mys sWinderianus) in the southern African subregion. It occurs in most countries of west, east and southern Africa, its distribution being determined by the availability of adequate or preferred grass species for food (National Research Coun- cil 1991). In the southern African subregion it can be found in certain areas of ...
Chikera S. Ibe
Full Text Available Allometric values of brainstem structures were evaluated in African grasscutters Thryonomys swinderianus (n = 27. Brain samples were extracted from 9 animals each of 3 days (neonates, 72 days (juveniles and 450 days of age (adults. The midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata were separated from each brain sample and dimensions and weights obtained. The weights of the midbrain in the neonate, juvenile and adult African grasscutters were 0.33 g ± 0.01 g, 0.47 g ± 0.01 g and 0.93 g ± 0.02 g, respectively. The increase from neonate to juvenile (p = 0.002 and adult (p = 0.003 was significant. The pons lengths in the neonate, juvenile and adult were 2.05 mm ± 0.05 mm, 3.86 mm ± 0.05 mm and 4.16 mm ± 0.22 mm, respectively. There was a significant increase in the length of the pons from the neonate to the juvenile (p = 0.002, but the increase from the juvenile to the adult period was not significant (p = 0.263. There was also a significant (p < 0.05 increase in the weights and lengths of the medulla oblongata from neonate to juvenile and adult periods. In adults, the nose-rump length and the length of the medulla were significantly negatively correlated (r² = 0.47; p = 0.043. The present study concluded that the postnatal development of some brainstem structures in the African grasscutter varies with age.
The present study, therefore seeks to document the morphometric data of various skull bone measurements in the GCR. (Thryonomys swin der ia nus). The information obtained will essentially add to the ongoing attempts to understand the biology of the GCR.Itwill also be useful to breeders, clinicians and researchers.
Organochlorine pesticide residues have been determined in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues from a total of 45 grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) meat samples obtained from the Gomoa district, a vegetable farming area in the Central Region of Ghana. All samples were analyzed for their residue content of the following organochlorine pesticides; DDT, DDE, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, lindane (γ-HCH) and δ-HCH, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, alpha endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlordane, heptachlor and methoxychlor. The results indicated that all the analyzed samples were contaminated with the studied organochlorine pesticides. Aldrin and heptachlor were the principal contaminants in all the samples. The muscle had the highest pollutant load. All organochlorine pesticides investigated were detected in the muscle tissues of the grasscutter at the following mean concentrations; aldrin 1.833μg /kg, heptachlor 0.695μg /kg, γ-HCH 0.283μg /kg, δ-HCH 0.108μg /kg, dieldrin 0.040 μg /kg, p,p'-DDT 0.019μg /kg. p,p'-DDE 0.014μg /kg, endrin 0.018μg /kg, endrin aldehyde 0.090μg /kg, endrin ketone 0.340μg /kg, α-endosulfan 0.162μg /kg, endosulfan sulfate 0.183μg /kg, gamma-chlordane 0.174μg /kg and methoxychlor 0.101μg /kg wet weight. The organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in the liver tissues at the following mean concentrations; aldrin 1.315μg /kg, heptachlor 0.530μg /kg, dieldrin 0.050μg /kg, γ-HCH 0.233μg /kg, δ-HCH 0.070μg /kg, p,p'-DDT 0.123μg /kg. p,p'-DDE 0.043μg /kg endrin aldehyde 0.110μg /kg, endrin ketone 0.115μg /kg, gamma-chlordane 0.093μg /kg and methoxychlor 0.128μg /kg wet weight. No endrin was however detected in the liver. The highest concentrations of γ-HCH, δ-HCH, endrin ketone and endrin aldehyde were measured in the kidney. The mean concentrations of γ-HCH and δ-HCH in the kidney were 0.435μg /kg and 0.107μg /kg respectively. Endrin aldehyde was detected at 0.135μg /kg in
for beef and goat. The two diets did not affect carcass characteristics and meat quality signiﬁcantly. Diere wat van geboorte op 'n hoér en laer vesel dieet gevoer is, is geslag nadat postnatale groeikrommes afgeplat het. Mannetjies was groter as wyﬁes. Effens hoér lipied (9.2 9/100 9 nat massa) en energie (767 J £100 9 net ...
The essence of grasscutter domestication was mainly for protein supplementation and income generation, but the low adoption of existing grasscutter farming technology in Nigeria particularly among the unemployed and poor has generated much concern. This study was therefore carried out to evaluate the problems and ...
Feb 27, 2013 ... breeding (Adjanohoun, 1988). Weighing of dry crystalline, a method of age determination can also determine age of some rodents (Martinet, 1966; Le. Louarn, 1971 ... according to age, with age on a logarithmic scale. The reference curves ... agro-industrial and feed supplementing that diet. This feed was ...
The intestinal content of the animals were examined with the aid of a hand lens, a microscope and direct smear method. The parasites identified include helminthes such as Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris sp., Ascaris sp., Hymenolepis sp. and Schistosoma haematobium, and protozoans such as Giardia sp. and Entamoeba sp.
Mar 31, 2015 ... west Africa, is between the tropic of Cancer and the. Equator, precisely between 4th and 10th degree of latitude north, and 2nd and 8th degree of longitude ..... 53 : 139-. 145. Morel PC, 1963. La réserve naturelle intégrale du Mont. Nimba. Mémoire de l'Institut Français d'Afrique. Noire. IFAN-Dakar 66. pp.
Jan 12, 2017 ... during prenatal development as the steroid hormones produced by ... lung, thyroid gland and gastrointestinal tract (Liggins,. 1976). In some ..... hormone synthesis. Lipid droplets of small and large sizes were predominantly seen in the ZF, particularly in the inner aspect close to the ZR. Some animals like ...
Saharan Africa. There are very limited ecological studies on the grasscutter despite its importance as a protein resource. The objective of this study was to apply novel microsatellite markers to determine the genetic structure and diversity of ...
Mustapha, OA. Vol 35, No 3 (2014) - Articles Morphometric Study of the Skull of the Greater Cane Rat (Thryonomys swinderianus, Temmnick) Abstract PDF · Vol 36, No 2 (2015) - Articles Anatomical Studies on the Spinal Cord of the Greater Cane Rat (Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck) I: Gross Morphometry
Aug 31, 2011 ... E. coli and 0.31 mg/ml against S. aureus, S. sonei, P. pestis and Y. enterocolitica. The results provide an evidence for the traditional use of C. religiosa for the treatment of infective diseases of T. swinderianus. Temminck. Key words: Crataeva religiosa, Thryonomys swinderianus Temminck, ethnomedicine, ...
Haematology, plasma biochemistry and whole blood minerals of the captive adult african grasscutter (thryonomys swinderianus, temminck). A.O. Ogunsanmi, P.C. Ozegbe, O. Ogunjobi, V.O. Taiwo, J.O. Adu ...
Agonkanmey (CRA/INRAB), ... L'aulacode a une importance non seulement ...... Awofeso OM. 2009. Prediction of body weight from body measurements in cane rat: Thryonomys swinderianus. (Temminck, 1827). The Zoologist, 7: 168-. 175. Martinet L.
The evaluation of intranasal Lactobacillus fermentum and Mannheimia haemolytica bacterine in the control of Mannheimia haemolytica infection in grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus temminck, 1827) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. WA Jayeoba, AO ...
aulacode (Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck 1827) femelle à partir des caractères morphométriques. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...
Alao, OS. Vol 62, No 3 (2014) - Articles The isolation and antibiogram of aerobic nasal bacterial flora of apparently healthy grasscutters (Thryonomys swinderianus Temminck, 1827) Abstract · Vol 63, No 1 (2015) - Articles The evaluation of intranasal Lactobacillus fermentum and Mannheimia haemolytica bacterine in the ...
INTRODUCTION In the archives of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden there is a map with three letters written by Alexander von Humboldt (17691859) to the first director of the Museum, Coenraad Jacob Temminck (1778-1858). The map, the hard cover of John Gould's "Synopsis of the birds
Noriko, Tamura; Tama Forest Science Garden, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute
Walnuts, Juglans ailantifolia Carriere, are large and the shell is diffcult to open. Thus, seed predators in Japan are restricted mainly to the Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis Temminck) and the wood mouse (Apodemus speciosus Temminck), which can shave away the hard shells with their sharp incisors. Previous work indicated that the squirrels are not only predators, but also disperse walnuts. In this study, 95 walnuts in Periodl (September 1996-February 1997) and 80 walnuts in Period 2 (Septembe...
Temminck ¹) states »il paraît que les Japonais confondent le Vespertilion macrodactyle avec le Vespertilion abrame, l’un et l’autre sont désignés par eux sous le nom de Komuli In the description of his V. abramus ²) however we read »nous conservons son nom japonais” viz. abrame. Concerning the
Het gewoonlijk als „Discours préliminaire" aangeduide artikel van Temminck heeft nimmer die aandacht van dierkundigen getrokken, die het, wegens zijn systematisch belang, verdient. Ten dele vindt dit stellig zijn oorzaak in de betrekkelijke zeldzaamheid van het werk, ten dele ook in het feit dat het
The zoological collections made in Japan by P. F. von Siebold and Dr. Burger between the years 1823 and 1830 are described by Siebold in his Fauna Japonica (1844). The title page announces the collaboration of C. J. Temminck and H. Schlegel for that part of the work devoted to the vertebrates, but
Mian Kouadio ETTIAN
Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate the physicochemical and energetic quantity of succulent and sweet taste forage grasses, Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae incorporated in the feed of grasscutters growing (GG, fattening (FG and maintenance (MG. This study is set to determine the chemical and energetic composition of three levels of green fodder (50, 75 and 85% incorporated into the diets of grasscutters and compare it to nutrient intake and energy consumption of feed resources used normally in the ration by farmers. The three experimental diets were: 75% fodder and 25% of food complement (diet T25; 50% of fodder and 50% of food complement (diet T50; 85% of fodder and 15% of food complement (diet T15. The results showed that the green fodder used contains important sources of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and minerals. Dry matter content of Panicum maximum (13.4 to 22.9% and Pennisetum purpureum (10.9 to 18.6% provide energy needs as calories needed of grasscutters. Food ingredients consisting of minerals and organic matter provide the energy potential in the form of calories for maintenance and production feed needs of grasscutters. A positive and highly significant effect (p<0.01 of the T15 was observed. These results suggest that the nutritional and energy values consumed can be used for grasscutters growing (GG, fattening (GF and maintenance (GM.The intake of energy and functional foods into a controlled diet stimulates the appetite of farmed animals. Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum grasses that were used as a substitute for the main staple feed, and which are highly sought after in the natural environment by grasscutters, are recommended for grasscutter raising. Green forages with succulent sweet-tasting stems, incorporated into food rations as 15% of food supplements, are more stable and perform better in food rations for grasscutters. Active nutrients are balanced, varied, moderate and necessary for the proper functioning of the organism of grasscutters.
Motomura, H.; Oijen, van M.J.P.
