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Sample records for through-thickness texture variations

  1. Comparison of experimental techniques for characterization of through-thickness texture variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Lauridsen, E.M.; Krieger Lassen, N.C.

    1999-01-01

    backscattering pattern technique in the scanning electron microscope and a novel technique which involves high energy synchrotron radiation are used for characterization of through-thickness texture variations in commercial purity cold-rolled aluminium. Important experimental aspects of these three techniques......For the investigation of through-thickness texture gradients, a number of layers in rolled plates and sheets are inspected. Crystallographic textures in different layers can be characterized using several techniques. In the present work, traditional low-energy X-ray diffraction, the electron...

  2. [Texture variation of DCAA 5052 aluminum alloy slab at difference position through thickness by XRD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Bia; Liu, Wen-Chang; Li, Jian; Ma, Xiao-Yi; Ma, Wen; Liu, Chang; Li, Jing; Du, Wen-Wen; Man, Qi-Sing

    2012-11-01

    For improvement the processing and gaining uniformity texture structure and performance the thickness direction of direct chill cast DCAA 5052 aluminum alloy band after first hot rolling with different reduction, the material was annealed at 454 degrees C and then cold rolling with different reduction, we test and examined the texture at surface, quarter and center layer of the sample by use X-ray diffraction method, we calculated the data by use special software and analyses the difference texture at surface, quarter and center layer. The intension gradient of beta texture was along the direction from surface to center layer gradually enhance at different reduction sample. For beta texture, the intension gradient was along the direction from surface to center layer gradually reduce, the volume fraction gradually augment and the intensity gradually were almost equal with the cold rolling reduction increased from 0% to 90%.

  3. Through-thickness texture gradient in continuous cast AA 5052 aluminum alloy sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.C. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 Anderson Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)], E-mail: wcliu@engr.uky.edu; Radhakrishnan, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6140, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6140 (United States); Li, Z. [Aleris International Inc., 1505 Bull Lea Road, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Morris, J.G. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 Anderson Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    The development of through-thickness texture gradient during continuous cast (CC) processing of AA 5052 aluminum alloy was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The CC slab and the hot bands after each of three rolling passes were obtained from an industrial CC processing operation. The results show that a through-thickness texture gradient exists near the surface after the first pass. The subsurface layer exhibits a very weak texture, while the center layer shows the {beta} fiber rolling texture. After the third pass, a strong {beta} fiber rolling texture is obtained at different through-thickness layers. The roll-gap geometry does not produce any shear deformation at the intermediate layer. After recrystallization annealing, the through-thickness texture gradient still exists in the AA 5052 aluminum alloy sheets. As the measured position moves towards the center from the surface, the cube recrystallization texture strengthens.

  4. Crystal plasticity modeling of through-thickness texture heterogeneity in heavily rolled aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delannay, Laurent; Mishin, Oleg V.

    2013-01-01

    The textures measured at different depths inside a cold rolled aluminium sheet are compared to results obtained by crystal plasticity predictions. Different assumptions about the micro-to-macro scale transitions are considered. The input texture reveals a through-thickness gradient that originate...

  5. Ultrasonic measurement of through-thickness stress gradients in textured sheet metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man Chising; Li Jianbo; Fan Xingyan; Lu Weiyang

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to explore the possibility of using the dispersion of high-frequency Rayleigh waves for the evaluation of through-thickness stress gradients at the surface of metal sheets. We consider an orthorhombic sheet of cubic metal with through-thickness inhomogeneities in stress and texture, and adopt a coordinate system under which the rolling (RD), transverse (TD), and normal direction (ND) of the sheet are taken as the 1-, 2-, and 3-direction, respectively. We restrict our attention to the special case where only the stress components T 11 (x 3 ) and T 22 (x 3 ) in the sheet are nonzero, and consider only Rayleigh waves of sufficiently high frequency for which the sheet can be taken as the half-space x 3 ≥0. For Rayleigh waves of two different frequencies (with wave numbers k 1 and k k 2 respectively) propagating on the same wave path along either RD or TD, we appeal to an analysis of J. Li and Man to obtain a high-frequency asymptotic formula which gives the relative change in time-of-flight Δt/t 0 as (1/k 1 -1/k 2 ) times a linear combination of the derivatives T 11 ' (0), T 22 ' (0), W 4m0 ' (0)(m=0,2,4) and W 6m0 (0)(m=0,2,4,6) at the surface are ascertained and the material constants in the acoustoelastic consitutive equation of this polycrystal are known. An experiment was performed on an AA7075-T651 aluminum alloy beam, in which Δt/t 0 was measured for various values of T 11 (0) and T 11 ' (0) produced by beam bending (with (T 22 ≡0). The relevant texture coefficients of the beam were measured by X-ray diffraction. To obtain specific predictions from the aforementioned symptotic formula, we replace the material constants of the sample by their counterparts predicted for polycrystalline (pure) aluminum by the Man-Paroni model. The predictions and Δt/t 0 are then compared with the experimental results

  6. Analysis of through-thickness heterogeneities of microstructure and texture in nickel after accumulative roll bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Mishin, Oleg; Godfrey, A.

    2014-01-01

    of the deformed sample, whereas increased fractions of the shear texture are observed near the surface. Significant differences at different depths are also revealed in the fractions of areas containing either predominantly low angle misorientations or predominantly high angle misorientations. It is found...... that the fractions of such areas are much more sensitive to the deformation history than the average parameters based on the measurements of the boundary spacing and fractions of high angle boundaries. For the material studied in this work, the area fraction of the low misorientation regions appears to correlate...

  7. [Comparison of texture distribution of cold rolled DC and CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy at different positions through thickness direction by XRD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-biao; Ma, Min; Yang, Qing-xiang; Wang, Shan; Liu, Wen-chang; Zhao, Ying-mei

    2013-09-01

    To provide gist of DC AA 5052 and CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy to industry production and application, the texture variation of cold rolled sheets through thickness direction was studied by X-ray diffraction method, and the difference in texture at surface, quarter and center layer was analyzed. The hot plates of direct chill cast (DC) AA 5052 and continuous cast (CC) AA 5052 aluminum alloy were annealed at 454 degrees C for 4 hours and then cold rolled to different reductions. The strength and volume fraction of the fiber in CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy is larger than in DC AA 5052 aluminum alloy after same rolling reduction The volume fraction of the recrystallization texture cube in the CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy is less than in the DC AA 5052 aluminum alloy, which result in that CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy needs less cold rolling reduction than DC AA 5052 aluminum alloy for generating the texture with same intensity and volume fraction at surface layer, quarter layer and center layer. The manufacturability and performance of CC AA 5052 aluminum alloy is superior to DC AA 5052 aluminum alloy for use in stamping.

  8. An expression for transient thermal stress in a nonhomogeneous plate with temperature variation through thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Y.

    1987-01-01

    An expression for nonzero thermal stress in a nonhomogeneous flat plate with arbitrary variation in mechanical properties is presented under a transient temperature distribution. Especially an equation for nonzero thermal stress and its numerical calculation showing the effect of nonhomogeneous thermal and mechanical properties on temperature and thermal stress distribution, is given for the case of an exponentially varying thermal conductivity and Young's modulus, but for a homogeneous Poisson's ratio and coefficient of linear thermal expansion. (orig.) [de

  9. Geometric Total Variation for Texture Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bespalov, Dmitriy; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Shokoufandeh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this work we propose a novel variational method that we intend to use for estimating non-rigid texture deformation. The method is able to capture variation in grayscale images with respect to the geometry of its features. Our experimental evaluations demonstrate that accounting for geometry of...

  10. Variations of microstructure and texture of permanent magnetic Alnico alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, W.; Jansen, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Alker, A.; Kirfel, A.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The high penetration capability of neutrons was used to study structural details and magnetic anisotropies of industrial Alnico permant magnets (48.9% Fe, 23.9% Co, 15.4% Ni, and 7.5% Al) by means of neutron diffraction on bulk cylindrical specimens. High resolution time-of-flight measurements on ROTAX (ISIS) revealed almost single phase material of a body-centered cubic structure and a lattice parameter a = 2.8668(2) A. 2Θ-variations of the Bragg reflections of individual crystallites were observed by means of high resolution sample scanning (0.1 deg stepwidths) about the vertical cylinder axes. These experiments were performed on the texture diffractometer SV7 (FRJ-2). D-spacing variations of about 1% and corresponding variations of nearest interatomic distances (2.47 to 2.54 A) are within the range of known binary and ternary alloys built up by the constituent metal atoms. The different textures of Alnico-500 and Alnico-700 manufactured for isotopic and anisotropic magnetization applications, respectively, were analysed by complete pole figure scanning using a fine grid of 3860 different sample orientations. The resulting pole density distributions exhibiting different degrees of anisotropy are discussed in view of an optimization potential of the magnets. Neutron diffraction texture and microstructure analysis turns out to be a valuable tool in applied materials research. (author)

  11. Can dental microwear textures record inter-individual dietary variations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildas Merceron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dental microwear analyses are commonly used to deduce the diet of extinct mammals. Conventional methods rely on the user identifying features within a 2D image. However, recent interdisciplinary research has lead to the development of an advanced methodology that is free of observer error, based on the automated quantification of 3D surfaces by combining confocal microscopy with scale-sensitive fractal analysis. This method has already proved to be very efficient in detecting dietary differences between species. Focusing on a finer, intra-specific scale of analysis, the aim of this study is to test this method's ability to track such differences between individuals from a single population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For the purposes of this study, the 3D molar microwear of 78 individuals from a well-known population of extant roe deer (Capreolus caprelous is quantified. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate significant seasonal and sexual differences in individual dental microwear design. These are probably the consequence of seasonal variations in fruit, seed and leaf availability, as well as differences in feeding preference between males and females due to distinct energy requirements during periods of rutting, gestation or giving birth. Nevertheless, further investigations using two-block Partial Least-Squares analysis show no strong relationship between individual stomach contents and microwear texture. This is an expected result, assuming that stomach contents are composed of food items ingested during the last few hours whereas dental microwear texture records the physical properties of items eaten over periods of days or weeks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Microwear 3D scale-sensitive fractal analysis does detect differences in diet ranging from the inter-feeding styles scale to the intra-population between-season and between-sex scales. It is therefore a possible tool, to be used with caution, in the further

  12. Impacts of terrain attributes and human activities on soil texture class variations in hilly areas, south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Di; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei; Liu, Hong-Bin

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge of soil texture variations is critical for agricultural and engineering applications because texture influences many other soil properties. This study used random forest method to evaluate the effects of human activities and topographic parameters on the spatial variability of soil texture in hilly areas where soil parent material was uniform. The study site covers 252 km 2 and is located in the Upper Yangtze River Basin of south-west China. A total of 3636 samples were collected from the cultivated soils at a depth of 20 cm of dryland (sloping field and terraced land) landscape. The soil texture class for each sample was estimated by experienced soil scientists in the field. Two soil texture classes (loam and clay) were observed in the watershed. Eleven terrain parameters were derived from a digital elevation model with a resolution of 30 m. Compared with loamy soils, clayey soils were mostly observed in the areas with lower elevation and gentle slopes. The outcome of random forest indicated that human activities and elevation had strong effects on soil texture class variations across the study site. Further results showed that the relative importance of terrain parameters to soil texture class variations varied with dryland landscape. Topographic wetness index and elevation were the most important variables for sloping field and terraced land landscapes, respectively.

  13. Spatial variation of corn canopy temperature as dependent upon soil texture and crop rooting characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    A soil plant atmosphere model for corn (Zea mays L.) together with the scaling theory for soil hydraulic heterogeneity are used to study the sensitivity of spatial variation of canopy temperature to field averaged soil texture and crop rooting characteristics. The soil plant atmosphere model explicitly solves a continuity equation for water flux resulting from root water uptake, changes in plant water storage and transpirational flux. Dynamical equations for root zone soil water potential and the plant water storage models the progressive drying of soil, and day time dehydration and night time hydration of the crop. The statistic of scaling parameter which describes the spatial variation of soil hydraulic conductivity and matric potential is assumed to be independent of soil texture class. The field averaged soil hydraulic characteristics are chosen to be representative of loamy sand and clay loam soils. Two rooting characteristics are chosen, one shallow and the other deep rooted. The simulation shows that the range of canopy temperatures in the clayey soil is less than 1K, but for the sandy soil the range is about 2.5 and 5.0 K, respectively, for the shallow and deep rooted crops.

  14. Texture and microtexture variations in a near-α titanium forged disk of bimodal microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gey, N.; Bocher, P.; Uta, E.; Germain, L.; Humbert, M.

    2012-01-01

    Quasi-alpha titanium billets often contain macrozones, i.e. large regions of sharp microtexture that differ from one region to the next and are detrimental for dwell fatigue properties. We analyzed the effect of additional alpha/beta forging on the occurrence of macrozones in aerospace components. Thus the microstructures and local textures of an IMI834 disk were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) techniques. Advanced EBSD data processing was performed to distinguish alpha p and alpha s orientations and to calculate the prior β orientations. Pronounced variations in alpha p /alpha s microtextures were observed over the disk. Macrozones with characteristics similar to those observed in the billet were still present in the dead regions. However, the macrozones were progressively reduced and even suppressed when moving to regions highly deformed by compression. Finally, the mechanisms responsible for these changes in the microtexture are discussed.

  15. Adaptive Through-Thickness Integration Strategy for Shell Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burchitz, I.A.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han

    2007-01-01

    Reliable numerical prediction of springback in sheet metal forming is essential for the automotive industry. There are numerous factors that influence the accuracy of springback prediction by using the finite element method. One of the reasons is the through-thickness numerical integration of shell

  16. Adaptive Through-Thickness Integration Strategy for Shell Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchitz, I. A.; Meinders, T.; Huétink, J.

    2007-05-01

    Reliable numerical prediction of springback in sheet metal forming is essential for the automotive industry. There are numerous factors that influence the accuracy of springback prediction by using the finite element method. One of the reasons is the through-thickness numerical integration of shell elements. It is known that even for simple problems the traditional integration schemes may require up to 50 integration points to achieve a high accuracy of springback analysis. An adaptive through-thickness integration strategy can be a good alternative. The strategy defines abscissas and weights depending on the integrand's properties and, thus, can adapt itself to improve the accuracy of integration. A concept of the adaptive through-thickness integration strategy for shell elements is presented. It is tested using a simple problem of bending of a beam under tension. Results show that for a similar set of material and process parameters the adaptive Simpson's rule with 7 integration points performs better than the traditional trapezoidal rule with 50 points. The adaptive through-thickness integration strategy for shell elements can improve the accuracy of springback prediction at minimal costs.

  17. Through Thickness Ultrasonic Testing and Its Use in Characterising ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stiffness coefficients of different types of limestone were determined using the through thickness ultrasonic test and measurements of size and weight, and the results obtained verified using aluminium specimens of known mechanical properties. The values of density and stiffness coefficients obtained for the various ...

  18. The effect of texture variation on delayed hydride cracking behavior of Zr-2.5%Nb plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.-S.; Kim, Y.S.; Kuk, I.-H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of texture variation on the delayed hydride cracking behavior in Zr-2.5%Nb plates, crack growth rate and K IH tests have been carried out at temperature ranges varying from 415 to 506 K after texture modification by rolling. The texture variation of plates was achieved by direct-rolling and cross-rolling. Texture was measured through the determination of inverse pole figures, from which the basal pole components were calculated. The results have shown that the texture of a plate in which the basal poles are concentrated in the transverse direction can be changed significantly by cross-rolling. The crack growth rate increases exponentially with the basal pole component in the direction normal to the cracking plane. The increase in stress relieving temperature on cold worked material reduces crack growth rate. K IH decreases linearly with the basal pole component, and a behavior of which could be explained by the uniformly dispersed aggregate composite theory. (orig.)

  19. Adaptive Through-Thickness Integration Strategy for Shell Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Burchitz, I.A.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han

    2007-01-01

    Reliable numerical prediction of springback in sheet metal forming is essential for the automotive industry. There are numerous factors that influence the accuracy of springback prediction by using the finite element method. One of the reasons is the through-thickness numerical integration of shell elements. It is known that even for simple problems the traditional integration schemes may require up to 50 integration points to achieve a high accuracy of springback analysis. An adaptive throug...

  20. [Texture variation of CC 5052 aluminum alloy slab from surface to center layer by XRD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Biao; Liu, Wen-Chang; Ma, Xiao-Yi; Li, Jian; Yang, Qing-Xiang; Wang, Shan; Ma, Min; Liu, Chang; Zhao, Y M

    2013-05-01

    For improvement of the processing and gaining uniformity texture structure and performance of direct chill cast CCAA 5052 aluminum alloy band after first hot rolling with different reduction, the material was annealed at 454 degrees C and then cold rolling with different reduction was conducted, the texture at surface, quarter and center layer of the sample was tested and examined by X-ray diffraction method, the data calculated using special software and the difference of texture at surface, quarter and center layer was analyzed. There existed an elevated gradient of intensity from surface layer to center layer after cold rolled with less than or equal to 40% reduction, The main texture of beta is stronger mainly due to transformation from remainder exposure, while the goss and remainder is infirm, the state of texture at each layer is close to each other after cold rolling with reduction high than 56.1%.

  1. Measurement of the through thickness compression of a battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shutian; Huang, Xiaosong; Xiao, Xinran

    2018-04-01

    The mechanical integrity of the separator is critical to the reliable operation of a battery. Due to its minimal thickness, compression experiments with a single/a few layers of separator are difficult to perform. In this work, a capacitance based displacement set-up has been developed for the measurement of the through thickness direction (TTD) compression stress-strain behavior of the separator and the investigation of its interaction with the electrode. The experiments were performed for a stack of two layers of Celgard 2400 separator, NMC cathode, and separator/NMC cathode/separator stack in both dry and wet (i.e. submersed in dimethyl carbonate DMC) conditions. The experimental results reveal that the separator compression modulus can be significantly affected by the presence of DMC. The iso-stress based rule of mixtures was used to compute the compressive stress-strain curve for the stack from that of the separator and NMC layer. The computed curve agreed with the experimental curve reasonably well up to about 0.16 strain but deviated significantly to a softer response at higher strains. The results suggest that, in the stack, the TTD compressive deformation of the separator is influenced by the NMC cathode.

  2. Revealing textural variations at the groundwater-surface water interface using induced polarisation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, P.; Binley, A. M.; Chambers, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    The groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interface actively governs the transfer of water, nutrients and contaminants between groundwater systems and surface water environments. It is capable of mitigating environmental pollution by attenuating and transforming contaminants transported by groundwater discharging to the surface or by surface water recharging to the subsurface. The ability of the GW-SW interface to mitigate pollution is linked to its hydrological and physiochemical properties, the presence of grain surfaces, and its consequent ability to host diverse microbial populations. Despite its importance, characterising the GW-SW interface remains a challenge as traditional methods are often intrusive, environmentally damaging or labour intensive and so they often provide spatially sparse, or spatially restricted, information. There is therefore a requirement for methods which can provide information about the GW-SW interface at high spatial resolution and over large areas. In recent years there has been increased interest in using induced polarisation in field based exploration to characterise grain surface properties of unconsolidated geological materials. Induced polarisation may offer the potential to interrogate textural properties of the GW-SW interface, such as cation exchange and grain surface area which are important for determining the biogeochemical properties of the subsurface. Here we demonstrate the ability of induced polarisation measurements to reveal contrasts in the textural properties of two sites on a 200 m river meander (River Leith, Cumbria, UK). Previous work has revealed that both sites are distinctive in terms of their hydrology, fluvial deposits and biogeochemistry. We present in-stream induced polarisation measurements in addition to lab based measurements of induced polarisation, cation exchange capacity, grain size distribution and surface area on samples obtained from drilling.

  3. Genotype variation in bark texture drives lichen community assembly across multiple environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamit, L J; Lau, M K; Naesborg, R Reese; Wojtowicz, T; Whitham, T G; Gehring, C A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of community genetics is to understand the influence of genetic variation within a species on ecological communities. Although well-documented for some organisms, additional research is necessary to understand the relative and interactive effects of genotype and environment on biodiversity, identify mechanisms through which tree genotype influences communities, and connect this emerging field with existing themes in ecology. We employ an underutilized but ecologically significant group of organisms, epiphytic bark lichens, to understand the relative importance of Populus angustifolia (narrowleaf cottonwood) genotype and environment on associated organisms within the context of community assembly and host ontogeny. Several key findings emerged. (1) In a single common garden, tree genotype explained 18-33% and 51% of the variation in lichen community variables and rough bark cover, respectively. (2) Across replicated common gardens, tree genotype affected lichen species richness, total lichen cover, lichen species composition, and rough bark cover, whereas environment only influenced composition and there were no genotype by environment interactions. (3) Rough bark cover was positively correlated with total lichen cover and richness, and was associated with a shift in species composition; these patterns occurred with variation in rough bark cover among tree genotypes of the same age in common gardens and with increasing rough bark cover along a -40 year tree age gradient in a natural riparian stand. (4) In a common garden, 20-year-old parent trees with smooth bark had poorly developed lichen communities, similar to their 10-year-old ramets (root suckers) growing in close proximity, while parent trees with high rough bark cover had more developed communities than their ramets. These findings indicate that epiphytic lichens are influenced by host genotype, an effect that is robust across divergent environments. Furthermore, the response to tree genotype is

  4. Mechanics of Through-Thickness Reinforced Laminates: Delamination and Dynamic Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Massabo, Roberta

    2002-01-01

    Through-thickness reinforcement (stitching, z-pins, weaving) is a promising technology to develop fall-safe load bearing components for aeronautical structures and lightweight armor and combat vehicles with superior capabilities...

  5. Through-Thickness Health Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program addresses the need to monitor surface recession, temperature, and through-thickness properties of thermal protection system (TPS) materials. These TPS...

  6. Fractional Partial Differential Equation: Fractional Total Variation and Fractional Steepest Descent Approach-Based Multiscale Denoising Model for Texture Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fei Pu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional integer-order partial differential equation-based image denoising approaches often blur the edge and complex texture detail; thus, their denoising effects for texture image are not very good. To solve the problem, a fractional partial differential equation-based denoising model for texture image is proposed, which applies a novel mathematical method—fractional calculus to image processing from the view of system evolution. We know from previous studies that fractional-order calculus has some unique properties comparing to integer-order differential calculus that it can nonlinearly enhance complex texture detail during the digital image processing. The goal of the proposed model is to overcome the problems mentioned above by using the properties of fractional differential calculus. It extended traditional integer-order equation to a fractional order and proposed the fractional Green’s formula and the fractional Euler-Lagrange formula for two-dimensional image processing, and then a fractional partial differential equation based denoising model was proposed. The experimental results prove that the abilities of the proposed denoising model to preserve the high-frequency edge and complex texture information are obviously superior to those of traditional integral based algorithms, especially for texture detail rich images.

  7. Through-Thickness Variations of Deformed and Annealed Microstructures in ECAE-Processed Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Bowen, Jacob R.

    2009-01-01

    in the deformed sample follows the distribution of strain imposed by ECAE, where lower strain is imparted to the material that passes through the outer die corner. Also, the macroscopic distribution of recrystallized grains as a function of depth in the billet is found to be in correspondence to the applied...

  8. The effects of lateral variations in rock composition and texture on anhydrite caprock integrity of CO2 storage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hangx, S. J T|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483579X; Pluymakers, A. M H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357400224; Ten Hove, A.; Spiers, C. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829323

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of rock texture and composition on the mechanical strength and volumetric behaviour of anhydrite-rich caprock. Conventional triaxial experiments were performed at 80°C, confining pressures of 1.5-35MPa and strain rates of ~10-5s-1, both dry and in the presence of fluids.

  9. Analysis and experimental validation of through-thickness cracked large-scale biaxial fracture tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, C.S.; Goldthorpe, M.R.; Andrews, R.M.; Garwood, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1984 TWI has been involved in an extensive series of tests investigating the effects of biaxial loading on the fracture behaviour of A533B steel. Testing conditions have ranged from the lower to upper shelf regions of the transition curve and covered a range of biaxiality ratios. In an attempt to elucidate the trends underlying the experimental results, finite element-based mechanistic models were used to analyse the effects of biaxial loading. For ductile fracture, a modified Gunson model was used and important effects on tearing behaviour were found for through thickness cracked wide plates, as observed in upper shelf tests. For cleavage fracture, both simple T-stress methods and the Anderson-Dodds and Beremin models were used. Whilst the effect of biaxiality on surface cracked plates was small, a marked effect of biaxial loading was found for the through-thickness crack. To further validate the numerical predictions for cleavage fracture, TWI have performed an additional series of lower shelf through thickness cracked biaxial wide plate fracture tests. These tests were performed using various biaxiality loading conditions varying from simple uniaxial loading, through equibiaxial loading, to a biaxiality ratio equivalent to a circumferential crack in a pressure vessel. These tests confirmed the predictions that there is a significant effect of biaxial loading on cleavage fracture of through thickness cracked plate. (orig.)

  10. Use of the Ultrasonic through thickness test in determining the Out-of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of the Ultrasonic through thickness test in determining the Out-of-Plane values of stiffness Coefficients of SMCR26 composites. ... The values of stiffness coefficient obtained were also seen to vary from point to point, signifying that the material is heterogeneous. Keywords: ultrasonic, sheet moulding, compound ...

  11. Symmetric textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Wolfenstein parametrization is extended to the quark masses in the deep ultraviolet, and an algorithm to derive symmetric textures which are compatible with existing data is developed. It is found that there are only five such textures

  12. Seismic texture classification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinther, R.

    1997-12-31

    The seismic texture classification method, is a seismic attribute that can both recognize the general reflectivity styles and locate variations from these. The seismic texture classification performs a statistic analysis for the seismic section (or volume) aiming at describing the reflectivity. Based on a set of reference reflectivities the seismic textures are classified. The result of the seismic texture classification is a display of seismic texture categories showing both the styles of reflectivity from the reference set and interpolations and extrapolations from these. The display is interpreted as statistical variations in the seismic data. The seismic texture classification is applied to seismic sections and volumes from the Danish North Sea representing both horizontal stratifications and salt diapers. The attribute succeeded in recognizing both general structure of successions and variations from these. Also, the seismic texture classification is not only able to display variations in prospective areas (1-7 sec. TWT) but can also be applied to deep seismic sections. The seismic texture classification is tested on a deep reflection seismic section (13-18 sec. TWT) from the Baltic Sea. Applied to this section the seismic texture classification succeeded in locating the Moho, which could not be located using conventional interpretation tools. The seismic texture classification is a seismic attribute which can display general reflectivity styles and deviations from these and enhance variations not found by conventional interpretation tools. (LN)

  13. Textural variations and fragmentation processes in peperite formed between felsic lava flow and wet substrate: An example from the Cretaceous Buan Volcanics, southwest Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gihm, Yong Sik; Kwon, Chang Woo

    2017-02-01

    Multiple exposures of peperite within the Cretaceous Buan Volcanics, southwest Korea, have been examined in order to determine variations in their textural characteristics and to investigate their mode of formation. Along undulating boundaries between rhyolite (lava flow) and deformed host sediment expressed as a series of load and flame structures, exposures commonly contain two distinct types of peperite. Type-1 peperites are composed mostly of rounded juvenile clasts at their base and polyhedral juvenile clasts at their upper levels, interpreted to have formed via a two-stage process. Firstly, abrasion of juvenile clasts occurred after their fragmentation due to shear stress imparted by the overlying and still-moving lava flow, forming rounded juvenile clasts. Subsequent in situ quenching fragmentation of the lava flow produced clasts with platy to polyhedral shapes immediately after emplacement of the lava flow. Type-2 peperites laterally extend into the interior of featureless rhyolite as layers that decrease in thickness with increasing distance away from the flame zone. These layers exhibit horizontal textural variations, ranging from poorly sorted mixtures of ash- to block-sized angular juvenile clasts in the proximal zone, to closely packed polyhedral and tabular juvenile clasts with jigsaw-crack textures in the middle and distal zones. Type-2 peperite are inferred to have formed due to internal steam explosions that resulted from an expansion of heated pore water (leading to an increase in pore fluid pressure) that had been vertically injected into the interior of the rhyolite from the flame zone. The proximal zone, composed mainly of poorly sorted mixtures of juvenile clasts, represents the explosion sites. Juvenile clasts in the middle and distal zones are interpreted to have formed due to three separate processes: the development of fractures in the rhyolite during the internal steam explosions, injection of the host sediment through the fractures, and

  14. Ultrasonic stress evaluation through thickness of a stainless steel pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadi, Yashar; Pirzaman, Hamed Salimi; Raeisi, Mohammadreza Hadizadeh; Najafabadi, Mehdi Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates ultrasonic method in stress measurement through thickness of a pressure vessel. Longitudinal critically refracted (L CR ) waves are employed to measure the welding residual stresses in a vessel constructed from austenitic stainless steel 304L. The acoustoelastic constant is measured through a hydro test to keep the pressure vessel intact. Hoop and axial residual stresses are evaluated by using different frequency range of ultrasonic transducers. The welding processes of vessel shell and caps are simulated by a 3D finite element (FE) model which is validated by hole-drilling method. The residual stresses calculated by FE simulation are then compared with those obtained from the ultrasonic measurement while a good agreement is observed. It is demonstrated that the residual stresses through thickness of the stainless steel pressure vessel can be evaluated by combining FE and L CR method (known as FEL CR method). - Highlights: • The main goal is ultrasonic evaluation of through thickness stresses. • Welding processes of a stainless steel pressure vessel are modelled by FE. • The hole-drilling method is used to validate the FE results. • Residual stresses are measured by four different series of ultrasonic transducers. • The comparison between ultrasonic and FE results show an acceptable agreement

  15. TEXTURAL FRACTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Lauschmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The reconstitution of the history of a fatigue process is based on the knowledge of any correspondences between the morphology of the crack surface and the velocity of the crack growth (crack growth rate - CGR. The textural fractography is oriented to mezoscopic SEM magnifications (30 to 500x. Images contain complicated textures without distinct borders. The aim is to find any characteristics of this texture, which correlate with CGR. Pre-processing of images is necessary to obtain a homogeneous texture. Three methods of textural analysis have been developed and realized as computational programs: the method based on the spectral structure of the image, the method based on a Gibbs random field (GRF model, and the method based on the idealization of light objects into a fibre process. In order to extract and analyze the fibre process, special methods - tracing fibres and a database-oriented analysis of a fibre process - have been developed.

  16. Enhanced resolution through thick tissue with structured illumination and adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Benjamin; Wolstenholme, Adrian; Chaudhari, Snehal N; Kipreos, Edward T; Kner, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Structured illumination microscopy provides twice the linear resolution of conventional fluorescence microscopy, but in thick samples, aberrations degrade the performance and limit the resolution. Here, we demonstrate structured illumination microscopy through 35 μm of tissue using adaptive optics (AO) to correct aberrations resulting in images with a resolution of 140 nm. We report a 60% minimum improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the structured illumination reconstruction through thick tissue by correction with AO. © 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

  17. Crystallographic textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klosek Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In material science, crystallographic texture is an important microstructural parameter which directly determines the anisotropy degree of most physical properties of a polycrystalline material at the macro scale. Its characterization is thus of fundamental and applied importance, and should ideally be performed prior to any physical property measurement or modeling. Neutron diffraction is a tool of choice for characterizing crystallographic textures: its main advantages over other existing techniques, and especially over the X-ray diffraction techniques, are due to the low neutron absorption by most elements. The obtained information is representative of a large number of grains, leading to a better accuracy of the statistical description of texture.

  18. An enhanced HPIV configuration for flow measurement through thick distorting windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, R. D.; Garner, C. P.; Halliwell, N. A.; Coupland, J. M.

    2004-04-01

    This paper reports on a new holographic particle image velocimetry configuration and analysis procedure that can be used to measure particle displacement through thick distorting windows. The technique builds upon the scanning fibre probe based object conjugate reconstruction geometry; however it avoids the requirement of using a holographic optical element to correct for window distortion of the beams. Removal of the distortion is instead accomplished by using a ray trace mapping between the wave vectors scattered by the particles at the time of each exposure and those measured by the interrogation system. The technique is ideally suited to the study of flow structure within the combustion chamber of a diesel engine, and preliminary experimental results that attempt to assess the accuracy of the technique in this situation are presented.

  19. LOCAL TEXTURE DESCRIPTION FRAMEWORK FOR TEXTURE BASED FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Reena Rose

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture descriptors have an important role in recognizing face images. However, almost all the existing local texture descriptors use nearest neighbors to encode a texture pattern around a pixel. But in face images, most of the pixels have similar characteristics with that of its nearest neighbors because the skin covers large area in a face and the skin tone at neighboring regions are same. Therefore this paper presents a general framework called Local Texture Description Framework that uses only eight pixels which are at certain distance apart either circular or elliptical from the referenced pixel. Local texture description can be done using the foundation of any existing local texture descriptors. In this paper, the performance of the proposed framework is verified with three existing local texture descriptors Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Texture Pattern (LTP and Local Tetra Patterns (LTrPs for the five issues viz. facial expression, partial occlusion, illumination variation, pose variation and general recognition. Five benchmark databases JAFFE, Essex, Indian faces, AT&T and Georgia Tech are used for the experiments. Experimental results demonstrate that even with less number of patterns, the proposed framework could achieve higher recognition accuracy than that of their base models.

  20. Feature-aware natural texture synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Fuzhang

    2014-12-04

    This article presents a framework for natural texture synthesis and processing. This framework is motivated by the observation that given examples captured in natural scene, texture synthesis addresses a critical problem, namely, that synthesis quality can be affected adversely if the texture elements in an example display spatially varied patterns, such as perspective distortion, the composition of different sub-textures, and variations in global color pattern as a result of complex illumination. This issue is common in natural textures and is a fundamental challenge for previously developed methods. Thus, we address it from a feature point of view and propose a feature-aware approach to synthesize natural textures. The synthesis process is guided by a feature map that represents the visual characteristics of the input texture. Moreover, we present a novel adaptive initialization algorithm that can effectively avoid the repeat and verbatim copying artifacts. Our approach improves texture synthesis in many images that cannot be handled effectively with traditional technologies.

  1. Through-Thickness Measurements of Residual Stresses in an Overlay Dissimilar Weld Pipe using Neutron Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Wan Chuck; EM, Vyacheslav; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Kang Soo; Kang, Mi Hyun; Joo, Jong Dae; Seong, Baek Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Byeon, Jin Gwi; Park, Kwang Soo [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The distribution of residual stresses in dissimilar material joints has been extensively studied because of the wide applications of the dissimilar welds in many inevitable complex design structures. Especially the cracking of dissimilar welding has been a long standing issue of importance in many components of the power generation industries such as nuclear power plant, boiling pressure system, and steam generators. In particular, several failure analysis and direct observations have shown that critical fractures have frequently occurred in one side of the dissimilar welded parts. For example, the heat-affected zone on the ferrite steel side is known to critical in many dissimilar welding pipes when ferrite (low carbon steel) and austenite (stainless) steels are joined. The main cause of the residual stresses can be attributed to the mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the dissimilar metals (ferrite and austenite). Additional cladding over circumferential welds is known to reinforce the mechanical property due to the beneficial compressive residual stress imposed on the weld and heat-affected zone. However, science-based quantitative measurement of the through thickness residual stress distribution is very limited in literature. The deep penetration capability of neutrons into most metallic materials makes neutron diffraction a powerful tool to investigate and map the residual stresses of materials throughout the thickness and across the weld. Furthermore, the unique volume averaged bulk characteristic of materials and mapping capability in three dimensions are suitable for the engineering purpose. Thus, the neutron-diffraction measurement method has been selected as the most useful method for the study of the residual stresses in various dissimilar metal welded structures. The purpose of this study is to measure the distribution of the residual stresses in a complex dissimilar joining with overlay in the weld pipe. Specifically, we measured

  2. A multi-resolution texture fusion algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu Qin; Zhou, Xiang; Guo, Jia Yu; Yang, Tao; Fei, Zi Xuan

    2017-09-01

    Texture fusion is essential for three-dimensional photo-realistic texture model reconstruction. Multi-resolution texture fusion mainly is applied to reconstruct three-dimensional models that the local texture is very realistic. This paper presents a multi-resolution texture fusion algorithm based on digital image processing. The technique utilizes the depth camera to obtain range data and the texture camera to obtain the local interested high-resolution texture of the object. And each point of the range images a pixel of the picture corresponding to this view should be found, so the map between high-resolution texture and local three-dimensional points could be obtained by calibrating texture camera and depth camera to register the local high-resolution texture with the low resolution texture collected by the depth camera or calibrating texture camera and depth camera. ICP is applied to register models, and mapping different-resolution textures onto three-dimensional models. Then the light source correction of textures is applied to remove the systematic differences such as lighting change which are achieved by computing linear regression correction mode. Finally, the global correction is applied to refine the observable variations in color that may still exist near the fusion boundaries. These corrections will utilize the grid triangle vertex color as a constraint to drive texture fusion to remove discontinuities from different resolutions. The advantage of this technique is that it utilizes the light source correction and global correction to fuse different resolutions textures. Experiments with this technique indicate that it significantly corrects the observable discontinuities within the overlapping areas, which are given from different resolutions, lighting change, non-lambertian object surface, etc.

  3. Dynamic tensile stress–strain characteristics of carbon/epoxy laminated composites in through-thickness direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakai Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of strain rate up to approximately ε̇ = 102/s on the tensile stress–strain properties of unidirectional and cross-ply carbon/epoxy laminated composites in the through-thickness direction is investigated. Waisted cylindrical specimens machined out of the laminated composites in the through-thickness direction are used in both static and dynamic tests. The dynamic tensile stress–strain curves up to fracture are determined using the split Hopkinson bar (SHB. The low and intermediate strain-rate tensile stress–strain relations up to fracture are measured on an Instron 5500R testing machine. It is demonstrated that the ultimate tensile strength and absorbed energy up to fracture increase significantly, while the fracture strain decreases slightly with increasing strain rate. Macro- and micro-scopic examinations reveal a marked difference in the fracture surfaces between the static and dynamic tension specimens.

  4. Texture analysis and accuracy of the measurement in cold rolled aluminum sheets using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, No Jin; Lee, Moon Kyu; Kim, Sung Jin; Seong, Baek Seok; Lee, Chang Hee; Shin, Eun Joo

    2000-01-01

    The neutron diffraction method is a powerful technique for the texture investigation owing to its high penetration capability, when compared with the X-ray diffraction method. The complete pole figures can be measured and the whole through-thickness texture can be analysed with the neutron diffraction method. Accordingly, the texture measured by means of the neutron diffraction is successfully applied to evaluate the anisotropic properties of the textured materials. Cold rolling of aluminum sheets was carried out with and without lubrication to investigate the formation of inhomogeneous textures as well as to compare the both measurement techniques (neutron and X-ray). The texture of the cold rolled aluminum sheets mainly resides along β-fiber. However, rolling without lubrication led to the formation of the (001)smaller than 110 greater than orientation at the surface layer which was clearly confirmed by X-ray diffraction. With neutron diffraction the whole through-thickness textures were measured. Accuracy of the measurement and texture analysis was estimated using such parameters as RP (hk1) , RP1 (hk1 )-value, PF (hk1) -dispersion and ΔC. It is proved that the texture analysis by the neutron diffraction is more accurate than that by the X-ray diffraction. (author)

  5. A Novel Through-Thickness Perfusion Bioreactor for the Generation of Scaffold-Free Tissue Engineered Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gilbert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize our designed through-thickness perfusion bioreactor which could generate large scaffold-free tissue engineered cartilage constructs. The hypothesis being that through-thickness perfusion could accelerate maturation of scaffold-free tissue engineered cartilage, grown in transwell culture inserts large enough to repair typical size chondral lesions in the human knee. Internal cell culture media temperature and pH were examined over time, upon implementation of the bioreactor perfusion system inside a CO2 incubator, to ensure adequate regulation conducive to cell viability. Results indicate that temperature and pH both equilibrate within approximately 3 h. The bioreactor was tested for its efficacy to support formation of 4.5 cm2 constructs by porcine neonatal chondrocytes. Tests were conducted under three conditions: immediate perfusion with flow from bottom to top, immediate perfusion with media flow from top to bottom, and bottom to top perfusion after four weeks of static culture, giving the cells time to self-aggregate into a consolidated construct prior to perfusion. The best cell culture results were obtained when perfusion was delayed for four weeks relative to the immediate perfusion of the other methods, and this should be further investigated.

  6. Study of the variation of the E-I curves in the superconducting to normal transition of Bi-2212 textured ceramics by Pb addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotelo, A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitreous cylinders with compositions Bi2-xPbxSr2CaCu2Oy, (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 were prepared and used as precursors to fabricate textured bars through a laser floating zone melting method (LFZ. The resulting textured cylindrical bars were annealed, followed by their electrical characterization. The microstructure was determined and correlated with the electrical measured properties. The influence of Pb doping on the sharpness of the superconducting to normal transition on the E-I curves has been determined. The sharpest transitions have been obtained for samples doped with 0.4Pb.

    Se han preparado precursores de tipo vítreo en forma de cilindro con composiciones nominales Bi2-xPbxSr2CaCu2Oy, con x = 0, 0.2, 0.4 y 0.6. Estos cilindros se han utilizado como precursores para fabricar barras texturadas por medio de una técnica de fusión zonal inducida por láser (LFZ. Estas barras texturadas se recocieron a diferentes temperaturas y se caracterizaron eléctricamente. Además, se examinó su microestructura para correlacionarla con las propiedades eléctricas medidas. La variación de la transición del estado superconductor al normal se ha relacionado con el dopaje con Pb a través de las curvas E-I. Las mejores transiciones se han obtenido para muestras dopadas con 0.4 Pb.

  7. Textural, compositional, and sulfur isotope variations of sulfide minerals in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Brooks Range, Alaska: Implications for Ore Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.; Johnson, C.A.; Clark, J.L.; Fayek, M.; Slack, J.F.; Anderson, V.M.; Ayuso, R.A.; Ridley, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog Zn-Pb deposits are hosted in organic-rich mudstone and shale of the Mississippian Kuna Formation. A complex mineralization history is defined by four sphalerite types or stages: (1) early brown sphalerite, (2) yellow-brown sphalerite, (3) red-brown sphalerite, and (4) late tan sphalerite. Stages 2 and 3 constitute the main ore-forming event and are volumetrically the most important. Sulfides in stages 1 and 2 were deposited with barite, whereas stage 3 largely replaces barite. Distinct chemical differences exist among the different stages of sphalerite. From early brown sphalerite to later yellow-brown sphalerite and red-brown sphalerite, Fe and Co content generally increase and Mn and Tl content generally decrease. Early brown sphalerite contains no more than 1.9 wt percent Fe and 63 ppm Co, with high Mn (up to 37 ppm) and Tl (126 ppm), whereas yellow-brown sphalerite and red-brown sphalerite contain high Fe (up to 7.3 wt %) and Co (up to 382 ppm), and low Mn (ion microprobe sulfur isotope analyses show a progression from extremely low ??34S values for stage 1 (as low as -37.20???) to much higher values for yellow-brown sphalerite (mean of 3.3???; n = 30) and red-brown sphalerite (mean of 3.4; n = 20). Late tan sphalerite is isotopically light (-16.4 to -27.2???). The textural, chem ical, and isotopic data indicate the following paragenesis: (1) deposition of early brown sphalerite with abundant barite, minor pyrite, and trace galena immediately beneath the sea floor in unconsolidated mud; (2) deposition of yellow-brown sphalerite during subsea-floor hydrothermal recrystallization and coarsening of preexisting barite; (3) open-space deposition of barite, red-brown sphalerite and other sulfides in veins and coeval replacement of barite; and (4) postore sulfide deposition, including the formation of late tan sphalerite breccias. Stage 1 mineralization took place in a low-temperature environment where fluids rich in Ba mixed with pore water or water

  8. Texture analyses of Sauropod dinosaur bones from Tendaguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzalla, A.R.; Sander, P.M.; Hansen, A.; Ferreyro, R.; Yi, S.-B.; Stempniewicz, M.; Brokmeier, H.-G.

    2006-01-01

    The apatite texture of fossil Brachiosaurus brancai and Barosaurus africanus sauropod bones from the excavation site at Tendaguru, Tanzania, was characterized by neutron diffraction pole figures. The results obtained reveal predominantly -fibre textures of the apatite; the fibre direction coincides with the longitudinal direction of the long bones of the skeletons. Neutron pole figures further indicate that other texture types may also be present. Texture strength is similar to dinosaur tendons and contemporary turkey tendon studied by others. Variations of texture strength across the bone wall cross-sections are not significantly large

  9. Texture analyses of Sauropod dinosaur bones from Tendaguru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyzalla, A.R. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria) and MPI fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany)]. E-mail: pyzalla@mpie.de; Sander, P.M. [University of Bonn, Institute of Palaeontology, Nusseallee, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Hansen, A. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Ferreyro, R. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Yi, S.-B. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); MPI fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Stempniewicz, M. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Brokmeier, H.-G. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2006-11-10

    The apatite texture of fossil Brachiosaurus brancai and Barosaurus africanus sauropod bones from the excavation site at Tendaguru, Tanzania, was characterized by neutron diffraction pole figures. The results obtained reveal predominantly <0 0 0 1>-fibre textures of the apatite; the fibre direction coincides with the longitudinal direction of the long bones of the skeletons. Neutron pole figures further indicate that other texture types may also be present. Texture strength is similar to dinosaur tendons and contemporary turkey tendon studied by others. Variations of texture strength across the bone wall cross-sections are not significantly large.

  10. Texture and neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, J.

    1976-01-01

    The neutron diffraction method has only recently become a tool for studying the structure of polycrystalline materials. There are some fields such as texture studies where this method offers several advantages over other more common methods. Texture is the main subject of the review. The current status of the theory or deformation and recrystallization texture is discussed briefly. Texture is then described with the aid of the ODF function. Finally, applications of the neutron diffraction method are discussed using several examples of textures measured in metals and in non-metallic materials. Other, less known applications of neutron diffraction are also given, e.g. in stress measurements. The neutron diffraction method is extremely useful for studying the texture of coarse-grained materials. This method provides information on the average texture in a large volume. This enables one to measure texture in the same specimen in which anisotropy of the physical roperties has been measured. Selected examples are provided in which correlations between elastic, plastic and magnetic properties of polycrystalline materials and their texture are pointed out. Texture was measured in all these cases using the neutron diffraction method. (author)

  11. A parametric texture model based on deep convolutional features closely matches texture appearance for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Thomas S A; Funke, Christina M; Ecker, Alexander S; Gatys, Leon A; Wichmann, Felix A; Bethge, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    Our visual environment is full of texture-"stuff" like cloth, bark, or gravel as distinct from "things" like dresses, trees, or paths-and humans are adept at perceiving subtle variations in material properties. To investigate image features important for texture perception, we psychophysically compare a recent parametric model of texture appearance (convolutional neural network [CNN] model) that uses the features encoded by a deep CNN (VGG-19) with two other models: the venerable Portilla and Simoncelli model and an extension of the CNN model in which the power spectrum is additionally matched. Observers discriminated model-generated textures from original natural textures in a spatial three-alternative oddity paradigm under two viewing conditions: when test patches were briefly presented to the near-periphery ("parafoveal") and when observers were able to make eye movements to all three patches ("inspection"). Under parafoveal viewing, observers were unable to discriminate 10 of 12 original images from CNN model images, and remarkably, the simpler Portilla and Simoncelli model performed slightly better than the CNN model (11 textures). Under foveal inspection, matching CNN features captured appearance substantially better than the Portilla and Simoncelli model (nine compared to four textures), and including the power spectrum improved appearance matching for two of the three remaining textures. None of the models we test here could produce indiscriminable images for one of the 12 textures under the inspection condition. While deep CNN (VGG-19) features can often be used to synthesize textures that humans cannot discriminate from natural textures, there is currently no uniformly best model for all textures and viewing conditions.

