of variously substituted salicyl-aldehydes and salicylic acids have been evaluated, together with the effect of methoxy and nitro substituents in ortho and para position with respect to the phenolic group. The protonation and iron and aluminium complex formation equilibria have been studied by potentiometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The overall results highlight that salicyl-aldehydes present good chelating properties toward iron(III), with pFe ranging from 14.2 with nitro to 15.7 with methoxy substituent, being ineffective toward aluminium; the pFe values for salicylic acids are generally lower than those for salicyl-aldehydes, and about 4 units higher than the corresponding pAl values. The effect of the two substituents on the chelating properties of the ligands can be rationalized in terms of the Swain-Lupton treatment which accounts for the field and resonance effects. The structural characterization of the 1:2 iron complex with p-nitro salicylic acid shows that iron(III) ion exhibits an octahedral surrounding where two salicylate chelating ligands supply two O-phenolate and two O-carboxylate donor atoms in a roughly equatorial plane. The trans-apical sites are occupied by two aqua ligands. © 2013.

  18. Effects of Menthol Supplementation in Feedlot Cattle Diets on the Fecal Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C C Aperce

    Full Text Available The pool of antimicrobial resistance determinants in the environment and in the gut flora of cattle is a serious public health concern. In addition to being a source of human exposure, these bacteria can transfer antibiotic resistance determinants to pathogenic bacteria and endanger the future of antimicrobial therapy. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance genes on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, facilitates spread of resistance. Recent work has shown in vitro anti-plasmid activity of menthol, a plant-based compound with the potential to be used as a feed additive to beneficially alter ruminal fermentation. The present study aimed to determine if menthol supplementation in diets of feedlot cattle decreases the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in feces. Menthol was included in diets of steers at 0.3% of diet dry matter. Fecal samples were collected weekly for 4 weeks and analyzed for total coliforms counts, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and the prevalence of tet genes in E. coli isolates. Results revealed no effect of menthol supplementation on total coliforms counts or prevalence of E. coli resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and sulfamethoxazole; however, 30 days of menthol addition to steer diets increased the prevalence of tetracycline-resistant E. coli (P < 0.02. Although the mechanism by which menthol exerts its effects remains unclear, results of our study suggest that menthol may have an impact on antimicrobial resistance in gut bacteria.

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB, the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite.

  20. CONVERSION OF (±-CITRONELLAL AND ITS DERIVATIVES TO (--MENTHOL USING BIFUNCTIONAL NICKEL ZEOLITE CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Badria Adilina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (±-Citronellal and its derivatives were converted to (--menthol by a one-pot reaction system using zeolite based nickel catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by immobilization of nickel on natural zeolite (NZ or synthetic zeolite (ZSM-5 by a simple cation exchange method. Calcination and hydrogen treatment procedures were able to significantly increase the surface area and pore volume of NZ based catalysts whereas negligible changes in the properties were observed for that of ZSM-5. Catalytic reactions were carried out at 70ºC by stirring the mixture in the air for cyclization of (±-citronellal to (±-isopulegol followed by hydrogenation towards the desired (--menthol at 2 Mpa of H2 pressure. The Ni/NZ catalyst was able to convert a (±-citronellal derivative yielding 9% (--menthol (36% selectivity with conversion up to 24%, whereas Ni/ZSM5 catalyst directly converted 65% (±-citronellal to give 4% menthol (6% selectivity. These zeolite based catalysts are therefore potential materials for the conversion of biomass feed stock to value-added chemicals.

  1. Disparities and menthol marketing: additional evidence in support of point of sale policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-09-25

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.

  2. Disparities and Menthol Marketing: Additional Evidence in Support of Point of Sale Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Barnoya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.

  3. Disparities and Menthol Marketing: Additional Evidence in Support of Point of Sale Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control. PMID:24071922

  4. Research on choleretic effect of menthol, menthone, pluegone, isomenthone, and limonene in DanShu capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guanying; Yuan, Xing; Zhang, Sanyin; Wang, Ruru; Yang, Miao; Wu, Chunjie; Wu, Zhigang; Ke, Xiao

    2015-02-01

    Danshu capsule (DSC) is a medicinal compound in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is commonly used for the treatment of acute & chronic cholecystitis as well as choleithiasis. To study its choleretic effect, healthy rats were randomly divided into DSC high (DSCH, 900mg/kg), medium (DSCM, 450mg/kg), and low (DSCL, 225mg/kg) group, Xiaoyan Lidan tablet (XYLDT, 750mg/kg), and saline group. The bile was collected for 1h after 20-minute stabilization as the base level, and at 1h, 2h, 3h, and 4h after drug administration, respectively. Bile volume, total cholesterol, and total bile acid were measured at each time point. The results revealed that DSC significantly stimulated bile secretion, decreased total cholesterol level and increased total bile acid level. Therefore, it had choleretic effects. To identify the active components contributing to its choleretic effects, five major constituents which are menthol (39.33mg/kg), menthone (18.02mg/kg), isomenthone (8.18mg/kg), pluegone (3.31mg/kg), and limonene (4.39mg/kg) were tested on our rat model. The results showed that menthol and limonene could promote bile secretion when compared to DSC treatment (p > 0.05); Menthol, menthol and limonene could significantly decrease total cholesterol level (plimonene. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of menthol coated craft paper on corrosion of copper in HCl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    copper corrosion by menthol was studied by weight loss and electrochemical studies. 2. Experimental. 2.1 Materials and apparatus. Copper strips of 99⋅9% purity were used for the gravimetric and electrochemical measurements. For the gravimetric test, specimens of copper were made with dimensions of. 5 × 1 × 0⋅1 cm ...

  6. Solubility of Menthol in Pressurised Carbon Dioxide – Experimental Data and Thermodynamic Modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galushko, A.A.; Sovová, Helena; Stateva, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2006), s. 152-158 ISSN 1451-9372. [outh East European Congress of Chemical Engineering /1./. Belgrade, 25.09.2005-28.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : menthol * carbon dioxide * solubility Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  7. Thymol kills bacteria, reduces biofilm formation, and protects mice against a fatal infection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strain L20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Xueqin; Zhu, Chunling; Xia, Xiaojing; Qin, Wanhai; Li, Mei; Wang, Tongzhao; Chen, Shijun; Xu, Yanzhao; Hang, Bolin; Sun, Yawei; Jiang, Jinqing; Richard, Langford Paul; Lei, Liancheng; Zhang, Gaiping; Hu, Jianhe

    2017-05-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of the highly contagious and deadly respiratory infection porcine pleuropneumonia, resulting in serious losses to the pig industry worldwide. Alternative to antibiotics are urgently needed due to the serious increase in antimicrobial resistance. Thymol is a monoterpene phenol and efficiently kills a variety of bacteria. This study found that thymol has strong bactericidal effects on the A. pleuropneumoniae 5b serotype strain, an epidemic strain in China. Sterilization occurred rapidly, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is 31.25μg/mL; the A. pleuropneumoniae density was reduced 1000 times within 10min following treatment with 1 MIC. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that thymol could rapidly disrupt the cell walls and cell membranes of A. pleuropneumoniae, causing leakage of cell contents and cell death. In addition, treatment with thymol at 0.5 MIC significantly reduced the biofilm formation of A. pleuropneumoniae. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that thymol treatment significantly increased the expression of the virulence genes purC, tbpB1 and clpP and down-regulated ApxI, ApxII and Apa1 expression in A. pleuropneumoniae. Therapeutic analysis of a murine model showed that thymol (20mg/kg) protected mice from a lethal dose of A. pleuropneumoniae, attenuated lung pathological lesions. This study is the first to report the use of thymol to treat A. pleuropneumoniae infection, establishing a foundation for the development of new antimicrobials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of tungsten with salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Z.C.

    1976-10-01

    The method comprises the complexation of tungsten with salicylic acid in concentrated sulphuric acid yielding a reddish color. The maximum absorbance of the complex lies within 410-420 nm, 420 nm being the chosen wavelenght. The final concentration of salicylic acid is 0,080 g/ml. The sensitivity is 0,13 μg W(%T) -1 ml -1 . Titanium, vanadium, rhenium, niobium and molybdenum interferes and must be separated, titanium being the strongest interferent. The separation procedures, advantages of the process, stoichiometric relations and equilibrium constant are discussed. (Author) [pt

  9. NNAL exposure by race and menthol cigarette use among U.S. smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostron, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Researchers have recently suggested that nicotine and carcinogen exposure as measured by biomarkers such as cotinine and NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) does not vary with cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) among Black smokers. Researchers have also suggested that nicotine exposure does not differ between menthol and nonmenthol smokers. In this study, we examine NNAL exposure for U.S. smokers by race, CPD, and menthol cigarette use. We analyzed urinary NNAL concentrations for more than 1500 everyday smokers participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007-2010. For purposes of comparison, we also analyzed serum cotinine concentrations for these smokers. We used linear regression analysis to estimate mean biomarker concentrations by CPD and race/ethnicity group and to examine the association between biomarker concentrations and menthol cigarette use by race/ethnicity group, controlling for other demographic and smoking characteristics. Biomarker concentrations increased with CPD for White, Black, and Hispanic smokers although NNAL concentrations leveled off for Black smokers at lower CPD levels compared with other smokers. Mean NNAL concentrations were lower among menthol smokers compared with nonmenthol smokers among smokers overall (β = -0.165, p = .032) and White smokers (β = -0.207, p = .048). We find evidence in national health survey data that nicotine and carcinogen exposure generally increases with CPD across race/ethnicity groups although the pattern of NNAL exposure differs by race/ethnicity group at high CPD levels. We also find evidence of differences in NNAL exposure for menthol smokers compared with nonmenthol smokers among smokers overall and White smokers.

  10. Targeted advertising, promotion, and price for menthol cigarettes in California high school neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Schleicher, Nina C; Dauphinee, Amanda L; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    To describe advertising, promotions, and pack prices for the leading brands of menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes near California high schools and to examine their associations with school and neighborhood demographics. In stores (n = 407) within walking distance (0.8 km [1/2 mile]) of California high schools (n = 91), trained observers counted ads for menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes and collected data about promotions and prices for Newport and Marlboro, the leading brand in each category. Multilevel modeling examined the proportion of all cigarette advertising for any menthol brand, the proportion of stores with sales promotions, and the lowest advertised pack price in relation to store types and school/neighborhood demographics. For each 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of Black students, the proportion of menthol advertising increased by 5.9 percentage points (e.g., from an average of 25.7%-31.6%), the odds of a Newport promotion were 50% higher (95% CI = 1.01, 2.22), and the cost of Newport was 12 cents lower (95% CI = -0.18, -0.06). By comparison, the odds of a promotion and the price for Marlboro, the leading brand of nonmenthol cigarettes, were unrelated to any school or neighborhood demographics. In high school neighborhoods, targeted advertising exposes Blacks to more promotions and lower prices for the leading brand of menthol cigarettes. This evidence contradicts the manufacturer's claims that the availability of its promotions is not based on race/ethnicity. It also highlights the need for tobacco control policies that would limit disparities in exposure to retail marketing for cigarettes.

  11. Targeted Advertising, Promotion, and Price For Menthol Cigarettes in California High School Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Nina C.; Dauphinee, Amanda L.; Fortmann, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe advertising, promotions, and pack prices for the leading brands of menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes near California high schools and to examine their associations with school and neighborhood demographics. Methods: In stores (n = 407) within walking distance (0.8 km [1/2 mile]) of California high schools (n = 91), trained observers counted ads for menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes and collected data about promotions and prices for Newport and Marlboro, the leading brand in each category. Multilevel modeling examined the proportion of all cigarette advertising for any menthol brand, the proportion of stores with sales promotions, and the lowest advertised pack price in relation to store types and school/neighborhood demographics. Results: For each 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of Black students, the proportion of menthol advertising increased by 5.9 percentage points (e.g., from an average of 25.7%–31.6%), the odds of a Newport promotion were 50% higher (95% CI = 1.01, 2.22), and the cost of Newport was 12 cents lower (95% CI = −0.18, −0.06). By comparison, the odds of a promotion and the price for Marlboro, the leading brand of nonmenthol cigarettes, were unrelated to any school or neighborhood demographics. Conclusions: In high school neighborhoods, targeted advertising exposes Blacks to more promotions and lower prices for the leading brand of menthol cigarettes. This evidence contradicts the manufacturer’s claims that the availability of its promotions is not based on race/ethnicity. It also highlights the need for tobacco control policies that would limit disparities in exposure to retail marketing for cigarettes. PMID:21705460

  12. Insecticidal and repellent activities of thymol from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) Sprague seeds against Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S K; Upadhyay, Shikha; Tripathi, A K

    2009-08-01

    Essential oil of seeds of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprauge and its pure constituent thymol showed promising results when evaluated for larvicidal, oviposition-deterrent, vapor toxicity, and repellent activity against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. Thymol was 1.6-fold more toxic than the oil toward fourth-instar larvae of A. stephensi with LD(50) values of 48.88 and 80.77 microg/ml, respectively. Egg laying by female adults of A. stephensi was much significantly reduced when exposed to vapors of thymol compared to the oil of T. ammi seeds, and similar effects were recorded for subsequent egg hatching and larval survival. Vapor toxicity assay showed LC(50) value of 79.5 mg/mat for thymol against adults of A. stephensi, whereas the crude oil exhibited the LC(50) value of 185.4 mg/mat. Thymol provided complete repellency toward A. stephensi adults at the dose of 25.0 mg/mat after 1 h duration, whereas same degree of repellency was obtained by the oil at the dose of 55.0 mg/mat, indicating its double-fold activity than the oil.

  13. The ameliorative effect of thymol against hydrocortisone-induced hepatic oxidative stress injury in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelwafa, Hanaa R; Yousef, Hany N

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hydrocortisone induces oxidative stress in hepatocytes and to evaluate the possible ameliorative effect of thymol against such hepatic injury. Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into control, thymol, hydrocortisone, and hydrocortisone+thymol groups. The 4 groups were treated daily for 15 days. Hydrocortisone significantly induced oxidative stress in the liver tissues, marked by increased serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total oxidative capacity (TOC), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) accompanied by marked decline of serum levels of total protein, albumin, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Also, marked elevation in the levels of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and TNF-α, beside significant decrease in the level of glutathione (GSH) in hepatic tissues were recorded. These biochemical alterations were accompanied by histopathological changes marked by destruction of the normal hepatic architecture, in addition to ultrastructural alterations represented by degenerative features covering almost all the cytoplasmic organelles of the hepatocytes. Supplementation of hydrocortisone-treated rats with thymol reversed most of the biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural alterations. The results of our study confirm that thymol has strong ameliorative effect against hydrocortisone-induced oxidative stress injury in hepatic tissues.

  14. Infrared spectra of hydrogen-bonded salicylic acid and its derivatives : Salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Marek J.

    1981-11-01

    Infrared spectra of hydrogen-bonded salicylic acid, O-deutero-salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid crystals have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Interpretation of these spectra was based on the Witkowski-Maréchal model. Semi-quantitative agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra can be achieved with the simplest form of this model, with values of interaction parameters transferable for equivalent intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  15. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms.

  16. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Kinga Gondor

    Full Text Available The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms.

  17. Salicylate degradation by the fungal plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Cory D; Daniel, Steven L

    2013-08-01

    The fungal plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was studied to determine its ability to degrade salicylate, an important defense-signaling molecule in plants. S. sclerotiorum D-E7 was grown at 25 °C in an undefined medium (50 ml) containing minerals, 0.1% soytone, 50 mM MES buffer (pH 6.5), 25 mM glucose, and 1 mM salicylate. Glucose, oxalate, and salicylate concentrations were monitored by HPLC. S. sclerotiorum D-E7 was found to be active in salicylate degradation. However, salicylate alone was not growth supportive and, at higher levels (10 mM), inhibited glucose-dependent growth. Biomass formation (130 mg [dry wt] of mycelium per 50 ml of undefined medium), oxalate concentrations (~10 mM), and culture acidification (final culture pH approximated 5) were essentially the same in cultures grown with or without salicylate (1 mM). Time-course analyses revealed that salicylate degradation and glucose consumption were complete after 7 days of incubation and was concomitant with growth. Trace amounts of catechol, a known intermediate of salicylate metabolism, were detected during salicylate degradation. Overall, these results indicated that S. sclerotiorum has the ability to degrade salicylate and that the presence of low levels of salicylate did not affect growth or oxalate production by S. sclerotiorum.

  18. Magical mystery tour: Salicylic acid signalling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Martin; Ruelland, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, Special Issue (2015), s. 117-128 ISSN 0098-8472 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1654 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Salicylic acid (SA) * NPR1 * SA overaccumulating mutants Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.712, year: 2015

  19. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are

  20. Salicylic acid electrooxidation. A surface film formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baturova, M.D.; Vedenjapin, A.; Baturova, M.M. [N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Weichgrebe, D.; Danilova, E.; Rosenwinkel, K.H. [Univ. of Hannover, Inst. of Water Quality and Waste Management Hannover (Germany); Skundin, A. [A.N. Frumkin Inst. of Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    A possibility to use electrochemical treatment for salicylic acid (SA) removal from waste water was studied. It was found that SA can be oxidized at platinum anode with formation of harmless products. Features of anodic process, in particular, formation of solid film on anode surface as well as properties of the film were investigated. (orig.)

  1. Harm Perceptions of Menthol and Nonmenthol Cigarettes Differ by Brand, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender in US Adult Smokers: Results from PATH Wave 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Rose, Shyanika W; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Gray, Tiffany; Curry, Laurel; Villanti, Andrea C; Mays, Darren; Lindblom, Eric; Tercyak, Kenneth; Debnam, Charles; Mayo, Ashley; Perreras, Lexie

    2018-01-27

    Harm perceptions of menthol cigarettes may contribute to their appeal and use. African-Americans, women, and younger smokers disproportionately use menthol cigarettes, and may misperceive harm of menthol cigarettes. Data were from Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Weighted analyses of current adult smokers (18 and older) were used to estimate the correlates of menthol smoking among all cigarette brands and separately for the top three cigarette brands (Newport, Camel, and Marlboro). Adjusted models examined the main effect of menthol smoking on harm perceptions of one's own brand of cigarette and interactions with race/ethnicity, age, and gender. Menthol cigarettes were used by nearly 40% of current smokers, although the prevalence of menthol smoking differed across the top three brands (94% Newport, 46% Camel, and 18% Marlboro). Among menthol smokers, 80% perceived their cigarette as equally harmful, 14% perceived their brand as more harmful, and 7% perceived their brand as less harmful. In adjusted models, menthol smokers were more likely than nonmenthol smokers to misperceive their own brand as more harmful than other brands (compared to no difference in harm). Race and gender emerged as moderators of the association between menthol brand preference and harm perceptions. In adjusted analyses, menthol smokers were more likely than nonmenthol smokers to perceive their brand as more harmful than other brands, with differences by sub-groups who disproportionately use menthol. Menthol cigarettes have been historically marketed with messages conveying lower harm than other cigarettes. Little is known about how contemporary adult menthol smokers perceive the harm of their usual brand, and potential differences by race, gender, and young adult versus older adult age group. After adjusting for other factors, menthol smokers were more likely than nonmenthol smokers to perceive their cigarette brand as more harmful than other brands

  2. Synergistic anticandidal activity of menthol in combination with itraconazole and nystatin against clinical Candida glabrata and Candida krusei isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, Aghil; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Tari, Paria Samadi

    2017-06-01

    Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) and C. krusei are now emerging as serious hospital acquired infections in immunocompromised patients. Menthol, a terpenic compound, has been reported to have antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of menthol in combination with itraconazole or nystatin against C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates. The effects of menthol along with itraconazole and nystatin, were evaluated by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M44-A and CLSI M27-A3 methods. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was determined for menthol plus itraconazole and nystatin combinations using the checkerboard method. The mean of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of menthol, nystatin and itraconazole were 53.2, 2.30 and 1.50 μg/ml for C. glabrata isolates and 121, 1.08 and 0.38 μg/ml for C. krusei isolates, respectively. Menthol in combination with itraconazole or nystatin exhibited the synergistic effects against all species of Candida tested. FICI values for menthol plus itraconazole and nystatin combinations ranged from 0.250 to 0.561 and 0.139 to 0.623 for C. glabrata isolates, and 0.182 to 0.750 and 0.188 to 0.760 for C. krusei, respectively. These results support the potential use of menthol as an anticandidal agent, and it can be used complementarily with other conventional antifungal agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Thymol as an alternative to pesticides: persistence and effects of Apilife Var on the phototactic behavior of the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Jean-Luc; Téné, Nathan; Bonnafé, Elsa; Alayrangues, Julie; Hotier, Lucie; Armengaud, Catherine; Treilhou, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Thymol is a natural substance increasingly used as an alternative to pesticides in the fight against the Varroa destructor mite. Despite the effectiveness of this phenolic monoterpene against Varroa, few articles have covered the negative or side effects of thymol on bees. In a previous study, we have found an impairment of phototaxis in honeybees following application of sublethal doses of thymol-lower or equal to 100 ng/bee-under laboratory conditions. The present work shows the same behavioral effects on bees from hives treated with Apilife Var®, a veterinary drug containing 74 % thymol, with a decrease in phototactic behavior observed 1 day after treatment. Thus, thymol causes disruption of bee phototactic behavior both under laboratory conditions as well as in beehives. The bee exposure dose in treated hives was quantified using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), giving a median value of 4.3 μg per body 24 h after treatment, with 11 ng in the brain. The thymol level in 20 organic waxes from hives treated with Apilife Var® was also measured and showed that it persists in waxes (around 10 mg/kg) 1 year after treatment. Thus, in the light of (1) behavioral data obtained under laboratory conditions and in beehives, (2) the persistence of thymol in waxes, and (3) the high load on bees, it would appear important to study the long-term effects of thymol in beehives.

  4. Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil and its main component thymol: Anthelmintic effects against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luis E; Benincasa, Bruno I; Fachin, Ana L; França, Suzelei C; Contini, Silvia S H T; Chagas, Ana C S; Beleboni, Rene O

    2016-09-15

    Haemonchus contortus is an important gastrointestinal parasite on sheep farms in tropical regions. The resistance of the parasite against most anthelmintic drugs represents a great economic problem to sheep farming and is a major challenge that needs to be overcome. The searches for new anthelmintic agents that act on different stages of the parasite's life cycle are necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against H. contortus and of its main component, the monoterpene thymol. Despite the relative ineffectiveness of the oil in the in vivo test, which may be corrected in the future after technical improvements to increase the oil's bioavailability, the in vitro results validated the popular use of T. vulgaris oil as an anthelmintic agent, at least against H. contortus. In fact, both the essential oil and thymol, which accounts for 50.22% of the oil composition, were effective against the three main stages of H. contortus. The oil and thymol were able to inhibit egg hatching by 96.4-100%, larval development by 90.8-100%, and larval motility by 97-100%. Similar to the positive control (levamisole 20mg/mL), the oil and thymol completely inhibited the motility of H. contortus adults within the first 8h of the experiment. Since thymol reproduces the anthelmintic effects of the oil and because it is the main component of the oil, it is reasonable to assume that thymol is the most important compound responsible for the anthelmintic effect of T. vulgaris. These results are of ethnopharmacological importance and may contribute to the development of new drugs and even herbal medicines, increasing treatment options for the farm breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Insecticidal toxicities of carvacrol and thymol derived from Thymus vulgaris Lin. against Pochazia shantungensis Chou & Lu., newly recorded pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Hwan; Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2017-01-01

    The insecticidal toxicities of five essential oils against Pochazia shantungensis adults and nymphs, newly recorded pests, were evaluated. The LC50 values of Thymus vulgaris, Ruta graveolens, Citrus aurantium, Leptospermum petersonii and Achillea millefolium oils were recorded as 57.48, 84.44, 92.58, 113.26 and 125.78 mg/L, respectively, against P. shantungensis nymphs using the leaf dipping bioassay, and 75.80, 109.86, 113.26, 145.06 and 153.74 mg/L, respectively, against P. shantungensis adults using the spray bioassay method. Regarding volatile components identified in T. vulgaris oil, the LC50 values of carvacrol and thymol using the leaf dipping bioassay against P. shantungensis nymphs were 56.74 and 28.52 mg/L, respectively. The insecticidal action of T. vulgaris oil against P. shantungensis could be attributed to carvacrol and thymol. Based on the structure-toxicity relationship between thymol analogs and insecticidal toxicities against P. shantungensis nymphs similar to the LC50 values against P. shantungensis adults, the LC50 values of thymol, carvacrol, citral, 2-isopropylphenol, 3-isopropylphenol, and 4-isopropylphenol were 28.52, 56.74 and 89.12, 71.41, 82.49, and 111.28 mg/L, respectively. These results indicate that the insecticidal mode of action of thymol analogs may be largely attributed to the methyl functional group. Thymol analogues have promising potential as first-choice insecticides against P. shantungensis adults and nymphs.

  6. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in s...

  7. Synergism of thymol, carvacrol and eugenol in larvae of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, and brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, L X; Novato, T P L; Zeringota, V; Maturano, R; Melo, D; DA Silva, B C; Daemon, E; DE Carvalho, M G; Monteiro, C M O

    2016-12-01

    The effects of combinations of the monoterpenes thymol and carvacrol and the phenylpropanoid eugenol in larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) (Acari: Ixodidae) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) (Acari: Ixodidae) were assessed by the larval packet test. The CompuSyn program was used to make qualitative assessments of the effects (synergistic, additive and antagonistic) of the associations. The effects of all combinations tested against R. microplus larvae were synergistic, with combination indices (CIs) eugenol and thymol + eugenol have synergistic effects in R. microplus and R. sanguineus s.l. larvae. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of free and liposome-encapsulated thymol and carvacrol against Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus adhered to stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Juliana Both; Heckler, Caroline; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar; Daroit, Daniel Joner; da Silva Malheiros, Patrícia

    2017-07-03

    Antimicrobial activity of thymol, carvacrol and thymol/carvacrol liposomes (TCL) was evaluated against two bacterial pools, each one consisting of four strains of Staphylococcus aureus or Salmonella enterica. TCL were prepared using thin-film hydration, showing 270.20nm average diameter (polydispersity index of 0.33) and zeta potential of +39.99mV. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of thymol, carvacrol and TCL against S. aureus pool was 0.662mg/ml, while MIC for Salmonella pool was 0.331mg/ml for thymol and carvacrol, and for TCL was 0.662mg/ml. Bacterial pools (8.0logCFU/ml), allowed in contact on stainless steel AISI 304 coupons in UHT skim milk for 15min, resulted in adhered populations of 5.6-6.1logCFU/cm 2 . Adhered S. aureus (±6.1logCFU/cm 2 ) were inhibited after 1-min and 10-min treatments using thymol or carvacrol at MIC and 2.0 MIC. Reductions of 1.47-1.76logCFU/cm 2 and 1.87-2.04logCFU/cm 2 were obtained using 0.5 MIC of thymol and carvacrol, respectively. A 10-min contact with free (MIC and 2.0 MIC) and encapsulated (MIC) antimicrobials inhibited attached Salmonella (±6.0logCFU/cm 2 ); however, after 1-min of contact, 2.0 MIC of thymol and carvacrol were not able to inactivate adhered Salmonella MIC of TCL inactivated S. aureus and Salmonella after 10min; however, after 1-min contact, adhered S. aureus and Salmonella populations were decreased in 1.62logCFU/cm 2 and 2.01logCFU/cm 2 , respectively. Considering antimicrobial concentrations and contact times, thymol, carvacrol, and TCL could be employed in food-contact surfaces to prevent biofilm formation at early stages of bacterial attachment. Further investigations should be performed considering long-term antibacterial effects of TCL. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A Brief Perspective on Anti-inflammatory Effects of Thymol and Carvacrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Alizadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We eagerly read the recent paper published by Gholijani N et al. entitled “The Suppression of Adjuvant-induced Inflammation and the Inhibition of the Serum and Tissue IL-17, TNF-α and IL-1β levels by Thymol and Carvacrol” in "Herb Med J". This study adequately indicated the anti-inflammatory properties of the two mentioned plant-derived compounds. Thus, the authors intend in this letter to point to a few important notes in confirming this study. Inflammation is a defensive mechanism in the body that removes or deactivates pathogens. Although it is beneficial for the body, inflammation can be harmful if it is induced without being controlled properly. Moreover, inflammation plays a role in restoring homeostasis to the body after the onset of the disease and is useful in improving the damages (1. It is documented that cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-1β, play substantial roles in inflammatory responses (2. One of these cytokines is TNF-α which is secreted by mononuclear phagocytes. TNF-α can induce acute phase proteins and is considered as a pyrogenic factor (3. Another cytokine is IL-17 which is produced by Th17, NK cells and neutrophils. It could exacerbate inflammation via increased immune cells proliferation and indirect neutrophil recruitment (4. IL-1β is recognized as a mediator of acute inflammatory response against infections (5. Moreover, adjuvants can be used as exacerbation factors for immune responses in animal models (6. Today, chemical drugs such as corticosteroids are used to reduce inflammation. But, important adverse effects of these drugs are well known and unavoidable (7. Today, researchers have shown that herbal medicines with low cost and minimal side effects are good alternatives to synthetic drugs (8. Among these plants, peppers species are widely used as medicinal plants. Carvacrol (2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl-phenol and Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol are the most important active ingredients of these

  10. Vapor Pressure of Methyl Salicylate and n-Hexadecane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    VAPOR PRESSURE OF METHYL SALICYLATE AND N-HEXADECANE ECBC-TR-1184 David E. Tevault Leonard C. Buettner...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Mar 2000-Dec 2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vapor Pressure of Methyl Salicylate and n-Hexadecane 5a...ABSTRACT Vapor pressure data are reported for O-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl ester, more commonly known as methyl salicylate (MeS), and n-hexadecane in

  11. Relieving thermal discomfort: Effects of sprayed L-menthol on perception, performance, and time trial cycling in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, M J; Corbett, J; Thomas, K; Twentyman, P

    2015-06-01

    L-menthol stimulates cutaneous thermoreceptors and induces cool sensations improving thermal comfort, but has been linked to heat storage responses; this could increase risk of heat illness during self-paced exercise in the heat. Therefore, L-menthol application could lead to a discrepancy between behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory drivers. Eight male participants volunteered. They were familiarized and then completed two trials in hot conditions (33.5 °C, 33% relative humidity) where their t-shirt was sprayed with CONTROL-SPRAY or MENTHOL-SPRAY after 10 km (i.e., when they were hot and uncomfortable) of a 16.1-km cycling time trial (TT). Thermal perception [thermal sensation (TS) and comfort (TC)], thermal responses [rectal temperature (Trec ), skin temperature (Tskin )], perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate, pacing (power output), and TT completion time were measured. MENTHOL-SPRAY made participants feel cooler and more comfortable and resulted in lower RPE (i.e., less exertion) yet performance was unchanged [TT completion: CONTROL-SPRAY 32.4 (2.9) and MENTHOL-SPRAY 32.7 (3.0) min]. Trec rate of increase was 1.40 (0.60) and 1.45 (0.40) °C/h after CONTROL-SPRAY and MENTHOL-SPRAY application, which were not different. Spraying L-menthol toward the end of self-paced exercise in the heat improved perception, but did not alter performance and did not increase heat illness risk. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Acute salicylate poisoning: risk factors for severe outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Rachel M; Hoffman, Robert S; Manini, Alex F

    2017-03-01

    Salicylate poisoning remains a significant public health threat with more than 20,000 exposures reported annually in the United States. We aimed to establish early predictors of severe in-hospital outcomes in Emergency Department patients presenting with acute salicylate poisoning. This was a secondary data analysis of adult salicylate overdoses from a prospective cohort study of acute drug overdoses at two urban university teaching hospitals from 2009 to 2013. Patients were included based on confirmed salicylate ingestion and enrolled consecutively. Demographics, clinical parameters, treatment and disposition were collected from the medical record. Severe outcome was defined as a composite occurrence of acidemia (pH salicylate concentration 28.1 mg/dL (SD 26.6), and 20.8% classified as severe outcome. Univariate analysis indicated that age, respiratory rate, lactate, coma, and the presence of co-ingestions were significantly associated with severe outcome, while initial salicylate concentration alone had no association. However, when adjusted for salicylate concentration, only age (OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.02-1.26) and respiratory rate (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.02-1.63) were independent predictors. Additionally, lactate showed excellent test characteristics to predict severe outcome, with an optimal cutpoint of 2.25 mmol/L (78% sensitivity, 67% specificity). In adult Emergency Department patients with acute salicylate poisoning, independent predictors of severe outcome were older age and increased respiratory rate, as well as initial serum lactate, while initial salicylate concentration alone was not predictive.

  13. Antimicrobial effects of vapor phase thymol, modified atmosphere and their combination against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella contamination of raw shrimp is a food safety concern in the U.S. and other countries. This research evaluated the effects of vapor phase thymol, modified atmosphere (MA) and their combination against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp. Growth profiles of a Salmonella spp. cocktail (6 strains),...

  14. Thymol feed supplementation in quail alters the percentages of nutritionally relevant egg yolk fatty acids: effects throughout incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria E; Marin, Raul H; Luna, Agustin; Zunino, Maria P; Labaque, Maria C

    2017-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are crucial components of egg yolk and particularly prone to oxidative damage, generating losses of nutrients for embryonic development and influencing the quality of eggs for human consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary thymol (a natural antioxidant) is related to changes in quail egg yolk total (T), triglyceride (TG) and phospholipid (PL) fatty acid composition at different stages of embryo development. Thus female Japanese quail (100 days of age) were assigned to one of two dietary treatments (12 individuals each): CON (basal diet) or THY (0.0016 mol thymol day -1 per bird). After 2 weeks of supplementation, eggs were incubated and samples were obtained at 0, 4 and 16 days of embryonic development. In 0 day THY eggs, α-linolenic acid and n-3 PUFA in T and TG, docosahexaenoic acid and PUFA in T and arachidonic acid in TG were increased, while saturated fatty acids (SFA) in T were reduced. From 4 days on, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and SFA from T and TG in THY eggs were found to be similar to those of CON eggs. The changes in PL throughout incubation were similar in both dietary treatments. Thymol would provide the embryo with PUFA for synthesis/deposition in membranes and/or assign to supply energy. Additionally, thymol supplementation would be advisable for the production of healthier table eggs. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Development of novel nano-biocomposite antioxidant films based on poly (lactic acid) and thymol for active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marina; Jiménez, Alfonso; Peltzer, Mercedes; Garrigós, María C

    2014-11-01

    Novel nano-biocomposite films based on poly (lactic acid) (PLA) were prepared by incorporating thymol, as the active additive, and modified montmorillonite (D43B) at two different concentrations. A complete thermal, structural, mechanical and functional characterization of all nano-biocomposites was carried out. Thermal stability was not significantly affected by the addition of thymol, but the incorporation of D43B improved mechanical properties and reduced the oxygen transmission rate by the formation of intercalated structures, as suggested by wide angle X-ray scattering patterns and transmission electron microscopy images. The addition of thymol decreased the PLA glass transition temperature, as the result of the polymer plasticization, and led to modification of the elastic modulus and elongation at break. Finally, the amount of thymol remaining in these formulations was determined by liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH spectroscopic method, suggesting that the formulated nano-biocomposites could be considered a promising antioxidant active packaging material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of thyme as a feed additive in broiler chickens on thymol in gut contents, blood plasma, liver and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselmeyer, Alexander; Zentek, Jürgen; Chizzola, Remigius

    2015-02-01

    Aromatic herbs as feed additives in animal production are encountering growing interest, but data on the fate of the aromatic compounds from the plant in the animal body are very scarce. In the present study, thyme (Thymus vulgaris) herb consisting of leaves and flowers without stems was used as an ingredient in the diet for broilers. The herb was fed for 35 days to five groups of broilers (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 1% w/w in the diet). Animal performance and the concentrations of the main essential oil component from thyme, thymol, were measured in gut contents, plasma and liver and muscle tissues using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. There were no differences between the groups in feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion and slaughter weight. Thymol was detected in gut contents, plasma and liver and muscle tissues. Increased intestinal thymol concentrations were found in the group with 1% thyme compared with the other groups (P thyme on animal performance. With high dietary levels of thyme herb, thymol concentrations increased in gut contents and plasma but were very low in edible tissues such as liver and flesh. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Monoterpenoids (thymol, carvacrol and S-(+)-linalool) with anesthetic activity in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen): evaluation of acetylcholinesterase and GABAergic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, A E; Garlet, Q I; da Cunha, J A; Bandeira, G; Brusque, I C M; Salbego, J; Heinzmann, B M; Baldisserotto, B

    2017-10-19

    This study evaluated the anesthetic potential of thymol and carvacrol, and their influence on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the muscle and brain of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The AChE activity of S-(+)-linalool was also evaluated. We subsequently assessed the effects of thymol and S-(+)-linalool on the GABAergic system. Fish were exposed to thymol and carvacrol (25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to evaluate time for anesthesia and recovery. Both compounds induced sedation at 25 mg/L and anesthesia with 50-100 mg/L. However, fish exposed to carvacrol presented strong muscle contractions and mortality. AChE activity was increased in the brain of fish at 50 mg/L carvacrol and 100 mg/L thymol, and decreased in the muscle at 100 mg/L carvacrol. S-(+)-linalool did not alter AChE activity. Anesthesia with thymol was reversed by exposure to picrotoxin (GABAA antagonist), similar to the positive control propofol, but was not reversed by flumazenil (antagonist of benzodiazepine binding site), as observed for the positive control diazepam. Picrotoxin did not reverse the effect of S-(+)-linalool. Thymol exposure at 50 mg/L is more suitable than carvacrol for anesthesia in silver catfish, because this concentration did not cause any mortality or interference with AChE activity. Thymol interacted with GABAA receptors, but not with the GABAA/benzodiazepine site. In contrast, S-(+)-linalool did not act in GABAA receptors in silver catfish.

  18. Toxic and repellent activity of selected monoterpenoids (thymol, carvacrol and linalool) against the castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Maggi, Filippo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-10-15

    The castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus, is a species of medical and veterinary importance. The use of synthetic acaricides for tick control has led to development of resistance, residues in the environment and animal products, and public health concerns. In this regard, plant essential oils and their main constituents represent an appealing alternative strategy to combat ticks. The phenols thymol and carvacrol and the alcohol linalool are monoterpenoids occurring in essential oils of several aromatic and medicinal plants, such as thyme, oregano, savory, lavender and coriander. Recent studies have shown toxicity of these monoterpenoids against selected mosquito vectors and other arthropod pests. However, information on their bioactivity on I. ricinus is not available. On this basis, here we evaluated the ovicidal, larvicidal and repellency effects of these compounds against I. ricinus. Concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5% were sprayed on the egg masses, then hatching rates were noted. Larvicidal assays were conducted on unengorged larvae, following the larval packet technique. The repellency was determined by measuring the vertical migration behavior of ticks in laboratory conditions. Carvacrol and thymol at all concentrations tested led to a significant hatching decrease, showing an efficacy higher than permethrin, whereas linalool did not cause any significant effect. In the larvae treated with carvacrol and thymol (1, 2 and 5%), mortality rates reached 100% after 24h, showing a larvicidal efficacy higher than permethrin, whereas no effect was seen in the larval groups treated with linalool. Carvacrol and thymol at all concentrations tested showed >90% repellency on I. ricinus. Linalool was scarcely effective (50.24% repellency) only at the concentration of 5%. Overall, based on these results, the phenols carvacrol and thymol can be considered as candidate ingredients for the development of novel acaricidal formulations to control the populations of I. ricinus

  19. Desensitization of menthol-activated cold receptors in lower extremities during local cooling in young women with a cold constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Sone, Ryoko

    2017-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that topical menthol-induced reactivity of cold sensation and cutaneous vasoconstriction to local cooling is augmented in individuals with a cold constitution, we examined thermal sensation and cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses at menthol-treated and untreated sites in the legs during local skin cooling in young women complaining of chilliness (C group) and young women with no complaint as a normal control group (N group). During local skin cooling, the sensitivity to cold sensation was greater in the C group than in the N group. The application of menthol enhanced the cold sensation at a low temperature in the N group, but not in the C group. Cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses to local skin cooling were not altered by menthol treatment in either of the two groups. These findings suggest the desensitization of menthol-activated cold receptors in the legs of C group subjects, and a minor role of cold receptor activity in cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to local cooling.

  20. Morphine deteriorates spatial memory in sodium salicylate treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh, Mehdi; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Naghdi, Nasser; Semnanian, Saeed

    2013-03-15

    Tolerance and cross-tolerance for the effects of morphine (M) and sodium salicylate on nociception and learning were examined. The anti-nociceptive effects were measured by using the classic tail flick (TF) and hot plate (HP) tests and learning was measured with the Morris water maze (MWM). Tolerance or cross-tolerance was induced by daily injection (i.p.) of morphine sulfate (10mg/kg for 7 days) or sodium salicylate (300 mg/kg for 6 days). The injection of sodium salicylate increased both TF and HP latencies. This anti-nociceptive effect was progressively decreased across six injections and tolerance to sodium salicylate was developed. When M was injected to sodium salicylate-tolerant rats, a weakened anti-nociceptive effect was seen, indicating cross-tolerance to M. Acute treatment with M also increased TF latency. This anti-nociceptive effect was successively decreased across seven injections and tolerance to M was developed. When sodium salicylate was injected to M-tolerant rats, a diminished anti-nociceptive effect was seen, indicating cross-tolerance to sodium salicylate. Acute M impaired water maze performance, while chronic M and sodium salicylate had no effects on MWM performance. However, when M was injected to rats that had received sodium salicylate after each training trial for 7 days, these rats spent less time in target quadrant as compared to M and saline groups. It is concluded that chronic sodium salicylate induces tolerance to anti-nociceptive effects of M and vice versa. Also chronic salicylate may produce lasting metaplastic changes in brain mechanisms behind spatial learning and memory, which can be visualized in cross-sensitization to morphine. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biotransformation of thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol by cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Kei; Kondo, Yoko; Nishida, Tomohisa; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hiroki

    2006-10-01

    The biotransformations of aroma compounds of spices, such as thymol (1), carvacrol (2), and eugenol (3), were investigated using cultured plant cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. Besides a beta-glucoside product (4, 3%), a biotransformation product, i.e., 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)phenyl 6-O-(beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (5, beta-gentiobioside, 87%), was isolated from the suspension cells after the five-day incubation of 1. On administration of 2, a beta-glucoside (6, 5%) and a beta-gentiobioside, i.e., 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)phenyl 6-O-(beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (7, 56%), were produced. Furthermore, E. perriniana cells also converted 3 into the corresponding beta-glucoside (8, 7%) and beta-gentiobioside (9, 58%). The cultured cells of E. perriniana are able to convert these aroma compounds of spices into glycosides which are accumulated in the cells.

  2. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition and cytotoxicity studies of Mannich base derivatives of thymol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci Gul, Halise; Yamali, Cem; Tugce Yasa, Asiye; Unluer, Elif; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Tanc, Muhammet; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    Mannich bases of thymol were synthesized. The aminomethylation reaction was realised in the ortho position of the phenol for compounds 2 (dipropylamine), 3 (benzylamine), and 4 (dibenzylamine) while it was from para position for 1 (dimethylamine), 5 (piperidine), 6 (morpholine) and 7 (N-methylpiperazine). The carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory effects of the compounds were asssessed against hCA I and hCA II. All compounds moderately inhibited hCA I and hCA II. The cytotoxicity of the compounds against four human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were compared those against three normal oral cells. Tumor specificity values were about 2 or slightly more for the compounds 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Compound 2 showed cytostatic activity against OSCC cell lines at 16 to 32-fold lower concentrations as compared with normal cells. This suggests that compound 2 can be considered as cytotoxicity enhancing drug candidate for further investigations.

  3. Direct Ring Fission of Salicylate by a Salicylate 1,2-Dioxygenase Activity from Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintner, Jan-Peter; Lechner, Christa; Riegert, Ulrich; Kuhm, Andrea Elisabeth; Storm, Thomas; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Stolz, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    In cell extracts of Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans strain BN12, an enzymatic activity was detected which converted salicylate in an oxygen-dependent but NAD(P)H-independent reaction to a product with an absorbance maximum at 283 nm. This metabolite was isolated, purified, and identified by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as 2-oxohepta-3,5-dienedioic acid. This metabolite could be formed only by direct ring fission of salicylate by a 1,2-dioxygenase reaction. Cell extracts from P. salicylatoxidans also oxidized 5-aminosalicylate, 3-, 4-, and 5-chlorosalicylate, 3-, 4-, and 5-methylsalicylate, 3- and 5-hydroxysalicylate (gentisate), and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate. The dioxygenase was purified and shown to consist of four identical subunits with a molecular weight of about 45,000. The purified enzyme showed higher catalytic constants with gentisate or 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate than with salicylate. It was therefore concluded that P. salicylatoxidans synthesized a gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase with an extraordinary substrate range, which also allowed the oxidation of salicylate. PMID:11698383

  4. A pulse radiolysis study of salicylic acid and 5-sulpho-salicylic acid in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, Kamal; Mukherjee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Reactions of H, OH, e aq - and some one-electron oxidants have been studied with salicylic acid and 5-sulpho-salicylic acid in aqueous solutions. Rate constants for the reaction of e aq - with these compounds were of the order of 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 and this reaction led to the formation of reducing radicals which could transfer electron to methyl viologen. Other one-electron reductants were not able to reduce these compounds. OH radicals reacted with these compounds by addition pathway with very high rate constants (>10 10 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ) while O - radical anions could oxidize these molecules to give phenoxyl type of radicals. Amongst the one-electron oxidants, only N 3 radicals and SO 4 - radicals could oxidize salicylic acid while 5-sulpho-salicylic acid could be oxidized only by SO 4 - radicals indicating that while one-electron reduction potential for semi-oxidized SA may be o1 for N 3 ? radical), it is more than 1.33V vs. NHE for semi-oxidized SSA species

  5. Acute effect of topical menthol on chronic pain in slaughterhouse workers with carpal tunnel syndrome: triple-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Brandt, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    participants with CTS and chronic pain of the arm/hand who were randomly distributed into two groups to receive topical menthol (Biofreeze) or placebo (gel with a menthol scent) during the working day and 48 hours later the other treatment (crossover design). Participants rated arm/hand pain intensity during...... the last hour of work (scale 0-10) immediately before 1, 2, and 3 hours after application. Furthermore, global rating of change (GROC) in arm/hand pain was assessed 3 hours after application. Compared with placebo, pain intensity and GROC improved more following application of topical menthol (P = 0.......026 and P = 0.044, resp.). Pain intensity of the arm/hand decreased by -1.2 (CI 95%: -1.7 to -0.6) following topical menthol compared with placebo, corresponding to a moderate effect size of 0.63. In conclusion, topical menthol acutely reduces pain intensity during the working day in slaughterhouse workers...

  6. Salicylate poisoning in children: report of three cases | Musumba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To raise clinicians' awareness of chronic (therapeutic) salicylate poisoning as a common cause of admission in paediatric patients presenting to hospital with respiratory distress (a clinical manifestation of metabolic acidosis) and a history of 'over the counter' treatment with salicylate (Aspirin). We present two complex cases ...

  7. Therapeutic Efficacy of Methyl Salicylate Phonophoresis in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is widely reported in the literature, whereas very limited studies have been done with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs particularly, methyl salicylate 15% in the management of musculoskeletal injuries(MSIs) sustained during sports. This study was therefore, designed to investigate the efficacy of methyl salicylate ...