Polynemus multifilis Temminck & Schlegel, 1843, is redescribed and its synonymy, authorship, type material status and distribution are discussed. In addition, a new species, P. kapuasensis, previously identified as P. multifilis, is described from the Kapuas River, western Kalimantan, Indonesia on
Aspects of the anatomy and histology of the alimentary canal of the greater cane rat, Thryonomys swinderianus, with reference to its feeding physiology. Abstract · Vol 45, No 2 (2010) - Articles Digestibility of nutrients and aspects of the digestive physiology of the greater cane rat, Thryonomys swinderianus in two seasons
Steyn, Christine; Soley, John T; Crole, Martina R
Temminck's ground pangolin is the only pangolin present in South Africa. It is a myrmecophagous mammal with a bipedal gait. The thoracic limbs are used to break open ant nests, dig for food, and expand previously occupied burrows. This study describes the osteology and radiological anatomy of the thoracic limbs of this threatened species. Thoracic limbs from four Temminck's ground pangolins, which succumbed from electrocution or natural causes, were digitally radiographed in situ. The individual bones were then cleaned, described and digitally radiographed. The skeleton of the thoracic limbs revealed a similar number and arrangement of bones compared to that of domestic carnivores. The bones were robust and displayed numerous open epiphyseal lines. The latter provide an estimate of sexual maturity and should not be confused with fractures in injured ground pangolins. The scapula was broad and triangular-shaped. The humerus displayed a massive medial epicondyle. The radius and ulna were similarly sized, and displayed a broad radial trochlea and large olecranon tuber, respectively. The manus was composed of seven carpal bones, five short metacarpal bones and five digits of which the three central digits were the best developed. The unguicular process of the distal phalanx was bifid and elongated. The osteological characteristics indicate that the thoracic limbs of Temminck's ground pangolin are specifically adapted for protraction and retraction, strong elbow extension, flexion of the carpus and digits as well as pronation and supination of the antebrachium, as opposed to weight-bearing. These functions are likewise documented for other scratch-digging species. Anat Rec, 301:624-635, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mollusca: Basommatophora: Ancylidae), Abstract PDF ... Aspects of the anatomy and histology of the alimentary canal of the greater cane rat, Thryonomys swinderianus, with reference to its feeding physiology, Abstract.
+. Leporidae. Lepus crawshayi. Crawshay's hare. +. +. +. +. +. Cricetomydae. Cricetomys gambianus. Giant Gambian rat. +. +. +. +. +. Sciuridae. Euxerus erythropus. Stripped ground squirrel. +. +. +. +. +. Rodents. Thryonomyidae. Thryonomys swinderianus. Grasscutter or can rat. +. +. +. +. +. Reptiles. Boïdae. Python sebae.
Moura, Adolpho Marlon Antoniol de; Fonseca, José Brandão; Melo, Enayde de Almeida; Lima, Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão de; Santos, Priscila Antão dos; Silva, Quésia Jemima da
A substituição do milho pelo sorgo promove redução na pigmentação da gema dos ovos, sendo necessária a inclusão de fontes exógenas de pigmentantes. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar às características sensoriais dos ovos de codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica (Temminck & Schlegel, 1849) alimentadas com rações formuladas com sorgo, em substituição total ao milho, com a inclusão de pigmentantes sintéticos amarelo (apocaroteno 10%) e vermelho (cantaxantina 10%) e selenometionina. Foram util...
Moura,Adolpho Marlon Antoniol de; Fonseca,José Brandão; Melo,Enayde de Almeida; Lima,Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão de; Santos,Priscila Antão dos; Silva,Quésia Jemima da
A substituição do milho pelo sorgo promove redução na pigmentação da gema dos ovos, sendo necessária a inclusão de fontes exógenas de pigmentantes. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar às características sensoriais dos ovos de codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica (Temminck & Schlegel, 1849) alimentadas com rações formuladas com sorgo, em substituição total ao milho, com a inclusão de pigmentantes sintéticos amarelo (apocaroteno 10%) e vermelho (cantaxantina 10%) e selenometionina. Foram ...
Ogawa, K; Ishimaru, K; Shirakashi, S; Takami, I; Grabner, D
A new aporocotylid blood fluke is described, based on specimens from the ventricle of the Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (Temminck et Schlegel), cultured in Wakayama and Nagasaki Prefectures, Japan. The new species is morphologically similar to the members of the genus Cardicola Short, 1953, but shows distinct differences in the body form, location of the testis and the orientation of the ootype. The body of the new species is long and slender, whereas other Cardicola species are small and generally lanceolate. The testis is mostly located posterior to the caeca and anterior to the ovary, occupying 31-45% of body length, in contrast to the known Cardicola species, whose testis is typically intercaecal. The ootype is oriented anteriorly, while in most congeners, it is directed posteriorly or horizontally. Phylogenetic analyses of this aporocotylid, together with Cardicola orientalis Ogawa, Tanaka, Sugihara et Takami, 2010 from the same host, were conducted based on DNA sequences of the ITS2 rDNA and the 28S region of ribosomal RNA. The analyses revealed that the new blood fluke belongs to the genus Cardicola despite the marked morphological differences. Thus, this aporocotylid is named Cardicola opisthorchis n. sp. and the generic diagnosis is emended in this paper. In addition, 100% identity among the ITS2 sequences from the present species, Cardicola sp. from T. orientalis in Mexico and Cardicola sp. from the northern bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) in Spain suggests that C. opisthorchis n. sp. has a broad geographical distribution and that it infects both the Pacific and northern bluefin tuna. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morphological and molecular study of Longicollum pagrosomi Yamaguti, 1935 (Acanthocephala: Pomphorhynchidae) from the barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel) (Perciformes: Oplegnathidae) in the East China Sea.
Li, Liang; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Ping
Longicollum pagrosomi Yamaguti, 1935 (Acanthocephala: Pomphorhynchidae) collected from the barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel) (Perciformes: Oplegnathidae) in the East China Sea (off Zhoushan Islands) was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The SEM observations revealed for the first time the presence of about 28 well-developed sensory papillae arranged in a circle on the copulatory bursa. In addition, L. pagrosomi was characterised using molecular methods by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA based on the newly collected material. Longicollum pagrosomi is the first species of the genus with the ITS region sequenced for the purpose of species identification. These new morphological and molecular data contributed to a reliable and accurate specific identification and differentiation of species.
An attempt has been made to carry out a screening on the antibacterial activity of leaves of Crateva religiosa Forst used in Benin traditional veterinary medicine against bacterial infection of Thryonomys swinderianus (class of Mammalia, family of Thryonomyidae) commonly called agouti or kholan. The aim of this study was ...
The floor housing, open-cage and closed-cage housing systems for rearing grasscutters in captivity were respectively used to evaluate the performance of the grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus Temmnick, 1827) in the humid tropics of southern Nigeria. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the average initial ...
Types, number and amount of bushmeat displayed for sale in a central bushmeat market in Amuro, Okigwe, Nigeria were recorded for 4 weeks in the month of November, which falls within the dry season in Nigeria. A total of 17 species of bushmeat were identified with the grasscutter, Thryonomis swinderianus, being the ...
The greater cane rat, Thryonomys swinderianus, utilizes high fibrous plant material and is an important meat source in West Africa. An insight in its digestive physiology will enhance our understanding of its feeding habits. Digestibility coefficients of the food were determined during two seasons before the animals were ...
Gambian sun squirrel. 13. 8. 11. Thryonomys swinderianus. Cane rat/Grasscutter. 9. 11. 4. Phacochoerus africanus. Warthog. 6. 1. -. Tragelaphus scriptus. Bushbuck. 2. 2. 3. Numida meleagris. Guinea fowl. 2. 2. 9. Hystrix cristata. Porcupine. 6. -. -. Manis gigantea. Pangolin. 2. -. -. Potamochoerus porcus. Red River Hog. 2.
Species density and diversity indices were estimated from data generated. The mammalian order Rodentia was more in abundance than other species. Two rodents, the giant-pouched rat (Cricetomys emini) and cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus) recorded 7.336±0.0068 and 6.146±0.036 individuals/km2 respectively.
The fringe ecosystem is endowed with important conservation-status species like primate: Cercopithecus spp; family of artiodactyla, Tragelaphus scriptus, rodentia: Dendrohyrax arborea, Thryonomys swinderianus; carnivores Panthera leo, Vulpes pallida and numbers of avifauna species as well as reptilea. The natural high ...
Adu, EK. Vol 40 (2000) - Articles Gestation and prenatal losses in the cane rat: Thryonomys swinderianus Temm (Rodentia: Thryonomidae) in Ghana Abstract. ISSN: 0855-1448. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...
tree squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), ground squirrel (Citellus tridecemlineatus), African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus) and grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus), the common rodents consumed as bush meat in West Africa. The meat types were cooked in a commerical gas convention oven pre-heated to a constant ...
Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo; Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac
Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local…
Helminthes parasites of rodents caught around human habitats in Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria. ... Animal Production Research Advances ... The prevalence rates of helminth parasites in the four species of rodents caught were 82.53% in Xerus erythropus (ground squirrel) 38.30% in Thryonomys swinderianus (cane rat) ...
Aspects of the anatomy and histology of the alimentary canal of Thryonomys swinderianus were studied to gain a better understanding of this animal's ability to digest large quantities of fibre. Morphometric measurements of the gut regions were taken with the aid of light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy.
Full Text Available The study on food habits of the Spotted Owlet, Athene brama (Temminck, 1821 in Tropical Forest Research Institute campus, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India was conducted in June 2011 to May 2012 by analyzing their regurgitated pellets. The insect order Coleoptera with three dung beetle species, Onitis philemon, Onitis virens, Onitis brahma and two orders and five species of small mammals, Mus booduga, Vandeleuria oleracea, Millardia meltada, Suncus etruscus and Suncus murinus were recorded from the pellets. The other insect taxa found in the pellets include Carabidae and Hydrophilidae beetles and Earwigs in the order Dermaptera. This is for the first time food habits of the spotted owlets, being reported from the state of Madhya Pradesh, which further provides identifying key characters of the dung beetles along with illustrations, obtained from the pellet materials. The study on the feeding habits of the owlet species is very important not only for its significance in conservation but also for their predatory potential, as they are the main predators of insects and non insect pests (rodents of forestry and agricultural importance.
Características sensoriais de ovos de codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica temminck e schlegel, 1849) suplementadas com pigmentantes sintéticos e selenometionina Sensorial characteristics of japanese quail eggs (Coturnix japonica) supplemented with synthetic pigments and selenomethionine
Adolpho Marlon Antoniol de Moura; José Brandão Fonseca; Enayde de Almeida Melo; Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão de Lima; Priscila Antão dos Santos; Quésia Jemima da Silva
A substituição do milho pelo sorgo promove redução na pigmentação da gema dos ovos, sendo necessária a inclusão de fontes exógenas de pigmentantes. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar às características sensoriais dos ovos de codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica (Temminck & Schlegel, 1849) alimentadas com rações formuladas com sorgo, em substituição total ao milho, com a inclusão de pigmentantes sintéticos amarelo (apocaroteno 10%) e vermelho (cantaxantina 10%) e selenometionina. Foram util...
contrôle ou les mesures de traitement des maladies des aulacodes en captivité dont la prévalence bien que influencée par la saison, est la principale contrainte à l'amélioration du cheptel, à l'intensification de la production et aux pratiques de gestion. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol. 54 (4) 2006: pp.