  12. Through-Thickness Residual Stress Profiles in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds: A Combined Experimental and Prediction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, J.; Moat, R. J.; Paddea, S.; Francis, J. A.; Fitzpatrick, M. E.; Bouchard, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Economic and safe management of nuclear plant components relies on accurate prediction of welding-induced residual stresses. In this study, the distribution of residual stress through the thickness of austenitic stainless steel welds has been measured using neutron diffraction and the contour method. The measured data are used to validate residual stress profiles predicted by an artificial neural network approach (ANN) as a function of welding heat input and geometry. Maximum tensile stresses with magnitude close to the yield strength of the material were observed near the weld cap in both axial and hoop direction of the welds. Significant scatter of more than 200 MPa was found within the residual stress measurements at the weld center line and are associated with the geometry and welding conditions of individual weld passes. The ANN prediction is developed in an attempt to effectively quantify this phenomenon of `innate scatter' and to learn the non-linear patterns in the weld residual stress profiles. Furthermore, the efficacy of the ANN method for defining through-thickness residual stress profiles in welds for application in structural integrity assessments is evaluated.

  13. Scale-Space Mutual Information for Textural-Patterns Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seedahmed, Gamal H.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-08-22

    The essence of image texture is typically understood by two aspects. First, within a texture-pattern there is a significant variation in intensity values between nearby pixels. Second, texture is a homogeneous property at some spatial scale larger than the spatial resolution of the image. Motivated by the essential aspects of image texture, this paper proposes a novel methodology that combines the use of scale-space and mutual information to characterize textural-patterns. Scale-space offers the mechanism for a multi-scale representation of the image, which will be used to address the scale aspect of texture. On the other hand, mutual information provides a measure to quantify the dependency relationship across the scale-space. It has been found that the proposed methodology has the potential to capture different properties of texture such as periodicity, scale, fineness, coarseness, and spatial extent or size. Practical examples are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology.

  14. Measurement of Color Texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, M.A.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Deprettere, E.F.; Belloum, A.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.; van der Stappen, F.

    2002-01-01

    In computer vision, measurement of image properties such as color or texture is essential. However, existing methods for measuring color and texture in combination are not well-defined neither from a measurement theoretical basis nor from a physical point of view. We propose a solid framework for

  15. Textured perovskite cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Tezsevin, Y.; Barink, M.

    2017-01-01

    Most research of texturization of solar cells has been devoted to Si based cells. For perovskites, it was assumed that texturization would not have much of an impact because of the relatively low refractive indexes lead to relatively low reflection as compared to the Si based cells. However, our

  16. Mimicking human texture classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowitz, B.E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van den Broek, Egon; Pappas, T.N.; Schouten, Theo E.; Daly, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to mimic human (colorful) texture classification by a clustering algorithm three lines of research have been encountered, in which as test set 180 texture images (both their color and gray-scale equivalent) were drawn from the OuTex and VisTex databases. First, a k-means algorithm was

  17. Fast color/texture segmentation for outdoor robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blas, Morten Rufus; Agrawal, Motilal; Sundaresan, Aravind

    2008-01-01

    We present a fast integrated approach for online segmentation of images for outdoor robots. A compact color and texture descriptor has been developed to describe local color and texture variations in an image. This descriptor is then used in a two-stage fast clustering framework using K-means...

  18. Shape and Texture Based Classification of Fish Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2009-01-01

    , and a few features including the eye and backbone contour were also annotated. From these annotations an optimal MDL curve correspondence and a subsequent image registration were derived. We have analyzed a series of shape and texture and combined shape and texture modes of variation for their ability...

  19. Textures and ores structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    In this part of book author made conclusion that structural-texture particularities reflect the physical and chemical conditions, velocity of minerals crystallization, further tectonic situation, presence appearances of meta-somatic substitution, second decomposition and minerals leaching

  20. Shape-Tailored Features and their Application to Texture Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naeemullah

    2014-04-01

    Texture Segmentation is one of the most challenging areas of computer vision. One reason for this difficulty is the huge variety and variability of textures occurring in real world, making it very difficult to quantitatively study textures. One of the key tools used for texture segmentation is local invariant descriptors. Texture consists of textons, the basic building block of textures, that may vary by small nuisances like illumination variation, deformations, and noise. Local invariant descriptors are robust to these nuisances making them beneficial for texture segmentation. However, grouping dense descriptors directly for segmentation presents a problem: existing descriptors aggregate data from neighborhoods that may contain different textured regions, making descriptors from these neighborhoods difficult to group, leading to significant errors in segmentation. This work addresses this issue by proposing dense local descriptors, called Shape-Tailored Features, which are tailored to an arbitrarily shaped region, aggregating data only within the region of interest. Since the segmentation, i.e., the regions, are not known a-priori, we propose a joint problem for Shape-Tailored Features and the regions. We present a framework based on variational methods. Extensive experiments on a new large texture dataset, which we introduce, show that the joint approach with Shape-Tailored Features leads to better segmentations over the non-joint non Shape-Tailored approach, and the method out-performs existing state-of-the-art.

  1. Methods of making textured catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2010-08-17

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  2. A Noise Robust Statistical Texture Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the problem of obtaining a low dimensional representation of texture (pixel intensity) variation present in a training set after alignment using a Generalised Procrustes analysis.We extend the conventional analysis of training textures in the Active...... Appearance Models segmentation framework. This is accomplished by augmenting the model with an estimate of the covariance of the noise present in the training data. This results in a more compact model maximising the signal-to-noise ratio, thus favouring subspaces rich on signal, but low on noise....... Differences in the methods are illustrated on a set of left cardiac ventricles obtained using magnetic resonance imaging....

  3. Measurement of through-thickness residual stress in T-butt weldments of offshore steel by high resolution neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.J.; Hutchings, M.T.; Rainey, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    The use of high resolution neutron diffraction to measure, nondestructively, the residual strain and hence the residual stress variation through the heat affected zone and into the plate beneath the toe of a T-butt is described. The effects on the strain variation of post weld heat treatment, and of fatigue loading until a crack is formed in the plate, have been investigated. The results indicate the power of the neutron diffraction technique to obtain unique information on the strain distribution with a weldment. (author)

  4. Computer Texture Mapping for Laser Texturing of Injection Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongquan Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser texturing is a relatively new multiprocess technique that has been used for machining 3D curved surfaces; it is more flexible and efficient to create decorative texture on 3D curved surfaces of injection molds so as to improve the surface quality and achieve cosmetic surface of molded plastic parts. In this paper, a novel method of laser texturing 3D curved surface based on 3-axis galvanometer scanning unit has been presented to prevent the texturing of injection mold surface from much distortion which is often caused by traditional texturing processes. The novel method has been based on the computer texture mapping technology which has been developed and presented. The developed texture mapping algorithm includes surface triangulation, notations, distortion measurement, control, and numerical method. An interface of computer texture mapping has been built to implement the algorithm of texture mapping approach to controlled distortion rate of 3D texture math model from 2D original texture applied to curvature surface. Through a case study of laser texturing of a high curvature surface of injection mold of a mice top case, it shows that the novel method of laser texturing meets the quality standard of laser texturing of injection mold.

  5. Ion-beam texturing of uniaxially textured Ni films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.J.; Norton, D.P.; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2005-01-01

    The formation of biaxial texture in uniaxially textured Ni thin films via Ar-ion irradiation is reported. The ion-beam irradiation was not simultaneous with deposition. Instead, the ion beam irradiates the uniaxially textured film surface with no impinging deposition flux, which differs from conventional ion-beam-assisted deposition. The uniaxial texture is established via a nonion beam process, with the in-plane texture imposed on the uniaxial film via ion beam bombardment. Within this sequential ion beam texturing method, grain alignment is driven by selective etching and grain overgrowth

  6. Texture analysis of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubsch, A.; Timmermans, K.

    2017-01-01

    Texture analysis is a method to test the physical properties of a material by tension and compression. The growing interest in commercialisation of seaweeds for human food has stimulated research into the physical properties of seaweed tissue. These are important parameters for the survival of

  7. Texture affects color emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm-cool,

  8. Texture & Textiles, Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhin, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Creating a painting with texture is easy, although using heavy gel medium or modeling paste may be pricey ways to go about it. High school artists generally like making collages and mixed-media. In this article, the author suggests ways to capitalize on that interest with inexpensive fabric in a painting project.

  9. Chameleons: Reptilian Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an art project inspired by a drawing of a chameleon the author saw in an art-supply catalog. Chameleons prove to be a good subject to highlight shape, color and texture with eigth-graders. In this project, middle- and high-school students draw a chameleon, learn how to use shapes to add to their chameleon drawing, learn how…

  10. Strings, texture, and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, H.M.; Primack, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    We examine mechanisms, several of which are proposed here, to generate structure formation, or to just add large-scale features, through either gauged or global cosmic strings or global texture, within the framework of inflation. We first explore the possibility that strings or texture form if there is no coupling between the topological theory and the inflaton or spacetime curvature, via (1) quantum creation, and (2) a sufficiently high reheat temperature. In addition, we examine the prospects for the inflaton field itself to generate strings or texture. Then, models with the string/texture field coupled to the curvature, and an equivalent model with coupling to the inflaton field, are considered in detail. The requirement that inflationary density fluctuations are not so large as to conflict with observations leads to a number of constraints on model parameters. We find that strings of relevance for structure formation can form in the absence of coupling to the inflaton or curvature through the process of quantum creation, but only if the strings are strongly type I, or if they are global strings. If formed after reheating, naturalness suggests that gauged cosmic strings correspond to a type-I superconductor. Similarly, gauged strings formed during inflation via conformal coupling ξ=1/6 to the spacetime curvature (in a model suggested by Yokoyama in order to evade the millisecond pulsar constraint on cosmic strings) are expected to be strongly type I

  11. Texture studies using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Various aspects of the application of neutron scattering methods to texture studies are reviewed. The neutron method is compared with other methods of texture measurement and techniques of neutron diffraction registration of texture are discussed. Examples are presented of the use of neutron scattering for texture examination in materials having various grain sizes and degrees of structural inhomogeneity. It is also demonstrated that the information about texture can be used in the discussion of the deformation and recrystallization processes in metals. Neutron diffraction results are shown to be helpful in the examination of the influence of texture on the anisotropy of physical properties in materials. The possibility of neutron diffraction measurements of magnetic texture is reported. Finally the accuracy of texture measurements using the neutron method is discussed. (author)

  12. Space-optimized texture atlases

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Bayona, Jonàs

    2009-01-01

    Texture atlas parameterization provides an effective way to map a variety of colour and data attributes from 2D texture domains onto polygonal surface meshes. Most of the existing literature focus on how to build seamless texture atlases for continuous photometric detail, but little e ort has been devoted to devise e cient techniques for encoding self-repeating, uncontinuous signals such as building facades. We present a perception-based scheme for generating space-optimized texture ...

  13. Parallel-Sequential Texture Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Singh, Sameer; Singh, Maneesha; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Apte, Chid; Perner, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Color induced texture analysis is explored, using two texture analysis techniques: the co-occurrence matrix and the color correlogram as well as color histograms. Several quantization schemes for six color spaces and the human-based 11 color quantization scheme have been applied. The VisTex texture

  14. Nonlinear operator for oriented texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, Peter; Petkov, Nikolay

    1999-01-01

    Texture is an important part of the visual world of animals and humans and their visual systems successfully detect, discriminate, and segment texture. Relatively recently progress was made concerning structures in the brain that are presumably responsible for texture processing. Neurophysiologists

  15. Selective Extraction of Entangled Textures via Adaptive PDE Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Texture and feature extraction is an important research area with a wide range of applications in science and technology. Selective extraction of entangled textures is a challenging task due to spatial entanglement, orientation mixing, and high-frequency overlapping. The partial differential equation (PDE transform is an efficient method for functional mode decomposition. The present work introduces adaptive PDE transform algorithm to appropriately threshold the statistical variance of the local variation of functional modes. The proposed adaptive PDE transform is applied to the selective extraction of entangled textures. Successful separations of human face, clothes, background, natural landscape, text, forest, camouflaged sniper and neuron skeletons have validated the proposed method.

  16. AN ILLUMINATION INVARIANT TEXTURE BASED FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Automatic face recognition remains an interesting but challenging computer vision open problem. Poor illumination is considered as one of the major issue, since illumination changes cause large variation in the facial features. To resolve this, illumination normalization preprocessing techniques are employed in this paper to enhance the face recognition rate. The methods such as Histogram Equalization (HE, Gamma Intensity Correction (GIC, Normalization chain and Modified Homomorphic Filtering (MHF are used for preprocessing. Owing to great success, the texture features are commonly used for face recognition. But these features are severely affected by lighting changes. Hence texture based models Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Derivative Pattern (LDP, Local Texture Pattern (LTP and Local Tetra Patterns (LTrPs are experimented under different lighting conditions. In this paper, illumination invariant face recognition technique is developed based on the fusion of illumination preprocessing with local texture descriptors. The performance has been evaluated using YALE B and CMU-PIE databases containing more than 1500 images. The results demonstrate that MHF based normalization gives significant improvement in recognition rate for the face images with large illumination conditions.

  17. RotoTexture: automated tools for texturing raw video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hui; Hart, John C

    2006-01-01

    We propose a video editing system that allows a user to apply a time-coherent texture to a surface depicted in the raw video from a single uncalibrated camera, including the surface texture mapping of a texture image and the surface texture synthesis from a texture swatch. Our system avoids the construction of a 3D shape model and instead uses the recovered normal field to deform the texture so that it plausibly adheres to the undulations of the depicted surface. The texture mapping method uses the nonlinear least-squares optimization of a spring model to control the behavior of the texture image as it is deformed to match the evolving normal field through the video. The texture synthesis method uses a coarse optical flow to advect clusters of pixels corresponding to patches of similarly oriented surface points. These clusters are organized into a minimum advection tree to account for the dynamic visibility of clusters. We take a rather crude approach to normal recovering and optical flow estimation, yet the results are robust and plausible for nearly diffuse surfaces such as faces and t-shirts.

  18. Texture Enhanced Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Darkner, Sune

    2007-01-01

    Statistical region-based registration methods such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM) are used for establishing dense correspondences in images. At low resolution, images correspondences can be recovered reliably in real-time. However, as resolution increases this becomes infeasible due...... to excessive storage and computational requirements. We propose to reduce the dimensionality of the textural components by selecting a subset of basis functions from a larger dictionary, estimate regression splines and model only the coeffcients of the retained basis functions. We demonstrate the use of two...

  19. Topological image texture analysis for quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Aras T.; Rashid, Rasber Dh.; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2017-05-01

    Image quality is a major factor influencing pattern recognition accuracy and help detect image tampering for forensics. We are concerned with investigating topological image texture analysis techniques to assess different type of degradation. We use Local Binary Pattern (LBP) as a texture feature descriptor. For any image construct simplicial complexes for selected groups of uniform LBP bins and calculate persistent homology invariants (e.g. number of connected components). We investigated image quality discriminating characteristics of these simplicial complexes by computing these models for a large dataset of face images that are affected by the presence of shadows as a result of variation in illumination conditions. Our tests demonstrate that for specific uniform LBP patterns, the number of connected component not only distinguish between different levels of shadow effects but also help detect the infected regions as well.

  20. Tape Textured Works of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Texture is how things feel or how they look as though they might feel if one touches them. Some surfaces are rough and some are smooth to the touch. There are many other words, such as bumpy, used to describe texture when one feels or sees it. This article presents an art project in which elementary students explain how texture is used in art,…

  1. Texture determination by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervin, P.

    1981-02-01

    Application of neutron diffraction to crystallographic texture determination shows many advantages: possibility of an important grain size, the quantity of material contributing to diffraction is more important than with X rays, good accuracy and complete pole figures are obtained by transmission only eliminating corrections needed with X rays. Texture determination allows control and improvement of material quality. Texture studies give good informations on mechanisms occuring in deformation or recrystallization of polycrystals and on anisotropy of physical and mechanical properties [fr

  2. General relativistic collapse of textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrer, R.; Heusler, M.; Jetzer, P.; Straumann, N.

    1991-01-01

    We present an exact self-similar solution of the coupled Einstein-σ model equations which describes the general relativistic collapse of global textures. In one coordinate system the texture geometry has a simple interpretation in terms of a deficit solid angle. We also briefly discuss the behavior of matter and light in this geometry. In particular we show that the weak field approximation for the metric perturbations of flat space texture solutions is quantitatively quite reliable. (orig.)

  3. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...

  4. Emotional effects of dynamic textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Henselmans, M.; Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely

  5. Cartoon+Texture Image Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Buades

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we give a thorough description of the algorithm proposed in [A. Buades, T. Le, J.M. Morel and L. Vese, Fast cartoon + texture image filters, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 2010] for cartoon+texture decomposition using of a nonlinear low pass-high pass filter pair.

  6. Human versus artificial texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petiet, Peter J.; van Erp, J.; Drullman, R.; van den Broek, Egon; Beintema, J.; van Wijngaarden, S.

    2006-01-01

    The performances of current texture analysis algorithms are still poor, especially when applied to a large, diffuse texture domain. Most of these purely computationally driven techniques are created to function within a highly restricted domain. When applied as computer vision techniques, frequently

  7. Emotional Effects of Dynamic Textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely unknown, despite their natural ubiquity and increasing use in digital media. Participants watched a set of dynamic textures, representing either water or various different media, and self-reported their emotional experience. Motion complexity was found to have mildly relaxing and nondominant effects. In contrast, motion change complexity was found to be arousing and dominant. The speed of dynamics had arousing, dominant, and unpleasant effects. The amplitude of dynamics was also regarded as unpleasant. The regularity of the dynamics over the textures' area was found to be uninteresting, nondominant, mildly relaxing, and mildly pleasant. The spatial scale of the dynamics had an unpleasant, arousing, and dominant effect, which was larger for textures with diverse content than for water textures. For water textures, the effects of spatial contrast were arousing, dominant, interesting, and mildly unpleasant. None of these effects were observed for textures of diverse content. The current findings are relevant for the design and synthesis of affective multimedia content and for affective scene indexing and retrieval.

  8. Texture dependent lattice strains and texture gradient in AI7020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Zhong, Z.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Maawad, E.; Schell, N.

    2015-04-01

    Firstly, an Al7020 block was characterized by the texture gradient, which was remarkably strong. Texture sharpness in the center with about 30 mrd (multiple random distribution) shows typical plain strain texture components. On the surface and close to the surface the texture sharpness is much weaker showing also shear components. Strongest shear was not directly at the surface but 4 mm deeper. The texture analysis at HEMS Beamline (Petra III/DESY-Hamburg) was done with continuous scanning mode to include all grains to improve the grain statistics. Secondly, with an in situ synchrotron experiment the texture dependent lattice strain behavior was investigated using flat tensile samples oriented 0°, 45° and 90° to the rolling direction (RD). Texture induced anisotropy influenced on the lattice dependent yield strength and the lattice dependent stress-strain behavior, which will be discussed in detail. Due to the high energy synchrotron beam complete Debye-Scherrer rings were obtained so that the patterns, parallel and perpendicular to loading direction (LD), were obtained simultaneously.

  9. Low-level contrast statistics are diagnostic of invariance of natural textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, I.I.A.; Ghebreab, S.; Lamme, V.A.F.; Scholte, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Texture may provide important clues for real world object and scene perception. To be reliable, these clues should ideally be invariant to common viewing variations such as changes in illumination and orientation. In a large image database of natural materials, we found textures with low-level

  10. Textures in Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Bizarre textures cover the surface of eastern Utopia Planitia where there is a high probability that ground ice has played a role in the formation of this unusual landscape.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Texture and flavour memory in foods : an incidental learning experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.

    2002-01-01

    Memory plays a major role in the formation of food expectations. How accessible and how accurate is incidentally acquired and stored product information? In the present experiment the memory for variations in texture (and flavour) was tested with a new and ecologically valid method. Subjects (N =

  12. Texture and flavour memory in foods : an incidental learning experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Koster, E.P.

    2002-01-01

    Memory plays a major role in the formation of food expectations. How accessible and how accurate is incidentally acquired and stored product information? In the present experiment the memory for variations in texture (and flavour) was tested with a new and ecologically valid method. Subjects (N=69:

  13. Symmetry realization of texture zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.; Joshipura, A.S.; Lavoura, L.; Tanimoto, M.

    2004-01-01

    We show that it is possible to enforce texture zeros in arbitrary entries of the fermion mass matrices by means of Abelian symmetries; in this way, many popular mass-matrix textures find a symmetry justification. We propose two alternative methods which allow one to place zeros in any number of elements of the mass matrices that one wants. They are applicable simultaneously in the quark and lepton sectors. They are also applicable in grand unified theories. The number of scalar fields required by our methods may be large; still, in many interesting cases this number can be reduced considerably. The larger the desired number of texture zeros is, the simpler are the models which reproduce the texture. (orig.)

  14. Real-time texture experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juul Jensen, D.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for fast in-situ texture determination by neutron diffraction is described. The basic instrument is variable wavelength neutron spectrometer modified to incorporate a linear position-sensitive detector and a fully automatic Eulergoniometer. At present a complete textural analysis with an accuracy of 2-3% determined by counting statistics, requires from 15 to 30 minutes measuring time depending on the sample material. By on-line recording of the change in texture, which commonly accompanies such processes as deformation, recrystallization and grain growth in crystalline materials, information about the process and its kinetics is obtained. This is illustrated by in-situ kinetic investigations of recrystallization and grain growth in various polycrystalline metals; the potential of the technique for problems related to metallurgical practice is demonstrated by an approach of texture tailoring in commercially pure aluminium. (author)

  15. Texture formation in orthorhombic alpha-uranium under simple compression and rolling to high strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecevic, Miroslav; Knezevic, Marko; Beyerlein, Irene J.; McCabe, Rodney J.

    2016-05-01

    We study the mechanical response and texture evolution of alpha-uranium during simple compression and rolling at 573 K. In order to determine the underlying mechanisms governing plasticity and texture formation, we perform detailed characterizations using electron backscattered diffraction and constitutive modeling using a dislocation-density based hardening law within a visco-plastic self-consistent homogenization. We show that the model achieves good agreement with experimental measurements in terms of texture and stress-strain response. From detailed comparison of experimental and modeling results, we infer that in both through-thickness compression (TTC) and rolling at 573K, the active slip modes are floor slip (001)[100] and chimney slip 1 / 2 { 110 } with slightly different ratios. However, { 130 } twinning is not active in TTC compression but profuse during rolling. Further analysis indicates that during rolling, floor slip (001)[100] results in the formation of two pronounced (001) texture peaks tilted 10-15° away from the normal toward the rolling direction.

  16. EUROMET SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON - SURFACE TEXTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenders, L.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    At the length meeting in Prague in Oct. 1999 a new comparison was suggested on surface texture. The last comparison on this field was finished in 1989. In the meantime the instrumentation, the standards and the written standards have been improved including some software filters. The pilot...... laboratories for this supplementary comparison on surface texture are the Centre for Geometrical Metrology at the Technical University of Denmark and the Micro- and Nanotopography laboratory at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany....

  17. An international comparison of surface texture parameters quantification on polymer artefacts using optical instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Haitjema, H.; Leach, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    An international comparison of optical instruments measuring polymer surfaces with arithmetic mean height values in the sub-micrometre range has been carried out. The comparison involved sixteen optical surface texture instruments (focus variation instruments, confocal microscopes and coherent...

  18. Audio Classification from Time-Frequency Texture

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Guoshen; Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Time-frequency representations of audio signals often resemble texture images. This paper derives a simple audio classification algorithm based on treating sound spectrograms as texture images. The algorithm is inspired by an earlier visual classification scheme particularly efficient at classifying textures. While solely based on time-frequency texture features, the algorithm achieves surprisingly good performance in musical instrument classification experiments.

  19. Food Texture Preferences in Infants Versus Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Brenda; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Compared food texture preferences during infancy and toddlerhood. Found that infants displayed more negative expressions and head and body movements in response to complex textures than to simple textures. Toddlers displayed more positive head and body movements and more eagerness in response to complex than to simple textures. Experience with…

  20. On soil textural classifications and soil-texture-based estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel Martín, Miguel; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; García-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Reyes, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    The soil texture representation with the standard textural fraction triplet sand-silt-clay is commonly used to estimate soil properties. The objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that other fraction sizes in the triplets may provide a better representation of soil texture for estimating some soil parameters. We estimated the cumulative particle size distribution and bulk density from an entropy-based representation of the textural triplet with experimental data for 6240 soil samples. The results supported the hypothesis. For example, simulated distributions were not significantly different from the original ones in 25 and 85 % of cases when the sand-silt-clay and very coarse+coarse + medium sand - fine + very fine sand - silt+clay were used, respectively. When the same standard and modified triplets were used to estimate the average bulk density, the coefficients of determination were 0.001 and 0.967, respectively. Overall, the textural triplet selection appears to be application and data specific.

  1. An investigation in texturing high Tc superconducting ceramics by creep sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, P.; Deschanels, X.; Maurice, F.; Schmirgeld, L.; Aguillon, C.; Senoussi, S.; Mac Carthy, M.; Tatlock, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    We study in detail the possibility of high-T c superconducting ceramics texturing by high pressing them during sintering. We show texture variations as a function of the applied load, of the deformation, of the temperature, and of the sintering stage length, of the rate of variation of temperature, of the material nature in contact with ceramic and of the original powder quality. We present results obtained by optical microscopy, electronic microscopy, X-rays, and local chemical analysis

  2. Auditory Perception of Statistically Blurred Sound Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    Sound textures have been identified as a category of sounds which are processed by the peripheral auditory system and captured with running timeaveraged statistics. Although sound textures are temporally homogeneous, they offer a listener with enough information to identify and differentiate...... sources. This experiment investigated the ability of the auditory system to identify statistically blurred sound textures and the perceptual relationship between sound textures. Identification performance of statistically blurred sound textures presented at a fixed blur increased over those presented...

  3. Texture classification using logical operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manian, V; Vasquez, R; Katiyar, P

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a new algorithm for texture classification based on logical operators is presented. Operators constructed from logical building blocks are convolved with texture images. An optimal set of six operators are selected based on their texture discrimination ability. The responses are then converted to standard deviation matrices computed over a sliding window. Zonal sampling features are computed from these matrices. A feature selection process is applied and the new set of features are used for texture classification. Classification of several natural and synthetic texture images are presented demonstrating the excellent performance of the logical operator method. The computational superiority and classification accuracy of the algorithm is demonstrated by comparison with other popular methods. Experiments with different classifiers and feature normalization are also presented. The Euclidean distance classifier is found to perform best with this algorithm. The algorithm involves only convolutions and simple arithmetic in the various stages which allows faster implementations. The algorithm is applicable to different types of classification problems which is demonstrated by segmentation of remote sensing images, compressed and reconstructed images and industrial images.

  4. Ageing effects on the wettability behavior of laser textured silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, B. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Estrada Nac. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Serro, A.P. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Investigacao Interdisciplinar Egas Moniz, Instituto Superior de Ciencias da Saude Egas Moniz, Quinta da Granja Monte de Caparica, 2829-511 Caparica (Portugal); Oliveira, V. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro No. 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Montemor, M.F. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, E. [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Estrada Nac. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Saramago, B. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Colaco, R., E-mail: rogerio.colaco@ist.utl.pt [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    In the present work we investigate the ageing of acid cleaned femtosecond laser textured <1 0 0> silicon surfaces. Changes in the surface structure and chemistry were analysed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in order to explain the variation with time of the water contact angles of the laser textured surfaces. It is shown that highly hydrophobic silicon surfaces are obtained immediately after laser texturing and cleaning with acid solutions (water contact angle > 120{sup o}). However these surfaces are not stable and ageing leads to a decrease of the water contact angle which reaches a value of 80{sup o}. XPS analysis of the surfaces shows that the growth of the native oxide layer is most probably responsible for this behavior.

  5. Di-uniform texture spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Ozcag

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Textures were introduced by the second author as a point-based setting for the study of fuzzy sets, and have since proved to be an appropriate framework for the development of complement-free mathematical concepts. In this paper the authors lay the foundation for a theory of uniformities in a textural context. Analogues are given for both the diagonal and covering approaches to the classical theory of uniform structures, the notion of uniform topology is generalized and an analogue given for the well known result that a topological space is uniformizable if and only if it is completely regular. Finally a textural analogue of the classical interplay between uniformities and families of pseudo-metrics is presented.

  6. BREAD CRUMBS TEXTURE OF SPELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk – Szabó

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  7. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2013-09-03

    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Laser surface texturing of tool steel: textured surfaces quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šugár, Peter; Šugárová, Jana; Frnčík, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In this experimental investigation the laser surface texturing of tool steel of type 90MnCrV8 has been conducted. The 5-axis highly dynamic laser precision machining centre Lasertec 80 Shape equipped with the nano-second pulsed ytterbium fibre laser and CNC system Siemens 840 D was used. The planar and spherical surfaces first prepared by turning have been textured. The regular array of spherical and ellipsoidal dimples with a different dimensions and different surface density has been created. Laser surface texturing has been realized under different combinations of process parameters: pulse frequency, pulse energy and laser beam scanning speed. The morphological characterization of ablated surfaces has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The results show limited possibility of ns pulse fibre laser application to generate different surface structures for tribological modification of metallic materials. These structures were obtained by varying the processing conditions between surface ablation, to surface remelting. In all cases the areas of molten material and re-cast layers were observed on the bottom and walls of the dimples. Beside the influence of laser beam parameters on the machined surface quality during laser machining of regular hemispherical and elipsoidal dimple texture on parabolic and hemispherical surfaces has been studied.

  9. Evaluating Texture Compression Masking Effects Using Objective Image Quality Assessment Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Wesley; Olano, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Texture compression is widely used in real-time rendering to reduce storage and bandwidth requirements. Recent research in compression algorithms has explored both reduced fixed bit rate and variable bit rate algorithms. The results are evaluated at the individual texture level using mean square error, peak signal-to-noise ratio, or visual image inspection. We argue this is the wrong evaluation approach. Compression artifacts in individual textures are likely visually masked in final rendered images and this masking is not accounted for when evaluating individual textures. This masking comes from both geometric mapping of textures onto models and the effects of combining different textures on the same model such as diffuse, gloss, and bump maps. We evaluate final rendered images using rigorous perceptual error metrics. Our method samples the space of viewpoints in a scene, renders the scene from each viewpoint using variations of compressed textures, and then compares each to a ground truth using uncompressed textures from the same viewpoint. We show that masking has a significant effect on final rendered image quality, masking effects and perceptual sensitivity to masking varies by the type of texture, graphics hardware compression algorithms are too conservative, and reduced bit rates are possible while maintaining final rendered image quality.

  10. Mechanical behavior of tantalum and tantalum-tungsten alloys: texture gradients and macro/micro-response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassila, D.H.; Schwartz, A.J.; LeBlanc, M.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wright, S.I. [TexSEM Labs., Provo, UT (United States)

    1996-11-30

    We have examined the mechanical response of unalloyed Ta and Ta-W alloy annealed plates over a wide range of loadings. It was observed in general that Ta exhibits nonuniform mechanical behavior, for example, hourglassing of compression samples and multiple instabilities during tensile deformation. In contrast, the Ta-W alloys do not exhibit any unusual nonuniform behavior. This work presents data revealing the spatial distribution of texture in Ta and Ta-W alloys. Significant variations in texture both through the thickness and from one area of the plate to another were found to be characteristic of Ta. The dominant feature of the texture variations was found to be enhanced <111> crystal direction fractions at the center of the plate, with a decreasing fraction near the surface. We find that the variation in texture in the Ta-W alloys is substantially less than that seen in Ta with primarily a <100> cube texture throughout. This study suggest that the texture gradients are responsible for the nonuniform mechanical response of Ta and that the uniform behavior of the Ta-W alloys is a consequence of the absence of texture gradients.

  11. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2009-01-01

    compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...

  12. Texture analysis using Gabor wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdy, Golshah A.; Wang, Jian; Ogunbona, Philip O.

    1996-04-01

    Receptive field profiles of simple cells in the visual cortex have been shown to resemble even- symmetric or odd-symmetric Gabor filters. Computational models employed in the analysis of textures have been motivated by two-dimensional Gabor functions arranged in a multi-channel architecture. More recently wavelets have emerged as a powerful tool for non-stationary signal analysis capable of encoding scale-space information efficiently. A multi-resolution implementation in the form of a dyadic decomposition of the signal of interest has been popularized by many researchers. In this paper, Gabor wavelet configured in a 'rosette' fashion is used as a multi-channel filter-bank feature extractor for texture classification. The 'rosette' spans 360 degrees of orientation and covers frequencies from dc. In the proposed algorithm, the texture images are decomposed by the Gabor wavelet configuration and the feature vectors corresponding to the mean of the outputs of the multi-channel filters extracted. A minimum distance classifier is used in the classification procedure. As a comparison the Gabor filter has been used to classify the same texture images from the Brodatz album and the results indicate the superior discriminatory characteristics of the Gabor wavelet. With the test images used it can be concluded that the Gabor wavelet model is a better approximation of the cortical cell receptive field profiles.

  13. Sensory memory and food texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    Memory for texture plays an important role in food expectations. After fasting overnight, subjects (41 women, 35 men, age 19-60 years) received a breakfast including breakfast drink, biscuits and yoghurt. Subsequently, they rated their hunger feelings every hour, and returned for a taste experiment

  14. Colloidal aspects of texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.

    2010-01-01

    The perception of complex textures in food is strongly related to the way food is processed during eating, and is modulated by other basic characteristics, such as taste and aroma. An understanding at the colloidal level of the basic processes in the mouth is essential in order to link the

  15. Sensory memory and food texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Koster, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    Memory for texture plays an important role in food expectations. After fasting overnight, subjects (41 women, 35 men, age 19¿60 years) received a breakfast including breakfast drink, biscuits and yoghurt. Subsequently, they rated their hunger feelings every hour, and returned for a taste experiment

  16. Euromet Comparison on Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenders, L.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    In the region of EUROMET, we performed from 2001 to 2003 a comparison covering a number among the most interesting parameters in the field of surface texture, i.e. Pt, D, Ra, Rz, RSm, and the Rk-parameters. 16 institutes carried out measurements on typical roughness standards as described in ISO...

  17. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...

  18. Colloidal aspects of texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van; Aken, G.A. van; Jongh, H.H.J. de; Hamer, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been given to the understanding of texture attributes that cannot directly be related to physical properties of food, such as creamy, crumbly and watery. The perception of these attributes is strongly related to the way the food is processed during food intake,

  19. EFFECTIVE MULTI-RESOLUTION TRANSFORM IDENTIFICATION FOR CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF TEXTURE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arivazhagan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Texture classification is important in applications of computer image analysis for characterization or classification of images based on local spatial variations of intensity or color. Texture can be defined as consisting of mutually related elements. This paper proposes an experimental approach for identification of suitable multi-resolution transform for characterization and classification of different texture groups based on statistical and co-occurrence features derived from multi-resolution transformed sub bands. The statistical and co-occurrence feature sets are extracted for various multi-resolution transforms such as Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT, Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT, Double Density Wavelet Transform (DDWT and Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT and then, the transform that maximizes the texture classification performance for the particular texture group is identified.

  20. Texture analysis using Renyi's generalized entropies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, SE; Petkov, N

    2003-01-01

    We propose a texture analysis method based on Renyi's generalized entropies. The method aims at identifying texels in regular textures by searching for the smallest window through which the minimum number of different visual patterns is observed when moving the window over a given texture. The

  1. Real-time Texture Error Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Laurentiu Lacrama

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates an improved solution for the real-time error detection of texture errors that occurs in the production process in textile industry. The research is focused on the mono-color products with 3D texture model (Jacquard fabrics. This is a more difficult task than, for example, 2D multicolor textures.

  2. Evaluation of color representation for texture analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; van den Broek, Egon; van Rikxoort, E.M.; Taatgen, N.; Schomaker, L.

    2004-01-01

    Since more than 50 years texture in image material is a topic of research. Hereby, color was ignored mostly. This study compares 70 different configurations for texture analysis, using four features. For the configurations we used: (i) a gray value texture descriptor: the co-occurrence matrix and a

  3. Texture Control: Theoretical and Practical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Gangli, P.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of controlling the rolling texture by simple modifications to the rolling process is investigated. It is demonstrated that the computer programs developed for simulation of the normal rolling textures can also satisfactorily predict textures formed under new rolling conditions...

  4. Estimates of Aboveground Biomass from Texture Analysis of Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine C. Kelsey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Maps of forest biomass are important tools for managing natural resources and reporting terrestrial carbon stocks. Using the San Juan National Forest in Southwest Colorado as a case study, we evaluate regional biomass maps created using physical variables, spectral vegetation indices, and image textural analysis on Landsat TM imagery. We investigate eight gray level co-occurrence matrix based texture measures (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation on four window sizes (3 × 3, 5 × 5, 7 × 7, 9 × 9 at four offsets ([1,0], [1,1], [0,1], [1,−1] on four Landsat TM bands (2, 3, 4, and 5. The map with the highest prediction quality was created using three texture metrics calculated from Landsat Band 2 on a 3 × 3 window and an offset of [0,1]: entropy, mean and correlation; and one physical variable: slope. The correlation of predicted versus observed biomass values for our texture-based biomass map is r = 0.86, the Root Mean Square Error is 45.6 Mg∙ha−1, and the Coefficient of Variation of the Root Mean Square Error is 0.31. We find that models including image texture variables are more strongly correlated with biomass than models using only physical and spectral variables. Additionally, we suggest that the use of texture appears to better capture the magnitude and direction of biomass change following disturbance compared to spectral approaches. The biomass mapping methods we present here are widely applicable throughout the US, as they are based on publically available datasets and utilize relatively simple analytical routines.

  5. Watermarking textures in video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.

  6. Self-Similarity Based Corresponding-Point Extraction from Weakly Textured Stereo Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Mao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the areas of low textured in image pairs, there is nearly no point that can be detected by traditional methods. The information in these areas will not be extracted by classical interest-point detectors. In this paper, a novel weakly textured point detection method is presented. The points with weakly textured characteristic are detected by the symmetry concept. The proposed approach considers the gray variability of the weakly textured local regions. The detection mechanism can be separated into three steps: region-similarity computation, candidate point searching, and refinement of weakly textured point set. The mechanism of radius scale selection and texture strength conception are used in the second step and the third step, respectively. The matching algorithm based on sparse representation (SRM is used for matching the detected points in different images. The results obtained on image sets with different objects show high robustness of the method to background and intraclass variations as well as to different photometric and geometric transformations; the points detected by this method are also the complement of points detected by classical detectors from the literature. And we also verify the efficacy of SRM by comparing with classical algorithms under the occlusion and corruption situations for matching the weakly textured points. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed weakly textured point detection algorithm.

  7. Texturing in titanium grade 2 surface irradiate with ultrashort pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Alessandro Francelino

    2015-01-01

    The texturing laser micromachining is an important alternative to improve the bonding adhesion between composites and titanium, which are applied to structural components in the aerospace industry. The texturing running on titanium plates is due to the fact that the preferred joining technique for many composite materials is the adhesive bonding. In this work, titanium plates were texturized using laser ultrashort pulses temporal widths of femtoseconds. This process resulted in minimal heat transfer to the material, avoiding deformation of the titanium plate surface as well as the formation of resolidified material in the ablated region. These drawbacks have occurred with the use of nanoseconds pulses. Were performed three types of texturing using laser with femtosecond pulses, with variations in the distances between the machined lines. The analysis of the obtained surfaces found that the wettability increases when there is the increased distance between the texturing lines. Advancing in the analysis by optical profilometry of textured surfaces was observed that there is substantial increase in the volume available for penetration of structural adhesive when the distances between the textured lines are diminished. In tensile tests conducted it was observed that there is an increase in shear strength of the adhesive joint by reducing the distance between the textured lines. (author)

  8. Control of texture in Ag and Ag-alloy substrates for superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladstone, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    The use of a biaxially textured silver tape as a substrate for high temperature superconductor (HTS) phases is one possible route towards the fabrication of high-J c superconducting tape. Using a cold-rolling and annealing process we have reproducibly fabricated {110} textured silver which is stable up to 900 deg. C. We have found that there are two critical process requirements for the formation of this texture; a low oxygen content in the material prior to deformation, and a cold-rolling thickness reduction of less than 97%. To overcome the problems associated with the poor mechanical strength of pure silver, texture development in Ag-Mg and Ag-Hf alloys with improved mechanical properties has been studied. Heat treatments in a reducing atmosphere allow the {110} annealing texture to be obtained in Ag-0.1 wt%Mg. The recrystallization behaviour of a Ag-Pd alloy with an increased stacking fault energy was also investigated and a partial cube texture was obtained in this material. Using orientation distribution function (ODF) analysis we have shown that minor variations in the deformation texture of both pure silver and Ag-based alloys can lead to significant differences in the recrystallization textures obtained. (author)

  9. Control of texture in Ag and Ag-alloy substrates for superconducting tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, T. A.; Moore, J. C.; Henry, B. M.; Speller, S.; Salter, C. J.; Wilkinson, A. J.; Grovenor, C. R. M.

    2000-09-01

    The use of a biaxially textured silver tape as a substrate for high temperature superconductor (HTS) phases is one possible route towards the fabrication of high-Jc superconducting tape. Using a cold-rolling and annealing process we have reproducibly fabricated {110} textured silver which is stable up to 900 °C. We have found that there are two critical process requirements for the formation of this texture; a low oxygen content in the material prior to deformation, and a cold-rolling thickness reduction of less than 97%. To overcome the problems associated with the poor mechanical strength of pure silver, texture development in Ag-Mg and Ag-Hf alloys with improved mechanical properties has been studied. Heat treatments in a reducing atmosphere allow the {110} annealing texture to be obtained in Ag-0.1 wt%Mg. The recrystallization behaviour of a Ag-Pd alloy with an increased stacking fault energy was also investigated and a partial cube texture was obtained in this material. Using orientation distribution function (ODF) analysis we have shown that minor variations in the deformation texture of both pure silver and Ag-based alloys can lead to significant differences in the recrystallization textures obtained.

  10. Texture Classification for 3D Urban Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inatsuka Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to control texture resolution for rendering large-scale 3D urban maps. Since on the 3D maps texture data generally tend to be far larger than geometry information such as vertices and triangles, it is more effective to reduce the texture by exploiting the LOD (Level of Detail in order to decrease whole data size. For this purpose, we propose a new method to control the resolution of the texture. In our method we classify the textures to four classes based on their salient features. The appropriate texture resolutions are decided based on the classification resulsts, their rendered sizes on a display, and their level of importance. We verify the validity of our texture classification algorithm by applying it to the large-scale 3D urban map rendering.

  11. Effect of Local Crystallographic Texture on the Fissure Formation During Charpy Impact Testing of Low-Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Patra, Sudipta; Chatterjee, Arya; Chakrabarti, Debalay

    2016-06-01

    The severity of the formation of fissures (also known as splitting or delamination) on the fracture surface of Charpy impact-tested samples of a low-carbon steel has been found to increase with the decrease in finish rolling temperature [1093 K to 923 K (820 °C to 650 °C)]. Combined scanning electron microscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction study revealed that crystallographic texture was the prime factor responsible for the fissure formation. Through-thickness texture band composed of cube [Normal Direction (ND)║] and gamma [ND║] orientations developed during the inter-critical rolling treatment. Strain incompatibility between these two texture bands causes fissure cracking on the main fracture plane. A new approach based on the angle between {001} planes of neighboring crystals has been employed in order to estimate the `effective grain size,' which is used to determine the cleavage fracture stress on different planes of a sample. The severity of fissure formation was found to be directly related to the difference in cleavage fracture stress between the `main fracture plane' and `fissure plane.' Clustering of ferrite grains having cube texture promoted the fissure crack propagation along the transverse `fissure plane,' by increasing the `effective grain size' and decreasing the cleavage fracture stress on that plane.

  12. Aesthetic Perception of Visual Textures: A Holistic Exploration using Texture Analysis, Psychological Experiment and Perception Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling human aesthetic perception of visual textures is important and valuable in numerous industrial domains, such as product design, architectural design and decoration. Based on results from a semantic differential rating experiment, we modeled the relationship between low-level basic texture features and aesthetic properties involved in human aesthetic texture perception. First, we compute basic texture features from textural images using four classical methods. These features are neutral, objective and independent of the socio-cultural context of the visual textures. Then, we conduct a semantic differential rating experiment to collect from evaluators their aesthetic perceptions of selected textural stimuli. In semantic differential rating experiment, eights pairs of aesthetic properties are chosen, which are strongly related to the socio-cultural context of the selected textures and to human emotions. They are easily understood and connected to everyday life. We propose a hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception and assign 8 pairs of aesthetic properties to different layers. Finally, we describe the generation of multiple linear and nonlinear regression models for aesthetic prediction by taking dimensionality-reduced texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the relationships between each layer and its neighbors in the hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception can be fitted well by linear functions, and the models thus generated can successfully bridge the gap between computational texture features and aesthetic texture properties.

  13. Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the processing route for grain-oriented electrical steels using strip casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China); Institute of Research of Iron and Steel, Shasteel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Yao, Sheng-Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, 264209 (China); Sun, Yu; Gao, Fei; Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Guo-Huai [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Lei; Geng, Dian-Qiao [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-08-15

    In the present work, a regular grade GO sheet was produced successively by strip casting, hot rolling, normalizing annealing, two-stage cold rolling with intermediate annealing, primary recrystallization annealing, secondary recrystallization annealing and purification. The aim of this paper was to characterize the evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the new processing route by comprehensive utilization of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that a fine microstructure with the ferrite grain size range of 7–12 μm could be obtained in the primary recrystallization annealed sheet though a very coarse microstructure was produced in the initial as-cast strip. The main finding was that the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture started on the through-thickness intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling, which was not similar to the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture starting on the surface layers of the hot rolled strip in the conventional production route. As a result, the origin of Goss nuclei capable of secondary recrystallization lied in the grains already presented in Goss orientation in the intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling. Another finding was that fine and dispersive inhibitors (mainly AlN) were easy to be produced in the primary recrystallization microstructure due to the initial rapid solidification during strip casting and the subsequent rapid cooling, and the very high temperature reheating usually used before hot rolling in the conventional production route could be avoided. - Highlights: • A regular grade grain-oriented electrical steel was produced. • Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor was characterized. • Origin of Goss nuclei lied in the intermediate annealed strip. • A fine primary recrystallization microstructure could be produced. • Effective inhibitors were easy to be obtained in the new processing route.

  14. Texture enhanced histogram equalization using TV- L¹ image decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghita, Ovidiu; Ilea, Dana E; Whelan, Paul F

    2013-08-01

    Histogram transformation defines a class of image processing operations that are widely applied in the implementation of data normalization algorithms. In this paper, we present a new variational approach for image enhancement that is constructed to alleviate the intensity saturation effects that are introduced by standard contrast enhancement (CE) methods based on histogram equalization. In this paper, we initially apply total variation (TV) minimization with a L(1) fidelity term to decompose the input image with respect to cartoon and texture components. Contrary to previous papers that rely solely on the information encompassed in the distribution of the intensity information, in this paper, the texture information is also employed to emphasize the contribution of the local textural features in the CE process. This is achieved by implementing a nonlinear histogram warping CE strategy that is able to maximize the information content in the transformed image. Our experimental study addresses the CE of a wide variety of image data and comparative evaluations are provided to illustrate that our method produces better results than conventional CE strategies.

  15. Texture in thin film silicides and germanides: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schutter, B., E-mail: bob.deschutter@ugent.be; De Keyser, K.; Detavernier, C. [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Lavoie, C. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Silicides and germanides are compounds consisting of a metal and silicon or germanium. In the microelectronics industry, silicides are the material of choice for contacting silicon based devices (over the years, CoSi{sub 2}, C54-TiSi{sub 2}, and NiSi have been adopted), while germanides are considered as a top candidate for contacting future germanium based electronics. Since also strain engineering through the use of Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} in the source/drain/gate regions of MOSFET devices is an important technique for improving device characteristics in modern Si-based microelectronics industry, a profound understanding of the formation of silicide/germanide contacts to silicon and germanium is of utmost importance. The crystallographic texture of these films, which is defined as the statistical distribution of the orientation of the grains in the film, has been the subject of scientific studies since the 1970s. Different types of texture like epitaxy, axiotaxy, fiber, or combinations thereof have been observed in such films. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that film texture can have a profound influence on the formation and stability of silicide/germanide contacts, as it controls the type and orientation of grain boundaries (affecting diffusion and agglomeration) and the interface energy (affecting nucleation during the solid-state reaction). Furthermore, the texture also has an impact on the electrical characteristics of the contact, as the orientation and size of individual grains influences functional properties such as contact resistance and sheet resistance and will induce local variations in strain and Schottky barrier height. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the scientific work that has been published in the field of texture studies on thin film silicide/germanide contacts.

