WorldWideScience

Sample records for three-dimensional velocity fields

  1. Three-dimensional instantaneous velocity field measurement using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... Abstract. In the present study, a digital holography microscope has been developed to study instantaneous 3D velocity field in a square channel of 1000 × 1000 μm2 cross-section. The flow field is seeded with polystyrene microspheres of size dp = 2.1 μm. The volumetric flow rate is set equal to 20 μl/min.

  2. Three-dimensional groundwater velocity field in an unconfined aquifer under irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlotnik, V.

    1990-01-01

    A method for three-dimensional flow velocity calculation has been developed to evaluate unconfined aquifer sensitivity to areal agricultural contamination of groundwater. The methodology of Polubarinova-Kochina is applied to an unconfined homogeneous compressible or incompressible anisotropic aquifer. It is based on a three-dimensional groundwater flow model with a boundary condition on the moving surface. Analytical solutions are obtained for a hydraulic head under the influence of areal sources of circular and rectangular shape using integral transforms. Two-dimensional Hantush formulas result from the vertical averaging of the three-dimensional solutions, and the asymptotic behavior of solutions is analyzed. Analytical expressions for flow velocity components are obtained from the gradient of the hydraulic head field. Areal and temporal variability of specific yield in groundwater recharge areas is also taken into account. As a consequence of linearization of the boundary condition, the operation of any irrigation system with respect to groundwater is represented by superposition of the operating wells and circular and rectangular source influences. Combining the obtained solutions with Dagan or Neuman well functions, one can develop computer codes for the analytical computation of the three-dimensional groundwater hydraulic head and velocity component distributions. Methods for practical implementation are discussed. (Author) (20 refs., 4 figs.)

  3. Comparison of swirling strengths derived from two- and three-dimensional velocity fields in channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huai; Li, Danxun; Bai, Ruonan; Wang, Xingkui

    2018-05-01

    Swirling strength is an effective vortex indicator in wall turbulence, and it can be determined based on either two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) velocity fields, written as λci2D and λci3D, respectively. A comparison between λci2D and λci3D has been made in this paper in sliced XY, YZ, and XZ planes by using 3D DNS data of channel flow. The magnitude of λci2D in three orthogonal planes differs in the inner region, but the difference tends to diminish in the outer flow. The magnitude of λci3D exceeds each λci2D, and the square of λci3D is greater than the summation of squares of three λci2D. Extraction with λci2D in XY, YZ, and XZ planes yields different population densities and vortex sizes, i.e., in XZ plane, the vortices display the largest population density and the smallest size, and in XY and YZ planes the vortices are similar in size but fewer vortices are extracted in the XY plane in the inner layer. Vortex size increases inversely with the threshold used for growing the vortex region from background turbulence. When identical thresholds are used, the λci3D approach leads to a slightly smaller population density and a greater vortex radius than the λci2D approach. A threshold of 0.8 for the λci3D approach is approximately equivalent to a threshold of 1.5 for the λci2D approach.

  4. Three-Dimensional Velocity Field De-Noising using Modal Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Sarah; Ameli, Siavash; Szeri, Andrew; Shadden, Shawn

    2017-11-01

    PCMRI and Doppler ultrasound are common modalities for imaging velocity fields inside the body (e.g. blood, air, etc) and PCMRI is increasingly being used for other fluid mechanics applications where optical imaging is difficult. This type of imaging is typically applied to internal flows, which are strongly influenced by domain geometry. While these technologies are evolving, it remains that measured data is noisy and boundary layers are poorly resolved. We have developed a boundary modal analysis method to de-noise 3D velocity fields such that the resulting field is divergence-free and satisfies no-slip/no-penetration boundary conditions. First, two sets of divergence-free modes are computed based on domain geometry. The first set accounts for flow through ``truncation boundaries'', and the second set of modes has no-slip/no-penetration conditions imposed on all boundaries. The modes are calculated by minimizing the velocity gradient throughout the domain while enforcing a divergence-free condition. The measured velocity field is then projected onto these modes using a least squares algorithm. This method is demonstrated on CFD simulations with artificial noise. Different degrees of noise and different numbers of modes are tested to reveal the capabilities of the approach. American Heart Association Award 17PRE33660202.

  5. Three-dimensional simulation of the motion of a single particle under a simulated turbulent velocity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Casas, P. A.; Bombardelli, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    A 3D Lagrangian particle tracking model is coupled to a 3D channel velocity field to simulate the saltation motion of a single sediment particle moving in saltation mode. The turbulent field is a high-resolution three dimensional velocity field that reproduces a by-pass transition to turbulence on a flat plate due to free-stream turbulence passing above de plate. In order to reduce computational costs, a decoupled approached is used, i.e., the turbulent flow is simulated independently from the tracking model, and then used to feed the 3D Lagrangian particle model. The simulations are carried using the point-particle approach. The particle tracking model contains three sub-models, namely, particle free-flight, a post-collision velocity and bed representation sub-models. The free-flight sub-model considers the action of the following forces: submerged weight, non-linear drag, lift, virtual mass, Magnus and Basset forces. The model also includes the effect of particle angular velocity. The post-collision velocities are obtained by applying conservation of angular and linear momentum. The complete model was validated with experimental results from literature within the sand range. Results for particle velocity time series and distribution of particle turbulent intensities are presented.

  6. Three dimensional field computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trowbridge, C.W.

    1981-06-01

    Recent research work carried out at Rutherford and Appleton Laboratories into the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields is summarised. The topics covered include algorithms for integral and differential methods for the solution of 3D magnetostatic fields, comparison of results with experiment and an investigation into the strengths and weaknesses of both methods for an analytic problem. The paper concludes with a brief summary of the work in progress on the solution of 3D eddy currents using differential finite elements. (author)

  7. Velocity Field of the McMurdo Shear Zone from Annual Three-Dimensional Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging and Crevasse Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, L.; Jordan, M.; Arcone, S. A.; Kaluzienski, L. M.; Koons, P. O.; Lever, J.; Walker, B.; Hamilton, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The McMurdo Shear Zone (MSZ) is a narrow, intensely crevassed strip tens of km long separating the Ross and McMurdo ice shelves (RIS and MIS) and an important pinning feature for the RIS. We derive local velocity fields within the MSZ from two consecutive annual ground penetrating radar (GPR) datasets that reveal complex firn and marine ice crevassing; no englacial features are evident. The datasets were acquired in 2014 and 2015 using robot-towed 400 MHz and 200 MHz GPR over a 5 km x 5.7 km grid. 100 west-to-east transects at 50 m spacing provide three-dimensional maps that reveal the length of many firn crevasses, and their year-to-year structural evolution. Hand labeling of crevasse cross sections near the MSZ western and eastern boundaries reveal matching firn and marine ice crevasses, and more complex and chaotic features between these boundaries. By matching crevasse features from year to year both on the eastern and western boundaries and within the chaotic region, marine ice crevasses along the western and eastern boundaries are shown to align directly with firn crevasses, and the local velocity field is estimated and compared with data from strain rate surveys and remote sensing. While remote sensing provides global velocity fields, crevasse matching indicates greater local complexity attributed to faulting, folding, and rotation.

  8. Three-dimensional P velocity structure in Beijing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Wei; Chen, Yun-Tai; Wang, Pei-De

    2003-01-01

    A detail three-dimensional P wave velocity structure of Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan area (BTT area) was determined by inverting local earthquake data. In total 16 048 P wave first arrival times from 16048 shallow and mid-depth crustal earthquakes, which occurred in and around the BTT area from 1992 to 1999 were used. The first arrival times are recorded by Northern China United Telemetry Seismic Network and Yanqing-Huailai Digital Seismic Network. Hypocentral parameters of 1 132 earthquakes with magnitude M L=1.7 6.2 and the three-dimensional P wave velocity structure were obtained simultaneously. The inversion result reveals the complicated lateral heterogeneity of P wave velocity structure around BTT area. The tomographic images obtained are also found to explain other seismological observations well.

  9. Three-dimensional velocity map imaging: Setup and resolution improvement compared to three-dimensional ion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauczok, S.; Goedecke, N.; Veckenstedt, M.; Maul, C.; Gericke, K.-H.; Chichinin, A. I.

    2009-01-01

    For many years the three-dimensional (3D) ion imaging technique has not benefited from the introduction of ion optics into the field of imaging in molecular dynamics. Thus, a lower resolution of kinetic energy as in comparable techniques making use of inhomogeneous electric fields was inevitable. This was basically due to the fact that a homogeneous electric field was needed in order to obtain the velocity component in the direction of the time of flight spectrometer axis. In our approach we superimpose an Einzel lens field with the homogeneous field. We use a simulation based technique to account for the distortion of the ion cloud caused by the inhomogeneous field. In order to demonstrate the gain in kinetic energy resolution compared to conventional 3D Ion Imaging, we use the spatial distribution of H + ions emerging from the photodissociation of HCl following the two photon excitation to the V 1 Σ + state. So far a figure of merit of approximately four has been achieved, which means in absolute numbers Δv/v=0.022 compared to 0.086 at v≅17 000 m/s. However, this is not a theoretical limit of the technique, but due to our rather short TOF spectrometer (15 cm). The photodissociation of HBr near 243 nm has been used to recognize and eliminate systematic deviations between the simulation and the experimentally observed distribution. The technique has also proven to be essential for the precise measurement of translationally cold distributions.

  10. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric characterization of the Coso geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Gregory A.; Gasperikova, Erika [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Earth Sciences Division, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hoversten, G. Michael [Chevron Energy Technology Company, Seismic Analysis and Property Estimation, San Ramon, CA 94583 (United States); Wannamaker, Philip E. [Energy and Geoscience Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    A dense grid of 125 magnetotelluric (MT) stations plus a single line of contiguous bipole array profiling has been acquired over the east flank of the Coso geothermal system, CA, USA. Due to production related electromagnetic (EM) noise the permanent observatory at Parkfield, CA was used as a remote reference to suppress this cultural EM noise interference. These data have been inverted to a fully three-dimensional (3D) resistivity model. This model shows the controlling geological structures possibly influencing well production at Coso and correlations with mapped surface features such as faults and the regional geoelectric strike. The 3D model also illustrates the refinement in positioning of resistivity contacts when compared to isolated 2D inversion transects. The resistivity model has also been correlated with micro-earthquake locations, reservoir fluid production intervals and most importantly with an acoustic and shear velocity model derived by Wu and Lees [Wu, H., Lees, J.M., 1999. Three-dimensional P and S wave velocity structures of the Coso Geothermal Area, California, from microseismic travel time data. J. Geophys. Res. 104 (B6), 13217-13233]. This later correlation shows that the near-vertical low-resistivity structure on the eastern flank of the producing field is also a zone of increased acoustic velocity and increased V{sub p}/V{sub s} ratio bounded by mapped fault traces. Over of the Devils' Kitchen is an area of large geothermal well density, where highly conductive near surface material is interpreted as a smectite clay cap alteration zone manifested from the subsurface geothermal fluids and related geochemistry. Enhanced resistivity beneath this cap and within the reservoir is diagnostic of propylitic alteration causing the formation of illite clays, which is typically observed in high-temperature reservoirs (>230 C). In the southwest flank of the field the V{sub p}/V{sub s} ratio is enhanced over the production intervals, but the

  11. A three-dimensional field solutions of Halbach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jizhong; Xiao Jijun; Zhang Yiming; Xu Chunyan

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional field solutions are presented for Halback cylinder magnet. Based on Ampere equivalent current methods, the permanent magnets are taken as distributing of current density. For getting the three-dimensional field solution of ideal polarized permanent magnets, the solution method entails the use of the vector potential and involves the closed-form integration of the free-space Green's function. The programmed field solution are ideal for performing rapid parametric studies of the dipole Halback cylinder magnets made from rare earth materials. The field solutions are verified by both an analytical two-dimensional algorithm and three-dimensional finite element software. A rapid method is presented for extensive analyzing and optimizing Halbach cylinder magnet. (authors)

  12. Quantum field between moving mirrors: A three dimensional example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacyan, S.; Jauregui, Roco; Villarreal, Carlos

    1995-01-01

    The scalar quantum field uniformly moving plates in three dimensional space is studied. Field equations for Dirichlet boundary conditions are solved exactly. Comparison of the resulting wavefunctions with their instantaneous static counterpart is performed via Bogolubov coefficients. Unlike the one dimensional problem, 'particle' creation as well as squeezing may occur. The time dependent Casimir energy is also evaluated.

  13. Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography of Magnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales, Morten; Strobl, Markus; Shinohara, Takenao

    2018-01-01

    Through the use of Time-of-Flight Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography (ToF 3DPNT) we have for the first time successfully demonstrated a technique capable of measuring and reconstructing three dimensional magnetic field strengths and directions unobtrusively and non-destructively wi......Through the use of Time-of-Flight Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography (ToF 3DPNT) we have for the first time successfully demonstrated a technique capable of measuring and reconstructing three dimensional magnetic field strengths and directions unobtrusively and non...... and reconstructed, thereby providing the proof-of-principle of a technique able to reveal hitherto unobtainable information on the magnetic fields in the bulk of materials and devices, due to a high degree of penetration into many materials, including metals, and the sensitivity of neutron polarisation to magnetic...... fields. The technique puts the potential of the ToF time structure of pulsed neutron sources to full use in order to optimise the recorded information quality and reduce measurement time....

  14. Generation of a Desired Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed three-dimensional electromagnetic field based on generalized phase contrast imaging. Such a method and apparatus may be utilized in advanced optical micro and nano-manipulation, such as by provision of a multiple...

  15. Three dimensional (3d) transverse oscillation vector velocity ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    as to traverse a field of view, and receive circuitry (306) configured to receive a two dimensional set of echoes produced in response to the ultrasound signal traversing structure in the field of view, wherein the structure includes flowing structures such as flowing blood cells, organ cells etc. A beamformer...

  16. Three-dimensional time-lapse velocity tomography of an underground longwall panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxbacher, K.; Westman, E.; Swanson, P.; Karfakis, M. [Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Mining & Minerals Engineering

    2008-06-15

    Three-dimensional velocity tomograms were generated to image the stress redistribution around an underground coal longwall panel to produce a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to ground failure, especially rockbursts. Mining-induced microseismic events provided passive sources for the three-dimensional velocity tomography. Surface-mounted geophones monitored microseismic activity for 18 days. Eighteen tomograms were generated and high-velocity regions correlated with high abutment stresses predicted by numerical modeling. Additionally, the high-velocity regions were observed to redistribute as the longwall face retreated, indicating that velocity tomography may be an appropriate technology for monitoring stress redistribution in underground mines.

  17. Three-dimensional flow field measurements in a radial inflow turbine scroll using LDV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malak, M. F.; Hamed, A.; Tabakoff, W.

    1986-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the three-dimensional flow field in a radial inflow turbine scroll are presented. A two-color LDV system was used in the measurement of three orthogonal velocity components at 758 points located throughout the scroll and the unvaned portion of the nozzle. The cold flow experimental results are presented for through-flow velocity contours and the cross velocity vectors.

  18. A two pressure-velocity approach for immersed boundary methods in three dimensional incompressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabir, O; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Nukman, Y; Tuan Ya, T M Y S

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative method for computing fluid solid interaction using Immersed boundary methods with two stage pressure-velocity corrections. The algorithm calculates the interactions between incompressible viscous flows and a solid shape in three-dimensional domain. The fractional step method is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations in finite difference schemes. Most of IBMs are concern about exchange of the momentum between the Eulerian variables (fluid) and the Lagrangian nodes (solid). To address that concern, a new algorithm to correct the pressure and the velocity using Simplified Marker and Cell method is added. This scheme is applied on staggered grid to simulate the flow past a circular cylinder and study the effect of the new stage on calculations cost. To evaluate the accuracy of the computations the results are compared with the previous software results. The paper confirms the capacity of new algorithm for accurate and robust simulation of Fluid Solid Interaction with respect to pressure field

  19. Wave field restoration using three-dimensional Fourier filtering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, T; Takai, Y; Ikuta, T; Shimizu, R

    2001-11-01

    A wave field restoration method in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was mathematically derived based on a three-dimensional (3D) image formation theory. Wave field restoration using this method together with spherical aberration correction was experimentally confirmed in through-focus images of amorphous tungsten thin film, and the resolution of the reconstructed phase image was successfully improved from the Scherzer resolution limit to the information limit. In an application of this method to a crystalline sample, the surface structure of Au(110) was observed in a profile-imaging mode. The processed phase image showed quantitatively the atomic relaxation of the topmost layer.

  20. Three-dimensional phase-field simulations of directional solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plapp, Mathis

    2007-05-01

    The phase-field method has become the method of choice for simulating microstructural pattern formation during solidification. One of its main advantages is that time-dependent three-dimensional simulations become feasible, which makes it possible to address long-standing questions of pattern stability and pattern selection. Here, a brief introduction to the phase-field model and its implementation is given, and its capabilities are illustrated by examples taken from the directional solidification of binary alloys. In particular, the morphological stability of hexagonal cellular arrays and of eutectic lamellar patterns is investigated.

  1. Three-dimensional modelling of the human carotid artery using the lattice Boltzmann method: I. Model and velocity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, J [Cardiovascular Research Group Physics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia); Buick, J M [Department of Mechanical and Design Engineering, University of Portsmouth, Anglesea Building, Anglesea Road, Portsmouth PO1 3DJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-21

    Numerical modelling is a powerful tool in the investigation of human blood flow and arterial diseases such as atherosclerosis. It is known that near wall velocity and shear are important in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. In this paper results for a simulation of blood flow in a three-dimensional carotid artery geometry using the lattice Boltzmann method are presented. The velocity fields in the body of the fluid are analysed at six times of interest during a physiologically accurate velocity waveform. It is found that the three-dimensional model agrees well with previous literature results for carotid artery flow. Regions of low near wall velocity and circulatory flow are observed near the outer wall of the bifurcation and in the lower regions of the external carotid artery, which are regions that are typically prone to atherosclerosis.