Conclusion and application of results: Farm grasscutters in Côte d'Ivoire do not carry some ticks. But five species were found on wild grasscutters. Ticks and pathogenic agents that they transmit and for which some are responsible for zoonosis, could constitute a major obstacle for the development of grasscutters' farming ...
Reflecting that grass cutters domestication in southwestern Nigeria is possible if only, social infrastructures such as constant electricity supply, pipe borne water and good network of roads, incentives like pups, feed and funds are provided by concerned authorities. These may arouse the interest of prospective farmers to ...
The whereabouts of the salamander types described by Temminck & Schlegel in the Fauna Japonica (1838) are discussed and lectotypes are selected from the syntypes for the following nominal species : Salamandra naevia Temminck & Schlegel, S. unguiculata Temminck & Schlegel, S. subcristata Temminck &
Kowalska, Agata; Siwicki, Andrzej K; Kowalski, Radosław K
Here, we investigated the effect of dietary resveratrol (20, 40, and 80 µg/g BW/day) on cell-mediated immunity (activity of spleen phagocytes and proliferative response of lymphocytes) and reproductive parameters (egg and sperm quality, i.e. fecundity-total number of eggs produced by individual fish, fertility, embryo survival, and hatching rate) in medaka. Fish fed feed with resveratrol at 40 and 80 µg/g BW/day had significantly higher metabolic activity and intracellular phagocyte killing activity than control. The proliferative lymphocyte activity of the fish from R80 group was greater by more than 20 % in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05). The percentage of macrophages (MO) and their mean fluorescence intensities (MFI) in R40 and R80 groups were significantly higher compared to C and R20 groups (P < 0.05). The differences in MO and MFI values ranged from 52.5 % (±1.5; R0 group) to 65.8 % (±1.6; R80 group) and from 23.2 (±1.4; R0 group) to 38.2 (±2.4; R80 group), respectively. Moreover, resveratrol at 80 µg/g BW/day decreased liver COX activity, i.e. 5.4 in R80 group and 7.9 in R0 group (P < 0.05). The motility parameters of the sperm obtained from the males fed feed supplemented with resveratrol at 80 µg/g BW/day exhibited the highest values except the linearity, which was lower as compared to the control (P < 0.05). The results indicate that diet supplemented with resveratrol at a dosage of 40 µg/g BW/day improves phagocyte killing ability and lymphocyte proliferation in broodstock and accelerates offspring hatch. Also, the results suggest that COX activity influences sperm and oocyte quality in fish; the presence of a COX inhibitor in the dose of 40 µg/g BW/day decreased the embryo survival.
Itano, T; Kawakami, H; Kono, T; Sakai, M
Challenge methods for inducing nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia seriolae in yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata, were evaluated. The first method involved intraperitoneal injection of 1.1 x 10(2), x 10(3) and x 10(4) cfu of N. seriolae; the second was by bath immersion with three different concentrations of bacterial suspension for 10 min; the third was by intradermal injection using a multipuncture device; the fourth was by oral administration using a tube; the fifth was based on the co-habitation of uninfected fish with others that had been artificially infected, i.e. intraperitoneally or by immersion for 10 min. The LD(50) values for the infection trials were 1.9 x 10(2) (intraperitoneal injection), 1.5 x 10(4) mL(-1) (immersion), 4.3 x 10(6) (intradermal injection) and 1.7 x 10(7) (oral administration). In the co-habitation challenge, mortalities were 70% and 50% in groups of non-infected fish mixed with fish infected by the i.p. injection and immersion methods, respectively. Fish challenged by intraperitoneal injection developed adhesions. Fish challenged by other methods did not show any gross clinical signs and moribund fish were similar to natural infection.
Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru
PIXE analysis was applied to estimate mineral concentration in red sea bream otoliths without cutting or polishing. Detected elements include Sr, Fe, Mn and Zn, which are commonly found in the otoliths in marine fishes. Strontium-Calcium concentration ratio is calculated by means of combined X-ray yields. The ratio doesn't indicate clear correlaion with mean reared seawater temperature. It is caused by the diffraction error induced by rough topographies of the otoliths surface. (author)
Raveendran, T.V.; Harada, E.
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Tian, Roger Bi Diangoné; Niamké, Sébastian; Tissot-Dupont, Hervé; Drancourt, Michel
Ivory Coast is a West African country with the highest reported cases of Buruli ulcer, a disabling subcutaneous infection due to Mycobacterium ulcerans. However, the prevalence of environmental M. ulcerans is poorly known in this country. We collected 496 environmental specimens consisting of soil (n = 100), stagnant water (n = 200), plants (n = 100) and animal feces (n = 96) in Ivory Coast over five months in the dry and wet seasons in regions which are free of Buruli ulcer (control group A; 250 specimens) and in regions where the Buruli ulcer is endemic (group B; 246 specimens). After appropriate total DNA extraction incorporating an internal control, the M. ulcerans IS2404 and KR-B gene were amplified by real-time PCR in samples. In parallel, a calibration curve was done for M. ulcerans Agy99 IS2404 and KR-B gene. Of 460 samples free of PCR inhibition, a positive real-time PCR detection of insertion sequence IS2404 and KR-B gene was observed in 1/230 specimens in control group A versus 9/230 specimens in group B (P = 0.02; Fisher exact test). Positive specimens comprised seven stagnant water specimens, two feces specimens confirmed to be of Thryonomys swinderianus (agouti) origin by real-time PCR of the cytb gene; and one soil specimen. Extrapolation from the calibration curves indicated low inoculums ranging from 1 to 102 mycobacteria/mL. This study confirms the presence of M. ulcerans in the watery environment surrounding patients with Buruli ulcer in Ivory Coast. It suggests that the agouti, which is in close contacts with populations, could play a role in the environmental cycle of M. ulcerans, as previously suggested for the closely related possums in Australia.
Massussi, Jacques Anselme; Djieto-Lordon, Champlain; Njiokou, Flobert; Laveissière, Claude; van der Ploeg, Jan Douwe
To evaluate the role of wildlife in the resurgence and perenisation of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), we investigated the influence of habitat and seasonal variations on the diversity and spatial distribution of wild mammals, with special reference to those recognised as potential host-reservoirs of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Bipindi (southwestern Cameroon). To achieve this, we carried out transect surveys in four habitat types over two years. A total of 31 mammal species were recorded, of which 14 occurred in the undisturbed forest, 9 in cocoa plantations, 11 in farmlands and 11 in village-adjacent gallery forests. Among them, six species (Cephalophus monticola, Cephalophus dorsalis, Atherurus africanus, Cricetomys emini, Nandinia binotata and Cercopithecus nictitans), known as reservoir hosts of T. b. gambiense, occurred in all kinds of habitats suitable or unsuited to Glossina palpalis palpalis and in all seasons. These species are the most involved in the transmission cycle (human being/tsetse flies/wild animals). Cercopithecus cephus, Miopithecus talapoin and Heliosciurus rufobrachium host Trypanosoma brucei spp.; however, only C. cephus does not occur permanently in the suitable habitat of G. palpalis palpalis. In general, some species (C. monticola, Tragelaphus spekei and C. emini) showed a slight density increase from the long dry to the heavy rainy season within the undisturbed and farmland habitats, and a slight decrease within cocoa plantations and village-adjacent forests in the same period. The density of A. africanus increased greatly from the long dry season to the heavy rainy season in the undisturbed forest while, the density of primates in this habitat decreased slightly from the long dry season to the heavy rainy season. These variations indicate a permanent movement of wild mammal reservoir or feeding hosts from one biotope to another over the seasons. Thryonomys swinderianus needs to be investigated because it occurs permanently in
McNamara, J; Kusimi, J M; Rowcliffe, J M; Cowlishaw, G; Brenyah, A; Milner-Gulland, E J
Landscapes in many developing countries consist of a heterogeneous matrix of mixed agriculture and forest. Many of the generalist species in this matrix are increasingly traded in the bushmeat markets of West and Central Africa. However, to date there has been little quantification of how the spatial configuration of the landscape influences the urban bushmeat trade over time. As anthropogenic landscapes become the face of rural West Africa, understanding the dynamics of these systems has important implications for conservation and landscape management. The bushmeat production of an area is likely to be defined by landscape characteristics such as habitat disturbance, hunting pressure, level of protection, and distance to market. We explored (SSG, tense) the role of these four characteristics in the spatio-temporal dynamics of the commercial bushmeat trade around the city of Kumasi, Ghana, over 27 years (1978 to 2004). We used geographic information system methods to generate maps delineating the spatial characteristics of the landscapes. These data were combined with spatially explicit market data collected in the main fresh bushmeat market in Kumasi to explore the relationship between trade volume (measured in terms of number of carcasses) and landscape characteristics. Over time, rodents, specifically cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus), became more abundant in the trade relative to ungulates and the catchment area of the bushmeat market expanded. Areas of intermediate disturbance supplied more bushmeat, but protected areas had no effect. Heavily hunted areas showed significant declines in bushmeat supply over time. Our results highlight the role that low intensity, heterogeneous agricultural landscapes can play in providing ecosystem services, such as bushmeat, and therefore the importance of incorporating bushmeat into ecosystem service mapping exercises. Our results also indicate that even where high bushmeat production is possible, current harvest levels may
Rizki Kurnia Tohir
Full Text Available Conflict between human and elephants in Tesso Nilo National Park encourages WWF to establish the Flying Squad. Related to the function of the sumatran elephants in Flying Squad as the patrol team, it is necessary to conduct a proper management to ensure animal welfare. This study aims to examine the aspects of welfare management and asses the level of welfare of sumatran elephants in Flying Squad. The research methodology used for this study are literature review, interviews and field observation. Data analyzed by describing the suitability of management and tabulating the assessment. The management of cages, feed, health and reproduction requires some improvements such as the type, number and equipment of the cages, natural feed adequacy, medical infrastructure and reproduction management. The 76,98% percentage rate of sumatran elephant welfare, which is relatively good, is because there are only 14 priority components of 43 components of animal welfare assessment that need improvements and enhanced management. Keywords: animal welfare, flying squad, the patrol elephant
Thel, T N; Teixeira, P H R; Lyra-Neves, R M; Telino-Júnior, W R; Ferreira, J M R; Azevedo-Júnior, S M
Guans are large frugivorous birds that inhabit Neotropical forests and play a fundamental role in seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Despite their ecological importance, the natural populations of these birds are increasingly threatened by deforestation and hunting pressure. The present study was conducted in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará (Brazil), with the objective of estimating population parameters (density and total population size) in the Rusty-margined Guan (Penelope superciliaris) and the White-browed Guan (Penelope jacucaca), as well as providing data on their feeding ecology, including seasonal variation and fruit morphology. The study was based on the monthly collection of data between November, 2011, and October, 2012. Population parameters were estimated using line transect surveys, while feeding ecology was studied by direct observation, and the collection of plant and fecal samples. The estimated population density of P. superciliaris was 19.17 individuals/km2 (CV=13.98%), with a mean of 0.13 sightings per 10 km walked. Penelope jacucaca was not encountered during the surveys. A total of 14 plant species were recorded in the diet of P. superciliaris, 12 by direct observation, and two from fecal samples. Fruit diameter varied from 6.3 ± 1.35 mm (Miconia albicans) to 29.9 ± 1.7 mm (Psidium sp.). Yellow was the most frequent fruit color (41.6%, n=5), with two species each (16.6%) providing black, green, and red fruits. Fleshy fruits of the baccate (50.0%, n=6) and drupe (33.3%, n=4) types were the most consumed. The data on population parameters and feeding ecology collected in the present study provide an important database for the development of effective management strategies by environmental agencies for the conservation of the populations of the two guan species.