  16. Progress in melt-texturing of YBCO superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, K.; Lee, D.F.; Selvamanickam, V.

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS), tremendous efforts have been expanded toward the improvement of these materials. Due to the weak-link problem associated with grain boundaries, sintered bulk HTS possess a transport critical current density (J c ) on the order of 10 2 -10 3 A/cm 2 at 77 K. While these sintered superconductors may be utilized in low current applications, novel processing methods have to be developed to obtain HTS that can sustain high currents. Melt-texturing of HTS was found to result in a high degree of grain orientation, and is presently the most prominent processing method used to manufacture bulk YBa 2 Cu 3 O x (123) with superior transport and magnetic properties. In this review paper, various melt-texturing methods will be discussed, and the variation in J c with processing will be presented. (orig.)

  17. Comments on "Steganography Using Reversible Texture Synthesis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Chen, Kejiang; Zhang, Weiming; Yu, Nenghai

    2017-04-01

    Message hiding in texture image synthesis is a novel steganography approach by which we resample a smaller texture image and synthesize a new texture image with a similar local appearance and an arbitrary size. However, the mirror operation over the image boundary is flawed and is easy to attack. We propose an attacking method on this steganography, which can not only detect the stego-images but can also extract the hidden messages.

  18. Dry texturing of solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1994-01-01

    A textured backside of a semiconductor device for increasing light scattering and absorption in a semiconductor substrate is accomplished by applying infrared radiation to the front side of a semiconductor substrate that has a metal layer deposited on its backside in a time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface and then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity, epitaxial alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor substrate and a metal contact layer. The time-energy profile includes ramping up to a first energy level and holding for a period of time to create the desired pit size and density and then rapidly increasing the energy to a second level in which the entire interface area is melted and alloyed quickly. After holding the second energy level for a sufficient time to develop the thin alloy layer over the entire interface area, the energy is ramped down to allow epitaxial crystal growth in the alloy layer. The result is a textured backside an optically reflective, low resistivity alloy interface between the semiconductor substrate and the metal electrical contact layer.

  19. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McWalter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  20. Contrast-negation and texture synthesis differentially disrupt natural texture appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Balas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural textures have characteristic image statistics that make them discriminable from unnatural textures. For example, both contrast-negation and texture synthesis alter the appearance of natural textures even though each manipulation preserves some features while disrupting others. Here, we examined the extent to which contrast-negation and texture synthesis each introduce or remove critical perceptual features for discriminating unnatural textures from natural textures. We find that both manipulations remove information that observers use for distinguishing natural textures from transformed versions of the same patterns, but do so in different ways. Texture synthesis removes information that is relevant for discrimination in both abstract patterns and ecologically valid textures, and we also observe a category-dependent asymmetry for identifying an oddball real texture among synthetic distractors. Contrast negation exhibits no such asymmetry, and also does not impact discrimination performance in abstract patterns. We discuss our results in the context of the visual system’s tuning to ecologically relevant patterns and other results describing sensitivity to higher-order statistics in texture patterns.

  1. A Method of SAR Target Recognition Based on Gabor Filter and Local Texture Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel texture feature extraction method based on a Gabor filter and Three-Patch Local Binary Patterns (TPLBP for Synthetic Aperture Rader (SAR target recognition. First, SAR images are processed by a Gabor filter in different directions to enhance the significant features of the targets and their shadows. Then, the effective local texture features based on the Gabor filtered images are extracted by TPLBP. This not only overcomes the shortcoming of Local Binary Patterns (LBP, which cannot describe texture features for large scale neighborhoods, but also maintains the rotation invariant characteristic which alleviates the impact of the direction variations of SAR targets on recognition performance. Finally, we use an Extreme Learning Machine (ELM classifier and extract the texture features. The experimental results of MSTAR database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Crystallographic Texture in Ceramics and Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudin, M D

    2001-01-01

    Preferred crystallographic orientation, or texture, occurs almost universally, both in natural and man-made systems. Many components and devices in electronic and magnetic systems are fabricated from materials that have crystallographic texture. With the rapidly increasing use of thin film technology, where sharp axisymmetric crystallographic texture normal to the film plane is frequently observed, the occurrence and impact of texture are rising. Thin film applications in which the texture of the material plays a key role in determining properties and performance are broad: complex oxides in random access memory devices, ZnO thin film resonators for cell phone applications, metallic alloys in magnetic recording media, and Al and Cu interconnects in integrated circuits are but a few examples. Texture is established during the synthesis or post-synthesis heat treatment of a material and thus has a strong dependence upon processing history. Accurate measurement of texture is not simple and a variety of tools and approaches are being actively employed in texture studies. X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction based techniques are practiced around the world at varying levels of complexity with regard to equipment and analysis methods. Despite the well-documented existence of these varied approaches, many reported texture measurements on electronic materials are based solely on the relative intensities of conventional θ-2θ x-ray diffraction peaks, which typically yield inaccurate results. NIST has developed quantitative texture measurement techniques that employ equipment commonly available in most industrial and academic settings. A number of examples of texture measurement in ceramic and metal systems will be presented, taken from the historical development and application of these techniques at NIST over the past 7 years.

  3. Mechanical seal with textured sidewall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Xiao, Nian

    2017-02-14

    The present invention discloses a mating ring, a primary ring, and associated mechanical seal having superior heat transfer and wear characteristics. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, one or more dimples are formed onto the cylindrical outer surface of a mating ring sidewall and/or a primary ring sidewall. A stationary mating ring for a mechanical seal assembly is disclosed. Such a mating ring comprises an annular body having a central axis and a sealing face, wherein a plurality of dimples are formed into the outer circumferential surface of the annular body such that the exposed circumferential surface area of the annular body is increased. The texture added to the sidewall of the mating ring yields superior heat transfer and wear characteristics.

  4. Cool Polar Bears: Dabbing on the Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jean

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her second-graders created their cool polar bears. The students used the elements of shape and texture to create the bears. They used Monet's technique of dabbing paint so as to give the bear some texture on his fur.

  5. On the origin of recrystallization textures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    specially oriented grains have a high mobility boundary and thus can migrate faster and grow to a larger size as compared to random orientations thus contributing to the final recrystallization texture. In FCC metals and alloys like aluminium, cube orientation [(001) 〈100〉] is the recrystallization texture component.

  6. On texture formation of chromium electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Bergenstof; Leisner, Peter; Horsewell, Andy

    1998-01-01

    The microstructure, texture and hardness of electrodeposited hard, direct current (DC) chromium and pulsed reversed chromium has been investigated. These investigations suggest that the growth and texture of hard chromium is controlled by inhibition processes and reactions. Further, it has been...... established that codeposition of Cr2O3 nanoparticles is a general feature of DC chromium electrodeposition....

  7. Friction tensor concept for textured surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depending on the sliding direction the coefficient of friction varies between maximum and minimum for textured surfaces. For random surfaces without any texture the friction coefficient becomes independent of the sliding direction. This paper proposes the concept of a friction tensor analogous to the heat conduction tensor ...

  8. On the origin of recrystallization textures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    specially oriented grains have a high mobility boundary and thus can migrate faster and grow to a larger size as compared to random orientations thus contributing to the final recrystallization texture. In FCC metals and alloys like aluminium, cube orientation [(001) 〈100〉] is the recrystallization texture component. In the ...

  9. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations...

  10. Texture design for light touch perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Zeng, X.; Matthews, D.T.A.; Igartua, A.; Rodriguez Vidal, E.; Fortes, J. Contreras; Van Der Heide, E.

    This study focused on active light touch with predefined textures specially-designed for tactile perception. The counter-body material is stainless steel sheet. Three geometric structures (grid, crater and groove) were fabricated by pulsed laser surface texturing. A total number of twenty volunteers

  11. Cartoon + Texture Image Decomposition by the TV-L1 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Le Guen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of decomposing an image into a cartoon part and a textural part. The geometric and smoothly-varying component, referred to as cartoon, is composed of object hues and boundaries. The texture is an oscillatory component capturing details and noise. Variational models form a general framework to obtain u + v image decompositions, where cartoon and texture are forced into different functional spaces. The TV-L1 model consists in a L1 data fidelity term and a Total Variation (TV regularization term. The L1 norm is particularly well suited for the cartoon+texture decomposition since it better preserves geometric features than the L2 norm. The TV regularization has become famous in inverse problems because it enables to recover sharp variations. However, the nondifferentiability of TV makes the underlying problems challenging to solve. There exists a wide literature of variants and numerical attempts to solve these optimization problems. In this paper, we present an implementation of a primal dual algorithm proposed by Antonin Chambolle and Thomas Pock applied to this image decomposition problem with the TV-L1 model. A thorough experimental comparison is performed with a recent filter pair proposed in IPOL for the cartoon+texture decomposition.

  12. FCC Rolling Textures Reviewed in the Light of Quantitative Comparisons between Simulated and Experimental Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbanowski, Krzysztof; Wroński, Marcin; Leffers, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The crystallographic texture of metallic materials has a very strong effect on the properties of the materials. In the present article, we look at the rolling textures of fcc metals and alloys, where the classical problem is the existence of two different types of texture, the "copper-type texture......} slip without or with deformation twinning, but we also consider slip on other slip planes and slip by partial dislocations. We consistently make quantitative comparison of the simulation results and the experimental textures by means of a scalar correlation factor. We find that the development...

  13. Bayesian exploration for intelligent identification of textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A. Fishel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to endow robots with humanlike abilities to characterize and identify objects, they must be provided with tactile sensors and intelligent algorithms to select, control and interpret data from useful exploratory movements. Humans make informed decisions on the sequence of exploratory movements that would yield the most information for the task, depending on what the object may be and prior knowledge of what to expect from possible exploratory movements. This study is focused on texture discrimination, a subset of a much larger group of exploratory movements and percepts that humans use to discriminate, characterize, and identify objects. Using a testbed equipped with a biologically inspired tactile sensor (the BioTac® we produced sliding movements similar to those that humans make when exploring textures. Measurement of tactile vibrations and reaction forces when exploring textures were used to extract measures of textural properties inspired from psychophysical literature (traction, roughness, and fineness. Different combinations of normal force and velocity were identified to be useful for each of these three properties. A total of 117 textures were explored with these three movements to create a database of prior experience to use for identifying these same textures in future encounters. When exploring a texture, the discrimination algorithm adaptively selects the optimal movement to make and property to measure based on previous experience to differentiate the texture from a set of plausible candidates, a process we call Bayesian exploration. Performance of 99.6% in correctly discriminating pairs of similar textures was found to exceed human capabilities. Absolute classification from the entire set of 117 textures generally required a small number of well-chosen exploratory movements (median=5 and yielded a 95.4% success rate. The method of Bayesian exploration developed and tested in this paper may generalize well to other

  14. Automatic selection of region of interest for radiographic texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Li; Giger, Maryellen L.; Wilkie, Joel R.; Vokes, Tamara J.; Chen, Weijie; Li, Hui; Lyons, Tracy; Chinander, Michael R.; Pham, Ann

    2007-03-01

    We have been developing radiographic texture analysis (RTA) for assessing osteoporosis and the related risk of fracture. Currently, analyses are performed on heel images obtained from a digital imaging device, the GE/Lunar PIXI, that yields both the bone mineral density (BMD) and digital images (0.2-mm pixels; 12-bit quantization). RTA is performed on the image data in a region-of-interest (ROI) placed just below the talus in order to include the trabecular structure in the analysis. We have found that variations occur from manually selecting this ROI for RTA. To reduce the variations, we present an automatic method involving an optimized Canny edge detection technique and parameterized bone segmentation, to define bone edges for the placement of an ROI within the predominantly calcaneus portion of the radiographic heel image. The technique was developed using 1158 heel images and then tested on an independent set of 176 heel images. Results from a subjective analysis noted that 87.5% of ROI placements were rated as "good". In addition, an objective overlap measure showed that 98.3% of images had successful ROI placements as compared to placement by an experienced observer at an overlap threshold of 0.4. In conclusion, our proposed method for automatic ROI selection on radiographic heel images yields promising results and the method has the potential to reduce intra- and inter-observer variations in selecting ROIs for radiographic texture analysis.

  15. Role of City Texture in Urban Heat Islands at Nighttime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobstyl, J. M.; Emig, T.; Qomi, M. J. Abdolhosseini; Ulm, F.-J.; Pellenq, R. J.-M.

    2018-03-01

    An urban heat island (UHI) is a climate phenomenon that results in an increased air temperature in cities when compared to their rural surroundings. In this Letter, the dependence of an UHI on urban geometry is studied. Multiyear urban-rural temperature differences and building footprints data combined with a heat radiation scaling model are used to demonstrate for more than 50 cities worldwide that city texture—measured by a building distribution function and the sky view factor—explains city-to-city variations in nocturnal UHIs. Our results show a strong correlation between nocturnal UHIs and the city texture.

  16. Extraction, texture analysis and polysaccharide epitope mapping data of sequential extracts of strawberry, apple, tomato and aubergine fruit parenchyma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Cornuault

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data included in this article are related to the research article entitled “Disentangling pectic homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan-I polysaccharides: evidence for sub-populations in fruit parenchyma systems” (Cornuault et al., 2018 [1]. Cell wall properties are an important contributor to fruit texture. These datasets compile textural and immunochemical analysis of polysaccharides of four economically important fruit crops: tomato, strawberry, aubergine and apple with contrasting textures and related taxonomical origins. Cell wall components and their extractability were assessed using characterized monoclonal antibodies. In addition, textural data obtained for the four parenchyma systems show variations in the mechanical properties. The two datasets are a basis to relate cell wall composition and organization to the mechanical properties of the fruit parenchyma tissues. Keywords: Pectic polysaccharides, Fruits, Cell wall, Texture, Monoclonal antibodies, Solanaceae, Rosaceae, Tomato, Aubergine, Apple, Strawberry

  17. Solid-texture synthesis: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietroni, Nico; Cignoni, Paolo; Otaduy, Miguel; Scopigno, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Solid textures are an efficient way to compactly represent 3D objects' external and internal appearance, providing practical advantages over classic 2D texturing. Two main methods exist for synthesizing solid textures. Procedural methods obtain colors through functions that algorithmically encode the texture's appearance and structural properties. Example-based methods capture and replicate the appearance as described by a set of input exemplars. These methods can also be classified as boundary independent or boundary dependent. For boundary-independent methods, the shape of the object to be textured is irrelevant, and texture information can be freely generated for each point in the space. Boundary-dependent methods conform the synthesis process to the object's actual shape so that they can exploit this information to orient and guide texture generation. This article reviews the different methodologies' strengths and weaknesses, the classes of appearances they can successfully synthesize, and failure cases. In particular, it focuses on boundary-independent methods' advantages and drawbacks compared to boundary-dependent methods.

  18. Probing Majorana neutrino textures at DUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kalpana; Borah, Debasish; Dutta, Debajyoti

    2017-10-01

    We study the possibility of probing different texture zero neutrino mass matrices at the long baseline neutrino experiment DUNE, particularly focusing on its sensitivity to the octant of atmospheric mixing angle θ23 and leptonic Dirac C P phase δcp. Assuming a diagonal charged lepton basis and Majorana nature of light neutrinos, we first classify the possible light neutrino mass matrices with one and two texture zeros and then numerically evaluate the parameter space which satisfies the texture zero conditions. Apart from using the latest global fit 3 σ values of neutrino oscillation parameters, we also use the latest bound on the sum of absolute neutrino masses (∑i |mi|) from the Planck mission data and the updated bound on effective neutrino mass Me e from neutrinoless double beta decay (0 ν β β ) experiments to find the allowed Majorana texture zero mass matrices. For the allowed texture zero mass matrices from all these constraints, we then feed the corresponding light neutrino parameter values satisfying the texture zero conditions into the numerical analysis in order to study the capability of DUNE to allow or exclude them once it starts taking data. We find that DUNE will be able to exclude some of these texture zero mass matrices which restrict (θ23-δcp) to a very specific range of values, depending on the values of the parameters that nature has chosen.

  19. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  20. Shaping drops with textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger, Quentin; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    When a drop impacts a substrate, it can behave differently depending on the nature of the surface and of the liquid (spreading, bouncing, resting, splashing ...). Understanding these behaviors is crucial to predict the drop morphology during and after impact. Whereas surface wettability has extensively been studied, the effect of surface roughness remains hardly explored. In this work, we consider the impact of a drop in a pure non-wetting situation by using superheated substrates i.e. in the Leidenfrost regime. The surface texture consists of a well-controlled microscopic defect shaped with photolithography on a smooth silicon wafer. Different regimes are observed, depending on the distance between the defect and the impact point and the defect size. Comparing the lamella thickness versus the defect height proves relevant as the transition criteria between regimes. Others characteristics of the drop behavior (direction of satellite droplet ejection, lamella rupture) are also well captured by inertial/capillary models. Drop impacts on multiple defects are also investigated and drop shape well predicted considering the interactions between the local flow and the defects.

  1. Texture investigation by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the conventional angle dispersive neutron diffraction a monochromatic neutron beam is used. The pole figures under investigation have to be scanned one after another. The commonly applied angle dispersive method is limited to the consideration of Bragg reflection being isolated in the diffraction pattern. The application of multidetectors or position sensitive detectors is discussed. In the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) diffraction a white pulsed neutron beam allows one to satisfy the Bragg law for all lattice spacing at a fixed scattering angle. The main charateristics of the TOF diffraction experiment are shortly outlined. In this method all non-forbidden Bragg reflections are recorded in one pattern simultaneously. The TOF technique is well-suited to study low symmetric or multiphased specimens, especially geological materials, requiring a large number of pole figures for mathematical texture analysis. Multidetector systems can be used to shorten the necessary time for experiments. The registration of all Bragg reflections of fixed scattering geometry is equivalent to the information of the inverse pole figure for the corresponding sample position. Having short exposition times this approach can be applied for in-situ investigations. The magnetic moments of neutrons can be used to study magnetic anisotropies in materials. Two different techniques are discussed

  2. Electromagnetic imaging through thick metallic enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J. Darrer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to image through metallic enclosures is an important goal of any scanning technology for security applications. Previous work demonstrated the penetrating power of electromagnetic imaging through thin metallic enclosures, thus validating the technique for security applications such as cargo screening. In this work we study the limits of electromagnetic imaging through metallic enclosures, considering the performance of the imaging for different thicknesses of the enclosure. Our results show, that our system can image a Copper disk, even when enclosed within a 20 mm thick Aluminum box. The potential for imaging through enclosures of other materials, such as Lead, Copper, and Iron, is discussed.

  3. Adjoint-based optimization of mechanical performance in polycrystalline materials and structures through texture control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Grace [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, Judith Alice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bishop, Joseph E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The texture of a polycrystalline material refers to the preferred orientation of the grains within the material. In metallic materials, texture can significantly affect the mechanical properties such as elastic moduli, yield stress, strain hardening, and fracture toughness. Recent advances in additive manufacturing of metallic materials offer the possibility in the not too distant future of controlling the spatial variation of texture. In this work, we investigate the advantages, in terms of mechanical performance, of allowing the texture to vary spatially. We use an adjoint-based gradient optimization algorithm within a finite element solver (COMSOL) to optimize several engineering quantities of interest in a simple structure (hole in a plate) and loading (uniaxial tension) condition. As a first step to general texture optimization, we consider the idealized case of a pure fiber texture in which the homogenized properties are transversely isotropic. In this special case, the only spatially varying design variables are the three Euler angles that prescribe the orientation of the homogenized material at each point within the structure. This work paves a new way to design metallic materials for tunable mechanical properties at the microstructure level.

  4. Textural parameters distribution in sediments surface of the Uruguay river background between km 221 and 254

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capeluto, W.; Campos, T. de los

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the distribution of textural statistical parameters and spatial variation in the morphology of the sediment areas. The geology of the area comprises alluvial and alluvial deposits of variable thicknesses overlying deposits of Fray Bent os, Salto and Guichon formations that occasionally emerge in the river bed

  5. Retrieval and Mapping of Soil Texture Based on Land Surface Diurnal Temperature Range Data from MODIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Cai; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Zhao, Ming-Song; Pan, Xian-Zhang; Zhao, Yu-Guo; Li, De-Cheng; Macmillan, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the direct retrieval of soil properties, including soil texture, using remotely sensed images. However, few have considered how soil properties influence dynamic changes in remote images or how soil processes affect the characteristics of the spectrum. This study investigated a new method for mapping regional soil texture based on the hypothesis that the rate of change of land surface temperature is related to soil texture, given the assumption of similar starting soil moisture conditions. The study area was a typical flat area in the Yangtze-Huai River Plain, East China. We used the widely available land surface temperature product of MODIS as the main data source. We analyzed the relationships between the content of different particle soil size fractions at the soil surface and land surface day temperature, night temperature and diurnal temperature range (DTR) during three selected time periods. These periods occurred after rainfalls and between the previous harvest and the subsequent autumn sowing in 2004, 2007 and 2008. Then, linear regression models were developed between the land surface DTR and sand (> 0.05 mm), clay (soil texture. The spatial distribution of soil texture from the studied area was mapped based on the model with the minimum RMSE. A validation dataset produced error estimates for the predicted maps of sand, clay and physical clay, expressed as RMSE of 10.69%, 4.57%, and 12.99%, respectively. The absolute error of the predictions is largely influenced by variations in land cover. Additionally, the maps produced by the models illustrate the natural spatial continuity of soil texture. This study demonstrates the potential for digitally mapping regional soil texture variations in flat areas using readily available MODIS data.

  6. Retrieval and Mapping of Soil Texture Based on Land Surface Diurnal Temperature Range Data from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Cai; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Zhao, Ming-Song; Pan, Xian-Zhang; Zhao, Yu-Guo; Li, De-Cheng; Macmillan, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the direct retrieval of soil properties, including soil texture, using remotely sensed images. However, few have considered how soil properties influence dynamic changes in remote images or how soil processes affect the characteristics of the spectrum. This study investigated a new method for mapping regional soil texture based on the hypothesis that the rate of change of land surface temperature is related to soil texture, given the assumption of similar starting soil moisture conditions. The study area was a typical flat area in the Yangtze-Huai River Plain, East China. We used the widely available land surface temperature product of MODIS as the main data source. We analyzed the relationships between the content of different particle soil size fractions at the soil surface and land surface day temperature, night temperature and diurnal temperature range (DTR) during three selected time periods. These periods occurred after rainfalls and between the previous harvest and the subsequent autumn sowing in 2004, 2007 and 2008. Then, linear regression models were developed between the land surface DTR and sand (> 0.05 mm), clay (estimate soil texture. The spatial distribution of soil texture from the studied area was mapped based on the model with the minimum RMSE. A validation dataset produced error estimates for the predicted maps of sand, clay and physical clay, expressed as RMSE of 10.69%, 4.57%, and 12.99%, respectively. The absolute error of the predictions is largely influenced by variations in land cover. Additionally, the maps produced by the models illustrate the natural spatial continuity of soil texture. This study demonstrates the potential for digitally mapping regional soil texture variations in flat areas using readily available MODIS data. PMID:26090852

  7. Texture analysis for the assessment of structural changes in parotid glands induced by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalco, Elisa; Fiorino, Claudio; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: During radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck cancer, parotid glands undergo significant anatomic, functional and structural changes which could characterize pre-clinical signs of an increased risk of xerostomia. Texture analysis is proposed to assess structural changes of parotids induced by RT, and to investigate whether early variations of textural parameters (such as mean intensity and fractal dimension) can predict parotid shrinkage at the end of treatment. Material and methods: Textural parameters and volumes of 42 parotids from 21 patients treated with intensity-modulated RT for nasopharyngeal cancer were extracted from CT images. To individuate which parameters changed during RT, a Wilcoxon signed-rank test between textural indices (first and second RT week; first and last RT week) was performed. Discriminant analysis was applied to variations of these parameters in the first two weeks of RT to assess their power in predicting parotid shrinkage at the end of RT. Results: A significant decrease in mean intensity (1.7 HU and 3.8 HU after the second and last weeks, respectively) and fractal dimension (0.016 and 0.021) was found. Discriminant analysis, based on volume and fractal dimension, was able to predict the final parotid shrinkage (accuracy of 71.4%). Conclusion: Textural features could be used in combination with volume to characterize structural modifications on parotid glands and to predict parotid shrinkage at the end of RT

  8. Textural Characteristics Of Seven Different Yams Dioscorea Species Grown And Consumed In Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delali Polycarp

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture is one of the most important indexes of quality in food products. It encompasses the structural and mechanical properties of a food and its sensory perception in the hand and in the mouth. This study was designed to evaluate the textural properties of the most cultivated and consumed yam Dioscorea varieties in Ghana in order to assess their potential alternative food and industrial processing applications. Matured yam varieties were obtained from the Roots and Tuber Conservatory Division of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Plant Genetic Resources Research Institute Bunso Ghana. Textural profile of the cooked yam cultivars was established using texture analyser TA-XT2i Stable Microsystem Godalming England with built-in Texture Expert Exceed software. Cluster observation and principal component analyses were used to characterize the varieties based on similarities and differences in properties. The study showed that signiamp64257cant variations existed p0.05 in the textural properties of different yam varieties. Cooked samples of D. esculenta had the least hardness and chewiness 5.05 N and 0.22 respectively and will be suitable for food applications that require mashing while D. praehensalis had highest values for hardness and chewiness 49.9 N and 4.36. There were no significant differences p0.05 in adhesiveness of the yam varieties examined. D. rotundata D. alata and D. bulbifera varieties had tolerable textural properties appropriate for efficient industrial and food process applications. This information may be helpful in breeding and varietal improvement programmes for selecting varieties with similar textural properties for further study.

  9. SMAPVEX12 Soil Texture Map V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of soil texture classification data derived from field surveys as part of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012...

  10. Neutron diffraction texture analysis for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brokmeier, H.G.

    1994-01-01

    Considering the high transmission of neutron radiation, neutron diffraction is an efficient tool for the analysis of various material parameters of bulk material in a non-destructive way. Industrial application of texture analysis by X-ray diffraction is well established, whereas neutron diffraction applications are seldom. Thus a brief description explains the main differences between X-ray and neutron diffraction regarding texture measurements such as the investigation of coarse-grained materials, of large sample volumes and of multi-phase materials. The investigation of average textures of large sample volumes allows directly a correlation to material properties (e.g. Young's modulus, electric conductivity, plastic deformability, strength), which were determined on a workpiece. Examples will be given to show some applications of neutron diffraction texture analysis for technological interests. (orig.)

  11. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components. PMID:26553246

  12. Viable textures for the fermion sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, A E Cárcamo; Varzielas, I de Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    We consider a modification of the Fukuyama–Nishiura texture and compare it to the precision quark flavour data, finding that it fits the data very well but at the cost of accidental cancelations between parameters. We then propose different viable textures for quarks, where only the Cabibbo mixing arises from the down sector, and extend to the charged leptons while constructing a complementary neutrino structure that leads to viable lepton masses and mixing. (paper)

  13. Combining fine texture and coarse color features for color texture classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junmin; Fan, Yangyu; Li, Ning

    2017-11-01

    Color texture classification plays an important role in computer vision applications because texture and color are two fundamental visual features. To classify the color texture via extracting discriminative color texture features in real time, we present an approach of combining the fine texture and coarse color features for color texture classification. First, the input image is transformed from RGB to HSV color space to separate texture and color information. Second, the scale-selective completed local binary count (CLBC) algorithm is introduced to extract the fine texture feature from the V component in HSV color space. Third, both H and S components are quantized at an optimal coarse level. Furthermore, the joint histogram of H and S components is calculated, which is considered as the coarse color feature. Finally, the fine texture and coarse color features are combined as the final descriptor and the nearest subspace classifier is used for classification. Experimental results on CUReT, KTH-TIPS, and New-BarkTex databases demonstrate that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art classification performance. Moreover, the proposed method is fast enough for real-time applications.

  14. Texture memory and strain-texture mapping in a NiTi shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, B.; Majumdar, B. S.; Dutta, I.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report on the near-reversible strain hysteresis during thermal cycling of a polycrystalline NiTi shape memory alloy at a constant stress that is below the yield strength of the martensite. In situ neutron diffraction experiments are used to demonstrate that the strain hysteresis occurs due to a texture memory effect, where the martensite develops a texture when it is cooled under load from the austenite phase and is thereafter ''remembered.'' Further, the authors quantitatively relate the texture to the strain by developing a calculated strain-texture map or pole figure for the martensite phase, and indicate its applicability in other martensitic transformations

  15. Fast Image Texture Classification Using Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Texture analysis would permit improved autonomous, onboard science data interpretation for adaptive navigation, sampling, and downlink decisions. These analyses would assist with terrain analysis and instrument placement in both macroscopic and microscopic image data products. Unfortunately, most state-of-the-art texture analysis demands computationally expensive convolutions of filters involving many floating-point operations. This makes them infeasible for radiation- hardened computers and spaceflight hardware. A new method approximates traditional texture classification of each image pixel with a fast decision-tree classifier. The classifier uses image features derived from simple filtering operations involving integer arithmetic. The texture analysis method is therefore amenable to implementation on FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware. Image features based on the "integral image" transform produce descriptive and efficient texture descriptors. Training the decision tree on a set of training data yields a classification scheme that produces reasonable approximations of optimal "texton" analysis at a fraction of the computational cost. A decision-tree learning algorithm employing the traditional k-means criterion of inter-cluster variance is used to learn tree structure from training data. The result is an efficient and accurate summary of surface morphology in images. This work is an evolutionary advance that unites several previous algorithms (k-means clustering, integral images, decision trees) and applies them to a new problem domain (morphology analysis for autonomous science during remote exploration). Advantages include order-of-magnitude improvements in runtime, feasibility for FPGA hardware, and significant improvements in texture classification accuracy.

  16. Texture and Elastic Anisotropy of Mantle Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, A. N.; Ivankina, T. I.; Bourilitchev, D. E.; Klima, K.; Locajicek, T.; Pros, Z.

    Eight olivine rock samples from different European regions were collected for neu- tron texture analyses and for P-wave velocity measurements by means of ultrasonic sounding at various confining pressures. The orientation distribution functions (ODFs) of olivine were determined and pole figures of the main crystallographic planes were calculated. The spatial P-wave velocity distributions were determined at confining pressures from 0.1 to 400 MPa and modelled from the olivine textures. In dependence upon the type of rock (xenolith or dunite) different behavior of both the P-wave veloc- ity distributions and the anisotropy coefficients with various confining pressures was observed. In order to explain the interdependence of elastic anisotropy and hydrostatic pressure, a model for polycrystalline olivine rocks was suggested, which considers the influence of the crystallographic and the mechanical textures on the elastic behaviour of the polycrystal. Since the olivine texture depends upon the active slip systems and the deformation temperature, neutron texture analyses enable us to estimate depth and thermodynamical conditions during texture formation.

  17. Crystalline textures in aluminium-uranium alloys determined by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Adriana M.V. de

    1979-08-01

    Textures of hot-rolled aluminum-uranium alloys and aluminum were determined by neutron diffraction. Sheets of alloys containing 8.0, 21.5 and 23.7 wt pct U, as well as pure aluminum, were obtained in a stepped rolling process, 15% reduction each step, 75% total reduction. During the rolling the temperature was 600 deg C. Alloys with low uranium contents are two phase systems in which an intermetallic compound UAl 4 , orthorhombic, is dispersed in a pure aluminum matrix. The addition of a few percent of Si in such alloys leads to the formation of UAl 3 , simple cubic, instead of UAl 4 . The Al - 23.7 wt pct U alloy was prepared with 2,2 wt pct of Si. The (200), (040) and (121) pole figures of the phase UAl 4 of the Al-21.5 wt pct U alloy show a high degree of orientation defined as (010) |100|. The (111) reflection of the phase UAl 3 of the Al-23.7 wt pct U alloy showed no preferred orientations. The (111) pole figures of the matrix of the alloys 21.5 and 23.7 wt pct U can be described satisfactorily by the same weakly developed texture, namely {113} . The (111) pole figure for the matrix of the Al-8.0 wt pct U alloy has the texture {113} , which is an intermediate case between the {110} texture of aluminum and the texture of the higher uranium-bearing alloys. For pure aluminum and the 8.0pct alloy the degree of the textures is still weak however higher than in the preceding cases. The (200) and (121) pole figures for the UAl 4 of the 8.0 pct alloy show the same texture as the 21,5 pct alloy though with considerable more spread. The results indicate that the texture of the matrix is more dependent on the uranium concentration than on the texture of the intermetallic phases. This work also presents an improvement in the technique applied to texture measurements by using a sample fully bathed in the neutron beam. The method takes advantage of the low neutron absorption of the studied materials as well as of the negligible variation in the multiple scattering which

  18. Texture transition in experimentally deformed quartzite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Rüdiger; Heilbronner, Renée

    2017-04-01

    Quartz crystallographic preferred orientations (textures), most commonly presented in the form of pole figures, are often used to infer deformation processes or conditions - despite the fact that we still do not understand fully how the different types of texture are generated. Here, we re-analyse experimentally deformed Black Hills Quartzite using EBSD maps. Samples were deformed in general shear in the dislocation creep regimes 1 to 3 at temperatures ranging from 875 to 915°C, constant shear strain rates of 1e-5/s (Heilbronner & Tullis, 2006), and resulting flow stresses of (600 MPa ≥ Tau ≥ 100 MPa). Already at low strain, a strong alignment of in the shear plane and of {10-11} with the maximum principal stress direction is observed. [0001] pole figures of recrystallized grains in regime 1 exhibit a peripheral maximum, roughly perpendicular to the shear plane while in regime 3 two elongated maxima are formed very close to the kinematic y-direction. Regime 2 shows a mixture of these two texture types. In regime 1, dynamic recrystallization is dominated by bulging recrystallization (nucleation of new grains), and in regime 3 by subgrain rotation recrystallization. In regime 2, again a mixture of regime 1 and 3 can be observed. Texture strength increases with the amount of crystal plastic deformation and is generally the lowest for the texture type with peripheral [0001]. During crystal plastic deformation [0001] rotate towards the kinematic y-direction. The coexistence and transition from one to the other texture type is suggested to result from two different texture-forming processes. The first process is thought to be crystal plasticity by glide on various slip systems and associated rotation of the crystal lattice, with the attractor of [0001] close to - but not exactly parallel to - the kinematic y-direction. The second process is suggested to be the growth of oriented grains during bulging recrystallization and associated (fracturing and) grain boundary

  19. In situ texture analysis under applied load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brokmeier, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    The in-situ measurement of a crystallographic texture is a special type of a non-destructive measurement, which need special equipments. Due to the high photon flux and the excellent brilliance high energetic synchrotron radiations are a fantastic tool particular in fast experimentation. Moreover, a high penetration power allows the investigation of standard tensile sample of the DIN-norm. A loading device with a power up to 20 kN was installed at the hard wiggler beamline BW5 (HASYLAB-DESY) to perform in-situ strain and in-situ texture analysis. Using 100keV X-rays one gets short wavelength so that a 2D image-plate detector offers a wide range of diffraction pattern within the first 10 degree in 2 theta. Thermal neutron is another radiation with a high penetration power, which is the standard method for global texture analysis of bulk samples. As an example rectangular extruded Mg- Az31 was investigated by an in-situ. tensile experiment. Samples with 0 degree, 45 degree and 90 degree to the extrusion direction were cut. In-situ strain studies show the lattice dependent strains perpendicular and parallel to the loading direction. Moreover, in hexagonal Mg-Az31 a strong influence of the initial texture on the tensile behavior can be explained by the combination of texture simulation with in-situ measurements. (author)

  20. Color and textural quality of packaged wild rocket measured by multispectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Mette Marie; Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Skov, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Green color and texture are important attributes for the perception of freshness of wild rocket. Packaging of green leafy vegetables can postpone senescence and yellowing, but a drawback is the risk of anaerobic respiration leading to loss of tissue integrity and development of an olive-brown color....... The hypothesis underlying this paper is that color and textural quality of packaged wild rocket leaves can be predicted by multispectral imaging for faster evaluation of visual quality of leafy green vegetables in scientific experiments. Multispectral imaging was correlated to sensory evaluation of packaged wild...... rocket quality. CIELAB values derived from the multispectral images and from a spectrophotometer changed during storage, but the data were insufficient to describe variation in sensory perceived color and texture. CIELAB values from the multispectral images allowed for a more detailed determination...

  1. Associations between soil texture, soil water characteristics and earthworm populations of grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Lamandé, Mathieu; Torp, Søren Bent

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between soil physical characteristics and earthworms in a regional-scale field study in Denmark. The earthworm populations along within-field gradients in soil texture were quantified at five field sites, representing dominant soil...... types of Denmark. Eleven earthworm species were found, but populations were mainly dominated by Aporrectodea tuberculata and A. longa. Despite considerable variation in soil parameters across the five study sites the results suggest that the biomass of anecic worms (or A. longa as a species......) was not causally associated with the soil parameters studied. This indicates that there must be other causal factors associated with the abundance (and composition) of anecic worms that are not among the soil texture and structure parameters studied. On the other hand, soil texture (Coarse sand) was associated...

  2. Texture and deformation mechanism of yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamesku, R.A.; Grebenkin, S.V.; Stepanenko, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray pole figure analysis was applied to study texture and deformation mechanism in pure and commercial polycrystalline yttrium on cold working. It was found that in cast yttrium the texture manifected itself weakly enough both for pure and commercial metal. Analysis of the data obtained made it possible to assert that cold deformation of pure yttrium in the initial stage occurred mainly by slip the role of which decreased at strains higher than 36%. The texture of heavily deformed commercial yttrium contained two components, these were an 'ideal' basic orientation and an axial one with the angle of inclination about 20 deg. Twinning mechanism was revealed to be also possible in commercial yttrium

  3. Road surface texture and skid resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Minh-Tan; Cerezo, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between road surface texture and skid resistance. Mechanisms underlying the tire/wet road friction are first described. Definitions of road surface irregularities scales are given. The rest of the paper is then focused on the macrotexture and microtexture scales and their respective roles in what happens at the tire/road interface. Existing methods to measure and characterize the road surface texture are presented. On the one hand, problems encountered when using sensors developed for machined surfaces for the measurement of road surface profiles or cartographies are discussed. On the other hand, potential improvements when applying characterization methods developed for machined surfaces to road surfaces are highlighted. The paper presents finally modeling approaches to calculate friction forces from road surface texture. The generalized form of the models is presented from which terms related respectively to the macrotexture and the microtexture are identified. Approaches used to calculate these terms, integrating eventually other variables, are presented.

  4. Determination of crystalline texture in aluminium - uranium alloys by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, A.M.V. de.

    1978-01-01

    Textures of hot-rolled aluminum-uranium alloys and of aluminum were determined by neutron diffraction. Sheets of alloys containing 8.0, 21.5 and 23.7 wt pct U, as well as pure aluminum, were obtained in a stepped rolling process, 15% reduction each step, 75% total reduction. During the rolling the temperature was 600 0 C. Alloys with low uranium contents are two phase systems in which an intermetallic compound UAl 4 , orthorhombic, is dispersed in a pure aluminum matrix. The addition of a few percent of Si in such alloys leads to the formation of UAl 3 , simple cubic, instead of UAl 4 . The Al -- 23.7 wt pct U alloy was prepared with 2,2 wt pct of Si. The results indicate that the texture of the matrix is more dependent on the uranium concentration than on the texture of the intermetallic phases. An improvement in the technique applied to texture measurements by using a sample fully bathed in the neutron beam is also presented. The method takes advantage of the low neutron absorption of the studied materials as well as of the neglibible variation in the multiple scattering which occurs in a conveniently shaped sample having a weakly developed texture. (Author) [pt

  5. Martensitic textures: Multiscale consequences of elastic compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, S.R.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    2001-03-01

    We show that a free energy entirely in the order-parameter strain variable(s), rather than the displacement field, provides a unified understanding of martensitic textures. We use compatibility equations, linking the strain tensor components in the bulk and at interfaces, that induce anisotropic order-parameter strain interactions. These two long-range bulk/interface potentials, together with local compositional fluctuations, drive the formation of global elastic textures. Relaxational simulations show the spontaneous formation (and evolution under stress/temperature quenches) of equal width parallel twins, branched twins, and tweed, including characteristic scaling of twin width with twin length. (author)

  6. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  7. Biaxially textured articles formed by power metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  8. CNN based texture synthesize with Semantic segment

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xianye; Zhuo, Bocheng; Li, Peijie; He, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning algorithm display powerful ability in Computer Vision area, in recent year, the CNN has been applied to solve problems in the subarea of Image-generating, which has been widely applied in areas such as photo editing, image design, computer animation, real-time rendering for large scale of scenes and for visual effects in movies. However in the texture synthesize procedure. The state-of-art CNN can not capture the spatial location of texture in image, lead to significant distorti...

  9. The brass-type texture and its deviation from the copper-type texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Ray, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    development of significant texture components with {1 1 1} approximately parallel to the rolling plane. (4) The deformation pattern during the later stages of the development of the brass-type texture is normally dominated by shear banding. (5) Copper–manganese alloys with more than 5% manganese develop...... results from a preliminary attempt to introduce the composite pattern in a complex model. We also suggest that more advanced models (like n-site models) are applied to the shear banding stage. As to the fundamental physical process governing the fcc rolling texture transition we quote recent...

  10. Identification of a melting type variant among peach (P. persica L. Batsch) fruit textures by a digital penetrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciacciulli, Angelo; Chiozzotto, Remo; Attanasio, Giovanna; Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele

    2017-12-20

    The increase of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit shelf-life is one of the most important objectives of breeding activities, as peach is a highly perishable fruit which undergoes rapid softening during ripening. The loss of fruit firmness is accompanied by a modification of textural properties. At least four distinct textures were described in peach: melting, non-melting, stony-hard, and slow-melting (better defined as "slow-softening"). Flesh textures are usually discriminated using different approaches, specific for each type. Objective of this work was the development of a reliable method to assess flesh texture variants in peach fruit, with special attention to the slow-softening type which is currently scored by sensorial evaluation. A puncture-based test using a digital penetrometer was performed on 20 accessions belonging to the four textural groups, obtaining a series of rheological measures related to mechanical flesh properties and including Young's Modulus, Upper Yield Point, and Slope of Yield Stress. Among the components of elasto-plastic behavior of the fruits, the texture dynamic index (TD) was shown to be a reliable parameter to distinguish the group of melting flesh texture from slow-softening, non-melting, and stony-hard, these last resulting characterized by similar mechanical properties. The TD index can be applied to discriminate slow-softening and melting fruits, although variability within the different texture groups suggests the existence of accessions with intermediate phenotypes and minor quantitative trait variation. The availability of an objective method to clearly distinguish the melting from the slow-softening phenotypes paves the road to phenotype segregating progenies in order to find molecular markers associated to the slow-softening trait. The TD index could be considered to determine different textures in fleshy fruits in preharvest and postharvest, to support evaluation of quality for the intended use. © 2017 Wiley

  11. Wetting transitions on textured hydrophilic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishino, C; Okumura, K

    2008-04-01

    We consider the quasi-static energy of a drop on a textured hydrophilic surface, with taking the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) into account. We demonstrate how energy varies as the contact state changes from the Cassie state (in which air is trapped at the drop bottom) to the Wenzel state (in which liquid fills the texture at the drop bottom) assuming that the latter state nucleates from the center of the drop bottom. When the textured substrate is hydrophilic enough to allow spontaneous penetration of liquid film of the texture thickness, the present theory asserts that the drop develops into an experimentally observed state in which a drop looks like an egg fried without flipped over (sunny-side up) with a well-defined radius of "the egg yolk." Otherwise, the final contact state of the drop becomes like a Wenzel state, but with the contact circle smaller than the original Wenzel state due to the CAH. We provide simple analytical estimations for the yolk radius of the "sunny-side-up" state and for the final radius of the contact circle of the pseudo-Wenzel state.

  12. Physicochemical and textural properties of kombucha fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of kombucha application cultivated on two different tea types in combination with probiotics for milk fermentation at different temperatures, as well as the physicochemical and textural properties of manufactured fermented milk products were investigated. Combination of probiotic starter culture and kombucha ...

  13. Friction tensor concept for textured surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper proposes the concept of a friction tensor analogous to the heat conduc- tion tensor in anisotropic media. This implies that there exists two principal friction coefficients μ1,2 analogous to the principal conductivities k1,2. For symmetrically textured surfaces the principal directions are orthogonal with atleast one ...

  14. Combinatorial design of textured mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2016-07-28

    The structural complexity of metamaterials is limitless, but, in practice, most designs comprise periodic architectures that lead to materials with spatially homogeneous features. More advanced applications in soft robotics, prosthetics and wearable technology involve spatially textured mechanical functionality, which requires aperiodic architectures. However, a naive implementation of such structural complexity invariably leads to geometrical frustration (whereby local constraints cannot be satisfied everywhere), which prevents coherent operation and impedes functionality. Here we introduce a combinatorial strategy for the design of aperiodic, yet frustration-free, mechanical metamaterials that exhibit spatially textured functionalities. We implement this strategy using cubic building blocks-voxels-that deform anisotropically, a local stacking rule that allows cooperative shape changes by guaranteeing that deformed building blocks fit together as in a three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle, and three-dimensional printing. These aperiodic metamaterials exhibit long-range holographic order, whereby the two-dimensional pixelated surface texture dictates the three-dimensional interior voxel arrangement. They also act as programmable shape-shifters, morphing into spatially complex, but predictable and designable, shapes when uniaxially compressed. Finally, their mechanical response to compression by a textured surface reveals their ability to perform sensing and pattern analysis. Combinatorial design thus opens up a new avenue towards mechanical metamaterials with unusual order and machine-like functionalities.

  15. Multidimensional Texture Analysis for Unsupervised Pattern Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Hammouche, K.; Postaire, J.-G.

    2008-01-01

    After a series of adaptations of classical image processing tools to cluster analysis such as thresholding, edge detection, relaxation, Markov field models and mathematical morphology, this chapter shows how texture analysis concepts can be introduced in the field of pattern classification. A general-purpose clustering procedure has been presented,

  16. Rheological and textural properties of cosmetic emulsions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Tereza; Štern, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2011), č. článku 35200. ISSN 1430-6395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : cosmetic emulsions * rheology * texture * sensory analysis * psychorheology Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2011

  17. On Texture and Geometry in Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, David Karl John

    2009-01-01

    -out of the captured scene will also change. At large viewing distances, the sky occupies a large region in the image and buildings, trees and lawns appear as uniformly colored regions. The following questions are addressed: How much of the visual appearance in terms of geometry and texture of an image can...

  18. THE CAUSAL TEXTURE OF TRADE UNION ENVIRONMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  19. Development of a texture averaged Reynolds equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, A. de; Ostayen, R.A.J. van; Rixen, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The application of textured bearing surfaces results in a more complex lubricant flow pattern compared to smooth bearing surfaces. In order to capture the more complex flow pattern and possible inertia effects in the vicinity of the surface pockets, the NavierStokes equations should be used to model

  20. Mathematical modelling of dropwise condensation on textured ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The minimum drop radius is insensitive to surface texturing and does not provide controllability at larger length and timescales. A closer examination of droplet distribution over the substrate reveals that small drops are locations of high heat transfer rates, which diminishes with increasing drop radius. The largest drop ...

  1. On the origin of recrystallization textures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the ON model, it has been argued that a higher frequency of the special orientation (grains) than random occur, thus accounting for the texture. In the OG model, it has been argued that the specially oriented grains have a high mobility boundary and thus can migrate faster and grow to a larger size as compared to random ...