  2. Three-dimensional modelling of the human carotid artery using the lattice Boltzmann method: I. Model and velocity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J; Buick, J M

    2008-01-01

    Numerical modelling is a powerful tool in the investigation of human blood flow and arterial diseases such as atherosclerosis. It is known that near wall velocity and shear are important in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. In this paper results for a simulation of blood flow in a three-dimensional carotid artery geometry using the lattice Boltzmann method are presented. The velocity fields in the body of the fluid are analysed at six times of interest during a physiologically accurate velocity waveform. It is found that the three-dimensional model agrees well with previous literature results for carotid artery flow. Regions of low near wall velocity and circulatory flow are observed near the outer wall of the bifurcation and in the lower regions of the external carotid artery, which are regions that are typically prone to atherosclerosis.

  3. Three-dimensional nonlinear ideal MHD equilibria with field-aligned incompressible and compressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, S. M.; Ibrahim, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    The equilibrium properties of three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated. Incompressible and compressible flows are considered. The governing equations are taken in a steady state such that the magnetic field is parallel to the plasma flow. Equations of stationary equilibrium for both of incompressible and compressible MHD flows are derived and described in a mathematical mode. For incompressible MHD flows, Alfvénic and non-Alfvénic flows with constant and variable magnetofluid density are investigated. For Alfvénic incompressible flows, the general three-dimensional solutions are determined with the aid of two potential functions of the velocity field. For non-Alfvénic incompressible flows, the stationary equilibrium equations are reduced to two differential constraints on the potential functions, flow velocity, magnetofluid density, and the static pressure. Some examples which may be of some relevance to axisymmetric confinement systems are presented. For compressible MHD flows, equations of the stationary equilibrium are derived with the aid of a single potential function of the velocity field. The existence of three-dimensional solutions for these MHD flows is investigated. Several classes of three-dimensional exact solutions for several cases of nonlinear equilibrium equations are presented.

  4. Discussion of the duality in three dimensional quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chen-Te, E-mail: yefgst@gmail.com

    2017-05-10

    We discuss the duality in three dimensional quantum field theory at infrared limit. The starting point is to use a conjecture of a duality between the free fermion and the interacting scalar field theories at the Wilson–Fisher fixed point. The conjecture is useful for deriving various dualities in three dimensions to obtain a duality web. The study is also interesting for understanding the dualities, or equivalence of different theories from the perspective of the renormalization group flow. We first discuss the “derivation” without losing the holonomy. Furthermore, we also derive these dualities from the mean-field study, and consider the extension of the conjecture or dualities at finite temperature.

  5. Neutron Star Population Dynamics. II. Three-dimensional Space Velocities of Young Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, J. M.; Chernoff, David F.

    1998-09-01

    be underrepresented (in the observed sample) by a factor ~2.3 owing to selection effects in pulsar surveys. The estimates of scale height and velocity parameters are insensitive to the explicit relation of chronological and spindown ages. A further analysis starting from our inferred velocity distribution allows us to test spindown laws and age estimates. There exist comparably good descriptions of the data involving different combinations of braking index and torque decay timescale. We find that a braking index of 2.5 is favored if torque decay occurs on a timescale of ~3 Myr, while braking indices ~4.5 +/- 0.5 are preferred if there is no torque decay. For the sample as a whole, the most probable chronological ages are typically smaller than conventional spindown ages by factors as large as 2. We have also searched for correlations between three-dimensional speeds of individual pulsars and combinations of spin period and period derivative. None appears to be significant. We argue that correlations identified previously between velocity and (apparent) magnetic moment reflect the different evolutionary paths taken by young, isolated (nonbinary), high-field pulsars and older, low-field pulsars that have undergone accretion-driven spinup. We conclude that any such correlation measures differences in spin and velocity selection in the evolution of the two populations and is not a measure of processes taking place in the core collapse that produces neutron stars in the first place. We assess mechanisms for producing high-velocity neutron stars, including disruption of binary systems by symmetric supernovae and neutrino, baryonic, or electromagnetic rocket effects during or shortly after the supernova. The largest velocities seen (~1600 km s-1), along with the paucity of low-velocity pulsars, suggest that disruption of binaries by symmetric explosions is insufficient. Rocket effects appear to be a necessary and general phenomenon. The required kick amplitudes and the

  6. Three-dimensional trajectory tracking for underactuated AUVs with bio-inspired velocity regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to address the motion parameter skip problem associated with three-dimensional trajectory tracking of an underactuated Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV using backstepping-based control, due to the unsmoothness of tracking trajectory. Through kinematics concepts, a three-dimensional dynamic velocity regulation controller is derived. This controller makes use of the surge and angular velocity errors with bio-inspired models and backstepping techniques. It overcomes the frequently occurring problem of parameter skip at inflection point existing in backstepping tracking control method and increases system robustness. Moreover, the proposed method can effectively avoid the singularity problem in backstepping control of virtual velocity error. The control system is proved to be uniformly ultimately bounded using Lyapunov stability theory. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the developed controller, which can realize accurate three-dimensional trajectory tracking for an underactuated AUV with constant external disturbances. Keywords: Dynamic velocity regulation, Bio-inspired model, Backstepping, Underactuated AUV, Three-dimensional trajectory tracking

  7. Desingularization strategies for three-dimensional vector fields

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Felipe Cano

    1987-01-01

    For a vector field #3, where Ai are series in X, the algebraic multiplicity measures the singularity at the origin. In this research monograph several strategies are given to make the algebraic multiplicity of a three-dimensional vector field decrease, by means of permissible blowing-ups of the ambient space, i.e. transformations of the type xi=x'ix1, 2s. A logarithmic point of view is taken, marking the exceptional divisor of each blowing-up and by considering only the vector fields which are tangent to this divisor, instead of the whole tangent sheaf. The first part of the book is devoted to the logarithmic background and to the permissible blowing-ups. The main part corresponds to the control of the algorithms for the desingularization strategies by means of numerical invariants inspired by Hironaka's characteristic polygon. Only basic knowledge of local algebra and algebraic geometry is assumed of the reader. The pathologies we find in the reduction of vector fields are analogous to pathologies in the pro...

  8. Three-dimensional polarization states of monochromatic light fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A

    2011-11-01

    The 3×1 generalized Jones vectors (GJVs) [E(x) E(y) E(z)](t) (t indicates the transpose) that describe the linear, circular, and elliptical polarization states of an arbitrary three-dimensional (3-D) monochromatic light field are determined in terms of the geometrical parameters of the 3-D vibration of the time-harmonic electric field. In three dimensions, there are as many distinct linear polarization states as there are points on the surface of a hemisphere, and the number of distinct 3-D circular polarization states equals that of all two-dimensional (2-D) polarization states on the Poincaré sphere, of which only two are circular states. The subset of 3-D polarization states that results from the superposition of three mutually orthogonal x, y, and z field components of equal amplitude is considered as a function of their relative phases. Interesting contours of equal ellipticity and equal inclination of the normal to the polarization ellipse with respect to the x axis are obtained in 2-D phase space. Finally, the 3×3 generalized Jones calculus, in which elastic scattering (e.g., by a nano-object in the near field) is characterized by the 3-D linear transformation E(s)=T E(i), is briefly introduced. In such a matrix transformation, E(i) and E(s) are the 3×1 GJVs of the incident and scattered waves and T is the 3×3 generalized Jones matrix of the scatterer at a given frequency and for given directions of incidence and scattering.

  9. Intermittent Lagrangian velocities and accelerations in three-dimensional porous medium flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzner, M; Morales, V L; Willmann, M; Dentz, M

    2015-07-01

    Intermittency of Lagrangian velocity and acceleration is a key to understanding transport in complex systems ranging from fluid turbulence to flow in porous media. High-resolution optical particle tracking in a three-dimensional (3D) porous medium provides detailed 3D information on Lagrangian velocities and accelerations. We find sharp transitions close to pore throats, and low flow variability in the pore bodies, which gives rise to stretched exponential Lagrangian velocity and acceleration distributions characterized by a sharp peak at low velocity, superlinear evolution of particle dispersion, and double-peak behavior in the propagators. The velocity distribution is quantified in terms of pore geometry and flow connectivity, which forms the basis for a continuous-time random-walk model that sheds light on the observed Lagrangian flow and transport behaviors.

  10. Three-dimensional Casimir piston for massive scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.C.; Teo, L.P.

    2009-01-01

    We consider Casimir force acting on a three-dimensional rectangular piston due to a massive scalar field subject to periodic, Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Exponential cut-off method is used to derive the Casimir energy. It is shown that the divergent terms do not contribute to the Casimir force acting on the piston, thus render a finite well-defined Casimir force acting on the piston. Explicit expressions for the total Casimir force acting on the piston is derived, which show that the Casimir force is always attractive for all the different boundary conditions considered. As a function of a - the distance from the piston to the opposite wall, it is found that the magnitude of the Casimir force behaves like 1/a 4 when a→0 + and decays exponentially when a→∞. Moreover, the magnitude of the Casimir force is always a decreasing function of a. On the other hand, passing from massless to massive, we find that the effect of the mass is insignificant when a is small, but the magnitude of the force is decreased for large a in the massive case.

  11. Plenoptic Imaging for Three-Dimensional Particle Field Diagnostics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hall, Elise Munz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Plenoptic imaging is a promising emerging technology for single-camera, 3D diagnostics of particle fields. In this work, recent developments towards quantitative measurements of particle size, positions, and velocities are discussed. First, the technique is proven viable with measurements of the particle field generated by the impact of a water drop on a thin film of water. Next, well cont rolled experiments are used to verify diagnostic uncertainty. Finally, an example is presented of 3D plenoptic imaging of a laboratory scale, explosively generated fragment field.

  12. Development of three-dimensional individual bubble-velocity measurement method by bubble tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Taizo; Furuya, Masahiro; Arai, Takahiro; Shirakawa, Kenetsu; Nishi, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    A gas-liquid two-phase flow in a large diameter pipe exhibits a three-dimensional flow structure. Wire-Mesh Sensor (WMS) consists of a pair of parallel wire layers located at the cross section of a pipe. Both the parallel wires cross at 90o with a small gap and each intersection acts as an electrode. The WMS allows the measurement of the instantaneous two-dimensional void-fraction distribution over the cross-section of a pipe, based on the difference between the local instantaneous conductivity of the two-phase flow. Furthermore, the WMS can acquire a phasic-velocity on the basis of the time lag of void signals between two sets of WMS. Previously, the acquired phasic velocity was one-dimensional with time-averaged distributions. The authors propose a method to estimate the three-dimensional bubble-velocity individually WMS data. The bubble velocity is determined by the tracing method. In this tracing method, each bubble is separated from WMS signal, volume and center coordinates of the bubble is acquired. Two bubbles with near volume at two WMS are considered as the same bubble and bubble velocity is estimated from the displacement of the center coordinates of the two bubbles. The validity of this method is verified by a swirl flow. The proposed method can successfully visualize a swirl flow structure and the results of this method agree with the results of cross-correlation analysis. (author)

  13. Three-dimensional P velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle under Beijing region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, A.; Liu, F.; Sun, Y.

    1980-04-01

    By use of the teleseismic P arrival times at 15 stations of the Beijing network for 120 events distributed over various azimuths, we studied the three-dimensional P velocity structure under the Beijing region. In calculating the theoretic travel time, we adopted the source parameters given in BISC, and used the J-B model as the standard model of earth. On inversion, we adopted singular value decomposition as a generalized inversion package, which can be used for solving very large over-determined systems of equations Gm = t without resorting to normal equations G/sup T/Gm = G/sup T/t. The results are that within the crust and upper mantle under the Beijing region there are clear lateral differences. In the results obtained by use of data from 1972 to 1975, it can be seen that there are three different zones of P-velocity. In the southeast Beijing region, P velocity is lower than that of the normal model by 10 to 14% within the crust, and by 8 to 9% within the upper mantle. The northwest Beijing region is a higher-velocity zone, within which the average P-velocity is faster than that of the normal model by about 9%. It disappears after entering into the upper mantle. The central part of this region is a normal zone. On the surface, the distribution of these P velocity variations corresponds approximately to the distribution of the over-burden. But in the deeper region, the distribution of velocity variation agrees with the distribution of seismicity. It is interesting to note that the hypocenters of several major earthquakes in this region, e.g., the Sanhe-Pinggu earthquake (1679, M = 8), the Shacheng earthquake (1730, M = 6-3/4) and the Tangshan earthquake (1976, M = 7.8), are all located very close to this boundary of these P-velocity variation zones.

  14. Regional three-dimensional seismic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle of northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, C.; Zhang, H.; Brocher, T.; Langenheim, V.

    2009-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) tomographic model of the P wave velocity (Vp) structure of northern California. We employed a regional-scale double-difference tomography algorithm that incorporates a finite-difference travel time calculator and spatial smoothing constraints. Arrival times from earthquakes and travel times from controlled-source explosions, recorded at network and/or temporary stations, were inverted for Vp on a 3D grid with horizontal node spacing of 10 to 20 km and vertical node spacing of 3 to 8 km. Our model provides an unprecedented, comprehensive view of the regional-scale structure of northern California, putting many previously identified features into a broader regional context and improving the resolution of a number of them and revealing a number of new features, especially in the middle and lower crust, that have never before been reported. Examples of the former include the complex subducting Gorda slab, a steep, deeply penetrating fault beneath the Sacramento River Delta, crustal low-velocity zones beneath Geysers-Clear Lake and Long Valley, and the high-velocity ophiolite body underlying the Great Valley. Examples of the latter include mid-crustal low-velocity zones beneath Mount Shasta and north of Lake Tahoe. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. A method for real-time three-dimensional vector velocity imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an approach for making real-time three-dimensional vector flow imaging. Synthetic aperture data acquisition is used, and the data is beamformed along the flow direction to yield signals usable for flow estimation. The signals are cross-related to determine the shift in position...... are done using 16 × 16 = 256 elements at a time and the received signals from the same elements are sampled. Access to the individual elements is done through 16-to-1 multiplexing, so that only a 256 channels transmitting and receiving system are needed. The method has been investigated using Field II...

  16. [Application advances of three-dimensional bioprinting in burn and plastic surgery field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R B; Li, M X; Guo, G H; Zhang, H Y

    2017-10-20

    Three-dimensional bioprinting is one of the latest and fastest growing technologies in the medical field. It has been implemented to print part of the transplantable tissues and organs, such as skin, ear, and bone. This paper introduces the application status, challenges, and application prospect of three-dimensional bioprinting in burn and plastic surgery field.

  17. A California statewide three-dimensional seismic velocity model from both absolute and differential times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, G.; Thurber, C.H.; Zhang, H.; Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P.M.; Waldhauser, F.; Brocher, T.M.; Hardebeck, J.

    2010-01-01

    We obtain a seismic velocity model of the California crust and uppermost mantle using a regional-scale double-difference tomography algorithm. We begin by using absolute arrival-time picks to solve for a coarse three-dimensional (3D) P velocity (VP) model with a uniform 30 km horizontal node spacing, which we then use as the starting model for a finer-scale inversion using double-difference tomography applied to absolute and differential pick times. For computational reasons, we split the state into 5 subregions with a grid spacing of 10 to 20 km and assemble our final statewide VP model by stitching together these local models. We also solve for a statewide S-wave model using S picks from both the Southern California Seismic Network and USArray, assuming a starting model based on the VP results and a VP=VS ratio of 1.732. Our new model has improved areal coverage compared with previous models, extending 570 km in the SW-NE directionand 1320 km in the NW-SE direction. It also extends to greater depth due to the inclusion of substantial data at large epicentral distances. Our VP model generally agrees with previous separate regional models for northern and southern California, but we also observe some new features, such as high-velocity anomalies at shallow depths in the Klamath Mountains and Mount Shasta area, somewhat slow velocities in the northern Coast Ranges, and slow anomalies beneath the Sierra Nevada at midcrustal and greater depths. This model can be applied to a variety of regional-scale studies in California, such as developing a unified statewide earthquake location catalog and performing regional waveform modeling.

  18. The Topology of Three-Dimensional Symmetric Tensor Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Yingmei; Levy, Yuval; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of 3-D symmetric tensor fields. The goal is to represent their complex structure by a simple set of carefully chosen points and lines analogous to vector field topology. The basic constituents of tensor topology are the degenerate points, or points where eigenvalues are equal to each other. First, we introduce a new method for locating 3-D degenerate points. We then extract the topological skeletons of the eigenvector fields and use them for a compact, comprehensive description of the tensor field. Finally, we demonstrate the use of tensor field topology for the interpretation of the two-force Boussinesq problem.

  19. Synthetic three-dimensional turbulent passive scalar fields via the minimal Lagrangian map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    A method for simple but realistic generation of three-dimensional synthetic turbulent passive scalar fields is presented. The method is an extension of the minimal turnover Lagrangian map approach (MTLM) [C. Rosales and C. Meneveau, Phys. Rev. E 78, 016313 (2008)] formulated for the generation of synthetic turbulent velocity fields. In this development, the minimal Lagrangian map is applied to deform simultaneously a vector field and an advected scalar field. This deformation takes place over a hierarchy of spatial scales encompassing a range from integral to dissipative scales. For each scale, fluid particles are mapped transporting the scalar property, without interaction or diffusional effects, from their initial configuration to new positions determined only by their velocity at the beginning of the motion and a parameter chosen to accumulate deformation for the equivalent of the phenomenological "turn-over" time scale. The procedure is studied for the case of inertial-convective regime. It is found that many features of passive scalar turbulence are well reproduced by this simple kinematical construction. Fundamental statistics of the resulting synthetic scalar fields, evaluated through the flatness and probability density functions of the scalar gradient and scalar increments, reproduce quite well the known statistical characteristics of passive scalars in turbulent fields. High-order statistics are also consistent with those observed in real hydrodynamic turbulence. The anomalous scaling of real turbulence is well reproduced for different kind of structure functions, with good quantitative agreement in general, for the scaling exponents. The spatial structure of the scalar field is also quite realistic, as well as several characteristics of the dissipation fields for the scalar variance and kinetic energy. Similarly, the statistical geometry at dissipative scales that ensues from the coupling of velocity and scalar gradients behaves in agreement with what is

  20. Three dimensional alignment of molecules using elliptically polarized laser fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Bjerre, N.; Hald, K.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, that an intense, elliptically polarized, nonresonant laser field can simultaneously force all three axes of a molecule to align along given axes fixed in space, thus inhibiting the free rotation in all three Euler angles. Theoretically, the effect...