Xiao, Yongshuang; Ma, Daoyuan; Xu, Shihong; Liu, Qinghua; Wang, Yanfeng; Xiao, Zhizhong; Li, Jun
Oplegnathus fasciatus (rock bream) is a commercial rocky reef fish species in East Asia that has been considered for aquaculture. We estimated the population genetic diversity and population structure of the species along the coastal waters of China using fluorescent-amplified fragment length polymorphisms technology. Using 53 individuals from three populations and four pairs of selective primers, we amplified 1 264 bands, 98.73% of which were polymorphic. The Zhoushan population showed the highest Nei's genetic diversity and Shannon genetic diversity. The results of analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 59.55% of genetic variation existed among populations and 40.45% occurred within populations, which indicated that a significant population genetic structure existed in the species. The pairwise fixation index F st ranged from 0.20 to 0.63 and were significant after sequential Bonferroni correction. The topology of an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean tree showed two significant genealogical branches corresponding to the sampling locations of North and South China. The AMOVA and STRUCTURE analyses suggested that the O. fasciatus populations examined should comprise two stocks.
Saha, Anik; Feeroz, Mohammed Mostafa; Hasan, Md Kamrul
Rhinolophus pusillus is a common species of India and Nepal in South Asia. Here, we report a new record of this bat captured in the mixed evergreen forest in Rangamati, southeastern part of Bangladesh. The identification was based on external morphology along with cranio-dental measurements. Roost counts was conducted through direct observation.
Wang, Rongjun; Wang, Jinchan; Sun, Mingfei; Dang, Hailiang; Feng, Yaoyu; Ning, Changshen; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Xiao, Lihua
A total of 124 fecal specimens were collected from four deer farms in Zhengzhou City, China and examined for Cryptosporidium by Sheather's sugar flotation technique. Cryptosporidim oocysts were detected in two 1-year-old sika deer, and one of the two specimens was genotyped by sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) (18S rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), actin, and Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) genes. Results obtained suggested that the Cryptosporidium studied belonged to Cryptosporidium cervine genotype, although slight sequence differences were noticed at the three loci. The similarities between this isolate and other Cryptosporidium cervine genotype isolates were 99.1-99.8%, 9.8%, 99.7%, and 100% at the 18S rRNA, HSP70, actin, and COWP loci, respectively. This study is the first report of Cryptosporidium infection in sika deer in China.
Full Text Available One specimen of red seabream Pagrus major, 44.9 cm total length, was caught in the eastern middle Adriatic (Island Molat, Cape Bonaster by long-line hook at a depth of about 20 m on a hard rocky bottom on 25 September 2004. It is the first record of this species in the Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean area.
T. N. Thel
Full Text Available Abstract Guans are large frugivorous birds that inhabit Neotropical forests and play a fundamental role in seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Despite their ecological importance, the natural populations of these birds are increasingly threatened by deforestation and hunting pressure. The present study was conducted in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará (Brazil, with the objective of estimating population parameters (density and total population size in the Rusty-margined Guan (Penelope superciliaris and the White-browed Guan (Penelope jacucaca, as well as providing data on their feeding ecology, including seasonal variation and fruit morphology. The study was based on the monthly collection of data between November, 2011, and October, 2012. Population parameters were estimated using line transect surveys, while feeding ecology was studied by direct observation, and the collection of plant and fecal samples. The estimated population density of P. superciliaris was 19.17 individuals/km2 (CV=13.98%, with a mean of 0.13 sightings per 10 km walked. Penelope jacucaca was not encountered during the surveys. A total of 14 plant species were recorded in the diet of P. superciliaris, 12 by direct observation, and two from fecal samples. Fruit diameter varied from 6.3±1.35 mm (Miconia albicans to 29.9±1.7 mm (Psidium sp.. Yellow was the most frequent fruit color (41.6%, n=5, with two species each (16.6% providing black, green, and red fruits. Fleshy fruits of the baccate (50.0%, n=6 and drupe (33.3%, n=4 types were the most consumed. The data on population parameters and feeding ecology collected in the present study provide an important database for the development of effective management strategies by environmental agencies for the conservation of the populations of the two guan species.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the role of L-5-hydroxytryptophan (L-HTP and its relationship with the renin-angiotensin system (RAS on the drinking behavior in Japanese quails. Normally-hydrated quails that received injections of L-HTP (12.5; 25 and 50 mg.kg-1 by the intracoelomic route (ic expressed an increase in water intake, which was inhibited by captopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor. In addition, captopril also induced such a response in birds under previous fluid deprivation. High doses of captopril (35-70 mg.kg-1, sc in normally-hydrated quails decreased the spontaneous water intake while low doses of captopril (2-5 mg.kg-1, sc did not prompt water intake after L-HTP administration. Losartan, an AT1 receptor antagonist in mammals, did not change the water intake levels in normally-hydrated or water-deprivated birds. Serotonin (5-HT injections did not provoke its known dipsogenic response.
Full Text Available The Spotted Owlet Athene brama is the commonest among the 62 species of owls of India and also a widely distributed bio-control agent of agricultural pests in India. We studied the roost site selection and diet composition of the Southern Spotted Owlet A.b. brama in the Cauvery Delta in southern India during 2007-08. The roost selection evaluated based on roost site characteristics observed from 22 roost sites revealed that the owlets preferred to roost closer to human habitation than in agricultural fields, with all the roosts found among trees. Albizia saman (Rain Tree was the most commonly used roost tree species. Tree species with 20-30 m height and 1-3 m gbh were most preferred for roosting due to the presence of a greater number of branches. Roost species and size class selection appeared to depend on availability of suitable locations with better protection from weather and concealment to avoid disturbance from humans and other birds. Diet composition examined through analysis of 55 regurgitated pellets revealed that undigested food items from insects constituted the bulk of the owls diet (57% followed by mammals (rodents (24.4%, reptiles (7.8% and birds (7.3%. However, it is argued that mammals in the form of digestible parts could have contributed more to the diet of the owlet than any other taxa. Higher consumption of rodents and insects is discussed in the light of reducing agricultural pests; adequate roosting sites (mature trees and creating awareness among the local community about the role of Spotted Owlets will improve their population and help control agricultural pests more effectively.
Vasconcellos-Neto, J; Ramos, R R; Pinto, L P
Frugivorous birds are important seed dispersers and influence the recruitment of many plant species in the rainforest. The efficiency of this dispersal generally depends on environment quality, bird species, richness and diversity of resources, and low levels of anthropogenic disturbance. In this study, we compared the sighting number of dusky-legged guans (Penelope obscura) by km and their movement in two areas of Serra do Japi, one around the administrative base (Base) where birds received anthropogenic food and a pristine area (DAE) with no anthropogenic resource. We also compared the richness of native seeds in feces of birds living in these two areas. Although the abundance of P. obscura was higher in the Base, these individuals moved less, dispersed 80% fewer species of plants and consumed 30% fewer seeds than individuals from DAE. The rarefaction indicated a low richness in the frugivorous diet of birds from the Base when compared to the populations from DAE. We conclude that human food supply can interfere in the behavior of these birds and in the richness of native seeds dispersed.
Park, Hyun Suk; Kim, Choong-Gon; Kim, Sung; Park, Yong-Joo; Choi, Hee-Jung; Xiao, Zhizhong; Li, Jun; Xiao, Yongshuang; Lee, Youn-Ho
The rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, is a common rocky reef game fish in East Asia and recently has become an aquaculture species. Despite its commercial importance, the population genetic structure of this fish species remains poorly understood. In this study, 163 specimens were collected from 6 localities along the coastal waters of Korea and China and their genetic variation was analyzed with mtDNA COI sequences. A total of 34 polymorphic sites were detected which determined 30 haplotypes. The genetic pattern reveals a low level of nucleotide diversity (0.04 ± 0.003) but a high level of haplotype diversity (0.83 ± 0.02). The 30 haplotypes are divided into two major genealogical clades: one that consists of only Zhoushan (ZS, East China Sea) specific haplotypes from the southern East China Sea and the other that consists of the remaining haplotypes from the northern East China Sea, Yellow Sea, Korea Strait, and East Sea/Sea of Japan. The two clades are separated by approximately 330 435 kyBP. Analyses of AMOVA and F st show a significant population differentiation between the ZS sample and the other ones, corroborating separation of the two genealogical clades. Larval dispersal and the fresh Yangtze River plume are invoked as the main determining factors for this population genetic structure of O. fasciatus. Neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analyses indicate late Pleistocene population expansion along the coastal waters of Korea and China approximately 133-183 kyBP during which there were periodic cycles of glaciations and deglaciations. Such population information needs to be taken into account when stock enhancement and conservation measures are implemented for this fisheries species.
Full Text Available Abstract Nucleotide sequences of four distinct calmodulin genes (designated as CaM-A to -D of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis were compared. Nucleotide sequence divergence between the coding regions of four genes ranged from 16.0 to 21.6%, and locus-specific eight primer pairs targeting introns were designed. These primer pairs amplified expected size of fragments in five congeneric tuna species, and utility of these primer pairs was investigated using distant fish species.
Full Text Available Several studies point out that eggs are the main cause of human salmonellosis, particularly when poorly processed or eaten raw. In addition of causing public health problems, the presence of Salmonella hinders international food trade, and therefore, it is a health barrier. There are several predisposing factors for the contamination of internal egg content by Salmonella spp, including eggshell quality, which is related to dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P levels. In this study, eggs from Japanese quails fed diets containing two different Ca (2.0 or 3.5% or P (0.25 or 0.45% levels were evaluated. Three production phases were used in the experiment: starter, intermediate, and final. The presence of Salmonella Enteriditis in the eggshell and internal content in in the periods of 0, 24, 96, and 168 hours after the experimental contamination of the eggs by immersion in broth containing Salmonella Enteriditis. The bacterium was detected in decreasing numbers in the eggshell of eggs from all treatments and during all storage periods. No significant bacterial numbers were found in the internal egg content in none of the treatments during none of the production phases. Therefore, the evaluated Ca and P levels in the diet of Japanese quails did not result in higher or lower public health risk relative to the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in the internal egg content.