  2. Textural characterization of coals using fractal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahamud, Manuel; Lopez, Oscar [Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Oviedo, Campus de El Cristo, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Pis, Jose Juan; Pajares, Jesus Alberto [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (C.S.I.C.), Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2003-05-15

    The aim of this study is to show how fractal analysis can be effectively used to characterize the texture of porous solids. The materials under study were series of coals oxidized in air at various temperatures for different time intervals. Data from mercury porosimetry determinations of samples was analyzed using fractal models. The methods employed were those proposed by Neimark, Friesen and Mikula and that developed by Zhang and Li. Some methods are able to supply a fractal profile or 'fractal fingerprint' of materials, i.e. ranges of pore sizes with different fractal dimensions are detected. These fractal profiles are very sensitive to the oxidation treatment. The average fractal dimension can also be used as a valid parameter to monitor the textural evolution of the coals as the treatment progresses, as this behaves in a similar way to other textural parameters. The use of fractal analysis in conjunction with the results of classical characterization methods leads to a better understanding of textural modifications in the processing of materials.

  3. Textural characterization of chars using fractal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahamud, Manuel; Lopez, Oscar [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Campus de El Cristo, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Pis, Jose Juan; Pajares, Jesus Alberto [Instituto Nacional del Carbon C.S.I.C., Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-11-25

    The aim of this study is to explore the potential of fractal analysis in helping to understand the textural changes of materials during the manufacture of active carbons. Textural characterization of the chars is carried out in order to obtain a better understanding of the phenomena underlying char formation. The materials selected for study were a series of chars obtained from coals oxidized in air at various temperatures for different periods of time. The data from mercury porosimetry were analyzed using fractal models. The average fractal dimensions for the chars were calculated by using the methods proposed by Friesen and Mikula and that of Zhang and Li. Fractal profiles of the chars obtained by the method of Neimark were compared with the corresponding fractal profiles of the precursor coals. Pore development during carbonization depends-among other factors that are kept constant in this study-on the textural properties of the precursor coal, the devolatilization process and the plastic properties of coals. The evolution of the fractal characteristics of the chars is also studied. At the same time pore volume development is analyzed. These analyses help to clarify the role that various phenomena occurring during carbonization have on the textural properties of the chars.

  4. Some Numerical Characteristics of Image Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Samarina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Texture classification is one of the basic images processing tasks. In this paper we present some numerical characteristics to the images analysis and processing. It can be used at the solving of images classification problems, their recognition, problems of remote sounding, biomedical images analysis, geological researches.

  5. Prague texture segmentation data generator and benchmark

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikeš, Stanislav; Haindl, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2006, č. 64 (2006), s. 67-68 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400750407; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : image segmentation * texture * benchmark * web Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  6. Spin Transport in Ferromagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Textures

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins A.

    2016-12-07

    In this dissertation, we provide an accurate description of spin transport in magnetic textures and in particular, we investigate in detail, the nature of spin torque and magnetic damping in such systems. Indeed, as will be further discussed in this thesis, the current-driven velocity of magnetic textures is related to the ratio between the so-called non-adiabatic torque and magnetic damping. Uncovering the physics underlying these phenomena can lead to the optimal design of magnetic systems with improved efficiency. We identified three interesting classes of systems which have attracted enormous research interest (i) Magnetic textures in systems with broken inversion symmetry: We investigate the nature of magnetic damping in non-centrosymmetric ferromagnets. Based on phenomenological and microscopic derivations, we show that the magnetic damping becomes chiral, i.e. depends on the chirality of the magnetic texture. (ii) Ferromagnetic domain walls, skyrmions and vortices: We address the physics of spin transport in sharp disordered magnetic domain walls and vortex cores. We demonstrate that upon spin-independent scattering, the non-adiabatic torque can be significantly enhanced. Such an enhancement is large for vortex cores compared to transverse domain walls. We also show that the topological spin currents owing in these structures dramatically enhances the non-adiabaticity, an effect unique to non-trivial topological textures (iii) Antiferromagnetic skyrmions: We extend this study to antiferromagnetic skyrmions and show that such an enhanced topological torque also exist in these systems. Even more interestingly, while such a non-adiabatic torque inuences the undesirable transverse velocity of ferromagnetic skyrmions, in antiferromagnetic skyrmions, the topological non-adiabatic torque directly determines the longitudinal velocity. As a consequence, scaling down the antiferromagnetic skyrmion results in a much more efficient spin torque.

  7. Texture of semi-solids : sensory flavor-texture interactions for custard desserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Rasing, F.; Wilkinson, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    Possible interactions between flavor and oral texture sensations were investigated for four flavorants, diacetyl, benzaldehyde, vanillin, and caffeine, added in two concentrations to model vanilla custard desserts. The flavorants affected viscosities and resulted in corresponding changes in

  8. Effects of pavement surface texture on noise and frictional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    An experimental modification of the transverse groove : surface texture of a section of an urban interstate highway was : performed by the Iowa Department of Transportation. Transverse : groove texturing is a design feature required by the Federal : ...

  9. Tropical Texture Determination by Proximal Sensing Using a Regional Spectral Library and Its Relationship with Soil Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilusa P. C. Lacerda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for sustainable land use has increased in Brazil due to the important role that agriculture plays in the country. Soil detailed classification is related with texture attribute. How can one discriminate the same soil class with different textures using proximal soil sensing, as to reach surveys, land use planning and increase crop productivity? This study aims to evaluate soil texture using a regional spectral library and its usefulness on classification. We collected 3750 soil samples covering 3 million ha within strong soil class variations in São Paulo State. The spectral analyses of soil samples from topsoil and subsoil were measured in laboratory (400–2500 nm. The potential of a regional soil spectral library was evaluated on the discrimination of soil texture. We considered two types of soil texture systems, one related with soil classification and another with soil managements. The soil line technique was used to assess differentiation between soil textural groups. Soil spectra were summarized by principal component analysis (PCA to select relevant information on the spectra. Partial least squares regression (PLSR was used to predict texture. Spectral curves indicated different shapes according to soil texture and discriminated particle size classes from clayey to sandy soils. In the visible region, differences were small because of the organic matter, while the short wave infrared (SWIR region showed more differences; thus, soil texture variation could be differentiated by quartz. Angulation differences are on a spectral curve from NIR to SWIR. The statistical models predicted clay and sand levels with R2 = 0.93 and 0.96, respectively. Indeed, we achieved a difference of 1.2% between laboratory and spectroscopy measurement for clay. The spectral information was useful to classify Ferralsols with different texture classification. In addition, the spectra differentiated Lixisols from Ferralsols and Arenosols. This work can

  10. Iris texture traits show associations with iris color and genomic ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillen, Ellen E; Guiltinan, Jenna S; Beleza, Sandra; Rocha, Jorge; Pereira, Rinaldo W; Shriver, Mark D

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to identify associations among genomic biogeographic ancestry (BGA), quantitative iris color, and iris texture traits contributing to population-level variation in these phenotypes. DNA and iris photographs were collected from 300 individuals across three variably admixed populations (Portugal, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Two raters scored the photos for pigmentation spots, Fuchs' crypts, contraction furrows, and Wolflinn nodes. Iris color was quantified from RGB values. Maximum likelihood estimates of individual BGA were calculated from 176 ancestry informative markers. Pigmentation spots, Fuchs' crypts, contraction furrows, and iris color show significant positive correlation with increasing European BGA. Only contraction furrows are correlated with iris color. The relationship between BGA and iris texture illustrates a genetic contribution to this population-level variation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Correlation of normal and superconducting transport properties on textured Bi-2212 ceramic thin rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natividad, E.; Castro, M.; Burriel, R.; Diez, J.C.; Navarro, R.; Angurel, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    The electric and thermal properties well above and below T c of Bi-2212 textured ceramics have been correlated through a careful analysis of the microstructure and the transport measurements. Thin rods with the same Bi-2122 stoichiometry and textured by a laser floating zone technique have been studied with that aim. By changing the growth parameters, it has been possible to produce strong changes in microstructure and critical current density, J c , with small variations in the thermal conductivity. The existence of phase and composition gradients across the thin rods, which explains the variations of T c , makes the relation difficult between the normal state resistivity and J c (77 K). A simple qualitative analysis that takes into account the observed microstructure has been developed to correlate the electric transport properties in the normal and in the superconducting states. (author)

  12. Texture Analysis Using Rényi’s Generalized Entropies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, S.E.; Petkov, N.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a texture analysis method based on Rényi’s generalized entropies. The method aims at identifying texels in regular textures by searching for the smallest window through which the minimum number of different visual patterns is observed when moving the window over a given texture. The

  13. A dynamical system approach to texel identification in regular textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, S.E.; Petkov, N.; Loncaric, S; Neri, A; Babic, H

    2003-01-01

    We propose a texture analysis method based on Rényi’s entropies. The method aims at identifying texels in regular textures by searching for the smallest window through which the minimum number of different visual patterns is observed when moving the window over a given texture. The experimental

  14. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF EXTRUDED APPLE POMACE - WHEAT SEMOLINA BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bakalov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace - wheat semolina blends were extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder (Brabender 20 DN, Germany. Effects apple pomace content, moisture content, screw speed, and temperature of final cooking zone on texture of extrudates were studied applying response surface methodology. The texture characteristics of the extrudates were measured using a TA.XT Plus Texture Analyser, Stable Micro Systems.

  15. Brightness perception in low resolution images of 3d textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Siteur, J.

    1996-01-01

    A first step towards the analysis of the appearance of 3 dimensional textures is presented in this paper. It is assumed that the scale of the texture is small relative to the resolution of the camera. Therefore, the texture itself is not distinguishable.However, the perceived brightness of the

  16. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texture is one of the most significant factors for consumers’ experience of foods. Texture difference of cooked quinoa among thirteen different varieties was studied. Correlations between the texture and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking qualities, flour pasting properties and flour th...

  17. Application of Texture Analysis to Study Small Vessel Disease and Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C; González-Castro, Victor; Chappell, Francesca M; Sakka, Eleni; Makin, Stephen; Armitage, Paul A; Nailon, William H; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the alternative use of texture analysis for evaluating the role of blood-brain barrier (BBB) in small vessel disease (SVD). We used brain magnetic resonance imaging from 204 stroke patients, acquired before and 20 min after intravenous gadolinium administration. We segmented tissues, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and applied validated visual scores. We measured textural features in all tissues pre- and post-contrast and used ANCOVA to evaluate the effect of SVD indicators on the pre-/post-contrast change, Kruskal-Wallis for significance between patient groups and linear mixed models for pre-/post-contrast variations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with Fazekas scores. Textural "homogeneity" increase in normal tissues with higher presence of SVD indicators was consistently more overt than in abnormal tissues. Textural "homogeneity" increased with age, basal ganglia perivascular spaces scores ( p  < 0.01) and SVD scores ( p  < 0.05) and was significantly higher in hypertensive patients ( p  < 0.002) and lacunar stroke ( p  = 0.04). Hypertension (74% patients), WMH load (median = 1.5 ± 1.6% of intracranial volume), and age (mean = 65.6 years, SD = 11.3) predicted the pre/post-contrast change in normal white matter, WMH, and index stroke lesion. CSF signal increased with increasing SVD post-contrast. A consistent general pattern of increasing textural "homogeneity" with increasing SVD and post-contrast change in CSF with increasing WMH suggest that texture analysis may be useful for the study of BBB integrity.

  18. Application of Texture Analysis to Study Small Vessel Disease and Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del C. Valdés Hernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesWe evaluate the alternative use of texture analysis for evaluating the role of blood–brain barrier (BBB in small vessel disease (SVD.MethodsWe used brain magnetic resonance imaging from 204 stroke patients, acquired before and 20 min after intravenous gadolinium administration. We segmented tissues, white matter hyperintensities (WMH and applied validated visual scores. We measured textural features in all tissues pre- and post-contrast and used ANCOVA to evaluate the effect of SVD indicators on the pre-/post-contrast change, Kruskal–Wallis for significance between patient groups and linear mixed models for pre-/post-contrast variations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF with Fazekas scores.ResultsTextural “homogeneity” increase in normal tissues with higher presence of SVD indicators was consistently more overt than in abnormal tissues. Textural “homogeneity” increased with age, basal ganglia perivascular spaces scores (p < 0.01 and SVD scores (p < 0.05 and was significantly higher in hypertensive patients (p < 0.002 and lacunar stroke (p = 0.04. Hypertension (74% patients, WMH load (median = 1.5 ± 1.6% of intracranial volume, and age (mean = 65.6 years, SD = 11.3 predicted the pre/post-contrast change in normal white matter, WMH, and index stroke lesion. CSF signal increased with increasing SVD post-contrast.ConclusionA consistent general pattern of increasing textural “homogeneity” with increasing SVD and post-contrast change in CSF with increasing WMH suggest that texture analysis may be useful for the study of BBB integrity.

  19. Line Laser and Triple Laser Quantification of the Difference in International Roughness Index between Textured and Non-Textured Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Practitioners have often wondered whether, during ride measurement with inertial devices, the motion of the laser through pavement texture introduces non representative values of international roughness index (IRI), particularly in certain textures. ...

  20. Complete Soil Texture is Accurately Predicted by Visible Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Cecilie; Knadel, Maria; Møldrup, Per

    2017-01-01

    Core Ideas: Two PSC models are fitted to detailed measurements of clay, silt, and sand fractions.Both models well describe the PSCs of a broad soil data base.Within and between field variations in PSC and OM are well predicted by vis-NIRS.The Fredlund model performs slightly better in data......-fitting and vis-NIRS predicted PSCs.New vis-NIRS concept enables soil type classification in any texture system worldwide....

  1. Predicting tropical dry forest successional attributes from space: is the key hidden in image texture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Alberto Gallardo-Cruz

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation and ecosystem-service provision will increasingly depend on the existence of secondary vegetation. Our success in achieving these goals will be determined by our ability to accurately estimate the structure and diversity of such communities at broad geographic scales. We examined whether the texture (the spatial variation of the image elements of very high-resolution satellite imagery can be used for this purpose. In 14 fallows of different ages and one mature forest stand in a seasonally dry tropical forest landscape, we estimated basal area, canopy cover, stem density, species richness, Shannon index, Simpson index, and canopy height. The first six attributes were also estimated for a subset comprising the tallest plants. We calculated 40 texture variables based on the red and the near infrared bands, and EVI and NDVI, and selected the best-fit linear models describing each vegetation attribute based on them. Basal area (R(2 = 0.93, vegetation height and cover (0.89, species richness (0.87, and stand age (0.85 were the best-described attributes by two-variable models. Cross validation showed that these models had a high predictive power, and most estimated vegetation attributes were highly accurate. The success of this simple method (a single image was used and the models were linear and included very few variables rests on the principle that image texture reflects the internal heterogeneity of successional vegetation at the proper scale. The vegetation attributes best predicted by texture are relevant in the face of two of the gravest threats to biosphere integrity: climate change and biodiversity loss. By providing reliable basal area and fallow-age estimates, image-texture analysis allows for the assessment of carbon sequestration and diversity loss rates. New and exciting research avenues open by simplifying the analysis of the extent and complexity of successional vegetation through the spatial variation of

  2. Mapping soil textural fractions across a large watershed in north-east Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, S; Mishra, U

    2010-08-01

    Assessment of regional scale soil spatial variation and mapping their distribution is constrained by sparse data which are collected using field surveys that are labor intensive and cost prohibitive. We explored geostatistical (ordinary kriging-OK), regression (Regression Tree-RT), and hybrid methods (RT plus residual Sequential Gaussian Simulation-SGS) to map soil textural fractions across the Santa Fe River Watershed (3585 km(2)) in north-east Florida. Soil samples collected from four depths (L1: 0-30 cm, L2: 30-60 cm, L3: 60-120 cm, and L4: 120-180 cm) at 141 locations were analyzed for soil textural fractions (sand, silt and clay contents), and combined with textural data (15 profiles) assembled under the Florida Soil Characterization program. Textural fractions in L1 and L2 were autocorrelated, and spatially mapped across the watershed. OK performance was poor, which may be attributed to the sparse sampling. RT model structure varied among textural fractions, and the model explained variations ranged from 25% for L1 silt to 61% for L2 clay content. Regression residuals were simulated using SGS, and the average of simulated residuals were used to approximate regression residual distribution map, which were added to regression trend maps. Independent validation of the prediction maps showed that regression models performed slightly better than OK, and regression combined with average of simulated regression residuals improved predictions beyond the regression model. Sand content >90% in both 0-30 and 30-60 cm covered 80.6% of the watershed area. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface scaling analysis of textured MgO thin films fabricated by energetic particle self-assisted deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Feng; Zhang, Xiangsong; Qu, Timing; Liu, Binbin; Huang, Junlong; Li, Jun; Xiao, Shaozhu; Han, Zhenghe; Feng, Pingfa

    2018-04-01

    In the fabrication of a high-temperature superconducting coated conductor, the surface roughness and texture of buffer layers can significantly affect the epitaxially grown superconductor layer. A biaxially textured MgO buffer layer fabricated by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) is widely used in the coated conductor manufacture due to its low thickness requirement. In our previous study, a new method called energetic particle self-assisted deposition (EPSAD), which employed only a sputtering deposition apparatus without an ion source, was proposed for fabricating biaxially textured MgO films on non-textured substrates. In this study, our aim was to investigate the deposition mechanism of EPSAD-MgO thin films. The behavior of the surface roughness (evaluated by Rq) was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements with three scan scales, while the in-plane and out-of-plane textures were measured using X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the variations of surface roughness and textures along with the increase in the thickness of EPSAD-MgO samples were very similar to those of IBAD-MgO reported in the literature, revealing the similarity of their deposition mechanisms. Moreover, fractal geometry was utilized to conduct the scaling analysis of EPSAD-MgO film's surface. Different scaling behaviors were found in two scale ranges, and the indications of the fractal properties in different scale ranges were discussed.

  4. Phosphorus leaching in a soil textural gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2009-01-01

    Texture is a major factor influencing mobilization and transport of P in soil owing partly to differences in adsorptive properties, and partly to differences in pore-size distribution and pore organization. Slurry application strategies may be important mitigation measures for reducing agricultural...... in soils with matrix dominated flow behaviour We tested these hypotheses on three textural soil classes (Olsen-P 1.6 mg P 100 g-1) on intact soil columns (20*20 cm) and compared them to in situ P leaching before slurry application. In a loamy sand P leaching with both slurry application techniques slightly...... exceeded the in situ leaching. However, the two application techniques did not vary significantly. In a sandy and a clay loam preferential flow paths within the soil columns caused high P leaching when slurry was applied at the soil surface. The effect increased with increasing clay content. Injection...

  5. Soil texture reclassification by an ensemble model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisty, Milan; Hlavcova, Kamila

    2015-04-01

    Many environmental problems in which soil data serves as an inputs to simulation models are not restricted to national boundaries and therefore require international cooperation if solutions are to be found. The classification of soils according to their texture is one of the basic methods used for soil description. The term "soil texture" indicates the distribution of soil particles in the soil according to their size (diameter). The most preferred representation of texture classification is a grading curve. Because not all countries use the same classification system, databases from these countries cannot provide us with uniform data, which can serve as the inputs for various computations or models. This study deals with a description of a texture system reclassification to USDA classification system by the proposed model on a data set from Slovakia originally labeled by Slovakian national classification system. However, the authors of the paper suppose that the methodology proposed could be used more generally and that the information provided is also applicable when dealing with other existing soil texture classification systems. Some researchers have already proposed to fit the measured PSDs by various continuous parametric grading curves. When gaining such a relationship, it is possible to obtain a granular fraction's percentage ratio in the sample under consideration for any size of the particle diameter, which means that it is possible to get the values necessary for accomplishing a translation from one texture classification system to another. Several authors have conducted comparative studies on various PSD models in order to determine the best model for the soil groups selected for their studies (Nemes et al., 1999; Hwang, 2004; Botula et al., 2013). The reported findings of the abovementioned works somewhat differ from each other, and there is no generally suitable PSD model available. Because the transformation of a soil texture system is usually only

  6. SURFACE TEXTURE ANALYSIS FOR FUNCTIONALITY CONTROL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This docume...... contains a short description of each case story, 3-D roughness parameters analysis and relation with the product’s functionality.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This document...

  7. Probabilistic Discrete Mixtures Colour Texture Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Havlíček, Vojtěch; Grim, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2008, č. 5197 (2008), s. 675-682 ISSN 0302-9743. [Iberoamerican Congress on Pattern Recognition /13./. Havana, 09.092008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/07/1594; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Discrete distribution mixtures * EM algorithm * texture modeling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/haindl-havlicek-grim-probabilistic%20discrete%20mixtures%20colour%20texture%20models.pdf

  8. Dropwise condensation on inclined textured surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Dropwise Condensation on Textured Surfaces presents a holistic framework for understanding dropwise condensation through mathematical modeling and meaningful experiments. The book presents a review of the subject required to build up models as well as to design experiments. Emphasis is placed on the effect of physical and chemical texturing and their effect on the bulk transport phenomena. Application of the model to metal vapor condensation is of special interest. The unique behavior of liquid metals, with their low Prandtl number and high surface tension, is also discussed. The model predicts instantaneous drop size distribution for a given level of substrate subcooling and derives local as well as spatio-temporally averaged heat transfer rates and wall shear stress.

  9. Texture-based analysis of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Nielsen, Mads; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a fully automatic, data-driven approach for texture-based quantitative analysis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in pulmonary computed tomography (CT) images. The approach uses supervised learning where the class labels are, in contrast to previous work, based...... on measured lung function instead of on manually annotated regions of interest (ROIs). A quantitative measure of COPD is obtained by fusing COPD probabilities computed in ROIs within the lung fields where the individual ROI probabilities are computed using a k nearest neighbor (kNN ) classifier. The distance...... and subsequently applied to classify 200 independent images from the same screening trial. The texture-based measure was significantly better at discriminating between subjects with and without COPD than were the two most common quantitative measures of COPD in the literature, which are based on density...

  10. Composite biaxially textured substrates using ultrasonic consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Craig A; Goyal, Amit

    2013-04-23

    A method of forming a composite sheet includes disposing an untextured metal or alloy first sheet in contact with a second sheet in an aligned opposing position; bonding the first sheet to the second sheet by applying an oscillating ultrasonic force to at least one of the first sheet and the second sheet to form an untextured intermediate composite sheet; and annealing the untextured intermediate composite sheet at a temperature lower than a primary re-crystallization temperature of the second sheet and higher than a primary re-crystallization temperature of the first sheet to convert the untextured first sheet into a cube textured sheet, wherein the cube texture is characterized by a .phi.-scan having a FWHM of no more than 15.degree. in all directions, the second sheet remaining untextured, to form a composite sheet.

  11. Efficient rolling texture predictions and texture-sensitive thermomechanical properties of α-uranium foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Matthew A.; Klein, Robert W.; Calhoun, Christopher A.; Knezevic, Marko; Garlea, Elena; Agnew, Sean R.

    2017-11-01

    Finite element (FE) analysis was used to simulate the strain history of an α-uranium foil during cold straight-rolling, with the sheet modeled as an isotropic elastoplastic continuum. The resulting strain history was then used as input for a viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity model to simulate crystallographic texture evolution. Mid-plane textures predicted via the combined FE→VPSC approach show alignment of the (010) poles along the rolling direction (RD), and the (001) poles along the normal direction (ND) with a symmetric splitting along RD. The surface texture is similar to that of the mid-plane, but with a shear-induced asymmetry that favors one of the RD split features of the (001) pole figure. Both the mid-plane and surface textures predicted by the FE→VPSC approach agree with published experimental results for cold straight-rolled α-uranium plates, as well as predictions made by a more computationally intensive full-field crystal plasticity based finite element model. α-uranium foils produced by cold-rolling must typically undergo a recrystallization anneal to restore ductility prior to their final application, resulting in significant texture evolution from the cold-rolled plate deformation texture. Using the texture measured from a foil in the final recrystallized state, coefficients of thermal expansion and the elastic stiffness tensors were calculated using a thermo-elastic self-consistent model, and the anisotropic yield loci and flow curves along the RD, TD, and ND were predicted using the VPSC code.

  12. Exploring Sound-Motion Textures in drum set performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godøy, Rolf Inge; song, minho; Dahl, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    A musical texture, be that of an ensemble or of a solo in- strumentalist, may be perceived as combinations of both simultaneous and sequential sound events. However, we believe that also sensations of the corresponding sound- producing events (e.g. hitting, stroking, bowing, blowing) contribute...... to our perceptions of musical textures. Musical textures could thus be understood as multimodal, with features of both sound and motion, hence the idea here of sound-motion textures in music. The study of such multi- modal sound-motion textures will necessitate collecting and analyzing data of both...

  13. Influence of texture on the physical properties of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penelle, R.; Baudin, T.

    1996-01-01

    The principles of crystallographic texture characterization by the means of X-ray or neutron diffraction statistical techniques are reviewed, and examples of their application to the study of the effects of texture on the properties of materials are presented: texture of magnetic steels, magneto-crystalline anisotropy, elasticity anisotropy and Young's modulus, plastic anisotropy (textural hardening), residual stresses. Neutron diffraction allows for the continuous monitoring of the recrystallization texture generation kinetics during in-situ annealing or for the follow-up of phase transformations. Backscattered electron diffraction allows for the quantification of the spatial distribution of grain and grain joint orientations and thus microstructure reconstruction

  14. Texture modelling by discrete distribution mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, Jiří; Haindl, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 41, 3-4 (2003), s. 603-615 ISSN 0167-9473 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/0030; GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : discrete distribution mixtures * EM algorithm * texture modelling Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 0.711, year: 2003

  15. Colour texture segmentation using modelling approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Mikeš, Stanislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3687, č. - (2005), s. 484-491 ISSN 0302-9743. [International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition /3./. Bath, 22.08.2005-25.08.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : colour texture segmentation * image models * segmentation benchmark Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  16. Dynamic texture as foreground and background

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chetverikov, D.; Fazekas, S.; Haindl, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 5 (2011), s. 741-750 ISSN 0932-8092 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Dynamic texture * Optical flow * SVD Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.009, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/RO/haindl-0345450.pdf

  17. Texturing in titanium grade 2 surface irradiate with ultrashort pulse laser; Texturizacao em superficies de titanio grau 2 irradiadas com laser com pulsos ultracurtos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Alessandro Francelino

    2015-07-01

    The texturing laser micromachining is an important alternative to improve the bonding adhesion between composites and titanium, which are applied to structural components in the aerospace industry. The texturing running on titanium plates is due to the fact that the preferred joining technique for many composite materials is the adhesive bonding. In this work, titanium plates were texturized using laser ultrashort pulses temporal widths of femtoseconds. This process resulted in minimal heat transfer to the material, avoiding deformation of the titanium plate surface as well as the formation of resolidified material in the ablated region. These drawbacks have occurred with the use of nanoseconds pulses. Were performed three types of texturing using laser with femtosecond pulses, with variations in the distances between the machined lines. The analysis of the obtained surfaces found that the wettability increases when there is the increased distance between the texturing lines. Advancing in the analysis by optical profilometry of textured surfaces was observed that there is substantial increase in the volume available for penetration of structural adhesive when the distances between the textured lines are diminished. In tensile tests conducted it was observed that there is an increase in shear strength of the adhesive joint by reducing the distance between the textured lines. (author)

  18. Nominated Texture Based Cervical Cancer Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Jayasingh Mariarputham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate classification of Pap smear images becomes the challenging task in medical image processing. This can be improved in two ways. One way is by selecting suitable well defined specific features and the other is by selecting the best classifier. This paper presents a nominated texture based cervical cancer (NTCC classification system which classifies the Pap smear images into any one of the seven classes. This can be achieved by extracting well defined texture features and selecting best classifier. Seven sets of texture features (24 features are extracted which include relative size of nucleus and cytoplasm, dynamic range and first four moments of intensities of nucleus and cytoplasm, relative displacement of nucleus within the cytoplasm, gray level cooccurrence matrix, local binary pattern histogram, tamura features, and edge orientation histogram. Few types of support vector machine (SVM and neural network (NN classifiers are used for the classification. The performance of the NTCC algorithm is tested and compared to other algorithms on public image database of Herlev University Hospital, Denmark, with 917 Pap smear images. The output of SVM is found to be best for the most of the classes and better results for the remaining classes.

  19. Model for understanding consumer textural food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltema, Melissa; Beckley, Jacqueline; Vahalik, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    The current paradigm for developing products that will match the marketing messaging is flawed because the drivers of product choice and satisfaction based on texture are misunderstood. Qualitative research across 10 years has led to the thesis explored in this research that individuals have a preferred way to manipulate food in their mouths (i.e., mouth behavior) and that this behavior is a major driver of food choice, satisfaction, and the desire to repurchase. Texture, which is currently thought to be a major driver of product choice, is a secondary factor, and is important only in that it supports the primary driver-mouth behavior. A model for mouth behavior is proposed and the qualitative research supporting the identification of different mouth behaviors is presented. The development of a trademarked typing tool for characterizing mouth behavior is described along with quantitative substantiation of the tool's ability to group individuals by mouth behavior. The use of these four groups to understand textural preferences and the implications for a variety of areas including product design and weight management are explored.

  20. Crystallographic texture and mechanical anisotropy of zircaloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussien, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Hexagonal-closed-packed metals are inherently anisotropic, and deformation during processing leads to the development of preferred orientation or texture in the finished product. Tube Reduced Extrusions (TREXs) are an intermediate product in the production of zircaloy canning tubes for nuclear reactors. The objective of this research has been to study the mechanical anisotropy which has a direct relation to the formability of Zircaloy TREXs. Anisotropy parameters (R and P) in the modified Hills equation were investigated. The use of the impression test for measuring R and P under different annealing temperatures, test temperatures and strain rates, and the grid-analysis technique for measuring R and P gradients through the TREX thickness are demonstrated. The mechanical-test results are compared with the predictions of the Bishop-Hill model using the quantitative orientation distribution function. There is a good agreement between the model prediction and the mechanical-test data. The value of R was found to be insensitive to the strain rate, test temperature, annealing temperature, and texture gradient. The value of P was found to increase with the annealing temperature within the recrystallization range and to be relatively insensitive elsewhere, to decrease with increasing test temperature and to be considerable sensitive to texture gradient

  1. Calculation of skid resistance from texture measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ueckermann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide range of routine skid resistance measurement devices on the market. All of them are measuring the friction force between a rubber wheel and the wetted road surface. Common to all of them is that they are relatively complex and costly because generally a truck carrying a large water tank is needed to wet the surface with a defined water layer. Because of the limited amount of water they can carry they are limited in range. Besides that the measurement is depending on factors like water film thickness, temperature, measurement speed, rubber aging, rubber wear and even road evenness and curviness. All of these factors will affect the skid resistance and are difficult to control. We present a concept of contactless skid resistance measurement which is based on optical texture measurement and consists of two components: measurement of the pavement texture by means of an optical measuring system and calculation of the skid resistance based on the measured texture by means of a rubber friction model. The basic assumptions underlying the theoretical approach and the model itself based on the theory of Persson are presented. The concept is applied to a laboratory device called Wehner/Schulze (W/S machine to prove the theoretical approach. The results are very promising. A strong indication could be provided that skid resistance could be measured without contact in the future.

  2. Modelling Thermal Diffusivity of Differently Textured Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukiashchenko, K. I.; Arkhangelskaya, T. A.

    2018-02-01

    A series of models has been proposed for estimating thermal diffusivity of soils at different water contents. Models have been trained on 49 soil samples with the texture range from sands to silty clays. The bulk density of the studied soils varied from 0.86 to 1.82 g/cm3; the organic carbon was between 0.05 and 6.49%; the physical clay ranged from 1 to 76%. The thermal diffusivity of undisturbed soil cores measured by the unsteady-state method varied from 0.78×10-7 m2/s for silty clay at the water content of 0.142 cm3/cm3 to 10.09 × 10-7 m2/s for sand at the water content of 0.138 cm3/cm3. Each experimental curve was described by the four-parameter function proposed earlier. Pedotransfer functions were then developed to estimate the parameters of the thermal diffusivity vs. water content function from data on soil texture, bulk density, and organic carbon. Models were tested on 32 samples not included in the training set. The root mean square errors of the best-performing models were 17-38%. The models using texture data performed better than the model using only data on soil bulk density and organic carbon.

  3. Focal Conic Flower Textures at Curved Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Beller

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Focal conic domains (FCDs in smectic-A liquid crystals have drawn much attention, both for their exquisitely structured internal form and for their ability to direct the assembly of micromaterials and nanomaterials in a variety of patterns. A key to directing FCD assembly is control over the eccentricity of the domain. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm for creating spatially varying FCD eccentricity by confining a hybrid-aligned smectic with curved interfaces. In particular, we manipulate interface behavior with colloidal particles in order to experimentally produce two examples of what has recently been dubbed the flower texture [C. Meyer et al., Focal Conic Stacking in Smectic A Liquid Crystals: Smectic Flower and Apollonius Tiling, Materials 2, 499, 2009MATEG91996-194410.3390/ma2020499], where the focal hyperbolæ diverge radially outward from the center of the texture, rather than inward as in the canonical éventail or fan texture. We explain how this unconventional assembly can arise from appropriately curved interfaces. Finally, we present a model for this system that applies the law of corresponding cones, showing how FCDs may be embedded smoothly within a “background texture” of large FCDs and concentric spherical layers, in a manner consistent with the qualitative features of the smectic flower. Such understanding could potentially lead to disruptive liquid-crystal technologies beyond displays, including patterning, smart surfaces, microlens arrays, sensors, and nanomanufacturing.

  4. Characterization of microstructure and texture across dissimilar super duplex/austenitic stainless steel weldment joint by super duplex filler metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eghlimi, Abbas, E-mail: a.eghlimi@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamanian, Morteza [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eskandarian, Masoomeh [Department of Materials Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-51154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zabolian, Azam [Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Szpunar, Jerzy A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SK S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    In the present paper, microstructural changes across an as-welded dissimilar austenitic/duplex stainless steel couple welded by a super duplex stainless steel filler metal using gas tungsten arc welding process is characterized with optical microscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction techniques. Accordingly, variations of microstructure, texture, and grain boundary character distribution of base metals, heat affected zones, and weld metal were investigated. The results showed that the weld metal, which was composed of Widmanstätten austenite side-plates and allotriomorphic grain boundary austenite morphologies, had the weakest texture and was dominated by low angle boundaries. The welding process increased the ferrite content but decreased the texture intensity at the heat affected zone of the super duplex stainless steel base metal. In addition, through partial ferritization, it changed the morphology of elongated grains of the rolled microstructure to twinned partially transformed austenite plateaus scattered between ferrite textured colonies. However, the texture of the austenitic stainless steel heat affected zone was strengthened via encouraging recrystallization and formation of annealing twins. At both interfaces, an increase in the special character coincident site lattice boundaries of the primary phase as well as a strong texture with <100> orientation, mainly of Goss component, was observed. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Weld metal showed local orientation at microscale but random texture at macroscale. • Intensification of <100> orientated grains was observed adjacent to the fusion lines. • The austenite texture was weaker than that of the ferrite in all duplex regions. • Welding caused twinned partially transformed austenites to form at SDSS HAZ. • At both interfaces, the ratio of special CSL boundaries of the primary phase increased.

  5. Analysis of partially textured slider and journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T. V. V. L. N.; Rani, A. M. A.; Nagarajan, T.; Hashim, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    The partial texturing of bearing surfaces with different shapes of textures and at different locations is an effective approach to improve the performance of bearings. The present study examines the effects of texture configuration on improvement in load capacity and reduction in friction coefficient for slider and journal bearing. This work presents nondimensional pressure expressions for the partially textured slider and journal bearing. The nondimensional pressure expressions are derived taking into consideration of texture geometry and extent of partial texture on the bearing surface. The Reynolds boundary conditions are used in the analysis to predict nondimensional load capacity and coefficient of friction. Even for nominally parallel surfaces, partial texturing of bearing surfaces has a potential to generate load carrying capacity and reduce coefficient of friction.

  6. A Novel Texture Classification Procedure by using Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jaba Sheela

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Texture can be defined as a local statistical pattern of texture primitives in observer’s domain of interest. Texture classification aims to assign texture labels to unknown textures, according to training samples and classification rules. Association rules have been used in various applications during the past decades. Association rules capture both structural and statistical information, and automatically identify the structures that occur most frequently and relationships that have significant discriminative power. So, association rules can be adapted to capture frequently occurring local structures in textures. This paper describes the usage of association rules for texture classification problem. The performed experimental studies show the effectiveness of the association rules. The overall success rate is about 98%.

  7. Automatic Texture Optimization for 3D Urban Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Ming

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of texture optimization in 3D city reconstruction by using multi-lens oblique images, the paper presents a method of seamless texture model reconstruction. At first, it corrects the radiation information of images by camera response functions and image dark channel. Then, according to the corresponding relevance between terrain triangular mesh surface model to image, implements occlusion detection by sparse triangulation method, and establishes the triangles' texture list of visible. Finally, combines with triangles' topology relationship in 3D triangular mesh surface model and means and variances of image, constructs a graph-cuts-based texture optimization algorithm under the framework of MRF(Markov random filed, to solve the discrete label problem of texture optimization selection and clustering, ensures the consistency of the adjacent triangles in texture mapping, achieves the seamless texture reconstruction of city. The experimental results verify the validity and superiority of our proposed method.

  8. Influence of storage in the texture and viscoelasticity of buns of corn variety white Cariaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José David Torres-González

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the influence of storage time on the variation of texture and visco-elasticity of buns of corn of the white Cariaco variety. The samples were stored refrigerated at 15 °C during 15 days. Textural parameters were determined every two days, using a texture analyzer; viscoelastic properties were set by a test of relaxation and com-pression effort, adjusting the experimental data to the generalized Maxwell model. Also, to determine the model parameters described, an iterative process was performed by non-linear regression using least squares techniques damped by the Solver add-on in Excel 2013. The storage time influenced the texture profile of buns, and the increase of hardness from the eleventh day, which was attributed to moisture loss of the product during cooling. Chewiness was higher for longer storage time. Cohesiveness, adhesiveness and elasticity reported no significant differences with respect to storage time. Statistical differences were presented at initial and final relaxation speeds expressed in the Maxwell model. The experimental data were successfully fitted to the model (R2 > 0.95 which was statistically significant (p < 0.05 and the performance of the elastic module indicated that buns from the white Cariaco variety showed a characteristic behavior of a viscoelastic material, increasing its hardness during the days of storage.

  9. Microstructure, Texture, and Mechanical Property Analysis of Gas Metal Arc Welded AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Saptarshi; Mukherjee, Manidipto; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2015-03-01

    The present study elaborately explains the effect of welding parameters on the microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties of gas metal arc welded AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel sheet (as received) of 4 mm thickness. The welded joints were prepared by varying welding speed (WS) and current simultaneously at a fixed heat input level using a 1.2-mm-diameter austenitic filler metal (AISI 316L). The overall purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the variation of welding conditions on: (i) Microstructural constituents using optical microscope and transmission electron microscope; (ii) Micro-texture evolution, misorientation distributions, and grain boundaries at welded regions by measuring the orientation data from electron back scattered diffraction; and (iii) Mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength, and their correlation with the microstructure and texture. It has been observed that the higher WS along with the higher welding current (weld metal W1) can enhance weld metal mechanical properties through alternation in microstructure and texture of the weld metal. Higher δ-ferrite formation and high-angle boundaries along with the + grain growth direction of the weld metal W1 were responsible for dislocation pile-ups, SFs, deformation twinning, and the induced martensite with consequent strain hardening during tensile deformation. Also, fusion boundary being the weakest link in the welded structure, failure took place mainly at this region.

  10. Dental microwear texture analysis of hominins recovered by the Olduvai Landscape Paleoanthropology Project, 1995-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Peter S; Krueger, Kristin L; Blumenschine, Robert J; Njau, Jackson; Scott, Robert S

    2012-08-01

    Dental microwear analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for the reconstruction of aspects of diet in early hominins. That said, sample sizes for some groups are small, decreasing our confidence that results are representative of a given taxon and making it difficult to assess within-species variation. Here we present microwear texture data for several new specimens of Homo habilis and Paranthropus boisei from Olduvai Gorge, bringing sample sizes for these species in line with those published for most other early hominins. These data are added to those published to date, and microwear textures of the enlarged sample of H. habilis (n = 10) and P. boisei (n = 9) are compared with one another and with those of other early hominins. New results confirm that P. boisei does not have microwear patterns expected of a hard-object specialist. Further, the separate texture complexity analyses of early Homo species suggest that Homo erectus ate a broader range of foods, at least in terms of hardness, than did H. habilis, P. boisei, or the "gracile" australopiths studied. Finally, differences in scale of maximum complexity and perhaps textural fill volume between H. habilis and H. erectus are noted, suggesting further possible differences between these species in diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of alkali on protein polymerization and textural characteristics of textured wheat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2018-01-15

    The impact of alkali addition on the degree of gluten polymerization and textural characteristics of textured wheat protein was investigated. Results showed that the extrusion process increased the average molecular weight of gluten as evidenced by SDS-PAGE and SDS extractable protein. The addition of alkali not only promoted the degree of gluten polymerization, but also induced dehydroalanine-derived cross-linking. Alkali addition decreased the content of cystine and increased the contents of dehydroalanine and lanthionine. The obvious decrease of free SH showed that dehydroalanine-derived cross-linking was quantitatively less crucial than disulfide cross-linking. Furthermore, the protein cross-linking induced by alkali improved the texture properties of gluten extrudates. SEM analysis showed extrusion under alkaline condition conferred a more fibrous microstructure as a consequence of a compact gluten network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental Analysis of Grease Friction Properties on Sliding Textured Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijun Hua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is comprehensive work on the tribological properties and lubrication mechanisms of oil lubricant used on textured surfaces, however the use of grease lubrication on textured surfaces is rather new. This research article presents an experimental study of the frictional behaviours of grease lubricated sliding contact under mixed lubrication conditions. The influences of surface texture parameters on the frictional properties were investigated using a disc-on-ring tribometer. The results showed that the friction coefficient is largely dependent on texture parameters, with higher and lower texture density resulting in a higher friction coefficient at a fixed texture depth. The sample with texture density of 15% and texture depth of 19 μm exhibited the best friction properties in all experimental conditions because it can store more grease and trap wear debris. The reduction of friction is mainly attributable to the formation of a stable grease lubrication film composed of oil film, transfer film and deposited film, and the hydrodynamic pressure effect of the surface texture, which increases the mating gap and reduces the probability of asperity contact. This result will help in understanding the tribological behaviour of grease on a textured surface and in predicting the lubrication conditions of sliding bearings for better operation in any machinery.

  13. Forest Classification Based on Forest texture in Northwest Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinliang; Gao, Yan; Wang, Xiaohua; Fu, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Forest texture is an intrinsic characteristic and an important visual feature of a forest ecological system. Full utilization of forest texture will be a great help in increasing the accuracy of forest classification based on remote sensed data. Taking Shangri-La as a study area, forest classification has been based on the texture. The results show that: (1) From the texture abundance, texture boundary, entropy as well as visual interpretation, the combination of Grayscale-gradient co-occurrence matrix and wavelet transformation is much better than either one of both ways of forest texture information extraction; (2) During the forest texture information extraction, the size of the texture-suitable window determined by the semi-variogram method depends on the forest type (evergreen broadleaf forest is 3×3, deciduous broadleaf forest is 5×5, etc.). (3)While classifying forest based on forest texture information, the texture factor assembly differs among forests: Variance Heterogeneity and Correlation should be selected when the window is between 3×3 and 5×5 Mean, Correlation, and Entropy should be used when the window in the range of 7×7 to 19×19 and Correlation, Second Moment, and Variance should be used when the range is larger than 21×21.

  14. Forest Classification Based on Forest texture in Northwest Yunnan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinliang; Gao, Yan; Fu, Lei; Wang, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Forest texture is an intrinsic characteristic and an important visual feature of a forest ecological system. Full utilization of forest texture will be a great help in increasing the accuracy of forest classification based on remote sensed data. Taking Shangri-La as a study area, forest classification has been based on the texture. The results show that: (1) From the texture abundance, texture boundary, entropy as well as visual interpretation, the combination of Grayscale-gradient co-occurrence matrix and wavelet transformation is much better than either one of both ways of forest texture information extraction; (2) During the forest texture information extraction, the size of the texture-suitable window determined by the semi-variogram method depends on the forest type (evergreen broadleaf forest is 3×3, deciduous broadleaf forest is 5×5, etc.). (3)While classifying forest based on forest texture information, the texture factor assembly differs among forests: Variance Heterogeneity and Correlation should be selected when the window is between 3×3 and 5×5; Mean, Correlation, and Entropy should be used when the window in the range of 7×7 to 19×19; and Correlation, Second Moment, and Variance should be used when the range is larger than 21×21

  15. Texturing and modeling a procedural approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, David S

    1994-01-01

    Congratulations to Ken Perlin for his 1997 Technical Achievement Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Science Board of Governors, given in recognition of the development of ""Turbulence"", Perlin Noise, a technique discussed in this book which is used to produce natural appearing textures on computer-generated surfaces for motion picture visual effects. Dr. Perlin joins Darwyn Peachey (co-developer of RenderMan(R), also discussed in the book) in being honored with this prestigious award.* * Written at a usable level by the developers of the techniques* Serves as a source book for

  16. Maya Studio Projects Texturing and Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Lanier, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Learn to create realistic digital assets for film and games with this project-based guide Focused entirely on practical projects, this hands-on guide shows you how to use Maya's texturing and lighting tools in real-world situations. Whether you need to sharpen your skills or you're looking to break into the field for the first time, you'll learn top industry techniques for this important skill as you follow the instructions for several specific projects. You can even create your own version, using final Maya scene files to validate results. The companion DVD includes supplemental videos, proje

  17. Quantitative texture analysis of electrodeposited line patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Free-standing line patterns of Cu and Ni were manufactured by electrochemical deposition into lithographically prepared patterns. Electrodeposition was carried out on top of a highly oriented Au-layer physically vapor deposited on glass. Quantitative texture analysis carried out by means of x......-ray diffraction for both the substrate layer and the electrodeposits yielded experimental evidence for epitaxy between Cu and Au. An orientation relation between film and substrate was discussed with respect to various concepts of epitaxy. While the conventional mode of epitaxy fails for the Cu...

  18. Surface Texturing-Plasma Nitriding Duplex Treatment for Improving Tribological Performance of AISI 316 Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Naiming; Liu, Qiang; Zou, Jiaojuan; Guo, Junwen; Li, Dali; Yuan, Shuo; Ma, Yong; Wang, Zhenxia; Wang, Zhihua; Tang, Bin

    2016-10-27

    Surface texturing-plasma nitriding duplex treatment was conducted on AISI 316 stainless steel to improve its tribological performance. Tribological behaviors of ground 316 substrates, plasma-nitrided 316 (PN-316), surface-textured 316 (ST-316), and duplex-treated 316 (DT-316) in air and under grease lubrication were investigated using a pin-on-disc rotary tribometer against counterparts of high carbon chromium bearing steel GCr15 and silicon nitride Si₃N₄ balls. The variations in friction coefficient, mass loss, and worn trace morphology of the tested samples were systemically investigated and analyzed. The results showed that a textured surface was formed on 316 after electrochemical processing in a 15 wt % NaCl solution. Grooves and dimples were found on the textured surface. As plasma nitriding was conducted on a 316 substrate and ST-316, continuous and uniform nitriding layers were successfully fabricated on the surfaces of the 316 substrate and ST-316. Both of the obtained nitriding layers presented thickness values of more than 30 μm. The nitriding layers were composed of iron nitrides and chromium nitride. The 316 substrate and ST-316 received improved surface hardness after plasma nitriding. When the tribological tests were carried out under dry sliding and grease lubrication conditions, the tested samples showed different tribological behaviors. As expected, the DT-316 samples revealed the most promising tribological properties, reflected by the lowest mass loss and worn morphologies. The DT-316 received the slightest damage, and its excellent tribological performance was attributed to the following aspects: firstly, the nitriding layer had high surface hardness; secondly, the surface texture was able to capture wear debris, store up grease, and then provide continuous lubrication.