  1. Three-dimensional wake field analysis by boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, K.

    1987-01-01

    A computer code HERTPIA was developed for the calculation of electromagnetic wake fields excited by charged particles travelling through arbitrarily shaped accelerating cavities. This code solves transient wave problems for a Hertz vector. The numerical analysis is based on the boundary element method. This program is validated by comparing its results with analytical solutions in a pill-box cavity

  2. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure and earthquake relocations at Katmai, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rachel; Thurber, Clifford; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Bennington, Ninfa

    2014-01-01

    We invert arrival time data from local earthquakes occurring between September 2004 and May 2009 to determine the three-dimensional (3D) upper crustal seismic structure in the Katmai volcanic region. Waveforms for the study come from the Alaska Volcano Observatory's permanent network of 20 seismic stations in the area (predominantly single-component, short period instruments) plus a densely spaced temporary array of 11 broadband, 3-component stations. The absolute and relative arrival times are used in a double-difference seismic tomography inversion to solve for 3D P- and S-wave velocity models for an area encompassing the main volcanic centers. The relocated hypocenters provide insight into the geometry of seismogenic structures in the area, revealing clustering of events into four distinct zones associated with Martin, Mageik, Trident-Novarupta, and Mount Katmai. The seismic activity extends from about sea level to 2 km depth (all depths referenced to mean sea level) beneath Martin, is concentrated near 2 km depth beneath Mageik, and lies mainly between 2 and 4 km depth below Katmai and Trident-Novarupta. Many new features are apparent within these earthquake clusters. In particular, linear features are visible within all clusters, some associated with swarm activity, including an observation of earthquake migration near Trident in 2008. The final velocity model reveals a possible zone of magma storage beneath Mageik, but there is no clear evidence for magma beneath the Katmai-Novarupta area where the 1912 eruptive activity occurred, suggesting that the storage zone for that eruption may have largely been evacuated, or remnant magma has solidified.

  3. Three-dimensional imaging in degraded visual field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oran, A.; Ozdur, I.; Ozharar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging at degraded visual environments is one of the biggest challenges in today’s imaging technologies. Especially military and commercial rotary wing aviation is suffering from impaired visual field in sandy, dusty, marine and snowy environments. For example during landing the rotor churns up the particles and creates dense clouds of highly scattering medium, which limits the vision of the pilot and may result in an uncontrolled landing. The vision in such environments is limited because of the high ratio of scattered photons over the ballistic photons which have the image information. We propose to use optical spatial filtering (OSF) method in order to eliminate the scattered photons and only collect the ballistic photons at the receiver. OSF is widely used in microscopy, to the best of our knowledge this will be the first application of OSF for macroscopic imaging. Our experimental results show that most of the scattered photons are eliminated using the spatial filtering in a highly scattering impaired visual field. The results are compared with a standard broad area photo detector which shows the effectiveness of spatial filtering. (paper)

  4. Three Dimensional Viscous Flow Field in an Axial Flow Turbine Nozzle Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, D.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is experimental and computational study of three dimensional viscous flow field in the nozzle passage of an axial flow turbine stage. The nozzle passage flow field has been measured using a two sensor hot-wire probe at various axial and radial stations. In addition, two component LDV measurements at one axial station (x/c(sum m) = 0.56) were performed to measure the velocity field. Static pressure measurements and flow visualization, using a fluorescent oil technique, were also performed to obtain the location of transition and the endwall limiting streamlines. A three dimensional boundary layer code, with a simple intermittency transition model, was used to predict the viscous layers along the blade and endwall surfaces. The boundary layers on the blade surface were found to be very thin and mostly laminar, except on the suction surface downstream of 70% axial chord. Strong radial pressure gradient, especially close to the suction surface, induces strong cross flow components in the trailing edge regions of the blade. On the end-walls the boundary layers were much thicker, especially near the suction corner of the casing surface, caused by secondary flow. The secondary flow region near the suction-casing surface corner indicates the presence of the passage vortex detached from the blade surface. The corner vortex is found to be very weak. The presence of a closely spaced rotor downstream (20% of the nozzle vane chord) introduces unsteadiness in the blade passage. The measured instantaneous velocity signal was filtered using FFT square window to remove the periodic unsteadiness introduced by the downstream rotor and fans. The filtering decreased the free stream turbulence level from 2.1% to 0.9% but had no influence on the computed turbulence length scale. The computation of the three dimensional boundary layers is found to be accurate on the nozzle passage blade surfaces, away from the end-walls and the secondary flow region. On

  5. Structure of the electromagnetic field in three-dimensional Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitruk, Pablo; Matthaeus, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulations of freely evolving three-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are performed, with and without the Hall term in Ohm's law. The parameter controlling the presence of the Hall term is the ratio of the ion skin depth to the macroscopic scale of the turbulence. The ion skin depth is set to be slightly larger than the dissipation length scale (controlled by the resistivity) for the Hall MHD simulations, while it is set to zero for non-Hall MHD simulations. Small initial cross helicity, hybrid helicity, and magnetic helicity are considered. The system is left to evolve for a few turbulent characteristic times and the magnetic field and electric field are analyzed in real and wavenumber space. Distributions (histograms) of the fields are also computed. It is found that the turbulent magnetic field (as well as the velocity field) is almost unaffected by the presence of the Hall term, while the electric field is affected at scales smaller than the ion skin depth, that is, close to the dissipation range in these simulations. The importance of each term in Ohm's law for the electric field is analyzed in wavenumber space. Furthermore, reconnection-like zones are identified, where the importance of each term in Ohm's law can be seen in real space. Reconnection-like zones with magnetic field B=0 (or small) and B≠0 are found within the turbulent state of the system

  6. Multi-Point Velocity Correlations in the Wake of a Three-Dimensional Bluff Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Patrick; Glauser, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Three-dimensional bluff-bodies known as turrets are commonly used for housing optical systems on airborne platforms. These geometries generate highly turbulent wakes that decrease the performance of the optical systems and the aircraft. The current experimental study used dynamic suction in both open and closed-loop control configurations to actively control the wake turret. The experiments were carried out at a Reynolds number of 5 × 105, and the flow field was characterized using stereoscopic PIV measurements acquired in the wake of the turret. These data were processed using traditional single-point statistics which showed that the active control system was able to significantly alter the wake of the turret. Using multi-point correlations, turbulent characteristics such as the integral length scale can be calculated. For the turret wake, estimates of the integral length scales were found to be highly dependent upon the region of the flow that was evaluated, especially when comparing the shear layers to the center of the wake. With the application of the active control, the integral length scales were generally found to increase.

  7. Effect of magnetic field on the wave dispersion relation in three-dimensional dusty plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuefeng; Wang Zhengxiong

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional plasma crystals under microgravity condition are investigated by taking into account an external magnetic field. The wave dispersion relations of dust lattice modes in the body centered cubic (bcc) and the face centered cubic (fcc) plasma crystals are obtained explicitly when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the wave motion. The wave dispersion relations of dust lattice modes in the bcc and fcc plasma crystals are calculated numerically when the magnetic field is in an arbitrary direction. The numerical results show that one longitudinal mode and two transverse modes are coupled due to the Lorentz force in the magnetic field. Moreover, three wave modes, i.e., the high frequency phonon mode, the low frequency phonon mode, and the optical mode, are obtained. The optical mode and at least one phonon mode are hybrid modes. When the magnetic field is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the primitive wave motion, all the three wave modes are hybrid modes and do not have any intersection points. It is also found that with increasing the magnetic field strength, the frequency of the optical mode increases and has a cutoff at the cyclotron frequency of the dust particles in the limit of long wavelength, and the mode mixings for both the optical mode and the high frequency phonon mode increase. The acoustic velocity of the low frequency phonon mode is zero. In addition, the acoustic velocity of the high frequency phonon mode depends on the angle of the magnetic field and the wave motion but does not depend on the magnetic field strength.

  8. Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of LOX/Kerosene Engine Exhaust Plume Flow Field Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-hua Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at calculating and studying the flow field characteristics of engine exhaust plume and comparative analyzing the effects of different chemical reaction mechanisms on the engine exhaust plume flow field characteristics, a method considering fully the combustion state influence is put forward, which is applied to exhaust plume flow field calculation of multinozzle engine. On this basis, a three-dimensional numerical analysis of the effects of different chemical reaction mechanisms on LOX/kerosene engine exhaust plume flow field characteristics was carried out. It is found that multistep chemical reaction can accurately describe the combustion process in the LOX/kerosene engine, the average chamber pressure from the calculation is 4.63% greater than that of the test, and the average chamber temperature from the calculation is 3.34% greater than that from the thermodynamic calculation. The exhaust plumes of single nozzle and double nozzle calculated using the global chemical reaction are longer than those using the multistep chemical reaction; the highest temperature and the highest velocity on the plume axis calculated using the former are greater than that using the latter. The important influence of chemical reaction mechanism must be considered in the study of the fixing structure of double nozzle engine on the rocket body.

  9. Three-dimensional magnetic field computation on a distributed memory parallel processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barion, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of three-dimensional magnetic fields by finite element methods frequently proves too onerous a task for the computing resource on which it is attempted. When non-linear and transient effects are included, it may become impossible to calculate the field distribution to sufficient resolution. One approach to this problem is to exploit the natural parallelism in the finite element method via parallel processing. This paper reports on an implementation of a finite element code for non-linear three-dimensional low-frequency magnetic field calculation on Intel's iPSC/2

  10. Three-dimensional modeling of electron quasiviscous dissipation in guide-field magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Masha; Schindler, Karl; Birn, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    A numerical study of guide-field magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional model is presented. Starting from an initial, perturbed, force-free current sheet, it is shown that reconnection develops to an almost translationally invariant state, where magnetic perturbations are aligned primarily along the main current flow direction. An analysis of guide-field and electron flow signatures indicates behavior that is very similar to earlier, albeit not three-dimensional, simulations. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of electron pressure nongyrotropies in the central diffusion region confirms the major role the associated dissipation process plays in establishing the reconnection electric field

  11. Creating physically-based three-dimensional microstructures: Bridging phase-field and crystal plasticity models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hojun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Owen, Steven J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdeljawad, Fadi F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanks, Byron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Battaile, Corbett Chandler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In order to better incorporate microstructures in continuum scale models, we use a novel finite element (FE) meshing technique to generate three-dimensional polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field grain growth model of grain microstructures. The proposed meshing technique creates hexahedral FE meshes that capture smooth interfaces between adjacent grains. Three dimensional realizations of grain microstructures from the phase field model are used in crystal plasticity-finite element (CP-FE) simulations of polycrystalline a -iron. We show that the interface conformal meshes significantly reduce artificial stress localizations in voxelated meshes that exhibit the so-called "wedding cake" interfaces. This framework provides a direct link between two mesoscale models - phase field and crystal plasticity - and for the first time allows mechanics simulations of polycrystalline materials using three-dimensional hexahedral finite element meshes with realistic topological features.

  12. Ultraviolet stability of three-dimensional lattice pure gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaban, T.

    1985-01-01

    We prove the ultraviolet stability for three-dimensional lattice gauge field theories. We consider only the Wilson lattice approximation for pure Yang-Mills field theories. The proof is based on results of the previous papers on renormalization group method for lattice gauge theories. (orig.)

  13. Three Dimensional Imaging of Cold Atoms in a Magneto Optical Trap with a Light Field Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    with a Light Field Microscope Gordon E. Lott Follow this and additional works at: https://scholar.afit.edu/etd Part of the Atomic, Molecular and......https://scholar.afit.edu/etd/774 THREE-DIMENSIONAL IMAGING OF COLD ATOMS IN A MAGNETO-OPTICAL TRAP WITH A LIGHT FIELD MICROSCOPE DISSERTATION Gordon E

  14. Three-dimensional reconstruction of sound fields based on the acousto-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Torras Rosell, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    -optic tomography via scanning the field with a laser Doppler vibrometer. Consequently, the spatial characteristics of the sound field are captured in the measurement, implicitly bearing the potential for a full holographic reconstruction in a three-dimensional space. Recent studies have examined the reconstruction......, and compares the results to the ones obtained from conventional microphone array measurements....

  15. Linear and nonlinear studies of velocity shear driven three dimensional electron-magnetohydrodynamics instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Gurudatt; Das, Amita

    2012-01-01

    The study of electron velocity shear driven instability in electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) regime in three dimensions has been carried out. It is well known that the instability is non-local in the plane defined by the flow direction and that of the shear, which is the usual Kelvin-Helmholtz mode, often termed as the sausage mode in the context of EMHD. On the other hand, a local instability with perturbations in the plane defined by the shear and the magnetic field direction exists which is termed as kink mode. The interplay of these two modes for simple sheared flow case as well as that when an external magnetic field exists has been studied extensively in the present manuscript in both linear and nonlinear regimes. Finally, these instability processes have been investigated for the exact 2D dipole solutions of EMHD equations [M. B. Isichenko and A. N. Marnachev, Sov. Phys. JETP 66, 702 (1987)] for which the electron flow velocity is sheared. It has been shown that dipoles are very robust and stable against the sausage mode as the unstable wavelengths are typically longer than the dipole size. However, we observe that they do get destabilized by the local kink mode.

  16. Three-dimensional propagation in near-field tomographic X-ray phase retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhlandt, Aike; Salditt, Tim

    2016-01-01

    An extension of phase retrieval algorithms for near-field X-ray (propagation) imaging to three dimensions is presented, enhancing the quality of the reconstruction by exploiting previously unused three-dimensional consistency constraints. This paper presents an extension of phase retrieval algorithms for near-field X-ray (propagation) imaging to three dimensions, enhancing the quality of the reconstruction by exploiting previously unused three-dimensional consistency constraints. The approach is based on a novel three-dimensional propagator and is derived for the case of optically weak objects. It can be easily implemented in current phase retrieval architectures, is computationally efficient and reduces the need for restrictive prior assumptions, resulting in superior reconstruction quality

  17. Near-field three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, David; McMakin, Douglas; Hall, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Three-dimensional radio frequency imaging techniques have been developed for a variety of near-field applications, including radar cross-section imaging, concealed weapon detection, ground penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging, and nondestructive evaluation. These methods employ active radar transceivers that operate at various frequency ranges covering a wide range, from less than 100 MHz to in excess of 350 GHz, with the frequency range customized for each application. Computational wavefront reconstruction imaging techniques have been developed that optimize the resolution and illumination quality of the images. In this paper, rectilinear and cylindrical three-dimensional imaging techniques are described along with several application results.

  18. A GPU-based calculation using the three-dimensional FDTD method for electromagnetic field analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulations with the numerical human model using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method have recently been performed frequently in a number of fields in biomedical engineering. However, the FDTD calculation runs too slowly. We focus, therefore, on general purpose programming on the graphics processing unit (GPGPU). The three-dimensional FDTD method was implemented on the GPU using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). In this study, we used the NVIDIA Tesla C1060 as a GPGPU board. The performance of the GPU is evaluated in comparison with the performance of a conventional CPU and a vector supercomputer. The results indicate that three-dimensional FDTD calculations using a GPU can significantly reduce run time in comparison with that using a conventional CPU, even a native GPU implementation of the three-dimensional FDTD method, while the GPU/CPU speed ratio varies with the calculation domain and thread block size.

  19. Laser Anemometer Measurements of the Three-Dimensional Rotor Flow Field in the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Michael D.; Chriss, Randall M.; Strazisar, Anthony J.; Wood, Jerry R.

    1995-01-01

    A laser anemometer system was used to provide detailed surveys of the three-dimensional velocity field within the NASA low-speed centrifugal impeller operating with a vaneless diffuser. Both laser anemometer and aerodynamic performance data were acquired at the design flow rate and at a lower flow rate. Floor path coordinates, detailed blade geometry, and pneumatic probe survey results are presented in tabular form. The laser anemometer data are presented in the form of pitchwise distributions of axial, radial, and relative tangential velocity on blade-to-blade stream surfaces at 5-percent-of-span increments, starting at 95-percent-of-span from the hub. The laser anemometer data are also presented as contour and wire-frame plots of throughflow velocity and vector plots of secondary velocities at all measurement stations through the impeller.

  20. Three-dimensional tokamak equilibria in the presence of resonant field errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.; Monticello, D.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical solutions are described for three-dimensional MHD equilibria in the presence of resonant magnetic field perturbations. The effects of a realistic spectrum of resonant field errors are calculated for a range of current profiles. It is found that field errors of the magnitude existing in present day devices, and contemplated for future devices, can produce a set of magnetic islands occupying a significant fraction of the plasma cross-section

  1. Visualization tool for three-dimensional plasma velocity distributions (ISEE_3D) as a plug-in for SPEDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keika, Kunihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Machida, Shinobu; Ieda, Akimasa; Seki, Kanako; Hori, Tomoaki; Miyashita, Yukinaga; Shoji, Masafumi; Shinohara, Iku; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Lewis, Jim W.; Flores, Aaron

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces ISEE_3D, an interactive visualization tool for three-dimensional plasma velocity distribution functions, developed by the Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Japan. The tool provides a variety of methods to visualize the distribution function of space plasma: scatter, volume, and isosurface modes. The tool also has a wide range of functions, such as displaying magnetic field vectors and two-dimensional slices of distributions to facilitate extensive analysis. The coordinate transformation to the magnetic field coordinates is also implemented in the tool. The source codes of the tool are written as scripts of a widely used data analysis software language, Interactive Data Language, which has been widespread in the field of space physics and solar physics. The current version of the tool can be used for data files of the plasma distribution function from the Geotail satellite mission, which are publicly accessible through the Data Archives and Transmission System of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The tool is also available in the Space Physics Environment Data Analysis Software to visualize plasma data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale and the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms missions. The tool is planned to be applied to data from other missions, such as Arase (ERG) and Van Allen Probes after replacing or adding data loading plug-ins. This visualization tool helps scientists understand the dynamics of space plasma better, particularly in the regions where the magnetohydrodynamic approximation is not valid, for example, the Earth's inner magnetosphere, magnetopause, bow shock, and plasma sheet.