  8. Salicylate removal by charcoal heamoperfusion in experimental intoxication in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookings, C.H.; Ramsey, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The removal of salicylate by extracorporeal circulation of blood through a column of encapsulated charcoal (haemoperfusion) has been studied experimentally in intoxicated dogs (greyhounds). The average time taken to reduce the whole blood salicylate level to one-half of the initial equilibrium level in 30 kg dogs was 2 hrs. A half-life of 3 hrs is predicted for salicylate removal by haemoperfusion in a 70 kg man and this rate of removal is shown to be comparable to that reported for haemodialysis. No unacceptable adverse physiological, biochemical, or haematological effects were found to result from haemoperfusion. The possible use of this technique in the management of severe salicylate poisoning in man is discussed. Haemoperfusion is foreseen as providing a method of rapid removal of salicylate in circumstances where forced diuresis is contra-indicated or inadequate and haemodialysis is not readily available. (orig.) [de

  9. Multicenter phase II randomized study evaluating dose-response of antiperistaltic effect of L-menthol sprayed onto the gastric mucosa for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiki, Naoki; Kaminishi, Michio; Yasuda, Kenjiro; Uedo, Noriya; Kobari, Masumi; Sakai, Terufumi; Hiratsuka, Takashi; Ohno, Kyota; Honjo, Hajime; Nomura, Sachiyo; Yahagi, Naohisa; Tajiri, Hisao; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2012-03-01

    Peppermint oil solution was found to be effective for reducing gastric spasm during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the gastric peristalsis-suppressing effect is dose-dependently induced by L-menthol, the major constituent of peppermint oil, and to determine the recommended dose of an L-menthol preparation. In this phase II, multicenter, double-blind, dose-response study, 131 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive 20 mL of 0.4% L-menthol (n = 32), 0.8% L-menthol (n = 35), 1.6% L-menthol (n = 30), or placebo (n = 34). The primary efficacy measure was the proportion of subjects with no peristalsis in two time periods, 75 to 105 s after treatment and immediately before the completion of endoscopy. The peristalsis-suppressing effect of L-menthol increased dose dependently (5.6%, 32.0%, 47.4% and 52.9% in the 0%, 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.6% groups, respectively: P peristalsis after administration was significantly higher in the 0.8% group (P = 0.015) and 1.6% group (P = 0.009). Adverse events in the L-menthol dose groups occurred with similar frequencies in the placebo group. L-menthol suppresses peristalsis in a dose-dependent manner, and the dose-response reaches a plateau at 0.8% L-menthol. Further Phase III studies are needed to establish the superiority of 0.8% L-menthol over placebo. © 2011 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2011 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  10. Effects of crystalline menthol on blood metabolites in Holstein steers and in vitro volatile fatty acid and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Miller, K A; Aperce, C C; Alvarado-Gilis, C A; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-two Holstein steers (573 ± 9.92 kg BW) were used to determine if oral administration of crystalline menthol would induce changes in endogenous secretions of IGF-1 and circulating concentrations of glucose, lactate, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Steers were blocked by BW and assigned within block to treatment. Treatments consisted of 0, 0.003, 0.03, or 0.3% crystalline menthol (DM basis) added to the diet. Animals were housed in individual, partially covered pens equipped with feed bunks and automatic water fountains. On d 1 of the experiment, blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after feeding. Treatment administration commenced on d 2, and blood samples were again drawn at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after feeding. This blood-sampling schedule was repeated on d 9, 16, 23, and 30. Plasma was analyzed for PUN, glucose, and lactate concentrations. Serum was used to analyze IGF-1 concentration. Body weights were measured on d 1, 9, 16, 23, and 30. To accompany the live animal phase, in vitro fermentations were performed using ruminal fluid cultures. Measurements included VFA concentrations and fermentative gas production for cultures containing crystalline menthol at 0, 0.003, 0.03, or 0.3% of substrate DM. Addition of menthol to the diet of steers resulted in a treatment × day interaction ( lightest BW until d 30. A menthol × day interaction was observed for daily feed deliveries ( 0.21). In conclusion, menthol supplementation minimally affected blood parameters associated with growth or ruminal fermentative activity.

  11. Functional analysis of a tomato salicylic acid methyl transferase and its role in synthesis of the flavor volatile methyl salicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile plant secondary metabolite that is an important contributor to taste and scent of many fruits and flowers. It is synthesized from salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone that contributes to plant pathogen defense. MeSA is synthesized by members of a family of O-met...

  12. Effects of menthol essence and breast milk on the improvement of nipple fissures in breastfeeding women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Amir Ali Akbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nipple fissure is a common disorder during breastfeeding. With high prevalence of nipple fissures and its impacts on breastfeeding, as well as the existence of evidence in favor of the application of peppermint as an antiinflammatory and antiinfection herb, the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Menthol essence on improving nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using a clinical trial method. Samples were divided randomly into two groups of 55 women. The women in the peppermint group applied four drops of Menthol essence on their nipple and areola after each feeding. The control group applied four drops of their own milk on the nipple and areola after each feeding. Then, the two groups were studied on days 10 and 14 postpartum. For intensity of pain, the visual analog scale (0-10 cm and to measure the severity of damage, Amir scale (1-10 cm were applied and the existence or lack of nipple discharge was also recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS 17 software. Results: The mean intensity of pain and nipple fissure before treatment (8.55 ± 1.74 and day 10 after delivery (4.26 ± 1.57 and before treatment and day 14 after delivery in the case group (1.32 ± 1.02 had a significant difference (P < 0.001. Nipple discharge between the two groups, before treatment (%75.2 and day 10 after delivery (%31.6 and before treatment and day 14 after delivery (%15.7, the case group had a significant difference (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Menthol essence can improve nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women.

  13. Puerarin transport across rat nasal epithelial cells and the influence of compatibility with paeoniflorin and menthol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lin Zhang, Shou-Ying Du, Yang Lu, Chang Liu, Hui-Chao Wu, Zhi-Hao Tian, Min Wang, Chang Yang School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Chaoyang District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nose-to-brain transport can provide an excellent pathway for drugs of the central nervous system. Consequently, how to make full use of this pathway in practical applications has become a focus of drug design. However, many aspects affecting drug delivery from the nose to the brain remain unclear. This study aimed to more deeply investigate the transport of puerarin and to explore the mechanism underlying the influence of compatible drugs on puerarin permeability in a primary cell model simulating the nasal mucosa. In this research, based on rat nasal epithelial cells (RNECs cultured in vitro and cytotoxicity assays, the bidirectional transport of puerarin across RNEC monolayers and the effect of its compatibility with peoniflorin and menthol were analyzed. The apparent permeability coefficient was <1.5×10–6 cm/s, and the efflux ratio of puerarin was <2, indicating that puerarin had poor absorption and that menthol but not peoniflorin significantly improved puerarin transport. Simultaneously, through experiments, such as immunofluorescence staining, transepithelial electrical resistance measurement, rhodamine 123 efflux evaluation, the cell membrane fluorescence recovery after photobleaching test, and ATPase activity determination, the permeability promoting mechanism of menthol was confirmed to be closely related to disruption of the tight junction protein structure, to the P-glycoprotein inhibitory effect, to increased membrane fluidity, and to the promotion of enzyme activity. These results provide reliable data on nasal administration of the studied drugs and lay the foundation for a deeper investigation of the nose–brain pathway and nasal administration. Keywords: Chinese herbal compound

  14. Phytotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Essential Oil from Leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus, Carvacrol, and Thymol in Plant Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Patrícia Fontes; Costa, Adilson Vidal; Alves, Thammyres de Assis; Galter, Iasmini Nicoli; Pinheiro, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira, Alexandre Fontes; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Ramos; Fontes, Milene Miranda Praça

    2015-10-21

    The essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus and its chemotypes, carvacrol and thymol, were evaluated on the germination and root and aerial growth of Lactuca sativa and Sorghum bicolor and in acting on the cell cycle of meristematic root cells of L. sativa. The main component found in the oil by analysis in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detection was carvacrol (88.61% in area). At a concentration of 0.120% (w v(-1)), the oil and its chemotypes retarded or inhibited the germination and decreased root and aerial growth in monocot and dicot species used in the bioassays. In addition, all substances caused changes in the cell cycle of the meristematic cells of L. sativa, with chromosomal alterations occurring from the 0.015% (w v(-1)) concentration. The essential oil of P. amboinicus, carvacrol, and thymol have potential for use as bioherbicides.

  15. Quantification of urinary uric acid in the presence of thymol and thimerosal by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Whitson, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed as an alternative to automated enzymatic analysis of uric acid in human urine preserved with thymol and/or thimerosal. Uric acid (tR = 10 min) and creatinine (tR = 5 min) were separated and quantified during isocratic elution (0.025 M acetate buffer, pH 4.5) from a mu Bondapak C18 column. The uric-acid peak was identified chemically by incubating urine samples with uricase. The thymol/thimerosal peak appeared at 31 min during the washing step and did not interfere with the analysis. We validated the high-performance liquid chromatographic method for linearity, precision and accuracy, and the results were found to be excellent.

  16. Amygdala hyperactivity and tonotopic shift after salicylate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Di; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Salvi, Richard

    2012-11-16

    The amygdala, important in forming and storing memories of aversive events, is believed to play a major role in debilitating tinnitus and hyperacusis. To explore this hypothesis, we recorded from the lateral amygdala (LA) and auditory cortex (AC) before and after treating rats with a dose of salicylate that induces tinnitus and hyperacusis-like behavior. Salicylate unexpectedly increased the amplitude of the local field potential (LFP) in the LA making it hyperactive to sounds≥60 dB SPL. Frequency receptive fields (FRFs) of multiunit (MU) clusters in the LA were also dramatically altered by salicylate. Neuronal activity at frequencies below 10 kHz and above 20 kHz was depressed at low intensities, but was greatly enhanced for stimuli between 10 and 20 kHz (frequencies near the pitch of the salicylate-induced tinnitus in the rat). These frequency-dependent changes caused the FRF of many LA neurons to migrate towards 10-20 kHz thereby amplifying activity from this region. To determine if salicylate-induced changes restricted to the LA would remotely affect neural activity in the AC, we used a micropipette to infuse salicylate (20 μl, 2.8 mM) into the amygdala. Local delivery of salicylate to the amygdala significantly increased the amplitude of the LFP recorded in the AC and selectively enhanced the neuronal activity of AC neurons at the mid-frequencies (10-20 kHz), frequencies associated with the tinnitus pitch. Taken together, these results indicate that systemic salicylate treatment can induce hyperactivity and tonotopic shift in the amygdala and infusion of salicylate into the amygdala can profoundly enhance sound-evoked activity in AC, changes likely to increase the perception and emotional salience of tinnitus and loud sounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tinnitus Neuroscience. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Amygdala Hyperactivity and Tonotopic Shift after Salicylate Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Di; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Salvi, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The amygdala, important in forming and storing memories of aversive events, is believed to play a major role in debilitating tinnitus and hyperacusis. To explore this hypothesis, we recorded from the lateral amygdala (LA) and auditory cortex (AC) before and after treating rats with a dose of salicylate that induces tinnitus and hyperacusis-like behavior. Salicylate unexpectedly increased the amplitude of the local field potential (LFP) in the LA making it hyperactive to sounds ≥60 dB SPL. Frequency receptive fields (FRF) of multiunit (MU) clusters in the LA were also dramatically altered by salicylate. Neuronal activity at frequencies below 10 kHz and above 20 kHz was depressed at low intensities, but was greatly enhanced for stimuli between 10 and 20 kHz (frequencies near the pitch of the salicylate-induced tinnitus in the rat). These frequency-dependent changes caused the FRF of many LA neurons to migrate towards 10-20 kHz thereby amplifying activity from this region. To determine if salicylate-induced changes restricted to the LA would remotely affect neural activity in the AC, we used a micropipette to infuse salicylate (20 µl, 2.8 mM) into the amygdala. Local delivery of salicylate to the amygdala significantly increased the amplitude of the LFP recorded in the AC and selectively enhanced the neuronal activity of AC neurons at the mid-frequencies (10-20 kHz), frequencies associated with the tinnitus pitch. Taken together, these results indicate that systemic salicylate treatment can induce hyperactivity and tonotopic shift in the amygdala and infusion of salicylate into the amygdala can profoundly enhance sound-evoked activity in AC, changes likely to increase the perception and emotional salience of tinnitus and loud sounds. PMID:22464181

  18. A case of bilateral sudden hearing loss and tinnitus after salicylate intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Min; Jo, Joon-Man; Baek, Moo Jin; Jung, Kyu Hwan

    2013-04-01

    Salicylate, the active ingredient of aspirin can cause sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus when plasma concentrations reach a critical level. The ototoxic mechanisms of salicylate remain unclear but hearing and tinnitus usually recovers a few days after intoxication. There have been few reports of salicylate-induced ototoxicity in Korea, and the majority is caused by a low dose of aspirin. Herein, we report a case of sudden hearing loss and tinnitus after acute salicylate intoxication and review recent updates on salicylate ototoxicity.

  19. Acute Effect of Topical Menthol on Chronic Pain in Slaughterhouse Workers with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Triple-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sundstrup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical menthol gels are classified “topical analgesics” and are claimed to relieve minor aches and pains of the musculoskeletal system. In this study we investigate the acute effect of topical menthol on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. We screened 645 slaughterhouse workers and recruited 10 participants with CTS and chronic pain of the arm/hand who were randomly distributed into two groups to receive topical menthol (Biofreeze or placebo (gel with a menthol scent during the working day and 48 hours later the other treatment (crossover design. Participants rated arm/hand pain intensity during the last hour of work (scale 0–10 immediately before 1, 2, and 3 hours after application. Furthermore, global rating of change (GROC in arm/hand pain was assessed 3 hours after application. Compared with placebo, pain intensity and GROC improved more following application of topical menthol (P=0.026 and P=0.044, resp.. Pain intensity of the arm/hand decreased by −1.2 (CI 95%: −1.7 to −0.6 following topical menthol compared with placebo, corresponding to a moderate effect size of 0.63. In conclusion, topical menthol acutely reduces pain intensity during the working day in slaughterhouse workers with CTS and should be considered as an effective nonsystemic alternative to regular analgesics in the workplace management of chronic and neuropathic pain.

  20. Thymol and Thymus Vulgaris L. activity against UVA- and UVB-induced damage in NCTC 2544 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Rossella; Visone, Clementina M; Marabini, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Many authors focused on the research of natural compounds in order to protect skin from indirect (UVA) and direct (UVB) ultraviolet radiation side effects. The aim of this study to evaluate the protective effect of a dry extract from T. vulgaris L. and of its major synthetic compound thymol (about 60%), against oxidative and genotoxic UVA- and UVB damage. Experiments were reproduced in a low differentiated keratinocytes cell line (NCTC 2544) Cells were pretreated for 1h, in serum-free medium, with thymol (1μg/mL) or T. vulgaris L. (1.82μg/mL) then exposed to different UVA (8-24J/cm(2)) or UVB doses (0.016-0.72J/cm(2)). Immediately after the UV exposure the intracellular redox status was evaluated by ROS quantification and by LPO. Genotoxic aspects were evaluated 24h after the end of irradiations using the alkaline comet assay, the micronucleus formation assay and the immunostaining of phosphorylated H2AX histone protein (detected 1h after the end of UV exposure). Thymol and T. vulgaris L. extract inhibited ROS generation in UVA and UVB-irradiated cells. On the contrary, MDA formation was reduced only in UVA treated cells. Both agents decreased the DNA damage evaluated by the alkaline comet assay, but not in the micronucleus and H2AX tests probably because of the severity of damage (double strands) detected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of a chlorhexidine/thymol-containing varnish on prostaglandin E2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld, K; Twetman, S; Hallgren, A; Yucel-Lindberg, T; Modéer, T

    1998-02-01

    The aim was to study the effect of a chlorhexidine/thymol-containing varnish (Cervitec) on the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). The material consisted of 25 adolescents and young adults with fixed orthodontic appliances exhibiting gingival inflammation. Four buccal sites, adjacent to bands and brackets, were selected on each patient and randomly treated with either a varnish containing chlorhexidine diacetate (1% w/w) and thymol (1% w/w) or a placebo varnish without active ingredients. After baseline registration, the varnishes were applied twice within 3 d. Follow-up examinations were performed after 3, 8 and 30 d. The gingival inflammation was assessed by bleeding on probing, volume of GCF with a Periotron 8000 and PGE2 level in GCF by using a radioimmuno assay. Compared with baseline, a statistically significant reduction in the volume of GCF was recorded at the chlorhexidine/thymol treated sites in contrast to the placebo. The mean PGE2 levels were significantly reduced after the test varnish treatment compared with baseline and differed significantly from placebo after 8 d. The findings suggest that treatments with the antibacterial varnish result in reduced gingival inflammation and may thus be beneficial for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

  2. An atypical residue in the pore of Varroa destructor GABA-activated RDL receptors affects picrotoxin block and thymol modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kerry L; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2014-12-01

    GABA-activated RDL receptors are the insect equivalent of mammalian GABAA receptors, and play a vital role in neurotransmission and insecticide action. Here we clone the pore lining M2 region of the Varroa mite RDL receptor and show that it has 4 atypical residues when compared to M2 regions of most other insects, including bees, which are the major host of Varroa mites. We create mutant Drosophila RDL receptors containing these substitutions and characterise their effects on function. Using two electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology we show that one substitution (T6'M) ablates picrotoxin inhibition and increases the potency of GABA. This mutation also alters the effect of thymol, which enhances both insect and mammalian GABA responses, and is widely used as a miticide. Thymol decreases the GABA EC50 of WT receptors, enhancing responses, but in T6'M-containing receptors it is inhibitory. The other 3 atypical residues have no major effects on either the GABA EC50, the picrotoxin potency or the effect of thymol. In conclusion we show that the RDL 6' residue is important for channel block, activation and modulation, and understanding its function also has the potential to prove useful in the design of Varroa-specific insecticidal agents. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Finished with Menthol: An Evidence-Based Policy Option That Will Save Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Joelle M; Gagosian, Stacey Younger

    2017-03-01

    Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, killing approximately 480,000 people each year. This crushing health burden falls disproportionately, and recent CDC data shows that large disparities in adult cigarette smoking remain. One factor in these disparities is the use of flavors. Menthol cigarettes and other flavored tobacco products are used at higher rates by vulnerable populations including youth and young adults, African Americans, women, Hispanics and Asian Americans. This is no accident; the tobacco industry has long targeted these same groups. Given FDA's failure to act to ban flavored tobacco products, states and municipalities are considering taking matters into their own hands to protect their communities from these dangerous products. The authors will explore state and local authority to restrict the sales of these products and review the evidence base indicating that removing flavored tobacco products - and menthol combustible products in particular - from the market would significantly reduce the toll of illness and death caused by these products.

  4. Cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in human urinary bladder disorders and clinical correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benham Christopher D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent identification of the cold-menthol sensory receptor (TRPM8; CMR1, provides us with an opportunity to advance our understanding of its role in the pathophysiology of bladder dysfunction, and its potential mediation of the bladder cooling reflex. In this study, we report the distribution of the cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in the urinary bladder in patients with overactive and painful bladder syndromes, and its relationship with clinical symptoms. Methods Bladder specimens obtained from patients with painful bladder syndrome (PBS, n = 16, idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO, n = 14, and asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (controls, n = 17, were immunostained using specific antibodies to TRPM8; nerve fibre and urothelial immunostaining were analysed using fibre counts and computerized image analysis respectively. The results of immunohistochemistry were compared between the groups and correlated with the Pain, Frequency and Urgency scores. Results TRPM8-immunoreactive staining was observed in the urothelium and nerve fibres scattered in the suburothelium. The nerve fibre staining was seen in fine-calibre axons and thick (myelinated fibres. There was marked increase of TRPM8-immunoreactive nerve fibres in IDO (P = 0.0249 and PBS (P Conclusion This study demonstrates increased TRPM8 in nerve fibres of overactive and painful bladders, and its relationship with clinical symptoms. TRPM8 may play a role in the symptomatology and pathophysiology of these disorders, and may provide an additional target for future overactive and painful bladder pharmacotherapy.

  5. Detection of methyl salicylate using bi-enzyme electrochemical sensor consisting salicylate hydroxylase and tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Bullock, Hannah; Lee, Sarah A; Sekar, Narendran; Eiteman, Mark A; Whitman, William B; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P

    2016-11-15

    Volatile organic compounds have been recognized as important marker chemicals to detect plant diseases caused by pathogens. Methyl salicylate has been identified as one of the most important volatile organic compounds released by plants during a biotic stress event such as fungal pathogen infection. Advanced detection of these marker chemicals could help in early identification of plant diseases and has huge significance for agricultural industry. This work describes the development of a novel bi-enzyme based electrochemical biosensor consisting of salicylate hydroxylase and tyrosinase enzymes immobilized on carbon nanotube modified electrodes. The amperometric detection using the bi-enzyme platform was realized through a series of cascade reactions that terminate in an electrochemical reduction reaction. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the sensitivity of the bi-enzyme sensor was 30.6±2.7µAcm(-2)µM(-1) and the limit of detection and limit of quantification were 13nM (1.80ppb) and 39nM (5.39ppb) respectively. Interference studies showed no significant interference from the other common plant volatile compounds. Synthetic analyte studies revealed that the bi-enzyme based biosensor can be used to reliably detect methyl salicylate released by unhealthy plants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Synthesis, acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory effect of bornyl salicylate, a salicylic acid derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Renata Marcia Costa; Leite, Fagner Carvalho; Leite, Jacqueline Alves; Rodrigues Mascarenhas, Sandra; Rodrigues, Luis Cezar; Piuvezam, Marcia Regina

    2012-12-01

    Bornyl salicylate (BS) is a salicylic derivative, obtained by sterification of salicylic acid and monoterpene (-)-borneol, and its topical use in inflammatory diseases was described in the early 20th century. It is also known that borneol presents neuroprotective, genoprotective and analgesic properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate BS in experimental models of acute inflammation. The toxicity of BS was analyzed by measuring water and food intake, weight, mortality and weight of main organs. To assess its anti-inflammatory effect, BS-treated mice were challenged with carrageenan, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), bradikynin (BK) or histamine (HIS)-induced paw edema, zymosan-induced peritonitis and vascular permeability induced by acetic acid. Nitric oxide (NO) production was analyzed in peritoneal macrophage cultures. There was no sign of acute toxicity of BS in male and female mice. Furthermore, treatment with BS was significantly (p acetic acid were also reduced in BS-treated animals. In vitro, BS (10 µg/mL) reduced NO production in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These data suggest that BS has an anti-inflammatory effect, which is related, at least in part, with decrease of mediators as PGE2, NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, further studies should be done to explore its potential as an anti-inflammatory drug.

  7. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 7: Systems toxicological assessment of a mentholated version revealed reduced cellular and molecular exposure effects compared with mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogel, Ulrike; Titz, Bjoern; Schlage, Walter K; Nury, Catherine; Martin, Florian; Oviedo, Alberto; Lebrun, Stefan; Elamin, Ashraf; Guedj, Emmanuel; Trivedi, Keyur; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-11-30

    Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) are being developed with the aim of reducing smoking-related health risks. The Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2) is a candidate MRTP that uses the heat-not-burn principle. Here, systems toxicology approaches were engaged to assess the respiratory effects of mentholated THS2.2 (THS2.2M) in a 90-day rat inhalation study (OECD test guideline 413). The standard endpoints were complemented by transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics analyses of respiratory nasal epithelium and lung tissue and by lipidomics analysis of lung tissue. The adaptive response of the respiratory nasal epithelium to conventional cigarette smoke (CS) included squamous cell metaplasia and an inflammatory response, with high correspondence between the molecular and histopathological results. In contrast to CS exposure, the adaptive tissue and molecular changes to THS2.2M aerosol exposure were much weaker and were limited mostly to the highest THS2.2M concentration in female rats. In the lung, CS exposure induced an inflammatory response, triggered cellular stress responses, and affected sphingolipid metabolism. These responses were not observed or were much lower after THS2.2M aerosol exposure. Overall, this system toxicology analysis complements and reconfirms the results from classical toxicological endpoints and further suggests potentially reduced health risks of THS2.2M. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Antibacterial action of Chlorhexidine/thymol containing varnishes in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentsch, H F R; Eckert, F-R; Eschrich, K; Stratul, S-I; Kneist, S

    2014-08-01

    The antibacterial activity of two different formulations of a chlorhexidine/thymol varnish should be elucidated in vitro and in vivo. The agar diffusion assay with Cervitec(®) and CervitecPlus(®) and three reference strains each of streptococci, lactobacilli, actinomyces and periodontal pathogens was performed. In a split-mouth study, 40 volunteers applied the test (CervitecPlus(®), solvent water and ethanol) and control (Cervitec(®), solvent ethyl acetate) varnish at buccal recessions of premolar teeth at baseline as well as after two, four and seven days. Supra- and subgingival plaques were collected 2 weeks before baseline and at the screening appointments. Supragingival plaque was analysed for mutans streptococci and lactobacilli and subgingival samples for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas intermedia. Friedman/Wilcoxon tests and U-test were used for statistical analysis (P control sides at any time. The total counts of periodontal pathogens were low. A tendency to higher counts of A. actinomycetemcomitans at the control side could be shown; the test side did not harbour significantly higher counts. Both varnishes may influence the plaque formation and reduce mutans streptococci in supragingival plaque. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Comparative study on the antioxidant and biological activities of carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastelić, Josip; Jerković, Igor; Blazević, Ivica; Poljak-Blazi, Marija; Borović, Suzana; Ivancić-Baće, Ivana; Smrecki, Vilko; Zarković, Neven; Brcić-Kostic, Krunoslav; Vikić-Topić, Drazen; Müller, Norbert

    2008-06-11

    Four derivatives of thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol were synthesized: 4-(hydroxymethyl)-5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, 4,4'-methylenebis(5-isopropyl-2-methyl)phenol, 4-allyl-6-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol. The obtained derivatives showed remarkably better antioxidative properties according to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay (50% inhibitory concentrations = 4-156 microg/mL) and Rancimat assay (protection factors = 1.55-5.84) when compared with parent compounds and values similar to or better than those of butylated hydroxytoluene and vitamin C. At concentrations of 10 mM carvacrol derivatives had no toxic effect on viability of Escherichia coli K-12 (determined by minimum inhibitory concentrations). Other phenol derivatives showed reduced cytotoxic effect on E. coli K-12 at concentrations of 2-5 mM on the basis of 50% lethal dose measurements. In comparison with the parent compounds, phenol derivatives showed reduced cytotoxic effect for Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (determined by yeast colony reduction). On the other hand, the majority of synthesized compounds had dose-dependent antiproliferative effects on human uterine carcinoma cells (HeLa), which makes them potentially interesting for the adjuvant experimental cancer treatments. The 4,4'-methylenebis(5-isopropyl-2-methyl)phenol derivative of carvacrol showed lower inhibiting capacity also for the HeLa cells, which makes this particular derivative attractive as an efficient antioxidant with negligible cytotoxic effects.

  10. Determination of Dyclonine Hydrochloride by a HPLC Method and Camphor and Menthol by a GC Method in Compound Lotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suying Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method with UV detector for the determination of dyclonine hydrochloride and a gas chromatography (GC method with flame ionization detector (FID for the determination of camphor and menthol in lotion were developed. The developed HPLC method involved using a SinoChoom ODS-BP C18 reversed-phase column (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 200 mm and mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile : water : triethylamine in a ratio of 45 : 55 : 1.0; pH was adjusted to 3.5 with glacial acetic acid. The developed GC method for determination of camphor and menthol involved using an Agilent 19091J-413 capillary chromatographic column (30 m × 320 μm × 0.25 μm. The two methods were validated according to official compendia guidelines. The calibration of dyclonine hydrochloride for HPLC method was linear over the range of 20–200 μg/mL. The retention time was found at 6.0 min for dyclonine hydrochloride. The calibration of camphor and menthol of GC method was linear over the range of 10–2000 μg/mL. The retention time was found at 2.9 min for camphor and 3.05 min for menthol. The proposed HPLC and GC methods were proved to be suitable for the determination of dyclonine hydrochloride, camphor, and menthol in lotion.

  11. A comparison of topical menthol to ice on pain, evoked tetanic and voluntary force during delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Pramod; Grover, Varun; Topp, Robert; Behm, David G

    2012-06-01

    Pain can adversely affect muscle functioning by inhibiting muscle contractions. Delayed onset muscle soreness was used as a tool to ascertain whether a topical menthol-based analgesic or ice was more effective at reducing pain and permitting greater muscular voluntary and evoked force. Sixteen subjects were randomized to receive either a topical gel containing 3.5% menthol or topical application of ice to the non-dominant elbow flexors two days following the performance of an exercise designed to induce muscle soreness. Two days later, DOMS discomfort was treated with a menthol based analgesic or ice. Maximum voluntary contractions and evoked tetanic contractions of the non-dominant elbow flexors were measured at baseline prior to inducing muscle soreness (T1), two days following inducing DOMS after 20 (T2), 25 (T3) and 35 (T4) minutes of either menthol gel or ice therapy. Pain perception using a 10-point visual analog scale was also measured at these four data collection points. Treatment analysis included a 2 way repeated measures ANOVA (2 × 4). Delayed onset muscle soreness decreased (p = 0.04) voluntary force 17.1% at T2 with no treatment effect. Tetanic force was 116.9% higher (p<0.05) with the topical analgesic than ice. Pain perception at T2 was significantly (p=0.02) less with the topical analgesic versus ice. Compared to ice, the topical menthol-based analgesic decreased perceived discomfort to a greater extent and permitted greater tetanic forces to be produced. Level 2b.

  12. Synthesis and antifungal activity of new salicylic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodnicka Alicja

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple one-step procedure for synthesis of 1-methoxy-1-oxoalkan-2-yl salicylates and 1-methoxy-1-oxoalkan-2-yl 2-[(1-methoxy-1-oxoalkan-2-yloxy]benzoates by reaction of salicylic acid with several methyl 2-bromoalkanoates was developed. The reactions were carried out in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF in the presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. Conditions for regioselective synthesis of target compounds were established. The developed procedure could be easily applied in the industrial production process. The new salicylic acid derivatives were obtained with satisfactory yields and were characterized by MS and 1H NMR spectra. The fungicidal activity of the prepared compounds was tested in vitro against seven species of plant pathogenic fungi. The best results were observed for 1-methoxy-1-oxoalkan-2-yl salicylates which showed moderate or good activity against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani.

  13. Identification and quantification of thymol metabolites in plasma, liver and duodenal wall of broiler chickens using UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarčíková, Jana; Oceľová, Vladimíra; Faix, Štefan; Plachá, Iveta; Calderón, Angela I

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, we aimed to develop a method for thymol sulfate and thymol glucuronide determination in plasma, liver and duodenal wall of broiler chickens after feeding with a Thymus vulgaris essential oil at the different concentrations (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1% w/w). UHPLC coupled with accurate-mass QTOF-MS was used for identification and quantification of thymol metabolites. Novel Waters Oasis Prime HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges were applied to sample clean-up with extraction recoveries ranged from 85 to 92%. The presence of thymol glucuronide was confirmed by MS software according to molecular formula, score, mass error and double bond equivalent. In terms of validation, calibration curves of thymol sulfate were constructed in matrix samples with linearity from 3.91 to 250.0 ng/mL and correlation coefficients were within the range of 0.9979-0.9995. Limits of detection were 0.97, 0.29 and 0.63 ng/mL and limits of quantification were 3.23, 0.97 and 2.09 ng/mL for plasma, liver and duodenal wall, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation were <4.35%. To highlight, thymol metabolites were directly detected for the first time in liver and duodenal wall and this method was shown to be successfully applicable for investigation of thymol metabolism in chickens after thyme essential oil ingestion. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Low salicylate diet and the possibility of nutrient deficiencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczuko, Małgorzata; Romaniuk, Rafał

    Unfavourable reactions of the body to consumed food and/or medicines are an increasing epidemiological problem. Intolerance to acetylsalicylic acid is connected to the intake of some drugs and food containing salicylic acid. People suffering from this intolerance have to follow an elimination diet limiting the intake of salicylates. The elimination diet can lead to deficiencies in nutrients, and therefore we decided to test whether a low salicylate diet of various calorie content (1500, 2000, 2500 kcal) can pose such a risk. Research material consisted of 30 diets (10 for each calorie content), prepared using nutrition software Dieta 5, recommended by the National Food and Nutrition Institute in Poland. Average nutrients’ contents were calculated and compared to current dietary standards for adults. A low salicylate diet supplying 1500 kcal is, both for males and females, the most deficient diet with respect to nutrients’ contents. In the case of women aged 19–30 insufficient intake can relate to such nutrients as: potassium, calcium, iodine, vitamin D, dietary fibre and alpha-linolenic acid. In women aged 31–65 it can additionally lead to magnesium deficiencies. In men aged 19–65 a low salicylate diet providing 1500 kcal may not cover daily requirements for nine nutrients: besides those mentioned above, also vitamins E and C. However, low salicylate 2000 kcal and 2500 kcal diets do not pose a greater risk with respect to nutrient deficiencies. Long-term use of a low salicylic 1500 kcal diet poses the greatest threat of nutrient deficiencies. Along with increasing the calorie content in a diet, the number of deficient nutrients decreases, but too high an energy intake may lead to subjects becoming overweight or obese. A low salicylate and low caloric diet requires consideration of additional supplementation.

  15. Syntheses and pyrolytic studies of salicylate derivatives of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New salicylate derivatives of heteronucleic-μ-oxoisopropoxide [SnO2AlB(OPri)4] have been synthesized by the thermal condensation of μ-oxoisopropoxide and methyl/ethyl/phenyl/phenyl ethyl salicylates in different molar ratios (1:1-1:2) yielding the compounds of the type [SnO2AlB(OPri)4-n(RSAL)n] (where n is 1-2 and ...

  16. SALICYLATE PROCESS FOR THORIUM SEPARATION FROM RARE EARTHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, G.A.

    1959-08-25

    The separation of thorium from rare earths is accomplished by forming an aqueous solution of salts of thorium and rare earths and sufficient acetate buffer to provide a pH of between 2 and 5, adding an ammonium salicylate to the aqueous buffered solution, contacting the resultant solution with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent mixture of an ether and an ester, and separating the solvent extract phase containing thorium salicylate from the aqueous phase containing the rare earths.

  17. Radiation chemistry of salicylic and methyl substituted salicylic acids: Models for the radiation chemistry of pharmaceutical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayatollahi, Shakiba; Kalnina, Daina; Song, Weihua; Turks, Maris; Cooper, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Salicylic acid and its derivatives are components of many medications and moieties found in numerous pharmaceutical compounds. They have been used as models for various pharmaceutical compounds in pharmacological studies, for the treatment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and, reactions with natural organic matter (NOM). In this study, the radiation chemistry of benzoic acid, salicylic acid and four methyl substituted salicylic acids (MSA) is reported. The absolute bimolecular reaction rate constants for hydroxyl radical reaction with benzoic and salicylic acids as well as 3-methyl-, 4-methyl-, 5-methyl-, and 6-methyl-salicylic acid were determined (5.86±0.54)×10 9 , (1.07±0.07)×10 10 , (7.48±0.17)×10 9 , (7.31±0.29)×10 9 , (5.47±0.25)×10 9 , (6.94±0.10)×10 9 (M −1 s −1 ), respectively. The hydrated electron reaction rate constants were measured (3.02±0.10)×10 9 , (8.98±0.27)×10 9 , (5.39±0.21)×10 9 , (4.33±0.17)×10 9 , (4.72±0.15)×10 9 , (1.42±0.02)×10 9 (M −1 s −1 ), respectively. The transient absorption spectra for the six model compounds were examined and their role as model compounds for the radiation chemistry of pharmaceuticals investigated. - Highlights: • Free radical chemistry of salicylic and 4 methyl salicylic acids is investigated. • The transient absorptions spectra for model compounds are measured. • Absolute bimolecular reaction rate constants for hydroxyl radical are determined. • Solvated electron reaction rate constants are calculated. • The use of salicylic acids as models for pharmaceuticals is explored

  18. Carvacrol-rich oregano oil and thymol-rich thyme red oil inhibit biofilm formation and the virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J-H; Kim, Y-G; Lee, J

    2017-12-01

    Urinary tract infections are caused primarily by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), and indwelling catheters are usually colonized by UPEC biofilms tolerant to common antibiotics. Hence, UPEC biofilms pose a substantial challenge, and there is an urgent need for effective control strategies. In this study, 79 essential oils were screened for antibiofilm ability against UPEC. Components of active oils were identified, and their antibiofilm activities were also investigated using 96-well plates with crystal violet assay, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Oregano oil and thyme red oil and their major common constituents, carvacrol and thymol, significantly inhibited UPEC biofilm formation at subinhibitory concentrations (UPEC. Furthermore, carvacrol and thymol markedly decreased the hemagglutinating ability of UPEC, and UPEC was more easily killed by human whole blood in the presence of carvacrol and thymol. Carvacrol-rich oregano oil and thymol-rich thyme red oil have high antibiofilm and antivirulence activities against UPEC. In the wake of rising antimicrobial resistance, we envisage that carvacrol and thymol could be used to prevent biofilm formation by UPEC and to reduce its virulence. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Effects of the essential oil constituent thymol and other neuroactive chemicals on flight motor activity and wing beat frequency in the blowfly Phaenicia sericata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliwitiya, Ranil; Belton, Peter; Nicholson, Russell A; Lowenberger, Carl A

    2010-03-01

    The effects were evaluated of the plant terpenoid thymol and eight other neuroactive compounds on flight muscle impulses (FMIs) and wing beat frequency (WBF) of tethered blowflies (Phaenicia sericata Meig.). The electrical activity of the dorsolongitudinal flight muscles was closely linked to the WBF of control insects. Topically applied thymol inhibited WBF within 15-30 min and reduced FMI frequency. Octopamine and chlordimeform caused a similar, early-onset bursting pattern that decreased in amplitude with time. Desmethylchlordimeform blocked wing beating within 60 min and generated a profile of continuous but lower-frequency FMIs. Fipronil suppressed wing beating and induced a pattern of continuous, variable-frequency spiking that diminished gradually over 6 h. Cypermethrin- and rotenone-treated flies had initial strong FMIs that declined with time. In flies injected with GABA, the FMIs were generally unidirectional and frequency was reduced, as was seen with thymol. Thymol readily penetrates the cuticle and interferes with flight muscle and central nervous function in the blowfly. The similarity of the action of thymol and GABA suggests that this terpenoid acts centrally in blowflies by mimicking or facilitating GABA action.

  20. Structurally Related Monoterpenes p-Cymene, Carvacrol and Thymol Isolated from Essential Oil from Leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae Protect Mice against Elastase-Induced Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Games

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction and inflammation. Natural products, such as monoterpenes, displayed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities and can be used as a source of new compounds to COPD treatment. Our aim was to evaluate, in an elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice, the effects of and underlying mechanisms of three related natural monoterpenes (p-cymene, carvacrol and thymol isolated from essential oil from leaves Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae. Methods: Mices received porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE and were treated with p-cymene, carvacrol, thymol or vehicle 30 min later and again on 7th, 14th and 28th days. Lung inflammatory profile and histological sections were evaluated. Results: In the elastase-instilled animals, the tested monoterpenes reduced alveolar enlargement, macrophages and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, and collagen fibers, MMP-9 and p-65-NF-κB-positive cells in lung parenchyma (p < 0.05. All treatments attenuated levels of 8-iso-PGF2α but only thymol was able to reduced exhaled nitric oxide (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Monoterpenes p-cymene, carvacrol and thymol reduced lung emphysema and inflammation in mice. No significant differences among the three monoterpenes treatments were found, suggesting that the presence of hydroxyl group in the molecular structure of thymol and carvacrol do not play a central role in the anti-inflammatory effects.

  1. Structurally Related Monoterpenes p-Cymene, Carvacrol and Thymol Isolated from Essential Oil from Leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Protect Mice against Elastase-Induced Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, Ellen; Guerreiro, Marina; Santana, Fernanda R; Pinheiro, Nathalia M; de Oliveira, Emerson A; Lopes, Fernanda D T Q S; Olivo, Clarice R; Tibério, Iolanda F L C; Martins, Mílton A; Lago, João Henrique G; Prado, Carla M

    2016-10-20

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction and inflammation. Natural products, such as monoterpenes, displayed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities and can be used as a source of new compounds to COPD treatment. Our aim was to evaluate, in an elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice, the effects of and underlying mechanisms of three related natural monoterpenes ( p -cymene, carvacrol and thymol) isolated from essential oil from leaves Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae). Mices received porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and were treated with p -cymene, carvacrol, thymol or vehicle 30 min later and again on 7th, 14th and 28th days. Lung inflammatory profile and histological sections were evaluated. In the elastase-instilled animals, the tested monoterpenes reduced alveolar enlargement, macrophages and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and collagen fibers, MMP-9 and p-65-NF-κB-positive cells in lung parenchyma ( p < 0.05). All treatments attenuated levels of 8-iso-PGF2α but only thymol was able to reduced exhaled nitric oxide ( p < 0.05). Monoterpenes p -cymene, carvacrol and thymol reduced lung emphysema and inflammation in mice. No significant differences among the three monoterpenes treatments were found, suggesting that the presence of hydroxyl group in the molecular structure of thymol and carvacrol do not play a central role in the anti-inflammatory effects.

  2. Chiral pyrrolidinium salts derived from menthol as precursor – synthesis and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Ewa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Six new chiral pyrolidinium salts with chiral substituent at quaternary nitrogen atom were synthesized with high overall yields from (--menthol as cheap chiral precursor and were identified by NMR and HRMS spectroscopy. It was shown that anion type had the effect on chemical shift of protons adjacent to quaternary nitrogen atom and physical properties of these salts. Salts with NTf2 or NPf2 were in a liquid state at room temperature and characterized with the highest thermal stability among others. Furthermore, chiral ionic liquid with NTf2 anion was used as solvent in Diels-Alder reaction and gave higher yield and stereoselectivity than in ionic liquids with achiral cations. Synthesized chiral salts have the potential as chiral solvents in synthesis and auxiliaries in analytical methods to improve chiral recognition.

  3. Diastereoselective anodic hetero- and homo-coupling of menthol-, 8-methylmenthol- and 8-phenylmenthol-2-alkylmalonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C. Letzel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diastereoselective radical coupling was achieved with chiral auxiliaries. The radicals were generated by anodic decarboxylation of five malonic acid derivatives. These were prepared from benzyl malonates and four menthol auxiliaries. Coelectrolyses with 3,3-dimethylbutanoic acid in methanol at platinum electrodes in an undivided cell afforded hetero-coupling products in 22–69% yield with a diastereoselectivity ranging from 5 to 65% de. Electrolyses without a coacid led to diastereomeric homo-coupling products in 21–50% yield with ratios of diastereomers being 1.17:2.00:0.81 to 7.03:2.00. The stereochemistry of the new stereogenic centers was confirmed by X-ray structure analysis and 13C NMR data.

  4. [Milestones of cardivascular pharmacotherapy: salicylates and aspirin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerie, P

    2006-01-01

    The analgesic and antipyretic effect of the bark of willow has been known in Egypt and Greece for canturies. The modem era of salicylates starts with a letter sent 1758 by Reverend Edward Stone to The Royal Society in London. He described "an account of the success of the bark of willow in the cure of agues". His report. erroneously attributed to Edmond Stone. was published five years later. The active ingredient of willow bark. "salicine". was first isolated 1828 by Joseph Buchner, then by Henri Leroux, and also prepared from the oil of wintergreen (Gaultheria) and meadowsweet (Spirea ulmaria) by J. W. Lowig 1833. and called "Spirsäure", which was already pure acetylsalicylic acid. It was also synthetised 1853 by Ch. Gerhardt and finally 1897 in Bayer's laboratoires by Felix Hoffman, who also demonstrated its antiinflammatory efficacy. After two years of clinical trials with low doses, Bayer's management decided to start the productions and launched Aspirin as an analgetic worldwide in summer 1899. The first ASPIRIN ERA bagun. A completely new epoch started when J. N. Vane and Priscilla Piner demonstrated 1971 that the main mechanism of action of aspirin-like drugs is the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. In later studies the potency to inhibit platelet aggregation with small doses of aspirin (30-125 mg) was demonstrated. The Physicians'Health Study 1988 confirmed this effect: aspirin significantly reduced the risk of both, fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction. and is now used in primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis. However the idea was not new: The use of salicylates and aspirin was throughly discussed more than 50 years ago: Paul C. Gibson published 1949 a well-documented case report on efficacy of aspirin in patients with angina, and Kl. Weber and P. Klein in Prague used Gibson's mixture successfully for patients with acute myocardial infarction (1951). Recently, the efficacy and security, the interactions and side-effects of low

  5. Immersion with menthol improves recovery between two cycling exercises in hot and humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Kévin; Tran Trong, Than; Riera, Florence; Appel, Katharina; Hue, Olivier

    2018-03-13

    Endurance exercise performance is impaired in a hot and humid environment. This study compared the effects of cold water immersion, with (CMWI) and without (CWI) menthol, on the recovery of cycling performance. Eight heat-acclimatized cyclists (24.1 ± 4.4 years; 65.3 ± 5.2 kg) performed two randomized sessions, each consisting of a 20-min cycling trial (T1) followed by 10 min of immersion during recovery and then a second 20-min cycling trial (T2). Mean power output (PO) and perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded for both trials. Rectal and skin temperatures (Trec and Tskin) were measured before and immediately after T1, immersion, and T2. Perceived thermal sensation (TS) and comfort (TC) were measured immediately after T1 and T2. Power output was significantly improved in T2 compared with T1 in the CMWI condition (+15.6%). Performance did not change in the CWI condition. After immersion, Trec was lower in CWI (-1.17°C) than in CMWI (-0.6°C). TS decreased significantly after immersion in both conditions. This decline was significantly more pronounced in CMWI (5.9 ± 1 to 3.6 ± 0.5) than in CWI (5.6 ± 0.9 to 4.4 ± 1.2). In CMWI, RPE was significantly higher in T1 (6.57 ± 0.9) than in T2 (5.14 ± 1.25). However there was no difference in TC. This study suggests that menthol immersion probably (1) improves the performance of a repeated 20-min cycling bout, (2) decreases TS, and (3) impairs thermoregulation processes.

  6. African-American smokers and cancers of the lung and of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. Is menthol part of the puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, T L

    1997-03-01

    The prevalence of cigarette smoking is higher among African Americans than among whites. African Americans have higher rates of lung cancer than whites, although they smoke fewer cigarettes. To explore this black-white difference in lung cancer rates, I examine various aspects of tobacco use in African-American smokers, including the age of initiation of smoking, quantity of cigarettes smoked, quit rates, level of nicotine dependence, biochemical differences, and brand preferences, specifically menthol brand cigarettes. I also review briefly the sequelae of patterns of tobacco use, including rates of lung and other tobacco-related cancers. A preference for mentholated cigarettes by African Americans is well documented and is one of the most striking differences between African-American and white smokers. Menthol brand preference has been investigated in an attempt to explain the black-white differences in rates of cancers of the lungs and the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. Also, studies have evaluated smoking behavior both with and without menthol and have explicitly examined the question of whether menthol use helps explain the black-white difference in lung cancer rates. The results of these studies are so far inconclusive with regard to the use of menthol and the risk of lung cancer developing. I provide practical suggestions for clinicians in counseling African-American smokers to quit smoking and to maintain a nonsmoking status.

  7. Iron-regulated salicylate synthesis by Pseudomonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visca, P; Ciervo, A; Sanfilippo, V; Orsi, N

    1993-09-01

    Two iron-regulated compounds have been found in acidified ethyl acetate extracts from culture supernatants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas cepacia type-strains. Synthesis of both compounds paralleled iron-deficient growth, and was repressed in the presence of 100 microM-FeCl3. Yields of these substances varied among different strains and attained maximum levels during stationary phase. Thin layer chromatographic analysis in five different solvent systems revealed that the slower-moving compound chromatographed as two distinct bands, and showed RF values and spectral properties similar to pyochelin. The faster-moving compound co-migrated as a single band with a standard of commercial salicylic acid in each of the chromatographic systems tested. Moreover, a molecule with an identical RF was also produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA401, which is known to synthesize salicylic acid as the only siderophore during iron-limited growth. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric titrations led to the identification of this iron-regulated compound as salicylic acid, in agreement with the structure deduced from 1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy. The identity of the P. cepacia siderophore azurechelin as salicylic acid was also conclusively demonstrated. Salicylic acid, like pyochelin and pyoverdin, promoted P. aeruginosa growth in an iron-depleted medium. These results are consistent with a putative siderophore activity for salicylic acid, i.e. azurechelin, as has been demonstrated for P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens and P. cepacia. Thus, salicylic acid is likely to act as a siderophore in more than one species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas.

  8. Salicylic acid signaling in disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhirendra

    2014-11-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key plant hormone that mediates host responses against microbial pathogens. Identification and characterization of SA-interacting/binding proteins is a topic which has always excited scientists studying microbial defense response in plants. It is likely that discovery of a true receptor for SA may greatly advance understanding of this important signaling pathway. SABP2 with its high affinity for SA was previously considered to be a SA receptor. Despite a great deal work we may still not have true a receptor for SA. It is also entirely possible that there may be more than one receptor for SA. This scenario is more likely given the diverse role of SA in various physiological processes in plants including, modulation of opening and closing of stomatal aperture, flowering, seedling germination, thermotolerance, photosynthesis, and drought tolerance. Recent identification of NPR3, NPR4 and NPR1 as potential SA receptors and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDHE2), several glutathione S transferases (GSTF) such as SA binding proteins have generated more interest in this field. Some of these SA binding proteins may have direct/indirect role in plant processes other than pathogen defense signaling. Development and use of new techniques with higher specificity to identify SA-interacting proteins have shown great promise and have resulted in the identification of several new SA interactors. This review focuses on SA interaction/binding proteins identified so far and their likely role in mediating plant defenses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of different operating conditions in cloud point assisted extraction of thymol from Ajwain (Trachyspermum AmmiL.) seeds and recovery using solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Somak; Jain, Amit; De, Sirshendu

    2017-12-01

    Cloud point assisted extraction of thymol from water extract of Ajwain ( Trachyspermum Ammi L.) seeds has been reported. Effects of different operating conditions, i.e., concentration of surfactant, heating time and temperature in extraction efficiency were investigated. It was observed that maximum extraction efficiency of thymol was achieved with 30% (v/v) of SPAN 80 surfactant, 45 min of heating at 65 °C. Recovery of thymol from the surfactant complex was optimal at 1:3 coacervate phase to solvent (acetone) volume ratio. A semi-empirical correlation was proposed at the optimum time to predict the concentration of surfactant and temperature required for a desired yield.