  19. Surface Texturing-Plasma Nitriding Duplex Treatment for Improving Tribological Performance of AISI 316 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiming Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface texturing-plasma nitriding duplex treatment was conducted on AISI 316 stainless steel to improve its tribological performance. Tribological behaviors of ground 316 substrates, plasma-nitrided 316 (PN-316, surface-textured 316 (ST-316, and duplex-treated 316 (DT-316 in air and under grease lubrication were investigated using a pin-on-disc rotary tribometer against counterparts of high carbon chromium bearing steel GCr15 and silicon nitride Si3N4 balls. The variations in friction coefficient, mass loss, and worn trace morphology of the tested samples were systemically investigated and analyzed. The results showed that a textured surface was formed on 316 after electrochemical processing in a 15 wt % NaCl solution. Grooves and dimples were found on the textured surface. As plasma nitriding was conducted on a 316 substrate and ST-316, continuous and uniform nitriding layers were successfully fabricated on the surfaces of the 316 substrate and ST-316. Both of the obtained nitriding layers presented thickness values of more than 30 μm. The nitriding layers were composed of iron nitrides and chromium nitride. The 316 substrate and ST-316 received improved surface hardness after plasma nitriding. When the tribological tests were carried out under dry sliding and grease lubrication conditions, the tested samples showed different tribological behaviors. As expected, the DT-316 samples revealed the most promising tribological properties, reflected by the lowest mass loss and worn morphologies. The DT-316 received the slightest damage, and its excellent tribological performance was attributed to the following aspects: firstly, the nitriding layer had high surface hardness; secondly, the surface texture was able to capture wear debris, store up grease, and then provide continuous lubrication.

  20. Evolution of strain-induced microstructure and texture in commercial aluminum sheet under balanced biaxial stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banovic, S. W.; Foecke, T.

    2003-03-01

    The evolution of surface topography and crystallographic texture was investigated under balanced biaxial stretching in sheets of the aluminum alloy 5052-H32. Two different lots of material, with an initial nominal thickness of 1 mm, were tested in the as-received condition. Samples with increasing levels of balanced biaxial strain were deformed using a modified Marciniak in-plane stretching test. In general, the sheet materials were microstructurally and crystallographically anisotropic. Between the two lots, the initial microstructure and mechanical properties were found to be equivalent; however, the sheet texture was appreciably different. This latter variation was observed to have an effect on the additional roughening of the surface subsequent to deformation. For a given lot of material, the surface roughness was found to be proportional to the magnitude of the strain. However, while the roughening rates for the two lots were comparable, the lot having a stronger initial {220} texture component was found to roughen to a higher degree. Corresponding changes in the sheet texture were observed to have two regimes as a function of the strain level. In the first regime, typically, for strains ( ɛ) up to 0.05, the orientations were found to rotate quickly away from the initial cube {001} orientation observed in the as-received sheet toward positions along the α fiber. Above a strain level of 0.05, the {220} texture component continued to increase with deformation, but at a decreasing rate up to failure of the sheet. The difference in the grain rotation rates observed did not appear to have an effect on the surface roughening, as the relative change of the crystallographic orientations with increasing plastic strain was similar for both heats of material. Instead, it is believed that localized grain or grain-grouping interactions may play a more important role in the surface roughening process.

  1. Enhancement of low pressure cold sprayed copper coating adhesion by laser texturing on aluminum substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Wolfgang; Gillet, Vincent; Courant, Bruno; Aubignat, Emilie; Costil, Sophie; Langlade, Cécile

    2017-02-01

    Surface pre-treatment is fundamental in thermal spraying processes to obtain a sufficient bonding strength between substrate and coating. Different pre-treatments can be used, mostly grit-blasting for current industrial applications. This study is focused on Cu-Al2O3 coatings obtained by Low Pressure Cold Spray on AW5083 aluminum alloy substrate. Bonding strength is measured by tensile adhesion test, while deposition efficiency is measured. Substrates are textured by laser, using a pattern of equally spaced grooves with almost constant diameter and variations of depth. Results show that bonding strength is improved up to +81% compared to non-treated substrate, while deposition efficiency remains constant. The study of the samples after rupture reveals a modification of the failure mode, from mixed failure to cohesive failure. A modification of crack propagation is also noticed, the shape of laser textured grooves induces a deviation of cracks inside the coating instead of following the interface between the layers.

  2. Numerical study of the collapse of a global texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriola, Manuel

    1993-12-01

    We study the numerical solution to the full field equations describing the evolution of a spherically symmetric global texture. We concentrate on the evolution of the fields after the texture collapses. We compare this result with a previous analytical solution found by Turok and Spergel using the nonlinear σ model approximation. The energy produced in massive modes is of the order of 1016 GeV and is almost independent of the initial size of the texture.

  3. Texture development during recrystallization of aluminium containing large particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte; Hansen, Niels; Humphreys, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    The recrystallization process in heavily deformed commercially pure aluminium containing large intermetallic particles was studied by in situ neutron diffraction texture measurements and various microscopical techniques including texture measurements in local areas and simultaneous determination...... of orientations takes place close to larger particles or clusters of particles early in the recrystallization process. The texture of fully recrystallized material, however, contains only a relatively weak random component showing that the randomisation effect of the particles was limited. This was ascribed...

  4. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Guo

    Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.

  5. Surface texture measurement for additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Tomita, Ben; Milne, Katherine A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Macaulay, Gavin D; Roerig, Felix; Hoebel, Matthias; Leach, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    The surface texture of additively manufactured metallic surfaces made by powder bed methods is affected by a number of factors, including the powder’s particle size distribution, the effect of the heat source, the thickness of the printed layers, the angle of the surface relative to the horizontal build bed and the effect of any post processing/finishing. The aim of the research reported here is to understand the way these surfaces should be measured in order to characterise them. In published research to date, the surface texture is generally reported as an Ra value, measured across the lay. The appropriateness of this method for such surfaces is investigated here. A preliminary investigation was carried out on two additive manufacturing processes—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—focusing on the effect of build angle and post processing. The surfaces were measured using both tactile and optical methods and a range of profile and areal parameters were reported. Test coupons were manufactured at four angles relative to the horizontal plane of the powder bed using both SLM and EBM. The effect of lay—caused by the layered nature of the manufacturing process—was investigated, as was the required sample area for optical measurements. The surfaces were also measured before and after grit blasting. (paper)

  6. Progress in bulk texture measurement using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Pingguang; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Akita, Koichi; Harjo, Stefanus; Gong, Wu; Tomota, Yo; Ito, Takayoshi; Morii, Yukio; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Lutterotti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The current status of bulk texture measurements both using angle dispersive neutron diffraction and time-of-flight neutron diffraction at JAEA was briefly reviewed, then the effect of sample orientation coverage in the time-of-flight neutron diffraction on the reliability of reconstructed pole figure on the reliability of reconstructed pole figure was simply compared after the simultaneous Rietveld texture analysis. The similar texture results obtained at different orientation coverage levels suggests that it is possible to reduce the sample rotation times reasonably during the bulk texture measurement. (author)

  7. The Example of Texture Influence in Stress Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lychagina, T A

    2002-01-01

    Influence of texture on the stress-strain curves experimentally measured in the elastic region by neutron diffraction of an extruded Cu rod is shown. Texture information is obtained from the pole figures measured by neutron diffraction as well. Stress-strain curves are computed with elastic polycrystalline properties calculated with and without taking texture into account. Calculations of elastic polycrystalline properties with texture are carried out according to geometric mean model. The advantage of geometric mean averaging recently developed for diffraction elastic constant calculation is experimentally confirmed.

  8. Chemical composition and temperature influence on honey texture properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroian, Mircea; Paduret, Sergiu; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition and temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C) influence on the honey texture parameters (hardness, viscosity, adhesion, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness). The honeys analyzed respect the European regulation in terms of moisture content and inverted sugar concentration. The texture parameters are influenced negatively by the moisture content, and positively by the °Brix concentration. The texture parameters modelling have been made using the artificial neural network and the polynomial model. The polynomial model predicted better the texture parameters than the artificial neural network.

  9. Extreme Compression and Modeling of Bidirectional Texture Function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Filip, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 10 (2007), s. 1859-1865 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Rough texture * 3D texture * BTF * texture synthesis * texture modeling * data compression Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 3.579, year: 2007 http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2007.1139

  10. Sensory and Textural Characteristics of Noodle Made of Ganyong Flour (Canna edulis Kerr.) and Arenga Starch (Arenga pinnata Merr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, ERN; Ariani, D.; Miftakhussolikhah; Yosieto, E.; Angwar, M.; Pranoto, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Ganyong (Canna edulis Kerr) is a local tuber which highest amount of starch content, but has not been fully utilized well at present. One way to improve the usefulness of canna is to process it into noodle, but it needs arenga starch which has high amylose content. The aim of this research was to study the sensory and textural properties of noodle made from canna flour and arenga starch. Research methodologies consist of: (i) characterization of canna flour and arenga starch, (ii) noodle production, and (iii) characterization sensory and textural properties of the noodle. Noodle was made with five ratio variations of canna flour and arenga starch, i.e. 100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75; and 0:100. Sensory analysis was done by hedonic scoring method with attributes : color, stickiness, elasticity, firmness, surface smoothness and overall liking. Textural properties analyses consist of tensile strength, elongation, and stickiness measurements. The results showed that canna flour and arenga starch can be used in noodle making process. Noodle with 25% of canna flour was the most favored product and has the best textural properties. Factors which affect textural properties of product are the amylose and amylopectin amount in each starch. Tensile strength, elongation, and stickiness measurements of noodle with 25% of canna flour were 0,13 N; 41,61%; and 0,0115N respectively.

  11. Gray matter textural heterogeneity as a potential in-vivo biomarker of fine structural abnormalities in Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, E; Ganeshan, B; Minati, L; Beacher, F D C C; Gray, M A; Chatwin, C; Young, R C D; Harrison, N A; Critchley, H D

    2013-02-01

    Brain imaging studies contribute to the neurobiological understanding of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). Herein, we tested the prediction that distributed neurodevelopmental abnormalities in brain development impact on the homogeneity of brain tissue measured using texture analysis (TA; a morphological method for surface pattern characterization). TA was applied to structural magnetic resonance brain scans of 54 adult participants (24 with Asperger syndrome (AS) and 30 controls). Measures of mean gray-level intensity, entropy and uniformity were extracted from gray matter images at fine, medium and coarse textures. Comparisons between AS and controls identified higher entropy and lower uniformity across textures in the AS group. Data reduction of texture parameters revealed three orthogonal principal components. These were used as regressors-of-interest in a voxel-based morphometry analysis that explored the relationship between surface texture variations and regional gray matter volume. Across the AS but not control group, measures of entropy and uniformity were related to the volume of the caudate nuclei, whereas mean gray-level was related to the size of the cerebellar vermis. Similar to neuropathological studies, our study provides evidence for distributed abnormalities in the structural integrity of gray matter in adults with ASC, in particular within corticostriatal and corticocerebellar networks. Additionally, this in-vivo technique may be more sensitive to fine microstructural organization than other more traditional magnetic resonance approaches and serves as a future testable biomarker in AS and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  12. Variation in size, morphology and chemical composition of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Parthiban, G.

    Chemical composition of 613 polymetallic nodules from 150 stations in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) are determined and variations in Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn and moisture content are studied with respect to their size and surface texture...

  13. Low-order non-spatial effects dominate second-order spatial effects in the texture quantifier analysis of 18F-FDG-PET images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J Brooks

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in applying image texture quantifiers to assess the intra-tumor heterogeneity observed in FDG-PET images of various cancers. Use of these quantifiers as prognostic indicators of disease outcome and/or treatment response has yielded inconsistent results. We study the general applicability of some well-established texture quantifiers to the image data unique to FDG-PET.We first created computer-simulated test images with statistical properties consistent with clinical image data for cancers of the uterine cervix. We specifically isolated second-order statistical effects from low-order effects and analyzed the resulting variation in common texture quantifiers in response to contrived image variations. We then analyzed the quantifiers computed for FIGOIIb cervical cancers via receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and via contingency table analysis of detrended quantifier values.We found that image texture quantifiers depend strongly on low-effects such as tumor volume and SUV distribution. When low-order effects are controlled, the image texture quantifiers tested were not able to discern only the second-order effects. Furthermore, the results of clinical tumor heterogeneity studies might be tunable via choice of patient population analyzed.Some image texture quantifiers are strongly affected by factors distinct from the second-order effects researchers ostensibly seek to assess via those quantifiers.

  14. Aural analysis of image texture via cepstral filtering and sonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Martins, Antonio C. G.; Ruschioni, Ruggero A.

    1996-03-01

    Texture plays an important role in image analysis and understanding, with many applications in medical imaging and computer vision. However, analysis of texture by image processing is a rather difficult issue, with most techniques being oriented towards statistical analysis which may not have readily comprehensible perceptual correlates. We propose new methods for auditory display (AD) and sonification of (quasi-) periodic texture (where a basic texture element or `texton' is repeated over the image field) and random texture (which could be modeled as filtered or `spot' noise). Although the AD designed is not intended to be speech- like or musical, we draw analogies between the two types of texture mentioned above and voiced/unvoiced speech, and design a sonification algorithm which incorporates physical and perceptual concepts of texture and speech. More specifically, we present a method for AD of texture where the projections of the image at various angles (Radon transforms or integrals) are mapped to audible signals and played in sequence. In the case of random texture, the spectral envelopes of the projections are related to the filter spot characteristics, and convey the essential information for texture discrimination. In the case of periodic texture, the AD provides timber and pitch related to the texton and periodicity. In another procedure for sonification of periodic texture, we propose to first deconvolve the image using cepstral analysis to extract information about the texton and horizontal and vertical periodicities. The projections of individual textons at various angles are used to create a voiced-speech-like signal with each projection mapped to a basic wavelet, the horizontal period to pitch, and the vertical period to rhythm on a longer time scale. The sound pattern then consists of a serial, melody-like sonification of the patterns for each projection. We believe that our approaches provide the much-desired `natural' connection between the image

  15. Minimizing inter-microscope variability in dental microwear texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D.; Ungar, Peter S.; Brown, Christopher A.; DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Schmidt, Christopher; Prideaux, Gavin J.

    2016-06-01

    A common approach to dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) uses confocal profilometry in concert with scale-sensitive fractal analysis to help understand the diets of extinct mammals. One of the main benefits of DMTA over other methods is the repeatable, objective manner of data collection. This repeatability, however, is threatened by variation in results of DMTA of the same dental surfaces yielded by different microscopes. Here we compare DMTA data of five species of kangaroos measured on seven profilers of varying specifications. Comparison between microscopes confirms that inter-microscope differences are present, but we show that deployment of a number of automated treatments to remove measurement noise can help minimize inter-microscope differences. Applying these same treatments to a published hominin DMTA dataset shows that they alter some significant differences between dietary groups. Minimising microscope variability while maintaining interspecific dietary differences requires then that these factors are balanced in determining appropriate treatments. The process outlined here offers a solution for allowing comparison of data between microscopes, which is essential for ongoing DMTA research. In addition, the process undertaken, including considerations of other elements of DMTA protocols also promises to streamline methodology, remove measurement noise and in doing so, optimize recovery of a reliable dietary signature.

  16. Image segmentation and particles classification using texture analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayar Aly Atteya

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ingredients of oily fish include a large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are important elements in various metabolic processes of humans, and have also been used to prevent diseases. However, in an attempt to reduce cost, recent developments are starting a replace the ingredients of fish oil with products of microalgae, that also produce polyunsaturated fatty acids. To do so, it is important to closely monitor morphological changes in algae cells and monitor their age in order to achieve the best results. This paper aims to describe an advanced vision-based system to automatically detect, classify, and track the organic cells using a recently developed SOPAT-System (Smart On-line Particle Analysis Technology, a photo-optical image acquisition device combined with innovative image analysis software. Methods The proposed method includes image de-noising, binarization and Enhancement, as well as object recognition, localization and classification based on the analysis of particles’ size and texture. Results The methods allowed for correctly computing cell’s size for each particle separately. By computing an area histogram for the input images (1h, 18h, and 42h, the variation could be observed showing a clear increase in cell. Conclusion The proposed method allows for algae particles to be correctly identified with accuracies up to 99% and classified correctly with accuracies up to 100%.

  17. M-HinTS: Mimicking Humans in Texture Sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Rogowitz, Bernice E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.; Kok, Thijs; Daly, Scott J.; Schouten, Theo E.

    2006-01-01

    Various texture analysis algorithms have been developed the last decades. However, no computational model has arisen that mimics human texture perception adequately. In 2000, Payne, Hepplewhite, and Stoneham and in 2005, Van Rikxoort, Van den Broek, and Schouten achieved mappings between humans and

  18. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels to make bread. A...

  19. Stone -Cech compactifications of ditopological texture spaces | Ugur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Then (S, S) is called a texture space. In this paper, a suitable evaluation difunction is defined and an approach for the construction of the Stone- Cech compactification of ditopological texture spaces is given. It is also shown that the Stone- Cech compactification of a topological space can be obtained using highly economic ...

  20. Synthesis of nano-textured biocompatible scaffolds from chicken eggshells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, Waseem; Ilyas, Azhar; Sankaran, Jeyantt; Wan Yuan; Iqbal, Samir M; Kim, Young-Tae

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion, morphology and growth are influenced by surface topography at nano and micrometer scales. Nano-textured surfaces are prepared using photolithography, plasma etching and long polymer chemical etching which are cost prohibitive and require specialized equipment. This article demonstrates a simple approach to synthesize nano-textured scaffolds from chicken eggshells. Varieties of pattern are made on the eggshells like micro-needle forests and nanopores, giving very uniform nano-textures to the surfaces. The surfaces are characterized for chemical composition and crystal phase. The novel patterns are transferred to PDMS surfaces and the nano-textured PDMS surfaces are used to study the effect of texturing on human fibroblast cell growth and attachment. The effects of surface topographies, along with laminin coating on cell cultures, are also studied. We find an exciting phenomenon that the initial seeding density of the fibroblast cells affects the influence of the nano-texturing on cell growth. These nano-textured surfaces give 16 times more fibroblast growth when compared to flat PDMS surfaces. The novel nano-textured patterns also double the laminin adsorption on PDMS. (paper)

  1. Design of textured surfaces for super-hydrophobicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although the Cassie–Baxter and Wenzel equations predict contact angles for relative dimensions of micro-pillars on textured surfaces, the absolute pillar dimensions are determined by trial and error. Alternatively, geometries of natural super-hydrophobic surfaces are often imitated to design textured surfaces. Knowing the ...

  2. Quantitative comparison between simulated and experimental FCC rolling textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wronski, M.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Leffers, Torben

    2015-01-01

    The degree of similarity between simulated and experimental fcc rolling textures is characterized by a single scalar parameter. The textures are simulated with a relatively simple and efficient 1-point model which allows us to vary the strength of the interaction between the grains and the surrou...

  3. Surface texturing of crystalline silicon and effective area measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tietun; Chen, Dong; Chui, Rongqiang

    2000-11-01

    In this paper, the surface area of solar cell is determined by the capacitance measurements of MOS structure. The texture etching technology can be controlled according to the change of silicon surface area, furthermore, the textured silicon surface and interface characteristic of solar cell can be studied by measuring the relationship of capacitance and voltage for MOS structure.

  4. Instrumental textural perception of food and comparative biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texture is an important food quality attribute affecting consumer acceptance. Consumers characterize texture as either crispy or crunchy, and the moisture content and internal structure of the products are significant factors in its perception. Exposing an extruded corn snack (ECS), an extruded biod...

  5. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... < 0.05) and the texture parameter of energy showed significant increase (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the cream containing 3 % Acacia nilotica bark extract possesses anti-aging effect and improves skin surface appearance.. Keywords: Acacia nilotica, Cream, Visioscan VC 98, Skin texture, Anti-aging ...

  6. Post tsunami rebuilding of beaches and the texture of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Mahesh, R.; Josephine, P.J.; Deepa, V.; Sudha, V.; Sunderasen, D.

    and textural statistic studies. In view of the presence tsunami in between, the beach sand composition and texture have been drastically changed, the studies on beach re-building effort has been initiated in continuing the beach sand sample collection to 2006...

  7. Texture Segmentation Based on Gabor Filters and Neutrosophic Graph Cut

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Y.; Sengur, Abdulkadir; Yanhui, Guo

    2015-01-01

    Image segmentation is the first step of image processing and image analysis. Texture segmentation is a challenging task in image segmentation applications. Neutrosophy hasanaturalabilitytohandletheindeterminateinformation.In this work, we investigate the texture image segmentation based on Gabor filters (GFs) and neutrosophic graph cut (NGC).

  8. Highly textured Gd2Zr2O7 films grown on textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates by solution deposition route: Growth, texture evolution, and microstructure dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Napari, M.

    2012-01-01

    or crystallization in the thicker films. This work not only demonstrates a route for producing textured Gd2Zr2O7 buffer layers with dense structure directly on technical substrates, but also provides some fundamental understandings related to chemical solution derived films grown on metallic substrates.......Growth, texture evolution and microstructure dependency of solution derived Gd2Zr2O7 films deposited on textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates have been extensively studied. Influence of processing parameters, in particular annealing temperature and dwell time, as well as thickness effect on film texture...... the difference of interfacial energy along two directions in the anisotropic metallic substrate. Growth of Gd2Zr2O7 films displays an ultrafast kinetics under optimized conditions. Independency of sharp epitaxial (004) and polycrystalline (222) orientation is revealed from further synchrotron diffraction studies...

  9. Influence of texture on fracture toughness of zircaloy cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, V.; Andersson, Stefan

    1997-06-01

    The correlation between texture and fracture toughness of Zircaloy 2 cladding has been investigated in connection with axial cracks in fuel rods. The texture of the cladding determines the anisotropy of plasticity of the cladding which, in turn, should influence the strain conditions at the crack-tip. Plastic strains in the cladding under uniaxial tension were characterised by means of the anisotropy constants F, G and H calculated according to Hill's theory. Test temperatures between 20 and 300 deg C do not influence the F, G and H values. Any significant effect of hydrogen (about 500 wtppm) on the anisotropy constants F, G and H has not been revealed at a test temperature of 300 deg C. The results, obtained for stress-relieved and recrystallized cladding with different texture, show an obvious influence of texture on the fracture toughness of Zircaloy cladding. A higher fracture toughness has been found for cladding with more radial texture

  10. Texture of YBCO/Ag PIT-tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paturi, P.; Kulmala, T.; Raittila, J.

    2004-01-01

    with X-ray diffraction. A clear correlation between 1, and c-axis texture is found and even some evidence of ab-texturing in the very best tapes. Less texture is found when the middle of the filament is exposed by cutting the tape. This suggests that multifilament tapes with smaller filament cross......YBCO/Ag tapes prepared using nanosized YBCO powder are currently the best powder-in-tube YBCO tapes with their I-c = 5.02 A and J(c) = 3300 A/cm(2) in self-field and at 77 K. The texture of these tapes was studied by removing the silver with mercury and then measuring the texture of the surface...

  11. SHAPE FROM TEXTURE USING LOCALLY SCALED POINT PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Didden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Shape from texture refers to the extraction of 3D information from 2D images with irregular texture. This paper introduces a statistical framework to learn shape from texture where convex texture elements in a 2D image are represented through a point process. In a first step, the 2D image is preprocessed to generate a probability map corresponding to an estimate of the unnormalized intensity of the latent point process underlying the texture elements. The latent point process is subsequently inferred from the probability map in a non-parametric, model free manner. Finally, the 3D information is extracted from the point pattern by applying a locally scaled point process model where the local scaling function represents the deformation caused by the projection of a 3D surface onto a 2D image.

  12. Phosphorous gettering in acidic textured multicrystalline solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesdeoca-Santana, A. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Jimenez-Rodriguez, E.; Diaz-Herrera, B.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, C. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez-Diaz, B. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Departamento de Energia Fotovoltaica, Instituto Tecnologico y de Energias Renovables. Poligono Industrial de Granadilla s/n, 38600 San Isidro-Granadilla de Abona, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Rinio, M.; Borchert, D. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Guerrero-Lemus, R. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada, Catedra Focus-Abengoa, Jorge Juan 46, 28001 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The influence of phosphorus gettering is studied in this work applied to an acidic textured multicrystalline silicon substrate. The texturization was achieved with an HF/HNO{sub 3} solution leading to nanostructures on the silicon surface. It has been demonstrated in previous works that this textured surface decreases the reflectance on the solar cell and increases the surface area improving the photon collection and enhancing the short circuit current. The present study investigates the effect on the minority carrier lifetime of the phosphorous diffusion when it is carried out on this textured surface. The lifetime is measured by means microwave photoconductance decay and quasi steady state phototoconductance devices. The diffused textured wafers are used to fabricate solar cells and their electrical parameters are analyzed. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. AUTOMATIC TEXTURE RECONSTRUCTION OF 3D CITY MODEL FROM OBLIQUE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the photorealistic 3D city models are increasingly important in various geospatial applications related to virtual city tourism, 3D GIS, urban planning, real-estate management. Besides the acquisition of high-precision 3D geometric data, texture reconstruction is also a crucial step for generating high-quality and visually realistic 3D models. However, most of the texture reconstruction approaches are probably leading to texture fragmentation and memory inefficiency. In this paper, we introduce an automatic framework of texture reconstruction to generate textures from oblique images for photorealistic visualization. Our approach include three major steps as follows: mesh parameterization, texture atlas generation and texture blending. Firstly, mesh parameterization procedure referring to mesh segmentation and mesh unfolding is performed to reduce geometric distortion in the process of mapping 2D texture to 3D model. Secondly, in the texture atlas generation step, the texture of each segmented region in texture domain is reconstructed from all visible images with exterior orientation and interior orientation parameters. Thirdly, to avoid color discontinuities at boundaries between texture regions, the final texture map is generated by blending texture maps from several corresponding images. We evaluated our texture reconstruction framework on a dataset of a city. The resulting mesh model can get textured by created texture without resampling. Experiment results show that our method can effectively mitigate the occurrence of texture fragmentation. It is demonstrated that the proposed framework is effective and useful for automatic texture reconstruction of 3D city model.

  14. Automatic Texture Reconstruction of 3d City Model from Oblique Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Junhua; Deng, Fei; Li, Xinwei; Wan, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the photorealistic 3D city models are increasingly important in various geospatial applications related to virtual city tourism, 3D GIS, urban planning, real-estate management. Besides the acquisition of high-precision 3D geometric data, texture reconstruction is also a crucial step for generating high-quality and visually realistic 3D models. However, most of the texture reconstruction approaches are probably leading to texture fragmentation and memory inefficiency. In this paper, we introduce an automatic framework of texture reconstruction to generate textures from oblique images for photorealistic visualization. Our approach include three major steps as follows: mesh parameterization, texture atlas generation and texture blending. Firstly, mesh parameterization procedure referring to mesh segmentation and mesh unfolding is performed to reduce geometric distortion in the process of mapping 2D texture to 3D model. Secondly, in the texture atlas generation step, the texture of each segmented region in texture domain is reconstructed from all visible images with exterior orientation and interior orientation parameters. Thirdly, to avoid color discontinuities at boundaries between texture regions, the final texture map is generated by blending texture maps from several corresponding images. We evaluated our texture reconstruction framework on a dataset of a city. The resulting mesh model can get textured by created texture without resampling. Experiment results show that our method can effectively mitigate the occurrence of texture fragmentation. It is demonstrated that the proposed framework is effective and useful for automatic texture reconstruction of 3D city model.

  15. Syntactic texture and perception for a new generic visual anomalies classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désage, Simon-Frédéric; Pitard, Gilles; Pillet, Maurice; Favrelière, Hugues; Maire, Jean-Luc; Frelin, Fabrice; Samper, Serge; Le Goïc, Gaëtan

    2015-04-01

    The research purpose is to improve aesthetic anomalies detection and evaluation based on what is perceived by human eye and on the 2006 CIE report.1 It is therefore important to define parameters able to discriminate surfaces, in accordance with the perception of human eye. Our starting point in assessing aesthetic anomalies is geometric description such as defined by ISO standard,2 i.e. traduce anomalies description with perception words about texture divergence impact. However, human controllers observe (detect) the aesthetic anomaly by its visual effect and interpreter for its geometric description. The research question is how define generic parameters for discriminating aesthetic anomalies, from enhanced information of visual texture such as recent surface visual rendering approach. We propose to use an approach from visual texture processing that quantify spatial variations of pixel for translating changes in color, material and relief. From a set of images from different angles of light which gives us access to the surface appearance, we propose an approach from visual effect to geometrical specifications as the current standards have identified the aesthetic anomalies.

  16. Substrate texture affects female cricket walking response to male calling song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Ponce, E. J.; Sutcliffe, M. P. F.; Hedwig, B.

    2018-03-01

    Field crickets are extensively used as a model organism to study female phonotactic walking behaviour, i.e. their attraction to the male calling song. Laboratory-based phonotaxis experiments generally rely on arena or trackball-based settings; however, no attention has been paid to the effect of substrate texture on the response. Here, we tested phonotaxis in female Gryllus bimaculatus, walking on trackballs machined from methyl-methacrylate foam with different cell sizes. Surface height variations of the trackballs, due to the cellular composition of the material, were measured with profilometry and characterized as smooth, medium or rough, with roughness amplitudes of 7.3, 16 and 180 µm. Female phonotaxis was best on a rough and medium trackball surface, a smooth surface resulted in a significant lower phonotactic response. Claws of the cricket foot were crucial for effective walking. Females insert their claws into the surface pores to allow mechanical interlocking with the substrate texture and a high degree of attachment, which cannot be established on smooth surfaces. These findings provide insight to the biomechanical basis of insect walking and may inform behavioural studies that the surface texture on which walking insects are tested is crucial for the resulting behavioural response.

  17. A Study of Feature Extraction Using Divergence Analysis of Texture Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallada, W. A.; Bly, B. G.; Boyd, R. K.; Cox, S.

    1982-01-01

    An empirical study of texture analysis for feature extraction and classification of high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery (10 meters) is presented in terms of specific land cover types. The principal method examined is the use of spatial gray tone dependence (SGTD). The SGTD method reduces the gray levels within a moving window into a two-dimensional spatial gray tone dependence matrix which can be interpreted as a probability matrix of gray tone pairs. Haralick et al (1973) used a number of information theory measures to extract texture features from these matrices, including angular second moment (inertia), correlation, entropy, homogeneity, and energy. The derivation of the SGTD matrix is a function of: (1) the number of gray tones in an image; (2) the angle along which the frequency of SGTD is calculated; (3) the size of the moving window; and (4) the distance between gray tone pairs. The first three parameters were varied and tested on a 10 meter resolution panchromatic image of Maryville, Tennessee using the five SGTD measures. A transformed divergence measure was used to determine the statistical separability between four land cover categories forest, new residential, old residential, and industrial for each variation in texture parameters.

  18. Game theory-based visual tracking approach focusing on color and texture features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zefenfen; Hou, Zhiqiang; Yu, Wangsheng; Chen, Chuanhua; Wang, Xin

    2017-07-20

    It is difficult for a single-feature tracking algorithm to achieve strong robustness under a complex environment. To solve this problem, we proposed a multifeature fusion tracking algorithm that is based on game theory. By focusing on color and texture features as two gamers, this algorithm accomplishes tracking by using a mean shift iterative formula to search for the Nash equilibrium of the game. The contribution of different features is always keeping the state of optical balance, so that the algorithm can fully take advantage of feature fusion. According to the experiment results, this algorithm proves to possess good performance, especially under the condition of scene variation, target occlusion, and similar interference.

  19. SU-E-J-262: Variability in Texture Analysis of Gynecological Tumors in the Context of An 18F-FDG PET Adaptive Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrocki, J [Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham, NC (United States); Chino, J; Das, S; Craciunescu, O [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study examines the effect on texture analysis due to variable reconstruction of PET images in the context of an adaptive FDG PET protocol for node positive gynecologic cancer patients. By measuring variability in texture features from baseline and intra-treatment PET-CT, we can isolate unreliable texture features due to large variation. Methods: A subset of seven patients with node positive gynecological cancers visible on PET was selected for this study. Prescribed dose varied between 45–50.4Gy, with a 55–70Gy boost to the PET positive nodes. A baseline and intratreatment (between 30–36Gy) PET-CT were obtained on a Siemens Biograph mCT. Each clinical PET image set was reconstructed 6 times using a TrueX+TOF algorithm with varying iterations and Gaussian filter. Baseline and intra-treatment primary GTVs were segmented using PET Edge (MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH), a semi-automatic gradient-based algorithm, on the clinical PET and transferred to the other reconstructed sets. Using an in-house MATLAB program, four 3D texture matrices describing relationships between voxel intensities in the GTV were generated: co-occurrence, run length, size zone, and neighborhood difference. From these, 39 textural features characterizing texture were calculated in addition to SUV histogram features. The percent variability among parameters was first calculated. Each reconstructed texture feature from baseline and intra-treatment per patient was normalized to the clinical baseline scan and compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test in order to isolate variations due to reconstruction parameters. Results: For the baseline scans, 13 texture features showed a mean range greater than 10%. For the intra scans, 28 texture features showed a mean range greater than 10%. Comparing baseline to intra scans, 25 texture features showed p <0.05. Conclusion: Variability due to different reconstruction parameters increased with treatment, however, the majority of texture

  20. Mechanical Aqueous Alteration Dominates Textures of Gale Crater Rocks: Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aileen Yingst, R.; Minitti, Michelle; Edgett, Kenneth; McBride, Marie; Stack, Kathryn

    2015-04-01

    lusters, set in gray, fine sand; and dark gray, well-cemented, and fine grained, with rare pebble-sized clasts. The latter also exhibits pores or vugs that may have resulted from removal of these larger coasts. Pebbly sandstones: This texture is characterized by a poorly-cemented, poorly sorted matrix of coarse sand to granules with a variety of colors and lusters. Whereas two endmembers in this class (Bardin Bluffs and Altar Mountain) have a similar fine-grained matrix, they exhibit different populations and proportions of granules to cm-sized pebbles. Bardin Bluffs displays a fining upwards texture and grain-to-grain contact; the stratigraphically lower Altar Mountain does not. Massive and Vuggy rocks: These two classes are gray and fine-grained. Many of these rocks occur in a sedimentary context, suggesting that differences in grain characteristics and relationships stem from variations in cementation and/or weathering history. In general, most rock textures indicate fluvial or possibly lacustrine sediments; MAHLI has not unambiguously identified eolian or igneous rock textures, although some pebble-sized clasts may have an igneous provenance and some might derive from impact melt.

  1. Mineral textures in Serpentine-hosted Alkaline Springs from the Oman ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampouras, Manolis; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Bach, Wolfgang; Garrido, Carlos J.; Los, Karin; Fussmann, Dario; Monien, Monien

    2017-04-01

    Meteoric water infiltration in ultramafic rocks leads to serpentinization and the formation of subaerial, low temperature, hydrothermal alkaline springs. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the mineral precipitation mechanisms and textural features of mineral precipitates, along as the geochemical and hydrological characterization, of two alkaline spring systems in the Semail ophiolite (Nasif and Khafifah sites, Wadi Tayin massif). The main aim of the study is to provide new insights into mineral and textural variations in active, on-land, alkaline vents of the Oman ophiolite. Discharge of circulating fluids forms small-scale, localized hydrological catchments consisting in unevenly interconnected ponds. Three different types of waters can be distinguished within the pond systems: i) Mg-type; alkaline (7.9 11.6), Ca-OH-rich waters; and iii) Mix-type waters arising from the mixing of Mg-type and Ca-type waters (9.6 ponds were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy coupled to dispersive energy spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDS). Aragonite and calcite are the dominant minerals (95 vol.%) of the total mineralogical index in all sites. Mg-type waters host hydrated magnesium carbonates (nesquehonite) and magnesium hydroxycarbonate hydrates (artinite) due to evaporation. Brucite, hydromagnesite and dypingite presence in Mix-type waters is spatially controlled by the hydrology of the system and is localized around mixing zones between Ca-type with Mg-type waters. Residence time of discharging waters in the ponds before mixing has an impact on fluid chemistry as it influences the equilibration time with the atmosphere. Acicular aragonite is the main textural type in hyper-alkaline Ca-type waters, acting as a substratum for the growth of calcite and brucite crystals. Low crystallinity, dumbbell shaped and double pyramid aragonite dominates in Mix-type water precipitates. Rate of supersaturation is essential

  2. Fiber vs Rolling Texture: Stress State Dependence for Cold-Drawn Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorina, M. A.; Karabanalov, M. S.; Stepanov, S. I.; Demakov, S. L.; Loginov, Yu. N.; Lobanov, M. L.

    2018-02-01

    The texture of the cold-drawn copper wire was investigated along the radius using electron backscatter diffraction. The complex fiber texture of the central region of the wire was considered as the rolling texture consisting of a set of preferred orientations. The texture of the periphery region was revealed to be similar to the shear texture. The orientation-dependent properties of the wire were proven to be determined by the texture of the near-surface layers.

  3. Investigating the Role of Soil Texture in Vapor Intrusion from Groundwater Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Wang, Yue; Zhong, Zhong; Tang, Mengling; Suuberg, Eric M

    2017-07-01

    Soil texture is believed to play a significant role in the migration of subsurface volatile chemicals into buildings at contaminated sites, an exposure process known as vapor intrusion (VI). In this study, we investigated the role of soil texture in determining the attenuation of contaminant soil gas concentration from groundwater source to receptor building. We performed soil column experiments, numerical simulations, and statistical analysis of the USEPA's VI database. The soil column experiments were conducted with commercial sand and soils with sand and sandy loam textures. Measured one-dimensional soil gas concentration profiles were compared with numerical predictions. Good agreement between experiments and model results supports the use of the classical multiphase chemical transport equation for simulating contaminant vapor transport from groundwater through the vadose zone. A full three-dimensional numerical model was then used to simulate typical VI scenarios with groundwater sources. Results indicate that, although soil particle texture can play a role in determining subslab-to-indoor air concentration attenuation, there is no obvious relationship between soil particle size and groundwater source-to-subslab except in the case of a shallow contaminant source. This conclusion is consistent with results reported in USEPA's VI database, in which variation in soil particle size does not affect source-to-subslab attenuation factors but does influence subslab-to-indoor air concentration attenuation factors by an average of about 0.4 order of magnitude. This finding suggests that an appropriate focus of VI site investigation should include the shallow soil beneath the building foundation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Mechanical properties of ion-beam-textured surgical implant alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    An electron-bombardment Hg ion thruster was used as an ion source to texture surfaces of materials used to make orthopedic and/or dental prostheses or implants. The materials textured include 316 stainless steel, titanium-6% aluminum, 4% vanadium, and cobalt-20% chromium, 15% tungsten. To determine the effect of ion texturing on the ultimate strength and yield strength, stainless steel and Co-Cr-W alloy samples were tensile tested to failure. Three types of samples of both materials were tested. One type was ion-textured (the process also heats each sample to 300 C), another type was simply heated to 300 C in an oven, and the third type was untreated. Stress-strain diagrams, 0.2% offset yield strength data, total elongation data, and area reduction data are presented. Fatigue specimens of ion textured and untextured 316 stainless steel and Ti-6% Al-4% V were tested. Included as an ion textured sample is a Ti-6% Al-4% V sample which was ion machined by means of Ni screen mask so as to produce an array of 140 mu m x 140 mu m x 60 mu m deep pits. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the ion textured surfaces.

  5. Contrast enhancement via texture region based histogram equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuldeep; Vishwakarma, Dinesh K.; Singh Walia, Gurjit; Kapoor, Rajiv

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents two novel contrast enhancement approaches using texture regions-based histogram equalization (HE). In HE-based contrast enhancement methods, the enhanced image often contains undesirable artefacts because an excessive number of pixels in the non-textured areas heavily bias the histogram. The novel idea presented in this paper is to suppress the impact of pixels in non-textured areas and to exploit texture features for the computation of histogram in the process of HE. The first algorithm named as Dominant Orientation-based Texture Histogram Equalization (DOTHE), constructs the histogram of the image using only those image patches having dominant orientation. DOTHE categories image patches into smooth, dominant or non-dominant orientation patches by using the image variance and singular value decomposition algorithm and utilizes only dominant orientation patches in the process of HE. The second method termed as Edge-based Texture Histogram Equalization, calculates significant edges in the image and constructs the histogram using the grey levels present in the neighbourhood of edges. The cumulative density function of the histogram formed from texture features is mapped on the entire dynamic range of the input image to produce the contrast-enhanced image. Subjective as well as objective performance assessment of proposed methods is conducted and compared with other existing HE methods. The performance assessment in terms of visual quality, contrast improvement index, entropy and measure of enhancement reveals that the proposed methods outperform the existing HE methods.

  6. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher

    2017-08-15

    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substrates to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.

  7. Seismic and Rockphysics Diagnostics of Multiscale Reservoir Textures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko

    2004-05-01

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have continued our work on analyzing shale textures from scanning acoustic microscope images. Our analysis is now extended to over 280 images of shales, giving us better statistics. The shales cover a range of depths and maturity. We estimate different statistical measures for characterizing heterogeneity and textures from scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) images of shale microstructures. Characterizing and understanding the microgeometry, their textures, scales, and textural anisotropy is important for better understanding the role of microgeometry on effective elastic properties. We analyzed SAM images from Bakken shale, Bazhenov shale, and Woodford shale. We observed quantifiable and consistent patterns linking texture, shale maturity, and elastic P-wave impedance. The textural heterogeneity and P-wave impedance increase with increasing maturity (decreasing kerogen content), while there is a general decrease in textural anisotropy with maturity. We also found a reasonably good match between elastic impedance estimated from SAM images and impedance computed from ultrasonic measurements.

  8. Maximal zero textures in Linear and Inverse seesaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopam Sinha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate Linear and Inverse seesaw mechanisms with maximal zero textures of the constituent matrices subjected to the assumption of non-zero eigenvalues for the neutrino mass matrix mν and charged lepton mass matrix me. If we restrict to the minimally parametrized non-singular ‘me’ (i.e., with maximum number of zeros it gives rise to only 6 possible textures of me. Non-zero determinant of mν dictates six possible textures of the constituent matrices. We ask in this minimalistic approach, what phenomenologically allowed maximum zero textures are possible. It turns out that Inverse seesaw leads to 7 allowed two-zero textures while the Linear seesaw leads to only one. In Inverse seesaw, we show that 2 is the maximum number of independent zeros that can be inserted into μS to obtain all 7 viable two-zero textures of mν. On the other hand, in Linear seesaw mechanism, the minimal scheme allows maximum 5 zeros to be accommodated in ‘m’ so as to obtain viable effective neutrino mass matrices (mν. Interestingly, we find that our minimalistic approach in Inverse seesaw leads to a realization of all the phenomenologically allowed two-zero textures whereas in Linear seesaw only one such texture is viable. Next, our numerical analysis shows that none of the two-zero textures give rise to enough CP violation or significant δCP. Therefore, if δCP=π/2 is established, our minimalistic scheme may still be viable provided we allow larger number of parameters in ‘me’.

  9. Edge detection and texture classification by cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylinski, Sarah; Osorio, Daniel; Shohet, Adam J

    2009-12-14

    Cephalopod mollusks including octopus and cuttlefish are adept at adaptive camouflage, varying their appearance to suit the surroundings. This behavior allows unique access into the vision of a non-human species because one can ask how these animals use spatial information to control their coloration pattern. There is particular interest in factors that affect the relative levels of expression of the Mottle and the Disruptive body patterns. Broadly speaking, the Mottle is displayed on continuous patterned surfaces whereas the Disruptive is used on discrete objects such as pebbles. Recent evidence from common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, suggests that multiple cues are relevant, including spatial scale, contrast, and depth. We analyze the body pattern responses of juvenile cuttlefish to a range of checkerboard stimuli. Our results suggest that the choice of camouflage pattern is consistent with a simple model of how cuttlefish classify visual textures, according to whether they are Uniform or patterned, and whether the pattern includes visual edges. In particular, cuttlefish appear to detect edges by sensing the relative spatial phases of two spatial frequency components (e.g., fundamental and the third harmonic Fourier component in a square wave). We discuss the relevance of these findings to vision and camouflage in aquatic environments.

  10. Fresh fruit: microstructure, texture, and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Delilah F.; Imam, Syed H.; Orts, William J.; Glenn, Gregory M.

    2009-05-01

    Fresh-cut produce has a huge following in today's supermarkets. The trend follows the need to decrease preparation time as well as the desire to follow the current health guidelines for consumption of more whole "heart-healthy" foods. Additionally, consumers are able to enjoy a variety of fresh produce regardless of the local season because produce is now shipped world-wide. However, most fruits decompose rapidly once their natural packaging has been disrupted by cutting. In addition, some intact fruits have limited shelf-life which, in turn, limits shipping and storage. Therefore, a basic understanding of how produce microstructure relates to texture and how microstructure changes as quality deteriorates is needed to ensure the best quality in the both the fresh-cut and the fresh produce markets. Similarities between different types of produce include desiccation intolerance which produces wrinkling of the outer layers, cracking of the cuticle and increased susceptibility to pathogen invasion. Specific examples of fresh produce and their corresponding ripening and storage issues, and degradation are shown in scanning electron micrographs.

  11. Method of Forming Textured Silicon Substrate by Maskless Cryogenic Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Homyk, Andrew P. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a textured substrate comprising a base comprising silicon, the base having a plurality of needle like structures depending away from the base, wherein at least one of the needle like structures has a depth of greater than or equal to about 50 micrometers determined perpendicular to the base, and wherein at least one of the needle like structures has a width of less than or equal to about 50 micrometers determined parallel to the base. An anode and a lithium ion battery comprising the textured substrate, and a method of producing the textured substrate are also disclosed.

  12. Hydrophobic mismatch triggering texture defects in membrane gel domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, J.; Brewer, J.R.; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2013-01-01

    a lipid-induced transition between vortex and uniform textures in binary phospholipid bilayers. By tuning the lipid composition, the hydrophobic mismatch at the domain boundary can be varied systematically as monitored by AFM. Low hydrophobic mismatch correlates with domains having uniform texture, while...... higher mismatch values correlate with a vortex-type texture. The defect pattern created during early growth persists in larger domains, and a minimal model incorporating the anisotropic line tension and the vortex energy can rationalize this finding. The results suggest that the lipid composition...

  13. Statistical Texture Model for mass Detection in Mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Gallego-Ortiz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of image processing algorithms for mass detection in mammography, texture is a key feature to be used to distinguish abnormal tissue from normal tissue. Recently, a texture model based on a multivariate Gaussian mixture was proposed, of which the parameters are learned in an unsupervised way from the pixel intensities of images. The model produces images that are probabilistic maps of texture normality and it was proposed as a visualization aid for diagnostic by clinical experts. In this paper, the usability of the model is studied for automatic mass detection. A segmentation strategy is proposed and evaluated using 79 mammography cases.

  14. FUSION OF WAVELET AND CURVELET COEFFICIENTS FOR GRAY TEXTURE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santhanalakshmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a framework for gray texture classification based on the fusion of wavelet and curvelet features. The two main frequency domain transformations Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT and Discrete Curvelet Transform (DCT are analyzed. The features are extracted from the DWT and DCT decomposed image separately and their performance is evaluated independently. Then feature fusion technique is applied to increase the classification accuracy of the proposed approach. Brodatz texture images are used for this study. The results show that, only two texture images D105 and D106 are misclassified by the fusion approach and 99.74% classification accuracy is obtained.