Systematic and pathologic study of Paratanaisia bragai (Santos, 1934 Freitas, 1959 (Digenea, Eucotylidae infestation in ruddy ground dove Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811 Estudo da sistemática e da patologia de Paratanaisia bragai (Santos, 1934 Freitas, 1959 (Digenea, Eucotylidae em rolinha-caldo-de-feijão, Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811
Full Text Available This is the first report of the digenetic trematode Paratanaisia bragai infestation in a ruddy ground dove Columbina talpacoti, captured in a suburban area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Although with a low prevalence (10%, the intensity of infection was high, considering that 116 worms were recovered from one of the kidneys. Gross lesions were not observed and histopathological analysis showed very dilated renal collecting ducts with destruction and flattening of the lining epithelial cells, without inflammatory reaction. The pathological findings were compared to those previously reported for P. bragai in other hosts, since the proposal of the species in 1934.O trematódeo digenético Paratanaisia bragai é referido pela primeira vez parasitando a rolinha-caldo-de-feijão, Columbina talpacoti, proveniente de área suburbana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Embora com baixa prevalência (10%, a intensidade de infecção foi alta, considerando que 116 exemplares do parasito foram obtidos de um dos rins. Não foram observadas lesões macroscópicas. A análise histopatológica demonstrou grande dilatação dos dutos coletores renais, com destruição e achatamento das células epiteliais de revestimento, sem reação inflamatória. Os achados patológicos foram comparados aos anteriormente relatados para P. bragai em outros hospedeiros, desde a proposição da espécie em 1934.
Sep 2, 2010 ... Rodentia swinderianus. Myomys daltoni. Rodentia. Chephalophus. Artiodactyla rufilatus. Qurebia ourebi. Artiodactyla. Genetta tigtina. Carnivora. Alcedo. Akedinidae quadribrachys. Ardeola ibis. Arideidae. Aremopterix leucotis Alaudidae. Tockus nasa. Bucerotidae. Arvicanthis niloticus Cricetidae.
Josephl, JK. Vol 3, No 1-2 (1997) - Articles Carcass evaluation and organoleptic assessment of the meat of giant African rat (Cricetomys gambanus) and grasscutter (Tryonomys swinderianus raptorum). Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1117-9996. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...
Toute la faune sauvage des bois sacrés est considérée comme menacée de disparition. On peut citer en priorité. Trionomys swinderianus,. Varanus exanthematicus,. Varanus niliticus, Python sebae, Dendrohyrax dorsalis, Manis tricuspide, Ourebia ourebi,. Cercopithecus chlorocebus, Aethiops tantalus,. Colobus vellerosus ...
135.0 g) and was significantly different (p<0.05) from other treatments. These suggest that M. oleifera leaf could be a potential and promising dietary supplementation that would affect growth, and reproductive performance of T. swinderianus in ...
All previous behavioural studies of Temminck's ground pangolins (Smutsia temminckii) have focused on populations in mesic regions. We examined home range size, activity periods, habitat selectivity and refuge site selection of 13 individuals over three years in the Kalahari Desert of South Africa, near the western edge of ...
Sciuropterus setosus, collected by Horner in the neighborhood of Padang (Sumatra) and described by Temminck in the »Fauna japonica”, seems to be such an extremely rare animal, that the type-specimen — an adult female — is the only individual hitherto observed by collectors and naturalists. Mr.
GOPALAKRISHNA, A. & RAMAKRISHNA, P.A. 1977. Some reproductive anomalies in the Indian rufus horse shoe bat,. Rhinolophus rouxi (Temminck). Curro Sci. 46: 767-770. GUTHRIE, M.J. & JEFFERS,K.R. 1938a. A cytological study of the ovaries of the bats Myotis lucifugus and Myotis grisescens. J. Morph. 62: 523-557.
The identity of an old female specimen of Pseudocheirus peregrinus (Boddaert, 1785) in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, is discussed and the early descriptions and nomenclatural history of the species are reviewed. The assumption by Temminck (1824) and Jentink (1888) that the animal
In recent literature (Chasen, 1935; Peters, 1940; Delacour, 1947; Smythies, 1957) two races of Bubo sumatranus are recognized : B. s. sumatranus (Raffles) from Sumatra, Bangka, and the Malay Peninsula, and B. s. strepitans (Temminck) from Java and Borneo. From the zoogeographical point of view a
Jacques Hardouin; Éric Thys
Minilivestock, village development and the role of BEDIM.Minilivestock encompasses all animals of small site, and little-known in terras of production but usable as food, feed or revenues if not eaten. Sustainable breeding becomes possible, and should progressively replace uncontrolled gathering in the wild. Amongst vertebrates, an important meat supply is based on edible rodents like Thryonomys, Cricetomys, Xerus, Atherurus, Tenrec; Hydrochoerus, Dasyprocta, Myocastor, Capromys, Dolichotis, ...
Lunaschi, Lía Inés; Drago, Fabiana Beatriz; Draghi, Regina
The aim of this paper is to increase the knowledge on the diversity of digenean parasites from birds collected in northeastern Argentina. The helminthological survey of four bird species revealed the presence of five digenean species and one acanthocephalan species. The digeneans, Lyperorchis lyperorchis Travassos, 1921 and Edietziana serrata (Diesing, 1850) from Aramus guarauna (L.); Nephrostomum limai Travassos, 1922 from Syrigma sibilatrix (Temminck); Athesmia heterolecithodes (Braun, 1899...
Drazo, Nicaise Amundala; Kennis, Jan; Leirs, Herwig
municipalities using a standard questionnaire form translated into local languages, between November 2005 and June 2006 and during July 2007. We used the Quotas method and interviewed 70 households per municipality. Farmers indicated rodent groups implicated in crop damage on color photographs. Two types...... of survey techniques were used: individual and focus-group surveys. The sugar cane rat, Thryonomys sp. and Lemniscomys striatus caused most damage to crops, but inside granaries, Rattus rattus was the primary pest species eating stored food supplies and causing damage to stored goods. Cassava and maize were...
Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli (S. Napoli is an emerging serovar in Italy. It accounts for 2-4% of all serovars isolated from human infections. The zoonotic origin of this serovar is still unknown and this makes difficult to apply any control intervention. We report here the isolation of S. Napoli from a river nightingale (Cettia cetti, Temminck 1820 which represents the first description of this serovar from wild birds. This finding adds knowledge to the ecology of S. Napoli and addresses further studies aimed to assess the epidemiologic link between S. Napoli isolated from wild birds, food, environmental sources and human infections.
Full Text Available During routine efforts to maintain diversity in the public aquarium of the Marine Aquarium & regional Center, Digha, of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI, the authors encountered three more species of the Genus Epinephelus which after thorough literature survey were found to be not reported earlier from this area though listed in IUCN Red list of threatened fauna. Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822 Orange Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790 Brindle Grouper and Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1842 Striped Grouper are the first time reports from Digha Coast.
Liolope copulans (Trematoda: Digenea: Liolopidae) parasitic in Andrias japonicus (Amphibia: Caudata: Cryptobranchidae) in Japan: Life cycle and systematic position inferred from morphological and molecular evidence.
Baba, Takashi; Hosoi, Masatomi; Urabe, Misako; Shimazu, Takeshi; Tochimoto, Takeyoshi; Hasegawa, Hideo
The life cycle of Liolope copulans Cohn, 1902 (Trematoda: Digenea: Liolopidae), an intestinal parasite of the Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus (Temminck) (Amphibia: Caudata: Cryptobranchidae), was studied in the field and laboratory in Japan. This is the first description of mother sporocyst, daughter sporocyst and cercariae of a liolopid species. Non-oculate longifurcate pharyngeate cercariae were formed in lanceolate-cylindrical daughter sporocysts in Semisulcospira libertina (Gould) (Gastropoda: Sorbeoconcha: Pleuroceridae). They successfully developed to encapsulated metacercariae in cyprinid fishes, Nipponocypris sieboldii (Temminck and Schlegel) and Rhynchocypris lagowskii (Dybowski), by experimental infection. Cercariae had a V-shaped excretory vesicle with two looped arms, as in metacercariae and adults. Developmental stages from mother sporocyst to adult are described and illustrated. DNA sequencing was conducted for 28S and 18S rDNA of mother and daughter sporocysts, cercariae, and an adult. The result of molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. copulans may be one of the basal taxa of the order Diplostomida Olson, Cribb, Tkach, Bray, and Littlewood, 2003, but its systematic position is still unclear because of the topological inconsistence between the 28S and 18S trees. Therefore, we tentatively place the family Liolopidae in the superfamily Diplostomoidea, mainly based on the morphology of sporocysts and cercariae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Slynko, Yu V; Slynko, E E; Karpova, E P; Boltachev, A R
The up-to-date phylogeographical distribution of the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva Temminck et Schlegel 1846 in water bodies of the Northern Black Sea region is considered. Genetic variation of mtDNA cyt b gene is analyzed. It is established that topmouth gudgeon penetrated and spread in the basins of the Dnieper and Don rivers and in water bodies of Crimea from the secondary center of its dispersion— water bodies of Central Europe. It is demonstrated that haplotypes of topmouth gudgeon in the Danube delta are the most homologous to the haplotypes in the native range of the species in China. A considerable decrease in the level of genetic variation in the populations in the Black Sea region is reported.
Lunaschi L. I.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to increase the knowledge on the diversity of digenean parasites from birds collected in northeastern Argentina. The helminthological survey of four bird species revealed the presence of five digenean species and one acanthocephalan species. The digeneans, Lyperorchis lyperorchis Travassos, 1921 and Edietziana serrata (Diesing, 1850 from Aramus guarauna (L.; Nephrostomum limai Travassos, 1922 from Syrigma sibilatrix (Temminck; Athesmia heterolecithodes (Braun, 1899 from Theristicus caudatus (Boddaert and Cariama cristata (L.; Stomylotrema vicarium Braun, 1901 from T. caudatus, and the acanthocephala Centrorhynchus guira Lunaschi & Drago, 2010 from T. caudatus, were recorded. Lyperorchis inexpectabilis Digiani, 1997 is synonimized with L. lyperorchis. The findings of E. serrata and N. limai constitute new geographical records. Theristicus caudatus is reported as a new definitive host of A. heterolecithodes, S. vicarium and C. guira, and Cariama cristata of A. heterolecithodes. The relationships between host diet and parasite fauna are discussed.
ISHIGURO, Naotaka; INOSHIMA, Yasuo; SASAKI, Motoki
A Canis skull, right half of the mandible and part of the left half of the mandible were subjected to three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) observation and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis in order to determine whether the specimens belonged to the extinct Japanese wolf, Canis lupus hodophilax (Temminck, 1839). Osteometric analysis of the skull and right half of the mandible revealed that the material (JW275) was indeed typical of the Japanese wolf. Sequence analysis of a 600-bp mtDNA region revealed that the JW275 belonged to haplotype Group B, which is characterized by an 8-bp deletion in the mtDNA control region. The findings of this study suggest that 3D CT analysis is well suited to examining fragile and valuable biological samples, as it removes the need for destructive sampling. PMID:27746405
Leonardo F. França
Full Text Available The identification of predators of birds' nests, crucial to a better understanding of predator-prey interactions, remains poorly known. Here we provide evidence that birds, and especially passerines, may depredate birds' nests in the Cerrado (Neotropical Savannah of Central Brazil. Data was collected primarily in a Conservation Unit (Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas during the breeding season, between 2003 and 2007. We report and discuss details on 14 events of nest predation, 12 of which by passerines, mostly by curl-crested jays - Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823. The results of our study suggest that the role of birds as nest predators in the Cerrado has been underestimated and needs to be further investigated.