  10. Maghemite nanoparticle-decorated hollow fiber electromembrane extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of thymol from Carum copticum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Bohlooli, Mousa

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND A novel technique using maghemite nanoparticle-decorated hollow fibers to assist electromembrane extraction is proposed. Electromembrane extraction combined with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (EME-DLLME) was applied for the extraction of thymol from Carum copticum, followed...... by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). RESULTS The use of maghemite nanoparticle-decorated hollow fibers was found to improve the extraction efficiency of thymol significantly. Important operational parameters, including pH of acceptor phase, extraction time, voltage.......2% respectively. The intra- and inter-day accuracy was higher than 93.6%. CONCLUSION The results indicated that EME-DLLME/GC-FID is a useful technique for the extraction and determination of thymol in C copticum. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry...

  11. Tissue-specific gene-expression patterns of genes associated with thymol/carvacrol biosynthesis in thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their differential changes upon treatment with abiotic elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majdi, Mohammad; Malekzadeh-Mashhady, Atefe; Maroufi, Asad

    2017-01-01

    leaves and transcript levels of early (DXR) and late (TvTPS1, CYP71D178 and CYP71D180) biosynthetic genes of thymol and carvacrol were measured. The results showed that early step and late step genes in thymol/carvacrol biosynthesis are differentially regulated. DXR was not found to be exclusively...

  12. Preventive Effect of Salicylate and Pyridoxamine on Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzed, Tarek Kamal; Munesue, Seiichi; Harashima, Ai; Masuo, Yusuke; Kato, Yukio; Khailo, Khaled; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective . Diabetic nephropathy is a life-threatening complication in patients with long-standing diabetes. Hemodynamic, inflammatory, and metabolic factors are considered as developmental factors for diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we evaluated whether pharmacological interventions with salicylate, compared to pyridoxamine, could prevent diabetic nephropathy in mice. Methods . Male mice overexpressing inducible nitric oxide synthase in pancreatic β -cells were employed as a diabetic model. Salicylate (3 g/kg diet) or pyridoxamine (1 g/L drinking water; ~200 mg/kg/day) was given for 16 weeks to assess the development of diabetic nephropathy. Treatment with long-acting insulin (Levemir 2 units/kg twice a day) was used as a control. Results . Although higher blood glucose levels were not significantly affected by pyridoxamine, early to late stage indices of nephropathy were attenuated, including kidney enlargement, albuminuria, and increased serum creatinine, glomerulosclerosis, and inflammatory and profibrotic gene expressions. Salicylate showed beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy similar to those of pyridoxamine, which include lowering blood glucose levels and inhibiting macrophage infiltration into the kidneys. Attenuation of macrophage infiltration into the kidneys and upregulation of antiglycating enzyme glyoxalase 1 gene expression were found only in the salicylate treatment group. Conclusions . Treatment with salicylate and pyridoxamine could prevent the development of diabetic nephropathy in mice and, therefore, would be a potentially useful therapeutic strategy against kidney problems in patients with diabetes.

  13. [Prevalence of intolerance to salicylates in patients with nasal polyposis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Rodríguez, Jaisel Luz; Vargas-Camaño, María Eugenia; Rodríguez-Briceño, Rodrigo Alberto; Galicia-Tapia, Jorge; Castrejón-Vázquez, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Salicylates intolerance is related to alteration in the metabolism of arachidonic acid leading to increased leukotrienes. The condition may be manifested with respiratory, skin or systemic symptoms or associated with sinonasal polyposis. Salicylates are present in anti-inflammatory drugs, cosmetics products and food. To determine the prevalence of salicylates intolerance in patients with sinonasal polyposis presenting to Clinical Immunology and Allergy and Otolaryngology Service, CMN 20 Noviembre, Mexico City. An observational, descriptive, cross sectional study included patients with sinonasal polyposis. The sample size was 49 patients, and variables were compared using STATISTICA 8.0. The prevalence of sinonasal polyposis was 4% of the study group, predominantly in females; only 24% of the population had an ideal weight, the salicylates intolerance prevalence was 53%, and the Samter triad was 31%. Sinonasal polyposis has an inflammatory disease pattern. Its pathophysiology is not yet fully established and in this study was related to obesity and persistent sinusitis. The most feared complication recurrence is associated with salicylates intolerance. The study found a slight increase of recurrence in the group of intolerance, with no statistically significant difference, possibly related to the sample size.

  14. Preventive Effect of Salicylate and Pyridoxamine on Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Kamal Abouzed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Diabetic nephropathy is a life-threatening complication in patients with long-standing diabetes. Hemodynamic, inflammatory, and metabolic factors are considered as developmental factors for diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we evaluated whether pharmacological interventions with salicylate, compared to pyridoxamine, could prevent diabetic nephropathy in mice. Methods. Male mice overexpressing inducible nitric oxide synthase in pancreatic β-cells were employed as a diabetic model. Salicylate (3 g/kg diet or pyridoxamine (1 g/L drinking water; ~200 mg/kg/day was given for 16 weeks to assess the development of diabetic nephropathy. Treatment with long-acting insulin (Levemir 2 units/kg twice a day was used as a control. Results. Although higher blood glucose levels were not significantly affected by pyridoxamine, early to late stage indices of nephropathy were attenuated, including kidney enlargement, albuminuria, and increased serum creatinine, glomerulosclerosis, and inflammatory and profibrotic gene expressions. Salicylate showed beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy similar to those of pyridoxamine, which include lowering blood glucose levels and inhibiting macrophage infiltration into the kidneys. Attenuation of macrophage infiltration into the kidneys and upregulation of antiglycating enzyme glyoxalase 1 gene expression were found only in the salicylate treatment group. Conclusions. Treatment with salicylate and pyridoxamine could prevent the development of diabetic nephropathy in mice and, therefore, would be a potentially useful therapeutic strategy against kidney problems in patients with diabetes.

  15. The influence of caffeine and thymol on the survival, growth and reproduction of Subulina octona (Brugüière, 1789) (Mollusca, Subulinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Paula; Soares,Geraldo Luiz Gonçalves; D'ávila,Sthefane; Bessa,Elisabeth Cristina de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Subulina octona is a terrestrial snail which serves as an intermediate host for the parasites. It is also an agricultural pest. The aim of this work was to assess, during 120 days, the effects of caffeine and thymol at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L on the hatchability, survival after hatching, growth and reproduction of S. octona under the laboratory conditions. A total of 240 eggs, 240 juveniles aged 10-day-old, and 240 aged 30-day-old were tested. The results showed that thymol (at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L) a...

  16. Ethanol inhibits cold-menthol receptor TRPM8 by modulating its interaction with membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benedikt, Jan; Teisinger, Jan; Vyklický st., Ladislav; Vlachová, Viktorie

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 1 (2007), s. 211-224 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/06/0319; GA ČR GA309/04/0496; GA MŠk 1M0517; GA MŠk LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Cold /menthol receptor * ethanol * phosphatidylinositol Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.451, year: 2007

  17. The efficacy and pharmacokinetics of sodium salicylate in post-operative dental pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Seymour, R A; Rawlins, M D; Clothier, A

    1984-01-01

    Sodium salicylate, 537 mg and 1074 mg were compared in a double-blind cross-over study in 24 patients with post-operative pain following removal of impacted lower third molars. No significant analgesic effect was observed after either dose of sodium salicylate, either overall or at any time point during the 5 h investigation period. Peak plasma concentrations of salicylate after 537 mg were observed at 30 min after dosage, whereas peak plasma salicylate concentrations after 1074 mg sodium sal...

  18. Novel Pathway of Salicylate Degradation by Streptomyces sp. Strain WA46

    OpenAIRE

    Ishiyama, Daisuke; Vujaklija, Dusica; Davies, Julian

    2004-01-01

    A novel salicylate-degrading Streptomyces sp., strain WA46, was identified by UV fluorescence on solid minimal medium containing salicylate; trace amounts of gentisate were detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography when strain WA46 was grown with salicylate. PCR amplification of WA46 DNA with degenerate primers for gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (GDO) genes produced an amplicon of the expected size. Sequential PCR with nested GDO primers was then used to identify a salicylate degradation gen...

  19. Salicylate effects on a monolayer culture of gastric mucous cells from adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Ota, S; Razandi, M; Sekhon, S; Krause, W J; Terano, A; Hiraishi, H; Ivey, K J

    1988-01-01

    Aspirin, acetyl salicylic acid, damages gastric mucosal cells. This effect is considered related to its inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. On the other hand, sodium salicylate has been reported to be cytoprotective against drug damage to gastric mucosa in vivo. One reason for this difference is that salicylic acid, unlike acetyl salicylic acid does not inhibit prostaglandin synthesis by gastric mucosa in vivo. Previous studies on tissue culture cells from our laboratory have required gast...

  20. Optimization of Microencapsulation Composition of Menthol, Vanillin, and Benzyl Acetate inside Polyvinyl Alcohol with Coacervation Method for Application in Perfumery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlan, Muhamad; Raihani Rahman, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    One of many applications of essential oils is as fragrance in perfumery. Menthol, benzyl acetate, and vanillin, each represents olfactive characteristic of peppermint leaves, jasmine flowers, and vanilla beans, are commonly used in perfumery. These components are highly volatile, hence the fragrance components will quickly evaporate resulting in short-lasting scent and low shelf life. In this research, said components have been successfully encapsulated simultaneously inside Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) using simple coacervation method to increase its shelf life. Optimization has been done using Central Composite Diagram with 4 independent variables, i.e. composition of menthol, benzyl acetate, vanillin, and tergitol 15-S-9 (as emulsifier). Encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, and microcapsule size have been measured. In optimized composition of menthol (13.98 %w/w), benzyl acetate (14.75 %w/w), vanillin (17.84 %w/w), and tergitol 15-S-9 (13.4 %w/w) encapsulation efficiency of 97,34% and loading capacity of 46,46% have been achieved. Mean diameter of microcapsule is 20,24 μm and within range of 2,011-36,24 μm. Final product was achieved in the form of cross linked polyvinyl alcohol with hydrogel consistency and orange to yellow in color.

  1. 40 CFR 180.1189 - Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl salicylate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1189 Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide methyl salicylate is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or on...

  2. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in foods, using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    We developed a specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of free acetylsalicylic acid, free salicylic acid, and free salicylic acid plus salicylic acid after alkaline hydrolysis (free-plus-bound) in foods. Acetylsalicylic acid was detected after postcolumn

  3. Chitin-Induced Airway Epithelial Cell Innate Immune Responses Are Inhibited by Carvacrol/Thymol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erle, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Chitin is produced in large amounts by fungi, insects, and other organisms and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. Airway epithelial cells are in direct contact with environmental particles and serve as the first line of defense against inhaled allergens and pathogens. The potential contributions of airway epithelial cells to chitin-induced asthma remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that chitin directly stimulates airway epithelial cells to release cytokines that promote type 2 immune responses and to induce expression of molecules which are important in innate immune responses. We found that chitin exposure rapidly induced the expression of three key type 2-promoting cytokines, IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP, in BEAS-2B transformed human bronchial epithelial cells and in A549 and H292 lung carcinoma cells. Chitin also induced the expression of the key pattern recognition receptors TLR2 and TLR4. Chitin induced the expression of miR-155, miR-146a and miR-21, each of which is known to up-regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Also the expression of SOCS1 and SHIP1 which are known targets of miR-155 was repressed by chitin treatment. The monoterpene phenol carvacrol (Car) and its isomer thymol (Thy) are found in herbal essential oils and have been shown to inhibit allergic inflammation in asthma models. We found that Car/Thy inhibited the effects of chitin on type 2-promoting cytokine release and on the expression of TLRs, SOCS1, SHIP1, and miRNAs. Car/Thy could also efficiently reduce the protein levels of TLR4, inhibit the increase in TLR2 protein levels in chitin plus Car/Thy-treated cells and increase the protein levels of SHIP1 and SOCS1, which are negative regulators of TLR-mediated inflammatory responses. We conclude that direct effects of chitin on airway epithelial cells are likely to contribute to allergic airway diseases like asthma, and that Car/Thy directly inhibits epithelial cell pro-inflammatory responses to chitin. PMID

  4. Transparent plastic scintillators for neutron detection based on lithium salicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabe, Andrew N.; Glenn, Andrew M.; Carman, M. Leslie; Zaitseva, Natalia P.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent plastic scintillators with pulse shape discrimination containing 6Li salicylate have been synthesized by bulk polymerization with a maximum 6Li loading of 0.40 wt%. Photoluminescence and scintillation responses to gamma-rays and neutrons are reported herein. Plastics containing 6Li salicylate exhibit higher light yields and permit a higher loading of 6Li as compared to previously reported plastics based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. However, pulse shape discrimination performance is reduced in lithium salicylate plastics due to the requirement of adding more nonaromatic monomers to the polymer matrix as compared to those based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. Reduction in light yield and pulse shape discrimination performance in lithium-loaded plastics as compared to pulse shape discrimination plastics without lithium is interpreted in terms of energy transfer interference by the aromatic lithium salts.

  5. Bacterial persistence induced by salicylate via reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiebin; El Meouche, Imane; Dunlop, Mary J.

    2017-01-01

    Persisters are phenotypic variants of regular cells that exist in a dormant state with low metabolic activity, allowing them to exhibit high tolerance to antibiotics. Despite increasing recognition of their role in chronic and recalcitrant infections, the mechanisms that induce persister formation are not fully understood. In this study, we find that salicylate can induce persister formation in Escherichia coli via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Salicylate-induced ROS cause a decrease in the membrane potential, reduce metabolism and lead to an increase in persistence. These effects can be recovered by culturing cells in the presence of a ROS quencher or in an anaerobic environment. Our findings reveal that salicylate-induced oxidative stress can lead to persistence, suggesting that ROS, and their subsequent impact on membrane potential and metabolism, may play a broad role in persister formation. PMID:28281556

  6. Effect of a chlorhexidine/thymol and a fluoride varnish on caries development in erupting permanent molars: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamee, S; Gizani, S; Caroni, C; Papagiannoulis, L; Twetman, S

    2015-12-01

    To compare the caries preventive effect of a chlorhexidine/thymol-containing antibacterial varnish with a fluoride varnish when topically applied during the eruption of permanent molars. The study group consisted of 189 patients, 5-14 years of age, with one 1st or 2nd permanent molar in the process of eruption. After stratification for type of molar and stage of eruption, the patients were randomised to either quarterly topical applications with an antibacterial varnish (Cervitec(®) Plus; CV group) or biannual applications with a fluoride varnish plus biannual treatments with placebo varnish (Fluor Protector; FV group). The duration of the study was 2 years. The primary endpoint was caries incidence (initial and cavitated) in the erupting molars and the secondary outcome was salivary mutans streptococci (MS) counts. The groups were balanced with respect to socio-economy, oral hygiene, dietary habits and caries experience at baseline. The dropout rate was 11.6 %. The caries incidence was low (< 10 %) in both groups and there was no significant difference between the CV and FV groups with respect to occlusal caries development in the erupting molars (relative risk 1.08, 95 % CI 0.94-1.25). Significantly lower levels of salivary MS were disclosed in the CV group at the end of the study (p < 0.05). No difference in occlusal caries development in young permanent molars was displayed after topical applications of either a chlorhexidine/thymol varnish or a fluoride varnish during tooth eruption.

  7. Antidiarrheal Thymol Derivatives from Ageratina glabrata. Structure and Absolute Configuration of 10-Benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol Isobutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Bustos-Brito

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the leaves from Ageratina glabrata yielded four new thymol derivatives, namely: 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydro-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (4, 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydrothymol (5, 10-benzoyloxythymol (6 and 10-benzoyloxy-6,8-dihydroxy-9-isobutyryl-oxythymol (7. In addition, (8S-10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (1, together with other two already known thymol derivatives identified as 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-methoxythymol isobutyrate (2 and 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxythymol isobutyrate (3 were also obtained. In this paper, we report the structures and complete assignments of the 1H and 13C-NMR data of compounds 1–7, and the absolute configuration for compound 1, unambiguously established by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and evaluation of the Flack parameter. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that compound 1 and its derivative 1a were the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compounds. Both compounds showed selectivity and good antiamoebic activity comparable to emetine and metronidazole, respectively, two antiprotozoal drugs used as positive controls. In relation to anti-propulsive effect, compound 1 and 1a showed inhibitory activity, with activities comparable to quercetin and compound 9, two natural antipropulsive compounds used as positive controls. These data suggest that compound 1 may play an important role in antidiarrheal properties of Ageratina glabrata.

  8. Synergy among thymol, eugenol, berberine, cinnamaldehyde and streptomycin against planktonic and biofilm-associated food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Niu, H; Zhang, W; Mu, H; Sun, C; Duan, J

    2015-05-01

    Essential oils have been found to exert antibacterial, antifungal, spasmolytic, and antiplasmodial activity and therapeutic effect in cancer treatment. In this study, the antibacterial activities of four main essential oils' components (thymol (Thy), eugenol (Eug), berberine (Ber), and cinnamaldehyde (Cin)) were evaluated against two food-borne pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium, either alone or in combination with streptomycin. Checkerboard assay demonstrated that Thy and Cin elicited a synergistic effect with streptomycin against L. monocytogenes, while a synergy existed between Cin or Eug and streptomycin against Salm. Typhimurium. Further experiments showed that this synergy was sufficient to eradicate biofilms formed by these two bacteria. Thus, our data highlighted that the combinations of specific components from essential oils and streptomycin were useful for the treatment of food-borne pathogens, which might help prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance through improving antibiotic effectiveness. This study has shown the synergistic effect of four components of essential oil (thymol, eugenol, berberine and cinnamaldehyde) combined with streptomycin on planktonic and biofilm-associated food-borne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium. These findings indicate that combination of specific components of essential oils with streptomycin may provide alternative methods to overcome the problem of food-borne bacteria both in suspension and in biofilm. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Stability testing of extemporaneous preparation of methyl salicylate ointment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H A Makeen

    2018-01-01

    Results: The shelf life (t90% of extemporaneously prepared methyl salicylate ointment was found to be 131 days at room temperature (25°C ± 5°C and 176 days in the refrigerator (2°C–8°C. Conclusion: The methyl salicylate present in extemporaneous ointment preparation is fairly stable at cool temperatures but shows faster degradation at higher temperature conditions. Therefore, it is recommended that an expiry date of 4 months can be safely mentioned when stored in cool.

  10. Tracing of salicylic acid additive during precipitation of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharati Misra, U.; Gopala Krishna, K.; Narasimha Murty, B.; Yadav, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental study carried out to know whether the salicylic acid used as an additive during the precipitation of zirconium using ammonium hydroxide solution goes into the filtrate, remains in the hydrated zirconia or gets distributed between the both under the ambient conditions of precipitation. Keeping its simplicity and amenability to adopt on a routine basis, spectrophotometric method has been chosen for the purpose among the many methods available and the problems associated in determining salicylic acid in the presence of zirconium and the medial measures to circumvent the same have been brought out in detail. (author)

  11. Split-dose menthol-enhanced PEG vs PEG-ascorbic acid for colonoscopy preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Ala I; Harb, Ali H; Sarkis, Fayez S; Chalhoub, Jean M; Badreddine, Rami; Mourad, Fadi H; Othman, Mahmoud; Masri, Omar

    2015-02-14

    To compare the efficacy and palatability of 4 L polyethylene glycol electrolyte (PEG) plus sugar-free menthol candy (PEG + M) vs reduced-volume 2 L ascorbic acid-supplemented PEG (AscPEG). In a randomized controlled trial setting, ambulatory patients scheduled for elective colonoscopy were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either PEG + M or AscPEG, both split-dosed with minimal dietary restriction. Palatability was assessed on a linear scale of 1 to 5 (1 = disgusting; 5 = tasty). Quality of preparation was scored by assignment-blinded endoscopists using the modified Aronchick and Ottawa scales. The main outcomes were the palatability and efficacy of the preparation. Secondary outcomes included patient willingness to retake the same preparation again in the future and completion of the prescribed preparation. Overall, 200 patients were enrolled (100 patients per arm). PEG + M was more palatable than AscPEG (76% vs 62%, P = 0.03). Completing the preparation was not different between study groups (91% PEG + M vs 86% AscPEG, P = 0.38) but more patients were willing to retake PEG + M (54% vs 40% respectively, P = 0.047). There was no significant difference between PEG + M vs AscPEG in adequate cleansing on both the modified Aronchick (82% vs 77%, P = 0.31) and the Ottawa scale (85% vs 74%, P = 0.054). However, PEG + M was superior in the left colon on the Ottawa subsegmental score (score 0-2: 94% for PEG + M vs 81% for AscPEG, P = 0.005) and received significantly more excellent ratings than AscPEG on the modified Aronchick scale (61% vs 43%, P = 0.009). Both preparations performed less well in afternoon vs morning examinations (inadequate: 29% vs 15.2%, P = 0.02). 4 L PEG plus menthol has better palatability and acceptability than 2 L ascorbic acid- PEG and is associated with a higher rate of excellent preparations; Clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT01788709.

  12. Effect of salicylic acid on the growth photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in salt stressed maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; Khodary, S.E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of salicylic acid as a spray to Na CI-treated corn (Zea mays L,) significantly increased the growth of shoots and roots as measured after seven days of treatment. Spraying of salicylic acid caused significant increases in the activity of both ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) enzyme and photosynthetic pigments. Moreover, salicylic acid treatment induced high values of soluble carbohydrate fractions in salt stressed plants as compared with salicylic acid treated samples. These data suggest that salicylic acid might improve the growth pattern of NaCl-treated maize plants via increasing the rate of photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism

  13. The effect of sodium salicylate on cerebral blood flow and metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Pickard, J. D.; Rose, J. E.; Shaw, M. D.; Strathdee, A.

    1980-01-01

    1 The effect of intravenous sodium salicylate on cerebral oxygen consumption and cerebral blood flow and its response to hypercapnia was measured by the 133Xenon intracarotid injection technique in ten baboons. 2 After an initial peak, the plasma salicylate level maintained a stable value for 2 h of 1 mmol/l with 50 mg/kg sodium salicylate and 2.5 mmol/l with 200 mg/kg sodium salicylate. 3 Sodium salicylate (50 mg/kg) produced no change in baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) or cerebral oxygen...

  14. Negative anion gap metabolic acidosis in salicylate overdose--a zebra!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Viren; Imam, Syed Haider; Gambhir, Harvir Singh; Sangha, Arindam; Nandavaram, Sravanthi

    2013-10-01

    Salicylate poisoning classically results in an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis. We discuss a case of normal anion gap metabolic acidosis despite elevated serum salicylate concentration. This diagnostic dilemma stemmed from aberrant reading of salicylate ions by analyzer electrodes as chloride ions leading to falsely negative anion gap. On review, this phenomenon is found to be possible with a number of commonly used analyzers. In emergency department settings, high level of clinical suspicion for salicylate poisoning should be maintained, and metabolic acidosis with normal anion gap should not be used to rule out salicylate overdose. This can prevent significant avoidable morbidity and mortality.

  15. Modeling the Inactivation of Intestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Uropathogenic E. coli in Ground Chicken by High Pressure Processing and Thymol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shih-Yung; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Sommers, Christopher H; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Disease causing Escherichia coli commonly found in meat and poultry include intestinal pathogenic E. coli (iPEC) as well as extraintestinal types such as the Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). In this study we compared the resistance of iPEC (O157:H7) to UPEC in chicken meat using High Pressure Processing (HPP) in with (the hurdle concept) and without thymol essential oil as a sensitizer. UPEC was found slightly more resistant than E. coli O157:H7 (iPEC O157:H7) at 450 and 500 MPa. A central composite experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of pressure (300-400 MPa), thymol concentration (100-200 ppm), and pressure-holding time (10-20 min) on the inactivation of iPEC O157:H7 and UPEC in ground chicken. The hurdle approach reduced the high pressure levels and thymol doses imposed on the food matrices and potentially decreased food quality damaged after treatment. The quadratic equations were developed to predict the impact (lethality) on iPEC O157:H7 (R (2) = 0.94) and UPEC (R (2) = 0.98), as well as dimensionless non-linear models [Pr > F (UPEC in regard to how they may survive HPP in the presence or absence of thymol. The models may further assist regulatory agencies and food industry to assess the potential risk of iPEC O157:H7 and UPEC in ground chicken.

  16. Modeling the impact of vapor thymol concentration, temperature and modified atmosphere condition on growth behavior of Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella spp. is a microorganism of concern, on a global basis, for raw shrimp. This research modeled the impact of vapor thymol concentration (0, 0.8 and 1.6 mg/l), storage temperature (8, 12 and 16 degree C) and modified atmosphere packaging (0.04 and 59.5 percent CO2) against the growth behavio...

  17. In vitro inhibitory effects of thymol and quinones of Nigella sativa seeds on cyclooxygenase-1-and -2-catalyzed prostaglandin E2 biosyntheses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, Petr; Kokoška, L.; Landa, P.; Nepovím, Aleš; Soudek, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (2005), s. 739-742 ISSN 0032-0943 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/02/0257; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04OC926.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Nigella sativa * thymol * thymoquinone Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.628, year: 2005

  18. Effect of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemipour, H.; Kermanshahi, H.; Golian, A.; Veldkamp, T.

    2013-01-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of phytogenic product containing an equal mixture of thymol and carvacrol at 4 levels (0, 60, 100, and 200 mg/kg of diet) on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities,

  19. Effect of topical applications of a novel chlorhexidine-thymol varnish formula on mutans streptococci and caries development in occlusal fissures of permanent molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld-Larsson, Kerstin; Sollenius, Ola; Petersson, Lars G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a new formula of a chlorhexidine-thymol varnish on mutans streptococci (MS) colonization and fissure caries development. METHODS: The study group consisted of 58 healthy adolescents (12-17 years old) undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances...

  20. Efficacy of spraying l-menthol solution during endoscopic treatment of early gastric cancer: a phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Kaminishi, Michio; Hiki, Naoki; Oda, Ichiro; Fujisaki, Junko; Uedo, Noriya; Kaise, Mitsuru; Tanabe, Satoshi; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Nomura, Sachiyo; Tajiri, Hisao; Yahagi, Naohisa; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2014-03-01

    The topical antispasmodic agent l-menthol is useful for inhibiting gastric peristalsis during diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. However, it remains unclear whether l-menthol is similarly effective during therapeutic endoscopy, thereby improving treatment outcomes in a clinical setting. A total of 83 patients scheduled to undergo endoscopic treatment at 8 Japanese referral centers were randomly assigned to receive l-menthol or placebo. The degree of gastric peristalsis (peristaltic score: grade 1-5) was assessed by an independent committee. The primary outcome was the proportion of subjects in whom no or mild peristalsis (grade 1 or 2) was maintained throughout endoscopic treatment. Secondary outcomes were the duration of sustained response and the incidence of adverse drug reactions. The proportion of patients with no or mild peristalsis was significantly higher in the l-menthol group (85.4 %, 95 % confidence intervals 70.8-94.4: 35/41 subjects) than in the placebo group (39.0 %, 24.2-55: 16/41; P peristalsis, with minimal adverse drug reactions as compared with placebo. l-menthol solution might be useful for therapeutic endoscopy.

  1. Lactobionic acid enhances the synergistic effect of nisin and thymol against Listeria monocytogenes Scott A in tryptic soy broth and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Zhong, Qixin

    2017-11-02

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive opportunistic human pathogen and it remains a significant cause of foodborne illnesses. A variety of natural and synthetic compounds have been studied to inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes in foods. Antimicrobial combinations with synergistic antilisterial properties can reduce the dose of each antimicrobial, which can be further enhanced by chelating compounds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine antilisterial properties of binary or ternary combinations of lactobionic acid (LBA), nisin, and thymol in tryptic soy broth (TSB), 2% reduced-fat milk, and whole milk. The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nisin, thymol and LBA was 125IU/mL, 0.25mg/mL, and 10mg/mL, respectively. The ternary combination was the most effective in reducing MICs of antimicrobials, with the MIC of nisin, thymol, and LBA being 31.25IU/mL, 0.0625mg/mL, and 1.25mg/mL, respectively. In TSB with 0.6% yeast extract, L. monocytogenes grew in individual or binary antimicrobial treatments of 31.25IU/mL nisin, 0.0625mg/mL thymol, and 1.25mg/mL LBA within 24h at 32°C, while it was completely inhibited by the ternary combination. In 2% reduced-fat milk at 21°C, the ternary combination of nisin, thymol, and LBA at respective concentrations of 250IU/mL, 2mg/mL, and 10mg/mL completely inhibited the bacterium to below the detection limit in 72h while >2log (CFU/mL) bacteria was still detected in all the binary combinations after 120h. In whole milk, the combination of 500IU/mL nisin, 2mg/mL thymol, and 10mg/mL LBA reduced bacteria to around 2log (CFU/mL) in 4h at 21°C, and no bacterial recovery was observed after 5 d. This study suggested the potential of the ternary combination of nisin, thymol and LBA for food preservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Studying the properties of the new class of organic scintillators-salicylic acid derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandzhukov, I.G.; Mandzhukova, B.V.; Bonchev, Ts.V.; Lazarova, G.I.

    1981-01-01

    Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, La, Cd, Al, Sn, NH 4 salicylates are synthesized. Their relative scintillation efficiency during irradiation with α-particles of 5.156 MeV energy (sup(239)Pu) is determined. Scintillation efficiency of salicylates has been evaluated by comparing amplitude of scintillation pulse from salicylate with pulse amplitude from anthracene and other classical scintillators. Amplitude analysis has been conducted by standard methods. The analysis of the results obtained shows that sodium salicylate has the highest relative scintillation efficiency comparable with naphthalene efficiency. Salicylates of alkali Li and K metals as well as Ca and Cd salicylates have high relative scintillation efficiency. It is concluded that the investigated salicylates can be used for detection of (n, α), (n, p) and other reactions accompanying neutron capture not only during their reactions but by measuring activity induced in the scintillator [ru

  3. Simultaneous determination of salicylic, 3-methyl salicylic, 4-methyl salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in fruit, vegetables and derived beverages by SPME-LC-UV/DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, Antonella; Zambonin, Carlo

    2016-03-20

    Salicylic and benzoic acid are phenolic acids occurring in plant cells, thus they can be present in fruit and vegetables at various levels. They possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, however they may induce symptoms and health problems in a small percentage of the population. Therefore, a low phenolic acid diet may be of clinical benefit to such individuals. In order to achieve this goal, the concentration of these substances in different food and beverages should be assessed. The present work describes for the first time a new method, based on solid phase microextraction (polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber) coupled to liquid chromatography with UV diode array detection, for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, 3-methyl salicylic acid, 4-methyl salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and benzoic acid in selected fruit, vegetables and beverages. All the aspects influencing fiber adsorption (time, temperature, pH, salt addition) and desorption (desorption and injection time, desorption solvent mixture composition) of the analytes have been investigated. An isocratic separation was performed using an acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 2.8; 2 mM) mixture (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase. The estimated LOD and LOQ values (μg/mL) were in the range 0.002-0.028 and 0.007-0.095. The within-day and day-to-day precision values (RSD%) were between 4.7-6.1 and 6.6-9.4, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of fava beans, blueberries, kiwi, tangerines, lemons, oranges and fruit juice (lemon and blueberry) samples. The major advantage of the method is that it only requires simple homogenization and/or centrifugation and dilution steps prior to SPME and injection in the LC system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Mentha Longifolia L. and its main constituent, menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaili, Peyman; Mojaverrostami, Sina; Moloudizargari, Milad; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin

    2013-10-01

    Mentha longifolia (wild mint) is a popular folk remedy. Some parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine of Iran and other countries. Many studies have shown various pharmacological and therapeutic effects of the plant. Our aim in preparing this study was to review the traditional uses of M. longifolia together with the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of its entire extract and major compounds. Mentha longifolia is an herb with a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, gastrointestinal, and nervous system effects. Pulegone is the main compound of the plant responsible for most of its pharmacological effects followed by menthone, isomenthone, menthol, 1, 8-cineole, borneol, and piperitenone. Moreover, the plant may dose-dependently exert toxic effects in different systems of the body. Based on the review of various studies, it can be concluded that M. longifolia is a potential natural source for the development of new drugs. However, further studies are required to determine the precise quality and safety of the plant to be used by clinicians.

  5. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Mentha Longifolia L. and its main constituent, menthol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mikaili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mentha longifolia (wild mint is a popular folk remedy. Some parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine of Iran and other countries. Many studies have shown various pharmacological and therapeutic effects of the plant. Our aim in preparing this study was to review the traditional uses of M. longifolia together with the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of its entire extract and major compounds. Mentha longifolia is an herb with a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, gastrointestinal, and nervous system effects. Pulegone is the main compound of the plant responsible for most of its pharmacological effects followed by menthone, isomenthone, menthol, 1, 8-cineole, borneol, and piperitenone. Moreover, the plant may dose-dependently exert toxic effects in different systems of the body. Based on the review of various studies, it can be concluded that M. longifolia is a potential natural source for the development of new drugs. However, further studies are required to determine the precise quality and safety of the plant to be used by clinicians.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Menthol and Menthone in Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Mauricio G.; Cagnazzo, Túlio di Orlando; Feitosa, Karina A.; Soares, Edson G.; Faccioli, Lúcia H.; Allegretti, Silmara M.; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of trematode worms and it is believed that more than 261 million people are affected worldwide. New drug development has become essential because there is a risk of the parasite becoming resistant to Praziquantel, the only drug available for this infection. This study evaluated parasitological, immunological and histological parameters in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with an herbal commercial medicine. This drug consists of menthol (30–55%) and menthone (14–32%). A 60 day treatment regimen with the herbal medicine decreased the number of S. mansoni eggs in the feces, liver, and intestine and reduced the number of hepatic granulomas. We observed a reduction of 84% in blood eosinophilia and a decrease in the IL-4 and IL-10 blood levels after treatment. Therefore, we propose that schistosomiasis treatment with this herbal medicine for 60 days has an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action in this animal model for schistosomiasis thus contributing to the decrease in physio pathological effects caused by S. mansoni infection. PMID:27378927

  7. Sodium salicylate protects against rotenone-induced parkinsonism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madathil, Sindhu K; Karuppagounder, Saravanan S; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P

    2013-08-01

    Complex I deficiency culminating in oxidative stress is proposed as one of the upstream mechanisms of nigral neuronal death in Parkinson's disease. We investigated whether sodium salicylate, an active metabolite of aspirin, could afford protection against rotenone-induced oxidative stress, neuronal degeneration, and behavioral dysfunction in rats, because it has the potential to accept a molecule each of hydroxyl radical (•OH) at the third or fifth position of its benzyl ring. Rotenone caused dose-dependent increase in •OH in isolated mitochondria from the cerebral cortex and time- (24-48 h) and dose-dependent (0.1-100 µM) increase in the substantia nigra and the striatum, ipsilateral to the side of rotenone infusion. Administration of sodium salicylate at 12-h intervals for 4 days showed dose-dependent (50-100 mg/kg, i.p) reductions in the levels of •OH in the nigra on the fifth day. These animals showed significant attenuation in rotenone-induced loss in striatal dopamine levels, number of nigral dopaminergic neurons, reduced and oxidized glutathione levels, and complex I activity loss, but superoxide dismutase activity was increased further. Amphetamine- or apomorphine-induced ipsilateral rotations in rotenone-treated rats were significantly reduced in rats treated with sodium salicylate. Our results indicate a direct role of •OH in mediating nigral neuronal death by rotenone and confirm the neuroprotective potential of salicylate in a rodent model of parkinsonism. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Transparent plastic scintillators for neutron detection based on lithium salicylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabe, Andrew N., E-mail: mabe2@llnl.gov; Glenn, Andrew M.; Carman, M. Leslie; Zaitseva, Natalia P.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-11

    Transparent plastic scintillators with pulse shape discrimination containing {sup 6}Li salicylate have been synthesized by bulk polymerization with a maximum {sup 6}Li loading of 0.40 wt%. Photoluminescence and scintillation responses to gamma-rays and neutrons are reported herein. Plastics containing {sup 6}Li salicylate exhibit higher light yields and permit a higher loading of {sup 6}Li as compared to previously reported plastics based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. However, pulse shape discrimination performance is reduced in lithium salicylate plastics due to the requirement of adding more nonaromatic monomers to the polymer matrix as compared to those based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. Reduction in light yield and pulse shape discrimination performance in lithium-loaded plastics as compared to pulse shape discrimination plastics without lithium is interpreted in terms of energy transfer interference by the aromatic lithium salts. - Highlights: • Plastic scintillator with 0.4% {sup 6}Li loading is reported using lithium salicylate. • Influence of lithium salts on the scintillation mechanism is explored. • New lithium-loaded scintillator provides improved light yield and reduced cost.

  9. Methyl salicylate production in tomato affects biotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, K.; Krasikov, V.; Allmann, S.; Rep, M.; Takken, F.L.W.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    The role of methyl salicylate (MeSA) production was studied in indirect and direct defence responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to the spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the root-invading fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, respectively. To this end, we silenced the tomato gene

  10. Effects of salicylic acid on morphological and physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the effect of different levels of salicylic acid (SA) on yield and some morphological and physiological characteristics of sweet corn hybrids under water stress, this study was conducted in 2015 using split plots in the base of randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were included ...

  11. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, Lotte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371746213; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between

  12. Thermodynamics of cosolvent action: phenacetin, salicylic acid and probenecid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, M A; Escalera, B; Reíllo, A; Sánchez, A B; Bustamante, P

    2009-03-01

    The solubility of phenacetin, salicylic acid, and probenecid in ethanol-water and ethanol-ethyl acetate mixtures at several temperatures (15-40 degrees C) was measured. The solubility profiles are related to medium polarity changes. The apparent thermodynamic magnitudes and enthalpy-entropy relationships are related to the cosolvent action. Salicylic acid and probenecid show a single peak against the solubility parameter delta(1) of both solvent mixtures, at 40% (delta(1) = 21.70 MPa(1/2)) and 30% (delta(1) = 20.91 MPa(1/2)) ethanol in ethyl acetate, respectively. Phenacetin displays two peaks at 60% ethanol in ethyl acetate (23.30 MPa(1/2)) and 90% ethanol in water (delta(1) = 28.64 MPa(1/2)). The apparent enthalpies of solution display a maximum at 30% (phenacetin and salicylic acid) and 40% (probenecid) ethanol in water, respectively. Two different mechanisms, entropy at low ethanol ratios, and enthalpy at high ethanol ratios control the solubility enhancement in the aqueous mixture. In the nonaqueous mixture (ethanol-ethyl acetate) enthalpy is the driving force throughout the whole solvent composition for salicylic acid and phenacetin. For probenecid, the dominant mechanism shifts from entropy to enthalpy as the ethanol in ethyl acetate concentration increases. The enthalpy-entropy compensation plots corroborate the different mechanisms involved in the solubility enhancement by cosolvents. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  13. Fluorescence characteristics of complex formation of europium(III)-salicylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, N.; Toraishi, T.; Hotokezaka, H.; Tanaka, S.; Geipel, G.; Nagasaki, S.

    2004-01-01

    The complexation of salicylate with Eu 3+ was studied by means of time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) using ultra-short pulses at a concentration of sodium salicylate of 1.00 x 10 -4 . Ionic media was kept constant at 0.1M NaClO 4 . pH was adjusted to 4.00. The concentration of Eu 3+ was varied from 1.98 x 10 -3 M to 1.31 x 10 -2 M. From the fluorescence lifetime analysis of the salicylate, we confirmed that a dynamic quenching process did not take place, while static quenching proceeded under the experimental conditions. The Stern Volmer plots indicated only the formation of a 1:1 complex, and the stability constant was assigned to be log β 1,1 = 2.08 ± 0.02. This agrees with reported values, which have been determined by other techniques. This result shows that the studies on complex formation can be safely investigated quantitatively by means of TRLFS from not only the luminescence of Eu 3+ but the fluorescence of salicylate. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of the antifungal properties of nystatin-salicylic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antifungal activity of nystatin-salicylic acid combinations against clinical isolates of Candida albicans was investigated separately using the overlay inoculum susceptibility disc, the decimal assay for additively (DDA) and the rate of time kill methods. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the individual ...

  15. The Italian contributions to the history of salicylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero Pasero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the modern history of salicylates began in 1899 when the compound acetylsalicylic acid was registered and introduced commercially as “aspirin” by the Bayer Company of Germany. As a matter of fact, however, remedies made from willow bark had been used to treat fever and rheumatic complaints at least since 1763, when Edward Stone described their efficacy against malarian fever. A number of Italian scientists made significant contributions during the long period of research leading up to the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid and its widespread use in rheumatic diseases. In this paper we will review the contributions of some of these researchers, beginning with Bartolomeo Rigatelli, who in 1824 used a willow bark extract as a therapeutic agent, denominating it “salino amarissimo antifebbrile” (very bitter antipyretic salt. In the same year, Francesco Fontana described this natural compound, giving it the name “salicina” (salicin. Two other Italian chemists added considerably to current knowledge of the salicylates: Raffaele Piria in 1838, while working as a research fellow in Paris, extracted the chemical compound salicylic acid, and Cesare Bertagnini in 1855 published a detailed description of the classic adverse event associated with salicylate overdoses – tinnitus – which he studied by deliberately ingesting excessive doses himself. Bertagnini and above all Piria also played conspicuous roles in the history of Italy during the period of the Italian Risorgimento, participating as volunteers in the crucial battle of Curtatone and Montanara during the first Italian War of Independence.

  16. Salicylate clearance, the resultant of protein binding and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, D E; Tozer, T N; Melmon, K L

    1979-09-01

    Steady-state plasma salicylate concentrations and protein binding were examined in 9 normal subjects to determine relationships among daily dose, total and unbound salicylate concentrations, and total and unbound clearances. Aspirin doses ranging from 0.66 to 4.0 mg/kg/hr were given to steady state. Free and total salicylate concentrations were measured with spectrophotometric, fluorimetric, and equilibrium dialysis techniques. Although unbound clearance decreased over the therapeutic range, total clearance was unchanged. The former is a consequence of saturable metabolism; the latter, of saturable plasma protein binding as well as saturable metabolism. The fraction unbound increased linearly with unbound concentration. Clearance determined at 1.8 mg/kg/hr was used to predict levels obtained at higher aspirin doses. Analysis of residuals was used to ascertain the accuracy of the prediction. The coefficient of variation from prediction among subjects was found to be +/- 14%. It is concluded that, in normal subjects, salicylate clearance changes relatively little over the therapeutic range because the increasing fraction unbound compensates for decreasing clearance of unbound drug.

  17. Competitive adsorption and photodegradation of salicylate and oxalate on goethite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krýsa, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Bajt, O.; Mailhot, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2011), s. 221-227 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : goethite * oxalate * salicylate Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  18. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 42; Issue 2. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide on capsiate content and gene expression associatedwith capsinoids synthesis in Capsicum annuum L. AY ZUNUN-PÉREZ T GUEVARA-FIGUEROA SN ...

  19. Reye's syndrome: salicylate and mitochondrial monoamine oxidase function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, B.A.; Caplan, D.; Lolies, P.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that aspirin is somehow linked with the onset of Reye's syndrome (RS). A general feature of Reye's syndrome is severe impairment of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) function. The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of salicylate on platelet mitochondrial MAO activity in three groups: group A (healthy children, n = 21) and group C (healthy adults, n = 10). Platelet MAO was measured by radio-enzymatic technique with 14 C-tyramine as a substrate. The results showed that salicyclate (10 mM) had a 20 to 60 percent inhibitory effect on platelet MAO function in only 1, 3 and 2 of the subjects in group A, B and C. Furthermore, there was an association between low enzyme activity and salicylate MAO inhibitory effect in these subjects. These preliminary findings suggest that salicylate may induce deterioration in mitochondrial function in susceptible individuals and that the assessment of salicylate MAO inhibitory effect may identify those who may be at risk to develop aspirin poisoning and Reye's syndrome

  20. Solubility of salicylic acid in pure alcohols at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Junhyuk; Jang, Sunghyun; Cho, Hye Kyoung; Shin, Moon Sam; Kim, Hwayong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solubility data of salicylic acid in pure alkanols were measured. ► The experimental data were correlated with NRTL, UNIQUAC and Wilson models. ► The data are fit well with all three models for the six pure alcohols studied. ► Adjustable interaction parameters were suggested. - Abstract: This work focused on the experimental measurements and the numerical calculations of the solubility of salicylic acid in various alcohols. The solubility of salicylic acid in pure alcohols was determined using a (solid + liquid) equilibrium measurement apparatus at temperatures ranging from (278.15 to 318.15) K. Also, the melting temperature and fusion enthalpy of salicylic acid were determined by a differential scanning calorimeter (TA instrument Q100). The experimental results were correlated with the equation for solubility of a solid in a liquid with the nonrandom two liquid (NRTL), universal quasi-chemical (UNIQUAC) and Wilson models for liquid phase activity coefficients to validate the quality of the data taken. Adjustable interaction parameters were also provided. The experimental data fit appropriately with all three models for the pure alcohols studied.

  1. Mathematical modelling of zirconium salicylate solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, N.S.; Evseev, A.M.; Fadeeva, V.I.; Kochetkova, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical modelling of equilibrium multicomponent physicochemical system at the extraction of zirconium salicylates by chloroform is carried out from HCl aqueous solutions at pH 0.5-4.7. Adequate models, comprising different molecular forms, corresponding to equilibrium phase composition are built

  2. Ameliorative impact of salicylic acid on growth of Abelmoschus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to protect the growth of Abelmoschus esculentus var. Clemson spineless (okro) using salicylic acid (SA) in soil subjected to aluminium (Al) toxicity and Al chelated with -1 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Okro plants were grown in soil contaminated with Al (1.5g kg-1 ) in the ...

  3. Evaluation of Some Starches as Disintegrants in Sodium Salicylate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disintegrant properties of official maize and potato starches and locally produced cassava starch in sodium salicylate tablet formulations were studied. The disintegrants were added intragranularly in each batch. Concentration range of 5 % to 15 % w/w of each disintegrant was used. In vitro dissolution profile, uniformity ...

  4. Influence of Salicylic Acid on the Antimicrobial Potential of Stevia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on the antimicrobial profile of Stevia leaf extracts against soybean seed-borne pathogens. Methods: Stevia seeds were planted in a greenhouse and SA foliar applied after six weeks on the whole plant at concentrations of 0 and 0.1 g L-1. The extracts of the plant leaf ...

  5. INCORPORATION OF SALICYLATES INTO POLY(L-LACTIDE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SUPER, H; GRIJPMA, DW; PENNINGS, AJ

    Recent studies have indicated that complications like swelling and inflammation of the surrounding tissue may occur in the late stage of the in vivo degradation of semi-crystalline PLLA bone fixation devices. Incorporation of an anti-inflammatory drug, like a salicylate, in the poly(L-lactide) chain

  6. Does foliar application of salicylic acid protects nitrate reductase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to assess whether exogenous applied salicylic acid (SA) as a foliar spray could ameliorate the adverse effects of virus infection in two maize cultivars (maize cv. sabaini and maize cv. Nab El-gamal). The plants were grown under normal field conditions for two weeks in sand clay soil, and ...

  7. Does foliar application of salicylic acid protects nitrate reductase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-04

    Jun 4, 2014 ... interferes with tobacco mosaic virus replication via a novel salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive mechanism. Plant Cell 9:547-557. Dat JF, Lopez DH, Foyer CH, Scott IM (1998). Parallel changes in H2O2 and catalase during thermotolerance induced by salicylic acid or heat acclimation in mustard seedlings.

  8. Effects of salicylic acid on monoterpene production and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays important roles in plant defense responses. However, little is available about its effects on monoterpene responses. Therefore, monoterpene contents and antioxidant systems were measured three days after foliar application of SA with different concentrations in Houttuynia cordata. SA at low ...

  9. Salicylate activity. 1. Protection of plants from paraquat injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, F Paul; Petracek, Peter D; Fledderman, Christina M; Ju, Zhiguo; Heiman, Daniel F; Warrior, Prem

    2005-12-14

    Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium; methylviologen) is a widely used, nonselective contact herbicide that rapidly stimulates free radical generation. It has been found that the addition of sodium salicylate (sodium 2-hydroxybenzoate; NaSA) to paraquat spray solutions significantly decreased herbicidal activity. This protection was observed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) regardless of whether NaSA was foliar-applied along with or prior to paraquat application or NaSA was soil-applied prior to paraquat application. Because salicylic acid (SA) is an inducer of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to plant disease, paraquat protection by three SAR inducers (acibenzolar-S-methyl, harpin, and probenazole) and selected salicylate derivatives was assessed. Twenty-two of 24 compounds tested decreased herbicidal activity when foliar-applied with paraquat. Protection from paraquat was greatest with 5-chlorosalicylate, and no protection was observed with benzoic acid. NaSA decreased paraquat activity on npr1-2, an Arabidopsis mutant that is compromised in NaSA-induced SAR, and on ein2-1, an ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant. Thus, salicylate protection from paraquat is independent of disease resistance and ethylene perception. This suggests the existence of an NaSA-mediated pathway capable of protecting plants from reactive oxygen stress.