  15. On the texturization of monocrystalline silicon with sodium carbonate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallejo, B.; Gonzalez-Manas, M.; Martinez-Lopez, J.; Caballero, M.A. [Departamento de Cristalografia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    The texturization of monocrystalline silicon wafers using sodium carbonate solution has been investigated. This etching process has been evaluated in terms of the surface morphology and the reflectance value. The results show that for low concentration of sodium carbonate the increase of texturing time decreases the reflectance value because of the change in morphology from hillocks to pyramidal; on the contrary for intermediate and high concentrations the increase of time has a detrimental effect on texturization because it increases both the pyramid sizes and their non-uniform distribution. However, a good cell performance could be obtained by etching at high concentrations and short times. (author)

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW Textured silicon nitride: processing and anisotropic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwen Zhu and Yoshio Sakka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Textured silicon nitride (Si3N4 has been intensively studied over the past 15 years because of its use for achieving its superthermal and mechanical properties. In this review we present the fundamental aspects of the processing and anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4, with emphasis on the anisotropic and abnormal grain growth of β-Si3N4, texture structure and texture analysis, processing methods and anisotropic properties. On the basis of the texturing mechanisms, the processing methods described in this article have been classified into two types: hot-working (HW and templated grain growth (TGG. The HW method includes the hot-pressing, hot-forging and sinter-forging techniques, and the TGG method includes the cold-pressing, extrusion, tape-casting and strong magnetic field alignment techniques for β-Si3N4 seed crystals. Each processing technique is thoroughly discussed in terms of theoretical models and experimental data, including the texturing mechanisms and the factors affecting texture development. Also, methods of synthesizing the rodlike β-Si3N4 single crystals are presented. Various anisotropic properties of textured Si3 N4 and their origins are thoroughly described and discussed, such as hardness, elastic modulus, bending strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, creep behavior, tribological and wear behavior, erosion behavior, contact damage behavior and thermal conductivity. Models are analyzed to determine the thermal anisotropy by considering the intrinsic thermal anisotropy, degree of orientation and various microstructure factors. Textured porous Si3N4 with a unique microstructure composed of oriented elongated β-Si3N4 and anisotropic pores is also described for the first time, with emphasis on its unique mechanical and thermal-mechanical properties. Moreover, as an important related material, textured α-Sialon is also reviewed, because the presence of elongated α-Sialon grains allows the production of textured

  17. Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Sambasivan [Chicago, IL; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Barnett, Scott A [Evanston, IL; Kim, Ilwon [Skokie, IL; Kroeger, Donald M [Knoxville, TN

    2009-03-31

    The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metals and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layer. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may have superconducting properties.

  18. A psychophysically validated metric for bidirectional texture data reduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Chantler, M.J.; Green, P.R.; Haindl, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2008), s. 138:1-138:11 ISSN 0730-0301 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bidirectional Texture Functions * texture compression Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 3.383, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/haindl-a psychophysically validated metric for bidirectional texture data reduction.pdf

  19. A Fourier-based textural feature extraction procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, W. D.; Farr, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure is presented to discriminate and characterize regions of uniform image texture. The procedure utilizes textural features consisting of pixel-by-pixel estimates of the relative emphases of annular regions of the Fourier transform. The utility and derivation of the features are described through presentation of a theoretical justification of the concept followed by a heuristic extension to a real environment. Two examples are provided that validate the technique on synthetic images and demonstrate its applicability to the discrimination of geologic texture in a radar image of a tropical vegetated area.

  20. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using MRI hippocampal texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Igel, Christian; Hansen, Naja Liv

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduction in hippocampal volume in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is unknown whether hippocampal texture changes in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that does not have a change...... in hippocampal volume. We tested the hypothesis that hippocampal texture has association to early cognitive loss beyond that of volumetric changes. The texture marker was trained and evaluated using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, and subsequently...

  1. Bidirectional Texture Function Modeling: State of the Art Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Haindl, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 11 (2009), s. 1921-1940 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593; GA AV ČR 1ET400750407 Grant - others:EC Marie Curie(BE) 41358; GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : BTF * surface texture * 3D texture Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/RO/filip-bidirectional texture function modeling state of the art survey.pdf

  2. Effects of Texture and Grain Size on the Yield Strength of ZK61 Alloy Rods Processed by Cyclic Extrusion and Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Wencong; Cao, Biao; Chen, Wenzhen; Duan, Junpeng; Cui, Guorong

    2017-10-26

    The ZK61 alloy rods with different grain sizes and crystallographic texture were successfully fabricated by cyclic extrusion and compression (CEC). Their room-temperature tension & compression yield strength displayed a significant dependence on grain size and texture, essentially attributed to {10-12} twinning. The texture variations were characterized by the angle θ between the c-axis of the grain and the extrusion direction (ED) during the process. The contour map of room-temperature yield strength as a function of grain size and the angle θ was obtained. It showed that both the tension yield strength and the compression yield strength of ZK61 alloy were fully consistent with the Hall-Patch relationship at a certain texture, but the change trends of the tension yield strength and the compression yield strength were completely opposite at the same grain size while texture altered. The friction stresses of different deformation modes calculated based on the texture confirmed the tension yield strength of the CECed ZK61 alloy rods, which was determined by both the basal slip and the tension twinning slip during the tension deformation at room temperature, while the compression yield strength was mainly determined by the basal slip during the compression deformation.

  3. Thrombus segmentation by texture dynamics from microscopic image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieu, Nicolas; Serbanovic-Canic, Jovana; Cvejic, Ana; Stemple, Derek; Ouwehand, Willem; Navab, Nassir; Groher, Martin

    2010-03-01

    The genetic factors of thrombosis are commonly explored by microscopically imaging the coagulation of blood cells induced by injuring a vessel of mice or of zebrafish mutants. The latter species is particularly interesting since skin transparency permits to non-invasively acquire microscopic images of the scene with a CCD camera and to estimate the parameters characterizing the thrombus development. These parameters are currently determined by manual outlining, which is both error prone and extremely time consuming. Even though a technique for automatic thrombus extraction would be highly valuable for gene analysts, little work can be found, which is mainly due to very low image contrast and spurious structures. In this work, we propose to semi-automatically segment the thrombus over time from microscopic image sequences of wild-type zebrafish larvae. To compensate the lack of valuable spatial information, our main idea consists of exploiting the temporal information by modeling the variations of the pixel intensities over successive temporal windows with a linear Markov-based dynamic texture formalization. We then derive an image from the estimated model parameters, which represents the probability of a pixel to belong to the thrombus. We employ this probability image to accurately estimate the thrombus position via an active contour segmentation incorporating also prior and spatial information of the underlying intensity images. The performance of our approach is tested on three microscopic image sequences. We show that the thrombus is accurately tracked over time in each sequence if the respective parameters controlling prior influence and contour stiffness are correctly chosen.

  4. Enhancement of multimodality texture-based prediction models via optimization of PET and MR image acquisition protocols: a proof of concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Martin; Laberge, Sébastien; Diamant, André; El Naqa, Issam

    2017-11-01

    Texture-based radiomic models constructed from medical images have the potential to support cancer treatment management via personalized assessment of tumour aggressiveness. While the identification of stable texture features under varying imaging settings is crucial for the translation of radiomics analysis into routine clinical practice, we hypothesize in this work that a complementary optimization of image acquisition parameters prior to texture feature extraction could enhance the predictive performance of texture-based radiomic models. As a proof of concept, we evaluated the possibility of enhancing a model constructed for the early prediction of lung metastases in soft-tissue sarcomas by optimizing PET and MR image acquisition protocols via computerized simulations of image acquisitions with varying parameters. Simulated PET images from 30 STS patients were acquired by varying the extent of axial data combined per slice (‘span’). Simulated T 1-weighted and T 2-weighted MR images were acquired by varying the repetition time and echo time in a spin-echo pulse sequence, respectively. We analyzed the impact of the variations of PET and MR image acquisition parameters on individual textures, and we investigated how these variations could enhance the global response and the predictive properties of a texture-based model. Our results suggest that it is feasible to identify an optimal set of image acquisition parameters to improve prediction performance. The model constructed with textures extracted from simulated images acquired with a standard clinical set of acquisition parameters reached an average AUC of 0.84 +/- 0.01 in bootstrap testing experiments. In comparison, the model performance significantly increased using an optimal set of image acquisition parameters (p = 0.04 ), with an average AUC of 0.89 +/- 0.01 . Ultimately, specific acquisition protocols optimized to generate superior radiomics measurements for a given clinical problem could be developed

  5. SU-F-R-40: Robustness Test of Computed Tomography Textures of Lung Tissues to Varying Scanning Protocols Using a Realistic Phantom Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Markel, D; Hegyi, G [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); El Naqa, I [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The reliability of computed tomography (CT) textures is an important element of radiomics analysis. This study investigates the dependency of lung CT textures on different breathing phases and changes in CT image acquisition protocols in a realistic phantom setting. Methods: We investigated 11 CT texture features for radiation-induced lung disease from 3 categories (first-order, grey level co-ocurrence matrix (GLCM), and Law’s filter). A biomechanical swine lung phantom was scanned at two breathing phases (inhale/exhale) and two scanning protocols set for PET/CT and diagnostic CT scanning. Lung volumes acquired from the CT images were divided into 2-dimensional sub-regions with a grid spacing of 31 mm. The distribution of the evaluated texture features from these sub-regions were compared between the two scanning protocols and two breathing phases. The significance of each factor on feature values were tested at 95% significance level using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model with interaction terms included. Robustness of a feature to a scanning factor was defined as non-significant dependence on the factor. Results: Three GLCM textures (variance, sum entropy, difference entropy) were robust to breathing changes. Two GLCM (variance, sum entropy) and 3 Law’s filter textures (S5L5, E5L5, W5L5) were robust to scanner changes. Moreover, the two GLCM textures (variance, sum entropy) were consistent across all 4 scanning conditions. First-order features, especially Hounsfield unit intensity features, presented the most drastic variation up to 39%. Conclusion: Amongst the studied features, GLCM and Law’s filter texture features were more robust than first-order features. However, the majority of the features were modified by either breathing phase or scanner changes, suggesting a need for calibration when retrospectively comparing scans obtained at different conditions. Further investigation is necessary to identify the sensitivity of individual image

  6. A method of measuring magnetic texture with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akselrod, L.A.; Gordeev, G.P.; Lazebnick, J.M.; Lebedev, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    A new method of qualitative and quantitative magnetic texture investigation is described. The description of the equipment used and results of measurements on three different samples are presented. (Auth.)

  7. Ethnicity distinctiveness through iris texture features using Gabor filters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza-Hocquet, Gugulethu P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available and ethnicity. Researchers have reported that iris texture features contain information that is inclined to human genetics and is highly discriminative between different eyes of different ethnicities. This work applies image processing and machine learning...

  8. Hardwood species classification with DWT based hybrid texture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coussement & Van den. Poel 2008). It is robust against over fitting, handles large dataset, computationally efficient, and easy to implement. The effectiveness of the DWT based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques has been observed on the basis ...

  9. Head Tracking via Robust Registration in Texture Map Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaCascia, Marco

    1998-01-01

    .... The resulting dynamic texture map provides a stabilized view of the face that can be used as input to many existing 2D techniques for face recognition, facial expressions analysis, lip reading, and eye tracking...

  10. Surface Texturing of Polyimide Composite by Micro-Ultrasonic Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, N. S.; Zhang, T.; Chen, X. L.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, micro-dimples were prepared on a polyimide composite surface to obtain the dual benefits of polymer materials and surface texture. Micro-ultrasonic machining is employed for the first time for micro-dimple fabrication on polyimide composite surfaces. Surface textures of simple patterns were fabricated successfully with dimple depths of 150 μm, side lengths of 225-425 μm, and area ratios of 10-30%. The friction coefficient of the micro-dimple surfaces with side lengths of 325 or 425 μm could be increased by up to 100% of that of non-textured surfaces, alongside a significant enhancement of wear resistance. The results show that surface texturing of polyimide composite can be applied successfully to increase the friction coefficient and reduce wear, thereby contributing to a large output torque.

  11. Completed local ternary pattern for rotation invariant texture classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassem, Taha H; Khoo, Bee Ee

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP) and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC), have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP) drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter's weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP) scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  12. Oral texture perception in relation to rheology for mayonnaise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, M.E.J.; Janssen, A.M.; Linden, van der E.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sensory attributes of commercial mayonnaises have been correlated to rheological curves to obtain those measuring conditions that reflect the oral perception of specific (texture) attributes. Correlations are found mainly with data from flow curve measurements and from dynamic stress measurements

  13. Completed Local Ternary Pattern for Rotation Invariant Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. Rassem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC, have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter’s weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  14. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  15. Three-dimensional carotid ultrasound plaque texture predicts vascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; Wannarong, Thapat; Parraga, Grace

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid ultrasound atherosclerosis measurements, including those of the arterial wall and plaque, provide a way to monitor patients at risk of vascular events. Our objective was to examine carotid ultrasound plaque texture measurements and the change in carotid plaque...... texture during 1 year in patients at risk of events and to compare these with measurements of plaque volume and other risk factors as predictors of vascular events. METHODS: We evaluated 298 patients with carotid atherosclerosis using 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound at baseline and after 1 year and measured...... carotid plaque volume and 376 measures of plaque texture. Patients were followed up to 5 years (median [range], 3.12 [0.77-4.66]) for myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack, and stroke. Sparse Cox regression was used to select the most predictive plaque texture measurements in independent...

  16. Hyperspectral image classification based on volumetric texture and dimensionality reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongjun; Sheng, Yehua; Du, Peijun; Chen, Chen; Liu, Kui

    2015-06-01

    A novel approach using volumetric texture and reduced-spectral features is presented for hyperspectral image classification. Using this approach, the volumetric textural features were extracted by volumetric gray-level co-occurrence matrices (VGLCM). The spectral features were extracted by minimum estimated abundance covariance (MEAC) and linear prediction (LP)-based band selection, and a semi-supervised k-means (SKM) clustering method with deleting the worst cluster (SKMd) bandclustering algorithms. Moreover, four feature combination schemes were designed for hyperspectral image classification by using spectral and textural features. It has been proven that the proposed method using VGLCM outperforms the gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) method, and the experimental results indicate that the combination of spectral information with volumetric textural features leads to an improved classification performance in hyperspectral imagery.

  17. Neutron diffraction texture analysis of multi-phase systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brokmeier, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron diffraction methods for texture analysis are closely parallel to well-known X-ray diffraction techniques. The chief advantage of neutron diffraction over X-ray diffraction, however, arises from the fact that the interaction of neutrons with matter is relatively weak, and consequently the penetration depth of neutrons is 10 2 -10 3 times larger than that of X-rays. Hence neutron diffraction is an efficient tool for measuring textures in multi-phase systems. Based on the high transmission of a neutron beam the effect of anisotropic absorption in multi-phase materials can be neglected in most cases. Moreover, the analysis of bulk textures becomes possible, such that textures in a wide variety of multi-phase systems can be studied which are of special interest in engineering and science (metals, alloys, composites, ceramics and geological specimens). (orig.)

  18. DNS of flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with small texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhall, Chris; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    We present results from direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with small texture sizes, comparable to those of practical application. Textures studied with DNS are usually much larger, as the cost of the simulations would otherwise be prohibitive. For this reason, a multi-block code that allows for finer resolution near the walls has been developed. We focus particularly on the pressure distribution at the wall. This distribution can cause the deformation of the gas pockets, which can ultimately lead to their loss and that of the drag reduction effect. The layout of the texture causes stagnation pressures which can contribute substantially to the wall pressure signal (Seo et al. JFM, under review). We study a range of different textures and their influence on these pressures.

  19. ROLLING PROCESS WITH OHSAS AND TEXTURE FORMATION– A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. CHANDRAMOHAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rolling is a mechanical treatment, which plays an important part in the processing of ferrous and nonferrous alloys. Texturing is an important phenomenon that occurs after rolling process. Preferred orientation increases the strength of the material enormously. Hence the research is focused on the rolling studies and the texture formation, which occurs after rolling process. This review mainly focuses on rolling process carried out in different alloys. It also highlights the analysis made on various rolling parameters for improving the mechanical properties. Texture studies carried on various ferrous and non-ferrous alloys; particularly in nitrogen alloyed duplex stainless steel is discussed. Finally the need for implementation of occupational health and safety during a thermomechanical treatment is also discussed. The state of art in this field is encouraging and showing positive signs of commercializing rolled nitrogen alloyed duplex stainless steel after proper texture control.

  20. Organization of texture segregation processing in primate visual cortex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.; van Dijk, B.W.; Spekreijse, H.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated which cortical areas and layers are involved in global feature interactions underlying texture segregation in humans and monkeys. Visual stimulation was assessed with an electrostatic monitor, and scalp or intracortical recordings with electrodes were made. Signal processing and

  1. Efros and Freeman Image Quilting Algorithm for Texture Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Raad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exemplar-based texture synthesis is defined as the process of generating, from an input texture sample, new texture images that are perceptually equivalent to the input. Efros and Freeman's method is a non-parametric patch-based method which computes an output texture image by quilting together patches taken from the input sample. The main innovation of their work relies in the stitching technique which significantly reduces the transition effect between patches. In this paper, we propose a detailed analysis and implementation of their work. We provide a complete mathematical description of the linear programing problem used for the quilting step as well as implementation details. Additionally we propose a partially parallel version of the quilting technique.

  2. Inferring species richness and turnover by statistical multiresolution texture analysis of satellite imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Convertino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The quantification of species-richness and species-turnover is essential to effective monitoring of ecosystems. Wetland ecosystems are particularly in need of such monitoring due to their sensitivity to rainfall, water management and other external factors that affect hydrology, soil, and species patterns. A key challenge for environmental scientists is determining the linkage between natural and human stressors, and the effect of that linkage at the species level in space and time. We propose pixel intensity based Shannon entropy for estimating species-richness, and introduce a method based on statistical wavelet multiresolution texture analysis to quantitatively assess interseasonal and interannual species turnover. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We model satellite images of regions of interest as textures. We define a texture in an image as a spatial domain where the variations in pixel intensity across the image are both stochastic and multiscale. To compare two textures quantitatively, we first obtain a multiresolution wavelet decomposition of each. Either an appropriate probability density function (pdf model for the coefficients at each subband is selected, and its parameters estimated, or, a non-parametric approach using histograms is adopted. We choose the former, where the wavelet coefficients of the multiresolution decomposition at each subband are modeled as samples from the generalized Gaussian pdf. We then obtain the joint pdf for the coefficients for all subbands, assuming independence across subbands; an approximation that simplifies the computational burden significantly without sacrificing the ability to statistically distinguish textures. We measure the difference between two textures' representative pdf's via the Kullback-Leibler divergence (KL. Species turnover, or [Formula: see text] diversity, is estimated using both this KL divergence and the difference in Shannon entropy. Additionally, we predict species

  3. Showing shape with texture: two directions seem better than one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghee; Hagh-Shenas, Haleh; Interrante, Victoria

    2003-06-01

    Studies have shown that observers' judgment of surface orientation and curvature is affected by the presence of surface texture pattern. However, the question of designing a texture pattern that does not hide the surace information nor does convey a misrepresentation of the surface remains unsolved. The answer to this question has important potential imapct across a wide range of visualization application. Molecular modeling and radiation therapy are among the many fields that are in need of accurately visualizing their data and could benefit from such methods. Over the past several years we have carried out a series of experiments to investigate the impact of various texture pattern characteristics on shape perception. In this paper we report the result of our most recent study. The task in this study was adjusting surface attitude probes under three different texture conditions and a control condition in which no texture was present. We later compare the performances of the subjects. The three texture conditions were: a doubly oriented texture in which approximately evenly spaced lines followed both of the principal directions, a singly oriented texture in which lines followed only the first principal direction, and a singly oriented line integral convolution. Over a series of 200 trials (4 texture conditions, 10 surface probe locations * five repeated measures) a total of five naive participants were asked to adjust a circular probe. The probes were randomly located on an arbitrary curved surface and its perpendicular extension appeared to be oriented in the direction of the surface normal. An analysis of the results showed that the performance was best in the two directional texture condition. Performances were further decreased in one directional and no texture conditions (in that order). The paper is organized as follows. In Section 1 we briefly describe the motivation for our work. In Section 2 we describe our experimental methods, including a brief summary

  4. New tools to investigate textures of pyroclastic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarocchi, Damiano [Instituto de GeologIa / Fac. IngenierIa UASLP, Dr. M. Nava No 5, Zona Universitaria 78240, San Luis PotosI (Mexico); Borselli, Lorenzo [Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); MacIas, Jose Luis [Departamento de VulcanologIa, Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan 04510, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-10-01

    A pyroclastic flow deposit keeps a fingerprint of the physical processes that occurred in the flow during transport and settling. Part of this information is recorded in the texture of the deposit offering an instantaneous view of the flow prior to freezing. In this work we introduce some texture's analysis techniques, based on image analysis, that we have developed or tuned during the last years.

  5. Stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with corrugated diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Takashiro; Asao, Hideaki; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with a corrugated palylene diaphragm, which prevent debris from jamming into the sensor without significant degradation of sensitivity and bandwidth, was reported. A new fabrication process using a lost-foil method to make the corrugated diaphragm on a 3-axis piezoresistive force sensor at wafer level has been developed. The texture sensor could detect the surface microstructure as small as about 10 \

  6. Blender 2.6 cycles, materials and textures cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, practical style this Cookbook deep-dives into a wide-array of techniques used to create realistic materials and textures.This book is perfect for you if you have used Blender before but are new to the impressive Cycles renderer. You should have some knowledge of the Blender interface, though this is not a strict requirement. If you want to create realistic, stunning materials and textures using Cycles, then this book is for you!

  7. Potential Performance Criteria for Combat Ration Packs - Texture Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    biscuit, apricot muesli bar, tropical muesli bar, forest fruits muesli bar, chocolate pudding, golden pudding and fruit pudding. • Dairy products ...were canned products with a semi-solid texture and were semi-moist product . Chocolate and golden puddings were self-saucing with a homogeneous matrix...TPA are discussed. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 3. Significant changes in texture were observed for golden and chocolate self-saucing puddings and

  8. Contact less Hand Recognition using shape and texture features

    OpenAIRE

    Doublet, Julien; Lepetit, Olivier; Revenu, Marinette

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The hand recognition in biometric security was developed successfully for authentication or identification. In this paper, we propose an original method of contact less biometric recognition combining information from color, texture and form. First of all, the segmentation integrates the skin color components and a form model. Then, the authentication process amalgamates by convolution the geometrical characteristics of the fingers and the texture of the analyzed palm....

  9. Texture classification and retrieval using shearlets and linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yongsheng; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Ma, Jinwen; Pu, Jiexin

    2015-03-01

    Statistical modeling of wavelet subbands has frequently been used for image recognition and retrieval. However, traditional wavelets are unsuitable for use with images containing distributed discontinuities, such as edges. Shearlets are a newly developed extension of wavelets that are better suited to image characterization. Here, we propose novel texture classification and retrieval methods that model adjacent shearlet subband dependences using linear regression. For texture classification, we use two energy features to represent each shearlet subband in order to overcome the limitation that subband coefficients are complex numbers. Linear regression is used to model the features of adjacent subbands; the regression residuals are then used to define the distance from a test texture to a texture class. Texture retrieval consists of two processes: the first is based on statistics in contourlet domains, while the second is performed using a pseudo-feedback mechanism based on linear regression modeling of shearlet subband dependences. Comprehensive validation experiments performed on five large texture datasets reveal that the proposed classification and retrieval methods outperform the current state-of-the-art.

  10. SEISMIC AND ROCKPHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko

    2004-11-01

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have continued our work on analyzing microstructural constraints on seismic signatures. Our analysis is now extended to over 280 images of shales, giving us better statistics. The shales cover a range of depths and maturity. We estimate different statistical measures for characterizing heterogeneity and textures from scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) images of shale microstructures. Characterizing and understanding the microgeometry, their textures, scales, and textural anisotropy is important for better understanding the role of microgeometry on effective elastic properties. We analyzed SAM images from Bakken shale, Bazhenov shale, and Woodford shale. We observed quantifiable and consistent patterns linking texture, shale maturity, and elastic P-wave impedance. The textural heterogeneity and P-wave impedance increase with increasing maturity (decreasing kerogen content), while there is a general decrease in textural anisotropy with maturity. We also found a reasonably good match between elastic impedance estimated from SAM images and impedance computed from ultrasonic measurements.

  11. Friction Evaluation of Laser Textured Tool Steel Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šugárová Jana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface textures can be defined as a regularly arranged micro-depressions or grooves with defined shape and dimensions. These textures, if they are manufactured by laser ablation process, contribute to a significant improvement of the tribological, optical or various biological properties. The aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the surface textures prepared by laser surface texturing (LST at the friction coefficient value measured on the tool (90MnCrV8 steel – workpiece (S235JRG1 steel interface. Planar frontal surfaces of compression platens have been covered by parabolic dimple-like depressions with different dimensions. The morphological analysis of such manufactured depressions has been performed by laser scanning microscopy. Influence of such created textures on the tribological properties of the contact pair has been analyzed by the ring compression test method in the terms of hydrodynamic lubrication regime. The experimental research shown that by applying of surface textures with defined shape and dimensions and using an appropriate liquid lubricant at the same time, the coefficient of contact friction can be reduced nearly to the half of its original value.

  12. Adaptive weighted local textural features for illumination, expression, and occlusion invariant face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chen; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2014-03-01

    Biometric features such as fingerprints, iris patterns, and face features help to identify people and restrict access to secure areas by performing advanced pattern analysis and matching. Face recognition is one of the most promising biometric methodologies for human identification in a non-cooperative security environment. However, the recognition results obtained by face recognition systems are a affected by several variations that may happen to the patterns in an unrestricted environment. As a result, several algorithms have been developed for extracting different facial features for face recognition. Due to the various possible challenges of data captured at different lighting conditions, viewing angles, facial expressions, and partial occlusions in natural environmental conditions, automatic facial recognition still remains as a difficult issue that needs to be resolved. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to tackling some of these issues by analyzing the local textural descriptions for facial feature representation. The textural information is extracted by an enhanced local binary pattern (ELBP) description of all the local regions of the face. The relationship of each pixel with respect to its neighborhood is extracted and employed to calculate the new representation. ELBP reconstructs a much better textural feature extraction vector from an original gray level image in different lighting conditions. The dimensionality of the texture image is reduced by principal component analysis performed on each local face region. Each low dimensional vector representing a local region is now weighted based on the significance of the sub-region. The weight of each sub-region is determined by employing the local variance estimate of the respective region, which represents the significance of the region. The final facial textural feature vector is obtained by concatenating the reduced dimensional weight sets of all the modules (sub-regions) of the face image

  13. Formation of biaxial texture in metal films by selective ion beam etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, 106 Rhines Hall, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Norton, D.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, 106 Rhines Hall, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)]. E-mail: dnort@mse.ufl.edu; Selvamanickam, Venkat [IGC-SuperPower, LLC, 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The formation of in-plane texture via ion bombardment of uniaxially textured metal films was investigated. In particular, selective grain Ar ion beam etching of uniaxially textured (0 0 1) Ni was used to achieve in-plane aligned Ni grains. Unlike conventional ion beam assisted deposition, the ion beam irradiates the uniaxially textured film surface with no impinging deposition flux. The initial uniaxial texture is established via surface energy minimization with no ion irradiation. Within this sequential texturing method, in-plane grain alignment is driven by selective etching and grain overgrowth. Biaxial texture was achieved for ion beam irradiation at elevated temperature.

  14. Formation of biaxial texture in metal films by selective ion beam etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.J.; Norton, D.P.; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2006-01-01

    The formation of in-plane texture via ion bombardment of uniaxially textured metal films was investigated. In particular, selective grain Ar ion beam etching of uniaxially textured (0 0 1) Ni was used to achieve in-plane aligned Ni grains. Unlike conventional ion beam assisted deposition, the ion beam irradiates the uniaxially textured film surface with no impinging deposition flux. The initial uniaxial texture is established via surface energy minimization with no ion irradiation. Within this sequential texturing method, in-plane grain alignment is driven by selective etching and grain overgrowth. Biaxial texture was achieved for ion beam irradiation at elevated temperature

  15. SU-E-J-263: Repeatability of SUV and Texture Parameters in Serial PET Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J; Humm, J; Nehmeh, S; Schoder, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Standardized uptake values (SUV) are standard quantitative PET measures of FDG tumor uptake used,and are used as a tool to monitor response to therapy. Textural analysis is emerging as a new tool for assessing intratumoral heterogeneity which may allow better tissue characterization and improved prediction of response and survival rate.Understanding what variations may be expected in these parameters is key in order to make decisions based on how the change throughout the course of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess repeatability in SUV measures and texture parameters,and establish criteria that differentiate changes associated with treatment rather than statistical variability. Methods: Eighty patients,167 random lesions total,were scanned in a GE Discovery STE PET/CT Scanner. One field-of-view was chosen centered on the largest lesion observed in a clinical whole-body FDG PET.Immediately following,a gated 9 min scan was acquired in list mode,without changing the patient’s position between any scans. Data was replayed into 3 time bins,3 min each,in order to insure equivalent noise characteristics in each replicate.Data was reconstructed into 128×128×47 square matrices.One VOI was drawn over each lesion for each patient and used to segment all 3 replicates. The mean.max and peak SUV were calculated for each VOI and replicate. First-order textural features were also calculated (skewness and kurtosis). Repeatability was calculated as the average standard deviation over the mean for the 3 repeated measurements for each lesion. Results: The average percent error in the SUV max,peak and mean were 3.4%(0– 12.9%),1.9% (0–7.5%),2.8% (0–12.2%),respectively.For skewness and kurtosis they were 10.9% and 17.8%. Conclusion: We have shown that there is a large variation in %error in SUV measures across patients. SUVpeak is the least variable and kurtosis and skewness parameters are less reliable thatn SUVs.Higher order textures are be

  16. Texture of the nano-crystalline AlN thin films and the growth conditions in DC magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakil Khan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique has been used for the preparation of AlN thin films. The deposition temperature and the flow ratio of N2/Ar were varied and subsequent dependency of the films crystallites orientation/texture has been addressed. In general, deposited films were found hexagonal polycrystalline with a (002 preferred orientation. The X-ray diffraction (XRD data revealed that the film crystallinity improves, with the increase of substrate temperature from 300 °C to 500 °C. The dropped in full width half maximum (FWHM of the XRD rocking curve value further confirmed it. However, increasing substrate temperature above 500 °C or reducing the nitrogen condition (from 60 to 30% in the environment induced the growth of crystallites with (102 and (103 orientations. The rise of rocking curve FWHM for the corresponding conditions depicted that the films texture quality deteriorated. A further confirmation of the variation in film texture/orentation with the growth conditions has been obtained from the variation in FWHM values of a dominant E1 (TO mode in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra and the E2 (high mode in Raman spectra. We have correlated the columnar structure in AFM surface analyses with the (002 or c-axis orientation as well. Spectroscopic ellipsometry of the samples have shown a higher refractive index at 500 °C growth temperature.

  17. MR image texture in Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiö, Minna; Holli-Helenius, Kirsi K; Harrison, Lara C V; Ryymin, Pertti; Ruottinen, Hanna; Saunamäki, Tiia; Eskola, Hannu J; Elovaara, Irina; Dastidar, Prasun

    2015-01-01

    Few of the structural changes caused by Parkinson's disease (PD) are visible in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with visual inspection but there is a need for a method capable of observing the changes beyond the human eye. Texture analysis offers a technique that enables the quantification of the image gray-level patterns. To investigate the value of quantitative image texture analysis method in diagnosis and follow-up of PD patients. Twenty-six PD patients underwent MRI at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. Four co-occurrence matrix-based texture parameters, describing the image homogeneity and complexity, were calculated within clinically interesting areas of the brain. In addition, correlations with clinical characteristics (Unified Parkinson's Disease Ranking Scales I-III and Mini-Mental State Examination score) along with a comparison to healthy controls were evaluated. Patients at baseline and healthy volunteers differed in their brain MR image textures mostly in the areas of substantia nigra pars compacta, dentate nucleus, and basilar pons. During the 2-year follow-up of the patients, textural differences appeared mainly in thalamus and corona radiata. Texture parameters in all the above mentioned areas were also found to be significantly related to clinical scores describing the severity of PD. Texture analysis offers a quantitative method for detecting structural changes in brain MR images. However, the protocol and repeatability of the method must be enhanced before possible clinical use. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Sensory and instrumental texture analysis of Bulgarian commercial pates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tonchev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of this study was to characterize the textural differences between Bulgarian commercial pates with different ingredients and to adapt the used methods for later application in texture analysis of sterilized meat products. Texture parameters were studied by sensory and instrumental methods. The sensory panel was stated from students in similar age and was asked to fulfill a questionnaire about their likening the poultry pates bought from the commercial network. Nine points sensory scales were used, about appearance, colour, spreadability by knife to bread, flavor, consistency, taste, aftertaste and overall likening. The panelists were asked to rank the pates based on their colour, spreadability and consistency. Instrumental texture parameters – texture profile and spreadability work, were analyzed by Stable Micro Systems texture analyzer in Texture Profile Analysis (TPA and compression methods. For further analysis of spreadability, the probes were scanned by flatbed scanner before and after compression and their area ratio was measured by image analysis method. The results of sensory analysis show that, the pate with duck meat received the highest liking based on the overall liking, followed by pate with turkey meat and pate from chicken meat and liver and the lowest liked was the pate with goose meat. Based on the sensory spreadability and consistency the hardest was the pate with goose meat followed by pate with turkey meat and pate from chicken meat and liver and the softest was the pate with duck meat. The results from instrumental spreadability and hardness showed positive correlations with the results of the sensory analysis.

  19. Wavelet transform analysis of chromatin texture changes during heat shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbomel, G; Grichine, A; Fertin, A; Delon, A; Vourc'h, C; Souchier, C; Usson, Y

    2016-06-01

    Texture analysis can be a useful tool to investigate the organization of chromatin. Approaches based on multiscale analysis and in particular the 'à trou' wavelet analysis has already been used for microscopy (Olivo Marin). In order to analyse texture changes, the statistical properties of the wavelet coefficient images were summarized by the first four statistical orders: mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis of the coefficient image histogram. The 'à trou' transform provided a representation of the wavelet coefficients and texture parameters with the same statistical robustness throughout the scale spaces. It was applied for quantifying chromatin texture and heat-induced chromatin changes in living cells. We investigated the changes by both laser scanning and spinning disk confocal microscopies and compared the texture parameters before and after increasing duration of heat shock exposure (15 min, 30 min and 1 h). Furthermore, as activation of the heat shock response also correlates with a rapid localization of HSF1 within a few nuclear structures termed nuclear stress bodies (nSBs), we compared the dynamics of nSBs formation with that of textural changes during 1 h of continuous heat shock. Next, we studied the recovery phase following a 1-h heat shock. Significant differences were observed, particularly affecting the perinucleolar region, even for the shortest heat shock time affecting mostly the skewness and standard deviation. Furthermore, progressive changes could be observed according to the duration of heat shock, mostly affecting fine details (pixel-wise changes) as revealed by the parameters, obtained from the first- and second-order wavelet coefficients. 'A trou' wavelet texture analysis provided a sensitive and efficient tool to investigate minute changes of chromatin. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Extraction of Homogeneous Fine-Grained Texture Segments in Visual Images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Golcev, A.; Gritsenko, V.; Húsek, Dušan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2017), s. 447-477 ISSN 1210-0552 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : texture feature * texture window * homogeneous fine-grained texture segment * extraction of texture segment * texture segmentation * ”float” coding method Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  1. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  2. Variation in sensory profile between individual Rainbow trout from the same production batch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Green-Petersen, Ditte

    The variation in sensory properties between individual Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) belonging to the same aquaculture production batch was explored by using objective sensory profiling on minced and heat treated fillets. Additionally, Quality Index, mechanical texture, pH, fat and water...... of fish were found. Similar differences in mechanical texture were found between individuals in two of the three groups and between the groups. No differences were found in Quality Index neither between individuals nor groups. A significant correlation between lipid content and firm texture was observed...

  3. Novel texture-based descriptors for tool wear condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antić, Aco; Popović, Branislav; Krstanović, Lidija; Obradović, Ratko; Milošević, Mijodrag

    2018-01-01

    All state-of-the-art tool condition monitoring systems (TCM) in the tool wear recognition task, especially those that use vibration sensors, heavily depend on the choice of descriptors containing information about the tool wear state which are extracted from the particular sensor signals. All other post-processing techniques do not manage to increase the recognition precision if those descriptors are not discriminative enough. In this work, we propose a tool wear monitoring strategy which relies on the novel texture based descriptors. We consider the module of the Short Term Discrete Fourier Transform (STDFT) spectra obtained from the particular vibration sensors signal utterance as the 2D textured image. This is done by identifying the time scale of STDFT as the first dimension, and the frequency scale as the second dimension of the particular textured image. The obtained textured image is then divided into particular 2D texture patches, covering a part of the frequency range of interest. After applying the appropriate filter bank, 2D textons are extracted for each predefined frequency band. By averaging in time, we extract from the textons for each band of interest the information regarding the Probability Density Function (PDF) in the form of lower order moments, thus obtaining robust tool wear state descriptors. We validate the proposed features by the experiments conducted on the real TCM system, obtaining the high recognition accuracy.

  4. Friction reduction using discrete surface textures: principle and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen M.; Jing, Yang; Hua, Diann; Zhang, Huan

    2014-08-01

    There have been many reports on the use of dimples, grooves, and other surface textures to control friction in sliding interfaces. The effectiveness of surface textures in friction reduction has been demonstrated in conformal contacts under high speed low load applications such as mechanical seals and automotive water pump seals, etc., resulting in reduced friction and longer durability. For sliding components with higher contact pressures or lower speeds, conflicting results were reported. Reasons for the inconsistency may be due to the differences in texture fabrication techniques, lack of dimple size and shape uniformity, and different tester used. This paper examines the basic principles on which surface textural patterns influence friction under the three principle lubrication regimes: hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary lubrication regimes. Our findings suggest that each regime requires specific dimple size, shape, depth, and areal density to achieve friction reduction. Control experiments were also conducted to explore mechanisms of friction reduction. The dimple geometric shape and the dimple's orientation with respect to the sliding direction influence friction significantly. The underlying mechanisms for friction control via textures are discussed.

  5. Texture synthesis models and material perception in the visual periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    The feature vocabularies used to support texture synthesis algorithms are increasingly being used to examine various aspects of human visual perception. These algorithms offer both a rich set of features that are typically sufficient to capture the appearance of complex natural inputs and a means of carrying out psychophysical experiments using synthetic textures as a proxy for the transformations ostensibly carried out by the visual system when processing natural images using summary statistics. Texture synthesis algorithms have recently been successfully applied to a wide range of visual tasks including texture perception, visual crowding, visual search, among others. Presently, we used both nonparametric and parametric texture synthesis models to investigate the nature of material perception in the visual periphery. We asked participants to classify images of four natural materials (metal, stone, water, and wood) when briefly presented in the visual periphery and compared the errors made under these viewing conditions to the errors made when judging the material category of synthetic images made from the original targets. We found that the confusions made under these two scenarios were substantially different, suggesting that these particular models do not appear to account for material perception in the periphery.

  6. Automatic inspection of textured surfaces by support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbin, Sina; Bovik, Alan C.; Pérez, Eduardo; Nair, Dinesh

    2009-08-01

    Automatic inspection of manufactured products with natural looking textures is a challenging task. Products such as tiles, textile, leather, and lumber project image textures that cannot be modeled as periodic or otherwise regular; therefore, a stochastic modeling of local intensity distribution is required. An inspection system to replace human inspectors should be flexible in detecting flaws such as scratches, cracks, and stains occurring in various shapes and sizes that have never been seen before. A computer vision algorithm is proposed in this paper that extracts local statistical features from grey-level texture images decomposed with wavelet frames into subbands of various orientations and scales. The local features extracted are second order statistics derived from grey-level co-occurrence matrices. Subsequently, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained to learn a general description of normal texture from defect-free samples. This algorithm is implemented in LabVIEW and is capable of processing natural texture images in real-time.

  7. Breast density pattern characterization by histogram features and texture descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cunha Carneiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is the first leading cause of death for women in Brazil as well as in most countries in the world. Due to the relation between the breast density and the risk of breast cancer, in medical practice, the breast density classification is merely visual and dependent on professional experience, making this task very subjective. The purpose of this paper is to investigate image features based on histograms and Haralick texture descriptors so as to separate mammographic images into categories of breast density using an Artificial Neural Network. Methods We used 307 mammographic images from the INbreast digital database, extracting histogram features and texture descriptors of all mammograms and selecting them with the K-means technique. Then, these groups of selected features were used as inputs of an Artificial Neural Network to classify the images automatically into the four categories reported by radiologists. Results An average accuracy of 92.9% was obtained in a few tests using only some of the Haralick texture descriptors. Also, the accuracy rate increased to 98.95% when texture descriptors were mixed with some features based on a histogram. Conclusion Texture descriptors have proven to be better than gray levels features at differentiating the breast densities in mammographic images. From this paper, it was possible to automate the feature selection and the classification with acceptable error rates since the extraction of the features is suitable to the characteristics of the images involving the problem.

  8. Friction reduction using discrete surface textures: principle and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen M; Jing, Yang; Hua, Diann; Zhang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    There have been many reports on the use of dimples, grooves, and other surface textures to control friction in sliding interfaces. The effectiveness of surface textures in friction reduction has been demonstrated in conformal contacts under high speed low load applications such as mechanical seals and automotive water pump seals, etc., resulting in reduced friction and longer durability. For sliding components with higher contact pressures or lower speeds, conflicting results were reported. Reasons for the inconsistency may be due to the differences in texture fabrication techniques, lack of dimple size and shape uniformity, and different tester used. This paper examines the basic principles on which surface textural patterns influence friction under the three principle lubrication regimes: hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary lubrication regimes. Our findings suggest that each regime requires specific dimple size, shape, depth, and areal density to achieve friction reduction. Control experiments were also conducted to explore mechanisms of friction reduction. The dimple geometric shape and the dimple's orientation with respect to the sliding direction influence friction significantly. The underlying mechanisms for friction control via textures are discussed. (paper)

  9. Public and Private Partnership: A Strategy to Repair Old Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Nakhaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Todays, due to high construction costs and lack of economic potential of owners of old textures, public and private partnership is one of the restoration methods of these textures. Public-private partnership in the investment and implementation of worn and old textures’ restoration with guidance, support and supervision of governmental and public pillars is considered as a master key in restoration of old textures. This study aims at examining the effect of public and private partnership on restoration of old textures as well as providing strategies for strengthening and expanding this type of partnership. This article, based on descriptive-analytical approach, initially analyzes the existing problems and empowers the sections related to the rehabilitation and modernization of the textures. Then, through public and private partnership dealing with features such as shortening project times, reducing the project's financial problems, having financial–technical power, adopting equal rights for partners, and using flexible planning. Further, according to the findings of this study, in the case of legal infrastructures for public-private partnership, compliance of urbanism criteria with major goals of urban textures’ modernization, adequacy of facilities and incentive packages, the cooperation of owners, an increase in the supervision of the relevant institutions on partnership and the use of local experts and investors, the success of this partnership and restoration may be stably guaranteed.

  10. Texture of uniaxial compressed two-phase titanium-aluminides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermig, G.; Tobisch, J.; Brokmeier, H.G.; Wurzwallner, K.

    1993-01-01

    Texture is, among others, an essential parameter to document the different states of a polycrystalline material from production to application. Therefore, texture studies were carried out in γ-base titanium aluminide series, Ti-48at%Al and Ti-48at%Al-2at%Cr, in order to describe their microstructural changes during uniaxial compression. The fabrication of the material started by casting an ingot of the desired composition. After hot isostatic pressing (HIP) the specimens were deformed up to 77% with a compression rate of ∼ 10mm/s, X-ray diffraction and microscopical investigations confirm the expected two-phase material composition of tetragonal γ-Tial and hexagonal α 2 -Ti 3 Al respectively. The texture measurements were carried out by X-ray as well as by neutron diffraction. A comparison of both techniques is necessary in order to document that only a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction allows to obtain the whole texture information of all samples. Finally, the determined textures are discussed in correlation with deformation. (orig.)

  11. Textured ZnO thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ginting, M; Kang, K H; Kim, S K; Yoon, K H; Park, I J; Song, J S

    1999-01-01

    Textured thin films ZnO has been successfully grown by rf magnetron sputtering method using a special technique of introducing a small amount of water and methanol on the deposition chamber. The grain size of the textured surface is highly dependent on the argon pressure during the deposition. The pressure in this experiment was varied from 50 mTorr down to 5 mTorr and the highest grain size of the film is obtained at 5 mTorr. The total transmittance of the films are more than 85% in the wavelength of 400 to 800 nm, and haze ratio of about 14% is obtained at 400 nm wavelength. Beside the textured surface, these films also have very low resistivity, which is lower than 1.4x10 sup - sup 3 OMEGA centre dot cm. X-ray analysis shows that the films with textured surface have four diffraction peaks on the direction of (110), (002), (101) and (112), while the non-textured films have only (110) and (002) peaks. Due to the excellent characteristics of this film, it will make the film very good TCO alternatives for the ...

  12. Wettability transition of laser textured brass surfaces inside different mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huangping; Abdul Rashid, Mohamed Raiz B.; Khew, Si Ying; Li, Fengping; Hong, Minghui

    2018-01-01

    Hydrophobic surface on brass has attracted intensive attention owing to its importance in scientific research and practical applications. Laser texturing provides a simple and promising method to achieve it. Reducing wettability transition time from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity or superhydrophobicity remains a challenge. Herein, wettability transition of brass surfaces with hybrid micro/nano-structures fabricated by laser texturing was investigated by immersing the samples inside different mediums. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface contact angle measurement were employed to characterize surface morphology, chemical composition and wettability of the fabricated surfaces of brass samples. Wettability transition time from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity was shortened by immersion into isopropyl alcohol for a period of 3 h as a result of the absorption and accumulation of organic substances on the textured brass surface. When the textured brass sample was immersed into sodium bicarbonate solution, flower-like structures on the sample surface played a key role in slowing down wettability transition. Moreover, it had the smallest steady state contact angle as compared to the others. This study provides a facile method to construct textured surfaces with tunable wetting behaviors and effectively extend the industrial applications of brass.

  13. Comparison between ASME and ISO standards on surface texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai; Jiang, Xiangqian; Liu, Xiaojun; Xu, Zhengao

    2006-11-01

    Surface texture is generally a significant technique requirement of high-tech products. Surface quality information can usually play an increasing role in achieving interoperability among existing products, create order in markets, simplify production and ensure safety. As the most authoritative standard organizations, ASME and ISO services are used throughout the world, their codes and standards influence global manufacturers and consumers. ASME B46.1 is one of many vital tools to promote surface measurement techniques, while ISO has a set standard system for surface measurement, analysis and evaluation. This paper compares the ASME B46.1 (2002) standard (Surface texture: surface roughness, waviness, and lay) with ISO 3274 (1997) standard on methods of surface profiles filtering. It preformed the present research in order to show the latest developments of the ASME B46.1 (2002) in the regime of contact profiling techniques where the degree of measurement control is highly advanced, and a large range of other techniques that present valid and useful descriptions of surface texture. Also, this paper shows the differences of terms, definitions and surface texture parameters between ASME B46.1 (2002) and ISO 4287 (1998). The different evaluation results have been calculated based on above two standards for the same surface data. Obviously, it is necessary to consider the divergence above to develop China's standards (GB) on surface texture.

  14. Assessing Asphalt and Concrete Pavement Surface Texture in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad I. Sarsam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of safety characteristics into the traditional pavement structural design or in the functional evaluation of pavement condition has not been established yet. The design has focused on the structural capacity of the roadway so that the pavement can withstand specific level of repetitive loading over the design life. On the other hand, the surface texture condition was neither included in the AASHTO design procedure nor in the present serviceability index measurements. The pavement surface course should provide adequate levels of friction and ride quality and maintain low levels of noise and roughness. Many transportation departments perform routine skid resistant testing, the type of equipment used for testing varies depending on the preference of each transportation department. It was felt that modeling of the surface texture condition using different methods of testing may assist in solving such problem. In this work, Macro texture and Micro texture of asphalt and cement concrete pavement surface have been investigated in the field using four different methods (The Sand Patch Method, Outflow Time Method, British Pendulum Tester and Photogrammetry Technique. Two different grain sizes of sand have been utilized in conducting the Sand Patch while the Micro texture was investigated using the British Pendulum tester method at wet pavement surface conditions. The test results of the four methods were correlated to the skid number. It was concluded that such modeling could provide instant data in the field for pavement condition which may help in pavement maintenance management.