  2. Thermally radiative three-dimensional flow of Jeffrey nanofluid with internal heat generation and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehzad, S.A., E-mail: ali_qau70@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Abdullah, Z. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2016-01-01

    This research work addresses the three-dimensional hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey fluid with nanoparticles. Flow is generated by a bidirectional stretching surface. The effects of thermal radiation and internal heat generation are encountered in energy expressions. More realistic convective boundary conditions at the surface are employed instead of constant surface temperature and mass species conditions. Boundary layer assumptions lead to the governing non-linear mathematical model. Resulting equations through momentum, energy and mass species are made dimensionless using suitable variables. The solution expressions of dimensionless velocities, temperature and nanoparticle concentration have been computed for the convergent series solutions. The impacts of interesting parameters on the dimensionless quantities are displayed and interpreted. The values of physical quantities are computed and analyzed. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid is considered. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are encountered. • Heat transfer analysis is performed with thermal radiation. • Results are plotted and visualized.

  3. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of natural convection under the influence of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessner, R.

    1996-04-01

    This report deals with the influence of strong magnetic fields on three-dimensional natural convection. First the dimensionless basic equations are derived in cartesian coordinates. This equations are solved numerically in rectangular domains with a Finite-Difference-Method. The following calculations investigate the flow in an electrically insulated cube which is heated and cooled at side walls. It is possible to perform systematic computations for the variation of the direction of the magnetic field and thermal boundary conditions. (orig.)

  4. Intense field stabilization in circular polarization: Three-dimensional time-dependent dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dae-Il; Chism, Will

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the stabilization of hydrogen atoms in a circularly polarized laser field. We use a three-dimensional, time-dependent approach to study the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms subject to high-intensity, short-wavelength, laser pulses. We find an enhanced survival probability as the field is increased under fixed envelope conditions. We also confirm wave packet behaviors previously seen in two-dimensional time-dependent computations

  5. New techniques for the scientific visualization of three-dimensional multi-variate and vector fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawfis, Roger A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Volume rendering allows us to represent a density cloud with ideal properties (single scattering, no self-shadowing, etc.). Scientific visualization utilizes this technique by mapping an abstract variable or property in a computer simulation to a synthetic density cloud. This thesis extends volume rendering from its limitation of isotropic density clouds to anisotropic and/or noisy density clouds. Design aspects of these techniques are discussed that aid in the comprehension of scientific information. Anisotropic volume rendering is used to represent vector based quantities in scientific visualization. Velocity and vorticity in a fluid flow, electric and magnetic waves in an electromagnetic simulation, and blood flow within the body are examples of vector based information within a computer simulation or gathered from instrumentation. Understand these fields can be crucial to understanding the overall physics or physiology. Three techniques for representing three-dimensional vector fields are presented: Line Bundles, Textured Splats and Hair Splats. These techniques are aimed at providing a high-level (qualitative) overview of the flows, offering the user a substantial amount of information with a single image or animation. Non-homogenous volume rendering is used to represent multiple variables. Computer simulations can typically have over thirty variables, which describe properties whose understanding are useful to the scientist. Trying to understand each of these separately can be time consuming. Trying to understand any cause and effect relationships between different variables can be impossible. NoiseSplats is introduced to represent two or more properties in a single volume rendering of the data. This technique is also aimed at providing a qualitative overview of the flows.

  6. The three-dimensional distributions of tangential velocity and total- temperature in vortex tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderstrøm-Lang, C.U.

    1971-01-01

    The axial and radial gradients of the tangential velocity distribution are calculated from prescribed secondary flow functions on the basis of a zero-order approximation to the momentum equations developed by Lewellen. It is shown that secondary flow functions may be devised which meet pertinent...... physical requirements and which at the same time lead to realistic tangential velocity gradients. The total-temperature distribution in both the axial and radial directions is calculated from such secondary flow functions and corresponding tangential velocity results on the basis of an approximate...

  7. Three-Dimensional Shear Wave Velocity Structure of the Peru Flat Slab Subduction Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic Antonijevic, S.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies focused on flat slab subduction segments in central Chile (L. S. Wagner, 2006) and Alaska (B. R. Hacker and G. A. Aber, 2012) suggest significant differences in seismic velocity structures, and hence, composition in the mantle wedge between flat and normal "steep" subducting slabs. Instead of finding the low velocities and high Vp/Vs ratios common in normal subduction zones, these studies find low Vp, high Vs, and very low Vp/Vs above flat slabs. This may indicate the presence of dry, cold material in the mantle wedge. In order to investigate the seismic velocities of the upper mantle above the Peruvian flat segment, we have inverted for 2D Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps using data from the currently deployed 40 station PULSE seismic network and some adjacent stations from the CAUGHT seismic network. We then used the sensitivity of surface waves to shear wave velocity structure with depth to develop a 3D shear wave velocity model. This model will allow us to determine the nature of the mantle lithosphere above the flat slab, and how this may have influenced the development of local topography. For example, dry conditions (high Vs velocities) above the flat slab would imply greater strength of this material, possibly making it capable of causing further inland overthrusting, while wet conditions (low Vs) would imply weaker material. This could provide some insight into the ongoing debate over whether the Fitzcarrald arch (along the northern most flank of the Altiplano) could be a topographical response to the subducted Nazca ridge hundred kilometers away from the trench (N. Espurt, 2012, P. Baby, 2005, V. A. Ramos, 2012) or not (J. Martinod, 2005, M. Wipf, 2008, T. Gerya, 2008).

  8. Advances in three-dimensional field analysis and evaluation of performance parameters of electrical machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramaniam, Kiruba

    This thesis makes advances in three dimensional finite element analysis of electrical machines and the quantification of their parameters and performance. The principal objectives of the thesis are: (1)the development of a stable and accurate method of nonlinear three-dimensional field computation and application to electrical machinery and devices; and (2)improvement in the accuracy of determination of performance parameters, particularly forces and torque computed from finite elements. Contributions are made in two general areas: a more efficient formulation for three dimensional finite element analysis which saves time and improves accuracy, and new post-processing techniques to calculate flux density values from a given finite element solution. A novel three-dimensional magnetostatic solution based on a modified scalar potential method is implemented. This method has significant advantages over the traditional total scalar, reduced scalar or vector potential methods. The new method is applied to a 3D geometry of an iron core inductor and a permanent magnet motor. The results obtained are compared with those obtained from traditional methods, in terms of accuracy and speed of computation. A technique which has been observed to improve force computation in two dimensional analysis using a local solution of Laplace's equation in the airgap of machines is investigated and a similar method is implemented in the three dimensional analysis of electromagnetic devices. A new integral formulation to improve force calculation from a smoother flux-density profile is also explored and implemented. Comparisons are made and conclusions drawn as to how much improvement is obtained and at what cost. This thesis also demonstrates the use of finite element analysis to analyze torque ripples due to rotor eccentricity in permanent magnet BLDC motors. A new method for analyzing torque harmonics based on data obtained from a time stepping finite element analysis of the machine is

  9. Magnetic field induced strong valley polarization in the three-dimensional topological semimetal LaBi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitesh; Shekhar, Chandra; Klotz, J.; Wosnitza, J.; Felser, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    LaBi is a three-dimensional rocksalt-type material with a surprisingly quasi-two-dimensional electronic structure. It exhibits excellent electronic properties such as the existence of nontrivial Dirac cones, extremely large magnetoresistance, and high charge-carrier mobility. The cigar-shaped electron valleys make the charge transport highly anisotropic when the magnetic field is varied from one crystallographic axis to another. We show that the electrons can be polarized effectively in these electron valleys under a rotating magnetic field. We achieved a polarization of 60% at 2 K despite the coexistence of three-dimensional hole pockets. The valley polarization in LaBi is compared to the sister compound LaSb where it is found to be smaller. The performance of LaBi is comparable to the highly efficient bismuth.

  10. Development of three-dimensional phasic-velocity distribution measurement in a large-diameter pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Taizo; Furuya, Masahiro; Arai, Takahiro; Shirakawa, Kenetsu

    2011-01-01

    A wire-mesh sensor (WMS) can acquire a void fraction distribution at a high temporal and spatial resolution and also estimate the velocity of a vertical rising flow by investigating the signal time-delay of the upstream WMS relative to downstream. Previously, one-dimensional velocity was estimated by using the same point of each WMS at a temporal resolution of 1.0 - 5.0 s. The authors propose to extend this time series analysis to estimate the multi-dimensional velocity profile via cross-correlation analysis between a point of upstream WMS and multiple points downstream. Bubbles behave in various ways according to size, which is used to classify them into certain groups via wavelet analysis before cross-correlation analysis. This method was verified by air-water straight and swirl flows within a large-diameter vertical pipe. The results revealed that for the rising straight and swirl flows, large scale bubbles tend to move to the center, while the small bubble is pushed to the outside or sucked into the space where the large bubbles existed. Moreover, it is found that this method can estimate the rotational component of velocity of the swirl flow as well as measuring the multi-dimensional velocity vector at high temporal resolutions of 0.2s. (author)

  11. Multi-GPU hybrid programming accelerated three-dimensional phase-field model in binary alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsheng Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the process of dendritic growth simulation, the computational efficiency and the problem scales have extremely important influence on simulation efficiency of three-dimensional phase-field model. Thus, seeking for high performance calculation method to improve the computational efficiency and to expand the problem scales has a great significance to the research of microstructure of the material. A high performance calculation method based on MPI+CUDA hybrid programming model is introduced. Multi-GPU is used to implement quantitative numerical simulations of three-dimensional phase-field model in binary alloy under the condition of multi-physical processes coupling. The acceleration effect of different GPU nodes on different calculation scales is explored. On the foundation of multi-GPU calculation model that has been introduced, two optimization schemes, Non-blocking communication optimization and overlap of MPI and GPU computing optimization, are proposed. The results of two optimization schemes and basic multi-GPU model are compared. The calculation results show that the use of multi-GPU calculation model can improve the computational efficiency of three-dimensional phase-field obviously, which is 13 times to single GPU, and the problem scales have been expanded to 8193. The feasibility of two optimization schemes is shown, and the overlap of MPI and GPU computing optimization has better performance, which is 1.7 times to basic multi-GPU model, when 21 GPUs are used.

  12. Three-dimensional magnetic nanoparticle imaging using small field gradient and multiple pickup coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasayama, Teruyoshi, E-mail: sasayama@sc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Tsujita, Yuya; Morishita, Manabu; Muta, Masahiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Enpuku, Keiji

    2017-04-01

    We propose a magnetic particle imaging (MPI) method based on third harmonic signal detection using a small field gradient and multiple pickup coils. First, we developed a system using two pickup coils and performed three-dimensional detection of two magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) samples, which were spaced 15 mm apart. In the experiments, an excitation field strength of 1.6 mT was used at an operating frequency of 3 kHz. A DC gradient field with a typical value of 0.2 T/m was also used to produce the so-called field-free line. A third harmonic signal generated by the MNP samples was detected using the two pickup coils, and the samples were then mechanically scanned to obtain field maps. The field maps were subsequently analyzed using the nonnegative least squares method to obtain three-dimensional position information for the MNP samples. The results show that the positions of the two MNP samples were estimated with good accuracy, despite the small field gradient used. Further improvement in MPI performance will be achieved by increasing the number of pickup coils used. - Highlights: • 3D magnetic particle imaging system combining field-free line and two pickup coils. • Imaging method based on third harmonic signal detection and small field gradient. • Nonnegative least squares method for 3D magnetic nanoparticle image reconstruction. • High spatial resolution despite use of small field gradient.

  13. Impact of magnetic field in three-dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid with convective condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Muhammad, Taseer, E-mail: taseer_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ahmad, B. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)

    2016-09-01

    This communication addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid bounded by a surface stretched bidirectionally. Nanofluid model includes the Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Heat transfer through convective condition is discussed. Developed condition with the zero nanoparticles mass flux at the surface is implemented. The governing problems subject to boundary layer approximations are computed for the convergent series solutions. Effects of interesting flow parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions are studied and discussed. Skin friction coefficients and the local Nusselt number are computed and analyzed. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid is modeled. • Uniform applied magnetic field is adopted. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are accounted. • Heat transfer convective condition is utilized. • Recently constructed condition with zero nanoparticles mass flux is implemented.

  14. A differential algebraic integration algorithm for symplectic mappings in systems with three-dimensional magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.; Lee, S.Y.; Yan, Y.T.

    2006-01-01

    A differential algebraic integration algorithm is developed for symplectic mapping through a three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic field. The self-consistent reference orbit in phase space is obtained by making a canonical transformation to eliminate the linear part of the Hamiltonian. Transfer maps from the entrance to the exit of any 3-D magnetic field are then obtained through slice-by-slice symplectic integration. The particle phase-space coordinates are advanced by using the integrable polynomial procedure. This algorithm is a powerful tool to attain nonlinear maps for insertion devices in synchrotron light source or complicated magnetic field in the interaction region in high energy colliders

  15. A Differential Algebraic Integration Algorithm for Symplectic Mappings in Systems with Three-Dimensional Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P

    2004-01-01

    A differential algebraic integration algorithm is developed for symplectic mapping through a three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic field. The self-consistent reference orbit in phase space is obtained by making a canonical transformation to eliminate the linear part of the Hamiltonian. Transfer maps from the entrance to the exit of any 3-D magnetic field are then obtained through slice-by-slice symplectic integration. The particle phase-space coordinates are advanced by using the integrable polynomial procedure. This algorithm is a powerful tool to attain nonlinear maps for insertion devices in synchrotron light source or complicated magnetic field in the interaction region in high energy colliders

  16. The Three-Dimensional Velocity Distribution of Wide Gap Taylor-Couette Flow Modelled by CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Shina Adebayo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation is conducted for the flow between two concentric cylinders with a wide gap, relevant to bearing chamber applications. This wide gap configuration has received comparatively less attention than narrow gap journal bearing type geometries. The flow in the gap between an inner rotating cylinder and an outer stationary cylinder has been modelled as an incompressible flow using an implicit finite volume RANS scheme with the realisable k-ε model. The model flow is above the critical Taylor number at which axisymmetric counterrotating Taylor vortices are formed. The tangential velocity profiles at all axial locations are different from typical journal bearing applications, where the velocity profiles are quasilinear. The predicted results led to two significant findings of impact in rotating machinery operations. Firstly, the axial variation of the tangential velocity gradient induces an axially varying shear stress, resulting in local bands of enhanced work input to the working fluid. This is likely to cause unwanted heat transfer on the surface in high torque turbomachinery applications. Secondly, the radial inflow at the axial end-wall boundaries is likely to promote the transport of debris to the junction between the end-collar and the rotating cylinder, causing the build-up of fouling in the seal.

  17. Three-dimensional plasma equilibrium model based on the poloidal representation of the magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, R.; Degtyarev, L.M.; Kuper, A.; Martynov, A.A.; Medvedev, S.Yu.; Shafranov, V.D.

    1996-01-01

    Equations for the three-dimensional equilibrium of a plasma are formulated in the poloidal representation. The magnetic field is expressed in terms of the poloidal magnetic flux Ψ and the poloidal electric current F. As a result, three-dimensional equilibrium configurations are analyzed with the help of a set of equations including the elliptical equation for the poloidal flux, the magnetic differential equation for the parallel current, and the equations for the basis vector field b. To overcome the difficulties associated with peculiarities that can arise in solving the magnetic differential equation at rational toroidal magnetic surfaces, small regulating corrections are introduced into the proposed set of equations. In this case, second-order differential terms with a small parameter appear in the magnetic differential equations. As a result, these equations take the form of elliptical equations. Three versions of regulating corrections are proposed. The equations obtained can be used to develop numerical codes for calculating three-dimensional equilibrium plasma configurations with an island structure

  18. The Three Dimensional Flow Field at the Exit of an Axial-Flow Turbine Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Ristic, D.; Chu, S.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive investigation was performed to provide detailed data on the three dimensional viscous flow phenomena downstream of a modem turbine rotor and to understand the flow physics such as origin, nature, development of wakes, secondary flow, and leakage flow. The experiment was carried out in the Axial Flow Turbine Research Facility (AFTRF) at Penn State, with velocity measurements taken with a 3-D LDV System. Two radial traverses at 1% and 10% of chord downstream of the rotor have been performed to identify the three-dimensional flow features at the exit of the rotor blade row. Sufficient spatial resolution was maintained to resolve blade wake, secondary flow, and tip leakage flow. The wake deficit is found to be substantial, especially at 1% of chord downstream of the rotor. At this location, negative axial velocity occurs near the tip, suggesting flow separation in the tip clearance region. Turbulence intensities peak in the wake region, and cross- correlations are mainly associated with the velocity gradient of the wake deficit. The radial velocities, both in the wake and in the endwall region, are found to be substantial. Two counter-rotating secondary flows are identified in the blade passage, with one occupying the half span close to the casino and the other occupying the half span close to the hub. The tip leakage flow is well restricted to 10% immersion from the blade tip. There are strong vorticity distributions associated with these secondary flows and tip leakage flow. The passage averaged data are in good agreement with design values.