  10. Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of salicylates in aerated aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Homlok, Renáta; Rácz, Gergely; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induced degradation of acetylsalicylic acid, its hydrolysis product salicylic acid and a salicylic acid derivative 5-sulpho-salicylic acid, was investigated in dilute aqueous solutions by UV–vis spectrophotometry, HPLC separation and diode-array or MS/MS detection, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon content and by Vibrio fischeri toxicity measurements. Hydroxyl radicals were shown to degrade these molecules readily, and first degradation products were hydroxylated derivatives in all cases. Due to the by-products, among them hydrogen peroxide, the toxicity first increased and then decreased with the absorbed dose. With prolonged irradiation complete mineralization was achieved. - Highlights: • In OH induced reactions of salicylates first products are hydroxylated derivatives. • With prolonged irradiation dihydroxy derivatives also form. • In aerated solutions the one-electron oxidant OH induces 3–4 oxidations. • Toxicity first increases and then decreases with dose mainly due to H 2 O 2 formation. • The toxicity in tap water is smaller than in pure water

  11. Salicylic Acid Alters Antioxidant and Phenolics Metabolism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Antioxidant enzymes; Catharanthus roseus; indole alkaloids; phenolic metabolism; salicylic acid; salinity stress. Abbreviations: CAT - catalase; Chl - chlorophyll; Car - carotenoids; DTNB - 5,5-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid; GR - glutathione reductase; GST - Glutathione-S-transferase; H2O2 - hydrogen peroxide; ...

  12. Impact of salicylic acid on antioxidants, biomass and osmotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-08-14

    Aug 14, 2013 ... Ameliorative impact of salicylic acid (SA) on Vigna unguiculata L. (cowpea) cultivar IT93k-452-1 during water deficit stress ... vitamin B12 in DVS plants and 40% increase in vitamin C in DRS plants and SA (3 mM) further increased the latter by 14%. ..... Acta 76: 55-61. Bates LS, Waldren RP, Tear ID (1973).

  13. A simple and rapid visual method for the determination of ammonia nitrogen in environmental waters using thymol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, M.; Fujinaga, K.; Seike, Y.; Honda, S. [Dept. of Material Science, Interdisciplinary Faculty of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Simple visual and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ammonia nitrogen in water are proposed, based on the color development of indothymol blue formed between ammonia and thymol. The color development was accelerated by nitroprusside to complete in 3 min. This color development is remarkably rapid compared with that of the other conventional methods with indothymol blue and indophenol blue. The concentration range of ammonia nitrogen spectrophotometrically determined was 0.04-1.2 mg/L NH{sub 4}-N. The absorbance per 1 {mu}g NH{sub 4}-N was 0.0215 (molar absorptivity = 1.51 x 10{sup 4}) at 690 nm. The visual method not using any instrument as an in situ method in field works was developed based on the optimum conditions for the established spectrophotometric method. This visual method was successfully applied to the determination of ammonia nitrogen in environmental waters. (orig.)

  14. The chronic treatment in vivo of salicylate or morphine alters excitatory effects of subsequent salicylate or morphine tests in vitro in hippocampus area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh, Mehdi; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Semnanian, Saeed

    2013-12-05

    The current practical tests were designed to study in vitro interactions in the field potential between salicylate and morphine analgesics in the hippocampus area CA1 taken from morphine-(7 days) or salicylate (6 days)-treated rats. For this, morphine or salicylate was applied in vitro to the hippocampal slices derived from chronically drug-treated or saline-injected rats and drug-induced changes in evoked field potentials of area CA1 were evaluated. Chronic treatment in vivo of morphine or salicylate had no impact on baseline field EPSP and population spikes (PS) but a leftward shift in fEPSP/PS (E/S) curves and an increase in paired pulse ratio at 10 ms IPI were seen. Acute in vitro salicylate produced a durable PS potentiation in morphine-treated group, whereas an increase in PS of all groups was observed after long-term exposure to in vitro salicylate. Acute in vitro morphine caused a stable PS potentiation in control and salicylate treated groups, but not in morphine treated group. A potentiated fEPSP and a greater PS potentiation in salicylate treated group were observed after long-term exposure to in vitro morphine. It is concluded that the chronic treatment in vivo of salicylate or morphine incites lasting changes in the CA1 circuitry, which alters excitatory effects of subsequent salicylate or morphine tests in vitro in a way that an increase in reactivity or tolerance to the acute salicylate or morphine administration was observed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ecotoxicity and screening level ecotoxicological risk assessment of five antimicrobial agents: triclosan, triclocarban, resorcinol, phenoxyethanol and p-thymol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Ikumi; Kagota, Kei-Ichiro; Yasuda, Yusuke; Yoneda, Saori; Morita, Junpei; Nakada, Norihide; Kameda, Yutaka; Kimura, Kumiko; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Acute and chronic (or sub-chronic) toxicity of five selected antimicrobial agents, including triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC), resorcinol, phenoxyethanol and p-thymol, was investigated using the conventional three-aquatic-organism battery. These compounds are widely used in cosmetics and other personal care products and their ecological risk has recently become a significant concern. As results of toxicity tests, TCS was found to be most strongly toxic for green algae [e.g. 72 h no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of 0.50 µg l(-1) ] among the selected compounds, followed by TCC, while TCC was more toxic or similar to TCS for Daphnia and fish (e.g. Daphnia 8 day NOEC of 1.9 µg l(-1) ). Having compared the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) determined from the toxicity data with measured environmental concentrations (MEC), the preliminary ecological risk assessment of these five antimicrobials was conducted. The MEC/PNEC ratios of TCS and TCC were over 1 for some monitoring data, especially in urban streams with watershed areas without sewage service coverage, and their potential risk for green algae and Daphnia might be at a level of concern, although the contribution of TCS/TCC on the total toxicity of the those sites needs to be further investigated. For the three other antimicrobials, the maximum MEC/PNEC ratio for resorcinol was 0.1-1, but those for phenoxyethanol and p-thymol were <0.1 and their risk to aquatic organisms is limited, although the additive effects with TCS, TCC and other antimicrobial agents, such as parabens, need to be further examined in future studies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Structural determinants of the catalytic inhibition of human topoisomerase IIα by salicylate analogs and salicylate-based drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Jason T; Kurz, Ebba U

    2014-06-15

    We previously identified salicylate as a novel catalytic inhibitor of human DNA topoisomerase II (topo II; EC 5.99.1.3) that preferentially targets the alpha isoform by interfering with topo II-mediated DNA cleavage. Many pharmaceuticals and compounds found in foods are salicylate-based. We have now investigated whether these are also catalytic inhibitors of topo II and the structural determinants modulating these effects. We have determined that a number of hydroxylated benzoic acids attenuate doxorubicin-induced DNA damage signaling mediated by the ATM protein kinase and inhibit topo II decatenation activity in vitro with varying potencies. Based on the chemical structures of these and other derivatives, we identified unique properties influencing topo II inhibition, including the importance of substitutions at the 2'- and 5'-positions. We extended our findings to a number of salicylate-based pharmaceuticals including sulfasalazine and diflunisal and found that both were effective at attenuating doxorubicin-induced DNA damage signaling, topo II DNA decatenation and they blocked stabilization of doxorubicin-induced topo II cleavable complexes in cells. In a manner similar to salicylate, we determined that these agents inhibit topo II-mediated DNA cleavage. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in topo II-mediated ATP-hydrolysis. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel function for the broader class of salicylate-related compounds and highlight the need for additional studies into whether they may impact the efficacy of chemotherapy regimens that include topo II poisons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 μM SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: ► Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions ► Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia ► Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia ► Salicylic acid does not influence any of the investigated parameters under hypoxia

  18. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin, E-mail: Albrecht@anaesthesie.uni-kiel.de

    2012-04-15

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does

  19. Functional analysis of a tomato salicylic acid methyl transferase and its role in synthesis of the flavor volatile methyl salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, Denise; Zeigler, Michelle; Schmelz, Eric; Taylor, Mark G; Rushing, Sarah; Jones, Jeffrey B; Klee, Harry J

    2010-04-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile plant secondary metabolite that is an important contributor to taste and scent of many fruits and flowers. It is synthesized from salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone that contributes to plant pathogen defense. MeSA is synthesized by members of a family of O-methyltransferases. In order to elaborate the mechanism of MeSA synthesis in tomato, we screened a set of O-methyltransferases for activity against multiple substrates. An enzyme that specifically catalyzes methylation of SA, SlSAMT, as well as enzymes that act upon jasmonic acid and indole-3-acetic acid were identified. Analyses of transgenic over- and under-producing lines validated the function of SlSAMT in vivo. The SlSAMT gene was mapped to a position near the bottom of chromosome 9. Analysis of MeSA emissions from an introgression population derived from a cross with Solanum pennellii revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) linked to higher fruit methyl salicylate emissions. The higher MeSA emissions associate with significantly higher SpSAMT expression, consistent with SAMT gene expression being rate limiting for ripening-associated MeSA emissions. Transgenic plants that constitutively over-produce MeSA exhibited only slightly delayed symptom development following infection with the disease-causing bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv). Unexpectedly, pathogen-challenged leaves accumulated significantly higher levels of SA as well as glycosylated forms of SA and MeSA, indicating a disruption in control of the SA-related metabolite pool. Taken together, the results indicate that SlSAMT is critical for methyl salicylate synthesis and methyl salicylate, in turn, likely has an important role in controlling SA synthesis.

  20. Effects of antagonists and heat on TRPM8 channel currents in dorsal root ganglion neuron activated by nociceptive cold stress and menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Ozgül, Cemil

    2012-02-01

    Transient receptor potential ion channel melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8) is activated by cold temperature and cooling agents, such as menthol and icilin. Compounds containing peppermint are reported to reduce symptoms of environmental cold stress such as cold allodynia in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron; however, the underlying mechanisms of action are unclear. We tested the effects of physiological heat (37°C), anthralic acid (ACA and 0.025 mM), 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB and 0.05) on noxious cold (10°C) and menthol (0.1 mM)-induced TRPM8 cation channel currents in the DRG neurons of rats. DRG neurons were freshly isolated from rats. In whole-cell patch clamp experiments, TRPM8 currents were consistently induced by noxious cold or menthol. TRPM8 channels current densities of the neurons were higher in cold and menthol groups than in control. When the physiological heat is introduced by chamber TRPM8 channel currents were inhibited by the heat. Noxious cold-induced Ca(2+) gates were blocked by the ACA although menthol-induced TRPM8 currents were not blocked by ACA and 2-APB. In conclusion, the results suggested that activation of TRPM8 either by menthol or nociceptive cold can activate TRPM8 channels although we observed the protective role of heat, ACA and 2-APB through a TRPM8 channel in nociceptive cold-activated DRG neurons. Since cold allodynia is a common feature of neuropathic pain and diseases of sensory neuron, our findings are relevant to the etiology of neuropathology in DRG neurons.

  1. 37 Routine testing of salicylate levels in overdose patients: still needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Elaine; Toro, Clare; Dorrian, Susan; Salanke, Umesh

    2017-12-01

    Overdose is a common presentation in Emergency Departments (EDs) across the UK. Salicylate poisoning is potentially fatal; however it is becoming increasingly uncommon in the UK. This may be due to restriction of pack sizes in over the counter medicines as well as the use of aspirin as an analgesic being superseded by other NSAIDs, particularly ibuprofen.In conjunction with clinical features of salicylate toxicity, measurement of plasma salicylate concentration can help guide management. Many EDs routinely test for salicylate levels in all cases of overdose, and yet this may not be necessary as recommended by the NPIS.This study aims to assess the cost implication of over testing for salicylate in overdose patients, as well as the prevalence of salicylate poisoning in three EDs in the West Midlands. A multicentre retrospective case note study was undertaken from January 2016 to March 2017. Data were collected from 3 EDs in the West Midlands. Cases of overdose where salicylate levels were requested were identified in conjunction with biochemistry departments, and information gathered regarding age, gender, nature of overdose, patient weight, GCS, clinical features of salicylate toxicity and plasma salicylate concentration. Across the three centres, 4296 requests were made for salicylate levels during the study period. Of those samples, just 115 detected any salicylate at all (2.7%). The majority of these samples had levels just over limit of detection.This is in keeping with the previous observation that salicylate poisoning is uncommon.Of the 4296 samples sent, 3651 were not indicated, i.e., no clinical features, patient alert, and denied aspirin overdose.With the cost of plasma salicylate concentration analysis being £4.58 (average over the 3 sites) there is a potential cost saving of £16 721 per year. Salicylate poisoning appears to be uncommon among patients presenting with overdose.Results show that it is likely that EDs are over testing for salicylate

  2. GABAergic Neural Activity Involved in Salicylate-Induced Auditory Cortex Gain Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianzhong; Lobarinas, Edward; Deng, Anchun; Goodey, Ronald; Stolzberg, Daniel; Salvi, Richard J.; Sun, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Although high doses of sodium salicylate impair cochlear function, it paradoxically enhances sound-evoked activity in the auditory cortex (AC) and augments acoustic startle reflex responses, neural and behavioral metrics associated with hyperexcitability and hyperacusis. To explore the neural mechanisms underlying salicylate-induced hyperexcitability and “increased central gain”, we examined the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonists and antagonists on salicylate-induced hyperexcitability in the AC and startle reflex responses. Consistent with our previous findings, local or systemic application of salicylate significantly increased the amplitude of sound-evoked AC neural activity, but generally reduced spontaneous activity in the AC. Systemic injection of salicylate also significantly increased the acoustic startle reflex. S-baclofen or R-baclofen, GABA-B agonists, which suppressed sound-evoked AC neural firing rate and local field potentials, also suppressed the salicylate-induced enhancement of the AC field potential and the acoustic startle reflex. Local application of vigabatrin, which enhances GABA concentration in the brain, suppressed the salicylate-induced enhancement of AC firing rate. Systemic injection of vigabatrin also reduced the salicylate-induced enhancement of acoustic startle reflex. Collectively, these results suggest that the sound-evoked behavioral and neural hyperactivity induced by salicylate may arise from a salicylate-induced suppression GABAergic inhibition in the AC. PMID:21664433

  3. [Properties of unrelated salicylate hydroxylases in bacteria of the genus pseudomon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntus, T F; Vlasova, E P; Sokolov, A P; Zaharchenko, N S; Funtikova, T V

    2015-01-01

    The unrelated salicylate hydroxylases NahG and NahU of the strains Pseudomonasfluorescens 142 NF and P. Putida BS3701 were extracted and purified by ion-exchange and hydrophobic and gel permeation chromatography. The extracted enzymes differed in kinetic and catalyst performance during salicylate hydrolysis. For NahU salicylate hydroxylase, Km and Vmax were found to be higher (3.1 +/- 0.6 microM and 7.7 +/- 0.4 microM/min, respectively) than for NahG salicylate hydroxylase (1.3 +/- 0.1 microM and 4.7 +/- 0.1 microM/min, respectively). The activity of both enzymes toward substituted salicylates was higher in cases where the substituent groups were in para position than in cases with those in meta position. The activity toward substituted salicylates with substituent groups in meta position was different. The activity of salicylate hydroxylase NahG was higher toward salicylates with substituent groups in position 3; salicylate hydroxylase NahU activity was higher toward those with substituent groups in position 5. This suggests a difference in the spatial configuration of active sites in extracted unrelated salicylate hydroxylases.

  4. Inhibición de Paenibacillus larvae empleando una mezcla de aceites esenciales y timol Inhibition of Paenibacillus larvae employing a mixture of essential oils and thymol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Fuselli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de una mezcla de dos aceites esenciales y timol frente a Paenibacillus larvae, agente causal de la enfermedad Loque americana, que afecta a las abejas. Los aceites esenciales utilizados fueron canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris, con el agregado de timol, componente mayoritario del tomillo presente en un 39,9%. Los parámetros medidos fueron la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM en caldo Muller-Hinton, mediante dilución seriada, y la concentración bactericida mínima (CBM en agar MYPGP. El aceite esencial de tomillo registró valores de CIM entre 150 y 250 μg/ml, y de CBM entre 200 y 300 μg/ml, mientras que para el aceite esencial de canela los valores de CIM y de CBM obtenidos fueron 50 a 100 μg/ml y 100 a 125 μg/ml, respectivamente. El timol presentó valores de CIM y de CBM similares, de 100 a 150 μg/ml. No se detectaron diferencias significativas entre las cepas bacterianas estudiadas, pero sí entre la actividad de los aceites esenciales y la del timol (PIn vitro antimicrobial activity of a mixture of two essential oils and thymol against Paenibacillus larvae, causal agent of American Foulbrood (AFB, was evaluated. The essential oils were extracted from cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and thyme (Thymus vulgaris. The third component used, thymol, is the major component of the essential oil of thyme which contains 39.9 % of thymol. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC in Mueller-Hinton broth by the tube dilution method and minimal bactericide concentration (MBC on MYPGP agar were evaluated. Thyme registered MIC values of 150-250 μg/ml and MBC values of 200-300 μg/ml, while the MIC and MBC values obtained for cinnamon were of 50-100 μg/ml and 100-125 μg/ml. Thymol showed similar MIC and MBC values of 100-150 μg/ml. No significant differences between the bacterial strains were detected, but significant differences between essential oils and thymol activity

  5. Pharmacokinetics of salicylate in rabbits with acute kidney failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laznicek, M.; Melicharova, L.; Kvetina, J.; Laznickova, A.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of sodium salicylate were studied in rabbits with acute renal failure induced by intravenous administration of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate in a dose of 0.2 mg kg -1 . 14 C-labelled salicylic acid, 99m Tc-complex and 125 I-hippuran were used to study the metabolism. The 99m Tc and 125 I activities were measured with a Tesla gamma counter or beta-gamma spectrometer NE 8312. The 14 C activity was measured using beta spectrometer Rack beta 1219. The 99m Tc activity was determined immediately after the experiment, the 14 C activity was determined after 4 days. The drug concentration was determined by comparing the activities of the sample and the standard activities. (J.J.). 6 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  6. Spectrophotometric study of lanthanoid complexes with antipyrine and salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishchenko, M.A.; Gerasimenko, G.I.; Poluehktov, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    The extraction-spectrophotometric method has been used to study lanthanoid ion complexing (Pr, Nd, Ho and Er) with antipyrine (Ant) and salicylic acid (Sal). The component relationship in different-ligand compounds Ln:Aut:Sal=2:3:6 and solvate number equal to 5 are determined; molar extinction coefficients of binary and different-ligand compounds are calculated. Oscillator strengths of absorption bands corresponding to supersensitive transitions of neodymium, holmium, erbium and some most intensive praseodymium bands are calculated. The study of IR spectra of investigated compounds allows to conclude on formation of coordination bonds of the central atom with the antipyrine molecule through the oxygen of the carbonyl group as well as on carboxyl group hydrogen substitution for metal and formation of coordination bond with OH group in salicylic acid molecules [ru

  7. "Phase diagrams of Lecithin-based microemulsions containing Sodium Salicylate "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Aboofazeli R

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial phase diagrams were constructed at 25°C to investigate the phase behaviour of systems composed of soybean lecithin, water, sodium salicylate, alcohol and isopropyl myristate. The lecithins used were the commercially available soy bean lecithins, namely E200 and E170 (phosphatidyl choline purities greater than 95% and 68-72% respectively. The cosurfactants employed were n-propanol, 2-propanol and n-butanol and these were used at lecithin/alcohol weight ratios (Km of 1:1 and 1.5:1. At a given Km, the aqueous phase consisted of a 2% w/w sodium salicylate solution. Phase diagrams showed the area of existence of a stable isotropic region along the surfactant/oil axis (i.e., reverse microemulsion area. The extension of the microemulsion domain was influenced by the purity of surfactant, the lecithin/alcohol weight ratios and the kind of the alcohol.

  8. Scandium and zirconium ion complexing with salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadeeva, V.I.; Kochetkova, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    A study has been made of the extraction of complexes containing scandium and zirconium compounds and salicylic acid by using benzene, nitrobenzene, chloroform and isoamyl alcohol. It is shown that in the metal concentration range 10 -5 -10 -3 mole/l scandium forms mononuclear complexes composed of Sc(HSal) 3 (pH 2 (pH>4), zirconium - polynuclear complexes Zrsub(x)(OH)sub(y)(HSal)sub(n), where the x:n ratio varies from 0.5 to 1.5. Stability constants have been calculated for the salicylate scandium complexes in aqueous solution, equal to β 1 =(3+-1)x10 2 ; β 2 =(5.0+-0.6)x10 4 ; β 3 =(5.3+-0.3)x10 6

  9. Influencing of resorption and side-effects of salicylic acid by complexing with β-cyclodextrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szejtli, J.; Gerloczy, A.; Sebestyen, G.; Fonagy, A.

    1981-01-01

    After oral administration of 14 C-labelled salicylic acid and its β-cyclodextrin complex to rats, the radioactivity level of the blood reached its maximum during the first 2 h. The blood level obtained with the complex is somewhat but not significantly lower than with free acid. Since the resorption of cyclodextrin is a considerably slower process, it is very likely that the resorption of salicylic acid takes place in the form of free acid after dissociation of the complex. The urinary excretion cumulative curves showed that the free salicylic acid was completely excreted, while about 10% of the salicylic acid administered in the form of complex is lost. The cyclodextrin complex formation increased the pK values of all hydroxybenzoic acids. Direct observations revealed that complex formation decreased the stomach-irritating effect of salicylic acid. The ratio of radioactivity was nearly the same in the organs of animals treated by both free salicylic and cyclodextrin complex. (author)

  10. Kinetic study on the photocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid using ZnO catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nageswara Rao, A.; Sivasankar, B.; Sadasivam, V.

    2009-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid was studied by a batch process using ZnO as the catalyst on irradiation with UV light. The effect of process parameters such as pH, catalyst loading and initial concentration of salicylic acid on the extent of degradation was investigated. The degradation of salicylic acid was found to be effective in the neutral pH range. The optimum catalyst loading was observed at 2.0 g/L. The process followed first order kinetics and the apparent rate constant decreased with increase in the initial concentration of salicylic acid. The mechanism for the degradation of salicylic acid could be explained on the basis of Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The complete mineralization of salicylic acid was observed in the presence of ZnO photocatalyst. The ZnO was found to be quite stable and undergoes photocorrosion only to a negligible extent.

  11. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Z. Ceylan; Can, B.Z.; Kocakerim, M. Muhtar

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the removal of boric acid from aqueous solution by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid was studied in batch system. pH, adsorbent amount, initial boron concentration, temperature, shaking rate and salicylic acid film thickness were chosen as parameters. Boron removal efficiencies increased with increasing adsorbent amount, temperature and pH, decreasing initial boron concentration. As thickness of salicylic acid film on activated carbon becomes thin up to 0.088 nm, the efficiency increased, and then, the efficiency decreased with becoming thinner than 0.088 nm of salicylic acid film. Shaking rate was no effect on removal efficiency. In result, it was determined that the use of salicylic acid as an impregnant for activated carbon led to the increase of the amount of boron adsorbed. A lactone ring, being the most appropriate conformation, forms between boric acid and -COOH and -OH groups of salicylic acid

  12. Chloride and Salicylate Influence Prestin-dependent Specific Membrane Capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Song, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The outer hair cell is electromotile, its membrane motor identified as the protein SLC26a5 (prestin). An area motor model, based on two-state Boltzmann statistics, was developed about two decades ago and derives from the observation that outer hair cell surface area is voltage-dependent. Indeed, aside from the nonlinear capacitance imparted by the voltage sensor charge movement of prestin, linear capacitance (Clin) also displays voltage dependence as motors move between expanded and compact states. Naturally, motor surface area changes alter membrane capacitance. Unit linear motor capacitance fluctuation (δCsa) is on the order of 140 zeptofarads. A recent three-state model of prestin provides an alternative view, suggesting that voltage-dependent linear capacitance changes are not real but only apparent because the two component Boltzmann functions shift their midpoint voltages (Vh) in opposite directions during treatment with salicylate, a known competitor of required chloride binding. We show here using manipulations of nonlinear capacitance with both salicylate and chloride that an enhanced area motor model, including augmented δCsa by salicylate, can accurately account for our novel findings. We also show that although the three-state model implicitly avoids measuring voltage-dependent motor capacitance, it registers δCsa effects as a byproduct of its assessment of Clin, which increases during salicylate treatment as motors are locked in the expanded state. The area motor model, in contrast, captures the characteristics of the voltage dependence of δCsa, leading to a better understanding of prestin. PMID:24554714

  13. Nitric oxide and salicylic acid signaling in plant defense

    OpenAIRE

    Klessig, Daniel F.; Durner, Jörg; Noad, Robert; Navarre, Duroy A.; Wendehenne, David; Kumar, Dhirendra; Zhou, Jun Ma; Shah, Jyoti; Zhang, Shuqun; Kachroo, Pradeep; Trifa, Youssef; Pontier, Dominique; Lam, Eric; Silva, Herman

    2000-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical signaling role in the activation of plant defense responses after pathogen attack. We have identified several potential components of the SA signaling pathway, including (i) the H2O2-scavenging enzymes catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, (ii) a high affinity SA-binding protein (SABP2), (iii) a SA-inducible protein kinase (SIPK), (iv) NPR1, an ankyrin repeat-containing protein that exhibits limited homology to IκBα and is requ...

  14. Review of salicylate-induced hearing loss, neurotoxicity, tinnitus and neuropathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, A; Hayes, S H; Chen, G-D; Ralli, M; Salvi, R

    2014-04-01

    Salicylate's ototoxic properties have been well established, inducing tinnitus and a sensory hearing loss when administered in high doses. Peripherally, acute dosing of salicylate causes frequency dependent reductions in DPOAEs and CAP amplitudes in low (20 kHz) frequencies more than mid frequencies (10-20 kHz), which interestingly corresponds to the pitch of behaviourally-matched salicylate-induced tinnitus. Chronic salicylate dosing affects the peripheral system by causing a compensatory temporary enhancement in DPOAE amplitudes and up-regulation of prestin mRNA and protein expression. Despite salicylate's antioxidant properties, cultured cochlea studies indicate it also impairs spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) by paradoxically causing an upsurge of superoxide radicals leading to apoptosis. Centrally, salicylate alters γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin mediated neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS), which results in classical and non-classical auditory regions showing hyperactivity after salicylate administration. In the auditory cortex (AC) and lateral amygdala (LA), neuron characteristic frequencies (CF) shift upward and downward to mid frequencies (10-20 kHz) altering tonotopy following salicylate administration. Additionally, current source density (CSD) analysis showed enhanced current flow into the supergranular layer of the auditory cortex after a high systemic dose of salicylate. In humans, auditory perception changes following salicylate or aspirin, including decreased word discrimination and temporal integration ability. The results of previous studies have partially identified the mechanisms that are involved in salicylate-induced tinnitus and hearing loss, however to date some interactions remain convoluted. This review discusses current knowledge of salicylate ototoxicity and interactions.

  15. Suppression of inducible cyclooxygenase 2 gene transcription by aspirin and sodium salicylate

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Sansores-Garcia, Leticia; Chen, Xian-Ming; Matijevic-Aleksic, Nevenka; Du, Min; Wu, Kenneth K.

    1999-01-01

    The pharmacological action of salicylate cannot be explained by its inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. In this report, the effects of aspirin and sodium salicylate on COX-2 expressions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and foreskin fibroblasts were evaluated. Aspirin and sodium salicylate at therapeutic concentrations equipotently blocked COX-2 mRNA and protein levels induced by interleukin-1β and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The suppressing effect was more pronounced in...

  16. Salicylate Food Intolerance and Aspirin Hypersensitivity in Nasal Polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzedeh, Hossein; Esmaeilzadeh, Elmira; Faramarzi, Mohammad; Nabavi, Mohammad; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    A clear association between allergy and nasal polyposis (NP) is not determined and the role of food intolerance in patients with NP is not investigated by oral food challenge (OFC). To investigate the relation of salicylate food intolerance and atopy in patients with NP according to recurrence and aspirin sensitivity. A cross sectional multicenter study was done in two tertiary centers for allergy in Iran. Adult patients with NP were selected for the study that had been referred to allergy clinics. The oral aspirin challenge (OAC) test was performed to identify aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) and the OFC test was used to investigate food intolerance. Atopic evaluation was performed by skin-prick tests, nasal smear and blood eosinophil count as well as serum total IgE. One hundred and nineteen Iranian patients (female to male ratio 1.05) with NP were enrolled (mean age, 38 ± 11 years). Recurrence of nasal polyposis was 64.7%. OAC was performed in all cases; 43.79% cases had aspirin hypersensitivity. In addition, OFC tests determined that 69.9% of patients had salicylate food allergy. Salicylate food intolerance was significantly higher in NP cases with AERD than in aspirin tolerant patients (pfood intolerance was associated with AERD in nasal polyposis.

  17. Superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in facial dermatoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, A.U.; Iqbal, Z.; Rahman, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of salicylic acid chemical peeling in common dermatological conditions affecting face in people with predominant Fitzpatrick skin type IV and V. A total of 167 patients of either gender, aged between 13 to 60 years, having some facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, freckles, fine lines and wrinkles, post-inflammatory scars, actinic keratoses, and plane facial warts) were included. A series of eight weekly hospital based peeling sessions was conducted in all patients under standardized conditions with 30% salicylic acid. Clinical improvement in different disorders was evaluated by change in MASI score, decrease in the size of affected area and % reduction in lesions count. McNemar test was applied for data analysis. Majority of the patients showed moderate to excellent response. There was 35% to 63% improvement (p< 0.05) in all dermatoses. Significant side effects, as feared in Asian skins were not observed. Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is an effective and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses. (author)

  18. Nicotine, aerosol particles, carbonyls and volatile organic compounds in tobacco- and menthol-flavored e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; LeBouf, Ryan F; Son, Youn-Suk; Koutrakis, Petros; Christiani, David C

    2017-04-27

    We aimed to assess the content of electronic cigarette (EC) emissions for five groups of potentially toxic compounds that are known to be present in tobacco smoke: nicotine, particles, carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and trace elements by flavor and puffing time. We used ECs containing a common nicotine strength (1.8%) and the most popular flavors, tobacco and menthol. An automatic multiple smoking machine was used to generate EC aerosols under controlled conditions. Using a dilution chamber, we targeted nicotine concentrations similar to that of exposure in a general indoor environment. The selected toxic compounds were extracted from EC aerosols into a solid or liquid phase and analyzed with chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. We found that EC aerosols contained toxic compounds including nicotine, fine and nanoparticles, carbonyls, and some toxic VOCs such as benzene and toluene. Higher mass and number concentrations of aerosol particles were generated from tobacco-flavored ECs than from menthol-flavored ECs. We found that diluted machine-generated EC aerosols contain some pollutants. These findings are limited by the small number of ECs tested and the conditions of testing. More comprehensive research on EC exposure extending to more brands and flavor compounds is warranted.

  19. Salicylate induces reactive oxygen species and reduces UVC susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia-Yi; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Kai; Hou, Yong-Na; Yao, Guo-Dong; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Itoh, Kikuji; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2018-03-13

    Present study demonstrates that growth of Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of salicylate reduces ultraviolet C (UVC)-induced cell death and increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, compounds that scavenge ROS (N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase) reverse the increased UVC survival induced by growth in the presence of salicylate, while ROS donors (tert-butylhydroperoxide, H2O2, and NaClO) enhance survival of salicylate challenged cultures. Collectively these findings suggest that ROS production induced by growth in the presence of salicylate protects S. aureus from UVC-induced cell death.

  20. Effect of certain variables on the tumor and tissue distribution of tracers. Salicylates and vasoactive drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, S.E.; Hagan, P.; Stern, P.; Gordon, R.; Dabbs, J.

    1981-01-01

    Attempts were made to increase the viable tumor concentration of 54Mn and 67Ga in a rat hepatoma model by administering rat angiotensin, tolazoline, and salicylates. Salicylates increased the tumor concentrations of 54Mn and improved 65Mn viable tumor/background ratios. 67Ga was not affected by the salicylates. The salicylate effect appeared to be mediated by intracellular mechanisms rather than alterations in plasma protein binding. Rat angiotensin slightly increased the concentrations of 67Ga in the tumors but not enough to suggest that it would be useful clinically. Tolazoline did not increase tumor uptake of the tracers

  1. Mechanistic Evaluation of Hydration Effects on the Human Epidermal Permeation of Salicylate Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Shereen; Mohammed, Yousuf; Namjoshi, Sarika; Grice, Jeffrey; Sakran, Wedad; Roberts, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We sought to understand when and how hydration enhances the percutaneous absorption of salicylate esters. Human epidermal membrane fluxes and stratum corneum solubilities of neat and diluted solutions of three esters were determined under hydrated and dehydrated conditions. Hydration doubled the human epidermal flux seen for methyl and ethyl salicylate under dehydrated conditions and increased the flux of neat glycol salicylate 10-fold. Mechanistic analyses showed that this hydration-induced enhancement arises mainly from an increase in the stratum corneum diffusivity of the three esters. Further, we showed that unlike methyl and ethyl salicylate, glycol salicylate is hygroscopic and the ∼10-fold hydration-induced flux enhancement seen with neat glycol salicylate may be due to its ability to hydrate the stratum corneum to a greater extent. The hydration-induced enhancements in in vitro epidermal flux seen here for glycol and ethyl salicylate were similar to those reported for their percutaneous absorption rates in a comparable in vivo study, whilst somewhat higher enhancement was seen for methyl salicylate in vivo. This may be explained by a physiologically induced self enhancement of neat methyl salicylate absorption in vivo which is not applicable in vitro.

  2. Synthetic catecholamine triggers β1-adrenergic receptor activation and stimulates cardiotoxicity via oxidative stress mediated apoptotic cell death in rats: Abrogating action of thymol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeran, M F Nagoor; Jagadeesh, G S; Selvaraj, P

    2016-05-05

    Nowadays, there are considerable interests in the studies which are more connected with the impact of natural antioxidants against the free radical mediated damage in biological systems. Cardiotoxicity is one of the lethal manifestations of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) which have been associated with the incidence of apoptotic cell death due to oxidative stress. We evaluated the impact of thymol, a dietary monoterpene phenol on isoproterenol (ISO), a synthetic catecholamine and a β1-adrenergic receptor agonist in rats. Thymol (7.5 mg/kg body weight) was pre and co-treated into male albino Wistar rats daily for a period of 7 days. Induction of cardiotoxicity was done by the subcutaneous administration of ISO (100 mg/kg body weight) into rats on 6th and 7th day. Cardiotoxicity in rats was confirmed by the increased levels/activity of serum troponin-T and creatine kinase in the serum alongwith decreased activity of creatine kinase in the heart. ISO induced cardiotoxic rats also showed a significant increase in the concentrations of lipid peroxidation products and a significant decrease in the activities/levels of antioxidants in the myocardium whereas Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction study revealed an increased expression of caspase-8, caspase-9 and Fas genes along with a decreased expression of Bcl-xL gene in the myocardium. Thymol pre and co-treated ISO induced cardiotoxic rats showed considerable protective effects on all the biochemical parameters studied. Histopathological and in vitro findings are found in line with our biochemical findings. Thus, the present study revealed that thymol counters ISO induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in rats by virtue of its potent antioxidant property. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between menthol-flavoured cigarette smoking and flavoured little cigar and cigarillo use among African-American, Hispanic, and white young and middle-aged adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, K; Fryer, C; Pagano, I; Jones, D; Fagan, P

    2016-11-01

    Flavour additives in cigarettes and little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs), which influence smokers' risk perceptions, may reinforce dual flavoured tobacco use. We examined the association among mentholated cigarette use, risk perceptions for flavour additives in LCCs and flavoured LCC smoking behaviour. Data from a national probability sample of 964 young and middle-aged adult current cigarette smokers were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression models examined the relationship among mentholated cigarette smoking, risk perceptions and current flavoured LCC use for the analytic sample and gender and race/ethnicity. Daily menthol cigarette smokers, compared to occasional, non-menthol smokers, had increased odds of flavoured LCC smoking (OR=1.75, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.98). This relationship was found for males, blacks/African-Americans and Hispanics/Latinos (psmokers, specifically those from vulnerable populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Combined effect of carnosol, rosmarinic acid and thymol on the oxidative stability of soybean oil using a simplex centroid mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Salma; Chammem, Nadia; Sifaoui, Ines; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Piñero, José E; Bouassida-Beji, Maha; Hamdi, Moktar; L Bazzocchi, Isabel

    2017-08-01

    Oxidation taking place during the use of oil leads to the deterioration of both nutritional and sensorial qualities. Natural antioxidants from herbs and plants are rich in phenolic compounds and could therefore be more efficient than synthetic ones in preventing lipid oxidation reactions. This study was aimed at the valorization of Tunisian aromatic plants and their active compounds as new sources of natural antioxidant preventing oil oxidation. Carnosol, rosmarinic acid and thymol were isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus capitatus by column chromatography and were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Their antioxidant activities were measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. These active compounds were added to soybean oil in different proportions using a simplex-centroid mixture design. Antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of oils were determined before and after 20 days of accelerated oxidation at 60 °C. Results showed that bioactive compounds are effective in maintaining oxidative stability of soybean oil. However, the binary interaction of rosmarinic acid and thymol caused a reduction in antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of soybean oil. Optimum conditions for maximum antioxidant activity and oxidative stability were found to be an equal ternary mixture of carnosol, rosmarinic acid and thymol. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Thymus vulgaris L. and thymol assist murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) in the control of in vitro infections by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Jonatas Rafael; Figueira, Leandro Wagner; Sper, Fábia Lugli; Meccatti, Vanessa Marques; Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias

    2017-08-01

    Microorganisms are capable to combat defense cells by means of strategies that contribute to their stabilization and proliferation in invaded tissues. Frequently antimicrobial-resistant strains appear; therefore, alternative methods to control them must be investigated, for example, the use of plant products. The capacity of the thyme extract (Thymus vulgaris L.) and phytocompound thymol in the control of in vitro infections by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans in murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) was evaluated. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the plant products were used. The effect of these MIC were analyzed in the assays of phagocytosis and immunoregulation by analysis of the production of cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-10) and nitric oxide (NO). The plant products effectively assisted the macrophages in the phagocytosis of microorganisms, presenting significant reductions of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The macrophages also regulated the production of inflammatory mediators in the infections by S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans. In addition, thyme provided a satisfactory effect in response to the bacterial infections, regarding generation of NO. Thus, the effectiveness of the thyme and thymol to control in vitro infections by S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans was observed. Phagocytosis of S. aureus by RAW 264.7 was enhanced with thymol Thyme enhanced the phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa by RAW 264.7 Plant products provided immunoregulation of inflammatory cytokines Production of nitric oxide was improved with the treatments in bacterial infections.

  6. Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordali, Saban; Cakir, Ahmet; Ozer, Hakan; Cakmakci, Ramazan; Kesdek, Memis; Mete, Ebru

    2008-12-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Origanum acutidens was analyzed by GC-MS. Carvacrol (87.0%), p-cymene (2.0%), linalool acetate (1.7%), borneol (1.6%) and beta-caryophyllene (1.3%) were found to be as main constituents. Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal activities of the oil and its aromatic monoterpene constituents, carvacrol, p-cymene and thymol were also determined. The antifungal assays showed that O. acutidens oil, carvacrol and thymol completely inhibited mycelial growth of 17 phytopathogenic fungi and their antifungal effects were higher than commercial fungicide, benomyl. However, p-cymene possessed lower antifungal activity. The oil, carvacrol and thymol completely inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album and Rumex crispus and also showed a potent phytotoxic effect against these plants. However, p-cymene did not show any phytotoxic effect. Furthermore, O. acutidens oil showed 68.3% and 36.7% mortality against Sitophilus granarius and Tribolium confusum adults, respectively. The findings of the present study suggest that antifungal and herbicidal properties of the oil can be attributed to its major component, carvacrol, and these agents have a potential to be used as fungicide, herbicide as well as insecticide.

  7. Alkylphenol Activity against Candida spp. and Microsporum canis: A Focus on the Antifungal Activity of Thymol, Eugenol and O-Methyl Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Raquel O S; Morais, Selene M; Brito, Erika H S; Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Cordeiro, Rossana A; Lima, Ynayara C; Brasil, Nilce V G P S; Monteiro, André J; Sidrim, José J C; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2011-07-29

    In recent years there has been an increasing search for new antifungal compounds due to the side effects of conventional antifungal drugs and fungal resistance. The aims of this study were to test in vitro the activity of thymol, eugenol, estragole and anethole and some O-methyl-derivatives (methylthymol and methyleugenol) against Candida spp. and Microsporum canis. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) for both Candida spp. and M. canis were found by subculturing each fungal suspension on potato dextrose agar. Thymol, methylthymol, eugenol, methyl-eugenol, anethole, estragole and griseofulvin respectively, presented the following MIC values against M. canis: 4.8-9.7; 78-150; 39; 78-150; 78-150; 19-39 µg/mL and 0.006-2.5 mg/mL. The MFC values for all compounds ranged from 9.7 to 31 µg/mL. Concerning Candida spp, thymol, methylthymol, eugenol, methyleugenol, anethole, estragole and amphotericin, respectively, showed the following MIC values: 39; 620-1250; 150-620; 310-620; 620; 620-1250 and 0.25-2.0 mg/mL. The MFC values varied from 78 to 2500 µg/mL. All tested compounds thus showed in vitro antifungal activity against Candida spp. and M. canis. Therefore, further studies should be carried out to confirm the usefulness of these alkylphenols in vivo.

  8. Alkylphenol Activity against Candida spp. and Microsporum canis: A Focus on the Antifungal Activity of Thymol, Eugenol and O-Methyl Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ynayara C. Lima

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing search for new antifungal compounds due to the side effects of conventional antifungal drugs and fungal resistance. The aims of this study were to test in vitro the activity of thymol, eugenol, estragole and anethole and some O-methyl-derivatives (methylthymol and methyleugenol against Candida spp. and Microsporum canis. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC for both Candida spp. and M. canis were found by subculturing each fungal suspension on potato dextrose agar. Thymol, methylthymol, eugenol, methyl-eugenol, anethole, estragole and griseofulvin respectively, presented the following MIC values against M. canis: 4.8–9.7; 78–150; 39; 78–150; 78–150; 19–39 µg/mL and 0.006–2.5 mg/mL. The MFC values for all compounds ranged from 9.7 to 31 µg/mL. Concerning Candida spp, thymol, methylthymol, eugenol, methyleugenol, anethole, estragole and amphotericin, respectively, showed the following MIC values: 39; 620–1250; 150–620; 310–620; 620; 620–1250 and 0.25–2.0 mg/mL. The MFC values varied from 78 to 2500 µg/mL. All tested compounds thus showed in vitro antifungal activity against Candida spp. and M. canis. Therefore, further studies should be carried out to confirm the usefulness of these alkylphenols in vivo.

  9. Oral L-menthol reduces thermal sensation, increases work-rate and extends time to exhaustion, in the heat at a fixed rating of perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, T R; Waldron, M; Jeffries, O

    2017-07-01

    The study investigated the effect of a non-thermal cooling agent, L-menthol, on exercise at a fixed subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in a hot environment. Eight male participants completed two trials at an exercise intensity between 'hard' and 'very hard', equating to 16 on the RPE scale at ~35 °C. Participants were instructed to continually adjust their power output to maintain an RPE of 16 throughout the exercise trial, stopping once power output had fallen by 30%. In a randomized crossover design, either L-menthol or placebo mouthwash was administered prior to exercise and at 10 min intervals. Power output, [Formula: see text]O 2 , heart rate, core and skin temperature was monitored, alongside thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Isokinetic peak power sprints were conducted prior to and immediately after the fixed RPE trial. Exercise time was greater (23:23 ± 3:36 vs. 21:44 ± 2:32 min; P = 0.049) and average power output increased (173 ± 24 vs. 167 ± 24 W; P = 0.044) in the L-menthol condition. Peak isokinetic sprint power declined from pre-post trial in the L-menthol l (9.0%; P = 0.015) but not in the placebo condition (3.4%; P = 0.275). Thermal sensation was lower in the L-menthol condition (P = 0.036), despite no changes in skin or core temperature (P > 0.05). These results indicate that a non-thermal cooling mouth rinse lowered thermal sensation, resulting in an elevated work rate, which extended exercise time in the heat at a fixed RPE.

  10. High doses of salicylate reduces glycinergic inhibition in the dorsal cochlear nucleus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugaib, João; Ceballos, Cesar C; Leão, Ricardo M

    2016-02-01

    High doses of salicylate induce reversible tinnitus in experimental animals and humans, and is a common tinnitus model. Salicylate probably acts centrally and induces hyperactivity in specific auditory brainstem areas like the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). However, little is known about the effect of high doses of salicylate in synapses and neurons of the DCN. Here we investigated the effects of salicylate on the excitability and evoked and spontaneous neurotransmission in the main neurons (fusiform, cartwheel and tuberculoventral) and synapses of the DCN using whole cell recordings in slices containing the DCN. For this, we incubate the slices for at least 1 h in solution with 1.4 mM salicylate, and recorded action potentials and evoked and spontaneous synaptic currents in fusiform, cartwheel (CW) and putative tuberculoventral (TBV) neurons. We found that incubation with salicylate did not affect the firing of fusiform and TBV neurons, but decreased the spontaneous firing of cartwheel neurons, without affecting AP threshold or complex spikes. Evoked and spontaneous glutamatergic neurotransmission on the fusiform and CW neurons cells was unaffected by salicylate and evoked glycinergic neurotransmission on fusiform neurons was also unchanged by salicylate. On the other hand spontaneous glycinergic transmission on fusiform neurons was reduced in the presence of salicylate. We conclude that high doses of salicylate produces a decreased inhibitor drive on DCN fusiform neurons by reducing the spontaneous firing of cartwheel neurons, but this effect is not able to increase the excitability of fusiform neurons. So, the mechanisms of salicylate-induced tinnitus are probably more complex than simple changes in the neuronal firing and basal synaptic transmission in the DCN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The association of hemodialysis and survival in intubated salicylate-poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Daniel J; Lu, Jenny J

    2017-06-01

    Salicylate poisonings are common due to their multiple uses and wide availability. The variation of presenting symptoms contributes to inconsistent treatments in the emergency department. Patients with severe salicylate overdose require a high minute ventilation. Early in the course of an overdose, a patient will require hyperventilation. If they become too fatigued to compensate, mechanical ventilation may be needed. It can be impossible to recreate such a high minute ventilation with mechanical ventilation. This places patients at a high risk for decompensation and death. Hemodialysis is an effective elimination technique for salicylate overdose and should be considered early. All salicylate cases reported to the Illinois Poison Center were reviewed from 2003-2014. All intubated patients with a salicylate level >50mg/dl were included for analysis. Survival was compared to measured serum salicylate level and the administration of hemodialysis. 56 Cases were identified with an overall survival rate of 73.2% in patients with a serum salicylate level >50mg/dl. When patients did not receive hemodialysis, a peak salicylate level >50mg/dl had a 56% survival rate and 0% survival when the level was >80mg/dl. In the patients who received hemodialysis, a peak salicylate level >50mg/dl had a 83.9% survival rate and 83.3% survival when the level was >80mg/dl. Survival was decreased in these patients if hemodialysis was not performed. Mortality increases with the measured serum salicylate level. Timely hemodialysis for intubated salicylate overdose patients decreases mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of salicylate hepatic responses in comparison with chemical analogues of the drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Amy R; Logie, Lisa; Patel, Kashyap; Bacon, Sandra; Forteath, Calum; Harthill, Jean; Roberts, Adam; Sutherland, Calum; Stewart, Derek; Viollet, Benoit; Sakamoto, Kei; McDougall, Gordon; Foretz, Marc; Rena, Graham

    2016-08-01

    Anti-hyperglycaemic effects of the hydroxybenzoic acid salicylate might stem from effects of the drug on mitochondrial uncoupling, activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, and inhibition of NF-κB signalling. Here, we have gauged the contribution of these effects to control of hepatocyte glucose production, comparing salicylate with inactive hydroxybenzoic acid analogues of the drug. In rat H4IIE hepatoma cells, salicylate was the only drug tested that activated AMPK. Salicylate also reduced mTOR signalling, but this property was observed widely among the analogues. In a sub-panel of analogues, salicylate alone reduced promoter activity of the key gluconeogenic enzyme glucose 6-phosphatase and suppressed basal glucose production in mouse primary hepatocytes. Both salicylate and 2,6 dihydroxybenzoic acid suppressed TNFα-induced IκB degradation, and in genetic knockout experiments, we found that the effect of salicylate on IκB degradation was AMPK-independent. Previous data also identified AMPK-independent regulation of glucose but we found that direct inhibition of neither NF-κB nor mTOR signalling suppressed glucose production, suggesting that other factors besides these cell signalling pathways may need to be considered to account for this response to salicylate. We found, for example, that H4IIE cells were exquisitely sensitive to uncoupling with modest doses of salicylate, which occurred on a similar time course to another anti-hyperglycaemic uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol, while there was no discernible effect at all of two salicylate analogues which are not anti-hyperglycaemic. This finding supports much earlier literature suggesting that salicylates exert anti-hyperglycaemic effects at least in part through uncoupling. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Postharvest chitosan-g-salicylic acid application alleviates chilling injury and preserves cucumber fruit quality during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youzuo; Zhang, Meiling; Yang, Huqing

    2015-05-01

    The effect of salicylic acid with and without chitosan, or a chitosan-g-salicylic acid complex, on chilling injury and post-harvest quality of cucumber stored at 2 °C for 12 days plus 2 days at 20 °C was investigated. The results showed the chitosan-g-salicylic acid coating inhibited chilling injury better than salicylic acid alone or with chitosan. Chitosan-g-salicylic acid also reduced weight loss and respiration rate, limited increases in malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, and maintained higher total soluble solids, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content. Furthermore, this coating increased the endogenous salicylic acid concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cucumber during storage. Our study suggests that chitosan-g-salicylic acid alleviated chilling injury in cucumber through sustained-release of salicylic acid and the higher antioxidant enzymes concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanotechnology in Phytotherapy: Antiinflammatory Effect of a Nanostructured Thymol Gel from Lippia sidoides in Acute Periodontitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Marco A; Barros, Gisele; Queiroz, Dinalva B; Carvalho, Celso Felício; Gouvea, Julia; Patrus, Lia; Bannet, Mariane; Patrus, Danile; Rego, Amália; Silva, Ivaldo; Campus, Guglielmo; Araújo-Filho, Irami

    2016-01-01

    Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae) is largely distributed in the northeastern region of Brazil. It is popularly known as 'Alecrim-pimenta'. Recent studies have shown that some species of Lippia have interesting pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a nanostructured thymol gel (TG) 1.2 mg/g on acute phase of ligature-induced periodontitis model [acute periodontal disease (APD)] in rats. APD was induced in 24 Wistar rats subjected to ligature placement on left molars in maxillae. Animals were treated with TG, immediately after APD induction. Saline-based gel was utilized as negative control and diethylammonium diclofenac gel 10 mg/g was used as positive control. Animals were randomly assigned into the groups. The periodontium and the surrounding gingiva were examined at histopathology, as well as the neutrophil influx into the gingiva was assayed using myeloperoxidase activity levels by ELISA method. TG treatment reduced tissue lesion at histopathology coupled to decreased myeloperoxidase activity production in gingival tissue when compared with the saline gel control group (p < 0.05). The TG gel was able to provide a significant myeloperoxidase decreasing in gingiva tissue confirming to be effective in reducing gingival inflammation in this model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Spectrophotometric study of the system Hg(II)-thymol blue-H 2O and its evidence through electrochemical means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas-Hernández, P.; Rojas-Hernández, A.; Galván, M.; Ramírez-Silva, M. T.