  15. The rapid prototyping of textured amorphous surfaces for the graphoepitaxial deposition of CdTe films using focused ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neretina, S. [McMaster University, Department of Engineering Physics and Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Temple University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hughes, R.A. [McMaster University, Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Temple University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Stortz, G.; Mascher, P. [McMaster University, Department of Engineering Physics and Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Preston, J.S. [McMaster University, Department of Engineering Physics and Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster University, Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    Cadmium telluride films deposited on amorphous substrates exhibit a grain structure characterized by [111]-oriented grains, but where the in-plane grain orientation is randomized due to the absence of epitaxy. Here, we explore the viability of promoting an in-plane grain alignment through graphoepitaxy. Fifteen different substrate surface textures were fabricated using focused ion beam lithography. This approach allows for the side-by-side deposition of surface textures where both the areal extent and depth of the surface features are varied in a systematic manner. CdTe films deposited overtop these textures show grain structures with dramatic variations, revealing that particular length scales have the most pronounced effect on the grain structure. (orig.)

  16. TU-F-CAMPUS-J-04: Impact of Voxel Anisotropy On Statistic Texture Features of Oncologic PET: A Simulation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F; Byrd, D; Bowen, S; Kinahan, P; Sandison, G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Texture metrics extracted from oncologic PET have been investigated with respect to their usefulness as definitive indicants for prognosis in a variety of cancer. Metric calculation is often based on cubic voxels. Most commonly used PET scanners, however, produce rectangular voxels, which may change texture metrics. The objective of this study was to examine the variability of PET texture feature metrics resulting from voxel anisotropy. Methods: Sinograms of NEMA NU-2 phantom for 18F-FDG were simulated using the ASIM simulation tool. The obtained projection data was reconstructed (3D-OSEM) on grids of cubic and rectangular voxels, producing PET images of resolution of 2.73x2.73x3.27mm3 and 3.27x3.27x3.27mm3, respectively. An interpolated dataset obtained from resampling the rectangular voxel data for isotropic voxel dimension (3.27mm) was also considered. For each image dataset, 28 texture parameters based on grey-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCOM), intensity histograms (GLIH), neighborhood difference matrices (GLNDM), and zone size matrices (GLZSM) were evaluated within lesions of diameter of 33, 28, 22, and 17mm. Results: In reference to the isotopic image data, texture features appearing on the rectangular voxel data varied with a range of -34-10% for GLCOM based, -31-39% for GLIH based, -80 -161% for GLNDM based, and −6–45% for GLZSM based while varied with a range of -35-23% for GLCOM based, -27-35% for GLIH based, -65-86% for GLNDM based, and -22 -18% for GLZSM based for the interpolated image data. For the anisotropic data, GLNDM-cplx exhibited the largest extent of variation (161%) while GLZSM-zp showed the least (<1%). As to the interpolated data, GLNDM-busy varied the most (86%) while GLIH-engy varied the least (<1%). Conclusion: Variability of texture appearance on oncologic PET with respect to voxel representation is substantial and feature-dependent. It necessitates consideration of standardized voxel representation for inter

  17. A candidate gene based approach validates Md-PG1 as the main responsible for a QTL impacting fruit texture in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Sara; Hamblin, Martha T; Trainotti, Livio; Peace, Cameron P; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2013-03-04

    Apple is a widely cultivated fruit crop for its quality properties and extended storability. Among the several quality factors, texture is the most important and appreciated, and within the apple variety panorama the cortex texture shows a broad range of variability. Anatomically these variations depend on degradation events occurring in both fruit primary cell wall and middle lamella. This physiological process is regulated by an enzymatic network generally encoded by large gene families, among which polygalacturonase is devoted to the depolymerization of pectin. In apple, Md-PG1, a key gene belonging to the polygalacturonase gene family, was mapped on chromosome 10 and co-localized within the statistical interval of a major hot spot QTL associated to several fruit texture sub-phenotypes. In this work, a QTL corresponding to the position of Md-PG1 was validated and new functional alleles associated to the fruit texture properties in 77 apple cultivars were discovered. 38 SNPs genotyped by gene full length resequencing and 2 SSR markers ad hoc targeted in the gene metacontig were employed. Out of this SNP set, eleven were used to define three significant haplotypes statistically associated to several texture components. The impact of Md-PG1 in the fruit cell wall disassembly was further confirmed by the cortex structure electron microscope scanning in two apple varieties characterized by opposite texture performance, such as 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith'. The results here presented step forward into the genetic dissection of fruit texture in apple. This new set of haplotypes, and microsatellite alleles, can represent a valuable toolbox for a more efficient parental selection as well as the identification of new apple accessions distinguished by superior fruit quality features.

  18. A comprehensive texture segmentation framework for segmentation of capillary non-perfusion regions in fundus fluorescein angiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yalin; Kwong, Man Ting; Maccormick, Ian J C; Beare, Nicholas A V; Harding, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    Capillary non-perfusion (CNP) in the retina is a characteristic feature used in the management of a wide range of retinal diseases. There is no well-established computation tool for assessing the extent of CNP. We propose a novel texture segmentation framework to address this problem. This framework comprises three major steps: pre-processing, unsupervised total variation texture segmentation, and supervised segmentation. It employs a state-of-the-art multiphase total variation texture segmentation model which is enhanced by new kernel based region terms. The model can be applied to texture and intensity-based multiphase problems. A supervised segmentation step allows the framework to take expert knowledge into account, an AdaBoost classifier with weighted cost coefficient is chosen to tackle imbalanced data classification problems. To demonstrate its effectiveness, we applied this framework to 48 images from malarial retinopathy and 10 images from ischemic diabetic maculopathy. The performance of segmentation is satisfactory when compared to a reference standard of manual delineations: accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are 89.0%, 73.0%, and 90.8% respectively for the malarial retinopathy dataset and 80.8%, 70.6%, and 82.1% respectively for the diabetic maculopathy dataset. In terms of region-wise analysis, this method achieved an accuracy of 76.3% (45 out of 59 regions) for the malarial retinopathy dataset and 73.9% (17 out of 26 regions) for the diabetic maculopathy dataset. This comprehensive segmentation framework can quantify capillary non-perfusion in retinopathy from two distinct etiologies, and has the potential to be adopted for wider applications.

  19. Textural and isotopic evidence for Ca-Mg carbonate pedogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Hernandez, J. L.; Sánchez-Navas, A.; Delgado, A.; Yepes, J.; Garcia-Casco, A.

    2018-02-01

    Models for evaluating the terrestrial carbon cycle must take into account not only soil organic carbon, represented by a mixture of plant and animal remains, but also soil inorganic carbon, contained in minerals, mainly in calcite and dolomite. Thick soil caliches derived from weathering of mafic and ultramafic rocks must be considered as sinks for carbon storage in soils. The formation of calcite and dolomite from pedogenic alteration of volcanic tephras under an aridic moisture regime is studied in an unusually thick 3-m soil profile on Gran Canaria island (Canary Islands, Spain). The biological activity of the pedogenic environment (soil respiration) releases CO2 incorporated as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in waters. It drives the formation of low-magnesian calcite and calcian dolomite over basaltic substrates, with a δ13C negative signature (-8 to -6‰ vs. V-PDB). Precipitation of authigenic carbonates in the soil is accompanied by the formation of Mg-rich clay minerals and quartz after the weathering of basalts. Mineralogical, textural, compositional, and isotopic variations throughout the soil profile studied indicate that dolomite formed at greater depths and earlier than the calcite. The isotopic signatures of the surficial calcite and deeper dolomite crusts are primary and resulted from the dissolution-precipitation cycles that led to the formation of both types of caliches under different physicochemical conditions. Dolomite formed within a clay-rich matrix through diffusive transport of reactants. It is precipitated from water with more negative δ18O values (-1.5 to -3.5‰ vs. V-SMOW) in the subsoil compared to those of water in equilibrium with surficial calcite. Thus, calcite precipitated after dolomite, and directly from percolating solutions in equilibrium with vadose water enriched in δ18O (-0.5 to +1.5‰) due to the evaporation processes. The accumulation of inorganic carbon reaches 586.1 kg m-2 in the soil studied, which means that the

  20. Texture Feature Extraction and Classification for Iris Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Naimin

    Appling computer aided techniques in iris image processing, and combining occidental iridology with the traditional Chinese medicine is a challenging research area in digital image processing and artificial intelligence. This paper proposes an iridology model that consists the iris image pre-processing, texture feature analysis and disease classification. To the pre-processing, a 2-step iris localization approach is proposed; a 2-D Gabor filter based texture analysis and a texture fractal dimension estimation method are proposed for pathological feature extraction; and at last support vector machines are constructed to recognize 2 typical diseases such as the alimentary canal disease and the nerve system disease. Experimental results show that the proposed iridology diagnosis model is quite effective and promising for medical diagnosis and health surveillance for both hospital and public use.

  1. Predicting the Coupling Properties of Axially-Textured Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Fuentes-Montero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A description of methods and computer programs for the prediction of “coupling properties” in axially-textured polycrystals is presented. Starting data are the single-crystal properties, texture and stereography. The validity and proper protocols for applying the Voigt, Reuss and Hill approximations to estimate coupling properties effective values is analyzed. Working algorithms for predicting mentioned averages are given. Bunge’s symmetrized spherical harmonics expansion of orientation distribution functions, inverse pole figures and (single and polycrystals physical properties is applied in all stages of the proposed methodology. The established mathematical route has been systematized in a working computer program. The discussion of piezoelectricity in a representative textured ferro-piezoelectric ceramic illustrates the application of the proposed methodology. Polycrystal coupling properties, predicted by the suggested route, are fairly close to experimentally measured ones.

  2. Electromagnetic behavior of bulk textured YBaCuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, V.; Herrmann, P.F.; Agnoux, C.; Leriche, A.; Mautref, M.; Grivon, F.; Fevrier, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports electrical and magnetic results obtained on bulk YBaCuO samples manufactured by Melt Textured Growth process. These studies are important for the understanding of the limitation mechanisms of transport current. Resistive measurements on textured sample confirm the interest of these materials. Transport critical current densities in excess of 2.5 10 8 A/m 2 have been measured in a field of 2 T, at 77 K in oriented YBaCuO. The critical state concept for the calculation of internal flux profiles is used to model the magnetization behavior of textured materials. The authors compare magnetization measurements with theoretical curves for different orientations of the magnetic field with respect to crystallographic axes. This study allows to determine inductive critical current densities which are strongly influenced by the current path geometry. Then the authors compare these results to transport J ct values. Self field losses values are also presented

  3. Improvement in the textural qualities of irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nene, S.P.; Vakil, U.K.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1975-01-01

    The potential for use of gamma radiation processing to improve texture, hydration and cooking quality of pulses, particularly red gram, has been examined. The textural changes in irradiated pulses in terms of softening is measured by a texturometer, Radiation (1 Mrad) processing of pulses resulted in reduction of cooking time varying from 8 to 39%, red gram showing the maximum reduction. Initial higher hydration rate on soaking and cooking, stabilized on prolonged cooking and resulted in better and uniform texture of irradiated red gram. In the uncooked, irradiated (1 Mrad) sample, destruction of riboflavin was negligible, whereas thiamine and niacin showed about 7% loss. However, the vitamins were retained better in the samples irradiated and then cooked, compared to the corresponding control ones. (F.J.)

  4. Evaporation dynamics of completely wetting drops on geometrically textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhitarian, Loucine; Sobac, Benjamin; Dehaeck, Sam; Haut, Benoît; Colinet, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    This study deals with the evaporation dynamics of completely wetting and highly volatile drops deposited on geometrically textured but chemically homogeneous surfaces. The texturation consists in a cylindrical pillars array with a square pitch. The triple line dynamics and the drop shape are characterized by an interferometric method. A parametric study is realized by varying the radius and the height of the pillars (at fixed interpillar distance), allowing to distinguish three types of dynamics: i) an evaporation-dominated regime with a receding triple line; ii) a spreading-dominated regime with an initially advancing triple line; iii) a cross-over region with strong pinning effects. The overall picture is in qualitative agreement with a mathematical model showing that the selected regime mostly depends on the value of a dimensionless parameter comparing the time scales for evaporation and spreading into the substrate texture.

  5. Soil Texture Aanalysis by Laser Diffraction – Standardisation Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Palviainen, Marjo; Kjoenaas, O. Janne

    2017-01-01

    -sized fraction results obtained by laser diffraction analysis of fine-textured soil samples are not comparable to those obtained with sedimentation and sieving methods, when translating to the traditional particle size limits clay, silt and sand. Also, operating procedures for pretreatment of soil samples...... translated into a texture class using defined separates of clay (0 - 2 µm), silt (2 µm to 20 µm, 50 µm or 63 µm) and sand (20 µm, 50 µm or 63 µm up to 2 mm) illustrated in a texture triangle. Until now pretreatment methods (e.g. humus and carbonate removal and dispersion) followed by standardised...... are variable, and the analyzed sample volumes are small, adding to uncertainty. In this study we first compared PSD’s from three different instruments for a set of soil samples to study reproducibility using the analytical operating procedures developed by the owner institutions (Malvern Mastersizer 2000...

  6. Facilitating the Study of the Texturing Effect on Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate fundamental study of the surface texturing effect on hydrodynamic lubrication, analytical and experimental tools are required. While there is an extensive amount of theoretical and analytical analyses in the literature, relevant experimental studies are much rarer. A detailed study requires techniques by which one can (a produce micron-sized textures on a millimeter-scale area on a specimen surface and (b accurately measure the lubricating film thickness and load-carrying capacity of a bearing. The paper introduces the use of an efficient laser technique (direct laser interference patterning and a custom-designed fixed-incline slider tester to address these points. A steel slider was textured with the laser technique to produce a surface pattern in the inlet region of the bearing contact. The characterization of the load-carrying capacity for different convergence ratios K is presented.

  7. Stato dell’arte nella sintesi di texture sonore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemo Schwarz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of sound textures, such as rain, wind, or crowds, is an important application for cinema, multimedia creation, games and installations. However, despite the clearly defined requirements of naturalness and flexibility, no automatic method has yet found widespread use. After clarifying the definition, terminology, and usages of sound texture synthesis, we will give an overview of the many existing methods and approaches, and the few available software implementations, and classify them by the synthesis model they are based on, such as subtractive or additive synthesis, granular synthesis, corpus-based concatenative synthesis, wavelets, or physical modeling. Additionally, an overview is given over analysis methods used for sound texture synthesis, such as segmentation, statistical modeling, timbral analysis, and modeling of transitions.

  8. Nanopatterning spin-textures: A route to reconfigurable magnonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Albisetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnonics is envisioned to enable highly efficient data transport and processing, by exploiting propagating perturbations in the spin-texture of magnetic materials. Despite the demonstrations of a plethora of proof-of-principle devices, the efficient excitation, transport and manipulation of spin-waves at the nanoscale is still an open challenge. Recently, we demonstrated that the spin-wave excitation and propagation can be controlled by nanopatterning reconfigurable spin-textures in a continuous exchange biased ferromagnetic film. Here, we show that by patterning 90° stripe-shaped magnetic domains, we spatially modulate the spin-wave excitation in a continuous film, and that by applying an external magnetic field we can reversibly “switch-off” the spin-wave excitation. This opens the way to the use of nanopatterned spin-textures, such as domains and domain walls, for exciting and manipulating magnons in reconfigurable nanocircuits.

  9. Artificial crawler model for texture analysis on silk fibroin scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Bruno Brandoli; Gonçalves, Wesley Nunes; Bruno, Odemir Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Texture plays an important role in computer vision tasks. Several methods of texture analysis are available. However, these methods are not capable of extracting rich detail in images. This paper presents a novel approach to image texture classification based on the artificial crawler model. Here, we propose a new rule of movement that moves artificial crawler agents not only toward higher intensities but also toward lower ones. This strategy is able of capturing more detail because the agents explore the peaks as well as the valleys. Thus, compared with the state-of-the-art method, this approach shows an increased discriminatory power. Experiments on the most well known benchmark demonstrate the superior performance of our approach. We also tested our approach on silk fibroin scaffold analysis, and results indicate that our method is consistent and can be applied in real-world situations. (paper)

  10. Adaptive through-thickness integration for accurate springback prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burchitz, I.A.; Meinders, Vincent T.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate numerical prediction of springback in sheet metal forming is essential for the automotive industry. Numerous factors influence the accuracy of prediction of this complex phenomenon by using the finite element method. One of them is the numerical integration through the thickness of shell

  11. Kaupapa Maori Methodology: Trusting the Methodology through Thick and Thin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiha, Anne Aroha

    2016-01-01

    Kaupapa Maori is thoroughly theorised in academia in Aotearoa and those wishing to use it as their research methodology can find support through the writing of a number of Maori academics. What is not so well articulated, is the experiential voice of those who have used Kaupapa Maori as research methodology. My identity as a Maori woman…

  12. Extending ultra-short pulse laser texturing over large area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincuzzi, G., E-mail: girolamo.mincuzzi@alphanov.com; Gemini, L.; Faucon, M.; Kling, R.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We carried out metal surface texturing (Ripples, micro grooves, Spikes) using a high power, high repetition rate, industrial, Ultra-short pulses laser. • Extremely Fast processing is shown (Laser Scan speed as high as 90 m/s) with a polygon scanner head. • Stainless steel surface blackening with Ultra-short pulses laser has been obtained with unprecedented scanspeed. • Full SEM surface characterization was carried out for all the different structures obtained. • Reflectance measurements were carried out to characterize surface reflectance. - Abstract: Surface texturing by Ultra-Short Pulses Laser (UPL) for industrial applications passes through the use of both fast beam scanning systems and high repetition rate, high average power P, UPL. Nevertheless unwanted thermal effects are expected when P exceeds some tens of W. An interesting strategy for a reliable heat management would consists in texturing with a low fluence values (slightly higher than the ablation threshold) and utilising a Polygon Scanner Heads delivering laser pulses with unrepeated speed. Here we show for the first time that with relatively low fluence it is possible over stainless steel, to obtain surface texturing by utilising a 2 MHz femtosecond laser jointly with a polygonal scanner head in a relatively low fluence regime (0.11 J cm{sup −2}). Different surface textures (Ripples, micro grooves and spikes) can be obtained varying the scan speed from 90 m s{sup −1} to 25 m s{sup −1}. In particular, spikes formation process has been shown and optimised at 25 m s{sup −1} and a full morphology characterization by SEM has been carried out. Reflectance measurements with integrating sphere are presented to compare reference surface with high scan rate textures. In the best case we show a black surface with reflectance value < 5%.

  13. The neural substrate for working memory of tactile surface texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Amanda L; van Mier, Hanneke; Visser, Maya; Goebel, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    Fine surface texture is best discriminated by touch, in contrast to macro geometric features like shape. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a delayed match-to-sample task to investigate the neural substrate for working memory of tactile surface texture. Blindfolded right-handed males encoded the texture or location of up to four sandpaper stimuli using the dominant or non-dominant hand. They maintained the information for 10-12 s and then answered whether a probe stimulus matched the memory array. Analyses of variance with the factors Hand, Task, and Load were performed on the estimated percent signal change for the encoding and delay phase. During encoding, contralateral effects of Hand were found in sensorimotor regions, whereas Load effects were observed in bilateral postcentral sulcus (BA2), secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), pre-SMA, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and superior parietal lobule (SPL). During encoding and delay, Task effects (texture > location) were found in central sulcus, S2, pre-SMA, dlPFC, and SPL. The Task and Load effects found in hand- and modality-specific regions BA2 and S2 indicate involvement of these regions in the tactile encoding and maintenance of fine surface textures. Similar effects in hand- and modality-unspecific areas dlPFC, pre-SMA and SPL suggest that these regions contribute to the cognitive monitoring required to encode and maintain multiple items. Our findings stress both the particular importance of S2 for the encoding and maintenance of tactile surface texture, as well as the supramodal nature of parieto-frontal networks involved in cognitive control. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Pattern Formation and Reaction Textures during Dunite Carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisabeth, H. P.; Zhu, W.

    2015-12-01

    Alteration of olivine-bearing rocks by fluids is one of the most pervasive geochemical processes on the surface of the Earth. Serpentinized and/or carbonated ultramafic rocks often exhibit characteristic textures on many scales, from polygonal mesh textures on the grain-scale to onion-skin or kernel patterns on the outcrop scale. Strong disequilibrium between pristine ultramafic rocks and common geological fluids such as water and carbon dioxide leads to rapid reactions and coupled mechanical and chemical feedbacks that manifest as characteristic textures. Textural evolution during metasomatic reactions can control effective reaction rates by modulating dynamic porosity and therefore reactant supply and reactive surface area. We run hydrostatic experiments on thermally cracked dunites saturated with carbon dioxide bearing brine at 15 MPa confining pressure and 150°C to explore the evolution of physical properties and reaction textures as carbon mineralization takes place in the sample. Compaction and permeability reduction are observed throughout experiments. Rates of porosity and permeability changes are sensitive to pore fluid chemistry. After reaction, samples are imaged in 3-dimension (3D) using a dual-beam FIB-SEM. Analysis of the high resolution 3D microstructure shows that permeable, highly porous domains are created by olivine dissolution at a characteristic distance from pre-existing crack surfaces while precipitation of secondary minerals such as serpentine and magnesite is limited largely to the primary void space. The porous dissolution channels provide an avenue for fluid ingress, allow reactions to continue and could lead to progressive hierarchical fracturing. Initial modeling of the system indicates that this texture is the result of coupling between dissolution-precipitation reactions and the local stress state of the sample.

  15. Electromagnetic induced voltage signal to magnetic variation through torquing textured Fe81Ga19 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Li, Jiheng; Bao, Xiaoqian; Mu, Xing; Gao, Xuexu

    2017-07-01

    The results of a study on the suitability of Fe-Ga alloys for torque sensor applications are presented. A Fe81Ga19 rod with a ⟨100⟩ preferred orientation along the length direction is prepared for the torque shaft and as the electromagnetic induction sensitive element, which is wound with three coils for signal excitation, signal pickup, and applied bias magnetic field, respectively. An apparent decrease in the induced voltage signal (peak voltage) of 3.88 mV is observed as the torque loading is 50 N m in the presence of a sine excitation signal (10 V, 1 kHz) and a bias current of 0.5 A. Meanwhile, a good repeatability and stress sensitivity are obtained, especially in the low torque range. These behaviors stem from the stress induced decrease in the magnetic permeability and the rotation of the arranged magnetic moment. Here, we use the Fe81Ga19 alloy as the shaft material; nevertheless, in practical use, the same effect can be achieved by forming a Fe-Ga layer with large magnetostriction on the surface of the torsion shaft. This work shows the prospect of Fe-Ga alloys for non-contact torque sensing, for the large magnetostriction and high sensitivity of magnetization to stress.

  16. Unconventional spin texture of a topologically nontrivial semimetal Sb(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strózecka, A.; Eiguren, A.; Bianchi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    of Sb(110). The existence of the unconventional spin texture is corroborated by the investigations of the electron scattering on this surface. The charge interference patterns formed around single scattering impurities, imaged by scanning tunneling microscopy, reveal the absence of direct backscattering......The surfaces of antimony are characterized by the presence of spin-split states within the projected bulk band gap and the Fermi contour is thus expected to exhibit a spin texture. Using spin-resolved density functional theory calculations, we determine the spin polarization of the surface bands...

  17. Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, N.; Goretta, K.C.; Dorris, S.E.

    1999-01-05

    A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer. 8 figs.

  18. Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages produced by kombucha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraković Katarina G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of fermented dairy products are very important parameters of the product quality. The behaviour of gel formed during fermentation of milk is influenced by a great number of factors, such as: milk composition, starter culture, flavourings addition, etc. The aim of this research was to examine the influence of fat content, and kombucha inoculum concentration on textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages: firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index after production and during 10 days of storage. Higher fat content of beverage affects the firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index, while higher amount of inoculum in beverages has an opposite effect on textural characteristics of samples during storage.

  20. On uniform resampling and gaze analysis of bidirectional texture functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Chantler, M.J.; Haindl, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2009), s. 1-15 ISSN 1544-3558 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant - others:EC Marie Curie(BE) 41358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : BTF * texture * eye tracking Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.447, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/RO/haindl-on uniform resampling and gaze analysis of bidirectional texture functions.pdf

  1. Texture evaluation in ductile fracture process by neutron diffraction measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaga, H.; Takamura, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Otake, Y.; Hama, T.; Kumagai, M.; Suzuki, H.; Suzuki, S.

    2016-08-01

    A neutron diffraction measurement was performed to reveal microstructural aspects of the ductile fracture in ferritic steel. The diffraction patterns were continuously measured at the center of the reduced area while a tensile specimen was loaded under tension until the end of the fracture process. The measurement results showed that the volume fraction of (110)-oriented grains increased when the texture evolved as a result of plastic deformation. But the mechanism of texture evolution may be changed during necking, decreasing an increase rate of the volume fraction.

  2. Hierarchical Multiple Markov Chain Model for Unsupervised Texture Segmentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scarpa, G.; Gaetano, R.; Haindl, Michal; Zerubia, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 8 (2009), s. 1830-1843 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Classification * texture analysis * segmentation * hierarchical image models * Markov process Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.848, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/RO/haindl-hierarchical multiple markov chain model for unsupervised texture segmentation.pdf

  3. Atmospheric degradation of proton irradiated textured oxide superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Kalanov, M U; Khajdarov, T K; Pajzullakhanov, M S; Rustamova, V M

    2001-01-01

    The results of studies on the atmospheric degradation of the structure and superconducting properties of the YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - subdelta (delta = 0.07) isatropic and textured ceramics before and after irradiation by protons (18 MeV) up to the fluence of 6 x 10 sup 1 sup 4 p/cm sup 2 by the long-term storage under normal conditions are presented. It is shown that the proton irradiation up to the certain dose increases the structure and properties stability to atmospheric degradation and the texturing additionally quenches the ceramics degradation

  4. Method for forming biaxially textured articles by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    A method of preparing a biaxially textured alloy article comprises the steps of preparing a mixture comprising Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacting the mixture, followed by heat treating and rapidly recrystallizing to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  5. Macroscopic Rock Texture Image Classification Using a Hierarchical Neuro-Fuzzy Class Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio B. Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a Hierarchical Neuro-Fuzzy Class Method based on binary space partitioning (NFHB-Class Method for macroscopic rock texture classification. The relevance of this study is in helping Geologists in the diagnosis and planning of oil reservoir exploration. The proposed method is capable of generating its own decision structure, with automatic extraction of fuzzy rules. These rules are linguistically interpretable, thus explaining the obtained data structure. The presented image classification for macroscopic rocks is based on texture descriptors, such as spatial variation coefficient, Hurst coefficient, entropy, and cooccurrence matrix. Four rock classes have been evaluated by the NFHB-Class Method: gneiss (two subclasses, basalt (four subclasses, diabase (five subclasses, and rhyolite (five subclasses. These four rock classes are of great interest in the evaluation of oil boreholes, which is considered a complex task by geologists. We present a computer method to solve this problem. In order to evaluate system performance, we used 50 RGB images for each rock classes and subclasses, thus producing a total of 800 images. For all rock classes, the NFHB-Class Method achieved a percentage of correct hits over 73%. The proposed method converged for all tests presented in the case study.

  6. Evaluation of penicylinders used in disinfectant testing: bacterial attachment and surface texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, E C; Rutala, W A; Carson, J L

    1987-01-01

    Two possible deficiencies in the AOAC use-dilution method for registration of chemical disinfectants by the Environmental Protection Agency are examined: (1) the physical disparities among brands of penicylinders and (2) the variability of bacterial numbers on penicylinders depending upon test strain and penicylinder surface texture. Textural differences of 2 brands of stainless steel penicylinders, one brand of porcelain, and one brand of glass were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. A considerable variation in smoothness of both inner and outer surfaces of stainless steel and porcelain penicylinders was observed. Glass penicylinders were very smooth. Numbers of bacteria attached to a penicylinder were assessed by vortexing the penicylinders 30 s at No. 4 after using the AOAC method of bacterial inoculation and drying 40 min at 37 degrees C. With this methodology, stainless steel carriers retained the 3 AOAC-recommended bacterial test strains differentially: ca 10(7) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 5 X 10(6) for Staphylococcus aureus, and 10(6) for Salmonella choleraesuis; glass retained 10(6)-10(7) organisms of all 3 test strains; porcelain retained about that amount of S. aureus but 10(5)-10(6) P. aeruginosa and 10(3)-10(4) S. choleraesuis. These data suggest that disinfectants are not similarly challenged with the AOAC-recommended test bacteria and that an alternative method should be considered to ensure comparable numbers of bacteria on penicylinders.

  7. Laser light interaction for texture evaluation of native woods and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.R.; Mori, F.A.; Rabelo, G.F.; Braga Junior, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    This work had the objective of study in patterns of the ''speckle'' as function of the wood texture of Bowdichia virgilioides check for this species in other resources (sucupira), Swietenia macrophylla check for this species in other resources (mogno), Balfourodendron riedelianum check for this species in other resources (paumarfim) and Eucalyptus grandis wood. The He-Ne laser 10 mW was used to illuminate the wood samples and a digital camera captured the result of the interaction of the wood with the laser light. The results obtained from image analysis were compared with the pattern obtained by microscopic methodology. The captured images show the intensities of each pixel, varying between 0 and 255 in the gray scale. From the images, a central area of 16x16 pixels was removed and analyzed by the application of the convolution function and its Fourier Transform, resulting in the power density spectrum. The results showed that the information obtained by the power density spectrum of the ''speckle'' space variation allow classing samples of woods with different texture [pt

  8. Effect of irradiation on the texture of a soft cheese like Camembert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louhichi, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    The properties texturales and rheological of a cheese of the Camembert cheese type irradiated by gamma radiation with amounts 1, 3, and 5kGy were studied using three mechanical tests with knowing test of penetrometry, test of simple compression and test of compression-relieving using a texturometer of the type TA-XT2i. The parameter textural obtained, for each amount of irradiation, starting from the test of penetrometry is the force with the threshold of rupture (Fsr), whereas starting from the simple test of compression we determined with each amount the maximum compressive force and the Young modulus for a weak deformation (< 0.5 mm). The index of relieving and the time of half-relieving were given starting from the test of compression relieving. One also determined the average maximum compressive force (Fmax moy) to have a deformation of 10%. A statistical study us A makes it possible to conclude that, only that on the level of the test of compression-relieving, the amount of irradiation is regarded as being a significant factor influencing the variation of Fmax moy which can modify the cheese texture. The physico-chemical studies were carried out as well on the crust as on the internal part of cheese do not express any direct relationship to the amount of irradiation used because of the limited number of the repetitions. (Author)

  9. Automatic Segmenting Structures in MRI's Based on Texture Analysis and Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Rattan, Munish; Singh, Pushpinder

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the variational method for geometric contours which helps the level set function remain close to the sign distance function, therefor it remove the need of expensive re-initialization procedure and thus, level set method is applied on magnetic resonance images (MRI) to track the irregularities in them as medical imaging plays a substantial part in the treatment, therapy and diagnosis of various organs, tumors and various abnormalities. It favors the patient with more speedy and decisive disease controlling with lesser side effects. The geometrical shape, the tumor's size and tissue's abnormal growth can be calculated by the segmentation of that particular image. It is still a great challenge for the researchers to tackle with an automatic segmentation in the medical imaging. Based on the texture analysis, different images are processed by optimization of level set segmentation. Traditionally, optimization was manual for every image where each parameter is selected one after another. By applying fuzzy logic, the segmentation of image is correlated based on texture features, to make it automatic and more effective. There is no initialization of parameters and it works like an intelligent system. It segments the different MRI images without tuning the level set parameters and give optimized results for all MRI's.

  10. Research on texture feature of RS image based on cloud model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuocheng; Xue, Lixia

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new method applied to texture feature representation in RS image based on cloud model. Aiming at the fuzziness and randomness of RS image, we introduce the cloud theory into RS image processing in a creative way. The digital characteristics of clouds well integrate the fuzziness and randomness of linguistic terms in a unified way and map the quantitative and qualitative concepts. We adopt texture multi-dimensions cloud to accomplish vagueness and randomness handling of texture feature in RS image. The method has two steps: 1) Correlativity analyzing of texture statistical parameters in Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and parameters fuzzification. GLCM can be used to representing the texture feature in many aspects perfectly. According to the expressive force of texture statistical parameters and by Correlativity analyzing of texture statistical parameters, we can abstract a few texture statistical parameters that can best represent the texture feature. By the fuzziness algorithm, the texture statistical parameters can be mapped to fuzzy cloud space. 2) Texture multi-dimensions cloud model constructing. Based on the abstracted texture statistical parameters and fuzziness cloud space, texture multi-dimensions cloud model can be constructed in micro-windows of image. According to the membership of texture statistical parameters, we can achieve the samples of cloud-drop. By backward cloud generator, the digital characteristics of texture multi-dimensions cloud model can be achieved and the Mathematical Expected Hyper Surface(MEHS) of multi-dimensions cloud of micro-windows can be constructed. At last, the weighted sum of the 3 digital characteristics of micro-window cloud model was proposed and used in texture representing in RS image. The method we develop is demonstrated by applying it to texture representing in many RS images, various performance studies testify that the method is both efficient and effective. It enriches the cloud

  11. Use of feature extraction techniques for the texture and context information in ERTS imagery: Spectral and textural processing of ERTS imagery. [classification of Kansas land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralick, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Bosley, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A procedure was developed to extract cross-band textural features from ERTS MSS imagery. Evolving from a single image texture extraction procedure which uses spatial dependence matrices to measure relative co-occurrence of nearest neighbor grey tones, the cross-band texture procedure uses the distribution of neighboring grey tone N-tuple differences to measure the spatial interrelationships, or co-occurrences, of the grey tone N-tuples present in a texture pattern. In both procedures, texture is characterized in such a way as to be invariant under linear grey tone transformations. However, the cross-band procedure complements the single image procedure by extracting texture information and spectral information contained in ERTS multi-images. Classification experiments show that when used alone, without spectral processing, the cross-band texture procedure extracts more information than the single image texture analysis. Results show an improvement in average correct classification from 86.2% to 88.8% for ERTS image no. 1021-16333 with the cross-band texture procedure. However, when used together with spectral features, the single image texture plus spectral features perform better than the cross-band texture plus spectral features, with an average correct classification of 93.8% and 91.6%, respectively.

  12. Influence of crystallographic texture in X70 pipeline steels on toughness anisotropy and delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jabr, Haytham M.

    The effects of microstructure and crystallographic texture in four commercially-produced API X70 pipeline steels and their relation to planar anisotropy of toughness and delamination were evaluated. The experimental steels were processed through either a hot strip mill, a Steckel mill, or a compact strip mill. Different processing routes were selected to obtain plates with potential variations in the microstructure and anisotropic characteristics. Tensile and Charpy impact testing were used to evaluate the mechanical properties in three orientations: longitudinal (L), transverse (T) and diagonal (D) with respect to the rolling direction to evaluate mechanical property anisotropy. The yield and tensile strengths were higher in the T orientation and toughness was lower in the D orientation for all plates. Delamination was observed in some of the ductile fracture surfaces of the impact samples. To further study the splitting behavior and effects on impact toughness, a modified impact test (MCVN) specimen with side grooves was designed to intensify induced stresses parallel to the notch root and thus facilitate evaluation of delamination. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) were used to evaluate the grain size, microstructural constituents, and crystallographic texture to determine the factors leading to delamination and the anisotropy in toughness. The ferrite grain size is mainly responsible for the differences in DBTTs between the L and T orientations. The higher DBTT in the D orientation observed in pipeline steels is attributed to crystallographic texture. The higher DBTT in the D direction is due to the higher volume fraction of grains having their {100} planes parallel or close to the primary fracture plane for the D orientation. An equation based on a new "brittleness parameter," based on an assessment of grain orientations based on EBSD data, was developed to predict the changes in DBTTs with respect to sample

  13. Injection moulding of plastic parts with laser textured surfaces with optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Estany, J.; García-Granada, A. A.; Corull-Massana, E.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to manufacture micro and nanotextured surfaces on plastic injection moulds with the aim of replicating them and obtaining plastic parts with optical applications. Different patterns are manufactured with nanosecond and femtosecond lasers in order to obtain three different optical applications: (i) homogeneous light diffusion (ii) 1D light directionality and (iii) 2D light directionality. Induction heating is used in the injections in order to improve the textures degree of replication. The steel mould and the plastic parts are analyzed with a confocal/focus variation microscope and with a surface roughness tester. A mock-up and a luminance camera are used to evaluate the homogeneity and luminance of the homogeneous light diffusion application in comparison with the current industrial solutions.

  14. Characterizing commercial pureed foods: sensory, nutritional, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing impairment) is a common consequence of stroke and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Limited research is available on pureed foods, specifically the qualities of commercial products. Because research has linked pureed foods, specifically in-house pureed products, to malnutrition due to inferior sensory and nutritional qualities, commercial purees also need to be investigated. Proprietary research on sensory attributes of commercial foods is available; however direct comparisons of commercial pureed foods have never been reported. Descriptive sensory analysis as well as nutritional and texture analysis of commercially pureed prepared products was performed using a trained descriptive analysis panel. The pureed foods tested included four brands of carrots, of turkey, and two of bread. Each commercial puree was analyzed for fat (Soxhlet), protein (Dumas), carbohydrate (proximate analysis), fiber (total fiber), and sodium content (Quantab titrator strips). The purees were also texturally compared with a line spread test and a back extrusion test. Differences were found in the purees for sensory attributes as well as nutritional and textural properties. Findings suggest that implementation of standards is required to reduce variability between products, specifically regarding the textural components of the products. This would ensure all commercial products available in Canada meet standards established as being considered safe for swallowing.

  15. Critical currents and weak links in melt textured R123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veal, B. W.; Zhang, H.; Claus, H.; Chen, L.; Paulikas, A. P.; Koshelev, A.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2000-01-01

    Weak link behavior is studied, using magnetization and Hall probe measurements of ring samples, in welded melt-textured R123 monoliths and in dual-seeded samples with disoriented domains. Techniques for welding samples yield transport currents across the junction that are in excess of 10 4 A/cm 2

  16. Electromigration-induced plasticity and texture in Cu interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Light Source; Tamura, Nobumichi; Budiman, A. S.; Hau-Riege, C.S.; Besser, P. R.; Marathe, A.; Joo, Y.-C.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.; Nix, W. D.

    2007-01-01

    Plastic deformation has been observed in damascene Cu interconnect test structures during an in-situ electromigration experiment and before the onset of visible microstructural damage (ie. voiding) using a synchrotron technique of white beam X-ray microdiffraction. We show here that the extent of this electromigration-induced plasticity is dependent on the texture of the Cu grains in the line. In lines with strong textures, the extent of plastic deformation is found to be relatively large compared to our plasticity results in the previous study [1] using another set of Cu lines with weaker textures. This is consistent with our earlier observation that the occurrence of plastic deformation in a given grain can be strongly correlated with the availability of a direction of the crystal in the proximity of the direction of the electron flow in the line (within an angle of 10 o ). In out-of-plane oriented grains in a damascene interconnect scheme, the crystal plane facing the sidewall tends to be a {110} plane,[2-4] so as to minimize interfacial energy. Therefore, it is deterministic rather than probabilistic that the grains will have a direction nearly parallel to the direction of electron flow. Thus, strong textures lead to more plasticity, as we observe

  17. Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Dependence Upon Texture Development in Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Loftus, Ryan J.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2016-01-01

    The atomic oxygen erosion yield (volume of a polymer that is lost due to oxidation per incident atom) of polymers is typically assumed to be reasonably constant with increasing fluence. However polymers containing ash or inorganic pigments, tend to have erosion yields that decrease with fluence due to an increasing presence of protective particles on the polymer surface. This paper investigates two additional possible causes for erosion yields of polymers that are dependent upon atomic oxygen. These are the development of surface texture which can cause the erosion yield to change with fluence due to changes in the aspect ratio of the surface texture that develops and polymer specific atomic oxygen interaction parameters. The surface texture development under directed hyperthermal attack produces higher aspect ratio surface texture than isotropic thermal energy atomic oxygen attack. The fluence dependence of erosion yields is documented for low Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) effective fluences for a variety of polymers under directed hyperthermal and isotropic thermal energy attack.

  18. The relation between surface texture of asphalt pavements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic conditions, road variables, skid resistance, texture depth, and accident data for the period 2000 - 2004 were analysed to develop models to establish the inter-relationships between skid resistance, macrotexture and incidence of accidents. Poisson regression relating to accident frequency and exposure variables ...

  19. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a topical application of a cream formulation containing extract of. Acacia nilotica bark extract on human cheek skin texture. Methods: A cream containing 3 % concentrated extract of Acacia nilotica bark was developed by entrapping the extract in the internal aqueous phase of the cream ...

  20. Design and construction of an automatic texture goniometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, N.B. de; Pontes, E.W.; Monteiro, P.R.B.; Imakuma, K.

    1984-01-01

    The project and construction of a two-axis automatic goniometer, operated by step motors, adaptable to the scanning goniometer SG-7 or SG-8 fabricated by Rigaku-Deuki. To allow the operation of this texture goniometer, computer codes has been developed. (E.G.) [pt

  1. Static Performance of Surface Textured Magnetorheological Fluid Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Bompos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of journal bearings with artificial texturing on the bearing surface show potential benefits in certain cases. These benefits are usually focused on a specific operating area of the bearing, whereas under certain operating conditions the performance of the bearing is deteriorating due to the surface texturing. Gaining control over the viscosity of the lubricant may become a useful tool in order to take advantage of the surface texturing in a wider range of loads and journal velocities. One way to achieve this control is the use of magnetorheological fluid journal bearings. Magnetorheological fluids are solutions of iron based paramagnetic particles in conventional lubricant. Under the influence of an external magnetic field, these particles form chains, they hinder the flow of the lubricant and they ultimately alter its apparent viscosity. In this work the two techniques are combined in order to optimize the behaviour of the journal bearing in as much a variety of operating conditions as possible. Different shapes applied on the surface texturing will be examined.

  2. Bean nodulation patterns in soils of different texture at Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine the, relationship between nodulation in a bean-Rhizobium system in three soils of varying texture and % recovery of rhizobia I cells immediately after inoculation into such soils. Effects of inoculation methods (seed pelleting versus soil inoculation) on nodulation and plant growth were ...

  3. Deformation and recrystallization textures in commercially pure aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    1986-01-01

    The deformation and recrystallization textures of commercially pure aluminum (99.6 pct) containing large intermetallic particles (FeAl3) are measured by neutron diffraction, and the orientation distribution functions (ODF’s) are calculated. Sample parameters are the initial grain size (50 and 350...

  4. Colour and texture associations in voice-induced synaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eMoos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Voice-induced synaesthesia, a form of synaesthesia in which synaesthetic perceptions are induced by the sounds of people’s voices, appears to be relatively rare and has not been systematically studied. In this study we investigated the synaesthetic colour and visual texture perceptions experienced in response to different types of voice quality (e.g. nasal, whisper, falsetto. Experiences of three different groups – self-reported voice synaesthetes, phoneticians and controls – were compared using both qualitative and quantitative analysis in a study conducted online. Whilst, in the qualitative analysis, synaesthetes used more colour and texture terms to describe voices than either phoneticians or controls, only weak differences, and many similarities, between groups were found in the quantitative analysis. Notable consistent results between groups were the matching of higher speech fundamental frequencies with lighter and redder colours, the matching of whispery voices with smoke-like textures and the matching of harsh and creaky voices with textures resembling dry cracked soil. These data are discussed in the light of current thinking about definitions and categorizations of synaesthesia, especially in cases where individuals apparently have a range of different synaesthetic inducers.

  5. Cirrhosis Classification Based on Texture Classification of Random Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate staging of hepatic cirrhosis is important in investigating the cause and slowing down the effects of cirrhosis. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD can provide doctors with an alternative second opinion and assist them to make a specific treatment with accurate cirrhosis stage. MRI has many advantages, including high resolution for soft tissue, no radiation, and multiparameters imaging modalities. So in this paper, multisequences MRIs, including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, arterial, portal venous, and equilibrium phase, are applied. However, CAD does not meet the clinical needs of cirrhosis and few researchers are concerned with it at present. Cirrhosis is characterized by the presence of widespread fibrosis and regenerative nodules in the hepatic, leading to different texture patterns of different stages. So, extracting texture feature is the primary task. Compared with typical gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM features, texture classification from random features provides an effective way, and we adopt it and propose CCTCRF for triple classification (normal, early, and middle and advanced stage. CCTCRF does not need strong assumptions except the sparse character of image, contains sufficient texture information, includes concise and effective process, and makes case decision with high accuracy. Experimental results also illustrate the satisfying performance and they are also compared with typical NN with GLCM.

  6. Adding Texture to Color: Quantitative Analysis of Color Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2010-01-01

    What happens to color emotion responses when texture is added to color samples? To quantify this we performed an experiment in which subjects ordered samples (displayed on a computer monitor) along four scales: Warm-Cool, Masculine-Feminine, Hard-Soft and Heavy-Light. Three sample types were used:

  7. Bean Nodulation Patterns in Soils of Different Texture at Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study was designed to examine the, relationship between nodulation in a bean-Rhizobium system in three soils of varying texture and % recovery of rhizobia I cells immediately after in- oculation into such soils. Effects of inoculation methods (seed pelleting versus soil inocula- tion) on nodulation and plant ...

  8. The causal texture of trade union environments | Iyayi | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  9. Cosmological texture is incompatible with Planck-scale physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Watkins, R.; Widrow, L.M.; Toronto Univ., ON

    1992-01-01

    Nambu-Goldstone modes are sensitive to the effects of physics at energies comparable to the scale of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We show that as a consequence of this the global texture proposal for structure formation requires rather severe assumptions about the nature of physics at the Planck scale

  10. A Database of Registered, Textured Models of the Human Face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Lading, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This note describes a data set of 24 registered human faces represented by both shape and texture. The data was collected during 2003 as part of the preparation of the master thesis of Karl Sjöstrand (former name Karl Skoglund). The data is ready to be used in shape, appearance and data analysis....

  11. Hardwood species classification with DWT based hybrid texture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques have been used to categorize the microscopic images of hardwood species into 75 different classes. Initially, the DWT has been employed to decompose the image up to 7 levels using Daubechies (db3) wavelet as ...

  12. Instrumental characterisation of textural properties of fluid food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Scholten, E.

    2015-01-01

    To control or modify the textural properties of food, it is important to understand how the ingredients affect the product structure and how the product is perceived by the consumer. The relationship between these aspects is complex, and a complete understanding of the mechanisms relating structure

  13. Electromigration-induced plasticity and texture in Cu interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Light Source; Tamura, Nobumichi; Budiman, A. S.; Hau-Riege, C.S.; Besser, P. R.; Marathe, A.; Joo, Y.-C.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.; Nix, W. D.

    2007-10-31

    Plastic deformation has been observed in damascene Cu interconnect test structures during an in-situ electromigration experiment and before the onset of visible microstructural damage (ie. voiding) using a synchrotron technique of white beam X-ray microdiffraction. We show here that the extent of this electromigration-induced plasticity is dependent on the texture of the Cu grains in the line. In lines with strong <111> textures, the extent of plastic deformation is found to be relatively large compared to our plasticity results in the previous study [1] using another set of Cu lines with weaker textures. This is consistent with our earlier observation that the occurrence of plastic deformation in a given grain can be strongly correlated with the availability of a <112> direction of the crystal in the proximity of the direction of the electron flow in the line (within an angle of 10{sup o}). In <111> out-of-plane oriented grains in a damascene interconnect scheme, the crystal plane facing the sidewall tends to be a {l_brace}110{r_brace} plane,[2-4] so as to minimize interfacial energy. Therefore, it is deterministic rather than probabilistic that the <111> grains will have a <112> direction nearly parallel to the direction of electron flow. Thus, strong <111> textures lead to more plasticity, as we observe.

  14. effects of massaging time on texture, rheological properties, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OPTIMUS ATS

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... Pineapple and mango-treated samples scored almost equally, but the first one probably by deepest changes in structure elements resulted in a product with the mashy texture. It follows that, kiwifruit and ginger could be effectively utilized at household or industrial level for tenderization of tough meat such ...