  19. Three-dimensional distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities at the Nankai trough seismogenic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kaiho, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Nankai trough in southwestern Japan is a convergent margin where the Philippine sea plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate. There are major faults segments of huge earthquakes that are called Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes. According to the earthquake occurrence history over the past hundreds years, we must expect various rupture patters such as simultaneous or nearly continuous ruptures of plural fault segments. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) conducted seismic surveys at Nankai trough in order to clarify mutual relations between seismic structures and fault segments, as a part of "Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. This study evaluated the spatial distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities from Hyuga-nada to Kii-channel by using velocity seismograms of small and moderate sized earthquakes. Random velocity inhomogeneities are estimated by the peak delay time analysis of S-wave envelopes (e.g., Takahashi et al. 2009). Peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. This quantity mainly reflects the accumulated multiple forward scattering effect due to random inhomogeneities, and is quite insensitive to the inelastic attenuation. Peak delay times are measured from the rms envelopes of horizontal components at 4-8Hz, 8-16Hz and 16-32Hz. This study used the velocity seismograms that are recorded by 495 ocean bottom seismographs and 378 onshore seismic stations. Onshore stations are composed of the F-net and Hi-net stations that are maintained by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) of Japan. It is assumed that the random inhomogeneities are represented by the von Karman type PSDF. Preliminary result of inversion analysis shows that spectral gradient of PSDF (i.e., scale dependence of

  20. Three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure derived from local earthquakes at the Katmai group of volcanoes, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, A.D.; Moran, S.C.; McNutt, S.R.; Stone, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    The three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure beneath the Katmai group of volcanoes is determined by inversion of more than 10,000 rays from over 1000 earthquakes recorded on a local 18 station short-period network between September 1996 and May 2001. The inversion is well constrained from sea level to about 6??km below sea level and encompasses all of the Katmai volcanoes; Martin, Mageik, Trident, Griggs, Novarupta, Snowy, and Katmai caldera. The inversion reduced the average RMS travel-time error from 0.22??s for locations from the standard one-dimensional model to 0.13??s for the best three-dimensional model. The final model, from the 6th inversion step, reveals a prominent low velocity zone (3.6-5.0??km/s) centered at Katmai Pass and extending from Mageik to Trident volcanoes. The anomaly has values about 20-25% slower than velocities outboard of the region (5.0-6.5??km/s). Moderately low velocities (4.5-6.0??km/s) are observed along the volcanic axis between Martin and Katmai Caldera. Griggs volcano, located about 10??km behind (northwest of) the volcanic axis, has unremarkable velocities (5.0-5.7??km/s) compared to non-volcanic regions. The highest velocities are observed between Snowy and Griggs volcanoes (5.5-6.5??km/s). Relocated hypocenters for the best 3-D model are shifted significantly relative to the standard model with clusters of seismicity at Martin volcano shifting systematically deeper by about 1??km to depths of 0 to 4??km below sea level. Hypocenters for the Katmai Caldera are more tightly clustered, relocating beneath the 1912 scarp walls. The relocated hypocenters allow us to compare spatial frequency-size distributions (b-values) using one-dimensional and three-dimensional models. We find that the distribution of b is significantly changed for Martin volcano, which was characterized by variable values (0.8 < b < 2.0) with standard locations and more uniform values (0.8 < b < 1.2) after relocation. Other seismic clusters at Mageik (1.2 < b

  1. Three-Dimensional Flow Field Measurements in a Transonic Turbine Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, P. W.; Thurman, D. R.; Lopez, I.; Boyle, R. J.; VanFossen, G. J.; Jett, T. A.; Camperchioli, W. P.; La, H.

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional flow field measurements are presented for a large scale transonic turbine blade cascade. Flow field total pressures and pitch and yaw flow angles were measured at an inlet Reynolds number of 1.0 x 10(exp 6) and at an isentropic exit Mach number of 1.3 in a low turbulence environment. Flow field data was obtained on five pitchwise/spanwise measurement planes, two upstream and three downstream of the cascade, each covering three blade pitches. Three-hole boundary layer probes and five-hole pitch/yaw probes were used to obtain data at over 1200 locations in each of the measurement planes. Blade and endwall static pressures were also measured at an inlet Reynolds number of 0.5 x 10(exp 6) and at an isentropic exit Mach number of 1.0. Tests were conducted in a linear cascade at the NASA Lewis Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The test article was a turbine rotor with 136 deg of turning and an axial chord of 12.7 cm. The flow field in the cascade is highly three-dimensional as a result of thick boundary layers at the test section inlet and because of the high degree of flow turning. The large scale allowed for very detailed measurements of both flow field and surface phenomena. The intent of the work is to provide benchmark quality data for CFD code and model verification.

  2. Three-dimensional loop quantum gravity: towards a self-gravitating quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noui, Karim

    2007-01-01

    In a companion paper, we have emphasized the role of the Drinfeld double DSU(2) in the context of three-dimensional Riemannian loop quantum gravity coupled to massive spinless point particles. We make use of this result to propose a model for a self-gravitating quantum field theory (massive spinless non-causal scalar field) in three-dimensional Riemannian space. We start by constructing the Fock space of the free self-gravitating field: the vacuum is the unique DSU(2) invariant state, one-particle states correspond to DSU(2) unitary irreducible simple representations and any multi-particles states are obtained as the symmetrized tensor product between simple representations. The associated quantum field is defined by the usual requirement of covariance under DSU(2). Then, we introduce a DSU(2)-invariant self-interacting potential (the obtained model is a group field theory) and explicitly compute the lowest order terms (in the self-interaction coupling constant λ) of the propagator and of the three-point function. Finally, we compute the lowest order quantum gravity corrections (in the Newton constant G) to the propagator and to the three-point function

  3. Three dimensional reflection velocity analysis based on velocity model scan; Model scan ni yoru sanjigen hanshaha sokudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M; Tsuru, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Introduced herein is a reflection wave velocity analysis method using model scanning as a method for velocity estimation across a section, the estimation being useful in the construction of a velocity structure model in seismic exploration. In this method, a stripping type analysis is carried out, wherein optimum structure parameters are determined for reflection waves one after the other beginning with those from shallower parts. During this process, the velocity structures previously determined for the shallower parts are fixed and only the lowest of the layers undergoing analysis at the time is subjected to model scanning. To consider the bending of ray paths at each velocity boundaries involving shallower parts, the ray path tracing method is utilized for the calculation of the reflection travel time curve for the reflection surface being analyzed. Out of the reflection wave travel time curves calculated using various velocity structure models, one that suits best the actual reflection travel time is detected. The degree of matching between the calculated result and actual result is measured by use of data semblance in a time window provided centering about the calculated reflective wave travel time. The structure parameter is estimated on the basis of conditions for the maximum semblance. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  4. Three dimensional particle simulation of drift wave fluctuations in a sheared magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydora, R.D.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Thayer, D.R.; Diamond, P.H.; Tajima, T.

    1985-08-01

    Three dimensional particle simulations of collisionless drift waves in sheared magnetic fields were performed in order to determine the nonlinear behavior of inverse electron resonance dynamics in the presence of thermal fluctuations. It is found that stochastic electron diffusion in the electron resonance overlap region can destabilize the drift wave eigenmodes. Numerical evaluations based on a nonlinear electron resonance broadening theory give predictions in accord with the frequency and growth rates found in the simulation of short wavelength modes (k/sub y/rho/sub s/ greater than or equal to1)

  5. Image reconstruction using three-dimensional compound Gauss-Markov random field in emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shuichi; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Saito, Tsuneo

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new reconstruction algorithm based on MAP (maximum a posteriori probability) estimation principle for emission tomography. To improve noise suppression properties of the conventional ML-EM (maximum likelihood expectation maximization) algorithm, direct three-dimensional reconstruction that utilizes intensity correlations between adjacent transaxial slices is introduced. Moreover, to avoid oversmoothing of edges, a priori knowledge of RI (radioisotope) distribution is represented by using a doubly-stochastic image model called the compound Gauss-Markov random field. The a posteriori probability is maximized by using the iterative GEM (generalized EM) algorithm. Computer simulation results are shown to demonstrate validity of the proposed algorithm. (author)

  6. Three-dimensional study of the pressure field and advantages of hemispherical crucible in silicon Czochralski crystal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, F. [LTSE Laboratory, University of Science and Technol., USTHB BP 32 Elalia, Babezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); University Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Merah, A. [University M' hammed Bougara, Boumerdes (Algeria); Zizi, M. [LTSE Laboratory, University of Science and Technol., USTHB BP 32 Elalia, Babezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Hanchi, S. [UER Mecanique/ E.M.P B.P 17 Bordj El Bahri, Algiers (Algeria); Alemany, A. [Laboratoire EPM, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Bouabdallah, A.

    2010-06-15

    The effects of several growth parameters in cylindrical and spherical Czochralski crystal process are studied numerically and particularly, we focus on the influence of the pressure field. We present a set of three-dimensional computational simulations using the finite volume package Fluent in two different geometries, a new geometry as cylindro-spherical and the traditional configuration as cylindro-cylindrical. We found that the evolution of pressure which is has not been studied before; this important function is strongly related to the vorticity in the bulk flow, the free surface and the growth interface. It seems that the pressure is more sensitive to the breaking of symmetry than the other properties that characterize the crystal growth as temperature or velocity fields. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Three-dimensional flow of a nanofluid over a permeable stretching/shrinking surface with velocity slip: A revised model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, R.; Nazar, R.; Pop, I.

    2018-03-01

    A reformulation of the three-dimensional flow of a nanofluid by employing Buongiorno's model is presented. A new boundary condition is implemented in this study with the assumption of nanoparticle mass flux at the surface is zero. This condition is practically more realistic since the nanoparticle fraction at the boundary is latently controlled. This study is devoted to investigate the impact of the velocity slip and suction to the flow and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluid. The governing partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum, energy, and concentration are reduced to the ordinary differential equations by utilizing the appropriate transformation. Numerical solutions of the ordinary differential equations are obtained by using the built-in bvp4c function in Matlab. Graphical illustrations displaying the physical influence of the several nanofluid parameters on the flow velocity, temperature, and nanoparticle volume fraction profiles, as well as the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are provided. The present study discovers the existence of dual solutions at a certain range of parameters. Surprisingly, both of the solutions merge at the stretching sheet indicating that the presence of the velocity slip affects the skin friction coefficients. Stability analysis is carried out to determine the stability and reliability of the solutions. It is found that the first solution is stable while the second solution is not stable.

  8. An algorithm for the calculation of three-dimensional ICRF fields in tokamak geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithe, D.N.; Kammash, T.

    1987-01-01

    A computational scheme is developed which permits tractable calculation of three-dimensional full-wave solutions to the Vlasov-Maxwell equations under typical ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) experimental conditions. The method is unique in that power deposition to the plasma is determined via the anti-Hermitian part of a truncated warm plasma dielectric operator, rather than as the result of an assumed phenomenological collision frequency. The resulting computer code allows arbitrary variation of density, temperature, magnetic field and minority concentration in the poloidal plane by performing a convolution of poloidal modes to produce a coupled system of differential equations in the radial variable. By assuming no inhomogeneity along the toroidal axis, an inverse transform over k parallel is performed, yielding the global three-dimensional fast wave field solutions. The application of the code to TFTR-like plasmas shows a mild resonance structure in antenna loading related to the changing number of wavelengths between the antenna and the resonance layer. (author)

  9. FINITE VOLUME METHOD FOR SOLVING THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paţiuc V.I.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a new approach to finite volume method which is used to calculate the electric field spatially homogeneous three-dimensional environment. It is formulated the problem Dirihle with building of the computational grid on base of space partition, which is known as Delone triangulation with the use of Voronoi cells. It is proposed numerical algorithm for calculating the potential and electric field strength in the space formed by a cylinder placed in the air. It is developed algorithm and software which were for the case, when the potential on the inner surface of the cylinder has been assigned and on the outer surface and the bottom of cylinder it was assigned zero potential. There are presented results of calculations of distribution in the potential space and electric field strength.

  10. Three-dimensional field map of the Fermilab D0 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostiguy, J.; Yamada, R.

    1991-08-01

    The D0 detector is a general purpose hadron collider detector presently under construction at Fermilab and scheduled to be put in operation in the fall of 1991. The D0 muon detection system is composed of three major toroids referred to respectively as the Central Field (CF) toroid and the End Field (EF) toroids. The complete detector weighs in excess of 4000 metric tons and rests on a steel platform. The muon detection system was designed using standard 2D codes and flux maps inside were obtained for each of the toroids taken separately. Various magnetic field measurements were performed; discrepancies with the design calculations have been observed and attributed to three dimensional effects. In this paper, we compare the predictions of the 2D computations to 3D calculations for a fully assembled detector. We also estimate the electromagnetic forces between the toroids and discuss other 3D effects, in particular, the effect of the supporting platform. 4 refs., 3 figs

  11. Three-dimensional electromagnetic strong turbulence. I. Scalings, spectra, and field statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, D. B.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Skjaeraasen, O.

    2011-01-01

    The first fully three-dimensional (3D) simulations of large-scale electromagnetic strong turbulence (EMST) are performed by numerically solving the electromagnetic Zakharov equations for electron thermal speeds ν e with ν e /c≥0.025. The results of these simulations are presented, focusing on scaling behavior, energy density spectra, and field statistics of the Langmuir (longitudinal) and transverse components of the electric fields during steady-state strong turbulence, where multiple wave packets collapse simultaneously and the system is approximately statistically steady in time. It is shown that for ν e /c > or approx. 0.17 strong turbulence is approximately electrostatic and can be explained using the electrostatic two-component model. For v e /c > or approx. 0.17 the power-law behaviors of the scalings, spectra, and field statistics differ from the electrostatic predictions and results because ν e /c is sufficiently high to allow transverse modes to become trapped in density wells. The results are compared with those of past 3D electrostatic strong turbulence (ESST) simulations and 2D EMST simulations. For number density perturbations, the scaling behavior, spectra, and field statistics are shown to be only weakly dependent on ν e /c, whereas the Langmuir and transverse scalings, spectra, and field statistics are shown to be strongly dependent on ν e /c. Three-dimensional EMST is shown to have features in common with 2D EMST, such as a two-component structure and trapping of transverse modes which are dependent on ν e /c.

  12. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure of Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes in Hawaii from local seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guoqing; Shearer, Peter M.; Matoza, Robin S.; Okubo, Paul G.; Amelung, Falk

    2016-01-01

    We present a new three-dimensional seismic velocity model of the crustal and upper mantle structure for Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes in Hawaii. Our model is derived from the first-arrival times of the compressional and shear waves from about 53,000 events on and near the Island of Hawaii between 1992 and 2009 recorded by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory stations. The Vp model generally agrees with previous studies, showing high-velocity anomalies near the calderas and rift zones and low-velocity anomalies in the fault systems. The most significant difference from previous models is in Vp/Vs structure. The high-Vp and high-Vp/Vs anomalies below Mauna Loa caldera are interpreted as mafic magmatic cumulates. The observed low-Vp and high-Vp/Vs bodies in the Kaoiki seismic zone between 5 and 15 km depth are attributed to the underlying volcaniclastic sediments. The high-Vp and moderate- to low-Vp/Vs anomalies beneath Kilauea caldera can be explained by a combination of different mafic compositions, likely to be olivine-rich gabbro and dunite. The systematically low-Vp and low-Vp/Vs bodies in the southeast flank of Kilauea may be caused by the presence of volatiles. Another difference between this study and previous ones is the improved Vp model resolution in deeper layers, owing to the inclusion of events with large epicentral distances. The new velocity model is used to relocate the seismicity of Mauna Loa and Kilauea for improved absolute locations and ultimately to develop a high-precision earthquake catalog using waveform cross-correlation data.

  13. Fermionic field perturbations of a three-dimensional Lifshitz black hole in conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, P.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko; Villalobos, Ruth Noemi [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)

    2017-09-15

    We study the propagation of massless fermionic fields in the background of a three-dimensional Lifshitz black hole, which is a solution of conformal gravity. The black-hole solution is characterized by a vanishing dynamical exponent. Then we compute analytically the quasinormal modes, the area spectrum, and the absorption cross section for fermionic fields. The analysis of the quasinormal modes shows that the fermionic perturbations are stable in this background. The area and entropy spectrum are evenly spaced. In the low frequency limit, it is observed that there is a range of values of the angular momentum of the mode that contributes to the absorption cross section, whereas it vanishes in the high frequency limit. In addition, by a suitable change of variables a gravitational soliton can also be obtained and the stability of the quasinormal modes are studied and ensured. (orig.)

  14. Applications of three-dimensional printing technology in the cardiovascular field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Di; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Xin; Liao, Hang; Chen, Xiaoping

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology has rapidly developed in the last few decades. Meanwhile, the application of this technology has reached beyond the engineering field and expanded to almost all disciplines, including medicine. There has been much research on the medical applications of 3-D printing in neurosurgery, orthopedics, maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery, tissue engineering, as well as other fields. Because of the complexity of the cardiovascular system, the application of this technology is limited and difficult, as compared to other disciplines, and thus there is much room for future development. Many of the difficulties associated with this technology must be overcome. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that 3-D printing technology will benefit patients with cardiovascular diseases in the near future.

  15. Three dimensional field computation software package DE3D and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Mingwu; Zhang Tianjue; Yan Weili

    1992-07-01

    A software package, DE3D that can be run on PC for three dimensional electrostatic and magnetostatic field analysis has been developed in CIAE (China Institute of Atomic Energy). Two scalar potential method and special numerical techniques have made the code with high precision. It can be used for electrostatic and magnetostatic fields computations with complex boundary conditions. In the most cases, the result accuracy is better than 1% comparing with the measured. In some situations, the results are more acceptable than the other codes because some tricks are used for the current integral. Typical examples, design of a cyclotron magnet and magnetic elements on its beam transport line, given in the paper show how the program helps the designer to improve the design of the product. The software package could bring advantages to the producers and designers

  16. Nanoscale mapping of the three-dimensional deformation field within commercial nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqbool, Muhammad Salman; Hoxley, David; Phillips, Nicholas W.; Coughlan, Hannah D.; Darmanin, Connie; Johnson, Brett C.; Harder, Ross; Clark, Jesse N.; Balaur, Eugeniu; Abbey, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The unique properties of nanodiamonds make them suitable for use in a wide range of applications, including as biomarkers for cellular tracking in vivo at the molecular level. The sustained fluorescence of nanodiamonds containing nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centres is related to their internal structure and strain state. Theoretical studies predict that the location of the N-V centre and the nanodiamonds' residual elastic strain state have a major influence on their photoluminescence properties. However, to date there have been no direct measurements made of their spatially resolved deformation fields owing to the challenges that such measurements present. Here we apply the recently developed technique of Bragg coherent diffractive imaging (BCDI) to map the three-dimensional deformation field within a single nanodiamond of approximately 0.5 µm diameter. The results indicate that there are high levels of residual elastic strain present in the nanodiamond which could have a critical influence on its optical and electronic properties.