    2004-02-01

    The detailed analysis of the experimental spectrophotometric data obtained from solutions containing the acid-base indicator thymol blue (TB) and mercury(II) (Hg(II)) coupled with data processing by means of the SQUAD program, a chemical model was determined that includes the formation of complexes indicator-metal ion (HgTB and HgOTB), dimer species (H 3TB 2 and H 4TB 2) and monomer species (HTB and TB). The values of the overall formation constants (log β) were calculated for the chemical equilibria involved: TB+Hg↔HgTB log β=16.047±0.043, TB+Hg+H 2O↔HgOHTB+H log β=7.659±0.049, 2TB+4H↔H 4TB 2 log β=31.398±0.083, 2TB+3H↔H 3TB 2 log β=29.953±0.084 and H+TB↔HTB-log β=8.900. To compliment the present research, the values of the absorptivity coefficients are included for all the species involved, within a wide range of wavelengths (250-700 nm). The latter were used subsequently to carry simulations of the absorption spectra at various pH values, thus corroborating that the chemical model proposed is fully capable to describe the experimental information. Voltammetric study performed evidenced the formation of a complex with a 1:1 stoichiometry Hg(II):TB.

  16. Modeling the impact of vapor thymol concentration, temperature, and modified atmosphere condition on growth behavior of Salmonella on raw shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Siyuan; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Pang, Yu-Hsin; Liu, Linshu; Yam, Kit L

    2015-02-01

    Salmonella is a microorganism of concern on a global basis for raw shrimp. This research modeled the impact of vapor thymol concentration (0, 0.8, and 1.6 mg/liter), storage temperature (8, 12, and 16°C), and modified atmosphere condition (0.04 as in the natural atmosphere and 59.5% CO2) against the growth behavior of a Salmonella cocktail (six strains) on raw shrimp. Lag time (hour) and maximum growth rate (log CFU per gram per hour), chosen as two growth indicators, were obtained through DMFit software and then developed into polynomial as well as nonlinear modified secondary models (dimensional and/or dimensionless), consisting of two or even three impact factors in the equations. The models were validated, and results showed that the predictive values from both models demonstrated good matches to the observed experimental values, yet the prediction based on lag time was more accurate than maximum growth rate. The information will provide the food industry with insight into the potential safety risk of Salmonella growth on raw shrimp under stressed conditions.

  17. Reactions of tin- and triorganotin(IV isopropoxides with thymol derivative: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matela Garima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of diisopropyloxytin- and triorganotin(IV complexes of H2hbgl (1 of the general formula Sn(OPri2(hbgl (2, Sn(OPri2(Hhbgl2 (3, Ph3Sn(Hhbgl (4, Bu3Sn(Hhbgl (5 and Me3Sn(Hhbgl (6, [where H2hbgl= a ligand of thymol derivative namely, N-(2-hydroxy-3-isopropyl-6-methyl benzylGlycine] were synthesized by reacting tin- and triorganotin(IV chloride with the ligand, with the aid of sodium iso-propoxide in appropriate stiochiometric ratios (1:1 and 1:2. These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The spectral data suggest that the carboxylate group, in complexes 2-5, was bonded in a bidentate manner, while a unidentate bonding was observed in complex 6. All five complexes were tested in vitro for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria namely, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 and two Gram-negative bacteria namely, Escherichia coli MTCC 1652 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 741. All the five complexes were also tested against three pathogenic fungal strains namely, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Penicillium sp.

  18. Salicylate inhibits thrombopoiesis in rat megakaryocytes by changing the membrane micro-architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Itsuro; Baba, Asuka; Endo, Yasuhiro; Toyama, Hiroaki; Ejima, Yutaka; Matsubara, Mitsunobu; Tachi, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Salicylate causes drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia. However, some clinical studies indicate the presence of additional mechanisms in the drug-induced thrombocytopenia, by which the platelet production from megakaryocytes may directly be affected. Since salicylate is amphiphilic and preferentially partitioned into the lipid bilayers of the plasma membrane, it can induce some structural changes in the megakaryocyte membrane surface and thus affect the process of thrombopoiesis. Employing the standard patch-clamp whole-cell recording technique, we examined the effects of salicylate on the membrane capacitance in rat megakaryocytes. Taking electron microscopic imaging of the cellular surface, we also examined the effects of salicylate on the membrane micro-architecture of megakaryocytes. Salicylate significantly decreased the membrane capacitance of megakaryocytes, indicating the decreased number of invaginated plasma membranes, which was not detected by the fluorescent imaging technique. As shown by electron microscopy, salicylate actually halted the process of pro-platelet formation in megakaryocytes. This study demonstrated for the first time that salicylate inhibits the process of thrombopoiesis in megakaryocytes, as detected by the decrease in the membrane capacitance. Salicylate-induced changes in the membrane micro-architecture are thought to be responsible for its effects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Sodium salicylate reduced insulin resistance in the retina of a type 2 diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Youde; Thakran, Shalini; Bheemreddy, Rajini; Coppess, William; Walker, Robert J; Steinle, Jena J

    2015-01-01

    Sodium salicylate has been reported to reduce markers of diabetic retinopathy in a type 1 rat model. Because rates of type 2 diabetes are on the rise, we wanted to determine whether salicylate could improve insulin resistance in a type 2 rat model, as well as improve retinal function. We treated lean and obese BBZDR/Wor type 2 diabetic rats with salicylate in their chow for 2 months. Prior to salicylate treatment, rats underwent an electroretinogram to measure retinal function. After 2 months of treatment, rats underwent an additional electroretinogram prior to sacrifice. In addition to the animal model, we also treated retinal endothelial cells (REC) and rat Müller cells with salicylate and performed the same analyses as done for the rat retinal lysates. To investigate the role of salicylate in insulin signaling, we measured TNFα and caspase 3 levels by ELISA, as well as performed Western blotting for insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin receptor, SOCS3, and pro- and anti-apoptotic markers. Data demonstrated that salicylate significantly improved retinal function, as well as reduced TNFα and SOCS3-induced insulin resistance in all samples. Overall, results suggest that salicylate is effective in reducing insulin resistance in the retina of type 2 diabetic rat models.

  20. Loudness perception affected by high doses of salicylate--a behavioral model of hyperacusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Flowers, Elizabeth; Li, Jun-Xu; Wang, Qiuju; Sun, Wei

    2014-09-01

    The major side-effects of high doses of salicylate include sensorial hearing loss and tinnitus. Although salicylate decreases cochlear output, it enhances the evoked potentials recorded from the central auditory system (CAS), suggesting an increase to sound sensitivity. However, the loudness change after salicylate administration has not yet been directly measured. In this study, we established an operant conditioning based behavioral task in rats and measured their loudness perception changes before and after high doses of salicylate injection (250 mg/kg, i.p.). We found that high doses of salicylate induced a significant increase to loudness response in 40% of the rats (out of 20 rats), suggesting a hyperacusis behavior. In another 40% of rats, a rapid increase of loudness response was detected, suggesting loudness recruitment. The reaction time of the rats was also measured during the loudness tests before and after salicylate exposure. The reaction time level functions are highly correlated to the loudness response functions. Our studies confirmed that increased sound sensitivity, which is commonly seen in patients with tinnitus and hyperacusis, can be induced by high doses of salicylate. This loudness change induced by salicylate may be related with hypersensitivity in the CAS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sodium Salicylate Reduced Insulin Resistance in the Retina of a Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Youde; Thakran, Shalini; Bheemreddy, Rajini; Coppess, William; Walker, Robert J.; Steinle, Jena J.

    2015-01-01

    Sodium salicylate has been reported to reduce markers of diabetic retinopathy in a type 1 rat model. Because rates of type 2 diabetes are on the rise, we wanted to determine whether salicylate could improve insulin resistance in a type 2 rat model, as well as improve retinal function. We treated lean and obese BBZDR/Wor type 2 diabetic rats with salicylate in their chow for 2 months. Prior to salicylate treatment, rats underwent an electroretinogram to measure retinal function. After 2 months of treatment, rats underwent an additional electroretinogram prior to sacrifice. In addition to the animal model, we also treated retinal endothelial cells (REC) and rat Müller cells with salicylate and performed the same analyses as done for the rat retinal lysates. To investigate the role of salicylate in insulin signaling, we measured TNFα and caspase 3 levels by ELISA, as well as performed Western blotting for insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin receptor, SOCS3, and pro- and anti-apoptotic markers. Data demonstrated that salicylate significantly improved retinal function, as well as reduced TNFα and SOCS3-induced insulin resistance in all samples. Overall, results suggest that salicylate is effective in reducing insulin resistance in the retina of type 2 diabetic rat models. PMID:25874611

  2. Role of mycorrhizal fungi and salicylic acid in salinity tolerance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity is one of the common agricultural and biological problems. Most researchers showed that inoculation of plants with mycorrhizal fungi and using salicylic acid increase tolerance of plants due to salinity. In this study, the effect of mycorrhizal fungi, including Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices, and salicylic acid (0.2 ...

  3. Salicylate and catechol levels are maintained in nahG transgenic poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison M. Morse; Timothy J. Tschaplinski; Christopher Dervinis; Paula M. Pijut; Eric A. Schmelz; Wendy Day; John M. Davis

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic profiling was used to investigate the molecular phenotypes of a transgenic Populus tremula × P. alba hybrid expressing the nahG transgene, a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase that converts salicylic acid to catechol. Despite the efficacy of this transgenic approach to reduce...

  4. Dietary non-nutrients and haemostasis in humans : effects of salicylates, flavonoids and ginger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the content of acetylsalicylate and total salicylates in foods, and we studied the effects of the dietary non-nutrients salicylates and flavonoids and of certain foods on haemostatic parameters in humans.

    Acetylsalicylic acid -aspirin- irreversibly inhibits

  5. Systemic Induction of Salicylic Acid Accumulation in Cucumber after Inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jack B.; Hammerschmidt, Raymond; Zook, Michael N.

    1991-01-01

    Inoculation of one true leaf of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants with Pseudomonas syringae pathovar syringae results in the systemic appearance of salicylic acid in the phloem exudates from petioles above, below, and at the site of inoculation. Analysis of phloem exudates from the petioles of leaves 1 and 2 demonstrated that the earliest increases in salicylic acid occurred 8 hours after inoculation of leaf 1 in leaf 1 and 12 hours after inoculation of leaf 1 in leaf 2. Detaching leaf 1 at intervals after inoculation demonstrated that leaf 1 must remain attached for only 4 hours after inoculation to result in the systemic accumulation of salicylic acid. Because the levels of salicylic acid in phloem exudates from leaf 1 did not increase to detectable levels until at least 8 hours after inoculation with P. s. pathovar syringae, the induction of increased levels of salicylic acid throughout the plant are presumably the result of another chemical signal generated from leaf 1 within 4 hours after inoculation. Injection of salicylic acid into tissues at concentrations found in the exudates induced resistance to disease and increased peroxidase activity. Our results support a role for salicylic acid as an endogenous inducer of resistance, but our data also suggest that salicylic acid is not the primary systemic signal of induced resistance in cucumber. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:16668554

  6. pH-dependent and carrier-mediated transport of salicylic acid across Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanaga, H; Tamai, I; Tsuji, A

    1994-07-01

    The transport of monocarboxylic acid drugs such as salicylic acid was examined in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2 cells that possess intestinal epithelia-like properties. [14C]Salicylic acid transport was pH-dependent and appeared to follow the pH-partition hypothesis. However, 10 mM unlabelled salicylic acid significantly reduced the permeability coefficient of [14C]salicylic acid. Kinetic analysis of the concentration dependence of the permeation rate of salicylic acid across Caco-2 cells showed both saturable (Kt = 5.28 +/- 0.72 mM Jmax = 36.6 +/- 3.54 nmol min-1 (mg protein)-1) and nonsaturable (kd = 0.37 +/- 0.08 microL min-1 (mg protein)-1) processes. The permeation rate of [14C]salicylic acid was competitively inhibited by both acetic acid and benzoic acid, which were demonstrated in our previous studies to be transported in the carrier-mediated-transport mechanism which is responsible for monocarboxylic acids. Furthermore, certain monocarboxylic acids significantly inhibited [14C]salicylic acid transport, whereas salicylamide and dicarboxylic acids such as succinic acid did not. From these results, it was concluded that the transcellular transport of [14C]salicylic acid across Caco-2 cells is by the pH-dependent and carrier-mediated transport mechanism specific for monocarboxylic acids.

  7. Crystallization, Structure Determination and Reticular Twinning in Iron(III) Salicylate: Fe[(HSal)(Sal)(H2O)2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, Jitschaq A. Van Der; Souvignier, Bernd; Lutz, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, we present the first crystal structure of iron(III) salicylate without additional counterions. The octahedral complex contains two salicylate and two water molecules as ligands. One salicylate is mono-anionic while the other is di-anionic. Because of the centrosymmetry of the

  8. Comment on the paper ``Growth and characterization of organic nonlinear optical crystal: l-Valinium salicylate (LVS)''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, S.; Moovendaran, K.; Srinivasan, B. R.

    2015-10-01

    The slow evaporation of an aqueous solution containing L-valine and salicylic acid results in the fractional crystallization of salicylic acid and not any so called L-valinium salicylate as reported recently by Andal and Murugakoothan in the title paper.

  9. Hypocalcemic action of the several types of salicylic acid analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Y; Nishishita, K; Sakai, H; Tatsumi, M; Yamamoto, K

    1989-02-01

    The present study was performed to see the structure-activity relationships on the aspirin-induced hypocalcemia. Several kinds of salicylic acid (SA) analogues administered orally with a stomach tube. In general, the drugs were suspended in the 2% CMC solution. At the scheduled times after the treatment, 60 microliters of the blood was collected to determine the level of calcium. Aspirin, sodium salt of o-hydroxybenzoic acid (Na-salicylate), sodium salt of m- and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), PAS sodium dihydrate (PAS-Na), salicylamide (SAM) and 2% CMC control were used. Hypocalcemia was induced by aspirin and Na-salicylate but not by m- and p-HBA-Na. In addition, DHBA and PAS caused hypocalcemia when they were administered intravenously but not orally. These results suggest that the carboxyl group must be adjacent to the hydroxyl group on the benzene ring to induce this type of hypocalcemia and that the SA structure would be able to induce hypocalcemia, even in the presence of the additional third substituent on the same ring. On the comparison between aspirin-DL lysine (water soluble aspirin) and SA-DL lysine, SA-DL lysine, which is not an inhibitor of PG synthetase, was more effective on the hypocalcemic action than ASP-DL lysine. The phenomenon was observed at the stage especially immediately after intravenous injection, when the acetyl group may be more responsible to acetylate the PG synthetase in the aspirin-DL lysine group. The present results seems to be consistent with the previous hypothesis that PGs are not involved in the process of aspirin-induced hypocalcemia in the rat.

  10. Highly luminescent and color-tunable salicylate ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Paul S; Yang, Mei; Pitz, Demian; Cybinska, Joanna; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2014-04-14

    High quantum yields of up to 40.5% can be achieved in salicylate-bearing ionic liquids. A range of these ionic liquids have been synthesized and their photoluminescent properties studied in detail. The differences noted can be related back to the structure of the ionic liquid cation and possible interionic interactions. It is found that shifts of emission, particularly in the pyridinium-based ionic liquids, can be related to cation-anion pairing interactions. Facile and controlled emission color mixing is demonstrated through combining different ILs, with emission colors ranging from blue to yellow. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Methylene-di-salicylates of rare-earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivapullaiah, P.V.; Soundararajan, S.

    1976-01-01

    Rare-earth methylene di salicylates of the general formula M 2 R 3 .8H 2 O, where M = La,Ce,Pr,Nd,Sm,Gd,Ho,Yb, or Y and R=MDSH 2 2- have been prepared and characterized by chemical analyses, infrared and differential thermal analyses. The infrared data show that the bonding of the carboxylate group to the metal is bidentate. The infrared and thermal studies reveal that the water present in the complexes is only lattice-held. (author)

  12. Thermal decomposition of anhydrous zinc and cadmium salicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, X-rayograms of anhydrous znc and cadmium salicylate complexes of the M(HSal) 2 composition, (where M=Zn, Cd; HSal is an anion of once deprotonated salicyclic acid H 2 Sal) and products of their thermal transformations, the processes are characterized of stage-by-stage thermal decomposition of these compounds under continuous heating in the air from room temperature to approximately 1000 deg C. It is shown that the Cd(HSal) 2 pyrolysis proceeds with the formation of CdSal at 170-250 deg C and CdO - at 320-460 deg C

  13. Thermochemical properties of rare earth complexes with salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuwu; Sun Wujuan; Ke Congyu; Zhang Hangguo; Wang Xiaoyan; Gao Shengli

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen rare earth complexes with salicylic acid RE(HSal) 3 .nH 2 O (HSal = C 7 H 5 O 3 ; RE = La-Sm, n = 2; RE = Eu-Lu, n = 1) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, and their thermal decomposition mechanism were studied with TG-DTG technology. The constant-volume combustion energies of complexes, Δ c U, were determined by a precise rotating-bomb calorimeter at 298.15 K. Their standard molar enthalpies of combustion, Δ c H m 0 , and standard molar enthalpies of formation, Δ f H m o , were calculated

  14. Kinetic model of mitochondrial Krebs cycle: unraveling the mechanism of salicylate hepatotoxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilevskaya, Ekaterina; Demin, Oleg; Goryanin, Igor

    2006-10-01

    This paper studies the effect of salicylate on the energy metabolism of mitochondria using in silico simulations. A kinetic model of the mitochondrial Krebs cycle is constructed using information on the individual enzymes. Model parameters for the rate equations are estimated using in vitro experimental data from the literature. Enzyme concentrations are determined from data on respiration in mitochondrial suspensions containing glutamate and malate. It is shown that inhibition in succinate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase by salicylate contributes substantially to the cumulative inhibition of the Krebs cycle by salicylates. Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation has little effect and coenzyme A consumption in salicylates transformation processes has an insignificant effect on the rate of substrate oxidation in the Krebs cycle. It is found that the salicylate-inhibited Krebs cycle flux can be increased by flux redirection through addition of external glutamate and malate, and depletion in external alpha-ketoglutarate and glycine concentrations.

  15. Phase I trial of sodium salicylate in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Virginia M; Dolezal, Emily K; Smith, Larry; Soff, Gerald; Nimer, Stephen D

    2012-05-01

    Sodium salicylate is an inexpensive, readily available anti-inflammatory agent which inhibits NF-κB in in vitro models. We examined whether it was possible to safely achieve and maintain salicylate levels known to inhibit NF-κB in vitro in 11 patients with MDS or AML taking sodium salicylate. Most patients achieved the target blood salicylate level (20-30mg/dL) with acceptable toxicity, including reversible grade 1/2 elevations of hepatic transaminases (n=4) and ototoxicity (n=4). One patient had grade 3/4 elevations in AST/ALT. This study suggests that sodium salicylate may be safely combined with conventional chemotherapy regimens which are not associated with significant ototoxicity or hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modification of zirconium diphosphate with salicylic acid and its effect on the uranium (Vi) sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almazan T, M. G.; Garcia G, N.; Simoni, E.

    2014-10-01

    The surface of zirconium diphosphate (ZrP 2 O 7 ) was modified with salicylic acid and its effect was evaluated on the uranium (Vi) sorption. The modified surface of the material was analyzed with different analytical techniques among which are included the atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This analysis allowed showing that the salicylic acid is being held on the surface of the zirconium diphosphate. The reactivity of modified zirconium diphosphate compared with uranium (Vi) was investigated using the classical method of batch sorption. The analysis of sorption isotherms shows that the salicylic acid has an important effect in the uranium (Vi) sorption. According to the study conducted, the interaction among the uranium (Vi) and the surface of zirconium diphosphate modified with the salicylic acid most likely leads to the complexes formation of binary (U(Vi)/ZrP 2 O 7 ) and ternary (U(Vi)/salicylate/ZrP 2 O 7 ) surface. (Author)

  17. The relationships between menthol cigarette preference and state tobacco control policies on smoking behaviors of young adult smokers in the 2006-07 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Surveys (TUS CPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahijevych, Karen; Ford, Jodi

    2010-12-01

    To examine relationships between the preference for menthol cigarettes and young adult smoking behaviors, including the extent to which state tobacco control policies moderate these relationships. Cross-sectional design using secondary data from the 2006-07 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Surveys (TUS CPS) surveys appended with 2006 state-policy data. United States nationally representative survey. A total of 2241 young adult daily smokers and 688 young adult non-daily smokers. The two dependent variables of smoking behaviors were smoking first cigarette within 30 minutes of waking (TTF) and number of cigarettes smoked per day (cpd). Primary independent variables included menthol brand preference and state tobacco control policies (youth access laws, clean indoor air laws and cigarette excise taxes), adjusting for controls. Among daily smokers, there were no significant associations between menthol brand preference and TTF or cpd. However, lower educational attainment, not being in the labor force and the lack of home smoking rules were associated positively with shorter TTF, being white and the lack of home smoking rules were associated positively with cpd. Among daily smokers, state excise taxes were associated negatively with higher cpd. Among non-daily smokers, menthol brand preference was associated positively with shorter TTF, but associations did not vary with state tobacco control policies. Menthol brand preference was not associated significantly with cpd, but male gender, unmarried status and the lack of home smoking rules were associated positively with greater cpd among non-daily smokers. Young adult non-daily smokers who preferred menthol cigarettes were significantly more dependent than those who preferred non-menthol cigarettes, as shown through the shorter TTF. Associations between menthol brand preference and smoking behaviors did not vary with state tobacco control policies. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the

  18. Comparison of serum cotinine concentration within and across smokers of menthol and nonmenthol cigarette brands among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white U.S. adult smokers, 2001-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Ralph S; Holiday, David B; Stellman, Steven D; Mowery, Paul D; Giovino, Gary A; Muscat, Joshua E; Eriksen, Michael P; Bernert, John T; Richter, Patricia A; Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2011-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is examining options for regulating menthol content in cigarettes. There are many pharmacologic properties of menthol that may facilitate exposure to tobacco smoke, and it has been suggested that the preference for menthol cigarettes in black smokers accounts for their higher cotinine levels. To assess cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted cotinine levels in relation to smoking a menthol or nonmenthol cigarette brand among non-Hispanic black and white U.S. adult smokers under natural smoking conditions. Serum cotinine concentrations were measured in 1,943 smokers participating in the 2001 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The effect of smoking a menthol brand on cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted serum cotinine levels in these two populations was modeled by adjusting for sex, age, number of smokers living in the home, body weight, time since last smoked, and FTC (Federal Trade Commission)-measured nicotine levels. The 8- or 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC) on the cigarette label was used to determine the cigarette brand and whether it was menthol. Smoking a menthol cigarette brand versus smoking a nonmenthol cigarette brand was not associated (P ≥ 0.05) with mean serum cotinine concentration in either black or white smokers. The higher levels of cotinine observed in black smokers compared with white smokers are not explained by their higher preference for menthol cigarette brands. Further studies like ours are needed to improve our ability to understand health consequences of future changes in tobacco product design. ©2011 AACR

  19. Ground-State Proton Transfer Tautomer of Al(III)-Salicylate Complexes in Ethanol Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zheming (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Friedrich, Donald (Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc.); Ainsworth, Calvin C.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hemmer, Staci L.(UNIVERSITY PROGRAMS); Joly, Alan G.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Beversluis, Michael R.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY)

    2001-01-01

    The tautomerization of salicylate anion in the presence of A1(III) in ethanol was studied by UV? visible absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy, anisotropy, and lifetime measurements from 100 to 298 K. Complexation with A1(III) causes an equilibrium shift from the normal form of the salicylate anion toward the tautomer form, demonstrating that the presence of a highly charged cation, A1(III), stabilizes the tautomer form of salicylate. Spectra and fluorescence lifetimes of salicylate and other salicyl derivatives in the presence of A1(III) reveal three types of A1(III)-salicylate complexes. In type I complexes, salicylate binds to A1(III) through the carboxylate group, preserving the intramolecular hydrogen bond between the carbonyl oxygen and the phenol group, as indicated by the largely Stokes-shifted fluorescence emission following the excited state proton transfer process. In type II complexes, salicylate binds to A1(III) through the carboxylate group, but the phenol proton is oriented away from the carbonyl oxygen so that the complex shows short wavelength fluorescence emission characteristic of substituted phenolic compounds. In type III complexes, A1(III) stabilizes and binds to the tautomer form of salicylate through the phenolate oxygen, in which salicylate exists in its proton transferred tautomer form. Absorption spectra recorded at temperatures between 100 K and 298 K indicate that the type III tautomer complex is energetically favored at low temperature, although type I is the dominant species at room temperature. All three types of complexes are interconvertible above the ethanol glass transition temperature. However, below the glass transition temperature interconversion ceases, indicating large amplitude atomic motion is involved in the conversion.

  20. Sugar-free menthol candy drops improve the palatability and bowel cleansing effect of polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Ala I; El-Halabi, Mustapha M; Abou Fadel, Carla G; Sarkis, Fayez S

    2013-12-01

    Colon preparations are generally poorly tolerated. To study the efficacy of sugar-free candy drops in improving palatability and tolerability of polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG-E). Single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. University medical center. Ambulatory patients scheduled for elective colonoscopy. Menthol candy drops. Patients were randomly assigned to split-dose, 4-L, PEG-E ± cough drops. Palatability was assessed on a linear scale of 1 to 5 (1 = disgusting; 5 = tasty). Quality of preparation, remaining unconsumed volume, and side effects were secondary outcomes. Palatability and tolerability of PEG-E. A total of 99 patients were enrolled (50 control group, 49 candy drops-added group). The mean (± standard deviation) palatability score was significantly better in candy drop users versus controls (3.9 ± 0.7 vs 2.8 ± 1.2, respectively; P candy drops vs 44% controls; P = .04). The amount of unconsumed PEG-E was not different between candy drop and control groups (128 [± 361 mL] versus 69 [± 194 mL], respectively; P = .32) but was significantly lower in excellent grade preparations versus other grades (31 [± 103 mL] versus 162 [± 384 mL], respectively; P = .024). On multivariate logistic regression, an excellent preparation was associated with candy drops (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-7.8; P = .006) and smaller unconsumed volume of same-day PEG-E [OR 0.996, 95% CI, 0.992-1.000; P = .044). Single-center study. Sugar-free menthol candy drops are a safe and effective addition to split-dose PEG-E, resulting in improved tolerability and patient compliance, which appears to translate into improved bowel cleansing. ( NCT01541683.). Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  1. Paracetamol and salicylic acid removal from contaminated water by microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escapa, C; Coimbra, R N; Paniagua, S; García, A I; Otero, M

    2017-12-01

    The biomass growth, pharmaceutical removal and light conversion efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana under the presence of paracetamol (PC) and salicylic acid (SaC) were assessed and compared at two different concentrations of these pharmaceuticals (I: 25 mg l -1 , II: 250 mg l -1 ). Microalgae were resistant to these concentrations and, moreover, their growth was significantly stimulated (p ≤ 0.05) under these drugs (biomass concentration increased above 33% PCI, 35% SaCI, 13% PCII and 45% SaCII, as compared with the respective positive controls). At the steady state of the semicontinuous culture, C. sorokiniana showed removal efficiencies above 41% and 69% for PCI and PCII, respectively; and above 93% and 98% for SaCI and SaCII, respectively. Under an irradiance of 370 μE m -2  s -1 , higher quantum yields were reached by microalgae under the presence of drugs, either at dose I or II, than by the respective positive controls. These results point to C. sorokiniana as a robust strain for the bioremediation of paracetamol and salicylic acid concentrated wastewaters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Complete Molecular Geometry of Salicyl Aldehyde from Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorosh, O.; Bialkowska-Jaworska, E.; Kisiel, Z.; Pszczolkowski, L.; Kanska, M.; Krygowski, T. M.; Maeder, H.

    2013-06-01

    Salicyl aldehyde is a well known planar molecule containing an internal hydrogen bond. In preparing the publication of our previous report of the study of its rotational spectrum we have taken the opportunity to update the structure determination of this molecule to the complete r_e^{SE} geometry. The molecule contains 15 atoms and we have used supersonic expansion FTMW spectroscopy to obtain rotational constants for a total 26 different isotopic species, including all singly substitued species relative to the parent molecule. The ^{13}C and ^{18}O substitutions were measured in natural abundance, while deuterium substitutions were carried out synthetically. The r_e^{SE} determination requires the calculation of vibration-rotation changes in rotational constants from an ab initio anharmonic force field, which necessitates some compromises in the level of calculation for a molecule of the size of salicyl aldehyde. For this reason we studied the five lowest vibrationally excited states, by using the combination of room-temperature mm-wave spectroscopy and waveguide Fourier transform cm-wave spectroscopy. The experimental excited state rotational constants were then used to calibrate the anharmonic force field calculation. The resulting r_e^{SE} geometry is compared with other types of geometry determination possible from this data, with emphasis on the effect of the near zero principal coordinate of the important C_2 atom. Z.Kisiel et al., 61^{st} OSU Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, The Ohio State University, Ohio 2006, RI-12.

  3. Comparison of the efficacy of Apiguard (thymol) and Apivar (amitraz) in the control of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leza, M.M.; Lladó, G.; Miranda-Chueca, M.A.

    2015-07-01

    The present study compared the efficacy of Apivar (a.i. amitraz) and Apiguard (a.i. thymol) in controlling the mite Varroa destructor during spring 2010 and autumn 2011, in the Balearic Islands (Spain). Number of fallen mites (NFM) was counted weekly and the efficacy of treatments was evaluated by using the percentage of reduction of the average daily fallen mites (%R). During spring assay, the average NFM was highly reduced in Apiguard (89.8%) compared to Apivar (64.3%) group, with significant differences between Apiguard and control group (untreated group) in post-treatment week. In autumn assay, Apivar and Apiguard colonies had an average reduction of the NFM of 17.9% and 30.8% respectively, showing a tendency in reduction between control and Apiguard group in post-treatment week. In both assays, %R was higher in Apiguard than in Apivar, but no significant differences were found between treatments in any of the seasons. Apiguard was less efficacious during November-December, probably due to the low external temperatures that hampered an optimal volatilization of the product. The lower efficacy of Apivar is probably related to the resistance of V. destructor to this chemical miticide, which has been used during the last 30 years. Results of this study showed that in Mediterranean conditions, spring is an appropriate period for applying Apiguard to the colonies, whereas application in late autumn would decrease the efficacy of the product. Apiguard may represent an alternative product for integrated control due to the low risk of mite resistance and residues in bee products. (Author)

  4. Comparison of the efficacy of Apiguard (thymol and Apivar (amitraz in the control of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mar Leza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the efficacy of Apivar (a.i. amitraz and Apiguard (a.i. thymol in controlling the mite Varroa destructor during spring 2010 and autumn 2011, in the Balearic Islands (Spain. Number of fallen mites (NFM was counted weekly and the efficacy of treatments was evaluated by using the percentage of reduction of the average daily fallen mites (%R. During spring assay, the average NFM was highly reduced in Apiguard (89.8% compared to Apivar (64.3% group, with significant differences between Apiguard and control group (untreated group in post-treatment week. In autumn assay, Apivar and Apiguard colonies had an average reduction of the NFM of 17.9% and 30.8% respectively, showing a tendency in reduction between control and Apiguard group in post-treatment week. In both assays, %R was higher in Apiguard than in Apivar, but no significant differences were found between treatments in any of the seasons. Apiguard was less efficacious during November-December, probably due to the low external temperatures that hampered an optimal volatilization of the product. The lower efficacy of Apivar is probably related to the resistance of V. destructor to this chemical miticide, which has been used during the last 30 years. Results of this study showed that in Mediterranean conditions, spring is an appropriate period for applying Apiguard to the colonies, whereas application in late autumn would decrease the efficacy of the product. Apiguard may represent an alternative product for integrated control due to the low risk of mite resistance and residues in bee products.

  5. Simultaneous determination of the UV-filters benzyl salicylate, phenyl salicylate, octyl salicylate, homosalate, 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor and 3-benzylidene camphor in human placental tissue by LC-MS/MS. Assessment of their in vitro endocrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Díaz, I; Molina-Molina, J M; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Real, M; Sáenz, J M; Fernández, M F; Olea, N

    2013-10-01

    UV-filters are widely used in many personal care products and cosmetics. Recent studies indicate that some organic UV-filters can accumulate in biota and act as endocrine disruptors, but there are few studies on the occurrence and fate of these compounds in humans. In the present work, a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to assess the presence of six UV-filters in current use (benzyl salicylate, phenyl salicylate, octyl salicylate, homosalate, 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor, and 3-benzylidene camphor) in human placental tissue is proposed. The method involves the extraction of the analytes from the samples using ethyl acetate, followed by a clean-up step using centrifugation prior to their quantification by LC-MS/MS using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface. Bisphenol A-d16 was used as surrogate for the determination of benzyl salicylate, phenyl salicylate, octyl salicylate and homosalate in negative mode and benzophenone-d10, was used as surrogate for the determination of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor and 3-benzylidene camphor in positive mode. The found limits of detection ranged from 0.4 to 0.6ngg(-1) and the limits of quantification ranged from 1.3 to 2.0ngg(-1), while variability was under 13.7%. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 97% to 104%. Moreover, the interactions of these compounds with the human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα) and androgen receptor (hAR), using two in vitro bioassays based on reporter gene expression and cell proliferation assessment, were also investigated. All tested compounds, except benzyl salicylate and octyl salicylate, showed estrogenic activity in the E-Screen bioassay whereas only homosalate and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor were potent hAR antagonists. Although free salicylate derivatives and free camphor derivatives were not detected in the human placenta samples analyzed, the observed estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of some of these

  6. Silica-titania xerogel for solid phase spectrophotometric determination of salicylate and its derivatives in biological liquids and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosanova, Maria A; Morosanova, Elena I

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid and its derivatives are widely used drugs with potential toxicity. The main areas of salicylate derivatives determination are biological liquids and pharmaceuticals analysis. Silica-titania xerogel has been used for solid phase spectrophotometric determination of various salicylate derivatives (salicylate, salicylamide, methylsalicylate). The reaction conditions influence on the interaction of salicylate derivatives with silica-titania xerogels has been investigated; the characteristics of titanium(IV)-salicylate derivatives complexes in solid phase have been described. The simple solid phase spectrophotometric procedures are based on the formation of xerogel incorporated titanium(IV) colored complexes with salicylate derivatives. A linear response has been observed in the following concentration ranges 0.1-5, 0.5-10 and 0.05-4.7 mM for salicylate, salicylamide, and methylsalicylate, respectively. The proposed procedures have been applied to the analysis of human urine, synthetic serum, and pharmaceuticals. The simple solid phase spectrophotometric procedures of salicylate derivatives determination based on the new sensor materials have been proposed for biological liquids and pharmaceuticals analysis. Graphical abstractComplexation of titanium (IV), incorporated in silica-titania xerogels (Si-Ti), with salicylate derivatives (L) resulting in yellow-colored xerogels (Si-Ti/Ln) has been proposed for salicylate derivatives determination in biological liquids and pharmaceuticals.

  7. Effects of UV Rays and Thymol/Thymus vulgaris L. Extract in an ex vivo Human Skin Model: Morphological and Genotoxicological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaghi, Laura; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Calò, Rossella; Landoni, Federica; Baruffaldi Preis, William Franz; Marabini, Laura; Donetti, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the major environmental factor affecting functions of the skin. Compounds rich in polyphenols, such as Thymus vulgaris leaf extract and thymol, have been proposed for the prevention of UV-induced skin damage. We compared the acute effects induced by UVA and UVB rays on epidermal morphology and proliferation, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity. Normal human skin explants were obtained from young healthy women (n = 7) after informed consent and cultured at the air-liquid interface overnight. After 24 h, the samples were divided in 2 groups: the former exposed to UVA (16 or 24 J/cm2) and the latter irradiated with UVB (0.24 or 0.72 J/cm2). One hour after the end of irradiation, supernatants were collected for evaluation of the lactate dehydrogenase activity. Twenty-four hours after UVB exposure, biopsies were processed for light and transmission electron microscopy analysis, proliferation, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity. UVB and UVA rays induced early inhibition of cell proliferation and DNA damage compared to controls. In particular, UVB rays were always more cytotoxic and genotoxic than UVA ones. For this reason, we evaluated the effect of either T. vulgaris L. extract (1.82 µg/ml) or thymol (1 µg/ml) on all samples treated for 1 h before UVB irradiation. While Thymus had a protective action for all of the endpoints evaluated, the action of the extract was less pronounced on epidermal proliferation and morphological features. The results presented in this study could be the basis for investigating the mechanism of thymol and T. vulgaris L. extract against the damage induced by UV radiation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Development of novel bepotastine salicylate salt bioequivalent to the commercial bepotastine besilate in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwan Hyung; Choi, Han-Gon

    2013-06-01

    To develop a novel salt form of bepotastine with bioequivalent to the commericial bepostastine besilate, bepostastine salicylate was prepared and its physicochemical properties were investigated. Furthermore, the bepotastine salicylate-loaded tablet was prepared by the wet granulation method, and the dissolution and bioavailability in beagle dogs were evaluated compared to the bepotastine besilate-loaded commercial product. Bepotastine salicylate improved the solubility of bepotastine, and the extent of solubility improvement by salicylate form was similar to that by besilate form. However, this novel salt exhibited negligible hygroscopicity similar to besilate form, and showed slightly higher melting point than besilate form. It was stable in various pH solutions. Furthermore, the bepotastine salicylate-loaded tablet composed of bepotastine salicylate, microcrystalline cellulose, D-mannitol, povidone, sodium starch glycolate and sodium stearyl fumarate at the weight ratio of 9.63/60.97/38/3.6/6/1.8 showed similar dissolution to the bepotastine besilate-loaded commercial product in water, pH 1.2, pH 4.0 and pH 6.8 and was bioequivalent to the commercial product in beagle dogs. Thus, this bepotastine salicylate-loaded tablet would be a promising candidate with bioequivalence to the bepotastine besilate-loaded commercial product.

  9. Functional characterization of salicylate hydroxylase from the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Karen V; Tian, Zipeng; Wang, Yifei; Smith, Jordan; Zylstra, Gerben; Huang, Bingru; Belanger, Faith C

    2015-06-09

    Epichloë spp. are symbiotic fungal endophytes of many cool season grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes often confers insect, drought, and disease tolerance to the host grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes within the host plants does not elicit host defense responses. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known. Epichloë festucae, the endophyte of Festuca rubra, expresses a salicylate hydroxylase similar to NahG from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida. Few fungal salicylate hydroxylase enzymes have been reported. The in planta expression of an endophyte salicylate hydroxylase raised the possibility that degradation of plant-produced salicylic acid is a factor in the mechanism of how the endophyte avoids eliciting host plant defenses. Here we report the characterization of the E. festucae salicylate hydroxylase, designated Efe-shyA. Although the fungal enzyme has the expected activity, based on salicylic acid levels in endophyte-free and endophyte-infected plants it is unlikely that expression of the endophyte salicylate hydroxylase is a factor in the lack of a host defense response to the presence of the fungal endophyte.

  10. Potassium channel activator attenuates salicylate-induced cochlear hearing loss potentially ameliorating tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Na; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Winchester, Wendy; Miranda, Jason A; Salvi, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    High dose sodium salicylate causes moderate, reversible hearing loss and tinnitus. Salicylate-induced hearing loss is believed to arise from a reduction in the electromotile response of outer hair cells (OHCs) and/or reduction of KCNQ4 potassium currents in OHCs, which decreases the driving force for the transduction current. Therefore, enhancing OHC potassium currents could potentially prevent salicylate-induced temporary hearing loss. In this study, we tested whether opening voltage-gated potassium channels using ICA-105665, a novel small molecule that opens KCNQ2/3 and KCNQ3/5 channels, can reduce salicylate-induced hearing loss. We found that systemic application of ICA-105665 at 10 mg/kg prevented the salicylate-induced amplitude reduction and threshold shift in the compound action potentials recorded at the round window of the cochlea. ICA-105665 also prevented the salicylate-induced reduction of distortion-product otoacoustic emission. These results suggest that ICA-105665 partially compensates for salicylate-induced cochlear hearing loss by enhancing KCNQ2/3 and KCNQ3/5 potassium currents and the motility of OHCs.

  11. Highly sensitive electrochemical detection of methyl salicylate using electroactive gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasankar, Yogeswaran; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P

    2013-11-07

    Electrochemical sensing of methyl salicylate, a key plant volatile has been achieved using a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). The electrochemical response of planar gold electrodes, SPCE and AuNP-SPCE in alkaline electrolyte in the presence and absence of methyl salicylate were studied to understand the amperometric response of various electrochemical reactions. The reaction mechanism includes hydrolysis of methyl salicylate and the oxidation of negative species. The electrochemical responses were recorded using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry techniques, where the results showed characteristic signals for methyl salicylate oxidation. Among the examined electrodes, AuNP-SPCE possessed three fold better sensitivity than planar gold and 35 times better sensitivity than SPCE (at 0.5 V). The methyl salicylate sensing by AuNP-SPCE possessed 95% of its methyl salicylate response. The electroanalytical results of soybean extract showed that AuNP-SPCE can be employed for the determination of methyl salicylate in real samples.

  12. Plant methyl salicylate induces defense responses in the rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuo

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a rhizobacterium that promotes plant growth and health. Cultivation of B. subtilis with an uprooted weed on solid medium produced pleat-like architectures on colonies near the plant. To test whether plants emit signals that affect B. subtilis colony morphology, we examined the effect of plant-related compounds on colony morphology. Bacillus subtilis formed mucoid colonies specifically in response to methyl salicylate, which is a plant-defense signal released in response to pathogen infection. Methyl salicylate induced mucoid colony formation by stimulating poly-γ-glutamic acid biosynthesis, which formed enclosing capsules that protected the cells from exposure to antimicrobial compounds. Poly-γ-glutamic acid synthesis depended on the DegS-DegU two-component regulatory system, which activated DegSU-dependent gene transcription in response to methyl salicylate. Bacillus subtilis did not induce plant methyl salicylate production, indicating that the most probable source of methyl salicylate in the rhizosphere is pathogen-infected plants. Methyl salicylate induced B. subtilis biosynthesis of the antibiotics bacilysin and fengycin, the latter of which exhibited inhibitory activity against the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. We propose that B. subtilis may sense plants under pathogen attack via methyl salicylate, and express defense responses that protect both B. subtilis and host plants in the rhizosphere. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Salicylate selectively kills cochlear spiral ganglion neurons by paradoxically up-regulating superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lili; Ding, Dalian; Su, Jiping; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Salvi, Richard

    2013-10-01

    Aspirin and its active ingredient salicylate are potent antioxidants that have been reported to be neuro- and otoprotective. However, when consumed in large quantities, these drugs can cause temporary hearing loss and tinnitus. Moreover, recent studies indicate that after several days of treatment, salicylate selectively destroys the spiral ganglion neurons and auditory nerve fibers that relay sounds from the sensory hair cells to the brain. Why salicylate selectively damages spiral ganglion neurons while sparing the hair cells and supports cells is unclear. Here we show that high dose of salicylate trigger an apoptotic response in spiral ganglion neurons characterized morphologically by soma shrinkage and nuclear condensation and fragmentation plus activation of extrinsic initiator caspase-8 and intrinsic initiator caspase-9 several days after the onset of drug treatment. Salicylate treatment triggered an upsurge in the toxic superoxide radical only in spiral ganglion neurons, but not in neighboring hair cells and support cells. Mn TMPyP pentachloride, a cell permeable scavenger of superoxide blocked the expression of superoxide staining in spiral ganglion neurons and almost completely blocked the damage to the nerve fibers and spiral ganglion neurons. NMDA receptor activation is known to increase neuronal superoxide levels. Since NMDA receptors are mainly found on spiral ganglion neurons and since salicylate enhances NMDA receptor currents, the selective killing of spiral ganglion neurons is likely a consequence of enhanced and sustained activation of NMDA receptors by salicylate.

  14. Functional characterization of salicylate hydroxylase from the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Karen V.; Tian, Zipeng; Wang, Yifei; Smith, Jordan; Zylstra, Gerben; Huang, Bingru; Belanger, Faith C.

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë spp. are symbiotic fungal endophytes of many cool season grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes often confers insect, drought, and disease tolerance to the host grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes within the host plants does not elicit host defense responses. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known. Epichloë festucae, the endophyte of Festuca rubra, expresses a salicylate hydroxylase similar to NahG from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida. Few fungal salicylate hydroxylase enzymes have been reported. The in planta expression of an endophyte salicylate hydroxylase raised the possibility that degradation of plant-produced salicylic acid is a factor in the mechanism of how the endophyte avoids eliciting host plant defenses. Here we report the characterization of the E. festucae salicylate hydroxylase, designated Efe-shyA. Although the fungal enzyme has the expected activity, based on salicylic acid levels in endophyte-free and endophyte-infected plants it is unlikely that expression of the endophyte salicylate hydroxylase is a factor in the lack of a host defense response to the presence of the fungal endophyte. PMID:26055188

  15. Salicylic Acid Induction of Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathways in Wheat Varies by Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondor, Orsolya K; Janda, Tibor; Soós, Vilmos; Pál, Magda; Majláth, Imre; Adak, Malay K; Balázs, Ervin; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity in plants. Although several biochemical and physiological changes have been described in plants treated with salicylic acid, the mode of action of the various treatments has not yet been clarified. The present work reports a detailed comparative study on the effects of different modes of salicylic acid application at the physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic levels. Seed soaking and hydroponic treatments were found to induce various changes in the protective mechanisms of wheat plants. The possible involvement of the flavonoid metabolism in salicylic acid-related stress signaling was also demonstrated. Different salicylic acid treatments were shown to induce different physiological and biochemical processes, with varying responses in the leaves and roots. Hydroponic treatment enhanced the level of oxidative stress, the expression of genes involved in the flavonoid metabolism and the amount of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds, namely ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and the flavonol quercetin in the leaves, while it decreased the ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and flavonol contents and enhanced ascorbate peroxidase activity in the roots. In contrast, seed soaking only elevated the gene expression level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots and caused a slight increase in the amount of flavonols. These results draw attention to the fact that the effects of exogenous salicylic acid application cannot be generalized in different experimental systems and that the flavonoid metabolism may be an important part of the action mechanisms induced by salicylic acid.