Full Text Available Minilivestock, village development and the role of BEDIM.Minilivestock encompasses all animals of small site, and little-known in terras of production but usable as food, feed or revenues if not eaten. Sustainable breeding becomes possible, and should progressively replace uncontrolled gathering in the wild. Amongst vertebrates, an important meat supply is based on edible rodents like Thryonomys, Cricetomys, Xerus, Atherurus, Tenrec; Hydrochoerus, Dasyprocta, Myocastor, Capromys, Dolichotis, Agouti, etc. The saine applies to the guinea-pig Cavia porcellus and to frogs. Invertebrates farming is also practised through breeding of maggots, termites, butterflies (pupae and adults for consumption or sale; giant snails are also highly appreciated in many African countries. Minilivestock development is usually a back-yard activity, hence its interest as it relies on local species, substrates and raw materials for infrastructure. The demand for minilivestock product is high but there is still reluctance often from the official authorities, unfortunately. However minilivestock is not an utopia, and a country like Papua-New-Guinea, which bas officially adopted minilivestock production as a tool to help to develop remote villages, is an excellent example of success
Full Text Available Lagoa Santa, a small town in southeastern Brazil where naturalist Peter Lund lived, is regarded nowadays as an important historical site for the biological sciences. From 1847 to 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, hosted by Lund, collected 343 bird species. This material is an outstanding reference for many modern ornithological studies. The present paper reports the occurrence of some rare and threatened birds for the region of Lagoa Santa between 1998 and 2005. In this account I list the Rusty-margined Guan Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815; the Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758; the Maguari Stork Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789; the Wood Stork Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758; the Black Hawk-eagle Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820 and the Turquoise-fronted Parrot Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758. It is also reported the southernmost record for the Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758 and the range extension of the Crowned Slaty flycatcher Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837. These data can be used as a baseline for studies of colonization and extinction.Lagoa Santa, cidade onde viveu Peter Lund é um dos sítios de maior importância histórica para as ciências biológicas. Durante os anos de 1847 e 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, a convite de Lund, coletou 343 espécies de aves que são hoje referência para vários estudos ornitológicos. O presente artigo relata a ocorrência de algumas aves raras e/ou ameaçadas para a região de Lagoa Santa, entre 1998 e 2005. A lista de espécies inclui a jacupemba Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815, o colhereiro Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758, a maguari Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789, a cabeça-seca Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758, o gavião-pega-macaco Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820; e o papagaio-verdadeiro Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758. Relata-se também a ocorrência mais meridional da arara-canindé Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758, e a expansão da distribui
Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Marciniak, Natalia; Sikora, Bozena
The quill mite fauna of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) associated with owls (Aves: Strigiformes) is reviewed. A new genus is proposed, Neobubophilus Skoracki & Unsoeld gen. nov. It differs from closely related Bubophilus (Bubophilus Philips and Norton, 1978) by the absence of leg setae vsII in the both sexes. In addition, four new species are described: (1) Neobubophilus cunicularius Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) (Strigidae) from Paraguay; (2) Neobubophilus atheneus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) and Athene brama (Temminck, 1821) (Strigidae), both from India; (3) Bubophilus tytonus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Tyto alba affinis (Blyth, 1862) (Tytonidae) from Cameroon, and (4) Megasyringophilus dalmas Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) (Strigidae) from Venezuela. The following new host species are given: Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigidae) from Nepal for Bubophilus ascalaphus (Philips and Norton 1978) and Strix woodfordii (Smith, 1834) (Strigidae) from Tanzania for Bubophilus aluconis (aluconis Nattress and Skoracki 2009). A key for syringophilid genera and species associated with owls is constructed. The host-parasite relationships of syringophilid mites and owls are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com Version of Record, first published online May 24, 2016 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 188.8.131.52 ICZN.
Yuan, Guangxin; Sun, Jiyan; Li, Hongyu; Fu, Guilian; Xu, Guangyu; Li, Mingcheng; Zhang, Lihua; Fan, Xintian
Mitochondrial DNA of velvet antler was amplified with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique and the PCR products were detected with non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis to establish a RAPD-HPCE method used for identifying the authenticity of velvet antler or it counterfeits. Factors that could affect the PCR amplification and capillary electrophoresis were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, namely, 20 mmol L(-1) NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4-2 mmol L(-1) EDTA buffer solution [0.8% (W/V) HPMC, 15 mmol L(-1) TBAP and pH 7.3], -10 kV injection voltage and -8 kV separation voltage, Cervus nippon Temminck antler, Cervus elaphus Linnaeus antler, Rangifer tarandus antler, Cervus canadensis antler and Elaphurus davidianus antler were analyzed. The analysis on the similarity of obtained elctrophoretograms showed that there were significant differences in similarities of different velvet antlers, which could be used for the quick identification of the authenticity of velvet antler samples. It can be found that the technique of RAPD combined with HPCE is advantageous in rich polymorphism, high detection rate, simple and convenient performance, high efficiency, rapidness and sensitivity, indicating that it should be suitable for the quick identification of the authenticity of velvet antler samples.
Jeon, Se Jin; Kim, Boseong; Park, Hye Jin; Zhang, Jiabao; Kwon, Yubeen; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon
In the present study, we investigated whether 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetylglycerol (PLAG), a component of antlers of Cervus nippon Temminck, would have memory-ameliorating properties against cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. In the passive avoidance task to investigate the effects of PLAG on long-term memory, PLAG (10mg/kg, p.o.) administration ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment. PLAG also reversed the impairments of working memory in the Y-maze task and spatial memory as shown in the Morris water maze. To identify the mechanism of the memory-ameliorating effect of PLAG, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition assay and the Western blot analysis were conducted. In the AChE inhibition assay, PLAG inhibited the AChE activity in mice and PLAG increased the expression levels of phosphorylated CaMKII, ERK, and CREB in the hippocampus. Additionally, long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength occurred by PLAG treatment in the hippocampal cultures. Overall, the present study suggests that PLAG reversed memory deficits in an animal model and that it affects biochemical pathways related to learning and memory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Foi conduzido um levantamento de espécies de aves do Vale do alto Rio Cipó durante o período de maio de 1998 a novembro de 2002. A região está totalmente inserida em uma das unidades de conservação mais importantes do sudeste do Brasil, o Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, em Minas Gerais. O método utilizado foi o de observação direta ao longo de 'transectos', captura com redes e identificação a partir do uso de vocalizações. A riqueza de espécies foi estimada usando-se o método de 'jackknife'. Foram registradas 226 espécies de aves pertencentes a 43 famílias. Isso corresponde cerca de 27% das 837 espécies já registradas para o bioma do Cerrado. Foram capturados 2.249 indivíduos num total de 4.486,82 horas-rede, onde foram amostradas 119 espécies pertencentes a 23 famílias. A riqueza foi estimada em 239 ± 5 espécies. Constam nesta lista seis espécies endêmicas do Cerrado: Augastes scutatus (Temminck, 1824 (Trochilidae, Hylocryptus rectirostris (Wied-NeuWied, 1821 (Furnariidae, Antilophia galeata (Lichtenstein, 1832 (Pipridae, Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823 (Corvidae, Charitospiza eucosma (Oberholser, 1905, Saltator atricollis (Vieillot, 1817, e Porphyrospiza caerulescens (Wied-Neuwied, 1830 (Emberizidae. Ocorrem também três espécies quase-ameaçadas de extinção: Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758 (Cathartidae, Cypsnagra hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 e Charitospiza eucosma (Emberizidae. O Vale do Rio Cipó abriga uma porção significativa da avifauna do Cerrado. Alguns dos habitat encontrados no Vale estão se tornando cada vez mais raros na região do Cerrado de todo o Brasil, como as matas ciliares e o sistema de lagoas temporárias ao longo dos rios. Mesmo as cachoeiras, habitat importante para várias espécies, vêm desaparecendo em outras regiões do Brasil. Nesse sentido, a região do Vale do Rio Cipó dentro Parque consolida um dos seus objetivos que é a conservação da biodiversidade.It is
Sandra Maria das Graças Maruch
Full Text Available Known as "domestic dove", the Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a columbidae species widely distributed in Brazil, whose reproductive biology has been studied by many researchers. The testes of 12 Columba livia males were collected and prepared for histologic examination under an optical microscope, the results of which were analysed and photographed. The tunica albuginea that covers the testes consists of a thick, not very cellular layer of dense connective tissue. Groups of interstitial cells with typical morphological appearance and surrounded by loose, well vascularized connective tissue are observable within the organ, between the seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules are thick, intensely wound and, when seen in cross section, show Sertoli cells and spermatogenic lineage cells in different stages of development. These include spermatogonia (type A, clear; type A, dark; and type B, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids, and a large number of spermatozoons. Similarities are found between the histological findings described and those reported for the testes of Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811.
Nevoux, Marie; Weimerskirch, Henri; Barbraud, Christophe
1. It has been largely demonstrated that demographic performances of animals increase with age or experience as a result of an improvement of foraging skills, an increasing reproductive effort or a selection process. However, little is known about the age or experience-related response of populations to environmental variations. Theoretical studies consider that age-related variations of the performances are greater under more restricting conditions, but this has rarely been tested. 2. We tested this hypothesis on a long-lived species, black browed albatross Thalassarche melanophrys Temminck, using a long-term capture-mark-recapture data set. We investigated the responses of a population to climate, by studying the effects of climatic factors and breeding experience on survival and breeding success. 3. First-time breeders appear to be poorer performers compared with experienced adults, with lower reproductive success and lower survival. In addition, interannual variations of demographic traits were partly explained by climatic indices, reflecting environmental variations. The survival probability of black-browed albatrosses varied with experience and climate, and differences being greater under harsh conditions. By contrast, the reproductive success of inexperienced individuals was affected by climatic fluctuations in the same way as the experienced ones. 4. First breeding event acts as a strong selective process on the highly heterogeneous class of inexperienced individuals, suggesting the increase in survival and breeding success with experience may mainly reflect a reduction in the heterogeneity among individual qualities.
Yang, Huihai; Li, Wei; Wang, Lulu; Li, Wenqing; Sun, Hang; He, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jing
This study measured the effect of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck) antler protein (SDAPR), glycoproteins (SDAG), and polysaccharides (SDAPO) on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in HEK 293 cells, and investigated the effect of SDAPR against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. ICR mice were randomly divided into five groups: control, cisplatin with vehicle, and cisplatin with SDAPR at three concentrations: 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg, p.o., 10 d. Cisplatin was injected on 7th day (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Renal function, oxidative stress, levels of inflammatory factors, and expression of apoptosis-related proteins were measured in vivo. Renal tissues were stained with TUNEL and H&E to observe renal cell apoptosis and pathological changes. Pretreatment with SDAPR (125-2000 µg/mL) significantly improved cell viability, with an EC50 of approximately 1000 µg/mL. SDAPR also ameliorated cisplatin-induced histopatholo- gic changes, and decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) (P stress markers and inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05). TUNEL staining showed decreased apoptosis after SDAPR treatment (P < 0.01). These results indicate that SDAPR can be an effective dietary supplement, to relieve cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by improved antioxidase activity, suppressed inflammation, and inhibited apoptosis in vivo. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Ândrio Z. da Silva
Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.