  17. A Review of the Responses of Two- and Three-Dimensional Engineered Tissues to Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hronik-Tupaj, Marie

    2012-01-01

    The application of external biophysical signals is one approach to tissue engineering that is explored less often than more traditional additions of exogenous biochemical and chemical factors to direct cell and tissue outcomes. The study of bioelectromagnetism and the field of electrotherapeutics have evolved over the years, and we review biocompatible electric stimulation devices and their successful application to tissue growth. Specifically, information on capacitively coupled alternating current, inductively coupled alternating current, and direct current devices is described. Cell and tissue responses from the application of these devices, including two- and three-dimensional in vitro studies and in vivo studies, are reviewed with regard to cell proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, morphology, and migration and tissue function. The current understanding of cellular mechanisms related to electric stimulation is detailed. The advantages of electric stimulation are compared with those pf other techniques, and areas in which electric fields are used as an adjuvant therapy for healing and regeneration are discussed. PMID:22046979

  18. Three-dimensional phase-field simulation on the deformation of metallic glass nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.Y.; Zheng, G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D phase-field modeling is developed to investigate the deformation of MG nanowires. • The surface defects significantly affect the mechanical properties of nanowires. • Multiple shear bands are initiated from the surfaces of nanowires with D < 50 nm. - Abstract: It is very challenging to investigate the deformation mechanisms in micro- and nano-scale metallic glasses with diameters below several hundred nanometers using the atomistic simulation or the experimental approaches. In this work, we develop the fully three-dimensional phase-field model to bridge this gap and investigate the sample size effects on the deformation behaviors of metallic glass nanowires. The initial deformation defects on the surface are found to significantly affect the mechanical strength and deformation mode of nanowires. The improved ductility of metallic glass nanowires could be related with the multiple shear bands initiated from the nanowire surfaces

  19. Three-dimensional Upper Crustal Velocity and Attenuation Structures of the Central Tibetan Plateau from Local Earthquake Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, B.; Liang, X.; Lin, G.; Tian, X.; Zhu, G.; Mechie, J.; Teng, J.

    2017-12-01

    A series of V-shaped conjugate strike-slip faults are the most spectacular geologic features in the central Tibetan plateau. A previous study suggested that this conjugate strike-slip fault system accommodates the east-west extension and coeval north-south contraction. Another previous study suggested that the continuous convergence between the Indian and Eurasian continents and the eastward asthenospheric flow generated lithospheric paired general-shear (PGS) deformation, which then caused the development of conjugate strike-slip faults in central Tibet. Local seismic tomography can image three dimensional upper-crustal velocity and attenuation structures in central Tibet, which will provide us with more information about the spatial distribution of physical properties and compositional variations around the conjugate strike-slip fault zone. Ultimately, this information could improve our understanding of the development mechanism of the conjugate strike-slip fault system. In this study, we collected 6,809 Pg and 2,929 Sg arrival times from 414 earthquakes recorded by the temporary SANDWICH and permanent CNSN networks from November 2013 to November 2015. We also included 300 P and 17 S arrival times from 12 shots recorded by the INDEPTH III project during the summer of 1998 in the velocity tomography. We inverted for preliminary Vp and Vp/Vs models using the SIMUL2000 tomography algorithm, and then relocated the earthquakes with these preliminary velocity models. After that, we inverted for the final velocity models with these improved source locations and origin times. After the velocity inversion, we performed local attenuation tomography using t* measurements from the same dataset with an already existing approach. There are correlated features in the velocity and attenuation structures. From the surface to 10 km depth, the study area is dominated by high Vp and Qp anomalies. However, from 10 km to 20 km depth, there is a low Vp and Qp zone distributed along the

  20. Three-dimensional Magnetotelluric Characterization of the Xinzhou Geothermal Field, Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Q.; Hu, X.; Cai, J.; Wei, W.

    2016-12-01

    Xinzhou geothermal field is located in the Guangdong province and adjacent to the China South Sea, and its hot springs can reach up to 92 degree Celsius. Yanshanian granite expose widely in the south of this geothermal field and four faults cut across each other over it. A dense grid of 176 magnetotelluric (MT) sites with broadband has been acquired over the Xinzhou geothermal field and its surrounding area. Due to the related electromagnetic (EM) noise one permanent observatory was placed as a remote reference to suppress this cultural EM noise interference. The datasets are processed using the mutual reference technique, static shift correction, and structural strike and dimensionality analysis based on tensor decomposition. Data analysis reveals that the underground conductivity structure has obvious three-dimensional characterization. For the high resolution result ,two and three dimensional inversion are both applied in this area employing the non-linear conjugate gradient method (NLCG).These MT data sets are supposed to detect the deep subsurface resistivity structure correlated to the distribution of geothermal reservoir (such as faults and fractured granite) and investigate the channel of the upwelling magma. The whole and cold granite usually present high resistivity but once it functions as reservoir the resistivity will decrease, sometimes it is hard to separate the reservoir from the cap layer. The 3D inversion results delineate three high resistivity anomalies distributed in different locations. At last we put forward that the large areas of granite form the major thermal source for the study area and discuss whether any melt under these magma intrusions exists.

  1. Accelerated time-resolved three-dimensional MR velocity mapping of blood flow patterns in the aorta using SENSE and k-t BLAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas; Riet, Wilma van der; Crelier, Gerard; Salomonowitz, Erich

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and potential limitations of the acceleration techniques SENSE and k-t BLAST for time-resolved three-dimensional (3D) velocity mapping of aortic blood flow. Furthermore, to quantify differences in peak velocity versus heart phase curves. Materials and methods: Time-resolved 3D blood flow patterns were investigated in eleven volunteers and two patients suffering from aortic diseases with accelerated PC-MR sequences either in combination with SENSE (R = 2) or k-t BLAST (6-fold). Both sequences showed similar data acquisition times and hence acceleration efficiency. Flow-field streamlines were calculated and visualized using the GTFlow software tool in order to reconstruct 3D aortic blood flow patterns. Differences between the peak velocities from single-slice PC-MRI experiments using SENSE 2 and k-t BLAST 6 were calculated for the whole cardiac cycle and averaged for all volunteers. Results: Reconstruction of 3D flow patterns in volunteers revealed attenuations in blood flow dynamics for k-t BLAST 6 compared to SENSE 2 in terms of 3D streamlines showing fewer and less distinct vortices and reduction in peak velocity, which is caused by temporal blurring. Solely by time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping in combination with SENSE detected pathologic blood flow patterns in patients with aortic diseases. For volunteers, we found a broadening and flattering of the peak velocity versus heart phase diagram between the two acceleration techniques, which is an evidence for the temporal blurring of the k-t BLAST approach. Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility of SENSE and detected potential limitations of k-t BLAST when used for time-resolved 3D velocity mapping. The effects of higher k-t BLAST acceleration factors have to be considered for application in 3D velocity mapping.

  2. Three-dimensional photodissociation in strong laser fields: Memory-kernel effective-mode expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuan; Thanopulos, Ioannis; Shapiro, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a method for the efficient computation of non-Markovian quantum dynamics for strong (and time-dependent) system-bath interactions. The past history of the system dynamics is incorporated by expanding the memory kernel in exponential functions thereby transforming in an exact fashion the non-Markovian integrodifferential equations into a (larger) set of ''effective modes'' differential equations (EMDE). We have devised a method which easily diagonalizes the EMDE, thereby allowing for the efficient construction of an adiabatic basis and the fast propagation of the EMDE in time. We have applied this method to three-dimensional photodissociation of the H 2 + molecule by strong laser fields. Our calculations properly include resonance-Raman scattering via the continuum, resulting in extensive rotational and vibrational excitations. The calculated final kinetic and angular distribution of the photofragments are in overall excellent agreement with experiments, both when transform-limited pulses and when chirped pulses are used.

  3. New three-dimensional moving field radiation therapy for brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuyama, Fuyuki; Kanno, Tetsuo; Nagata, Yutaka; Koga, Sukehiko [Fujita-Gakuen Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan); Jain, V K

    1992-06-01

    A new modified rotation radiation method called 'three-dimensional moving field radiation therapy' is described. The new method uses rotation in many planes while maintaining the same isocenter to achieve a good spatial dose distribution. This delivers a high dose to tumors and spares the surrounding normal structures. This easy method can be carried out using the equipment for conventional rotation radiation therapy. The new method was superior to the one plane rotation radiation therapy using a physical phantom with film, a chemical phantom using the iodine-starch reaction, and a new biological model using tumor cells. Treatment of six brain tumors irradiated with total air doses of 50-60 Gy caused no hair loss or radiation necrosis. (author).

  4. Three-dimensional temperature field model of thermally decomposing resin composite irradiated by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Minsun; Jiang Houman; Liu Zejin

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental equations governing the temperature field of thermally decomposing resin composite irradiated by laser are derived from mass and energy conservation laws with the control Janume method. The thermal decomposition of resin is described by a multi-step model. An assumption is proposed that the flow of pyrolysis gas is one-dimensional, which makes it possible to consider the influence of pyrolysis gas convective transport and realize the closure of the three-dimensional model without introducing mechanical quantities. In view of the anisotropy of resin composite, expressions of the thermal conductivities of partially pyrolyzed material are deduced, as well as the computing formula for the laser absorption coefficient of partially pyrolyzed material. The energy conservation equation is consistent with reference under some simplifications. (authors)

  5. Stress analysis of three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement with field observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zimo; Chanda, Emmanuel; Zhao, Jingli; Wang, Zhihe

    2018-01-01

    Longwall top-coal caving (LTCC) has been a popular, more productive and cost-effective method for extracting thick (> 5 m) to ultra-thick coal seams in recent years. However, low-level recovery ratio of coal resources and top-coal loss above the supports at both ends of working face are long-term problems. Geological factors, such as large dip angle, soft rock, mining depth further complicate the problems. This paper proposes addressing this issue by adopting three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement (3-D RLSA). In this study, the first step was to analyse the stress environment surrounding head entry in the replacing working face based on the stress distribution characteristics at the triangular coal-pillar side in gob and the stress slip line field theory. In the second step, filed observation was conducted. Finally, an economic evaluation of the 3-D RLSA for extracting thick to ultra-thick seams was conducted.

  6. Chemically doped three-dimensional porous graphene monoliths for high-performance flexible field emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Young; Jeong, Sooyeon; Jeong, Seung Yol; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Han, Joong Tark; Jeong, Mun Seok; Lee, Geon-Woong; Jeong, Hee Jin

    2015-03-12

    Despite the recent progress in the fabrication of field emitters based on graphene nanosheets, their morphological and electrical properties, which affect their degree of field enhancement as well as the electron tunnelling barrier height, should be controlled to allow for better field-emission properties. Here we report a method that allows the synthesis of graphene-based emitters with a high field-enhancement factor and a low work function. The method involves forming monolithic three-dimensional (3D) graphene structures by freeze-drying of a highly concentrated graphene paste and subsequent work-function engineering by chemical doping. Graphene structures with vertically aligned edges were successfully fabricated by the freeze-drying process. Furthermore, their number density could be controlled by varying the composition of the graphene paste. Al- and Au-doped 3D graphene emitters were fabricated by introducing the corresponding dopant solutions into the graphene sheets. The resulting field-emission characteristics of the resulting emitters are discussed. The synthesized 3D graphene emitters were highly flexible, maintaining their field-emission properties even when bent at large angles. This is attributed to the high crystallinity and emitter density and good chemical stability of the 3D graphene emitters, as well as to the strong interactions between the 3D graphene emitters and the substrate.

  7. Anomalous diffusion and Levy random walk of magnetic field lines in three dimensional turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbardo, G.; Veltri, P.; Basile, G.; Principato, S.

    1995-01-01

    The transport of magnetic field lines is studied numerically where three dimensional (3-D) magnetic fluctuations, with a power law spectrum, and periodic over the simulation box are superimposed on an average uniform magnetic field. The weak and the strong turbulence regime, δB∼B 0 , are investigated. In the weak turbulence case, magnetic flux tubes are separated from each other by percolating layers in which field lines undergo a chaotic motion. In this regime the field lines may exhibit Levy, rather than Gaussian, random walk, changing from Levy flights to trapped motion. The anomalous diffusion laws left-angle Δx 2 i right-angle ∝s α with α>1 and α<1, are obtained for a number of cases, and the non-Gaussian character of the field line random walk is pointed out by computing the kurtosis. Increasing the fluctuation level, and, therefore stochasticity, normal diffusion (α congruent 1) is recovered and the kurtoses reach their Gaussian value. However, the numerical results show that neither the quasi-linear theory nor the two dimensional percolation theory can be safely extrapolated to the considered 3-D strong turbulence regime. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. Finite action for three dimensional gravity with a minimally coupled scalar field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gegenberg, Jack; Martinez, Cristian; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional gravity with a minimally coupled self-interacting scalar is considered. The falloff of the fields at infinity is assumed to be slower than that of a localized distribution of matter in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. However, the asymptotic symmetry group remains to be the conformal group. The counterterm Lagrangian needed to render the action finite is found by demanding that the action attain an extremum for the boundary conditions implied by the above falloff of the fields at infinity. These counterterms explicitly depend on the scalar field. As a consequence, the Brown-York stress-energy tensor acquires a nontrivial contribution from the matter sector. Static circularly symmetric solutions with a regular scalar field are explored for a one-parameter family of potentials. Their masses are computed via the Brown-York quasilocal stress-energy tensor, and they coincide with the values obtained from the Hamiltonian approach. The thermal behavior, including the transition between different configurations, is analyzed, and it is found that the scalar black hole can decay into the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli solution irrespective of the horizon radius. It is also shown that the AdS conformal field theory correspondence yields the same central charge as for pure gravity

  9. Three-Dimensional Bioprinting and Its Potential in the Field of Articular Cartilage Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, Vivian H. M.; Levato, Riccardo; Bonassar, Lawrence J.; D’Lima, Darryl D.; Grande, Daniel A.; Klein, Travis J.; Saris, Daniel B. F.; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Gawlitta, Debby; Malda, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques can be used for the fabrication of personalized, regenerative constructs for tissue repair. The current article provides insight into the potential and opportunities of 3D bioprinting for the fabrication of cartilage regenerative constructs. Although 3D printing is already used in the orthopedic clinic, the shift toward 3D bioprinting has not yet occurred. We believe that this shift will provide an important step forward in the field of cartilage regeneration. Three-dimensional bioprinting techniques allow incorporation of cells and biological cues during the manufacturing process, to generate biologically active implants. The outer shape of the construct can be personalized based on clinical images of the patient’s defect. Additionally, by printing with multiple bio-inks, osteochondral or zonally organized constructs can be generated. Relevant mechanical properties can be obtained by hybrid printing with thermoplastic polymers and hydrogels, as well as by the incorporation of electrospun meshes in hydrogels. Finally, bioprinting techniques contribute to the automation of the implant production process, reducing the infection risk. To prompt the shift from nonliving implants toward living 3D bioprinted cartilage constructs in the clinic, some challenges need to be addressed. The bio-inks and required cartilage construct architecture need to be further optimized. The bio-ink and printing process need to meet the sterility requirements for implantation. Finally, standards are essential to ensure a reproducible quality of the 3D printed constructs. Once these challenges are addressed, 3D bioprinted living articular cartilage implants may find their way into daily clinical practice. PMID:28934880

  10. Three-dimensional imaging of vortex structure in a ferroelectric nanoparticle driven by an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, D; Liu, Z; Rolo, T Dos Santos; Harder, R; Balachandran, P V; Xue, D; Lookman, T; Fohtung, E

    2017-08-17

    Topological defects of spontaneous polarization are extensively studied as templates for unique physical phenomena and in the design of reconfigurable electronic devices. Experimental investigations of the complex topologies of polarization have been limited to surface phenomena, which has restricted the probing of the dynamic volumetric domain morphology in operando. Here, we utilize Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of a single BaTiO 3 nanoparticle in a composite polymer/ferroelectric capacitor to study the behavior of a three-dimensional vortex formed due to competing interactions involving ferroelectric domains. Our investigation of the structural phase transitions under the influence of an external electric field shows a mobile vortex core exhibiting a reversible hysteretic transformation path. We also study the toroidal moment of the vortex under the action of the field. Our results open avenues for the study of the structure and evolution of polar vortices and other topological structures in operando in functional materials under cross field configurations.Imaging of topological states of matter such as vortex configurations has generally been limited to 2D surface effects. Here Karpov et al. study the volumetric structure and dynamics of a vortex core mediated by electric-field induced structural phase transition in a ferroelectric BaTiO 3 nanoparticle.

  11. Polarization dynamics and polarization time of random three-dimensional electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voipio, Timo; Setaelae, Tero; Shevchenko, Andriy; Friberg, Ari T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the polarization dynamics of random, stationary three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic fields. For analyzing the time evolution of the instantaneous polarization state, two intensity-normalized polarization autocorrelation functions are introduced, one based on a geometric approach with the Poincare vectors and the other on energy considerations with the Jones vectors. Both approaches lead to the same conclusions on the rate and strength of the polarization dynamics and enable the definition of a polarization time over which the state of polarization remains essentially unchanged. For fields obeying Gaussian statistics, the two correlation functions are shown to be expressible in terms of quantities characterizing partial 3D polarization and electromagnetic coherence. The 3D degree of polarization is found to have the same meaning in the 3D polarization dynamics as the usual two-dimensional (2D) degree of polarization does with planar fields. The formalism is demonstrated with several examples, and it is expected to be useful in applications dealing with polarization fluctuations of 3D light.