  16. Different salicylic acid treatments differentially act through the induction of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Kinga Gondor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid is a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity in plants. Although several biochemical and physiological changes have been described in plants treated with salicylic acid, the mode of action of the various treatments has not yet been clarified. The present work reports a detailed comparative study on the effects of different modes of salicylic acid application at the physiological, metabolomic and transcriptomic levels. Seed soaking and hydroponic treatments were found to induce various changes in the protective mechanisms of wheat plants. The possible involvement of the flavonoid metabolism in salicylic acid-related stress signaling was also demonstrated. Different salicylic acid treatments were shown to induce different physiological and biochemical processes, with varying responses in the leaves and roots. Hydroponic treatment enhanced the level of oxidative stress, the expression of genes involved in the flavonoid metabolism and the amount of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds, namely ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and the flavonol quercetin in the leaves, while it decreased the ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and flavonol contents and enhanced ascorbate peroxidase activity in the roots. In contrast, seed soaking only elevated the gene expression level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots and caused a slight increase in the amount of flavonols. These results draw attention to the fact that the effects of exogenous salicylic acid application cannot be generalized in different experimental systems and that the flavonoid metabolism may be an important part of the action mechanisms induced by salicylic acid.

  17. Effect of topical applications of a novel chlorhexidine-thymol varnish formula on mutans streptococci and caries development in occlusal fissures of permanent molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld-Larsson, Kerstin; Sollenius, Ola; Petersson, Lars G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a new formula of a chlorhexidine-thymol varnish on mutans streptococci (MS) colonization and fissure caries development. METHODS: The study group consisted of 58 healthy adolescents (12-17 years old) undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances...... reduction in the levels of MS in the fissures after the initial treatment was displayed with both varnishes (p .../T varnishes in terms of bacterial growth and caries prevention. For MS suppression, a tendency towards an initially superior effect was displayed with the new formula....

  18. Salicylate-induced hyperacusis in rats: Dose- and frequency-dependent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwon, Kelly; Holfoth, David; Lindner, Julia; Kaier-Green, Zoe; Bowler, Rachael; Urban, Maxwell; Salvi, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The use of auditory reaction time is a reliable measure of loudness perception in both animals and humans with reaction times (RT) decreasing with increasing stimulus intensity. Since abnormal loudness perception is a common feature of hyperacusis, a potentially debilitating auditory disorder in which moderate-intensity sounds are perceived as uncomfortable or painfully loud, we used RT measures to assess rats for salicylate-induced hyperacusis. A previous study using an operant conditioning RT procedure found that high-dose sodium salicylate (SS) induced hyperacusis-like behavior, i.e., faster than normal RTs to moderate and high level sounds, when rats were tested with broadband noise stimuli. However, it was not clear from that study if salicylate induces hyperacusis-like behavior in a dose- or frequency-dependent manner. Therefore, the goals of the current study were to determine how RT-intensity functions were altered by different doses of salicylate, and, using tone bursts, to determine if salicylate induces hyperacusis-like behavior across the entire frequency spectrum or only at certain frequencies. Similar to previous physiological studies, we began to see faster than normal RTs for sounds 60 dB SPL and greater with salicylate doses of 150 mg/kg and higher; indicating the rats were experiencing hyperacusis at high salicylate doses. In addition, high-dose salicylate significantly reduced RTs across all stimulus frequencies tested which suggests that a central neural excitability mechanism may be a potential driver of salicylate-induced changes in loudness perception and hyperacusis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Mucoadhesive Fenretinide Patches for Site-specific Chemoprevention of Oral Cancer: Enhancement of Oral Mucosal Permeation of Fenretinide by Co-incorporation of Propylene Glycol and Menthol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Desai, Kashappa-Goud H.; Mallery, Susan R.; Holpuch, Andrew S.; Phelps, Maynard P.; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance oral mucosal permeation of fenretinide by co-incorporation of propylene glycol (PG) and menthol in fenretinide/Eudragit® RL PO mucoadhesive patches. Fenretinide is an extremely hydrophobic chemopreventive compound with poor tissue permeability. Co-incorporation of 5-10 wt% PG (mean Js = 16-23 μg cm−2 h−1; 158-171 μg fenretinide/g tissue) or 1-10 wt% PG + 5 wt% menthol (mean Js = 18-40 μg cm−2 h−1; 172-241 μg fenretinide/g tissue) in fenretinide/Eudragit® RL PO patches led to significant ex vivo fenretinide permeation enhancement (p < 0.001). Addition of PG above 2.5 wt% in the patch resulted in significant cellular swelling in the buccal mucosal tissues. These alterations were ameliorated by combining both enhancers and reducing PG level. After buccal administration of patches in rabbits, in vivo permeation of fenretinide across the oral mucosa was greater (~43 μg fenretinide/g tissue) from patches that contained optimized permeation enhancer content (2.5 wt% PG + 5 wt% menthol) relative to permeation obtained from enhancer-free patch (~ 17 μg fenretinide/g tissue) (p < 0.001). In vitro and in vivo release of fenretinide from patch was not significantly increased by co-incorporation of permeation enhancers, indicating that mass transfer across the tissue, and not the patch, largely determined the permeation rate control in vivo. As a result of its improved permeation and its lack of deleterious local effects, the mucoadhesive fenretinide patch co-incorporated with 2.5 wt% PG + 5 wt% menthol represents an important step in the further preclinical evaluation of oral site-specific chemoprevention strategies with fenretinide. PMID:22280430

  20. EFFICACY AND SAFETY FOR THE COMBINATION OF PHENYLEPHRINE, NAPHAZOLINE, CHLORPHENIRAMINE MALEATE, MENTHOL AND CAMPHOR IN PATIENTS OF ALLERGICCONJUNCTIVITIS AND INFLAMMATION OF A NON-INFECTIOUS ORIGIN

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mayuresh Dilip Kiran* & Lalit Jeevan Pawaskar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Allergic conjunctivitis is an inflammatory response caused by an allergen when it interacts with IgE bound mast cells. Ocular redness, ocular itching and ocular discharge are the main symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. Combination of Phenylephrine and Naphazoline which are vasoconstrictors used for the treatment of ocular redness, Chlorpheniramine maleate as an antihistaminic drugused for the treatment of ocular allergy and Menthol and Camphor used to give cooling effect to...

  1. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium (VI) using Cyanex 272 in kerosene from sodium salicylate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamble, Pravin N.; Mohite, Baburao S.; Suryavanshi, Vishal J.; Salunkhe, Suresh T.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium (VI) from sodium salicylate media using Cyanex 272 in kerosene has been carried out. Uranium (VI) was quantitatively extracted from 1x10 -4 M sodium salicylate with 5x10 -4 M Cyanex 272 in kerosene. It was stripped quantitatively from the organic phase with 4M HCl and determined spectrophotometrically with arsenazo(III) at 600 nm. The effects of concentrations of sodium salicylate, metal ions and strippants have been studied. Separation of uranium (VI) from other elements was achieved from binary as well as from multicomponent mixtures. The method is simple, rapid and selective with good reproducibility (approximately ±2%). (author)

  2. Mathematical modeling of complexing in the scandium-salicylic acid-isoamyl alcohol system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evseev, A.M.; Smirnova, N.S.; Fadeeva, V.I.; Tikhomirova, T.I.; Kir'yanov, Yu.A.

    1984-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of an equilibrium multicomponent physicochemical system for extraction of Sc salicylate complexes by isoamyl alcohol was conducted. To calculate the equilibrium concentrations of Sc complexes different with respect to the content and composition, the system of nonlinear algebraic mass balance equations was solved. Experimental data on the extraction of Sc salicylates by isoamyl alcohol versus the pH of the solution at a constant Sc concentration and different concentration of salicylate-ions were used for construction of the mathematical model. The stability constants of ScHSal 2+ , Sc(HSal) 3 , ScOH(HSal) 2 , ScoH(HSal) 2 complexes were calculated

  3. Thymol treatment of bacteria prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis aids in identifying certain bacteria at the subspecies level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Ricky D; Wilkes, Jon G; Cooper, Willie M; Alusta, Pierre; Williams, Anna; Pearce, Bruce; Beaudoin, Michael; Buzatu, Dan

    2014-12-15

    The identification of bacteria based on mass spectra produced by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) has become routine since its introduction in 1996. The major drawback is that bacterial patterns produced by MALDI are dependent on sample preparation prior to analysis. This results in poor reproducibility in identifying bacterial types and between laboratories. The need for a more broadly applicable and useful sample handling procedure is warranted. Thymol was added to the suspension solvent of bacteria prior to MALDI analysis. The suspension solvent consisted of ethanol, water and TFA. The bacterium was added to the thymol suspension solvent and heated. An aliquot of the bacterial suspension was mixed directly with the matrix solution at a 9:1 ratio, matrix/bacteria solution, respectively. The mixture was then placed on the MALDI plate and allowed to air dry before MALDI analysis. The thymol method improved the quality of spectra and number of peaks when compared to other sample preparation procedures studied. The bacterium-identifying biomarkers assigned to four strains of E. coli were statistically 95% reproducible analyzed on three separate days. The thymol method successfully differentiated between the four E. coli strains. In addition, the thymol procedure could identify nine out of ten S. enterica serovars over a 3-day period and nine S. Typhimurium strains from the other ten serovars 90% of the time over the same period. The thymol method can identify certain bacteria at the sub-species level and yield reproducible results over time. It improves the quality of spectra by increasing the number of peaks when compared to the other sample preparation methods assessed in this study. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. An open-label, single-arm study assessing the efficacy and safety of L: -menthol sprayed onto the gastric mucosa during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiki, Naoki; Kaminishi, Michio; Tanabe, Satoshi; Fujisaki, Junko; Yoshino, Junji; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Ashida, Kiyoshi; Kawabe, Takao; Kawano, Tatsuyuki; Nomura, Sachiyo; Yahagi, Naohisa; Tajiri, Hisao; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2011-07-01

    The results of a phase III, placebo-controlled study demonstrated that endoscopic direct spraying of L: -menthol onto the gastric mucosa effectively suppressed gastric peristalsis in the study patients. The aim of the study reported here was to determine whether the anti-peristaltic effect of an L: -menthol preparation facilitates endoscopic examinations in a clinical setting. This was a multicenter, open-label, single-arm trial in which the study cohort comprised patients in whom L: -menthol was likely to be used to facilitate endoscopic examination in clinical settings. The primary outcome was the proportion of subjects with no peristalsis (Grade 1) after treatment and at the end of endoscopy (defined as the complete suppression of gastric peristalsis). This variable was assessed according to the level of anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, pepsinogen test results, whether sedation was performed, and whether subjects were considered unsuitable for the use of conventional antispasmodics. Of the 119 enrolled subjects, data from 112 were included in the primary efficacy analysis. Gastric peristalsis was completely suppressed in 37.5% of the patients [42/112 patients; 95% confidence interval (CI) 28.5-47.1]. Subgroup analyses revealed that the rate of peristalsis suppression was significantly higher in patients with elevated levels of anti-H. pylori IgG antibody (26/44, 59.1%; 95% CI 43.2-73.7); P peristalsis during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  5. Crystal structure of 2,5-dimethylanilinium salicylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The title molecular salt, C8H12N+·C7H5O3− arose from the proton-transfer reaction between 2,5-xylidine and salicylic acid. In the anion, the dihedral angle between the planes of the aromatic ring and the –CO2− group is 11.08 (8°; this near planarity is consolidated by an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, the components are connected by N—H...O hydrogen bonds, with all three O atoms in the anion acting as acceptors; the result is a [100] chain. The structure also features weak C—H...O bonds and aromatic π–π stacking [centroid-to-centroid distance = 3.7416 (10 Å] interactions, which lead to a three-dimensional network.

  6. Indomethacin and salicylate decrease epinephrine-induced glycogenolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.D.; Ganguli, S.; Artal, R.; Sperling, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Epinephrine (E) produces an immediate (0-30 minutes) rise in hepatic glucose production (Ra), largely due to activation of glycogenolysis; thereafter, E-stimulated gluconeogenesis becomes the major factor maintaining glucose production. To investigate the possible role of arachidonic acid metabolites on Ra during E stimulation, the authors infused E in trained conscious dogs before and during administration of two inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism, indomethacin (INDO) and salicylate (S). On separate days, experimental animals were treated with both oral and IV INDO and oral acetylsalicylic acid and IV sodium salicylate. Ra and glucose utilization (Rd), both in mg x kg-1 min-1, were calculated by isotope dilution using 3- 3 H-glucose. After achieving steady state specific activity, control (C) and experimental animals (n . 6 per group) received E (0.1 ug x kg-1 min-1) for 150 minutes, raising plasma levels to approximately 1500 pg/mL in each group. In C, plasma glucose (G; mg/dL) rose by 17 +/- 5 at 10 minutes and 19 +/- 3 at 20 minutes due to an initial spike in Ra (2.7 +/- 0.2 to 4.9 +/- 0.5; P less than 0.01) at 10 minutes. INDO and S treatment attenuated this initial (10-20 minutes) rise in G (P less than 0.05) due to a lower stimulated Ra at 10 minutes (3.3 +/- 0.1 with INDO; 3.0 +/- 0.5 with S; P less than 0.05). After 20 minutes Ra was not different in the 3 groups; no overall differences in Rd, glucose clearance, or plasma insulin levels occurred with INDO or S treatment

  7. Indomethacin and salicylate decrease epinephrine-induced glycogenolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.D.; Ganguli, S.; Artal, R.; Sperling, M.A.

    1985-02-01

    Epinephrine (E) produces an immediate (0-30 minutes) rise in hepatic glucose production (Ra), largely due to activation of glycogenolysis; thereafter, E-stimulated gluconeogenesis becomes the major factor maintaining glucose production. To investigate the possible role of arachidonic acid metabolites on Ra during E stimulation, the authors infused E in trained conscious dogs before and during administration of two inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism, indomethacin (INDO) and salicylate (S). On separate days, experimental animals were treated with both oral and IV INDO and oral acetylsalicylic acid and IV sodium salicylate. Ra and glucose utilization (Rd), both in mg x kg-1 min-1, were calculated by isotope dilution using 3-/sup 3/H-glucose. After achieving steady state specific activity, control (C) and experimental animals (n . 6 per group) received E (0.1 ug x kg-1 min-1) for 150 minutes, raising plasma levels to approximately 1500 pg/mL in each group. In C, plasma glucose (G; mg/dL) rose by 17 +/- 5 at 10 minutes and 19 +/- 3 at 20 minutes due to an initial spike in Ra (2.7 +/- 0.2 to 4.9 +/- 0.5; P less than 0.01) at 10 minutes. INDO and S treatment attenuated this initial (10-20 minutes) rise in G (P less than 0.05) due to a lower stimulated Ra at 10 minutes (3.3 +/- 0.1 with INDO; 3.0 +/- 0.5 with S; P less than 0.05). After 20 minutes Ra was not different in the 3 groups; no overall differences in Rd, glucose clearance, or plasma insulin levels occurred with INDO or S treatment.

  8. Indomethacin and salicylate decrease epinephrine-induced glycogenolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J D; Ganguli, S; Artal, R; Sperling, M A

    1985-02-01

    Epinephrine (E) produces an immediate (0-30 minutes) rise in hepatic glucose production (Ra), largely due to activation of glycogenolysis; thereafter, E-stimulated gluconeogenesis becomes the major factor maintaining glucose production. To investigate the possible role of arachidonic acid metabolites on Ra during E stimulation, we infused E in trained conscious dogs before and during administration of two inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism, indomethacin (INDO) and salicylate (S). On separate days, experimental animals were treated with both oral and IV INDO and oral acetylsalicylic acid and IV sodium salicylate. Ra and glucose utilization (Rd), both in mg x kg-1 min-1, were calculated by isotope dilution using 3-3H-glucose. After achieving steady state specific activity, control (C) and experimental animals (n = 6 per group) received E (0.1 ug x kg-1 min-1) for 150 minutes, raising plasma levels to approximately 1500 pg/mL in each group. In C, plasma glucose (G; mg/dL) rose by 17 +/- 5 at 10 minutes and 19 +/- 3 at 20 minutes due to an initial spike in Ra (2.7 +/- 0.2 to 4.9 +/- 0.5; P less than 0.01) at 10 minutes. INDO and S treatment attenuated this initial (10-20 minutes) rise in G (P less than 0.05) due to a lower stimulated Ra at 10 minutes (3.3 +/- 0.1 with INDO; 3.0 +/- 0.5 with S; P less than 0.05). After 20 minutes Ra was not different in the 3 groups; no overall differences in Rd, glucose clearance, or plasma insulin levels occurred with INDO or S treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Both central and peripheral auditory systems are involved in salicylate-induced tinnitus in rats: a behavioral study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyin Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to establish a low dose salicylate-induced tinnitus rat model and to investigate whether central or peripheral auditory system is involved in tinnitus. METHODS: Lick suppression ratio (R, lick count and lick latency of conditioned rats in salicylate group (120 mg/kg, intraperitoneally and saline group were first compared. Bilateral auditory nerves were ablated in unconditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared before and after ablation. The ablation was then performed in conditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared between salicylate group and saline group and between ablated and unablated salicylate groups. RESULTS: Both the R value and the lick count in salicylate group were significantly higher than those in saline group and lick latency in salicylate group was significantly shorter than that in saline group. No significant changes were observed in lick count and lick latency before and after ablation. After ablation, lick count and lick latency in salicylate group were significantly higher and shorter respectively than those in saline group, but they were significantly lower and longer respectively than those in unablated salicylate group. CONCLUSION: A low dose of salicylate (120 mg/kg can induce tinnitus in rats and both central and peripheral auditory systems participate in the generation of salicylate-induced tinnitus.

  10. Both central and peripheral auditory systems are involved in salicylate-induced tinnitus in rats: a behavioral study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyin; Feng, Lining; Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yongzhu; Chang, Haifeng; Cui, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to establish a low dose salicylate-induced tinnitus rat model and to investigate whether central or peripheral auditory system is involved in tinnitus. Lick suppression ratio (R), lick count and lick latency of conditioned rats in salicylate group (120 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and saline group were first compared. Bilateral auditory nerves were ablated in unconditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared before and after ablation. The ablation was then performed in conditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared between salicylate group and saline group and between ablated and unablated salicylate groups. Both the R value and the lick count in salicylate group were significantly higher than those in saline group and lick latency in salicylate group was significantly shorter than that in saline group. No significant changes were observed in lick count and lick latency before and after ablation. After ablation, lick count and lick latency in salicylate group were significantly higher and shorter respectively than those in saline group, but they were significantly lower and longer respectively than those in unablated salicylate group. A low dose of salicylate (120 mg/kg) can induce tinnitus in rats and both central and peripheral auditory systems participate in the generation of salicylate-induced tinnitus.

  11. Both Central and Peripheral Auditory Systems Are Involved in Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus in Rats: A Behavioral Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yongzhu; Chang, Haifeng; Cui, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to establish a low dose salicylate-induced tinnitus rat model and to investigate whether central or peripheral auditory system is involved in tinnitus. Methods Lick suppression ratio (R), lick count and lick latency of conditioned rats in salicylate group (120 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and saline group were first compared. Bilateral auditory nerves were ablated in unconditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared before and after ablation. The ablation was then performed in conditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared between salicylate group and saline group and between ablated and unablated salicylate groups. Results Both the R value and the lick count in salicylate group were significantly higher than those in saline group and lick latency in salicylate group was significantly shorter than that in saline group. No significant changes were observed in lick count and lick latency before and after ablation. After ablation, lick count and lick latency in salicylate group were significantly higher and shorter respectively than those in saline group, but they were significantly lower and longer respectively than those in unablated salicylate group. Conclusion A low dose of salicylate (120 mg/kg) can induce tinnitus in rats and both central and peripheral auditory systems participate in the generation of salicylate-induced tinnitus. PMID:25269067

  12. Effect of the phytochemicals curcumin, cinnamaldehyde, thymol and carvacrol on the oxidative stability of corn and palm oils at frying temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnanç Horuz, Tuğba; Maskan, Medeni

    2015-12-01

    Several active components naturally available in plants are strongly considered as good antioxidants to retard the lipid oxidation. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of frying temperature (150-180 °C) and concentration of four plant-based active components (60-350 mg/kg oil); curcumin, cinnamaldehyde, thymol and carvacrol on oxidative stability of corn and palm oils. According to induction time values, the stability of oils drastically decreased with increasing temperature. Curcumin and cinnamaldehyde showed no significant effect (p > 0.05) on both oils. Carvacrol significantly increased induction times of corn and palm oils, but thymol was effective in palm oil only (p frying experiment was carried out with only corn oil to confirm efficiency of carvacrol. The free fatty acid (%), peroxide value (meq/kg), para-anisidine, and total polar component values (%) of the fresh oil were 0.080, 2.55, 2.85, and 7.5, respectively. These values changed to 0.144, 1.47, 12.01, 10.0, respectively for the control oil; 0.138, 2.27, 11.49, 10.0 for BHT-added oil; 0.132, 1.42, 5.66, 9.5 for carvacrol-added oil after 30 frying cycles. Therefore, carvacrol could be considered as a good alternative to BHT for preservation of oils at frying temperatures.

  13. Production of Recombinant Antimicrobial Polymeric Protein Beta Casein-E 50-52 and Its Antimicrobial Synergistic Effects Assessment with Thymol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Fahimirad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating emergence of antimicrobial resistance among food pathogens and consumers’ increasing demands for preservative-free foods are two contemporary challenging aspects within the food industry. Antimicrobial packaging and the use of natural preservatives are promising solutions. In the present study, we used beta-casein—one of the primary self-assembly proteins in milk with a high polymeric film production capability—as a fusion partner for the recombinant expression of E 50-52 antimicrobial peptide in Escherichia coli. The pET21a-BCN-E 50-52 construct was transformed to E. coli BL21 (DE3, and protein expression was induced under optimized conditions. Purified protein obtained from nickel affinity chromatography was refolded under optimized dialysis circumstances and concentrated to 1600 µg/mL fusion protein by ultrafiltration. Antimicrobial activities of recombinant BCN-E 50-52 performed against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, and Candida albicans. Subsequently, the synergistic effects of BCN-E 50-52 and thymol were assayed. Results of checkerboard tests showed strong synergistic activity between two compounds. Time–kill and growth kinetic studies indicated a sharp reduction of cell viability during the first period of exposure, and SEM (scanning electron microscope results validated the severe destructive effects of BCN E 50-52 and thymol in combination on bacterial cells.

  14. Chemical composition, olfactory analysis and antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris chemotypes geraniol, 4-thujanol/terpinen-4-ol, thymol and linalool cultivated in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Erich; Wanner, Jürgen; Hiiferl, Martina; Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Geissler, Margit

    2012-08-01

    The essential oils of four chemotypes of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) were analyzed for their composition and antibacterial activity to assess their different properties. GC-MS and GC-FID analyses revealed that the essentials oils can be classified into the chemotypes thymol (41.0% thymol), geraniol (26.4% geraniol), linalool (72.5% linalool) and 4-thujanol/terpinen-4-ol (42.2% cis- and 7.3% trans-sabinene hydrate, 6.5 % terpinen-4-ol). The olfactory examination confirmed the explicit differences between these chemotypes. Furthermore, antibacterial activity was investigated against several strains of two Gram-positive (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Staphylococcus aureus) and four Gram-negative food-borne bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. fragi). All essential oil samples were demonstrated to be highly effective against Gram-positive strains, whereas the impact on Gram-negative microorganisms was significantly smaller, but still considerable. The results obtained indicate that, despite their different properties, the essential oils of selected T. vulgaris chemotypes are potent antimicrobials to be employed as useful additives in food products as well as for therapeutic applications.

  15. Hydrolytic metabolism of phenyl and benzyl salicylates, fragrances and flavoring agents in foods, by microsomes of rat and human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Hitomi; Sugihara, Kazumi; Tamura, Yuki; Fujino, Chieri; Watanabe, Yoko; Uramaru, Naoto; Sone, Tomomichi; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2015-12-01

    Salicylates are used as fragrance and flavor ingredients for foods, as UV absorbers and as medicines. Here, we examined the hydrolytic metabolism of phenyl and benzyl salicylates by various tissue microsomes and plasma of rats, and by human liver and small-intestinal microsomes. Both salicylates were readily hydrolyzed by tissue microsomes, predominantly in small intestine, followed by liver, although phenyl salicylate was much more rapidly hydrolyzed than benzyl salicylate. The liver and small-intestinal microsomal hydrolase activities were completely inhibited by bis(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate, and could be extracted with Triton X-100. Phenyl salicylate-hydrolyzing activity was co-eluted with carboxylesterase activity by anion exchange column chromatography of the Triton X-100 extracts of liver and small-intestinal microsomes. Expression of rat liver and small-intestinal isoforms of carboxylesterase, Ces1e and Ces2c (AB010632), in COS cells resulted in significant phenyl salicylate-hydrolyzing activities with the same specific activities as those of liver and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively. Human small-intestinal microsomes also exhibited higher hydrolyzing activity than liver microsomes towards these salicylates. Human CES1 and CES2 isozymes expressed in COS cells both readily hydrolyzed phenyl salicylate, but the activity of CES2 was higher than that of CES1. These results indicate that significant amounts of salicylic acid might be formed by microsomal hydrolysis of phenyl and benzyl salicylates in vivo. The possible pharmacological and toxicological effects of salicylic acid released from salicylates present in commercial products should be considered. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Total synthesis of marinomycin A using salicylate as a molecular switch to mediate dimerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, P. Andrew; Huang, Mu-Hua; Lawler, Michael J.; Maroto, Sergio

    2012-08-01

    Antibiotics play a significant role in human health because of their ability to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. The growing problems with antibiotic resistance have made the development of new antibiotics a World Health Organization priority. Marinomycin A is a member of a new class of bis-salicylate-containing polyene macrodiolides, which have potent antibiotic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Herein, we describe a triply convergent synthesis of this agent using the salicylate as a novel molecular switch for the chemoselective construction of the macrodiolide. This strategy raises new questions regarding the biosynthetic role of the salicylate and its potential impact on the mechanism of action of these types of agents. For instance, in contrast to penicillin, which enhances the electrophilicity of the cyclic amide through ring strain, salicylates reduce the electrophilicity of the aryl ester through an intramolecular resonance-assisted hydrogen bond to provide an amide surrogate.

  17. Diazepam reduces excitability of amygdala and further influences auditory cortex following sodium salicylate treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Liu, Junxiu; Ma, Furong; Mao, Lanqun

    2016-12-01

    Diazepam can reduce the excitability of lateral amygdala and eventually suppress the excitability of the auditory cortex in rats following salicylate treatment, indicating the regulating effect of lateral amygdala to the auditory cortex in the tinnitus procedure. To study the spontaneous firing rates (SFR) of the auditory cortex and lateral amygdala regulated by diazepam in the tinnitus rat model induced by sodium salicylate. This study first created a tinnitus rat modal induced by sodium salicylate, and recorded SFR of both auditory cortex and lateral amygdala. Then diazepam was intraperitoneally injected and the SFR changes of lateral amygdala recorded. Finally, diazepam was microinjected on lateral amygdala and the SFR changes of the auditory cortex recorded. Both SFRs of the auditory cortex and lateral amygdala increased after salicylate treatment. SFR of lateral amygdala decreased after intraperitoneal injection of diazepam. Microinjecting diazepam to lateral amygdala decreased SFR of the auditory cortex ipsilaterally and contralaterally.

  18. Bromodecarboxylation of quinoline salicylic acids: increasing the diversity of accessible substituted quinolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Kristin; Kaila, Neelu

    2009-11-20

    Quinoline salicylic acids underwent bromodecarboxylation at room temperature upon treatment with N-bromosuccinimide. A wide variety of functional groups was tolerated. Several one-pot transformations were also carried out, allowing the preparation of diverse 4-substituted quinolines.

  19. Ingestion of chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) reduces salicylate bioavailability after oral asprin administration in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, L; Castañeda-Hernández, G; Navarrete, A

    1999-06-01

    The bioavailabilities of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and of salicylic acid were studied in male Wistar rats after acute and chronic administration of a Capsicum annuum extract, containing 100 mg of capsaicin per gram. With a single administration of 100 mg/kg of the extract, aspirin blood levels remained unchanged, but salicylic acid bioavailability was reduced in 44% compared with control animals. With a single administration of 300 mg/kg of the extract, aspirin blood levels were undetectable while salicylic acid bioavailability was reduced in 59%. Chronic administration once daily for 4 weeks of 100 and 300 mg/kg of the extract resulted in undetectable aspirin blood levels, while salicylic acid bioavailability was reduced in 63 and 76%, respectively, compared with controls. Results show that Capsicum ingestion reduces oral drug bioavailability, likely as a result of the gastrointestinal effects of capsaicin.

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana cdd1 mutant uncouples the constitutive activation of salicylic acid signalling from growth defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swain, S.; Roy, S.; Shah, J.; Wees, S.C.M. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Nandi, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis genotypes with a hyperactive salicylic acidmediated signalling pathway exhibit enhanced disease resistance, which is often coupled with growth and developmental defects, such as dwarfing and spontaneous necrotic lesions on the leaves, resulting in reduced biomass yield. In this article,

  1. Efficient scavenging of β-carotene radical cations by antiinflammatory salicylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hong; Liang, Ran; Han, Rui-Min

    2014-01-01

    by the anion of salicylic acid with 2.2 × 10 L mol s, but still of possible importance for light-exposed tissue. Surprisingly, acetylsalicylate, the aspirin anion, reacts with an intermediate rate in a reaction assigned to the anion of the mixed acetic-salicylic acid anhydride formed through base induced......The radical cation generated during photobleaching of β-carotene is scavenged efficiently by the anion of methyl salicylate from wintergreen oil in a second-order reaction approaching the diffusion limit with k = 3.2 × 10 L mol s in 9:1 v/v chloroform-methanol at 23 °C, less efficiently...... rearrangements. The relative scavenging rate of the β-carotene radical cation by the three salicylates is supported by DFT-calculations....

  2. Chlorogenic acids biosynthesis in Centella asiatica cells is not stimulated by salicylic acid manipulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ncube, EN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous application of synthetic and natural elicitors of plant defence has been shown to result in mass production of secondary metabolites with nutraceuticals properties in cultured cells. In particular, salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been...

  3. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Methyl Salicylate in Rubbing Alcohol: An Experiment Employing Standard Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis

    1980-01-01

    Provides a gas chromatography experiment that exercises the quantitative technique of standard addition to the analysis for a minor component, methyl salicylate, in a commercial product, "wintergreen rubbing alcohol." (CS)

  4. Efficient scavenging of β-carotene radical cations by antiinflammatory salicylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hong; Liang, Ran; Han, Rui-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif H

    2014-02-01

    The radical cation generated during photobleaching of β-carotene is scavenged efficiently by the anion of methyl salicylate from wintergreen oil in a second-order reaction approaching the diffusion limit with k2 = 3.2 × 10(9) L mol(-1) s(-1) in 9 : 1 v/v chloroform-methanol at 23 °C, less efficiently by the anion of salicylic acid with 2.2 × 10(8) L mol(-1) s(-1), but still of possible importance for light-exposed tissue. Surprisingly, acetylsalicylate, the aspirin anion, reacts with an intermediate rate in a reaction assigned to the anion of the mixed acetic-salicylic acid anhydride formed through base induced rearrangements. The relative scavenging rate of the β-carotene radical cation by the three salicylates is supported by DFT-calculations.

  5. Simultaneous determination of acetylsalicylic and salicylic acids by first derivative spectrometry in pharmaceutical preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogić, Dunja

    1993-03-01

    A multicomponent first derivative UV spectrometric procedure for determination of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and salicylic acid in the solution containing 1 % (w/v) of citric acid in some pharmaceutical preparations is presented. The method is based on the use of the first derivative minimum spectrometric measurements at 286 nm for aspirin and at 318 nm for salicylic acid. Four kinds of cmmercial Aspirin tablets were assayed without a long pretreatment of the pharmaceuticals from the tablet additives. Beer's law is obeyed from 13.62-68.1 μg ml -1 of aspirin and from 2.723-13.616 μg ml -1 of salicylic acid. Detection limits at the 0.05 level of significance were calculated to be 1.24 and 0.25 μg ml -1 with relative standard deviations of 1.09 % and 1.2 % of aspirin and salicylic acid, respectively.

  6. Microautoradiography of 14C-salicylic acid in the skin of guinea-pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washitake, Mitsunori; Ozawa, Yasuo; Anmo, Toshio; Tanaka, Ichiro

    1974-01-01

    The concentration of salicylic acid in guinea-pig skin was examined by microautoradiography. The retention of salicylic acid in the stratum corneum was observed. It was considered that the rate of transfer of the drug into the stratum corneum was small and that the stratum corneum became the barrier for permeability of the skin. The distribution of salicylic acid in other parts of the skin was uniform and no retention of the drug in any special parts was observed. The plasma level showed less percutaneous absorption of the drug when it was applied as liquid paraffin solution than when it was applied as an aqueous solution. The amount of salicylic acid absorbed from damaged skin was extremely large and, in this case, disappearance of the drug from the skin was fast. (author)

  7. The effect of the NMDA channel blocker memantine on salicylate-induced tinnitus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralli, M; Troiani, D; Podda, M V; Paciello, F; Eramo, S L M; de Corso, E; Salvi, R; Paludetti, G; Fetoni, A R

    2014-06-01

    Short-term tinnitus develops shortly after the administration of a high dose of salicylate. Since salicylate selectively potentiates N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA) currents in spiral ganglion neurons, it may play a vital role in tinnitus by amplifying NMDA-mediated neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to determine whether systemic treatment with a NMDA channel blocker, memantine, could prevent salicylate-induced tinnitus in animals. Additional experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of memantine on the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) to test for changes in hearing function. Thirty-six rats were divided into 3 groups and treated daily for four consecutive days. One group (n = 12) was injected with salicylate (300 mg/kg/d, IP), the second (n = 12) was treated with memantine (5 mg/kg/d, IP) and the third group (n = 12) was injected with salicylate and memantine. All rats were tested for tinnitus and hearing loss at 2, 24, 48 and 72 h after the first drug administration and 24 h post treatment; tinnituslike behaviour was assessed with gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS), and hearing function was measured with DPOAE, ABR and noise burst prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (NBPIAS). Rats in the salicylate group showed impaired GPIAS indicative of transient tinnitus-like behaviour near 16 kHz that recovered 24 h after the last salicylate treatment. Memantine did not cause a significant change in GPIAS. Combined injection of salicylate and memantine significantly attenuated GPIAS tinnitus-like behaviour at 48 hours after the first injection. None of the treatments induced permanent threshold shifts in the ABR and DPOAE, which recovered completely within one day post treatment. Animals treated with salicylate plus memantine showed results comparable to animals treated with salicylate alone, confirming that there is no effect of memantine on DPOAE which reflects OHC function. The

  8. Mutagenic Potential of Physostigmine Salicylate in the Ames Salmonella/ Mammalian Microsome Mutagenicity Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Molecular Weight: 413.47 Analytical Data: The test compound was analyzed by the sponsors and the identity confirmed by UV and IR spectroscopy , high pressure...AD-A203 802 Institute Report No. 320 Mutagenic Potential of Physostigmine Salicylate in the Ames Salmonella/Mammalian Microsome Mutagenicity Test...T%&)MS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FiELDI GROUP ISUB-GROUP Physostigmine Salicylate , Mutagenicity, Genetic

  9. Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Małolepsza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

  10. The Physical Characterization of Liposome Salicylic Acid Using Transmission Electron Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elman Panjaitan

    2008-01-01

    The physical characterization of liposome, formulated from salicylic acid using thin film hydration methods with cholesterol and soybean lecithin, has been done. The formula was characterized by optical microscopes and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The observation result shows that the salicylic acid can be formulated to liposomes. Soybean lecithin combined with cholesterol (600 mg : 20 mg) was the best formula and the liposome was spherical vesicle like with dimension about 70 nm unit 800 nm. (author)

  11. Dermal and underlying tissue pharmacokinetics of salicylic acid after topical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Roberts, M S

    1993-08-01

    The time course of salicylic acid at a dermal application site and in local underlying tissues below the site in rats was examined using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model assuming first-order diffusional mass transfer between the dermis and underlying tissues. The concentrations of salicylic acid in tissues below the applied site were measured and compared with plasma concentrations and concentrations in similar tissues on the contralateral side. The direct penetration of salicylic acid was dominant only to a depth of 3-4 mm below the applied site for the first approximately 2 hr after application. The time course of salicylic acid in individual rats was modeled using known tissue blood flows and tissue-tissue clearances by (i) numerical integration and nonlinear regression of a series of differential equations representing events in individual tissues, and (ii) numerical integration and nonlinear regression of a single differential equation representation of the concentration-time course in an individual tissue with a polynomial representation of salicylate concentrations in other input tissues and an exponential representation of the input from the solution. Tissue-tissue clearances were deduced by both nonlinear regression and mass balance analysis (only for underlying dermis) using area-under-the-curves from salicylic acid tissue penetration data in anesthetized rats. The relative importance of direct penetration and blood supply in determining the concentrations of salicylic acid in deeper tissues was assessed by simulations in which either no direct penetration occurred or there was zero input from blood. Simulations confirm that direct penetration is only evident in the superficial tissues for approximately 2 hr. An attempt was also made to examine the dermal pharmacokinetics of salicylic acid using statistical moments.

  12. Characterization of rhizobacteria associated to maize crop in IAA, siderophores and salicylic acid metabolite production

    OpenAIRE

    Annia Hernández; Narovis Rives; Alberto Caballero; Ana N. Hernández; Mayra Heydrich

    2007-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that rhizobacteria are able to produce metabolites having agricultural interest, including salicylic acid, the siderophores and phytohormones. Indol acetic acid (IAA) is the most well-known and studied auxin, playing a governing role in culture growth. The object of this work was to characterise rhizobacteria associated with the maize crop in terms of producing IAA, siderophores and salicylic acid metabolites. Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas fluorescens strains p...

  13. Spurious Hyperchloremia in the Presence of Elevated Plasma Salicylate: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Kianoush B; Steuernagle Iv, Jon H; Qian, Qi

    2018-01-01

    Acute metabolic acidosis is rarely associated with a reduced or negative anion gap (AG), but several case reports have described such an abnormality occurring in the setting of acute salicylate intoxication. The underlying cause of this phenomenon is unclear. In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed our institutional database to identify all patients admitted for salicylate intoxication at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, USA) from January 2010 through December 2012. Serum chloride was measured with the Cobas INTEGRA 400 plus electrode (expedited laboratory test) or Cobas 6000 (routine laboratory test). We compared blood chloride levels measured by the 2 devices in the presence of positive blood salicylate level. Twelve adult patients with salicylate levels >20 mg/dL had markedly elevated chloride concentrations. The median (interquartile range) chloride level at admission was 120 (107-145) mmol/L on their initial laboratory studies, resulting in reduced or even negative AGs. None of the patients had bromide toxicity, nor did they have any other identifiable cause of hyperchloremia or decreased AG. Further testing of the same blood samples with an alternative measurement system (Roche Cobas 6000) yielded normal chloride values, indicating that falsely elevated chloride values with the initial testing led to the diminished or negative AG values. Circulating levels of salicylate can interfere with chloride measured by using routine techniques, resulting in spurious hyperchloremia outcomes and erroneous AG values. In patients with acute metabolic acidosis and abnormally reduced or negative AG, salicylate interference with chloride measurement should be suspected. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Detection of AmpC beta-lactamases using sodium salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Mona T; Yassin, Aymen S; Hosny, Alaa El-Dien M S

    2012-12-01

    AmpC β-lactamases are enzymes that hydrolyze all β-lactam antibiotics except cefipime and imipenem. Currently, there is no standard phenotypic method for detection of such enzymes. This study aims to report the use of sodium salicylate for AmpC β-lactamases detection and to compare its sensitivity and specificity to other commonly known inhibitors. A total of 135 clinical isolates were used to test the effectiveness of sodium salicylate in detection of plasmid- as well as chromosomally encoded AmpC β-lactamases. All isolates were tested by multiplex PCR testing as well as inhibitor-based methods using cloxacillin, phenylboronic acid and sodium salicylate for the detection of AmpC enzymes. Four isolates were confirmed as producers of plasmid-encoded AmpC β-lactamase and a single isolate was confirmed to have both plasmid and chromosomal genes. Cloxacillin and phenylyboronic acid failed to detect most of the plasmid-encoded enzymes. Sodium salicylate was able to detect the Escherichia coli isolates with plasmid-encoded enzymes in addition to few other isolates that were chromosomally mediated. The sensitivity and specificity of sodium salicylate was 50% and 93%, respectively, higher than those of other known inhibitors. We thus conclude that sodium salicylate can be reliably used as an inhibitor in the detection of plasmid-encoded AmpC enzymes in E. coli. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of immediate-early genes in the dorsal cochlear nucleus in salicylate-induced tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shou-Sen; Mei, Ling; Chen, Jian-Yong; Huang, Zhi-Wu; Wu, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Spontaneous neuronal activity in dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) may be involved in the physiological processes underlying salicylate-induced tinnitus. As a neuronal activity marker, immediate-early gene (IEG) expression, especially activity-dependent cytoskeletal protein (Arc/Arg3.1) and the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1), appears to be highly correlated with sensory-evoked neuronal activity. However, their relationships with tinnitus induced by salicylate have rarely been reported in the DCN. In this study, we assessed the effect of acute and chronic salicylate treatment on the expression of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), Arg3.1, and Egr-1. We also observed ultrastructural alterations in the DCN synapses in an animal model of tinnitus. Levels of mRNA and protein expression of NR2B and Arg3.1 were increased in rats that were chronically administered salicylate (200 mg/kg, twice daily for 3, 7, or 14 days). These levels returned to baseline 14 days after cessation of treatment. However, no significant changes were observed in Egr-1 gene expression in any groups. Furthermore, rats subjected to long-term salicylate administration showed more presynaptic vesicles, thicker and longer postsynaptic densities, and increased synaptic interface curvature. Alterations of Arg3.1 and NR2B may be responsible for the changes in the synaptic ultrastructure. These changes confirm that salicylate can cause neural plasticity changes at the DCN level.

  16. Transport of salicylate in proximal tubule (S2 segment) isolated from rabbit kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, L.; Roch-Ramel, F.

    1988-01-01

    The secretory and the reabsorptive transport of salicylate was studied in the isolated and perfused rabbit proximal tubule (S 2 segment). Salicylate secretion (J sal b→l ) fulfilled the criteria for a carrier-mediated transport system: J sal b→l was saturable, was reversibly inhibited by probenecid, and occurred against a concentration gradient. The K m and V max for this secretory transport were 80 μM and 3,200 fmol·min -1 ·mm -1 , respectively. At luminal pH of 7.4 and 6.6, salicylate reabsorption (J sal l→b ) was low. J sal l→b was stimulated by increasing the bath Pco 2 or by removing basolateral HCO 3 - ; J sal l→b was inhibited by ethoxyzolamide and by SITS in the bath. The results indicate that salicylate reabsorption depends on H + secretion, consistent with reabsorption by simple nonionic diffusion. When salicylate was present in the lumen only, J sal l→b increased after inhibition of the secretory transport by adding ouabain or probenecid in the bath or by lowering the bath temperature. These results are compatible with luminal recycling of salicylate, and suggest the presence of a mediated secretory transporter located at the luminal membrane

  17. Salicylate inhibits LDL oxidation initiated by superoxide/nitric oxide radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, M; Kapiotis, S; Hofbauer, R; Exner, M; Seelos, C; Held, I; Gmeiner, B

    1999-02-19

    Simultaneously produced superoxide/nitric oxide radicals (O2*-/NO*) could form peroxynitrite (OONO-) which has been found to cause atherogenic, i.e. oxidative modification of LDL. Aromatic hydroxylation and nitration of the aspirin metabolite salicylate by OONO- has been reported. Therefore we tested if salicylate may be able to protect LDL from oxidation by O2*-/NO* by scavenging the OONO reactive decomposition products. When LDL was exposed to simultaneously produced O2*-/NO* using the sydnonimine SIN-1, salicylate exerted an inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation as measured by TBARS and lipid hydroperoxide formation and alteration in electrophoretic mobility of LDL. The cytotoxic effect of SIN-1 pre-oxidised LDL to endothelial cells was also diminished when salicylate was present during SIN-1 treatment of LDL. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that salicylate was converted to dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) derivatives in the presence of SIN-1. 2,3- and 2,5-DHBA were even more effective to protect LDL from oxidation by O2*-/NO*. Because O2*-/NO* can occur in vivo, the results may indicate that salicylate could act as an efficacious inhibitor of O2*-/NO* initiated atherogenic LDL modification, thus further supporting the rationale of aspirin medication regarding cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Thiamin and Salicylic Acid as Biological Alternatives for Controlling Broad Bean Rot Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlHakimi, A.M.A; Alghalibi, Saeed M.S

    2007-01-01

    The interactive effects of fungi (Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani) infection and thiamin or salicylic acid on growth rate, membrane stability, K+ efflux, UV-absorbing metabolites, photosynthetic pigments, cell wall components and lipid fractions of broad bean plants (30-day-old) were studied. Fungal infection induced a reduction in growth rate, membrane stability and content of photosynthetic pigments. Application of thiamin or salicylic acid increased growth rate, membrane stability and content of photosynthetic pigments. The K+ efflux and the leakage of UV-absorbing metabolites were stimulated with fungal infection. However, thiamin and salicylic acid treatment partially retarded the stimulatory effect on leakage of K+ and UV-absorbing metabolites of fungal infected plants. Fungal infection produced a reduction in the content of pectin and cellulose, total lipid, glycolipids and sterols fraction of shoots and roots and phospholipids of roots. On the other hand, the contents of hemicellulose and lignin of shoots and roots and phospholipids of shoots were stimulated by fungal infection. Soaking seeds in thiamin or salicylic acid counteracts partially or completely the adverse effect of fungal infection on pectin and cellulose composition, total lipid, glycolipids and sterols of either shoots or roots. On the other side, thiamin or salicylic acid treatments retarded the phospholipids accumulation in shoots of infected plants, and in roots the phospholipids accumulation was partially or completely alleviated. The content of hemicellulose and lignin of shoots and roots were antagonistically lowered by the application of thiamin or salicylic acid. (author)

  19. Glycolytic metabolite methylglyoxal inhibits cold and menthol activation of the transient receptor potential melastatin type 8 channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, A C; Selescu, T; Gasler, I; Soltuzu, L; Babes, A

    2016-03-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive dicarbonyl compound involved in protein modifications linked to diabetes mellitus. The plasma level of MG is elevated in diabetic patients, particularly those with painful diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy is often associated with spontaneous pain and altered thermal perception. This study assesses effects of MG on TRPM8, an ion channel involved in innocuous cold sensing and cold allodynia and also in cold-mediated analgesia. Acute treatment with MG inhibited the activation of recombinant rat and human transient receptor potential melastatin type 8 (TRPM8) by cold and chemical agonists. A similar effect was observed when native TRPM8 was investigated in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. DRG neurons treated with MG for 16-24 hr displayed a significant reduction in the fraction of cold- and menthol-sensitive neurons, most likely expressing TRPM8. The fraction of allyl isothiocyanate-sensitive neurons was also reduced, and the coexpression among different neuronal populations was affected. The same prolonged exposure to MG significantly reduced the expression of TRPM8 at the mRNA level. Overall, our data provide evidence for decreased activity and expression level of TRPM8 in the presence of MG, which may be linked to some of the alterations in pain and temperature sensing reported by diabetic patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effects of salicylic acid foliar application on germination, growth and antioxidant potential of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Karalija, Erna; Parić, Adisa

    2018-01-01

    Salicylic acid is one of endogenous plant growth regulators that plays a key role in many physiological processes. The present study analysed the effect of different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, ad 1.0 mM) of salicylic acid on morphological parameters, photosynthetic pigments, protein, proline, total carbohydrates, and secondary metabolites content as well as peroxidase activity. One month after sowing seedlings were replanted in new pots, and salicylic acid was applied in form of a foliar s...

  1. Salicylate-inducible antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas cepacia associated with absence of a pore-forming outer membrane protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, J L; Clark, D K

    1992-01-01

    The most common mechanism of antibiotic resistance in multiply resistant Pseudomonas cepacia is decreased porin-mediated outer membrane permeability. In some gram-negative organisms this form of antibiotic resistance can be induced by growth in the presence of weak acids, such as salicylates, which suppress porin synthesis. To determine the effects of salicylates on outer membrane permeability of P. cepacia, a susceptible laboratory strain, 249-2, was grown in 10 mM sodium salicylate. Antibio...

  2. The Suppression of Adjuvant-induced Inflammation and the Inhibition of the Serum and Tissue IL-17, TNF-α and IL-1β levels by Thymol and Carvacrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Gholijani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Thymol and carvacrol are two important components of thyme that have multiple medicinal uses. This study investigates the in vivo effects of these natural products on adjuvant-induced inflammation and secretion of interleukin (IL-17 and key inflammatory cytokines in rats. Materials and Methods: We injected complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA into the hind paws of rats in order to induce inflammation. Each of the CFA-treated rat groups received gavages of thymol, carvacrol, or vehicle (CFA-only group. Rats’ paws and ankle edema were measured and then we were able to determine an inflammatory score based on the results. After 72 h of inflammation induction, sera were collected and subsequently inflamed tissue extracts were prepared for cytokine assay by ELISA. Results: Both components significantly decreased paw edema in rats (p<0.01. Thymol decreased ankle edema to 61.6% of edema in CFA-only rats (p<0.001. We observed a decreased inflammatory score in the thymol and carvacrol-treated rats. The evaluation of the tissue and serum inflammatory cytokine levels showed that both components decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels (p<0.05. Thymol and carvacrol reduced interleukin (IL-1β serum and tissue levels, respectively. These components reduced tissue levels of IL-17 from 148.4±13.4pg/ml in CFA-only rats to 90.1±18.9pg/ml (thymol and 82.3±9.2pg/ml (carvacrol. Both components decreased serum IL-17 levels in rats (p<0.05. In comparison, the anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin, reduced the inflammatory score and decreased tissue TNF-α and IL-1β levels but did not affect IL-17 production. Conclusion: Carvacrol and thymol could relieve inflammation symptoms possibly by downregulating serum and tissue IL-17 expression in addition to key pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β.