  15. Comparison of features response in texture-based iris segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available and eyelashes that corrupt the iris region of interest. An accurate segmentation algorithm must localize and remove these noise components. Texture features are considered in this paper for describing iris and non-iris regions. These regions are classified using...

  16. Deciphering the Origin of Plume-Textured Geodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlick, George Donald; Jones, Francis Tucker

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an interpretation of the inward and outward growth and formation of plume textured geodes available from southern Brazil. Field occurrence, morphology of vesicles, growth history, closure of the agate shell, microscopic features, coherent reflection of light from convoluted surfaces, and accessory minerals of the inner cavity are…

  17. Textural and morphological studies of transition metal doped SBA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rials with short and open channels are well explored because they are more ..... is important to note that the increase in unit cell con- stant, ao is not .... The strik- ing improvement in textural parameters suggests that the metal salts promote the silica condensation as a result possesses thicker pore walls. 3.3 TG Analysis.

  18. Aggregate breakdown mechanisms as affected by soil texture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil aggregates breakdown mechanisms depend on soil properties such as texture, clay mineralogy and organic matter content. Little is known about the effect of soil properties on aggregate breakdown mechanisms in South African soils. The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between aggregate ...

  19. Fractional Directional Differentiation and Its Application for Multiscale Texture Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaobang Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the directional derivative expression of Taylor formula for two-variable function from Taylor formula of one-variable function. Further, it proposes a new concept, fractional directional differentiation (FDD, and corresponding theories. To achieve the numerical calculation, the paper deduces power series expression of FDD. Moreover, the paper discusses the construction of FDD mask in the four quadrants, respectively, for digital image. The differential coefficients of every direction are not the same along the eight directions in the four quadrants, which is the biggest difference by contrast to general fractional differentiation and can reflect different fractional change rates along different directions, and this benefits to enlarge the differences among the image textures. Experiments show that, for texture-rich digital images, the capability of nonlinearly enhancing comprehensive texture details by FDD is better than those by the general fractional differentiation and Butterworth filter. By quantity analysis, it shows that state-of-the-art effect of texture enhancement is obtained by FDD.

  20. Anorexia Nervosa: Analysis of Trabecular Texture with CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Azadeh; Torriani, Martin; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Bredella, Miriam A

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To determine indexes of skeletal integrity by using computed tomographic (CT) trabecular texture analysis of the lumbar spine in patients with anorexia nervosa and normal-weight control subjects and to determine body composition predictors of trabecular texture. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was approved by the institutional review board and compliant with HIPAA. Written informed consent was obtained. The study included 30 women with anorexia nervosa (mean age ± standard deviation, 26 years ± 6) and 30 normal-weight age-matched women (control group). All participants underwent low-dose single-section quantitative CT of the L4 vertebral body with use of a calibration phantom. Trabecular texture analysis was performed by using software. Skewness (asymmetry of gray-level pixel distribution), kurtosis (pointiness of pixel distribution), entropy (inhomogeneity of pixel distribution), and mean value of positive pixels (MPP) were assessed. Bone mineral density and abdominal fat and paraspinal muscle areas were quantified with quantitative CT. Women with anorexia nervosa and normal-weight control subjects were compared by using the Student t test. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine associations between trabecular texture and body composition. Results Women with anorexia nervosa had higher skewness and kurtosis, lower MPP (P anorexia nervosa. Conclusion Patients with anorexia nervosa had increased skewness and kurtosis and decreased entropy and MPP compared with normal-weight control subjects. These parameters were associated with lowest lifetime weight and duration of amenorrhea, but there were no such associations with bone mineral density. These findings suggest that trabecular texture analysis might contribute information about bone health in anorexia nervosa that is independent of that provided with bone mineral density. © RSNA, 2016.

  1. Assessment of Multibeam Backscatter Texture Analysis for Seafloor Sediment Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, S. A.; Hasan, R. C.

    2017-10-01

    Recently, there have been many debates to analyse backscatter data from multibeam echosounder system (MBES) for seafloor classifications. Among them, two common methods have been used lately for seafloor classification; (1) signal-based classification method which using Angular Range Analysis (ARA) and Image-based texture classification method which based on derived Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCMs). Although ARA method could predict sediment types, its low spatial resolution limits its use with high spatial resolution dataset. Texture layers from GLCM on the other hand does not predict sediment types, but its high spatial resolution can be useful for image analysis. The objectives of this study are; (1) to investigate the correlation between MBES derived backscatter mosaic textures with seafloor sediment type derived from ARA method, and (2) to identify which GLCM texture layers have high similarities with sediment classification map derived from signal-based classification method. The study area was located at Tawau, covers an area of 4.7 km2, situated off the channel in the Celebes Sea between Nunukan Island and Sebatik Island, East Malaysia. First, GLCM layers were derived from backscatter mosaic while sediment types (i.e. sediment map with classes) was also constructed using ARA method. Secondly, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used determine which GLCM layers contribute most to the variance (i.e. important layers). Finally, K-Means clustering algorithm was applied to the important GLCM layers and the results were compared with classes from ARA. From the results, PCA has identified that GLCM layers of Correlation, Entropy, Contrast and Mean contributed to the 98.77 % of total variance. Among these layers, GLCM Mean showed a good agreement with sediment classes from ARA sediment map. This study has demonstrated different texture layers have different characterisation factors for sediment classification and proper analysis is needed before

  2. Perturbed Yukawa textures in the minimal seesaw model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rink, Thomas; Schmitz, Kai [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK),69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-03-29

    We revisit the minimal seesaw model, i.e., the type-I seesaw mechanism involving only two right-handed neutrinos. This model represents an important minimal benchmark scenario for future experimental updates on neutrino oscillations. It features four real parameters that cannot be fixed by the current data: two CP-violating phases, δ and σ, as well as one complex parameter, z, that is experimentally inaccessible at low energies. The parameter z controls the structure of the neutrino Yukawa matrix at high energies, which is why it may be regarded as a label or index for all UV completions of the minimal seesaw model. The fact that z encompasses only two real degrees of freedom allows us to systematically scan the minimal seesaw model over all of its possible UV completions. In doing so, we address the following question: suppose δ and σ should be measured at particular values in the future — to what extent is one then still able to realize approximate textures in the neutrino Yukawa matrix? Our analysis, thus, generalizes previous studies of the minimal seesaw model based on the assumption of exact texture zeros. In particular, our study allows us to assess the theoretical uncertainty inherent to the common texture ansatz. One of our main results is that a normal light-neutrino mass hierarchy is, in fact, still consistent with a two-zero Yukawa texture, provided that the two texture zeros receive corrections at the level of O(10 %). While our numerical results pertain to the minimal seesaw model only, our general procedure appears to be applicable to other neutrino mass models as well.

  3. How do earthworms, soil texture and plant composition affect infiltration along an experimental plant diversity gradient in grassland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infiltration is a key process in determining the water balance, but so far effects of earthworms, soil texture, plant species diversity and their interaction on infiltration capacity have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured infiltration capacity in subplots with ambient and reduced earthworm density nested in plots of different plant species (1, 4, and 16 species and plant functional group richness and composition (1 to 4 groups; legumes, grasses, small herbs, tall herbs. In summer, earthworm presence significantly increased infiltration, whereas in fall effects of grasses and legumes on infiltration were due to plant-mediated changes in earthworm biomass. Effects of grasses and legumes on infiltration even reversed effects of texture. We propose two pathways: (i direct, probably by modifying the pore spectrum and (ii indirect, by enhancing or suppressing earthworm biomass, which in turn influenced infiltration capacity due to change in burrowing activity of earthworms. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the results suggest that spatial and temporal variations in soil hydraulic properties can be explained by biotic processes, especially the presence of certain plant functional groups affecting earthworm biomass, while soil texture had no significant effect. Therefore biotic parameters should be taken into account in hydrological applications.

  4. Induced leaf variations in faba bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, M.

    1996-01-01

    The frequency and spectrum of M2 chlorophyll and other leaf mutations after gamma ray, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and nitrous oxide (N2O) seed treatment in two varieties of faba bean were studied. In general, cv JV1 was more sensitive and EMS treatment was most effective. The frequency of chlorina-type mutations was higher than that of xantha and chlorotica type chlorophyll mutations. The highest frequency of variations was observed in leaflet texture, followed by arrangement, shape and size in both varieties. The use of these leaf mutations in formulating an ideotype of Vicia faba L. are discussed

  5. ABILITY OF LANDSAT-8 OLI DERIVED TEXTURE METRICS IN ESTIMATING ABOVEGROUND CARBON STOCKS OF COPPICE OAK FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Safari

    2016-06-01

    texture metrics were able to explain about half of the variation in aboveground carbon stocks. These results demonstrated that Landsat 8 derived texture metrics can be applied for mapping aboveground carbon stocks of coppice Oak Forests in large areas.

  6. Ability of LANDSAT-8 Oli Derived Texture Metrics in Estimating Aboveground Carbon Stocks of Coppice Oak Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, A.; Sohrabi, H.

    2016-06-01

    were able to explain about half of the variation in aboveground carbon stocks. These results demonstrated that Landsat 8 derived texture metrics can be applied for mapping aboveground carbon stocks of coppice Oak Forests in large areas.

  7. The Tortoise Versus the Hare: Computer Simulation of Euendolithic Microbial Alteration Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, N. R.; Lee, J.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Tiampo, K.

    2010-04-01

    A computer model has been developed to simulate the production of euendolithic microbial alteration textures in basalt glass; and produces textures that are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those observed in natural glass bioalteration.

  8. Texture and mouthfeel of semi-solid foods : commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, van L.J.; Doorn, van J.M.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  9. Texture and mouthfeel of semisolid foods: Commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, L.J. van; Doorn, J.M. van; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, R.A. de

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  10. Chemical constituents of Sweetpotato genotypes in relation to textural characteristics of processed French fries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato French fries (SPFF) are growing in popularity but limited information is available on SPFF textural properties in relation to chemical composition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chemical components of different sweetpotato varieties and textural characteristics...

  11. Support Vector Machine and Parametric Wavelet-Based Texture Classification of Stem Cell Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffreys, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    .... Since colony texture is a major discriminating feature in determining quality, we introduce a non-invasive, semi-automated texture-based stem cell colony classification methodology to aid researchers...

  12. Microstructure and texture evolution of cold-rolled deep-drawing steel sheet during annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Le-yu; Wu, Lei; Liu, Ya-zheng; Cheng, Xiao-jie; Sun, Jin-hong

    2013-06-01

    In accordance with experimental results about the annealing microstructure and texture of cold-rolled deepdrawing sheet based on the compact strip production (CSP) process, a two-dimensional cellular automation simulation model, considering real space and time scale, was established to simulate recrystallization and grain growth during the actual batch annealing process. The simulation results show that pancaked grains form during recrystallization. {111} advantageous texture components become the main parts of the recrystallization texture. After grain growth, the pancaked grains coarsen gradually. The content of {111} advantageous texture components in the annealing texture increases from 55vol% to 65vol%; meanwhile, the contents of {112} and {100} texture components decrease by 4% and 8%, respectively, compared with the recrystallization texture. The simulation results of microstructure and texture evolution are also consistent with the experimental ones, proving the accuracy and usefulness of the model.

  13. Effect of Thermo-Mechanical Treatment on Texture and Microstructure Evolution of Polycrystalline Alpha Titanium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garmestani, Hamid

    2005-01-01

    The present work attempts to establish a unified path model for characterization as well as prediction of microstructure evolution in terms of texture and micro-texture, in commercially pure titanium...

  14. CARACTERIZACIÓN TEXTURAL Y FISICOQUÍMICA DEL QUESO EDAM PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL AND TEXTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF EDAM CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Osorio Tobón

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Para el queso Edam una caracterización físico-química y textural fue realizada. Los resultados indicaron que los parámetros texturales tales como la dureza, cohesividad, adhesividad y masticabilidad son dependientes del tiempo de maduración pero no la resortabilidad del producto. Las propiedades fisicoquímicas contenido de grasa, proteína y humedad también son dependientes del tiempo, siendo estos cambios los responsables de las modificaciones de las propiedades texturales.A physical-chemical and textural characterization of Edam cheese was conducted. The results indicated that the textural parameters such as the hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and chewiness were dependent upon of the maturation period but not the springiness of the product. The physical-chemistry properties such as fat content, protein and moisture content also depended upon the maturation processing, with these changes being responsible for the modifications of the textural properties.

  15. Intrinsic Problems In Determination Of Soil Texture In Calcareous Soils Of Arid Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozna A. Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at studying the effect of removal of CaCO3 on the texture of the soil profile and that of the control section in some Aridisols of the Sudan. Sixty soil profiles were sampled from Shendi area latitude1636 and longitude 33 48 River Nile State Sudan. These soils were analyzed for CaCO3 and 20 of these profiles were found to be of relatively appreciable calcareousness and were therefore selected for this study. The following three weighted soil textures were determined 1 before any removal of the CaCO3 Texture1 2 after the removal of CaCO3 Texture2 3 after amending the texture by adding the clay sized CaCO3 to the silt fraction Texture 3. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences among soil separates in the three textures except between clay of T2 and clay of T3 and among sand fractions in the three textures. That was not unexpected because the first texture included both mineral separates plus their equivalent size of CaCO3 the second texture included only the mineral separates in complete absence of CaCO3 while texture 3 was an amended texture. The change in the textural class amounted to 72 of the profiles. Statistical analysis in the weighted texture of the control section revealed that this texture was not affected except in two profiles. That could be attributed to the fact that the clay content of the soils of the study area did not fall at or near the boundary between any two major textural classes used in the Soil Taxonomy. The size of the CaCO3 was found in the order of clay size silt size sand size.

  16. Analysis of SURRGO Data and Obtaining Soil Texture Classifications for Simulating Hydrologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    texture classification. There may be instances where some SSURGO soil areas do not have an assigned soil texture classification, and “Null” will appear as...containing an attribute field for soil texture classification will have been produced. POINT OF CONTACT: The point of contact for technical inquiries is...ERDC/CHL CHETN-X-3 July 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Analysis of SURRGO Data and Obtaining Soil Texture

  17. The pre-eruption conditions for explosive eruptions at Merapi volcano as revealed by crystal texture and mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Sabrina; Andreastuti, Supriyati; Furman, Tanya; del Marmol, Mary-Ann; Voight, Barry

    2013-07-01

    We analyze the textures and mineralogy of Merapi tephra generated during explosive VEI 3-4 eruptions over the past 2000 years, and compare these data with those observed for Merapi dome and flow lavas. We find that the Merapi pumiceous tephra and lava textures differ significantly with respect to small-size crystal populations, but that phenocryst textures are generally similar. A similar initial phase of crystallization is indicated for tephras and lavas in mid-crustal (> 10 km depth) reservoirs. Subsequent textural differences are mainly affected by ascent rate and degassing during ascent, and, for dome lavas, with temporary storage in shallower reservoirs. These differences also correspond to different eruptive styles. Our analyses include study of pumices, lava, and breadcrust-bomb samples, including samples from some of the most recent explosive episodes prior to the 2010 eruption. Textural analyses of youthful breadcrust bomb samples yield insights on one type of transition between effusive and explosive eruptive styles, involving pressure build-up under a degassed crystalline shallow-conduit plug. In general, comparison of the crystal size distributions and calculated residence times among the effusive and explosive eruptive styles suggests that the two main magma-product types resided for similar lengths of time in a mid-crustal reservoir, before ascending toward the surface and either erupting explosively (tephra), or stagnating in a shallow magma chamber prior to extrusion (lava). The interpretation is supported by the occurrences of amphibole in pristine condition in tephra and in altered state in lava. Finally the 1872 and 2010 explosive eruptions are examined and compared with others over the past three millennia. The 2010 bulk-rock compositions overlap with products of other major explosive Merapi eruptions, such as the Ngrangkah, Tegalsruni, Temusari, and Kepuharjo tephras. The 2010 products show a gradational late-stage mafic enrichment, dissimilar

  18. Effect of desorption and recombination on texture development in hydrogenation–disproportionation–desorption–recombination processed Nd–Fe–B magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; An, Byeong-Seon [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Hee-Ryoung [Powder & Ceramics Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Goo, E-mail: jglee36@kims.re.kr [Powder & Ceramics Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hae-Woong, E-mail: hwkwon@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Cheol-Woong, E-mail: cwyang@skku.edu [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-05

    The microstructural evolution of Nd–Fe–B magnets during a hydrogenation–disproportionation–desorption–recombination (HDDR) process was investigated, with particular focus on the effects of the desorption–recombination (DR) stage of the process. Samples that went through the DR process under different conditions were compared to examine the texture development during the reaction. Even though the same hydrogenation–disproportionation (HD) treatment was carried out on all samples before the DR reaction, variations in conditions of the latter significantly affected the development of texture in the samples. In consideration of the microstructural evolution, magnetic properties, and thermodynamics, nucleation of recombined Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains was found to occur not only at the NdH{sub 2}/Fe{sub 2}B interfaces but also at the NdH{sub 2}/α-Fe interfaces, and it was affected by the desorption of hydrogen. Preferential growth of nuclei at the NdH{sub 2}/Fe{sub 2}B interfaces, which led to a highly textured Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase, could be induced by slow desorption and recombination with a low driving force. Hydrogen desorption at a slower rate was important for achieving high magnetic anisotropy in the HDDR-processed Nd–Fe–B powders. - Highlights: • The DR condition significantly affected magnetic anisotropy of HDDR powder. • Mechanism of texture development during the DR stage was suggested. • Recombined Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B could be nucleated at both NdH{sub 2}/Fe{sub 2}B and NdH{sub 2}/α-Fe interfaces. • Hydrogen pressure during DR reaction affects the preference of nucleation site. • Slow DR process is important for high magnetic anisotropy.

  19. Bio-inspired design of ice-retardant devices based on benthic marine invertebrates: the effect of surface texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayun Mehrabani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth of ice on surfaces poses a challenge for both organisms and for devices that come into contact with liquids below the freezing point. Resistance of some organisms to ice formation and growth, either in subtidal environments (e.g., Antarctic anchor ice, or in environments with moisture and cold air (e.g., plants, intertidal begs examination of how this is accomplished. Several factors may be important in promoting or mitigating ice formation. As a start, here we examine the effect of surface texture alone. We tested four candidate surfaces, inspired by hard-shelled marine invertebrates and constructed using a three-dimensional printing process. We examined sub-polar marine organisms to develop sample textures and screened them for ice formation and accretion in submerged conditions using previous methods for comparison to data for Antarctic organisms. The sub-polar organisms tested were all found to form ice readily. We also screened artificial 3-D printed samples using the same previous methods, and developed a new test to examine ice formation from surface droplets as might be encountered in environments with moist, cold air. Despite limitations inherent to our techniques, it appears surface texture plays only a small role in delaying the onset of ice formation: a stripe feature (corresponding to patterning found on valves of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, or on the spines of the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri slowed ice formation an average of 25% compared to a grid feature (corresponding to patterning found on sub-polar butterclams, Saxidomas nuttalli. The geometric dimensions of the features have only a small (∼6% effect on ice formation. Surface texture affects ice formation, but does not explain by itself the large variation in ice formation and species-specific ice resistance observed in other work. This suggests future examination of other factors, such as material elastic properties and surface coatings, and their

  20. Pure Surface Texture Mapping Technology and it's Application for Mirror Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Feng Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of pure surface texture mapping technology, pure texture surface rendering method is proposed. The method is combined pure surface texture rendering and view mirror, real-time rendering has an index of refraction, reflection, and the flow of water ripple effect. Through the experimental verification of the validity of the algorithm.

  1. A review of sensory and instrumental methods used to evaluate the texture of fish muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Durita

    2001-01-01

    in the mouth, until it is completely masticated. This makes texture difficult to describe and evaluate. In addition the muscle structure of fish is not homogenous, and this has important implications on texture measurements by instrumental means. Numerous instrumental and sensory methods have been used...... to evaluate the texture of fish and fish fillets, with varying results and there exists no universal recommended method....

  2. Texture and microstructure evolution in nickel electrodeposited from an additive-free Watts electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos; Kasama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Nickel layers with 〈100〉, 〈210〉, 〈110〉 and 〈211〉 fiber textures were electrodeposited from additive-free Watts type electrolytes by adjusting both the pH and the applied current density. Quantitative crystallographic texture analysis by XRD was supplemented by micro-texture analysis applying EBSD...

  3. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless...

  4. Caractérisation de textures à l'aide d'un codage directionnel local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Texture characterisation with a local directional coding. In this paper, we propose a texture characterisation method based on a coding of the local structure of the texture. The local information in four directions around a pixel is represented by a local directional code, which is the association of four directional elementary ...

  5. Characterization of changes in potato tissue during cooking in relation to texture development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle, van N.

    1997-01-01

    Texture of cooked potatoes is an important quality aspect. The diversity in texture types was sensory evaluated. Most of the differences between texture types could be explained by differences between mealy and non-mealy characteristics. Furthermore, cultivars with similar mealy/non-mealy

  6. SU-E-J-265: Feasibility Study of Texture Analysis for Prognosis of Local Tumor Recurrence Within 5-Years for Pharyngeal-Laryngeal Carcinoma Patients Received Radiotherapy Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, W; Tu, S [Chang Gung University, Kwei-shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Pharyngeal and laryngeal carcinomas (PLC) are among the top leading cancers in Asian populations. Typically the tumor may recur and progress in a short period of time if radiotherapy fails to deliver a successful treatment. Here we used image texture features extracted from images of computed tomography (CT) planning and conducted a retrospective study to evaluate whether texture analysis is a feasible approach to predict local tumor recurrence for PLC patients received radiotherapy treatment. Methods: CT planning images of 100 patients with PLC treated by radiotherapy at our facility between 2001 and 2010 are collected. These patients were received two separate CT scans, before and mid-course of the treatment delivery. Before the radiotherapy, a CT scanning was used for the first treatment planning. A total of 30 fractions were used in the treatment and patients were scanned with a second CT around the end of the fifteenth delivery for an adaptive treatment planning. Only patients who were treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy and RapidArc were selected. Treatment planning software of Eclipse was used. The changes of texture parameters between two CT acquisitions were computed to determine whether they were correlated to the local tumor recurrence. The following texture parameters were used in the preliminary assessment: mean, variance, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, energy, entropy, inverse difference moment, cluster shade, inertia, cluster prominence, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, and gray-level run-length matrix. The study was reviewed and approved by the committee of our institutional review board. Results: Our calculations suggested the following texture parameters were correlated with the local tumor recurrence: skewness, kurtosis, entropy, and inertia (p<0.0.05). Conclusion: The preliminary results were positive. However some works remain crucial to be completed, including addition of texture parameters for different image

  7. Importance of Surface Texture to Infrared Remote Sensing Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, L. E.; Adams, P. M.; Herr, K. C.; Salisbury, J. W.

    2001-11-01

    Thermal infrared remote sensing may be used to identify minerals present on the surface using diagnostic spectral bands. As band depth (spectral contrast) exhibited by the mineral increases, the mineral is easier to detect. In order to determine the expected spectral contrast, thermal infrared spectra of typical mineral endmembers are commonly measured in the laboratory. For example, for calcite, well-crystalline limestone is commonly studied. However, carbonates occur in several forms, including thin coatings, indurated carbonate (calcrete), and hot springs deposits. Different formation pathways may cause different microstructures and surface textures. This in turn can also affect the surface texture of the weathered material. Different surface textures can affect the measured band contrast, through roughness that causes a cavity (hohlraum) effect, and particle size and roughness on a scale that causes volume scattering. Thus since detection limits vary with the spectral contrast, surface texture can be an important variable in how detectable a mineral is. To study these issues, we have examined limestone and calcrete deposits at Mormon Mesa, Nevada that have two distinctly different microstructures and surface texture [Kirkland et al., 2001]. The limestone studied has larger grains and the grains frequently have flat, smooth surfaces on the order of 10-50 microns in cross-section length. The calcrete has smaller, more angular calcite grains, which exhibit almost no flat surfaces longer than 5 microns in cross-section length. We will show scanning electron microscope images to compare the different microstructures and surface textures of both the fresh and weathered surfaces, and we will show corresponding thermal infrared spectra to illustrate the different spectral signatures. The results demonstrate the importance of understanding the microstructure of mineral deposits to accurately interpret infrared remote sensing data, especially for studies that lack ground

  8. Texture-dependent effects of pseudo-chewing sound on perceived food texture and evoked feelings in response to nursing care foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hiroshi; Ino, Shuichi; Fujisaki, Waka

    2017-09-01

    Because chewing sounds influence perceived food textures, unpleasant textures of texture-modified diets might be improved by chewing sound modulation. Additionally, since inhomogeneous food properties increase perceived sensory intensity, the effects of chewing sound modulation might depend on inhomogeneity. This study examined the influences of texture inhomogeneity on the effects of chewing sound modulation. Three kinds of nursing care foods in two food process types (minced-/puréed-like foods for inhomogeneous/homogeneous texture respectively) were used as sample foods. A pseudo-chewing sound presentation system, using electromyogram signals, was used to modulate chewing sounds. Thirty healthy elderly participants participated in the experiment. In two conditions with and without the pseudo-chewing sound, participants rated the taste, texture, and evoked feelings in response to sample foods. The results showed that inhomogeneity strongly influenced the perception of food texture. Regarding the effects of the pseudo-chewing sound, taste was less influenced, the perceived food texture tended to change in the minced-like foods, and evoked feelings changed in both food process types. Though there were some food-dependent differences in the effects of the pseudo-chewing sound, the presentation of the pseudo-chewing sounds was more effective in foods with an inhomogeneous texture. In addition, it was shown that the pseudo-chewing sound might have positively influenced feelings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Uterus segmentation in dynamic MRI using LBP texture descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namias, R.; Bellemare, M.-E.; Rahim, M.; Pirró, N.

    2014-03-01

    Pelvic floor disorders cover pathologies of which physiopathology is not well understood. However cases get prevalent with an ageing population. Within the context of a project aiming at modelization of the dynamics of pelvic organs, we have developed an efficient segmentation process. It aims at alleviating the radiologist with a tedious one by one image analysis. From a first contour delineating the uterus-vagina set, the organ border is tracked along a dynamic mri sequence. The process combines movement prediction, local intensity and texture analysis and active contour geometry control. Movement prediction allows a contour intitialization for next image in the sequence. Intensity analysis provides image-based local contour detection enhanced by local binary pattern (lbp) texture descriptors. Geometry control prohibits self intersections and smoothes the contour. Results show the efficiency of the method with images produced in clinical routine.

  10. Morphological and textural characterization of functionalized particulate silica xerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Lazaro A.; Mohallem, Nelcy D. S.; de Magalhães, Welington F.

    2006-03-01

    The functionalization of xerogels for use in chromatography and catalysis was carried out by solubilization of amorphous silica using a soxhlet extractor. Xerogels were prepared by sol-gel method using tetraethoxysilane, TEOS, ethanol, and water in a 1/3/10 molar ratio with HCl and HF as catalysts. The samples were prepared in monolithic form and dried at 70 °C and 550 °C for 1 h each. After functionalization, changes in textural and morphological characteristics of xerogels were investigated by means of nitrogen gas adsorption, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As the analysis methods are based on different physical principles, the results are complementary, leading to a good knowledge of the texture of the samples studied.

  11. About normal distribution on SO(3) group in texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savyolova, T. I.; Filatov, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    This article studies and compares different normal distributions (NDs) on SO(3) group, which are used in texture analysis. Those NDs are: Fisher normal distribution (FND), Bunge normal distribution (BND), central normal distribution (CND) and wrapped normal distribution (WND). All of the previously mentioned NDs are central functions on SO(3) group. CND is a subcase for normal CLT-motivated distributions on SO(3) (CLT here is Parthasarathy’s central limit theorem). WND is motivated by CLT in R 3 and mapped to SO(3) group. A Monte Carlo method for modeling normally distributed values was studied for both CND and WND. All of the NDs mentioned above are used for modeling different components of crystallites orientation distribution function in texture analysis.

  12. X-ray stress analysis in textured polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Ryouichi; Harada, Jimpei

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between stress and strain in polycrystalline materials with fibre texture is examined on the basis of the strain analysis in the constituent crystallites within the Reuss approximation. By introducing the symmetry of reciprocal lattices for the constituent crystallites, the physical meaning of taking an average of the strains observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) is made clear. By using formulae obtained by the present treatment for the stress-strain relation in cubic specimens with fibre texture in the Laue classes m3-bar m hkl Bragg reflections with h≠k≠l split into doublets owing to the existence of crystallites with two different orientations under the stress field. This technique was confirmed by the profile analysis in XRD data observed for reflections of 222 and 420 in a cubic TiN thin film sputtered on a polyimide film. The technique of the stress analysis and its confirmation are introduced. (author)

  13. Object texture recognition by dynamic tactile sensing using active exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Børlum Petersen, Mikkel; Bilberg, Arne

    For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a method for determining object texture by active exploration with a robotic fingertip equipped...... with a dynamic tactile transducer based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film. Different test surfaces are actively explored and the signal from the sensor is used for feature extraction, which is subsequently used for classification. A comparison between the significance of different extracted...... features and performance of learning algorithms is done and the best method is further used to classify objects by their surface textures with recognition results higher than 90 percent....

  14. The Honeycomb illusion: Uniform textures not perceived as such

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bertamini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a series of patterns, in which texture is perceived differently at fixation in comparison to the periphery, such that a physically uniform stimulus yields a nonuniform percept. We call this the Honeycomb illusion, and we discuss it in relation to the similar Extinction illusion (Ninio & Stevens, 2000. The effect remains strong despite multiple fixations, dynamic changes, and manipulations of the size of texture elements. We discuss the phenomenon in relation to how vision achieves a detailed and stable representation of the environment despite changes in retinal spatial resolution and dramatic changes across saccades. The Honeycomb illusion complements previous related observations in suggesting that this representation is not necessarily based on multiple fixations (i.e., memory or on extrapolation from information available to central vision.

  15. Texture investigations of natural rock salt using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertel, A.

    1987-01-01

    The main benefits and constraints are described of X-ray and neutron diffraction. Tabulated are diffraction factors and absorption coefficients of Na, Cl, K, S, O, Ca and Mg for both methods and a comparison is made of neutron and X-ray penetration depths at 50% absorption for halite, sylvine, polyhalite, kieserite, anhydrite and hematite. Neutron diffraction was used for the study of preferred orientation in halite from mines in Zielitz (GDR), Bleicherode (GDR) and Werra (GDR). The experiments were carried out at the research reactor at ZfK Rossendorf, GDR. Samples were irradiated with a flux density of monochromatic thermal neutrons of 10 8 n.cm -2 s -1 . Measured were (200), (220) and (222) pole figures of halite. In the samples from Zielitz and Bleicherode a (100) fibre texture was found, in samples from Werra a (110) fibre texture. (E.S.) 23 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Applications of pattern recognition in aluminum alloy texture characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guizhong; Rehbein, D. K.; Foley, James C.; Thompson, R. B.

    2000-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology to extract texture information in Aluminum alloys using pattern recognition algorithm. The orientation of the samples can be obtained by the orientation Image Microscope (OIM) technique. The ISO DATA pattern recognition algorithm is implemented to classify the OIM data into different clusters. Based on the classification results, the probability density function (pdf) is estimated. Then, the pdf is expanded as a series of Legendre functions with coefficients, i.e., the orientation distribution coefficients (ODC) as texture parameters. Three of these ODC's are of special interests, namely W400, W420, and W440. This paper includes results from ultrasonic NDE and this novel algorithm.—Ames Laboratory is operated for U.S. Department of Energy by Iowa State University under Contract W-7405-ENG-82. This work was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences as a part of the Center of Excellence of the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials.

  17. Collagen morphology and texture analysis: from statistics to classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B.; Ko, Alex C.-T.; Wang, Fei; Xiang, Bo; Hewko, Mark; Tian, Ganghong; Major, Arkady; Shiomi, Masashi; Sowa, Michael G.

    2013-07-01

    In this study we present an image analysis methodology capable of quantifying morphological changes in tissue collagen fibril organization caused by pathological conditions. Texture analysis based on first-order statistics (FOS) and second-order statistics such as gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was explored to extract second-harmonic generation (SHG) image features that are associated with the structural and biochemical changes of tissue collagen networks. Based on these extracted quantitative parameters, multi-group classification of SHG images was performed. With combined FOS and GLCM texture values, we achieved reliable classification of SHG collagen images acquired from atherosclerosis arteries with >90% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The proposed methodology can be applied to a wide range of conditions involving collagen re-modeling, such as in skin disorders, different types of fibrosis and muscular-skeletal diseases affecting ligaments and cartilage.

  18. Object texture recognition by dynamic tactile sensing using active exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Børlum Petersen, Mikkel; Bilberg, Arne

    For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a method for determining object texture by active exploration with a robotic fingertip equipped with a d......For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a method for determining object texture by active exploration with a robotic fingertip equipped...... with a dynamic tactile transducer based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film. Different test surfaces are actively explored and the signal from the sensor is used for feature extraction, which is subsequently used for classification. A comparison between the significance of different extracted...

  19. Statistical Analysis of Haralick Texture Features to Discriminate Lung Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Nourhan; Elnemr, Heba A.

    2015-01-01

    The Haralick texture features are a well-known mathematical method to detect the lung abnormalities and give the opportunity to the physician to localize the abnormality tissue type, either lung tumor or pulmonary edema. In this paper, statistical evaluation of the different features will represent the reported performance of the proposed method. Thirty-seven patients CT datasets with either lung tumor or pulmonary edema were included in this study. The CT images are first preprocessed for noise reduction and image enhancement, followed by segmentation techniques to segment the lungs, and finally Haralick texture features to detect the type of the abnormality within the lungs. In spite of the presence of low contrast and high noise in images, the proposed algorithms introduce promising results in detecting the abnormality of lungs in most of the patients in comparison with the normal and suggest that some of the features are significantly recommended than others. PMID:26557845

  20. Statistical Analysis of Haralick Texture Features to Discriminate Lung Abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourhan Zayed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Haralick texture features are a well-known mathematical method to detect the lung abnormalities and give the opportunity to the physician to localize the abnormality tissue type, either lung tumor or pulmonary edema. In this paper, statistical evaluation of the different features will represent the reported performance of the proposed method. Thirty-seven patients CT datasets with either lung tumor or pulmonary edema were included in this study. The CT images are first preprocessed for noise reduction and image enhancement, followed by segmentation techniques to segment the lungs, and finally Haralick texture features to detect the type of the abnormality within the lungs. In spite of the presence of low contrast and high noise in images, the proposed algorithms introduce promising results in detecting the abnormality of lungs in most of the patients in comparison with the normal and suggest that some of the features are significantly recommended than others.

  1. Virtual Texture with Wallis Filter for Terrain Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-wen Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As Boeing 737-800 Flight simulator get more and more demanding in terms of rendering time and authenticity. In order to reduce the amount of image data, we use the large region low-resolution remote sensing image mosaic with small region high-resolution remote sensing image. Meanwhile, for the color imbalances between images, we propose the global Wallis transform method based on HSI color space, So that the color is consistent among the images. Finally, we present a novel texture technique to achieve real-time performance. The experiment shows that the method can make sure the texture fit the requirement of Boeing 737-800 Flight Simulator.

  2. Magnetization dynamics of imprinted non-collinear spin textures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Robert, E-mail: r.streubel@ifw-dresden.de; Kopte, Martin; Makarov, Denys, E-mail: d.makarov@ifw-dresden.de [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Fischer, Peter [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Schmidt, Oliver G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-09-14

    We study the magnetization dynamics of non-collinear spin textures realized via imprint of the magnetic vortex state in soft permalloy into magnetically hard out-of-plane magnetized Co/Pd nanopatterned heterostructures. Tuning the interlayer exchange coupling between soft- and hard-magnetic subsystems provides means to tailor the magnetic state in the Co/Pd stack from being vortex- to donut-like with different core sizes. While the imprinted vortex spin texture leads to the dynamics similar to the one observed for vortices in permalloy disks, the donut-like state causes the appearance of two gyrofrequencies characteristic of the early and later stages of the magnetization dynamics. The dynamics are described using the Thiele equation supported by the full scale micromagnetic simulations by taking into account an enlarged core size of the donut states compared to magnetic vortices.

  3. CARACTERIZACIÓN ESTRUCTURAL Y TEXTURAL DE UNA BENTONITA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carriazo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se caracteriza una arcilla-bentonita colombiana (Valle del Cauca, mediante difracción de rayos X, técnicas espectroscópicas (IR, RMN y EPR y análisis textural. Los resultados indican que el componente principal en este material natural es una esmectita dioctaédrica (aluminosa. Igualmente, los resultados de RMN de 29Si y de 27Al revelan la substitución isomórfica de Al3+ por Si4+ en la capa tetraédrica. El estudio de EPR evidencia la presencia de hierro (III ocupando posiciones en la capa octaédrica del mineral de arcilla y formando nanoclusters, posiblemente de óxidos u oxihidróxidos. El análisis textural indica que el material es predominantemente mesoporoso.

  4. Mechanical properties of highly textured Cu/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Bufford, D.; Wang, H.; Sun, C.; Zhang, X.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of highly (1 1 1) and (1 0 0) textured Cu/Ni multilayers with individual layer thicknesses, h, varying from 1 to 200 nm. When, h, decreases to 5 nm or less, X-ray diffraction spectra show epitaxial growth of Cu/Ni multilayers. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show the coexistence of nanotwins and coherent layer interfaces in highly (1 1 1) textured Cu/Ni multilayers with smaller h. Hardnesses of multilayer films increase with decreasing h, approach a maximum at h of a few nanometers, and show softening thereafter at smaller h. The influence of layer interfaces as well as twin interfaces on strengthening mechanisms of multilayers and the formation of twins in Ni in multilayers are discussed.

  5. Multispectral Imaging of Meat Quality - Color and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup

    of meat quality parameters, especially with regards to meat color and texture. Several image modalities have been applied, all considering multi- or hyper spectral imaging. The work demonstrates the use of computer vision systems for meat color measurements. The color is assessed by suitable...... transformations to the CIELAB color space, the common color space within food science. The results show that meat color assessment with a multispectral imaging is a great alternative to the traditional colorimeter, i.e. the vision system meets some of the limitations that the colorimeter possesses. To mention one......, it is possible to assess color of very complicated structures, such as salamis, with a vision system. More importantly though, the vision system embraces the complicated scattering properties of meat. The images can also lead to other analyses, e.g. image texture analysis relating to the structure of the meat...

  6. Color Texture Segmentation by Decomposition of Gaussian Mixture Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, Jiří; Somol, Petr; Haindl, Michal; Pudil, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4225 (2006), s. 287-296 ISSN 0302-9743. [Iberoamerican Congress on Pattern Recognition. CIARP 2006 /11./. Cancun, 14.11.2006-17.11.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA MŠk 2C06019 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : texture segmentation * gaussian mixture model * EM algorithm Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/grim-color texture segmentation by decomposition of gaussian mixture model.pdf

  7. Impact of pretreatment on colour and texture of watermelon rind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K.; Alagusundaram, K.; Kavitha, C.; Arumuganathan, T.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of osmotic dehydration pretreatment on water loss, solid gain, colour and textural change was investigated. Watermelon rind 1 x 1 cm size was immersed in sucrose solution of 40, 50 and 60° Brix after pretreatment with microwave and conventional boiling in water for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively. Water loss and solid gain increased with the time of cooking and sugar concentration. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher water loss and solid gain. Increase in the time of cooking decreased the brightness of all the samples. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher `b' values than conventionally pretreated ones. There was no significant difference (P≤0.05) in texture profile analysis parameters except for hardness. Hardness decreased with increase in time of cooking and sugar concentration. Second order regression model was developed for water loss and solid gain of microwave and conventional pretreated watermelon rind.

  8. Multiresolution texture models for brain tumor segmentation in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M; Ahmed, Shaheen; Hossen, Jakir

    2011-01-01

    In this study we discuss different types of texture features such as Fractal Dimension (FD) and Multifractional Brownian Motion (mBm) for estimating random structures and varying appearance of brain tissues and tumors in magnetic resonance images (MRI). We use different selection techniques including KullBack - Leibler Divergence (KLD) for ranking different texture and intensity features. We then exploit graph cut, self organizing maps (SOM) and expectation maximization (EM) techniques to fuse selected features for brain tumors segmentation in multimodality T1, T2, and FLAIR MRI. We use different similarity metrics to evaluate quality and robustness of these selected features for tumor segmentation in MRI for real pediatric patients. We also demonstrate a non-patient-specific automated tumor prediction scheme by using improved AdaBoost classification based on these image features.

  9. Texture developed during deformation of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, M; Asim, T; Sushil, M; Shanta, C

    2015-01-01

    Automotive industry is currently focusing on using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) due to its high strength and formability for closure applications. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is promising material for this application among other AHSS. The present work is focused on the microstructure development during deformation of TRIP steel sheets. To mimic complex strain path condition during forming of automotive body, Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests were conducted and samples were deformed in servo hydraulic press to find the different strain path. FEM Simulations were done to predict different strain path diagrams and compared with experimental results. There is a significant difference between experimental and simulation results as the existing material models are not applicable for TRIP steels. Micro texture studies were performed on the samples using EBSD and X-RD techniques. It was observed that austenite is transformed to martensite and texture developed during deformation had strong impact on limit strain and strain path. (paper)

  10. Correlating microstructure and texture in cold-rolled Ta ingot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, C.; Kumar, P.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of tantalum ingot cold-rolled and annealed under different conditions reveals several correlations between the microstructure, developed textures and thermomechanical processing parameters. For example, the hardness of rolled sheet is not significantly affected by the amount of reduction prior to the final anneal, while the final grain size decreases with an increasing number of intermediate annealing steps. Four classes of texture are found in the cold-rolled tantalum, but the finger-grained classes can only be produced via a 70 percent reduction in thickness prior to the final anneal. Although ample dislocation debris is produced by the rolling operation, clearly defined line dislocations and dislocations networks are absent, indicating that full recrystallization is not achieved in the finished sheets. A large concentration of ledge dislocations at the grain boundary regions is considered an important contributor to the good formability of tantalum

  11. Characterization of nano-textured samples in a production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Bilenberg, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Nano-textured surfaces have been characterized by optical diffraction techniques using an adapted commercial light microscope with two detectors, a CCD camera and a spectrometer. We demonstrate that the microscope has a resolution in the nanometer range, also in an environment with many vibrations......, such as a machine floor. The acquisition and analysing time for the topological parameters height, width and sidewall angle is only a few milliseconds. It is demonstrated that by simple adaptions to an optical microscope we can measure nano-textured surfaces with an uncertainty of a few nanometers for the height...... and width of the structures. The microscope has been validated by measuring on certified transfer artefact and 1D gratings. The measurements are very robust, such that vibrations of the sample and/or the microscope do not affect the results. The sample can be translated during acquisition, as long...

  12. Self-similarity of contact line depinning from textured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Adam T; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2013-01-01

    The mobility of drops on surfaces is important in many biological and industrial processes, but the phenomena governing their adhesion, which is dictated by the morphology of the three-phase contact line, remain unclear. Here we describe a technique for measuring the dynamic behaviour of the three-phase contact line at micron length scales using environmental scanning electron microscopy. We examine a superhydrophobic surface on which a drop's adhesion is governed by capillary bridges at the receding contact line. We measure the microscale receding contact angle of each bridge and show that the Gibbs criterion is satisfied at the microscale. We reveal a hitherto unknown self-similar depinning mechanism that shows how some hierarchical textures such as lotus leaves lead to reduced pinning, and counter-intuitively, how some lead to increased pinning. We develop a model to predict adhesion force and experimentally verify the model's broad applicability on both synthetic and natural textured surfaces.

  13. Seals Having Textured Portions for Protection in Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher (Inventor); Garafolo, Nicholas (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A sealing construct for a space environment includes a seal-bearing object, a seal on the seal-bearing object, and a seal-engaging object. The seal includes a seal body having a sealing surface, and a textured pattern at the sealing surface, the textured pattern defining at least one shaded channel surface. The seal-engaging object is selectively engaged with the seal-bearing object through the seal. The seal-engaging object has a sealing surface, wherein, when the seal-engaging object is selectively engaged with the seal-bearing object, the sealing surface of the seal-engaging object engages the sealing surface of the seal, and the seal is compressed between the seal-bearing object and the seal-engaging object such that at least one shaded channel surface engages the sealing surface of the seal-engaging object.

  14. Development of BATAN’s texture diffractometer (current status)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priyanto, T. H., E-mail: thardi@batan.go.id; Bharoto,; Mugirahardjo, H.; Muslih, R.; Ramadhani, A.; Sairun [Center for Nuclear Industrial Material Technology (PTBIN) National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Texture Diffractometer, called DN2, is one of neutron diffractometers in BATAN which is dedicated for texture measurement using neutron diffraction method. To obtain better performance of the DN2, a flight tube goniometer have been installed between the monochromator and sample position. By adjusting the flight tube goniometer, defocusing effect at direct beam and background effect could be reduced significantly. Some experiments have been carried out to characterize DN2 performance. The flight tube goniometer alignment and neutron wavelength calibration were characterized using silicon standard sample Si640d. Data refinement of diffraction pattern was analyzed using MAUD software and it is obtained reliability factor with background, R{sub wpb}, reduced significantly, from 42.53 % to 19.36 % after setting of flight tube goniometer. Reliability factor without background (R{sub wp}) was reduced from 27.41% to 21.36%. Calibrated of neutron wavelengh, λ = 1,2799 Angstrom is obtained.

  15. A Neuro-Fuzzy based System for Classification of Natural Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiji, G. Wiselin

    2016-12-01

    A statistical approach based on the coordinated clusters representation of images is used for classification and recognition of textured images. In this paper, two issues are being addressed; one is the extraction of texture features from the fuzzy texture spectrum in the chromatic and achromatic domains from each colour component histogram of natural texture images and the second issue is the concept of a fusion of multiple classifiers. The implementation of an advanced neuro-fuzzy learning scheme has been also adopted in this paper. The results of classification tests show the high performance of the proposed method that may have industrial application for texture classification, when compared with other works.

  16. The influence of sensor and flight parameters on texture in radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, V. S.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Texture is known to be important in the analysis of radar images for geologic applications. It has previously been shown that texture features derived from the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) can be used to separate large scale texture in radar images. Here the influence of sensor parameters, specifically the spatial and radiometric resolution and flight parameters, i.e., the orientation of the surface structure relative to the sensor, on the ability to classify texture based on the GLCM features is investigated. It was found that changing these sensor and flight parameters greatly affects the usefulness of the GLCM for classifying texture on radar images.

  17. Breast density pattern characterization by histogram features and texture descriptors

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro,Pedro Cunha; Franco,Marcelo Lemos Nunes; Thomaz,Ricardo de Lima; Patrocinio,Ana Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is the first leading cause of death for women in Brazil as well as in most countries in the world. Due to the relation between the breast density and the risk of breast cancer, in medical practice, the breast density classification is merely visual and dependent on professional experience, making this task very subjective. The purpose of this paper is to investigate image features based on histograms and Haralick texture descriptors so as to separate mammo...

  18. Simulating X-ray diffraction of textured films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiby, Dag W.; Bunk, Oliver; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel

    2008-01-01

    Computationally efficient simulations of grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) are discussed, with particular attention given to textured thin polycrystalline films on supporting substrates. A computer program has been developed for simulating scattering from thin films exhibiting varying...... from the totally substrate-reflected beam ( two-beam approximation) and refraction effects are also included in the program, together with the geometrical intensity corrections associated with GIXD measurements. To achieve 'user friendliness' for scientists less familiar with diffraction...

  19. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Patankar, Neelesh A; Marston, Jeremy O; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-09-13

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling--by heat transfer--the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating.

  20. X-ray stress measurement of the materials with texture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Tsutomu

    1981-01-01

    The X-ray stress analysis of materials with texture was investigated on the basis of the application to the non-distructive testing. The portable X-ray stress analyzer with the fixed phi method was developed and the measured result of low carbon cold rolled steel was compaired with the calculated result by the elastic anisotropic theory averaged by the distribution of phi-dependent intensity of (211) reflection. (author)