  12. Calculation of three-dimensional MHD equilibria with magnetic islands and chaotic field line trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.; Monticello, D.; Pomphrey, N.

    1993-01-01

    The three-dimensional MHD equilibrium equation is a mixed elliptic-hyperbolic partial differential equation. Unlike more familiar equations of this sort, the source term in the elliptic part of the equation is dependent on the time-asymptotic solution of the hyperbolic part, because the pressure and the force-free part of the current are constant along magnetic field lines. The equations for the field line trajectories can be put in the form of Hamilton's equations for a one-dimensional time-dependent system. The authors require an accurate solution for the KAM surfaces of this nonintegrable Hamiltonian. They describe a new algorithm they have developed for this purpose, and discuss its relationship to previously developed algorithms for computing KAM surfaces. They also discuss the numerical issues that arise in self-consistently coupling the output of this algorithm to the elliptic piece of the equation to calculate the magnetic field driven by the current. For nominally axisymmetric devices, they describe how the code is used to directly calculate the saturated state of nonaxisymmetric instabilities by following the equilibrium solution through a bifurcation. They argue that this should be the method of choice for evaluating stability to tearing modes in toroidal magnetic confinement devices

  13. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of residual magnetic field for ferromagnets under early damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Kai; Shen, Kai; Wang, Zheng-Dao; Wang, Yue-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 3D finite element analysis is presented by calculating the residual magnetic field signals of ferromagnets under the plastic deformation. The contour maps of tangential and normal RMF gradients are given, and the 3D effect is discussed. The results show that the tangential peak–peak amplitude and normal peak–vale amplitude are remarkably different in 2D and 3D simulations, but the tangential peak–peak width and normal peak–vale width are similar. Moreover, some key points are capable of capturing the plastic-zone shape, especially when the lift-off is small enough. The present study suggests an effective defect identification method with Metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis is presented by calculating the residual magnetic field signals of ferromagnets under the plastic deformation. • The contour maps of gradients of the tangential and normal residual magnetic fields are given, and the 3D effect is discussed. • The present study suggests an effective defect identification method with metal magnetic memory technique

  14. Three-dimensional conformal pancreas treatment: comparison of four- to six-field techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Patrick D.; Sohn, Jason W.; Fine, Robert M.; Schell, Michael C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: We compare practical conformal treatment approaches to pancreatic cancer using 6 and 18 MV photons and contrast those approaches against standard techniques. Methods and Materials: A four-field conformal technique for treating pancreas cancer has been developed using nonopposed 18 MV photons. This approach has been extended to 6 MV photon application by the addition of one to two fields. These techniques have been optimized to increase sparing of normal liver and bowel, compared with opposed-field methods, to improve patient tolerance of high doses. In this study we compare these techniques in a simulated tumor model in a cylindrical phantom. Dose-volume analysis is used to quantify differences between the conformal, nonopposed techniques with conformal, opposed field methods. This model is also used to evaluate the effect of 1-2 cm setup errors on dose-volume coverage. Results: Dose-volume analysis demonstrates that five-to-six field conformal treatments using 6 MV photons provides similar or better dose coverage and normal tissue sparing characteristics as an optimized 18 MV, four-field approach when 1-2 cm margins are included for setup uncertainty. All approaches using nonopposed beam geometry provide significant reduction in the volume of tissue encompassed by the 30-50% isodose surfaces, as compared with four-field box techniques. Conclusions: Three-dimensional (3D) conformal treatments can be designed that significantly improve dose-volume characteristics over conventional treatment designs without costing unacceptable amounts of machine time. Further, deep intraabdominal sites can be adequately accessed and treated on intermediate energy machines with a relatively moderate increase in machine time

  15. Design and testing of indigenous cost effective three dimensional radiation field analyser (3D RFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, K M; Pichandi, A; Nehru, R M; Ravikumar, M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study is to design and validate an indigenous three dimensional Radiation Field Analyser (3D RFA). The feed system made for X, Y and Z axis movements is of lead screw with deep ball bearing mechanism made up of stain less steel driven by stepper motors with accuracy less than 0.5 mm. The telescopic column lifting unit was designed using linear actuation technology for lifting the water phantom. The acrylic phantom with dimensions of 800 x 750 x 570 mm was made with thickness of 15 mm. The software was developed in visual basic programming language, classified into two types, viz. beam analyzer software and beam acquisition software. The premeasurement checks were performed as per TG 106 recommendations. The physical parameters of photon PDDs such as Dmax, D10, D20 and Quality Index (QI), and the electron PDDs such as R50, Rp, E0, Epo and X-ray contamination values can be obtained instantaneously by using the developed RFA system. Also the results for profile data such as field size, central axis deviation, penumbra, flatness and symmetry calculated according to various protocols can be obtained for both photon and electron beams. The result of PDDs for photon beams were compared with BJR25 supplement values and the profile data were compared with TG 40 recommendation. The results were in agreement with standard protocols.

  16. Beam simulation of synchrotron radiation equipment. New method responsive to three dimensional magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hirofumi

    1999-01-01

    A new numerical analysis method capable of precise modeling of complex three dimensional magnetic field of superconducting wiggler and of long-term beam simulation without destroying property of Hamiltonian dynamics system was developed by using the above-mentioned method. Therefore, a fundamental design of a compact synchrotron radiation equipment with hexagonal column shape was also developed. Its main parameters had 1 GeV in energy, 36 m in circumference, 300 mA in stored current, and 184 nmrad in emittance. So as to enable to research the x-ray and vacuum UV regions, a superconducting wiggler with 7T in magnetic field strength and an undulator were set at straight section. It depends upon if beam around stable region on exciting the superconducting wiggler is wider than the required region whether this type of synchrotron radiation equipment can be realized or not. By using three orbit analysis methods containing the developed one, the circulating stable region was introduced. As a result, although shape of the stable region was different from used methods, it was found that considerably larger stable region was obtained than the required in circulation results of every three methods. That is to say, it was shown that the designed compact equipment can accumulate electron beams stably. (G.K.)

  17. Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps and three-dimensional shear velocity structure of the western US from local non-plane surface wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; Snoke, J. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    We utilize two-and-three-quarter years of vertical-component recordings made by the Transportable Array (TA) component of Earthscope to constrain three-dimensional (3-D) seismic shear wave velocity structure in the upper 200 km of the western United States. Single-taper spectral estimation is used to compile measurements of complex spectral amplitudes from 44 317 seismograms generated by 123 teleseismic events. In the first step employed to determine the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure, we implement a new tomographic method, which is simpler and more robust than scattering-based methods (e.g. multi-plane surface wave tomography). The TA is effectively implemented as a large number of local arrays by defining a horizontal Gaussian smoothing distance that weights observations near a given target point. The complex spectral-amplitude measurements are interpreted with the spherical Helmholtz equation using local observations about a succession of target points, resulting in Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at periods over the range of 18–125 s. The derived maps depend on the form of local fits to the Helmholtz equation, which generally involve the nonplane-wave solutions of Friederich et al. In a second step, the phase-velocity maps are used to derive 3-D shear velocity structure. The 3-D velocity images confirm details witnessed in prior body-wave and surface-wave studies and reveal new structures, including a deep (>100 km deep) high-velocity lineament, of width ∼200 km, stretching from the southern Great Valley to northern Utah that may be a relic of plate subduction or, alternatively, either a remnant of the Mojave Precambrian Province or a mantle downwelling. Mantle seismic velocity is highly correlated with heat flow, Holocene volcanism, elastic plate thickness and seismicity. This suggests that shallow mantle structure provides the heat source for associated magmatism, as well as thinning of the thermal lithosphere, leading to relatively high

  18. Three Dimensional Dynamic Model Based Wind Field Reconstruction from Lidar Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-01-01

    Using the inflowing horizontal and vertical wind shears for individual pitch controller is a promising method if blade bending measurements are not available. Due to the limited information provided by a lidar system the reconstruction of shears in real-time is a challenging task especially for the horizontal shear in the presence of changing wind direction. The internal model principle has shown to be a promising approach to estimate the shears and directions in 10 minutes averages with real measurement data. The static model based wind vector field reconstruction is extended in this work taking into account a dynamic reconstruction model based on Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis. The presented method provides time series over several seconds of the wind speed, shears and direction, which can be directly used in advanced optimal preview control. Therefore, this work is an important step towards the application of preview individual blade pitch control under realistic wind conditions. The method is tested using a turbulent wind field and a detailed lidar simulator. For the simulation, the turbulent wind field structure is flowing towards the lidar system and is continuously misaligned with respect to the horizontal axis of the wind turbine. Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis is taken into account to model the wind evolution. For the reconstruction, the structure is discretized into several stages where each stage is reduced to an effective wind speed, superposed with a linear horizontal and vertical wind shear. Previous lidar measurements are shifted using again Taylor's Hypothesis. The wind field reconstruction problem is then formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem, which minimizes the residual between the assumed wind model and the lidar measurements to obtain the misalignment angle and the effective wind speed and the wind shears for each stage. This method shows good results in reconstructing the wind characteristics of a three

  19. Modellierung dreidimensionaler Strahlungsfelder im frühen Universum %t Modelling three dimensional radiation fields in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinköhn, Erik

    2002-11-01

    The present work aims at the modelling of three-dimensional radiation fields in gas clouds from the early universe, in particular as to the influence of varying distributions of density and velocity. In observations of high-redshift gas clouds, the Lyα transition from the first excited energy level to the ground state of the hydrogen atom is usually found to be the only prominent emission lines in the entire spectrum. It is a well-known assumption that high-redshifted hydrogen clouds are the precursors of present-day galaxies. Thus, the investigation of the Lyα line is of paramount importance of the theory of galaxy formation and evolution. The observed Lyα line - or rather, to be precise, its profile - reveals both the complexity of the spatial distribution and of the kinematics of the interstellar gas, and also the nature of the photon source. In this thesis we have developed a code which is capable of solving the three-dimensional frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation for arbitrarily nonrelativistically moving media. The numerical treatment of the associated partial integro-differential equation is an extremely challenging task, since radiation intensity depends on 6 variables, namely 3 space variables, 2 variables describing the direction of photon propagation, and the frequency. With the goal of a quantitative comparison with observational data in mind, the implementation of very efficient methods for a sufficiently accurate solution of the complex radiative transfer problems turned out to be a necessity. The size of the resulting linear system of equations makes the use of parallelization techniques and grid refinement strategies indispensable.

  20. Three-dimensional N=6 superconformal field theories and their membrane dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenstein, David; Trancanelli, Diego

    2008-01-01

    We analyze several aspects of the recent construction of three-dimensional conformal gauge theories by Aharony et al. in various regimes. We pay special attention to understanding how the M-theory geometry and interpretation can be extracted from the analysis of the field theory. We revisit the calculations of the moduli space of vacua and the complete characterization of chiral ring operators by analyzing the field theory compactified on a 2-sphere. We show that many of the states dual to these operators can be interpreted as D-brane states in the weak-coupling limit. Also, various features of the dual AdS geometry can be obtained by performing a strong coupling expansion around moduli space configurations, even though one is not taking the planar expansion. In particular, we show that at strong coupling the corresponding weak-coupling D-brane states of the chiral ring localize on particular submanifolds of the dual geometry that match the M-theory interpretation. We also study the massive spectrum of fields in the moduli space. We use this to investigate the dispersion relation of giant magnons from the field theory point of view. Our analysis predicts the exact functional form of the dispersion relation as a function of the world sheet momentum, independently of integrability assumptions, but not the exact form with respect to the 't Hooft coupling. We also get the dispersion relation of bound states of giant magnons from first principles, providing evidence for the full integrability of the corresponding spin chain model at strong 't Hooft coupling.

  1. Three-dimensional density field determination by external stationary detectors and gamma sources using selective scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondic, N.; Jacobs, A.; Ebert, D.

    1983-01-01

    In many fields one needs to know the spatial density distribution; two-phase systems are of particular importance. In particular, gas-liquid mixtures play a role in power generation, chemistry, bio-medicine etc. An intrusion into the measured system is frequently undesired or not permitted. Therefore, external, non-invasive instrumentation has definite advantages. Photon-energy discrimination methods, measuring scattered fluxes, can employ stationary equipment; they need partial collimation or only protective shielding. The results are achieved with a higher information/irradiation ratio than is the case with transmission methods. The utilization a mesh of isogonic lines (each of them being characterised by its particular scattering angle) has several advantages when compared with the mesh of straight lines (''pencil beams'') used in tomography. The ultimate experimental arrangement employing Compton scattering has fan/fan beam geometry, i.e., wide angle emitting and receiving of gammas. The direct result of the measurement is a ''scattergram'', i.e., countrate versus scattered energy spectrum. Besides representing the ''signature'' of a two- or three-dimensional density distribution, it also enables the reconstruction of local density values. The report outlines the necessary analysis and presents experimental proof of principle

  2. Three-dimensional finite element model for flexible pavement analyses based field modulus measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, G.; Thenoux, G.; Rodriguez-Roa, F.

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with the present development of empirical-mechanistic tools, this paper presents an alternative to traditional analysis methods for flexible pavements using a three-dimensional finite element formulation based on a liner-elastic perfectly-plastic Drucker-Pager model for granular soil layers and a linear-elastic stress-strain law for the asphalt layer. From the sensitivity analysis performed, it was found that variations of +-4 degree in the internal friction angle of granular soil layers did not significantly affect the analyzed pavement response. On the other hand, a null dilation angle is conservatively proposed for design purposes. The use of a Light Falling Weight Deflectometer is also proposed as an effective and practical tool for on-site elastic modulus determination of granular soil layers. However, the stiffness value obtained from the tested layer should be corrected when the measured peak deflection and the peak force do not occur at the same time. In addition, some practical observations are given to achieve successful field measurements. The importance of using a 3D FE analysis to predict the maximum tensile strain at the bottom of the asphalt layer (related to pavement fatigue) and the maximum vertical comprehensive strain transmitted to the top of the granular soil layers (related to rutting) is also shown. (author)

  3. Accelerating three-dimensional FDTD calculations on GPU clusters for electromagnetic field simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic simulation with anatomically realistic computational human model using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method has recently been performed in a number of fields in biomedical engineering. To improve the method's calculation speed and realize large-scale computing with the computational human model, we adapt three-dimensional FDTD code to a multi-GPU cluster environment with Compute Unified Device Architecture and Message Passing Interface. Our multi-GPU cluster system consists of three nodes. The seven GPU boards (NVIDIA Tesla C2070) are mounted on each node. We examined the performance of the FDTD calculation on multi-GPU cluster environment. We confirmed that the FDTD calculation on the multi-GPU clusters is faster than that on a multi-GPU (a single workstation), and we also found that the GPU cluster system calculate faster than a vector supercomputer. In addition, our GPU cluster system allowed us to perform the large-scale FDTD calculation because were able to use GPU memory of over 100 GB.

  4. Noninvasive, three-dimensional full-field body sensor for surface deformation monitoring of human body in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenning; Shao, Xinxing; He, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Jialin; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Jinlin

    2017-09-01

    Noninvasive, three-dimensional (3-D), full-field surface deformation measurements of the human body are important for biomedical investigations. We proposed a 3-D noninvasive, full-field body sensor based on stereo digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) for surface deformation monitoring of the human body in vivo. First, by applying an improved water-transfer printing (WTP) technique to transfer optimized speckle patterns onto the skin, the body sensor was conveniently and harmlessly fabricated directly onto the human body. Then, stereo-DIC was used to achieve 3-D noncontact and noninvasive surface deformation measurements. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed body sensor were verified and discussed by considering different complexions. Moreover, the fabrication of speckle patterns on human skin, which has always been considered a challenging problem, was shown to be feasible, effective, and harmless as a result of the improved WTP technique. An application of the proposed stereo-DIC-based body sensor was demonstrated by measuring the pulse wave velocity of human carotid artery.

  5. Noninvasive, three-dimensional full-field body sensor for surface deformation monitoring of human body in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenning; Shao, Xinxing; He, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Jialin; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Jinlin

    2017-09-01

    Noninvasive, three-dimensional (3-D), full-field surface deformation measurements of the human body are important for biomedical investigations. We proposed a 3-D noninvasive, full-field body sensor based on stereo digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) for surface deformation monitoring of the human body in vivo. First, by applying an improved water-transfer printing (WTP) technique to transfer optimized speckle patterns onto the skin, the body sensor was conveniently and harmlessly fabricated directly onto the human body. Then, stereo-DIC was used to achieve 3-D noncontact and noninvasive surface deformation measurements. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed body sensor were verified and discussed by considering different complexions. Moreover, the fabrication of speckle patterns on human skin, which has always been considered a challenging problem, was shown to be feasible, effective, and harmless as a result of the improved WTP technique. An application of the proposed stereo-DIC-based body sensor was demonstrated by measuring the pulse wave velocity of human carotid artery. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  6. Three-dimensional simulation of the electromagnetic ion/ion beam instability: cross field diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kucharek

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In a system with at least one ignorable spatial dimension charged particles moving in fluctuating fields are tied to the magnetic field lines. Thus, in one-and two-dimensional simulations cross-field diffusion is inhibited and important physics may be lost. We have investigated cross-field diffusion in self-consistent 3-D magnetic turbulence by fully 3-dimensional hybrid simulation (macro-particle ions, massless electron fluid. The turbulence is generated by the electromagnetic ion/ion beam instability. A cold, low density, ion beam with a high velocity stream relative to the background plasma excites the right-hand resonant instability. Such ion beams may be important in the region of the Earth's foreshock. The field turbulence scatters the beam ions parallel as well as perpendicular to the magnetic field. We have determined the parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficient for the beam ions in the turbulent wave field. The result compares favourably well (within a factor 2 with hard-sphere scattering theory for the cross-field diffusion coefficient. The cross-field diffusion coefficient is larger than that obtained in a static field with a Kolmogorov type spectrum and similar total fluctuation power. This is attributed to the resonant behaviour of the particles in the fluctuating field.