  3. Radiation protection with mesalamine (5-amino salicylic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, James M.; Court, Wayne S.; Feldmeier, John J.; Alecu, Rodica

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation proctitis induced during the therapy of rectal and prostate cancers, and radiation injuries in general, are often the principal dose limiting factor limiting dose escalation for radiation therapy. Thus, there has been a continuous search for radioprotective agents, especially those that could selectively protect normal tissues, as opposed to the target cancer. 5-amino salicylic acid (5ASA) is in clinical use as Mesalamine for the local treatment of ulcerative proctitis. Inasmuch as other investigators have identified 5ASA as a free radical scavenger, we determined whether pretreatment with 5ASA could confer radiation protection. Materials and Methods: Adult male C57BL/6J mice obtained from Jackson Laboratories were employed for these studies. We determined LD50 for acute gastrointestinal death for young (≤ 10 weeks old, ≤ 25 gms body weight) and aged (≥ 1 year old, ≥ 35 gms body weight) animals exposed to single fractions (1 - 20 Gy) from three different radiation sources, Cs 137 , 270 KeV x-rays, and a 4 MeV linear accelerator. Experimental mice were pre- or post-treated with 5ASA in an acidified isotonic saline solution by oral, rectal, or intraperitoneal administration. Animals were housed, maintained by AAALAC standards and treated with antibiotics or acidified water post radiation exposure to control opportunistic infections. Animals were scored for death when moribund. Results: 5ASA was found to be radioprotective by oral, rectal or intraperitoneal administration when given 15 to 90 minutes prior to radiation exposure. Administration of drug following radiation exposure failed to confer radioprotection. We determined a dose effect for 5ASA with maximum tolerated dose of 200 mg/kg administered ip 30 minutes prior to 11 Gy whole body exposure. Dose modification and radioprotection by 5ASA were determined by LD50(6), LD50(30), or LD50(365). More recently, we determined that 5ASA conferred significant radioprotection to mice exposed to

  4. Effect of certain variables on the tumor and tissue distribution of tracers. III. Salicylates and vasoactive drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, S.E.; Hagan, P.; Stern, P.; Gordon, R.; Dabbs, J.

    1981-01-01

    Attempts were made to increase the viable tumor concentration of 54 Mn and 67 Ga in a rat hepatoma model by administering rat angiotensin, tolazoline, and salicylates. Salicylates increased the tumor concentrations of 54 Mn and improved 65 Mn viable tumor/background ratios. 67 Ga was not affected by the salicylates. The salicylate effect appeared to be mediated by intracellular mechanisms rather than alterations in plasma protein binding. Rat angiotensin slightly increased the concentrations of 67 Ga in the tumors but not enough to suggest that it would be useful clinically. Tolazoline did not increase tumor uptake of the tracers

  5. The influence of caffeine and thymol on the survival, growth and reproduction of Subulina octona (Brugüière, 1789 (Mollusca, Subulinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Subulina octona is a terrestrial snail which serves as an intermediate host for the parasites. It is also an agricultural pest. The aim of this work was to assess, during 120 days, the effects of caffeine and thymol at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L on the hatchability, survival after hatching, growth and reproduction of S. octona under the laboratory conditions. A total of 240 eggs, 240 juveniles aged 10-day-old, and 240 aged 30-day-old were tested. The results showed that thymol (at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L and caffeine (at 5 g/L acted as ovicides. In the 10-day-old juveniles, caffeine at 5 g/L caused 25% mortality and at 2.5 g/L it caused 30% mortality. Thymol at 2.5 and 5 g/L caused 20 and 22.5% mortality, respectively. In the 30-day-old juveniles, caffeine at 5 g/L caused 47.5% mortality.Subulina octona é um molusco terrestre que atua como hospedeiro intermediário de parasitos. Também atua como praga agrícola. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante 120 dias, o efeito da cafeína e do timol a 2,5g/L e a 5g/L, sobre a eclodibilidade, a sobrevivência após a eclosão, crescimento e a reprodução de S. octona em condições de laboratório. Foram testados 240 ovos, 240 jovens com 10 e 30 dias de vida. Os resultados dos testes mostraram que o timol (5g/L e 2,5g/L e a cafeína a 5g/L atuaram como ovicida. Nos jovens com 10 dias de vida a cafeína à 5g/L provocou uma mortalidade de 25% e a 2,5 g/L 30%. O timol a 2,5g/L e 5g/L provocou 20 e 22,5% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Nos jovens com 30 dias de vida a cafeína a 5g/L causou 47,5% de mortalidade. Esses resultados sugerem novos estudos no campo.

  6. Foliar spraying of salicylic acid induced accumulation of phenolics, increased radical scavenging activity and modified the composition of the essential oil of water stressed Thymus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Noha; Fekry, Mostafa; Bishr, Mokhtar; El-Zalabani, Soheir; Salama, Osama

    2018-02-01

    Polyphenolic compounds are considered valuable secondary plant metabolites owing to the myriad of biological activities they exert. This study aimed to investigate the effect of applying various concentrations of the plant growth regulator, salicylic acid (SA), on Thymus vulgaris L. while subjecting the plant to decreasing amounts of irrigation water. The following parameters were monitored; total polyphenolic and flavonoid content, yield and composition of the essential oil, and antioxidant activity of the alcoholic extracts. Drought alone significantly (P < 0.05) increased the polyphenolic and flavonoid content, yield of the essential oil and antioxidant activity. The total flavonoid content in control plants was 6.1 ± 0.3 mg/gm dry weight calculated in terms of rutin equivalent. However, in drought stressed plants, (irrigated at 25% of the field capacity) sprayed with 3 mM SA, the flavonoid content increased to 32.1 ± 0.1 mg/gm dry weight calculated in terms of rutin equivalent. Moreover, the total phenolic content increased from 8.5 ± 0.3 to 68.5 ± 1.2 mg/gm dry weight calculated in terms of gallic acid in the same test plants. Radical scavenging activity, using DPPH assay, was measured for the different plant treatments. A decrease from 74.4 ± 0.4 μg/ml to 36.6 ± 0.9 μg/ml of IC 50 was recorded in the drought stressed plants (25% FC) sprayed with 3 mM SA compared with the control plants. The variability in polyphenolic composition between the control plants and plants with the highest total polyphenolic content was investigated by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Rosmarinic acid was detected as the major component in samples from both treatments, with a higher percentage observed upon subjecting the plant to the test conditions (25% FC and sprayed with 3 mM SA). The highest yield of the essential oil (1 ± 0.06 %v/w) was obtained from drought stressed plants (25% FC) sprayed with 2 mM SA. GC/MS analysis of oil samples revealed that the Thymol

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a glycerol salicylate resin for bioactive root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, F F; Santos, P D; Lima, G B; Leitune, V C B; Petzhold, C L; Collares, F M; Samuel, S M W

    2014-04-01

    To develop and characterize a salicylate resin with potential use in bioactive endodontic sealers. Methyl salicylate, glycerol and titanium isopropoxide were added in a closed system for the transesterification reaction. The resin obtained was characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). To verify the applicability of the resin to the development of endodontic sealers, experimental cements were prepared by mixing glycerol salicylate resin, calcium hydroxide and methyl salicylate in the ratios of 2 : 1 : 1, 1 : 2 : 1, 1 : 1 : 2, 1 : 1 : 1, 4 : 1 : 1, 1 : 4 : 1 and 1 : 1 : 4. Setting times were measured according to ISO 6876. Features of the hardening reaction were described by micro-RAMAN spectroscopy. The transesterification reaction had a 72% efficiency. The (1) H NMR analysis revealed the presence of the expected functional groups (hydroxyls and aromatic rings), and the SEC confirmed the molar mass of the resin produced. The setting times of experimental sealers ranged from 70 min (ratio 1 : 1 : 1) to 490 min (ratio 1 : 1 : 4). The conversion of the salicylic groups (1 613 cm(-1) ) to salicylate salt (1 543 cm(-1) ) and the reduction in calcium hydroxide peaks (1084 and 682 cm(-1) ) were confirmed by micro-RAMAN spectroscopy, which showed the calcium chelation by the resin. The new glycerol salicylate resin was successfully synthesized and revealed a potential application in the development of endodontic sealers. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Changes in the numbers of ribbon synapses and expression of RIBEYE in salicylate-induced tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ying; Xue, Yi-Xue; Liu, Wen-Jing; Yao, Yi-Long; Ma, Jun; Chen, Lin; Shang, Xiu-Li

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to explore the mechanism underlying tinnitus by investigating the changes in the synaptic ribbons and RIBEYE expression in cochlear inner hair cells in salicylate-induced tinnitus. C57BL/6J mice were injected with salicylate (350 mg/kg) for 10 days and grouped. Behavioral procedures were performed to assess whether the animals experienced tinnitus. The specific presynaptic RIBEYE protein and non-specific postsynaptic glutamate receptor 2&3 protein in basilar membrane samples were examined by immunofluorescent labeling. RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to examine RIBEYE expression. Serial sections were used to build three-dimensional models using 3ds MAX software to evaluate the changes in the synaptic ribbons. The administration of salicylate increased false positives in the behavioral procedure from 3 d to 10 d. The membrane profiles of inner hair cells in all mice were intact. The number of synaptic ribbons in the salicylate group increased on the 7(th) d and decreased on the 9(th) and 10(th) d. mRNA and protein expression of RIBEYE were initially up-regulated and later down-regulated by injecting salicylate for 10 consecutive days. This change in the ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells in salicylate-induced mice might serve as a compensatory mechanism in the early stages of ototoxicity and contribute to tinnitus later. The alteration of RIBEYE expression could be responsible for the changes in the morphology of ribbon synapses and for salicylate-induced tinnitus. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Absorption of salicylate powders versus tablets following overdose: a poison center observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, S Rutherfoord; Cumpston, Kirk L; Kim, Janice; Difranco, Danielle; Wills, Brandon K

    2016-11-01

    Salicylate absorption following overdose of aspirin (ASA) tablet formulations can be prolonged for greater than 24 h. Accordingly, serial serum concentrations are typically recommended to guide treatment. However, there are little published data on absorption following ingestion of powder ASA formulations, and it is not known if delayed ASA absorption occurs following overdose of powder formulations. The objective of this study is to compare the absorption characteristics of powder and tablet formulations of ASA in patients reported to a single poison center. Electronic records from an accredited poison center were searched for single substance acute or acute on chronic ingestions of ASA in powder form between 1 January 2002 and 31 January 2014. An identical search for ingestions of ASA tablet products between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013 was undertaken as the comparator group. Other inclusion criteria were age >12 years, documented time of ingestion, treatment in a health care facility within nine hours of ingestion and at least two detectable serum salicylate concentrations. 16 of 25 powder and 22 of 49 tablet cases met inclusion criteria for analysis. Repeat serum salicylate concentrations following ingestion of tablets increased or insignificantly changed in 11 of 22 (50%) cases, and median serum salicylate concentrations in followed cases remained elevated for up to 12 h in some cases. In comparison, serum salicylate concentrations following powder ingestions declined in 15 of 16 (94%) cases. One patient, who ingested a powder product, underwent hemodialysis pursuant to an initial serum salicylate concentration of 96 mg/dL. In contrast to persistent concentrations following overdose of tablets, the majority of serum salicylate concentrations declined following ingestion of powder formulations. In this small study population, these findings suggest that prolonged absorption is unlikely following ingestions of ASA powders.

  10. High doses of salicylate causes prepulse facilitation of onset-gap induced acoustic startle response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Doolittle, Lauren; Flowers, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Qiuju

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reflex (PPI), a well-established method for evaluating sensorimotor gating function, has been used to detect tinnitus in animal models. Reduced gap induced PPI (gap-PPI) was considered as a sign of tinnitus. The silent gap used in the test contains both onset and offset signals. Tinnitus may affect these cues differently. In this experiment, we studied the effects of a high dose of salicylate (250 mg/kg, i.p.), an inducer of reversible tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss, on gap-PPI induced by three different gaps: an onset-gap with 0.1 ms onset and 25 ms offset time, an offset-gap with 25 ms onset and 0.1 ms offset time, and an onset-offset-gap with 0.1 ms onset and offset time. We found that the onset-gaps induced smaller inhibitions than the offset-gaps before salicylate treatment. The offset-gap induced PPI was significantly reduced 1-3h after salicylate treatment. However, the onset-gap caused a facilitation of startle response. These results suggest that salicylate induced reduction of gap-PPI was not only caused by the decrease of offset-gap induced PPI, but also by the facilitation induced by the onset-gap. Since the onset-gap induced PPI is caused by neural offset response, our results suggest that salicylate may cause a facilitation of neural response to an offset acoustical signal. Treatment of vigabatrin (60 mg/kg/day, 14 days), which elevates the GABA level in the brain, blocked the offset-gap induced PPI and onset-gap induced facilitation caused by salicylate. These results suggest that enhancing GABAergic activities can alleviate salicylate induced tinnitus. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Salicylate-induced peripheral auditory changes and tonotopic reorganization of auditory cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzberg, Daniel; Chen, Guang-Di; Allman, Brian L.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    The neuronal mechanism underlying the phantom auditory perception of tinnitus remains at present elusive. For over 25 years, temporary tinnitus following acute salicylate intoxication in rats has been used as a model to understand how a phantom sound can be generated. Behavioral studies have indicated the pitch of salicylate-induced tinnitus in the rat is approximately 16 kHz. In order to better understand the origin of the tinnitus pitch, in the present study, measurements were made at the levels of auditory input and output; both cochlear and cortical physiological recordings were performed in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized rats. Both compound action potentials and distortion product otoacoustic emission measurements revealed a salicylate-induced band-pass-like cochlear deficit in which the reduction of cochlear input was least at 16 kHz and significantly greater at high and low frequencies. In a separate group of rats, frequency receptive fields of primary auditory cortex neurons were tracked using multichannel microelectrodes before and after systemic salicylate treatment. Tracking frequency receptive fields following salicylate revealed a population of neurons that shifted their frequency of maximum sensitivity (i.e., characteristic frequency) towards the tinnitus frequency region of the tonotopic axis (~16 kHz). The data presented here supports the hypothesis that salicylateinduced tinnitus results from an expanded cortical representation of the tinnitus pitch determined by an altered profile of input from the cochlea. Moreover, the pliability of cortical frequency receptive fields during salicylate-induced tinnitus is likely due to salicylate’s direct action on intracortical inhibitory networks. Such a disproportionate representation of middle frequencies in the auditory cortex following salicylate may result in a finer analysis of signals within this region which may pathologically enhance the functional importance of spurious neuronal activity

  12. Effect of salicylic acid and aloe vera gel on postharvest quality of table grapes ( Vitis Vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Peyro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of salicylic acid dipping and Aloe vera gel coating on shelf life and post harvest quality of table grapes (Vitis vinifera of the cultivar Shahroudi, a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized complete blocks design with three factors and three replicates in agricultural faculty of Islamic Azad University in 2014. The treatments were dipping in Salicylic acid (three levels of 0, 1 and 2 mmmol-1 for 15 minutes and coating with Aloe vera gel (four levels of 0, 10%, 15% and 20% w/v and measurement of traits in 1st day, 30th day and 60th day after treatment of berries. The results showed that the interaction effect of salicylic acid and Aloe vera gel application was significant on all of traits except for pH value in a way that the best and the minimum weight loss (0.09g was obtained by application of 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 20% Aloe vera gel in 1st day after treatment. The greatest amount of total soluble solids (428.43 g.100g-1 fruit juice was found in 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 15% Aloe vera gel in 60th day. The highest Catalase enzyme activity (0.0013 Ua.mg-1Pro was attained in 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 15% Aloe vera gel in 30th day. These results demonstrated that treatment of grape berries by salicylic acid and Aloe vera gel had positive effect on shelf life of table grapes and their postharvest quality

  13. Glycerol Salicylate-based Pulp-Capping Material Containing Portland Cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Fernando Freitas; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Santos, Paula Dapper; Sartori, Cláudia; Wegner, Everton; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the water sorption, solubility, pH and ability to diffuse into dentin of a glycerol salicylate-based, pulp-capping cement in comparison to a conventional calcium hydroxide-based pulp capping material (Hydcal). An experimental cement was developed containing 60% glycerol salicylate resin, 10% methyl salicylate, 25% calcium hydroxide and 5% Portland cement. Water sorption and solubility were determined based on mass changes in the samples before and after the immersion in distilled water for 7 days. Material discs were stored in distilled water for 24 h, 7 days and 28 days, and a digital pHmeter was used to measure the pH of water. The cement's ability to diffuse into bovine dentin was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. The glycerol salicylate-based cement presented higher water sorption and lower solubility than Hydcal. The pH of water used to store the samples increased for both cements, reaching 12.59 ± 0.06 and 12.54 ± 0.05 after 7 days, for Hydcal and glycerol salicylate-based cements, respectively. Both cements were able to turn alkaline the medium at 24 h and sustain its alkalinity after 28 days. Hydcal exhibited an intense diffusion into dentin up to 40 µm deep, and the glycerol salicylate-based cement penetrated 20 µm. The experimental glycerol salicylate-based cement presents good sorption, solubility, ability to alkalize the surrounding tissues and diffusion into dentin to be used as pulp capping material.

  14. Emission of sunscreen salicylic esters from desert vegetation and their contribution to aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, S. N.; Guenther, A. B.; Potosnak, M. J.; Apel, E. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) produced by plants are known to have an important role in atmospheric chemistry. However, our knowledge of the range of BVOCs produced by different plant processes is still expanding, and there remain poorly understood categories of BVOCs. In this study, emissions of a novel class of BVOC emissions were investigated in a desert region. Our study considered 8 species of common desert plants: blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), mondel pine (Pinus eldarica), pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla), cottonwood (Populus deltoides), saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) and yucca (Yucca baccata). The measurements focused on BVOCs with relatively high molecular weight (>C15) and/or an oxygenated functional group. Significantly high emission rates of two salicylic esters were found for blackbrush, desert willow and mesquite with emission rates of 3.1, 1.0 and 4.8μgC dwg-1 h-1, respectively (dwg; dry weight of the leaves in gram). The salicylic esters were identified as 2-ethylhexenyl salicylate (2-EHS) and 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexenyl salicylate (homosalate) and are known as effective ultraviolet (UV) absorbers. We propose that the plants derive a protective benefit against UV radiation from the salicylic esters and that the emission process is driven by the physical evaporation of the salicylic esters due to the high ambient temperatures. In addition, the salicylic esters are predicted to be an effective precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) because they probably produce oxidation products that can condense onto the aerosol phase. We estimated the contribution of the sunscreen esters themselves and their oxidation products on the SOA formation for the Las Vegas area using a BVOC emission model. The contribution was estimated to reach 50% of the biogenic terpenoid emission in the landscapes dominated by desert willow and mesquite and 13% in the Las Vegas area. The

  15. Formation of molecular complexes of salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, and methyl salicylate in a mixture of supercritical carbon dioxide with a polar cosolvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, V. E.; Antipova, M. L.; Gurina, D. L.; Odintsova, E. G.

    2015-08-01

    The solvate structures formed by salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, and methyl salicylate in supercritical (SC) carbon dioxide with a polar cosolvent (methanol, 0.03 mole fractions) at a density of 0.7 g/cm3 and a temperature of 318 K were studied by the molecular dynamics method. Salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids were found to form highly stable hydrogen-bonded complexes with methanol via the hydrogen atom of the carboxyl group. For methyl salicylate in which the carboxyl hydrogen is substituted by a methyl radical, the formation of stable hydrogen bonds with methanol was not revealed. The contribution of other functional groups of the solute to the interactions with the cosolvent was much smaller. An analysis of correlations between the obtained data and the literature data on the cosolvent effect on the solubility of the compounds in SC CO2 showed that the dissolving ability of SC CO2 with respect to a polar organic substance in the presence of a cosolvent increased only when stable hydrogen-bonded complexes are formed between this substance and the cosolvent.

  16. Diclofenac systemic bioavailability of a topical 1% diclofenac + 3% menthol combination gel vs. an oral diclofenac tablet in healthy volunteers: a randomized, open-label, crossover study
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Sebastian A; Liu, D Jeffery

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate systemic exposure with repeated topical application of a fixed-combination topical gel product containing 1% diclofenac sodium and 3% menthol in either of 2 formulation packages relative to oral administration. In this phase 1, single-center, 4-way crossover study, healthy volunteers aged 18 - 50 years underwent consecutive 3-day treatment regimens in a randomly assigned sequence with each of 4 treatment groups: 4 g of topical 1% diclofenac + 3% menthol gel administered via an aluminum tube or roll-on device applied 4 times daily; 4 g of topical 1% diclofenac sodium gel (Voltaren Gel) applied 4 times daily; and oral diclofenac sodium tablets 50 mg 3 times daily. Treatment regimens were separated by 2-day washout periods. A total of 18 subjects enrolled and completed the study. Relative to oral administration, area under the concentration time curve from 48 to 72 hours (AUC48-72) with topical administration of 1% diclofenac + 3% menthol gel from a tube or roll-on device was 16.1% (90% CI: 12.2 - 21.1%) and 14.4% (90% CI: 11.0 - 19.0%), respectively. The diclofenac/menthol combination delivered significantly higher exposures of diclofenac compared with Voltaren Gel. A higher number of adverse events (AEs) occurred with the topical diclofenac/menthol combination (61%) vs. Voltaren Gel (22%) or oral diclofenac (6%); most were local skin reactions. No difference in systemic AEs was observed among the groups. As expected, systemic exposure was significantly lower with the topical diclofenac/menthol treatment regimens compared with oral diclofenac. Local skin AEs were increased with the topical combination product, but the risk of systemic AEs was low.
.

  17. Salicylic acid interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytic protein trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yunlong; Tejos, Ricardo; Beck, Martina; Himschoot, Ellie; Li, Hongjiang; Robatzek, Silke; Vanneste, Steffen; Friml, Jirí

    2013-05-07

    Removal of cargos from the cell surface via endocytosis is an efficient mechanism to regulate activities of plasma membrane (PM)-resident proteins, such as receptors or transporters. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone that is traditionally associated with pathogen defense. Here, we describe an unanticipated effect of SA on subcellular endocytic cycling of proteins. Both exogenous treatments and endogenously enhanced SA levels repressed endocytosis of different PM proteins. The SA effect on endocytosis did not involve transcription or known components of the SA signaling pathway for transcriptional regulation. SA likely targets an endocytic mechanism that involves the coat protein clathrin, because SA interfered with the clathrin incidence at the PM and clathrin-deficient mutants were less sensitive to the impact of SA on the auxin distribution and root bending during the gravitropic response. By contrast, SA did not affect the ligand-induced endocytosis of the flagellin sensing2 (FLS2) receptor during pathogen responses. Our data suggest that the established SA impact on transcription in plant immunity and the nontranscriptional effect of SA on clathrin-mediated endocytosis are independent mechanisms by which SA regulates distinct aspects of plant physiology.

  18. Salicylic-acid-mediated enhanced biological treatment of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2010-03-01

    Activated sludge represents a microbial community which is responsible for reduction in pollution load from wastewaters and whose performance depends upon the composition and the expression of degradative capacity. In the present study, the role of salicylic acid (SA) has been evaluated for acclimatization of activated sludge collected from a combined effluent treatment plant followed by analysis of the physiological performance and microbial community of the sludge. The biodegradative capacity of the acclimatized activated sludge was further evaluated for improvement in efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from wastewater samples collected from industries manufacturing bulk drugs and dyes and dye intermediates (wastewater 1) and from dye industry (wastewater 2). An increase in COD removal efficiency from 50% to 58% and from 78% to 82% was observed for wastewater 1 and wastewater 2, respectively. Microbial community analysis data showed selective enrichment and change in composition due to acclimatization by SA, with 50% of the clones showing sequence homology to unidentified and uncultured bacteria. This was demonstrated by analysis of partial 16S rDNA sequence data generated from dominating clones representing the metagenome which also showed the appearance of a unique population of clones after acclimatization, which was distinct from those obtained before acclimatization and clustered away from the dominating population.

  19. Hardening of eucalyptus seedlings via salicylic acid application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Lima Mazzuchelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural and forest productivity suffer restrictions imposed by water stress, high temperature and high solar radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of stress attenuation and growth promotion of salicylic acid (SA application in eucalyptus (E. urophylla x E. grandis hybrid seedlings under water stress. A completely randomized design, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (three water treatments: constant irrigation with daily replacement of 40% (CI40% or 100% (CI100% of evapotranspirated water, and temporary irrigation suspension with replacement of only 40% of evapotranspirated water (S40%; and four SA concentrations: 0 mg L-1, 100 mg L-1, 200 mg L-1 and 300 mg L-1, was used. Plant photosynthetic parameters and biometric features were evaluated. The stomatal limitation was higher in plants under S40% irrigation, however, the SA application reverted this result, allowing the maintenance of the photosynthetic potential. There was interaction between irrigation regimes and SA doses for number of leaves, leaf area/number of leaves ratio and shoot and root dry mass. It was concluded that the application of 200 mg L -1 of SA positively affected the growth of eucalyptus seedlings under water stress, being considered an auxiliary management technique to their hardening process.

  20. The influence of menthol, e-cigarettes and other tobacco products on young adults' self-reported changes in past year smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Villanti, Andrea C; Wackowski, Olivia A; Gundersen, Daniel A; Giovenco, Daniel P

    2016-09-01

    Progression to regular smoking often occurs during young adulthood. This study examines self-reported changes in past year smoking among young adults and the potential influence of tobacco products on these trajectories. Respondents to the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey who smoked 100 cigarettes in their lifetime (n=909) described smoking behaviour at the time of the survey and 1 year prior. Cigarette smoking trajectories were categorised as: no change, quit, decreased smoking or increased smoking. Participants were also asked about current use of menthol cigarettes and other tobacco products (ie, cigars, smokeless tobacco, hookah) and ever use of e-cigarettes. Most young adults (73.1%) reported stable cigarette smoking behaviours, while 8.2% reported having quit, 5.8% reported that they smoke on fewer days, 5% progressed from someday to daily smoking and 8% increased from not at all to current smoking. The youngest smokers (18-20) had significantly higher odds (adjusted OR (AOR) =2.6) of increasing cigarette use over the past year compared to those aged 30-34, as did blacks versus whites (AOR=2.35). Menthol cigarette use nearly doubled (AOR=1.87) the odds of increased smoking behaviour. E-cigarette and other tobacco product (OTP) use were not associated with increasing smoking but OTP use was negatively associated with remaining quit from cigarettes. Young adulthood is a critical period for smoking interventions, particularly among those most vulnerable to increasing smoking behaviours (ie, black and younger young adults). Policy efforts to restrict menthol cigarettes may reduce young adult smoking progression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Impact of non-menthol flavours in tobacco products on perceptions and use among youth, young adults and adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ling; Baker, Hannah M; Meernik, Clare; Ranney, Leah M; Richardson, Amanda; Goldstein, Adam O

    2017-11-01

    This systematic review examines the impact of non-menthol flavours in tobacco products on tobacco use perceptions and behaviours among youth, young adults and adults. English-language peer-reviewed publications indexed in 4 databases were searched through April 2016. A search strategy was developed related to tobacco products and flavours. Of 1688 articles identified, we excluded articles that were not English-language, were not peer-reviewed, were qualitative, assessed menthol-flavoured tobacco products only and did not contain original data on outcomes that assessed the impact of flavours in tobacco products on perceptions and use behaviour. Outcome measures were identified and tabulated. 2 researchers extracted the data independently and used a validated quality assessment tool to assess study quality. 40 studies met the inclusion criteria. Data showed that tobacco product packaging with flavour descriptors tended to be rated as more appealing and as less harmful by tobacco users and non-users. Many tobacco product users, especially adolescents, reported experimenting, initiating and continuing to use flavoured products because of the taste and variety of the flavours. Users of many flavoured tobacco products also showed decreased likelihood of intentions to quit compared with non-flavoured tobacco product users. Flavours in most tobacco products appear to play a key role in how users and non-users, especially youth, perceive, initiate, progress and continue using tobacco products. Banning non-menthol flavours from tobacco products may ultimately protect public health by reducing tobacco use, particularly among youth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Reduced exposure evaluation of an Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System. Part 6: 6-Day randomized clinical trial of a menthol cigarette in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Anthony R; Kanada, Shigeto; Takada, Kohji; Martin Leroy, Claire; Lindner, Dirk; Schorp, Matthias K; Dempsey, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    A randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel-group, single-center study to determine biomarkers of exposure to 12 selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) in cigarette smoke, excretion of mutagenic material in urine, and serum Clara cell 16-kDa protein (CC16) in 102 male and female Japanese subjects who smoked Marlboro Ultra Lights Menthol cigarettes (M4J(M); 4 mg tar and 0.3mg nicotine) at baseline. Subjects were randomized to continue smoking M4J(M), or switch to smoking either the Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System menthol cigarette (EHCSS-K6(M); 5mg tar and 0.3mg nicotine) or the Lark One menthol cigarette (Lark1(M); 1mg tar and 0.1mg nicotine), or to no-smoking. The mean decreases from baseline to Day 5/6 were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for exposure to 10 of 12 cigarette smoke HPHC including the primary endpoint (carbon monoxide) and urinary excretion of mutagenic material in the EHCSS-K6(M) group (-12.3% to -83.4%). Smaller, but statistically significant reductions (p ≤ 0.05) occurred in the Lark1(M) group (-3.3% to -35.2%), with the exception of urinary mutagens. The largest mean reductions (all p ≤ 0.05) in exposure to cigarette smoke HPHC and excretion of mutagenic material occurred in the no-smoking group (-1.4% to -93.6%). Serum CC16, an indicator of lung epithelial injury, was not significantly different between groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preconcentration, Separation and Determination of lead(II) with Methyl Thymol Blue Adsorbed on Activated Carbon Using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Ghaderi, Ali R. [Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    An on-line system for preconcentration and separation of lead(II) is presented. The method is based on the complex formation of Pb(II) with adsorbed Methyl thymol blue on activated carbon. The conditions of preparing the solid phase reagent and of quantitative recovery of Pb(II) from diluted solutions, such as acidity of aqueous phase, solid phase capacity, and flow variables were studied as well as effect of potential interfering ions. After preconcentration step, the metal ions are eluted automatically by 5 ml of 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} solution and the lead ions content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Under the optimum conditions, the lead ions in aqueous samples were separated and preconcentrated about 1000-fold by the column. The detection limit was 0.001 μg mL{sup -1}. Lead has been determined in river and tap water samples, with recovery of 98 to 102%.

  4. Synthesis and In Vitro Anti Leishmania amazonensis Biological Screening of Morita-Baylis-Hillman Adducts Prepared from Eugenol, Thymol and Carvacrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Francisco José Seixas; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; de Oliveira, Ramon Guerra; Lima Junior, Claudio Gabriel; Rocha, Juliana da Câmara; Keesen, Tatjana Souza Lima; de Oliveira, Marcia Rosa; Silva, Fábio Pedrosa Lins; Vasconcellos, Mário Luiz Araújo de Almeida

    2016-11-08

    Leishmaniasis represents a series of severe neglected tropical diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and is widely distributed around the world. Here, we present the syntheses of Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts (MBHAs) prepared from eugenol, thymol and carvacrol, and their bioevaluation against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis . The new MBHAs are prepared in two steps from essential oils in moderate to good yields and present IC 50 values in the range of 22.30-4.71 μM. Moreover, the selectivity index to the most potent compound is very high (SIrb > 84.92), far better than that of Glucantime ® (SIrb 1.39) and amphotericin B (SIrb = 22.34). Conformational analysis were carried out at the M062X//6-31+G(d,p) level of theory to corroborate a hypothesis about the nitroaromatic bioreduction mechanism.

  5. Synthesis and In Vitro Anti Leishmania amazonensis Biological Screening of Morita-Baylis-Hillman Adducts Prepared from Eugenol, Thymol and Carvacrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Seixas Xavier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis represents a series of severe neglected tropical diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and is widely distributed around the world. Here, we present the syntheses of Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts (MBHAs prepared from eugenol, thymol and carvacrol, and their bioevaluation against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. The new MBHAs are prepared in two steps from essential oils in moderate to good yields and present IC50 values in the range of 22.30–4.71 μM. Moreover, the selectivity index to the most potent compound is very high (SIrb > 84.92, far better than that of Glucantime® (SIrb 1.39 and amphotericin B (SIrb = 22.34. Conformational analysis were carried out at the M062X//6-31+G(d,p level of theory to corroborate a hypothesis about the nitroaromatic bioreduction mechanism.

  6. Direct analysis of salicylic acid, salicyl acyl glucuronide, salicyluric acid and gentisic acid in human plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J H; Smith, P C

    1996-01-12

    A method for the simultaneous direct determination of salicylate (SA), its labile, reactive metabolite, salicyl acyl glucuronide (SAG), and two other major metabolites, salicyluric acid and gentisic acid in plasma and urine is described. Isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) employed a 15-cm C18 column using methanol-acetonitrile-25 mM acetic acid as the mobile phase, resulting in HPLC analysis time of less than 20 min. Ultraviolet detection at 310 nm permitted analysis of SAG in plasma, but did not provide sensitivity for measurement of salicyl phenol glucuronide. Plasma or urine samples are stabilized immediately upon collection by adjustment of pH to 3-4 to prevent degradation of the labile acyl glucuronide metabolite. Plasma is then deproteinated with acetonitrile, dried and reconstituted for injection, whereas urine samples are simply diluted prior to injection on HPLC. m-Hydroxybenzoic acid served as the internal standard. Recoveries from plasma were greater than 85% for all four compounds over a range of 0.2-20 micrograms/ml and linearity was observed from 0.1-200 micrograms/ml and 5-2000 micrograms/ml for SA in plasma and urine, respectively. The method was validated to 0.2 microgram/ml, thus allowing accurate measurement of SA, and three major metabolites in plasma and urine of subjects and small animals administered salicylates. The method is unique by allowing quantitation of reactive SAG in plasma at levels well below 1% that of the parent compound, SA, as is observed in patients administered salicylates.

  7. Optimization of water and nitrogen application to menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.) through sugarcane trash mulch in a sandy loam soil of semi-arid subtropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Dasha; Ram, Muni; Singh, Ranjeet

    2006-05-01

    Studies were carried out to optimize the use of water and nutrients by the crop with three moisture regimes [0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 irrigation water:cumulative pan evaporation (IW:CPE) ratios], two variables of organic mulch (control and sugarcane trash at 7 t/ha) and three levels of nitrogen (0, 100 and 200 kg/ha). Soil moisture regimes maintained at 1.2 IW:CPE ratio significantly increased the crop growth and herb and essential oil yields as compared with that of 0.9 IW:CPE ratio. The increase in herb yield due to 1.5 and 1.2 IW:CPE ratios was recorded to be 28.5% and 19%, respectively, over the irrigation given at 0.9 IW:CPE ratio, with the corresponding increase in essential oil yield to the extent of 23.5% and 15.5%. Interaction effect of moisture regimes and nitrogen rates indicated that increasing levels of irrigation at the highest level of N (200 kg/ha) improved essential oil yield of the crop. Application of N at 200 kg/ha in the mulched plots significantly enhanced the N uptake by the crop and essential oil yield over the control and 100 kg N/ha applied in the mulched/or unmulched plots and 200 kg N/ha applied in the unmulched plots. Application of organic mulch and nitrogen at 200 kg/ha improved the water use efficiency (WUE) in menthol mint crop. Higher moisture regimes maintained up to 1.2 IW:CPE ratio increased the WUE. The quality of essential oil in terms of its major constituent, menthol, improved slightly with 1.2 IW:CPE ratio as compared to 0.9 and 1.5 IW:CPE ratios at first and second harvests of the crop. It is recommended that menthol mint crop could be grown profitably by providing 16 irrigations, that is 80 cm water (based on 1.2 IW:CPE ratio) and nitrogen at 200 kg/ha in the sugarcane trash mulched plots, which could give a highest benefit:cost ratio from menthol mint cropping.

  8. Dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products containing coal tar and menthol for over-the-counter human use; amendment to the monograph. Final rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule amending the final monograph (FM) for over-the-counter (OTC) dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products to include the combination of 1.8 percent coal tar solution and 1.5 percent menthol in a shampoo drug product to control dandruff. FDA did not receive any comments or data in response to its previously proposed rule to include this combination. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products.

  9. Protective effects of salicylate on PKA inhibitor (H-89)-induced spatial memory deficit via lessening autophagy and apoptosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Leila; Kachooeian, Maryam; Khodagholi, Fariba; Yans, Asal; Heysieattalab, Soomaayeh; Vakilzadeh, Gelareh; Vosoughi, Nasim; Sanati, Mehdi; Taghizadeh, Ghorban; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    In this study, the effects of salicylate on spatial learning and memory, through its effects on autophagy and apoptosis, were evaluated in the presence of the PKA inhibitor H-89. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into experimental groups as follows: salicylate (30, 50, 100μg/0.5μl/side, intra-hippocampal; 400mg/kg, intra-peritoneal), donepezil (1mg/kg as a positive control for behavioral effects of salicylate), H-89 (1μl/side of 5 or 20μM), H-89 plus salicylate and H-89 plus donepezil. The Morris water maze test was used for evaluation of spatial learning and memory. The levels of different apoptotic and autophagic biomarkers were evaluated using the western blot technique. Salicylate (100μg/0.5μl/side) significantly reduced the escape latency on training days, increased the percentage of time spent in the target quadrant during the probe trial and reversed the inhibitory effects of H-89 during the process of spatial learning and memory. The behavioral efficacy of salicylate was comparable to that of donepezil. In addition, salicylate significantly decreased the levels of apoptotic proteins, Bax and caspase 3, and increased the Bcl2 levels in all groups. Furthermore, the levels of LC3II and Atg7 were decreased by salicylate. Our study revealed that both systemic and direct intra-hippocampal administration of salicylate can facilitate the spatial learning and memory. Additionally, intra-hippocampal administration of salicylate can reduce apoptotic and autophagic proteins. The antioxidant activity of salicylate might lead to increased pCREB via stimulation of signaling pathways, resulting in reduction of H-89-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of synthesized cyclohexanol derivatives using L-menthol as a lead compound on the percutaneous absorption of ketoprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Y; Sato, H; Li, C J; Takayama, K; Higashiyama, K; Nagai, T; Isowa, K

    2000-04-05

    L-Menthol was selected as a lead compound to synthesize new candidates for percutaneous absorption enhancers. In a previous study, O-ethylmenthol (MET) was the most effective compound and caused relatively little skin irritation. To develop more effective compounds, mono- or disubstitute groups of cyclohexane with an O-ethyl group were synthesized. Some 35 compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their promoting activity and effect on skin. An in vivo percutaneous absorption study was performed using rats with hydrogel containing ketoprofen and each of the synthesized compounds. The plasma concentration of ketoprofen was determined after the application of hydrogel to the abdominal area of rats. The apparent penetration rate (R(p)) was estimated based on the pharmacokinetic model with a constant rate of penetration through the skin after the lag time. The 2-compartment model was applied to the data obtained from the iv administration. As an index to evaluate the promoting activity of each enhancer, an enhancement factor (E(f)) was defined as follows: E(f) = R(p) (with enhancer)/R(p) (without enhancer). Irritation to skin was pathologically evaluated. The treated area of rat abdominal skin was excised after the in vivo experiment using total irritation score (TIS). The compound having a C-3 positioned iso-butyl group on the chemical structure was the most effective and caused relatively little irritation among mono-substituted compounds. In the case of di-substituted compounds, all had the same effect as or a stronger effect than MET. Furthermore, the promoting activity almost corresponded to irritation. To estimate log P, one of the physicochemical properties of molecules, a computer program 'CAChe' was employed. The log P was calculated using the atom typing scheme. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the relations between E(f) or TIS and log P were parabolic. It was suggested that the optimum logP value reflects the promoting activity to enhance

  11. Infrared Multiple-Photon Dissociation spectroscopy of group II metal complexes with salicylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan P. Dain; Gary Gresham; Gary S. Groenewold; Jeffrey D. Steill; Jos Oomens; Michael J. van Stipdonk

    2011-07-01

    Ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation, and the combination of infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to characterize singly-charged, 1:1 complexes of Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ with salicylate. For each metal-salicylate complex, the CID pathways are: (a) elimination of CO2 and (b) formation of [MOH]+ where M=Ca2+, Sr2+ or Ba2+. DFT calculations predict three minima for the cation-salicylate complexes which differ in the mode of metal binding. In the first, the metal ion is coordinated by O atoms of the (neutral) phenol and carboxylate groups of salicylate. In the second, the cation is coordinated by phenoxide and (neutral) carboxylic acid groups. The third mode involves coordination by the carboxylate group alone. The infrared spectrum for the metal-salicylate complexes contains a number of absorptions between 1000 – 1650 cm-1, and the best correlation between theoretical and experimental spectra for the structure that features coordination of the metal ion by phenoxide and the carbonyl group of the carboxylic acid group, consistent with calculated energies for the respective species.

  12. Metformin and salicylate synergistically activate liver AMPK, inhibit lipogenesis and improve insulin sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Rebecca J.; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Pinkosky, Stephen L.; Day, Emily A.; Scott, John W.; Oakhill, Jonathan S.; Bujak, Adam L.; Smith, Brennan K.; Crane, Justin D.; Blumer, Regje M.; Marcinko, Katarina; Kemp, Bruce E.; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2017-01-01

    Metformin is the mainstay therapy for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and many patients also take salicylate-based drugs [i.e., aspirin (ASA)] for cardioprotection. Metformin and salicylate both increase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity but by distinct mechanisms, with metformin altering cellular adenylate charge (increasing AMP) and salicylate interacting directly at the AMPK β1 drug-binding site. AMPK activation by both drugs results in phosphorylation of ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase; P-ACC) and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the rate limiting enzyme controlling fatty acid synthesis (lipogenesis). We find doses of metformin and salicylate used clinically synergistically activate AMPK in vitro and in vivo, resulting in reduced liver lipogenesis, lower liver lipid levels and improved insulin sensitivity in mice. Synergism occurs in cell-free assays and is specific for the AMPK β1 subunit. These effects are also observed in primary human hepatocytes and patients with dysglycaemia exhibit additional improvements in a marker of insulin resistance (proinsulin) when treated with ASA and metformin compared with either drug alone. These data indicate that metformin–salicylate combination therapy may be efficacious for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and T2D. PMID:25742316

  13. The aspirin metabolite salicylate inhibits lysine acetyltransferases and MUC1 induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Harvey R; Lindén, Sara K

    2017-07-17

    MUC1 is a transmembrane mucin that can promote cancer progression, and its upregulation correlates with a worse prognosis in colon cancer. We examined the effects of overexpression of MUC1 in colon cancer cells, finding that it induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), including enhanced migration and invasion, and increased Akt phosphorylation. When the clones were treated with the aspirin metabolite salicylate, Akt phosphorylation was decreased and EMT inhibited. As the salicylate motif is necessary for the activity of the lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) inhibitor anacardic acid, we hypothesized these effects were associated with the inhibition of KAT activity. This was supported by anacardic acid treatment producing the same effect on EMT. In vitro KAT assays confirmed that salicylate directly inhibited PCAF/Kat2b, Tip60/Kat5 and hMOF/Kat8, and this inhibition was likely involved in the reversal of EMT in the metastatic prostate cancer cell line PC-3. Salicylate treatment also inhibited EMT induced by cytokines, illustrating the general effect it had on this process. The inhibition of both EMT and KATs by salicylate presents a little explored activity that could explain some of the anti-cancer effects of aspirin.

  14. Salicylate, diflunisal and their metabolites inhibit CBP/p300 and exhibit anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Kotaro; Wang, Lan; Man, Na; Maksimoska, Jasna; Sorum, Alexander W; Lim, Hyung W; Lee, Intelly S; Shimazu, Tadahiro; Newman, John C; Schröder, Sebastian; Ott, Melanie; Marmorstein, Ronen; Meier, Jordan; Nimer, Stephen; Verdin, Eric

    2016-05-31

    Salicylate and acetylsalicylic acid are potent and widely used anti-inflammatory drugs. They are thought to exert their therapeutic effects through multiple mechanisms, including the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenases, modulation of NF-κB activity, and direct activation of AMPK. However, the full spectrum of their activities is incompletely understood. Here we show that salicylate specifically inhibits CBP and p300 lysine acetyltransferase activity in vitro by direct competition with acetyl-Coenzyme A at the catalytic site. We used a chemical structure-similarity search to identify another anti-inflammatory drug, diflunisal, that inhibits p300 more potently than salicylate. At concentrations attainable in human plasma after oral administration, both salicylate and diflunisal blocked the acetylation of lysine residues on histone and non-histone proteins in cells. Finally, we found that diflunisal suppressed the growth of p300-dependent leukemia cell lines expressing AML1-ETO fusion protein in vitro and in vivo. These results highlight a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism of action for salicylate and derivative drugs.

  15. Synergistic Substrate and Oxygen Activation in Salicylate Dioxygenase Revealed by QM/MM Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhendu; Kästner, Johannes

    2016-01-18

    Salicylate 1,2-dioxygenase (SDO) is the first enzyme to be discovered to catalyze the oxidative cleavage of a monohydroxylated aromatic compound, namely salicylate, instead of the well-known electron-rich substrates. We have investigated the mechanism of dioxygen activation in SDO by QM/MM calculations. Our study reveals that the non-heme Fe(II) center in SDO activates salicylate and O2 synergistically through a strong covalent interaction to facilitate the reductive cleavage of O2. A covalent salicylate-Fe(II) -O2 complex is the reactive oxygen species in this case, and its electronic structure is best described as being between the two limiting cases, Fe(II)-O2 and Fe(II)-O2˙(-), with partial electron transfer from the activated salicylate to O2 via the Fe center. Thus SDO employs a synergistic strategy of substrate and oxygen activation to carry out the catalytic reaction, which is unprecedented in the family of iron dioxygenases. Moreover, O2 activation in SDO happens without the assistance of a proton source. Our study essentially shows a new mechanistic possibility for O2 activation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Salicylate-induced changes in immediate-early genes in the hippocampal CA1 area

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, HAO; XU, FENG-LEI; YIN, YONG; DA, PENG; YOU, XIAO-DONG; XU, HUI-MIN; TANG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    Studies have suggested that salicylate affects neuronal function via interactions with specific membrane channels/receptors. However, the effect of salicylate on activity and synaptic morphology of the hippocampal Cornu Ammonis (CA) 1 area remains to be elucidated. The activation of immediate-early genes (IEGs) was reported to correlate with neuronal activity, in particular activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein and early growth response gene 1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of these IEGs, as well that of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2B in rats following acute and chronic salicylate treatment. Protein and messenger RNA levels of all three genes were increased in rats following chronic administration of salicylate (300 mg/kg for 10 days), returning to baseline levels 14 days post-cessation of treatment. The transient upregulation of gene expression following treatment was accompanied by ultrastructural alterations in hippocampal CA1 area synapses. An increase in synaptic interface curvature was observed as well as an increased number of presynaptic vesicles; in addition, postsynaptic densities thickened and lengthened. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that chronic exposure to salicylate may lead to structural alteration of hippocampal CA1 neurons, and it was suggested that this process occurs through induced expression of IEGs via NMDA receptor activation. PMID:25873216

  17. Salicylate •Phenanthroline copper (II) complex induces apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Limei; Tian, Muyou; Liu, Yunyi; Deng, Ying; Liao, Zhengkai; Xu, Jinhua

    2017-05-02

    In this study, we investigated anti-tumor activity and associated molecular mechanism of action of Salicylate ●Phenanthroline Copper (II) Complex in triple-negative breast cancer. Salicylate ●Phenanthroline Copper (II) Complex inhibited the growth of four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, MDA-MB-231 and BT-20) and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect was more profound in MDA-MB-231 and BT-20 triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Western blot showed that the expression of the apoptosis-related protein Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and survivin was significantly reduced in MDA-MB-231 after treatment with Salicylate ●Phenanthroline Copper (II) Complex. In vivo, Salicylate ●Phenanthroline Copper (II) Complex administration significantly attenuated tumor growth of MDA-MB-231 xenografts, and the expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin were reduced as measured by immunohistochemical staining. These data suggest that Salicylate ●Phenanthroline Copper (II) Complex is a promising novel therapeutic drug for triple-negative breast cancer and warrants further study.