Lee, Sung-Hun; Kim, Chun-Cheol; Koh, Soo-Jin; Shin, Lim-Soo; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Han, Kyeong-Ho
In order to monitor the developmental features of embryos, larvae, and juveniles of Oryzias latipes (Temminck and Schlegel), Oryzias latipes was caught in river of Shinduck-dong, Yeosu-si, Jeollanam-do, on May 2011, and experiments were carried out in Ichthyology laboratory at Chonnam National University. The blastodisc step was the first level for natural spawning. The optic vesicle, Kupffer's vesicle, myotome began to appear 75 hours 57 minutes later. After blastodisc development, the pectoral fins were made at 143 hours 37 minutes and the tail was separated started at the same time. Hatching was observed at 167 hours 27 minutes after blastodisc. The total length of the hatched larvae was 4.95~5.10 mm (mean, 5.01 mm), the mouth and anus were opened. Larvae used yolk completely after 3 days after hatching. The total length larvae was 5.45~5.56 mm (mean, 5.52 mm) after 8 days after hatching, and appeared the stems for tail. The stems pectoral, anal fin were showed after 14 days and the stems dorsal, ventral fin were appeared after 19 days. For 35 days after hatching, the total length of larvae 13.95~15.30 mm (mean, 14.64 mm), and at this time, fins and body were transferred like the adult Oryzias latipes. PMID:25949187
Ai, Jinxia; Wang, Xuesong; Gao, Lijun; Xia, Wei; Li, Mingcheng; Yuan, Guangxin; Niu, Jiamu; Zhang, Lihua
The use of Fetus cervi, which is derived from the embryo and placenta of Cervus Nippon Temminck or Cervs elaphus Linnaeus, has been documented for a long time in China. There are abundant species of deer worldwide. Those recorded by China Pharmacopeia (2010 edition) from all the species were either authentic or adulterants/counterfeits. Identification of their origins or authenticity became a key in the preparation of the authentic products. The traditional SDS alkaline lysis and salt-outing methods were modified to extract mt DNA and genomic DNA from fresh and dry Fetus cervi in addition to Fetus from false animals, respectively. A set of primers were designed by bioinformatics to target the intra-and inter-variation. The mt DNA and genomic DNA extracted from Fetus cervi using the two methods meet the requirement for authenticity. Extraction of mt DNA by SDS alkaline lysis is more practical and accurate than extraction of genomic DNA by salt-outing method. There were differences in length and number of segments amplified by PCR between mt DNA from authentic Fetus cervi and false animals Fetus. The distinctive PCR-fingerprint patterns can distinguish the Fetus cervi from adulterants and counterfeit animal Fetus.
Bodkin, James L.
Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.
Vuong Tan Tu
Full Text Available In Southeast Asia, bats of the genus Tylonycteris Peters, 1872 have traditionally been classified into two wide-ranging species, T. pachypus (Temminck, 1840 and T. robustula Thomas, 1915. Our comparative phylogeographic analyses based on two mitochondrial and seven nuclear genes, combined with our multivariate morphological analyses, show that these species actually represent cryptic species complexes that share a similar biogeographic history in three major regions, i.e., Sundaland, southern Indochina, and northern Indochina. Our molecular dating estimates suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations and sea level changes have repeatedly isolated ancestral populations of Tylonycteris spp. in distant bamboo forest refugia. The analyses indicate, however, that populations of the T. pachypus complex were less affected by forest fragmentation in mainland Southeast Asia than those of the T. robustula complex. Accordingly, we propose several taxonomic changes within the genus Tylonycteris: the species T. fulvida and T. malayana are revalidated, and a new species, T. tonkinensis Tu, Csorba, Ruedi & Hassanin sp. nov., endemic to northern Indochina, is described.
Full Text Available We studied hummingbirds and their food plants in an area of caatinga vegetation. We specifically examined their seasonal use of this habitat, migratory and non-migratory status, their foraging strategies and community roles The study was conducted in an area of arboreal-shrub caatinga, located in the Serra do Pará, municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. Field work was undertaken during 12 expeditions on a monthly basis between June, 2007 and May, 2008. Five species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers in the community studied. Three were considered residents: Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812, Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, and Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823. Hummingbirds visited 31 species of plants, of which only five presented attributes related to ornithophily. C. lucidus visited 29 plant species, including all ornithophilous species, and it was the most aggressive, defending territories. Among hummingbirds, C. lucidus may be considered the principal pollinator. Hummingbirds may also be acting as pollen vectors for some of the plant species not identified as ornithophilous. The hummingbird guilds varied among the plant species used as floral resources, as well as in their frequency of visits. Differences in plant species abundance, hummingbird preference, competitive exclusion or flowering seasonality are factors likely to influence those variations.
Las-Casas, F M G; Azevedo Júnior, S M; Dias Filho, M M
We studied hummingbirds and their food plants in an area of caatinga vegetation. We specifically examined their seasonal use of this habitat, migratory and non-migratory status, their foraging strategies and community roles The study was conducted in an area of arboreal-shrub caatinga, located in the Serra do Pará, municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. Field work was undertaken during 12 expeditions on a monthly basis between June, 2007 and May, 2008. Five species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers in the community studied. Three were considered residents: Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812), Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788), and Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823). Hummingbirds visited 31 species of plants, of which only five presented attributes related to ornithophily. C. lucidus visited 29 plant species, including all ornithophilous species, and it was the most aggressive, defending territories. Among hummingbirds, C. lucidus may be considered the principal pollinator. Hummingbirds may also be acting as pollen vectors for some of the plant species not identified as ornithophilous. The hummingbird guilds varied among the plant species used as floral resources, as well as in their frequency of visits. Differences in plant species abundance, hummingbird preference, competitive exclusion or flowering seasonality are factors likely to influence those variations.
Nomoto, R; Munasinghe, L I; Jin, D-H; Shimahara, Y; Yasuda, H; Nakamura, A; Misawa, N; Itami, T; Yoshida, T
A Lancefield serological group C Streptococcus sp. was isolated from cultured amberjack, Seriola dumerili Risso, and yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata Temminck and Schlegel, immunized with Lactococcus garvieae commercial vaccines in Japan. The isolated bacteria were Gram-positive cocci, auto-aggregating in saline, morphologically long chains in growth medium, catalase negative and alpha-haemolytic on blood agar. An almost complete gene sequence of the 16S rDNA of two isolates was determined and compared with that of bacterial strains in the database. The isolates were identified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae based on the results of the 16S rDNA sequence, the bacteriological properties and the Lancefield serological grouping. Oligonucleotide primers specifically designed for the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region of S. dysgalactiae amplified a gene from all the fish isolates, as well as the type strains alpha-haemolytic S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae ATCC430738 and beta-haemolytic S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis ATCC35666, but not those of S. equi ATCC33398, Lactococcus garvieae ATCC43921 and L. garvieae KG9408. The severe necrotic lesions of the caudal peduncle seen in experimentally infected fish were similar to those seen in naturally infected fish.
Nguyen, T L; Lim, Y J; Kim, D-H; Austin, B
Streptococcus parauberis is an increasing threat to aquaculture of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus Temminck & Schlegel, in South Korea. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using the TaqMan probe assay to detect and quantify S. parauberis by targeting the gyrB gene sequences, which are effective for molecular analysis of the genus Streptococcus. Our real-time PCR assay is capable of detecting 10 fg of genomic DNA per reaction. The intra- and interassay coefficient of variation (CV) values ranged from 0.42-1.95%, demonstrating that the assay has good reproducibility. There was not any cross-reactivity to Streptococcus iniae or to other streptococcal/lactococcal fish pathogens, such as S. agalactiae and Lactococcus garvieae, indicating that the assay is highly specific to S. parauberis. The results of the real-time PCR assay corresponded well to those of conventional culture assays for S. parauberis from inoculated tissue homogenates (r = 0.957; P < 0.05). Hence, this sensitive and specific real-time PCR is a valuable tool for diagnostic quantitation of S. parauberis in clinical samples. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Efeito da temperatura de estocagem e do tipo de embalagem sobre a qualidade interna de ovos de codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica Effect of storage temperature and type of package on the internal quality of eggs from japanese quails (Coturnix japonica
Adolpho Marlon Antoniol de Moura
Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de temperatura de estocagem e tipo de embalagem, na qualidade interna de ovos de codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica, Temminck & Schlegel, 1849, no 5º, 10º, 15º e 20º dias experimentais. Utilizaram-se 192 ovos de codornas japonesas em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado e esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com vinte e quatro tratamentos e oito repetições de um ovo por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela combinação de duas temperaturas de estocagem (ambiente e sob refrigeração versus três tipos de embalagem (papel, isopor e plástico, casualizada nas parcelas, versus quatro tempos (5º, 10º, 15º e 20º dias de estocagem, alocados nas subparcelas. As variáveis estudadas foram perda de peso (PP, em porcentagem, altura de albume (AA, em milímetros, e unidade Haugh (UH. Com o aumento do tempo de estocagem, houve redução da altura de albume e da unidade Haugh e aumento da perda de peso de ovos de codornas japonesas, armazenados sob temperatura ambiente. No decorrer do período de estocagem, os valores médios de altura de albume e unidade Haugh de ovos de codornas japonesas, estocados sob refrigeração foram maiores do que as respectivas médias de altura de albume e unidade Haugh de ovos estocados sob temperatura ambiente. O uso da embalagem de isopor proporcionou menor perda de peso dos ovos do que o uso das embalagens de papel e de plástico, independente do tempo e da temperatura de estocagem.The effect of storage temperature and kind of package on the internal quality of eggs from japanese quails (Coturnix japonica, Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 on the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th experimental days were evaluated. One hundred and ninety two eggs from japanese quails were used in a completely randomized outline and splitplot scheme, with twenty four treatments and eight replicates of one egg per experimental unit. The treatments were consisted from the combination of two
A. B. Chaplygina
Full Text Available The study is based on taxonomic and quantitative analysis of feed ration of nestlings and structure of nidikolas of collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis (Temminck, 1815. Ecological features and consortium relations of flycatchers and their specific feeding behavior were analyzed. Materials were collected in May – July 2009–2014 on the transformed territories of North-Eastern Ukraine. Functioning of trophic structure of biogeocenosis with the participation of flycatcher as a heterotrophic core of big autotrophic group was studied. Spatial and trophic relations of flycatcher with the woody vegetation and insect-phytophages (leaf beetles, leafhoppers, and barbels have been described. In the feed ration of flycatcher nestlings the prevalence is given to representatives of Hexapoda (83%, including Lepidoptera (16 families, 24%, Hymenoptera (12 families, 23% and Coleoptera (40 families, 15%. We characterize trophic groups of arthropods in the consortium of flycatchers: phytophages (33%, zoophages (45%, parasites, bloodsuckers, saprophages (16%, necrophages (4%, coprophages, keratophages. Fauna of arthropods of collared flycatcher nests was analyzed. Nests of birds as a heterotrophic consortium is the habitat of invertebrates with 293 taxons belonging to the Hexapoda, Arachnida, Malacostraca and Myriaroda, sometimes Mollusca. In the trophic structure of the population of flycatcher the representatives of Hexapoda dominate (278 species, where the first place is given to zoophages (127 species, 45%, including parasites (Culicidae, Tabanidae, Mallophaga, Hippoboscidae, Aphaniptera. The second are phytophages (78 species, 28%, the third – decomposers (75 species, 27%, and the last presenting detritivores (48 species, 18% and necrophages (27 species, 10%. Constant ectoparasitic species of flycatchers are Ricinus sp. (Mallophaga, Ornithomyia avicularia L. (Diptera, Protocalliphora azurea chrysorrhea Mg. (Diptera, Ceratophyllus sp. (Aphaniptera