  18. Salicylate, diflunisal and their metabolites inhibit CBP/p300 and exhibit anticancer activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Kotaro; Wang, Lan; Man, Na; Maksimoska, Jasna; Sorum, Alexander W; Lim, Hyung W; Lee, Intelly S; Shimazu, Tadahiro; Newman, John C; Schröder, Sebastian; Ott, Melanie; Marmorstein, Ronen; Meier, Jordan; Nimer, Stephen; Verdin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Salicylate and acetylsalicylic acid are potent and widely used anti-inflammatory drugs. They are thought to exert their therapeutic effects through multiple mechanisms, including the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenases, modulation of NF-κB activity, and direct activation of AMPK. However, the full spectrum of their activities is incompletely understood. Here we show that salicylate specifically inhibits CBP and p300 lysine acetyltransferase activity in vitro by direct competition with acetyl-Coenzyme A at the catalytic site. We used a chemical structure-similarity search to identify another anti-inflammatory drug, diflunisal, that inhibits p300 more potently than salicylate. At concentrations attainable in human plasma after oral administration, both salicylate and diflunisal blocked the acetylation of lysine residues on histone and non-histone proteins in cells. Finally, we found that diflunisal suppressed the growth of p300-dependent leukemia cell lines expressing AML1-ETO fusion protein in vitro and in vivo. These results highlight a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism of action for salicylate and derivative drugs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11156.001 PMID:27244239

  19. A systematic review of salicylates in foods: estimated daily intake of a Scottish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Adrian; Baxter, Gwen; Thies, Frank; Kyle, Janet; Duthie, Garry

    2011-05-01

    Several studies suggest that natural salicylates in plant-based foods may benefit health. However, large variation in published values of the salicylate content of foods means that relating dietary intakes to disease risk is problematical. Consequently, we have systematically reviewed the available literature using prescribed selection criteria. By combining these literature values with in-house analysis, we have constructed a food composition database describing median salicylate values for 27 different types of fruits, 21 vegetables, 28 herbs, spices and condiments, 2 soups and 11 beverages. Application of a validated food frequency questionnaire estimated median dietary intakes of 4.42 (range 2.90-6.27) and 3.16 (2.35-4.89) mg/day for Scottish males and females, respectively. Major dietary sources of salicylates were alcoholic beverages (22%), herbs and spices (17%), fruits (16%), non-alcoholic beverages including fruit juices (13%), tomato-based sauces (12%) and vegetables (9%). Application of the database to populations with differing dietary habits and disease risk profiles may provide further evidence for the role of dietary salicylates in the prevention of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Hypercapnea and Acidemia despite Hyperventilation following Endotracheal Intubation in a Case of Unknown Severe Salicylate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salicylates are common substances for deliberate self-harm. Acute salicylate toxicity is classically associated with an initial respiratory alkalosis, followed by an anion gap metabolic acidosis. The respiratory alkalosis is achieved through hyperventilation, driven by direct stimulation on the respiratory centers in the medulla and considered as a compensatory mechanism to avoid acidemia. However, in later stages of severe salicylate toxicity, patients become increasingly obtunded, with subsequent loss of airway reflexes, and therefore intubation may be necessary. Mechanical ventilation has been recommended against in acute salicylate poisoning, as it is believed to take away the compensatory hyperpnea and tachypnea. Despite the intuitive physiological basis for this recommendation, there is a paucity of evidence to support it. We describe a case of a 59-year-old male presenting with decreased level of consciousness and no known history of ingestion. He was intubated and experienced profound hypercarbia and acidemia despite mechanical ventilation with high minute ventilation and tidal volumes. This case illustrates the deleterious effects of intubation in severe salicylate toxicity.

  1. Salicylate Functions as an Efflux Pump Inducer and Promotes the Emergence of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Mutants▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhangqi; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Qijing

    2011-01-01

    Salicylate, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compound, has been shown to increase the resistance of Campylobacter to antimicrobials. However, the molecular mechanism underlying salicylate-induced resistance has not yet been established. In this study, we determined how salicylate increases antibiotic resistance and evaluated its impact on the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter mutants. Transcriptional fusion assays, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and immunoblotting assays consistently demonstrated the induction of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump by salicylate. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays further showed that salicylate inhibits the binding of CmeR (a transcriptional repressor of the TetR family) to the promoter DNA of cmeABC, suggesting that salicylate inhibits the function of CmeR. The presence of salicylate in the culture medium not only decreased the susceptibility of Campylobacter to ciprofloxacin but also resulted in an approximately 70-fold increase in the observed frequency of emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants under selection with ciprofloxacin. Together, these results indicate that in Campylobacter, salicylate inhibits the binding of CmeR to the promoter DNA and induces expression of cmeABC, resulting in decreased susceptibility to antibiotics and in increased emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants under selection pressure. PMID:21821741

  2. Salicylic acid confers salt tolerance in potato plants by improving water relations, gaseous exchange, antioxidant activities and osmoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faried, Hafiz Nazar; Ayyub, Chaudhary Muhammad; Amjad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Rashid; Wattoo, Fahad Masoud; Butt, Madiha; Bashir, Mohsin; Shaheen, Muhammad Rashid; Waqas, Muhammad Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Potato is an important vegetable; however, salt stress drastically affects its growth and yield. A pot experiment was therefore conducted to assess salicylic acid efficacy in improving performance of potato cultivars, grown under salt stress (50 mmol L -1 ). Salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L -1 was sprayed on to potato plants after 1 week of salinity application. Salt stress effects were ameliorated by salicylic acid effectively in both the studied cultivars. N-Y LARA proved more responsive to salicylic acid application than 720-110 NARC, which confirmed genetic variation between cultivars. Salicylic acid scavenged reactive oxygen species by improving antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases) and regulating osmotic adjustment (proline, phenolic contents), which led to enhanced water relation and gaseous exchange attributes, and thereby increased potassium availability and reduced sodium content in potato leaves. Moreover, potato tuber yield showed a positive correlation with potassium content, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities. Salt tolerance efficacy of salicylic acid is authenticated in improving potato crop performance under salt stress. Salicylic acid effect was more pronounced in N-Y LARA, reflecting greater tolerance than 720-110 NARC, which was confirmed as a susceptible cultivar. Hence salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L -1 and cultivation of N-Y LARA may be recommended in saline soil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Salicylate Detection by Complexation with Iron(III) and Optical Absorbance Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Koch, Jeremy T.; Reid, Kendra R.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment for the undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratory involving applications of visible spectrophotometry is described. Salicylate, a component found in several medications, as well as the active by-product of aspirin decomposition, is quantified. The addition of excess iron(III) to a solution of salicylate generates a deeply…

  4. The Interaction Effect of Salicylic Acid and High Temperature Stress on Some Physiological Characteristics of Maize Zea mays L.(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Attarzadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of salicylic acid and High temperature on physiological characteristics of maize (cv. SC704. In order to, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications was carried out in Research Greenhouse of Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan. The factors were included pre-treatment of concentrations of salicylic acid (0, 50, 100 and 200 μM and duration of 40°C (0, 8, 16 and 24 hours. Results showed that SPAD index increased significantly in levels of 50 and 100μM salicylic acid but it was low in control and 200μM salicylic acid. In level of 50μM salicylic acid, increase in duration of heat stress was resulted in increasing content of a and ab chlorophyll. However, it was occurred conversely in level of 200 μM salicylic acid, i.e., content of a and ab was decreased. Levels of salicylic acid and duration of heat stress did not effect on Fv/Fm and content of soluble sugar. Use of 200 μM salicylic acid decreased significantly relative water content, while increase in duration of heat stress caused to increase relative water content. In addition, increase in duration of heat stress resulted in increasing leaf temperature and proline content.

  5. Second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for the simultaneous determination of naproxen and salicylic acid in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantianos, D G; Ioannou, P C

    1996-07-01

    Second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectrometry was used to develop a simple, rapid and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the simultaneous determination of naproxen and salicylic acid in human serum. The method is based on the intrinsic fluorescence of naproxen and salicylic acid in chloroform-1% acetic acid solution. A delta gamma of 130 nm was used for the direct measurement of salicylic acid in the binary mixture, whereas naproxen was determined from direct measurements at delta gamma = 60 nm and by means of a correction equation which incorporates the concentration of salicylic acid. The range of application is 0-14 mg l-1 for naproxen and 0-13 mg l-1 for salicylic acid. The detection limits for naproxen and salicylic acid are 0.003 and 0.01 mg l-1, respectively. Serum samples are extracted into chloroform-1% acetic acid solution prior to instrumental measurement. Analytical recoveries range from 97 to 105% (mean 102%) for naproxen and from 97 to 112% (mean 103%) for salicylic acid. The within-run precision (RSD) for the method for four naproxen-salicylic acid mixtures varied from 1.2 to 6.7% and the day-to-day precision for mixtures varied from 2.1 to 5.0%.

  6. AHL-priming functions via oxylipin and salicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Timo Schenk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative action between the host plant and associated bacteria is crucial for the establishment of an efficient interaction. In bacteria, the synchronized behavior of a population is often achieved by a density-dependent communication called quorum sensing (QS. This behavior is based on signaling molecules, which influence bacterial gene expression. N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs are such molecules in many Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, some AHLs are responsible for the beneficial effect of bacteria on plants, for example the long chain N-3-oxo-tetradecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (oxo-C14-HSL can prime Arabidopsis and barley plants for an enhanced defense. This AHL-induced resistance phenomenon, named AHL-priming, was observed in several independent laboratories during the last two decades. Very recently, the mechanism of priming with oxo-C14-HSL was shown to depend on an oxylipin and salicylic acid (SA. SA is a key element in plant defense, it accumulates during different plant resistance responses and is the base of systemic acquired resistance. In addition, SA itself can prime plants for an enhanced resistance against pathogen attack. On the other side, oxylipins, including jasmonic acid (JA and related metabolites, are lipid-derived signaling compounds. Especially the oxidized fatty acid derivative cis-OPDA, which is the precursor of JA, is a newly described player in plant defense. Unlike the antagonistic effect of SA and JA in plant-microbe interactions, the recently described pathway functions through a synergistic effect of oxylipins and SA, and is independent of the JA signaling cascade. Interestingly, the oxo-C14-HSL-induced oxylipin/SA signaling pathway induces stomata defense responses and cell wall strengthening thus prevents pathogen invasion. In this review, we summarize the findings on AHL-priming and the related signaling cascade. In addition, we discuss the potential of AHL-induced resistance in new strategies of plant

  7. AHL-priming functions via oxylipin and salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Sebastian T; Schikora, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative action between the host plant and associated bacteria is crucial for the establishment of an efficient interaction. In bacteria, the synchronized behavior of a population is often achieved by a density-dependent communication called quorum sensing. This behavior is based on signaling molecules, which influence bacterial gene expression. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are such molecules in many Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, some AHLs are responsible for the beneficial effect of bacteria on plants, for example the long chain N-3-oxo-tetradecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (oxo-C14-HSL) can prime Arabidopsis and barley plants for an enhanced defense. This AHL-induced resistance phenomenon, named AHL-priming, was observed in several independent laboratories during the last two decades. Very recently, the mechanism of priming with oxo-C14-HSL was shown to depend on an oxylipin and salicylic acid (SA). SA is a key element in plant defense, it accumulates during different plant resistance responses and is the base of systemic acquired resistance. In addition, SA itself can prime plants for an enhanced resistance against pathogen attack. On the other side, oxylipins, including jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites, are lipid-derived signaling compounds. Especially the oxidized fatty acid derivative cis-OPDA, which is the precursor of JA, is a newly described player in plant defense. Unlike the antagonistic effect of SA and JA in plant-microbe interactions, the recently described pathway functions through a synergistic effect of oxylipins and SA, and is independent of the JA signaling cascade. Interestingly, the oxo-C14-HSL-induced oxylipin/SA signaling pathway induces stomata defense responses and cell wall strengthening thus prevents pathogen invasion. In this review, we summarize the findings on AHL-priming and the related signaling cascade. In addition, we discuss the potential of AHL-induced resistance in new strategies of plant protection.

  8. Neonicotinoid insecticides induce salicylate-associated plant defense responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin A.; Casida, John E.; Chandran, Divya; Gulevich, Alexander G.; Okrent, Rachel A.; Durkin, Kathleen A.; Sarpong, Richmond; Bunnelle, Eric M.; Wildermuth, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides control crop pests based on their action as agonists at the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which accepts chloropyridinyl- and chlorothiazolyl-analogs almost equally well. In some cases, these compounds have also been reported to enhance plant vigor and (a)biotic stress tolerance, independent of their insecticidal function. However, this mode of action has not been defined. Using Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that the neonicotinoid compounds, imidacloprid (IMI) and clothianidin (CLO), via their 6-chloropyridinyl-3-carboxylic acid and 2-chlorothiazolyl-5-carboxylic acid metabolites, respectively, induce salicylic acid (SA)-associated plant responses. SA is a phytohormone best known for its role in plant defense against pathogens and as an inducer of systemic acquired resistance; however, it can also modulate abiotic stress responses. These neonicotinoids effect a similar global transcriptional response to that of SA, including genes involved in (a)biotic stress response. Furthermore, similar to SA, IMI and CLO induce systemic acquired resistance, resulting in reduced growth of a powdery mildew pathogen. The action of CLO induces the endogenous synthesis of SA via the SA biosynthetic enzyme ICS1, with ICS1 required for CLO-induced accumulation of SA, expression of the SA marker PR1, and fully enhanced resistance to powdery mildew. In contrast, the action of IMI does not induce endogenous synthesis of SA. Instead, IMI is further bioactivated to 6-chloro-2-hydroxypyridinyl-3-carboxylic acid, which is shown here to be a potent inducer of PR1 and inhibitor of SA-sensitive enzymes. Thus, via different mechanisms, these chloropyridinyl- and chlorothiazolyl-neonicotinoids induce SA responses associated with enhanced stress tolerance. PMID:20876120

  9. Reactivity of paraquat with sodium salicylate: formation of stable complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Ferreira, António César Silva; Silva, Artur M S; Afonso, Carlos; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remião, Fernando; Duarte, José Alberto; Carvalho, Félix

    2008-07-30

    Sodium salicylate (NaSAL) has been shown to be a promising antidote for the treatment of paraquat (PQ) poisonings. The modulation of the pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory pathways, as well as the anti-thrombogenic properties of NaSAL are probably essential features for the healing effects provided by this drug. Nevertheless, a possible direct chemical reactivity between PQ and NaSAL is also a putative pathway to be considered, this hypothesis being the ground of the present study. In accordance, it is shown, for the first time that PQ and NaSAL react immediately in aqueous medium and within 2-3 min in the solid state. Photographs and scanning electron photomicrographs indicated that a new chemical entity is formed when both compounds are mixed. This assumption was corroborated by the evaluation of the melting point, and through several analytical techniques, namely ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS), liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS) and infrared spectroscopy, which revealed that stable charge-transfer complexes are formed when PQ is mixed with NaSAL. LC/ESI/MS/MS allowed obtaining the stoichiometry of the charge-transfer complexes. In order to increase resolution, single value decomposition, acting as a filter, showed that the charge-transfer complexes with m/z 483, 643 and 803 correspond to the pseudo-molecular ions, respectively 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 (PQ:NaSAL). In conclusion, these results provided a new and important mechanism of action of NaSAL against the toxicity mediated by PQ.

  10. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte eCaarls

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between the hormone signaling pathways allows for fine tuning of transcriptional programs, determining resistance to invaders and trade-offs with plant development. Here, we give an overview of how SA can control transcriptional reprogramming of JA-induced genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. SA can influence activity and/or localization of transcriptional regulators by post-translational modifications of transcription factors and co-regulators. SA-induced redox changes, mediated by thioredoxins and glutaredoxins, modify transcriptional regulators that are involved in suppression of JA-dependent genes, such as NPR1 and TGA transcription factors, which affects their localization or DNA binding activity. Furthermore, SA can mediate sequestering of JA-responsive transcription factors away from their target genes by stalling them in the cytosol or in complexes with repressor proteins in the nucleus. SA also affects JA-induced transcription by inducing degradation of transcription factors with an activating role in JA signaling, as was shown for the ERF transcription factor ORA59. Additionally, SA can induce negative regulators, among which WRKY transcription factors, that can directly or indirectly inhibit JA-responsive gene expression. Finally, at the DNA level, modification of histones by SA-dependent factors can result in repression of JA-responsive genes. These diverse and complex regulatory mechanisms affect important signaling hubs in the integration of hormone signaling networks. Some pathogens have evolved effectors that highjack hormone crosstalk mechanisms for their own good, which are described in this review as well.

  11. Reactivity of paraquat with sodium salicylate: Formation of stable complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Ferreira, Antonio Cesar Silva; Silva, Artur M.S.; Afonso, Carlos; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remiao, Fernando; Duarte, Jose Alberto; Carvalho, Felix

    2008-01-01

    Sodium salicylate (NaSAL) has been shown to be a promising antidote for the treatment of paraquat (PQ) poisonings. The modulation of the pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory pathways, as well as the anti-thrombogenic properties of NaSAL are probably essential features for the healing effects provided by this drug. Nevertheless, a possible direct chemical reactivity between PQ and NaSAL is also a putative pathway to be considered, this hypothesis being the ground of the present study. In accordance, it is shown, for the first time that PQ and NaSAL react immediately in aqueous medium and within 2-3 min in the solid state. Photographs and scanning electron photomicrographs indicated that a new chemical entity is formed when both compounds are mixed. This assumption was corroborated by the evaluation of the melting point, and through several analytical techniques, namely ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS), liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS) and infrared spectroscopy, which revealed that stable charge-transfer complexes are formed when PQ is mixed with NaSAL. LC/ESI/MS/MS allowed obtaining the stoichiometry of the charge-transfer complexes. In order to increase resolution, single value decomposition, acting as a filter, showed that the charge-transfer complexes with m/z 483, 643 and 803 correspond to the pseudo-molecular ions, respectively 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 (PQ:NaSAL). In conclusion, these results provided a new and important mechanism of action of NaSAL against the toxicity mediated by PQ

  12. Exogenous salicylate application affects the lead and copper accumulation characteristics of Lemna gibba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duman, Fatih; Aksoy, Ahmet; Ozturk, Fatma; Ceylan, Ahmet [Erciyes Univ., Kayseri (Turkey). Dept. of Biology

    2010-11-15

    Previous studies have shown that salicylates can change the ion permeability of root cells. Therefore the possible effects of exogenous salicylate application on lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) accumulation and its protective role against DNA damage due to metal exposure in Lemna gibba were studied. L. gibba was exposed to 5, 10, and 25 {mu}M Pb and Cu for six days in the presence and absence of sodium salicylate (SA) (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mM). At all concentrations tested, SA application decreased Pb accumulation. On the other hand, application of 0.5 mM SA increased Cu accumulation. SA did not reduce DNA damage resulting from Pb and Cu toxicity. In summary, SA may be useful for reducing Pb accumulation, and application of SA at 0.5 mM may be useful for the phytoextraction of Cu. (orig.)

  13. Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, N.; Capion, N.

    2013-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated...... at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored MO to M4) were evaluated on days...... the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P = 0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative...

  14. Determination of free salicylic acid in chewing aspirin tablets by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Chen, Xin-shan; Wang, Rui-dong

    2003-07-01

    To establish a HPLC method for determining the content of free salicylic acid in chewing aspirin tablets. The determination was conducted on a HPLC column (C(18), 150 mm x 4.6 mm x 5 microm) with methanol-water-glacial acetic acid (8.0 5.5 1.0) as the mobile phase and the detection wavelength of 302 nm. The calibration curve was linear within the concentration range of 2.65 to 31.77 microg/ml (r=0.999 97) of salicylic acid. The average recovery rate was 100.21% with relative standard deviation of 0.53% (n=6). HPLC is quick and accurate of determining the content of free salicylic acid for chewing aspirin tablets.

  15. [Determination of aspirin and free salicylic acid in lysinipirine injection by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu; Zhao, Yuan-zheng; Zhang, Yi-na

    2002-05-01

    The contents of aspirin and free salicylic acid in lysinipirine injection were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A Hypersil BDS C18 column was used with the mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (35:65:3, volume ratio) and the detection wavelength of 280 nm. The average recoveries of aspirin and salicylic acid added were 99.27% (RSD = 0.8%) and 99.61%(RSD = 1.3%), respectively. The calibration curves had good linearity in the range of 0.028 g/L -0.141 mg/L and 0.77 mg/L -3.85 mg/L, and the correlation coefficients were 0.9999 and 0.9998 for aspirin and salicylic acid respectively.

  16. [Determination of resorcinol and salicylic acid in piyanning tincture by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Zhou, M

    1998-11-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of resorcinol and salicylic acid in Piyanning tincture by HPLC has been proposed. Operating conditions were Hyppersil ODS column, 4.6 mm x 200 mm, V (methanol): V(water): V(acetic acid) = 50:50:0.9 mobile phase and UV detection at 285 nm. The linear ranges of the method were 0.05-0.25 g/L(r = 1.000) for resorcinol and 0.025-0.127 g/L(r = 1.000) for salicylic acid. The limits of detection were both 0.2 mg/L at a signal-to-noise of 3. The assay method was capable to resolve resorcinol and salicylic acid from their impurities.

  17. A 29-year analysis of acute peak salicylate concentrations in fatalities reported to United States poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Brandon J; King, Andrew; Smolinske, Susan; Thomas, Ronald; Aaron, Cynthia

    2018-02-12

    The threshold salicylate concentration commonly recommended to initiate extracorporeal elimination, in the absence of significant end-organ toxicity, is 100 mg/dL. Unfortunately, the grade of evidence to support this decision is low. Our primary aim is to describe highest reported salicylate concentrations in patients who died from acute salicylate ingestions. Our secondary aim is to determine if age or coingestants varied with highest reported salicylate concentration. We analyzed acute salicylate fatalities reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) between 1 January 1986 and 31 December 2014. Included were patients who died during the index hospitalization and for which acute salicylate toxicity was the primary cause of death. We used descriptive statistics with standard deviations (SD) or 95% confidence intervals (CI) where appropriate. We created a general linear model that evaluated the association of age and coingestions with salicylate concentrations. We divided the patients into age quartiles to assess a possible interaction between age and salicylate concentration. We identified 602 acute salicylate fatalities that fit inclusion criteria. The mean peak reported fatal salicylate concentration across all age groups was 99.19 mg/dL (± 50.2 mg/dL). The median peak fatal salicylate concentration was 97.0 mg/dL. The oldest quartile had a lower mean concentration (age >57 years; 90.4 mg/dL) than the youngest quartile (age salicylates alone (mean difference 13.4 mg/dL, 95%CI 21.4-5.3). Increasing age and the presence of any coingestions were negatively associated with fatal concentrations (estimates; 95%CI 0.41; 0.61-0.021 and -14.43; 22.45-6.42, respectively). When opioids were a coingestant, mean concentration was 72.8 (mean difference 32.1 95%CI 23.1-41.1). Using the current recommended hemodialysis threshold of 100 mg/dL, more than half of the patients would be deprived of this critical life-saving therapy. Additionally

  18. Partial reversal by beta-D-xyloside of salicylate-induced inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmoski, M.J.; Brandt, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    While net 35 S-glycosaminoglycan synthesis in normal canine articular cartilage was suppressed by 10(-3)M sodium salicylate to about 70% of the control value, addition of xyloside (10(-6)M-10(-3)M) to the salicylate-treated cultures led to a concentration-dependent increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which rose to 120-237% of controls. Similar results were obtained when 3 H-glucosamine was used to measure glycosaminoglycan synthesis, confirming that salicylate suppresses and xyloside stimulates net glycosaminoglycan synthesis, and not merely sulfation. Salicylate (10-3)M) did not affect the activity of xylosyl or galactosyl transferase prepared from canine knee cartilage, and net protein synthesis was unaltered by either salicylate or xyloside. The proportion of newly synthesized proteoglycans existing as aggregates when cartilage was cultured with xyloside was similar to that in controls, although the average hydrodynamic size of disaggregated proteoglycans and of sulfated glycosaminoglycans was diminished

  19. Transport of salicylate in proximal tubule (S sub 2 segment) isolated from rabbit kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, L.; Roch-Ramel, F. (Institut de Pharmacologie de l' Universite de Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1988-04-01

    The secretory and the reabsorptive transport of salicylate was studied in the isolated and perfused rabbit proximal tubule (S{sub 2} segment). Salicylate secretion (J{sub sal}{sup b{yields}l}) fulfilled the criteria for a carrier-mediated transport system: J{sub sal}{sup b{yields}l} was saturable, was reversibly inhibited by probenecid, and occurred against a concentration gradient. The K{sub m} and V{sub max} for this secretory transport were 80 {mu}M and 3,200 fmol{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}{center dot}mm{sup {minus}1}, respectively. At luminal pH of 7.4 and 6.6, salicylate reabsorption (J{sub sal}{sup l{yields}b}) was low. J{sub sal}{sup l{yields}b} was stimulated by increasing the bath Pco{sub 2} or by removing basolateral HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}; J{sub sal}{sup l{yields}b} was inhibited by ethoxyzolamide and by SITS in the bath. The results indicate that salicylate reabsorption depends on H{sup +} secretion, consistent with reabsorption by simple nonionic diffusion. When salicylate was present in the lumen only, J{sub sal}{sup l{yields}b} increased after inhibition of the secretory transport by adding ouabain or probenecid in the bath or by lowering the bath temperature. These results are compatible with luminal recycling of salicylate, and suggest the presence of a mediated secretory transporter located at the luminal membrane.

  20. Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity prevented owing to the neuroprotective effects of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash-Williams, Bessy; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S; Bhattacharya, Dwipayan; Ahuja, Manuj; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

    2016-06-01

    Methamphetamine (Schedule-II drug, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration) is one of the most abused illicit drug following cocaine, marijuana, and heroin in the USA. There are numerous health impairments and substantial economic burden caused by methamphetamine abuse. Salicylic acid, potent anti-inflammatory drug and a known neuroprotectant has shown to protect against toxicity-induced by other dopaminergic neurotoxins. Hence, in this study we investigated the neuroprotective effects of salicylic acid against methamphetamine-induced toxicity in mice. The current study investigated the effects of sodium salicylate and/or methamphetamine on oxidative stress, monoamine oxidase, mitochondrial complex I & IV activities using spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods. Behavioral analysis evaluated the effect on movement disorders-induced by methamphetamine. Monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels were evaluated using high pressure liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection. Methamphetamine caused significant generation of reactive oxygen species and decreased complex-I activity leading to dopamine depletion. Striatal dopamine depletion led to significant behavioral changes associated with movement disorders. Sodium salicylate (50 & 100mg/kg) significantly scavenged reactive oxygen species, blocked mitochondrial dysfunction and exhibited neuroprotection against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. In addition, sodium salicylate significantly blocked methamphetamine-induced behavioral changes related to movement abnormalities. One of the leading causative theories in nigral degeneration associated with movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease is exposure to stimulants, drugs of abuse, insecticide and pesticides. These neurotoxic substances can induce dopaminergic neuronal insult by oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. Salicylic acid due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects could provide neuroprotection against the

  1. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuma Matsubara

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2.

  2. The effect of radiation on some salicylates. 1. Steady state studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, L.R. de la.

    1975-01-01

    This work was undertaken to obtain more quantitative information on the extent and nature of the degradation of some salicylates by ionizing radiation, especially gamma rays, and to gather data that could assist in the evaluation of the use of radiation for sterilization of this group of compounds which are extensively used as antipyretics, analgesics and anti-rheumatics. Salicylamide is not only a common medicinal, but also a model for the study of the effect of radiation on biological systems. A 3200 Ci Co-60 facility was used. Three salicylates were subjected to solid phase irradiation, namely: salicylamide, phenylsalicylate, and acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin). These compounds were purified by repeated recrystallization from water, methanol and benzene, respectively, until a constant melting point was obtained. Irradiation in the solid phase was made in doses from 2.5 to 240 Krad. Irradiation in the liquid phase (solution) was carried out in doses, ranging from 2000 to as high as 270,000 rad depending on the reactivity of the solution. The degradation products were separated by thin layer chromatography using Kieselgel F254 and SIF with fluorescence scintillator (Riedel-de Haen). The products were visualized with a Camag UV Universal lamp. Irradiation of the three salicylates showed very little decomposition even at doses very much higher than those required for radiation sterilization. Salicylamide appears to be the most stable giving an initial G(-salicylamide)-0.50. For both phenylsalicylate and acetylsalicylic acid only the G values at 150 Mrad were obtained as the amounts degraded at lower doses were too low for the sensitivity of the diffused reflectance method used. A G(-phenylsalicylate)-2 and G(-acetylsalicylate)-1.2 were obtained by this method. Salicylic acid is formed when aspirin is irradiated. It is concluded that this acid is one of the degradation products. Barring any toxic property of the minute substances formed, solid phase sterilization is

  3. New insight into photo-bromination processes in saline surface waters: The case of salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamtam, Fatima; Chiron, Serge

    2012-01-01

    It was shown, through a combination of field and laboratory observations, that salicylic acid can undergo photo-bromination reactions in sunlit saline surface waters. Laboratory-scale experiments revealed that the photochemical yields of 5-bromosalicylic acid and 3,5-dibromosalicylic acid from salicylic acid were always low (in the 4% range at most). However, this might be of concern since these compounds are potential inhibitors of the 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, with potential implications in endocrine disruption processes. At least two mechanisms were involved simultaneously to account for the photo-generation of brominated substances. The first one might involve the formation of reactive brominated radical species (Br·, Br 2 · − ) through hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation of bromide ions. These ions reacted more selectively than hydroxyl radicals with electron-rich organic pollutants such as salicylic acid. The second one might involve the formation of hypobromous acid, through a two electron oxidation of bromine ions by peroxynitrite. This reaction was catalyzed by nitrite, since these ions play a crucial role in the formation of nitric oxide upon photolysis. This nitric oxide further reacts with superoxide radical anions to yield peroxynitrite and by ammonium through the formation of N-bromoamines, probably due to the ability of N-bromoamines to promote the aromatic bromination of phenolic compounds. Field measurements revealed the presence of salicylic acid together with 5-bromosalicylic and 3,5-dibromosalicylic acid in a brackish coastal lagoon, thus confirming the environmental significance of the proposed photochemically induced bromination pathways. -- Highlights: ► Brominated derivatives of salicylic acid were detected in a brackish lagoon. ► A photochemical pathway was hypothesized to account for bromination of salicylic acid. ► Radical bromine species are partly responsible for the bromination process. ► Hypobromous acid

  4. Salicylate-induced frequency-map reorganization in four subfields of the mouse auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Yasutaka; Takasu, Kengo; Osanai, Hisayuki; Tateno, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    Salicylate is the active ingredient in aspirin, and in high-doses it is used as an experimental tool to induce transient hearing loss, tinnitus, and hyperacusis. These salicylate-induced perceptual disturbances are associated with tonotopic-map reorganization and neural activity modulation, and such neural correlates have been examined in the central auditory pathway, including the auditory cortex (AC). Although previous studies have reported that salicylate induces increases in noise-burst-evoked neural responses and reorganization of tonotopic maps in the primary AC, little is known about the effects of salicylate on other frequency-organized AC subfields such as the anterior auditory, secondary auditory, and dorsomedial fields. Therefore, to examine salicylate-induced spatiotemporal effects on AC subfields, we measured sound-evoked neural activity in mice before and after the administration of sodium salicylate (SS, 200 mg/kg), using flavoprotein auto-fluorescence imaging. SS-treatment gradually reduced responses driven by tone-bursts with lower (≤8 kHz) and higher (≥25 kHz) frequencies over 3 h, whereas evoked responses to tone-bursts within middle-range frequencies (e.g., 12 and 16 kHz) were sustained and unchanged in the four subfields. Additionally, in each of the four subfields, SS-treatment induced similar reorganization of tonotopic maps, and the response areas selectively driven by the middle-range frequencies were profoundly expanded. Our results indicate that the SS-induced tonotopic map reorganizations in each of the four AC subfields were similar, and only the extent of the activated areas responsive to tone-bursts with specific frequencies was subfield-dependent. Thus, we expect that examining cortical reorganization induced by SS may open the possibility of new treatments aimed at altering cortical reorganization into the normative functional organization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Salicylic Acid-Based Polymers for Guided Bone Regeneration Using Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sangeeta; Mitchell, Ashley; Yu, Weiling; Snyder, Sabrina; Uhrich, Kathryn; O'Connor, J Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is used clinically to promote spinal fusion, treat complex tibia fractures, and to promote bone formation in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Excessive bone formation at sites where BMP-2 has been applied is an established complication and one that could be corrected by guided tissue regeneration methods. In this study, anti-inflammatory polymers containing salicylic acid [salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester), SAPAE] were electrospun with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create thin flexible matrices for use as guided bone regeneration membranes. SAPAE polymers hydrolyze to release salicylic acid, which is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. PCL was used to enhance the mechanical integrity of the matrices. Two different SAPAE-containing membranes were produced and compared: fast-degrading (FD-SAPAE) and slow-degrading (SD-SAPAE) membranes that release salicylic acid at a faster and slower rate, respectively. Rat femur defects were treated with BMP-2 and wrapped with FD-SAPAE, SD-SAPAE, or PCL membrane or were left unwrapped. The effects of different membranes on bone formation within and outside of the femur defects were measured by histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Bone formation within the defect was not affected by membrane wrapping at BMP-2 doses of 12 μg or more. In contrast, the FD-SAPAE membrane significantly reduced bone formation outside the defect compared with all other treatments. The rapid release of salicylic acid from the FD-SAPAE membrane suggests that localized salicylic acid treatment during the first few days of BMP-2 treatment can limit ectopic bone formation. The data support development of SAPAE polymer membranes for guided bone regeneration applications as well as barriers to excessive bone formation.

  6. Simultaneous liquid-chromatographic quantitation of salicylic acid, salicyluric acid, and gentisic acid in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, B E; Bochner, F; Imhoff, D M; Johns, D; Rowland, M

    1980-01-01

    We have developed a specific and sensitive method for the determination of salicylic acid, salicyluric acid, and gentisic acid in urine. Any proteins present are precipitated with methyl cyanide. After centrifugation, an aliquot of the supernate is directly injected into an octadecyl silane reversed-phase chromatographic column, then eluted with a mixture of water, butanol, acetic acid, and sodium sulfate, and quantitated at 313 nm by ultraviolet detection according to peak-height ratios (with internal standard, o-methoxybenzoic acid) or peak heights (no internal standard). The method allows estimates within 25 min. Sensitivity was 0.2 mg/L for gentisic acid, and 0.5 mg/L for both salicyluric and salicylic acid (20-micro L injection volume); response was linear with concentration to at least 2.000 g/L for salicylic acid and metabolites. Analytical recovery of salicylic acid and metabolites from urine is complete. Intra-assay precision (coefficient of variation) is 5.52% at 7.5 mg/L for salicylic acid, 5.01% at 9.33 mg/L for salicyluric acid, and 3.07% at 7.96 mg/L for gentisic acid. Interassay precision is 7.32% at 7.51 mg/L for salicylic acid, 5.52% at 8.58 mg/L for salicyluric acid, and 3.97% at 8.32 mg/L for gentisic acid. We saw no significant interference in urine from patients being treated with various drugs other than aspirin.

  7. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subnitrate, calomel, camphor, cholesterol, ergot fluid extract, hexachlorophene, ichthammol, isobutamben..., hexachlorophene, isobutamben, juniper tar (oil of cade), lanolin, magnesium sulfate, menthol, methyl salicylate...

  8. Cold/menthol TRPM8 receptors initiate the cold-shock response and protect germ cells from cold-shock-induced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiec, Anne-Sophie; Sion, Benoit; Chalmel, Frédéric; D Rolland, Antoine; Lemonnier, Loïc; De Clerck, Tatiana; Bokhobza, Alexandre; Derouiche, Sandra; Dewailly, Etienne; Slomianny, Christian; Mauduit, Claire; Benahmed, Mohamed; Roudbaraki, Morad; Jégou, Bernard; Prevarskaya, Natalia; Bidaux, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    Testes of most male mammals present the particularity of being externalized from the body and are consequently slightly cooler than core body temperature (4-8°C below). Although, hypothermia of the testis is known to increase germ cells apoptosis, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms, including cold sensors, transduction pathways, and apoptosis triggers. In this study, using a functional knockout mouse model of the cold and menthol receptors, dubbed transient receptor potential melastatine 8 (TRPM8) channels, we found that TRPM8 initiated the cold-shock response by differentially modulating cold- and heat-shock proteins. Besides, apoptosis of germ cells increased in proportion to the cooling level in control mice but was independent of temperature in knockout mice. We also observed that the rate of germ cell death correlated positively with the reactive oxygen species level and negatively with the expression of the detoxifying enzymes. This result suggests that the TRPM8 sensor is a key determinant of germ cell fate under hypothermic stimulation.-Borowiec, A.-S., Sion, B., Chalmel, F., Rolland, A. D., Lemonnier, L., De Clerck, T., Bokhobza, A., Derouiche, S., Dewailly, E., Slomianny, C., Mauduit, C., Benahmed, M., Roudbaraki, M., Jégou, B., Prevarskaya, N., Bidaux, G. Cold/menthol TRPM8 receptors initiate the cold-shock response and protect germ cells from cold-shock-induced oxidation. © The Author(s).

  9. Molecular design and synthesis of novel salicyl glycoconjugates as elicitors against plant diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zining Cui

    Full Text Available A new series of salicyl glycoconjugates containing hydrazide and hydrazone moieties were designed and synthesized. The bioassay indicated that the novel compounds had no in vitro fungicidal activity but showed significant in vivo antifungal activity against the tested fungal pathogens. Some compounds even had superior activity than the commercial fungicides in greenhouse trial. The results of RT-PCR analysis showed that the designed salicyl glycoconjugates could induce the expression of LOX1 and Cs-AOS2, which are the specific marker genes of jasmonate signaling pathway, to trigger the plant defense resistance.

  10. MgAl- Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles for controlled release of Salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Soumini; Dasgupta, Sudip; Maji, Kanchan

    2016-11-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), have been known for many decades as catalyst and ceramic precursors, traps for anionic pollutants, and additives for polymers. Recently, their successful synthesis on the nanometer scale opened up a whole new field for their application in nanomedicine. Here we report the efficacy of Mg1-xAlx (NO3)x (OH)2 LDH nanoparticles as a carrier and for controlled release of one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), sodium salicylate. Mg1-xAlx (NO3)x (OH)2.nH2O nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation method from an aqueous solution of Mg(NO3)2.6H2O and Al(NO3)3.9H2O. Salicylate was intercalated in the interlayer space of Mg-Al LDH after suspending nanoparticles in 0.0025(M) HNO3 and 0.75 (M) NaNO3 solution and using anion exchange method under N2 atmosphere. The shift in the basal planes like (003) and (006) to lower 2θ value in the XRD plot of intercalated sample confirmed the increase in basal spacing in LDH because of intercalation of salicylate into the interlayer space of LDH. FTIR spectroscopy of SA-LDH nano hybrid revealed a red shift in the frequency band of carboxylate group in salicylate indicating an electrostatic interaction between cationic LDH sheet and anionic drug. Differential thermal analysis of LDH-SA nanohybrid indicated higher thermal stability of salicylate in the intercalated form into LDH as compared to its free state. DLS studies showed a particle size distribution between 30-60 nm for pristine LDH whereas salicylate intercalated LDH exhibited a particle size distribution between 40-80nm which is ideal for its efficacy as a superior carrier for drugs and biomolecules. The cumulative release kinetic of salicylate from MgAl-LDH-SA hybrids in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at pH7.4 showed a sustained release of salicylate up to 72h that closely resembled first order release kinetics through a combination of drug diffusion and dissolution of LDH under physiological conditions. Also the

  11. A placebo controlled trial of bismuth salicylate in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, J I; Jafarey, N A; Alam, S M; Zuberi, S J; Kazi, A M; Qureshi, H; Ahmed, W

    1990-07-01

    In a placebo controlled prospective clinical trial of bismuth salicylate in helicobacter pylori associated gastritis, 52 adult patients were randomly allocated to treatment with bismuth salicylate or placebo. Helicobacter pylori were totally cleared in 77% patients in bismuth group but none in placebo group (P less than 0.001). Resolution of gastritis (P less than 0.001) and improvement of symptoms (P less than 0.01) were significantly better in patients where H. pylori infection cleared as compared to patients where the infection persisted.

  12. Sugar signaling regulation by Arabidopsis SIZ1-driven sumoylation is independent of salicylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Pedro Humberto Araújo R F; Verde, Nuno; Tavares, Rui Manuel

    2018-01-01

    inefficient responses to nutrient imbalance in phosphate, nitrate and copper. Recently, we reported that siz1 also displays altered responses to exogenous sugar supplementation. The siz1 mutant is a salicylic acid (SA) accumulator, and SA may interfere with sugar-dependent responses and signaling events. Here......, we extended our previous studies to determine the importance of SA in the SIZ1 response to sugars, by introducing the bacterial salicylate hydroxylase NahG into the siz1 background. Results demonstrate that siz1 phenotypes involving delayed germination are partially dependent of SA levels, whereas...

  13. Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of methyl salicylate: A chemical agent simulant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, S.W.

    1994-06-01

    The interactions of methyl salicylate with plant foliage and soils were assessed using aerosol/vapor exposure methods. Measurements of deposition velocity and residence times for soils and foliar surfaces are reported. Severe plant contact toxicity was observed at foliar mass-loading levels above 4 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} leaf; however, recovery was noted after four to fourteen days. Methyl salicylate has a short-term effect on soil dehydrogenase activity, but not phosphatase activity. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicated only minimal effects on survival.

  14. Spectroscopic study of jet-cooled heterodimers of salicylic acid with acetic and trifluoroacetic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmani, F.; Zehnacker-Rentien, A.

    1997-06-01

    The photophysical properties of the intermolecular hydrogen-bonded complexes of salicylic acid with acetic acid and trifluoroacetic acid have been investigated in a supersonic expansion. The fluorescence excitation spectra are characterized by a long harmonic progression upon a low frequency mode and their origin is blue-shifted with respect to that of pure salicylic acid. The emission spectra exhibit a single broad band peaking at 360 and 390 nm respectively for the complex with trifluoroacetic and acetic acids and are not dependent on the excitation wavelength. The results have been rationalized in terms of a single minimum energy curve in both the ground and excited states.

  15. Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Growth and Chemical Responses of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntushelo, Khayalethu

    2017-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a signal molecule which activates plant defense against plant pathogens such as the soft rot enterobacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. The objectives of study were to determine bactericidal effects of salicylic acid on the growth of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and secondly, assess chemical responses of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum to salicylic acid. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum was grown in lysogeny broth amended with salicylic acid at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1200 mg L-1. The P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum cultures were incubated at 25°C and sampled at two time points, 0 h (sampled before incubation) and 24 h. Bacterial counts were done at the onset of the incubation (0 h) and after the 24 h incubation. The set which was incubated for 24 h was split into two, one subset was centrifuged and the other was not. From the centrifuged subset the supernatant was recovered and was, together with all the other samples (0 and 24 h not centrifuged), analyzed with1H nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography. Bacterial counts done before and after incubation showed that the lower concentrations of salicylic acid, 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1, supported the growth of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum whereas the higher concentrations of 800 and 1200 mg L-1 inhibited the growth of the bacterium completely. Nuclear magnetic resonance results showed either slight or no differences in the metabolite profiles and gas chromatography showed different responses without a clearly defined pattern among the experimental treatments. However, methanethiol was detected by both nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography in all the treatments and was probably formed as a result of the breakdown of lysogeny broth. From the results obtained it was concluded that salicylic acid promotes the growth of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum at lower concentrations of 0-400 mg L-1 but higher

  16. Novel role of cold/menthol-sensitive transient receptor potential melastatine family member 8 (TRPM8) in the activation of store-operated channels in LNCaP human prostate cancer epithelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thebault, S.C.; Lemonnier, L.; Bidaux, G.; Flourakis, M.; Bavencoffe, A.; Gordienko, D.; Roudbaraki, M.; Delcourt, P.; Panchin, Y.; Shuba, Y.; Skryma, R.; Prevarskaya, N.

    2005-01-01

    Recent cloning of a cold/menthol-sensitive TRPM8 channel (transient receptor potential melastatine family member 8) from rodent sensory neurons has provided the molecular basis for the cold sensation. Surprisingly, the human orthologue of rodent TRPM8 also appears to be strongly expressed in the

  17. The Arabidopsis pi4kIIIβ1β2 double mutant is salicylic acid-overaccumulating: A new example of salicylic acid influence on plant stature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Martin; Šašek, Vladimír; Ruelland, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1559-2324 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1654 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase * plant growth * salicylic acid Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=MEDLINE&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=25482755

  18. Protective efficacy of menthol propylene glycol carbonate compared to N, N-diethyl-methylbenzamide against mosquito bites in Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reduction of malaria parasite transmission by preventing human-vector contact is critical in lowering disease transmission and its outcomes. This underscores the need for effective and long lasting arthropod/insect repellents. Despite the reduction in malaria transmission and outcomes in Tanzania, personal protection against mosquito bites is still not well investigated. This study sought to determine the efficacy of menthol propylene glycol carbonate (MR08, Ocimum suave as compared to the gold standard repellent N, N-diethyl-methylbenzamide (DEET, either as a single dose or in combination (blend, both in the laboratory and in the field against Anopheles gambiae s.l and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods In the laboratory evaluations, repellents were applied on one arm while the other arm of the same individual was treated with a base cream. Each arm was separately exposed in cages with unfed female mosquitoes. Repellents were evaluated either as a single dose or as a blend. Efficacy of each repellent was determined by the number of mosquitoes that landed and fed on treated arms as compared to the control or among them. In the field, evaluations were performed by human landing catches at hourly intervals from 18:00 hr to 01:00 hr. Results A total of 2,442 mosquitoes were collected during field evaluations, of which 2,376 (97.30% were An. gambiae s.l while 66 (2.70% were Cx. quinquefaciatus. MR08 and DEET had comparatively similar protective efficacy ranging from 92% to 100 for both single compound and blends. These findings indicate that MR08 has a similar protective efficacy as DEET for personal protection outside bed nets when used singly and in blends. Because of the personal protection provided by MR08, DEET and blends as topical applicants in laboratory and field situations, these findings suggest that, these repellents could be used efficiently in the community to complement existing tools. Overall, Cx

  19. Protective efficacy of menthol propylene glycol carbonate compared to N, N-diethyl-methylbenzamide against mosquito bites in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Munga, Stephen; Mahande, Aneth M; Msangi, Shandala; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Adrias, Araceli Q; Matias, Jonathan R

    2012-09-05

    The reduction of malaria parasite transmission by preventing human-vector contact is critical in lowering disease transmission and its outcomes. This underscores the need for effective and long lasting arthropod/insect repellents. Despite the reduction in malaria transmission and outcomes in Tanzania, personal protection against mosquito bites is still not well investigated. This study sought to determine the efficacy of menthol propylene glycol carbonate (MR08), Ocimum suave as compared to the gold standard repellent N, N-diethyl-methylbenzamide (DEET), either as a single dose or in combination (blend), both in the laboratory and in the field against Anopheles gambiae s.l and Culex quinquefasciatus. In the laboratory evaluations, repellents were applied on one arm while the other arm of the same individual was treated with a base cream. Each arm was separately exposed in cages with unfed female mosquitoes. Repellents were evaluated either as a single dose or as a blend. Efficacy of each repellent was determined by the number of mosquitoes that landed and fed on treated arms as compared to the control or among them. In the field, evaluations were performed by human landing catches at hourly intervals from 18:00  hr to 01:00  hr. A total of 2,442 mosquitoes were collected during field evaluations, of which 2,376 (97.30%) were An. gambiae s.l while 66 (2.70%) were Cx. quinquefaciatus. MR08 and DEET had comparatively similar protective efficacy ranging from 92% to 100 for both single compound and blends. These findings indicate that MR08 has a similar protective efficacy as DEET for personal protection outside bed nets when used singly and in blends. Because of the personal protection provided by MR08, DEET and blends as topical applicants in laboratory and field situations, these findings suggest that, these repellents could be used efficiently in the community to complement existing tools. Overall, Cx. quinquefasciatus were significantly prevented from blood

  20. Oil Essential Mouthwashes Antibacterial Activity against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: A Comparison between Antibiofilm and Antiplanktonic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Erriu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine the antibacterial activity of three marketed mouthwashes on suspended and sessile states of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The efficacy of two commonly used products in clinical practice, containing essential oils as active ingredients (menthol, thymol, methyl salicylate, and eucalyptol in association with or without alcohol, has been evaluated in comparison with a chlorhexidine-based mouthwash. The microtiter plate assay, in order to obtain a spectrophotometric measurement of bacterial responses at growing dilutions of each antiseptic, was used for the study. The analysis revealed that a good antibacterial activity is reached when the abovementioned mouthwashes were used at concentration over a 1/24 dilution and after an exposure time of 30 seconds at least. In conclusion, the alcoholic mouthwash appears to have a better biofilm inhibition than its antiplanktonic activity while the nonalcoholic product demonstrates an opposite effect with a better antiplanktonic behavior.