Letice C. França
Full Text Available The Cerrado is still one of the most important ecosystems in Brazil, even though more than 50% of its area has been altered or converted to pastureland and plantations. Despite its intense degradation, few ecological processes that might affect its biodiversity have been evaluated. The goal of this study was to test the edge effect on the predation rates at natural and artificial nests, at the Ecological Station of Águas Emendadas, Federal District, Brazil. Natural nests were found and monitored every three to four days from September to December of 2004 in the interior and at the edge of the reserve. Artificial nests were placed at four distances from the edge (0, 500, 1000 and 2000 m in three spatial replicates in September and again in December of 2004. Each nest received one Japanese Quail and one plasticine egg and was monitored every five days, for 15 days. There was no difference between the rates of predation either in the natural nests or in the artificial nests between treatments. For one bird species, Elaenia chiriquensis (Lawrence, 1865, Tyrannidae, daily survival rates in the incubation and in the hatchling period had opposite values between the edge and the interior. Marks on plasticine eggs suggest that birds are the main predators. Estimates of the abundance of two potential nest predators, Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823, Corvidae and Canis familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758, Canidae, revealed no relationship with distance to the edge, nor with predation rates. Brood parasitism of natural nests was similar between the interior (0% and the edge (3.8% of the nests. The results described here do not support the edge effect hypothesis for nest predation rates on either natural or artificial nests, nor for brood parasitism rates.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study measured the effect of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck antler protein (SDAPR, glycoproteins (SDAG, and polysaccharides (SDAPO on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in HEK 293 cells, and investigated the effect of SDAPR against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Methods: Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. ICR mice were randomly divided into five groups: control, cisplatin with vehicle, and cisplatin with SDAPR at three concentrations: 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg, p.o., 10 d. Cisplatin was injected on 7th day (25 mg/kg, i.p.. Renal function, oxidative stress, levels of inflammatory factors, and expression of apoptosis-related proteins were measured in vivo. Renal tissues were stained with TUNEL and H&E to observe renal cell apoptosis and pathological changes. Results: Pretreatment with SDAPR (125-2000 µg/mL significantly improved cell viability, with an EC50 of approximately 1000 µg/mL. SDAPR also ameliorated cisplatin-induced histopatholo- gic changes, and decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (Cr (P < 0.05. Western blotting analysis showed SDAPR clearly decreased expression levels of cleaved-caspase-3 and Bax, and increased the expression level of Bcl-2 (P < 0.01. Additionally, SDAPR markedly regulated oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05. TUNEL staining showed decreased apoptosis after SDAPR treatment (P < 0.01. Conclusions: These results indicate that SDAPR can be an effective dietary supplement, to relieve cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by improved antioxidase activity, suppressed inflammation, and inhibited apoptosis in vivo.
Muto, N.; Ren, H.-W.; Hwang, G.-S.; Tominaga, S.; Itoh, N.; Tanaka, K. [Laboratory of Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)
The induction of metallothionein (MT) by physical and chemical stress was assessed using the fresh-water fish, crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri Temminck et Schlegel). The fish exposed to violent air-pumping stress for 6 days revealed time-dependent induction of MT-like metal-binding proteins in both their livers and kidneys. Their hepatic contents after exposure to stress were elevated to twice the basal level with 24 h, resulting in more than a 3-fold increase at 144 h, whereas their renal contents gradually increased after 24 h and reached the same level as that in the liver around 96 h. Two major inducible proteins were purified from livers of fish exposed to stress and were shown to be MT based upon their chromatographic behavior, UV absorption spectra and their molecular weights. Consequently, they were termed ccMT-1 and ccMT-2, according to their elution sequence upon anion-exchange chromatography. Both proteins mainly bound zinc in their endogenous forms and showed different immunogenicity to rat and rabbit MTs. Dexamethasone, a potent inducer for MT synthesis in mammals, induced the production of both isoforms in crucian carp, whereas cadmium and zinc ions prominently induced the synthesis of ccMT-2. These results indicate that crucian carp have the ability to produce MTs in response to various kinds of environmental stress and that violent air-pumping stress in crucian carp may induce MT synthesis, in part, via the release of endogenous factor(s), such as glucocorticoids. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
Matias, Carlos Alexandre Rey; Pereira, Ingrid Annes; Reis, Eliane Moura Falavina Dos; Rodrigues, Dália Dos Prazeres; Siciliano, Salvatore
The illegal wildlife trade may increase the risk of infectious disease transmission, and it may not only cause disease outbreaks in humans but also threaten livestock, native wild populations, and ecosystems' health. Bird species may act as carriers in the transmission of enteric pathogens. However, epidemiological studies on zoonotic bacteria in wild birds are rare in Brazil. From March 2011 to March 2012, we investigated the frequency of Enterobacteriaceae in cloacal swab samples from 109 birds of the passerine and Psittacidae families. These birds were recovered from illegal trade in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and sent to a rehabilitation center. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 86 wild birds (78.9%). A mean (±SD) of 1.68 (±1.30) different bacterial species were isolated per bird, with a maximum of five bacterial species from three bird species. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli, followed by Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and other enteric bacteria. Salmonella ser. Typhimurium was isolated from a Temminck's seedeater (Sporophila falcirostris), and two Salmonella ser. Panama were isolated from two specimens of chestnut-capped blackbird (Chrysomus ruficapillus). Of the 70 selected bacterial isolates, 60 exhibited antibiotic resistance. The resistance patterns varied from one to nine of the antibiotics tested. Resistance to ceftiofur was the most prevalent, followed by ampicillin and ceftriaxone. The dissemination potential of resistant strains in situations typically seen in the management of captive birds may become a problem for the conservation of natural bird populations and for public health. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Carlos Alexandre Rey Matias
Full Text Available Abstract The illegal wildlife trade may increase the risk of infectious disease transmission, and it may not only cause disease outbreaks in humans but also threaten livestock, native wild populations, and ecosystems' health. Bird species may act as carriers in the transmission of enteric pathogens. However, epidemiological studies on zoonotic bacteria in wild birds are rare in Brazil. From March 2011 to March 2012, we investigated the frequency of Enterobacteriaceae in cloacal swab samples from 109 birds of the passerine and Psittacidae families. These birds were recovered from illegal trade in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and sent to a rehabilitation center. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 86 wild birds (78.9%. A mean (±SD of 1.68 (±1.30 different bacterial species were isolated per bird, with a maximum of five bacterial species from three bird species. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli, followed by Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and other enteric bacteria. Salmonella ser. Typhimurium was isolated from a Temminck's seedeater (Sporophila falcirostris, and two Salmonella ser. Panama were isolated from two specimens of chestnut-capped blackbird (Chrysomus ruficapillus. Of the 70 selected bacterial isolates, 60 exhibited antibiotic resistance. The resistance patterns varied from one to nine of the antibiotics tested. Resistance to ceftiofur was the most prevalent, followed by ampicillin and ceftriaxone. The dissemination potential of resistant strains in situations typically seen in the management of captive birds may become a problem for the conservation of natural bird populations and for public health.
Boscaini, Alberto; Madurell-Malapeira, Joan; Llenas, Manel; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido
A new cranial fossil attributable to the species Lynx pardinus (Temminck, 1827) attests to the presence of this felid in the late Early Pleistocene of the Iberian Peninsula. Certain diagnostic features, such as the confluence of the lacerum posterius and anterior condyloid foramina, and the long and lyre-shaped temporal ridges, allow this find to be established as the first occurrence of the Iberian lynx in Europe. The fossil described here was found in the Avenc Marcel cave (Vallirana, Barcelona, Spain) in association with many other Late Villafranchian faunal remains. The combined presence of the bovid genera Capra and Soergelia, and the rodent species Mimomys medasensis and Mimomys tornensis, allows the age of this deposit to be placed at about 1.6-1.7 Ma. Consequently, the appearance of Lynx pardinus is related here to the faunal turnover that occurred between the Middle and Late Villafranchian, considered to be one of the major changes in the European macromammal fauna. Such an early divergence is in accordance with the evolutionary split proposed by both the molecular data and with the glacial-interglacial dynamics that affected the European region during the Early Pleistocene. Under these circumstances, the Iberian lynx could have originated in isolation in the Iberian Peninsula (a recognized southern European refugium for several species), during one or more glacial episodes. In this time period, this species may also have developed a dependence on small-sized animal prey, such as the lagomorphs of the genus Prolagus and Oryctolagus, already widespread throughout the Iberian Peninsula by that point. In the present work, several topics regarding the earliest evolutionary history of Lynx pardinus are discussed. Understanding the events that took place surrounding the origins of this lineage can shed new light on the future conservation of this extremely threatened felid.
Hesham M. Sallam
Full Text Available The Fayum Depression of Egypt has yielded fossils of hystricognathous rodents from multiple Eocene and Oligocene horizons that range in age from ∼37 to ∼30 Ma and document several phases in the early evolution of crown Hystricognathi and one of its major subclades, Phiomorpha. Here we describe two new genera and species of basal phiomorphs, Birkamys korai and Mubhammys vadumensis, based on rostra and maxillary and mandibular remains from the terminal Eocene (∼34 Ma Fayum Locality 41 (L-41. Birkamys is the smallest known Paleogene hystricognath, has very simple molars, and, like derived Oligocene-to-Recent phiomorphs (but unlike contemporaneous and older taxa apparently retained dP4∕4 late into life, with no evidence for P4∕4 eruption or formation. Mubhammys is very similar in dental morphology to Birkamys, and also shows no evidence for P4∕4 formation or eruption, but is considerably larger. Though parsimony analysis with all characters equally weighted places Birkamys and Mubhammys as sister taxa of extant Thryonomys to the exclusion of much younger relatives of that genus, all other methods (standard Bayesian inference, Bayesian “tip-dating,” and parsimony analysis with scaled transitions between “fixed” and polymorphic states place these species in more basal positions within Hystricognathi, as sister taxa of Oligocene-to-Recent phiomorphs. We also employ tip-dating as a means for estimating the ages of early hystricognath-bearing localities, many of which are not well-constrained by geological, geochronological, or biostratigraphic evidence. By simultaneously taking into account phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and uniform priors that appropriately encompass the range of possible ages for fossil localities, dating of tips in this Bayesian framework allows paleontologists to move beyond vague and assumption-laden “stage of evolution” arguments in biochronology to provide relatively rigorous age assessments of poorly
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