  7. Influence of three mechanical bileaflet prosthetic valve designs on the three-dimensional flow field inside a simulated aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Toshinosuke; Matsumoto, Akira

    2010-12-01

    The current design of the bileaflet valve, the leaflets of which open outside first, differs significantly from the natural valve whose leaflets open center first. This difference generates a completely different flow field in the bileaflet valve compared to that in the natural heart valve. In a previous study, it was demonstrated that the valve design greatly affects the aortic flow field as well as the circulatory flow inside sinuses of Valsalva, using saline solution as a working fluid. A limited discussion on the turbulence flow field that could be generated by the valve was provided. In this continuation of that study, therefore, a dynamic PIV study was conducted to analyze the influence of the heart valve design on the aortic flow field, and particularly on the turbulent profile. This study also aimed to determine the influence of the viscosity of the testing fluid. Three bileaflet prostheses-the St. Jude Medical (SJM), the On-X, and the MIRA valves-were tested under pulsatile flow conditions. Flow through the central orifice of the SJM valve was slower than that through the newer designs. The newer designs tend to show strong flow through all orifices. The On-X valve generates simple jet-type flow while the MIRA valve with circumferentially curved leaflets generates a strong but three-dimensionally diffuse flow, resulting in a more complex flow field downstream of the aortic valve with higher turbulence. A 180° orientation that is more popular clinically seems to provide a less diffuse flow than a 90° orientation. The effect of increasing the viscosity was found to be an increase in the flow velocity through the central orifice and a more organized flow field for all of the valves tested.

  8. Topics in two dimensional conformal field theory and three dimensional topological lattice field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Stephen-wei.

    1993-01-01

    The authors first construct new parafermions in two-dimensional conformal field theory, generalizing the Z L parafermion theories from integer L to rational L. These non-unitary parafermions have some novel features: an infinite number of currents with negative conformal dimensions for most (if not all) of them. String functions of these new parafermion theories are calculated. They also construct new representations of N = 2 superconformal field theories, whose characters are obtained in terms of these new string functions. They then generalize Felder's BRST cohomology method to construct the characters and branching functions of the SU(2) L x SU(2) K /SU(2) K+L coset theories, where one of the (K,L) is an integer. This method of obtaining the branching functions also serves as a check of their new Z L parafermion theories. The next topic is the Lagrangian formulation of conformal field theory. They construct a chiral gauged WZW theory where the gauge fields are chiral and belong to the subgroups H L and H R , which can be different groups. This new construction is beyond the ordinary vector gauged WZW theory, whose gauge group H is a subgroup of both G L and G R . In the special case where H L = H R , the quantum theory of chiral gauged WZW theory is equivalent to that of the vector gauged WZW theory. It can be further shown that the chiral gauged WZW theory is equivalent to [G L /H L ](z) direct-product [G R /H R ](bar z) coset models in conformal field theory. In the second half of this thesis, they construct topological lattice field theories in three dimensions. After defining a general class of local lattice field theories, they impose invariance under arbitrary topology-preserving deformations of the underlying lattice, which are generated by two local lattice moves. Invariant solutions are in one-to-one correspondence with Hopf algebras satisfying a certain constraint

  9. Three-dimensional laryngeal flow fields induced by a model vocal fold polyp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, Byron D., E-mail: erath@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, 801 22nd Street NW, 739 Phillips Hall, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Plesniak, Michael W., E-mail: plesniak@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, 801 22nd Street NW, 739 Phillips Hall, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pathological speech with a unilateral polyp is modeled in a scaled-up flow facility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vortex shedding from the polyp disrupts normal flow behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hairpin vortices create spatial velocity asymmetries in the glottal flow. - Abstract: Pathological laryngeal flow fields are investigated in a dynamically-driven, scaled-up model of the vocal folds. Disruption of the flow field due to the presence of a geometric protuberance, representative of a sessile unilateral polyp, is investigated in both the streamwise and transverse flow directions using phase-averaged particle image velocimetry. It is shown that the protuberance disrupts the normal flow behavior of the glottal jet throughout the phonatory cycle. During the divergent portions of the glottal cycle, the flow is characterized by the formation of hairpin vortices downstream of the protuberance. The protuberance also introduces significant velocity gradients in the anterior-posterior direction, which cover {approx}30 - 40% of the vocal fold length. It is proposed that the disruption of the normal velocity behavior owing to the presence of a polyp will adversely impact the aerodynamic loadings that drive vocal fold motion, contributing to the temporal and spatial vocal fold asymmetries that are clinically-observed in patients with unilateral polyps.

  10. Three-dimensional laryngeal flow fields induced by a model vocal fold polyp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pathological speech with a unilateral polyp is modeled in a scaled-up flow facility. ► Vortex shedding from the polyp disrupts normal flow behavior. ► Hairpin vortices create spatial velocity asymmetries in the glottal flow. - Abstract: Pathological laryngeal flow fields are investigated in a dynamically-driven, scaled-up model of the vocal folds. Disruption of the flow field due to the presence of a geometric protuberance, representative of a sessile unilateral polyp, is investigated in both the streamwise and transverse flow directions using phase-averaged particle image velocimetry. It is shown that the protuberance disrupts the normal flow behavior of the glottal jet throughout the phonatory cycle. During the divergent portions of the glottal cycle, the flow is characterized by the formation of hairpin vortices downstream of the protuberance. The protuberance also introduces significant velocity gradients in the anterior-posterior direction, which cover ∼30 − 40% of the vocal fold length. It is proposed that the disruption of the normal velocity behavior owing to the presence of a polyp will adversely impact the aerodynamic loadings that drive vocal fold motion, contributing to the temporal and spatial vocal fold asymmetries that are clinically-observed in patients with unilateral polyps.

  11. Three-Dimensional Bioprinting and Its Potential in the Field of Articular Cartilage Regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouser, Vivian H M; Levato, Riccardo; Bonassar, Lawrence J; D'Lima, Darryl D; Grande, Daniel A; Klein, Travis J; Saris, Daniel B F; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Gawlitta, Debby; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques can be used for the fabrication of personalized, regenerative constructs for tissue repair. The current article provides insight into the potential and opportunities of 3D bioprinting for the fabrication of cartilage regenerative constructs. Although 3D

  12. Three-dimensional numerical reservoir simulation of the EGS Demonstration Project at The Geysers geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, Andrea; Rutqvist, Jonny; Oldenburg, Curt M.; Hutchings, Lawrence; Garcia, Julio; Walters, Mark; Hartline, Craig; Jeanne, Pierre; Dobson, Patrick; Boyle, Katie

    2013-04-01

    The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration Project, currently underway at the Northwest Geysers, California, aims to demonstrate the feasibility of stimulating a deep high-temperature reservoir (up to 400 °C) through water injection over a 2-year period. On October 6, 2011, injection of 25 l/s started from the Prati 32 well at a depth interval of 1850-2699 m below sea level. After a period of almost 2 months, the injection rate was raised to 63 l/s. The flow rate was then decreased to 44 l/s after an additional 3.5 months and maintained at 25 l/s up to August 20, 2012. Significant well-head pressure changes were recorded at Prati State 31 well, which is separated from Prati 32 by about 500 m at reservoir level. More subdued pressure increases occur at greater distances. The water injection caused induced seismicity in the reservoir in the vicinity of the well. Microseismic monitoring and interpretation shows that the cloud of seismic events is mainly located in the granitic intrusion below the injection zone, forming a cluster elongated SSE-NNW (azimuth 170°) that dips steeply to the west. In general, the magnitude of the events increases with depth and the hypocenter depth increases with time. This seismic cloud is hypothesized to correlate with enhanced permeability in the high-temperature reservoir and its variation with time. Based on the existing borehole data, we use the GMS™ GUI to construct a realistic three-dimensional (3D) geologic model of the Northwest Geysers geothermal field. This model includes, from the top down, a low permeability graywacke layer that forms the caprock for the reservoir, an isothermal steam zone (known as the normal temperature reservoir) within metagraywacke, a hornfels zone (where the high-temperature reservoir is located), and a felsite layer that is assumed to extend downward to the magmatic heat source. We then map this model onto a rectangular grid for use with the TOUGH2 multiphase, multicomponent, non

  13. Three-Dimensional Phase Field Simulations of Hysteresis and Butterfly Loops by the Finite Volume Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Li-Ying; Chen Huan-Ming; Zheng Fu; Gao Hua; Tong Yang; Ma Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional simulations of ferroelectric hysteresis and butterfly loops are carried out based on solving the time dependent Ginzburg–Landau equations using a finite volume method. The influence of externally mechanical loadings with a tensile strain and a compressive strain on the hysteresis and butterfly loops is studied numerically. Different from the traditional finite element and finite difference methods, the finite volume method is applicable to simulate the ferroelectric phase transitions and properties of ferroelectric materials even for more realistic and physical problems. (paper)

  14. Atlas of three-dimensional gridded fields obtained from the radiosonde network during PYREX. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkert, H.; Schumann, U.

    1994-01-01

    During the Pyrenees Experiment (PYREX) in October and November 1990 in radiosonde network was in operation with enhanced spatial and temporal resolution. This atlas contains standardized output from a three-dimensional, objective analysis scheme which is used to interpolate from the observed significant levels to a regular grid centred over the Pyrenees. For each of the 68 release times during ten intensive observation periods 12 horizontal charts are displayed on one page. These charts contain temperature, relative humidity or potential vorticity, and horizontal wind (vectors and isotachs) in four levels. The atlas is considered as basic material for more detailed studies at or between selected release times. (orig.) [de

  15. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional fields of Chernobyl's radionuclides in the Kiev water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznyak, M.I.; Margvelashvili, N.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    On the base of the three-dimensional numerical model of water circulation and radionuclide transport, the high flood water influence on the radionuclide dispersion in the Kiev water reservoir is studied. The model was verified on the base of data of the measurements of moderate flood phenomena in April-May 1987. Redistribution of the bottom sediment contamination is demonstrated. It is shown that even an extremely high flood water discharge does not change drastically the 137 Cs concentration in the water body of the Kiev water reservoir

  16. A coupled three dimensional model of vanadium redox flow battery for flow field designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Cong; Gao, Yan; Guo, Shaoyun; Tang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A 3D (three-dimensional) model of VRB (vanadium redox flow battery) with interdigitated flow channel design is proposed. Two different stack inlet designs, single-inlet and multi-inlet, are structured in the model to study the distributions of fluid pressure, electric potential, current density and overpotential during operation of VRB cell. Electrolyte flow rate and stack channel dimension are proved to be the critical factors affecting flow distribution and cell performance. The model developed in this paper can be employed to optimize both VRB stack design and system operation conditions. Further improvements of the model concerning current density and electrode properties are also suggested in the paper. - Highlights: • A coupled three-dimensional model of vanadium redox flow cell is proposed. • Interdigitated flow channels with two different manifold designs are simulated. • Manifold structure affects uniformity of distribution patterns significantly. • Increased electrolyte flow rate improves cell performance for both designs. • Decreased channel size and enlarged land width enhance cell voltage

  17. Analysis of Operating Performance and Three Dimensional Magnetic Field of High Voltage Induction Motors with Stator Chute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Qing-shan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the difficulties on technology of rotor chute in high voltage induction motor,the desig method adopted stator chute structure is put forward. The mathematical model of three dimensional nonlinear transient field for solving stator chute in high voltage induction motor is set up. Through the three dimensional entity model of motor,three dimensional finite element method based on T,ψ - ψ electromagnetic potential is adopted for the analysis and calculation of stator chute in high voltage induction motor under rated condition. The distributions long axial of fundamental wave magnetic field and tooth harmonic wave magnetic field are analyzed after stator chute,and the weakening effects on main tooth harmonic magnetic field are researched. Further more,the comparison analysis of main performance parameters of chute and straight slot is carried out under rated condition. The results show that the electrical performance of stator chute is better than that of straight slot in high voltage induction motor,and the tooth harmonic has been sharply decreased

  18. Three-dimensional rotational plasma flows near solid surfaces in an axial magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshunov, N. M., E-mail: gorshunov-nm@nrcki.ru; Potanin, E. P., E-mail: potanin45@yandex.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    A rotational flow of a conducting viscous medium near an extended dielectric disk in a uniform axial magnetic field is analyzed in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approach. An analytical solution to the system of nonlinear differential MHD equations of motion in the boundary layer for the general case of different rotation velocities of the disk and medium is obtained using a modified Slezkin–Targ method. A particular case of a medium rotating near a stationary disk imitating the end surface of a laboratory device is considered. The characteristics of a hydrodynamic flow near the disk surface are calculated within the model of a finite-thickness boundary layer. The influence of the magnetic field on the intensity of the secondary flow is studied. Calculations are performed for a weakly ionized dense plasma flow without allowance for the Hall effect and plasma compressibility. An MHD flow in a rotating cylinder bounded from above by a retarding cap is considered. The results obtained can be used to estimate the influence of the end surfaces on the main azimuthal flow, as well as the intensities of circulating flows in various devices with rotating plasmas, in particular, in plasma centrifuges and laboratory devices designed to study instabilities of rotating plasmas.

  19. Poster - 21: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculations for Breast Field-In-Field Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosztyla, Robert; Pierce, Greg; Ploquin, Nicolas; Roumeliotis, Michael; Schinkel, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the source of systematic monitor unit (MU) calculation discrepancies between RadCalc and Eclipse treatment planning software for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy field-in-field breast treatments. Methods: Data were reviewed for 28 patients treated with a field-in-field breast technique with MU calculations from RadCalc that were larger than MU calculations from Eclipse for at least one field. The distance of the calculation point from the jaws was measured in each field’s beam’s-eye-view and compared with the percentage difference in MU (%ΔMU) between RadCalc and Eclipse. 10×10, 17×13 and 20×20 cm 2 beam profiles were measured using the Profiler 2 diode array for 6-MV photon beams and compared with profiles calculated with Eclipse and RadCalc using a gamma analysis (3%, 3 mm). Results: The mean %ΔMU was 1.3%±0.3%. There was a statistically-significant correlation between %ΔMU and the distance of the calculation point from the Y jaw (r=−0.43, p<0.001). RadCalc profiles differed from measured profiles, especially near the jaws. The gamma pass rate for 6-MV fields of 17×13 cm 2 field size was 95%±1% for Eclipse-generated profiles and 53%±20% for RadCalc-generated profiles (p=0.01). Conclusions: Calculations using RadCalc for field-in-field breast plans resulted in MUs that were larger than expected from previous clinical experience with wedged plans with calculation points far from the jaws due to the position of the calculation point near the jaws in the beam’s-eye-view of each field.

  20. Poster - 21: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculations for Breast Field-In-Field Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosztyla, Robert; Pierce, Greg; Ploquin, Nicolas; Roumeliotis, Michael; Schinkel, Colleen [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To determine the source of systematic monitor unit (MU) calculation discrepancies between RadCalc and Eclipse treatment planning software for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy field-in-field breast treatments. Methods: Data were reviewed for 28 patients treated with a field-in-field breast technique with MU calculations from RadCalc that were larger than MU calculations from Eclipse for at least one field. The distance of the calculation point from the jaws was measured in each field’s beam’s-eye-view and compared with the percentage difference in MU (%ΔMU) between RadCalc and Eclipse. 10×10, 17×13 and 20×20 cm{sup 2} beam profiles were measured using the Profiler 2 diode array for 6-MV photon beams and compared with profiles calculated with Eclipse and RadCalc using a gamma analysis (3%, 3 mm). Results: The mean %ΔMU was 1.3%±0.3%. There was a statistically-significant correlation between %ΔMU and the distance of the calculation point from the Y jaw (r=−0.43, p<0.001). RadCalc profiles differed from measured profiles, especially near the jaws. The gamma pass rate for 6-MV fields of 17×13 cm{sup 2} field size was 95%±1% for Eclipse-generated profiles and 53%±20% for RadCalc-generated profiles (p=0.01). Conclusions: Calculations using RadCalc for field-in-field breast plans resulted in MUs that were larger than expected from previous clinical experience with wedged plans with calculation points far from the jaws due to the position of the calculation point near the jaws in the beam’s-eye-view of each field.

  1. Migration of the Three-dimensional Wind Field (3DWF) Model from Linux to Windows and Mobile Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Results in netCDF 11 4.3 Morphological Data Generation 16 5. 3DWF on Mobile Platforms 17 5.1 3DWF on Windows Mobile Devices 18 5.2 3DWF Migration to...Windows and Mobile Platforms by Giap Huynh and Yansen Wang Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOTICES...Migration of the Three-dimensional Wind Field (3DWF) Model from Linux to Windows and Mobile Platforms by Giap Huynh and Yansen Wang

  2. Hawking radiation and propagation of massive charged scalar field on a three-dimensional Gödel black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P. A.; Övgün, Ali; Saavedra, Joel; Vásquez, Yerko

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we consider the three-dimensional Gödel black hole as a background and we study the vector particle tunneling from this background in order to obtain the Hawking temperature. Then, we study the propagation of a massive charged scalar field and we find the quasinormal modes analytically, which turns out be unstable as a consequence of the existence of closed time-like curves. Also, we consider the flux at the horizon and at infinity, and we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients as well as the absorption cross section. Mainly, we show that massive charged scalar waves can be superradiantly amplified by the three-dimensional Gödel black hole and that the coefficients have an oscillatory behavior. Moreover, the absorption cross section is null at the high frequency limit and for certain values of the frequency.

  3. Recent developments in multi-parametric three-dimensional stress field representation in plates weakened by cracks and notches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lazzarin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the three-dimensional nature and the multi-parametric representation of the stress field ahead of cracks and notches of different shape. Finite thickness plates are considered, under different loading conditions. Under certain hypotheses, the three-dimensional governing equations of elasticity can be reduced to a system where a bi-harmonic equation and a harmonic equation have to be simultaneously satisfied. The former provides the solution of the corresponding plane notch problem, the latter provides the solution of the corresponding out-of-plane shear notch problem. The analytical frame is applied to some notched and cracked geometries and its degree of accuracy is discussed comparing theoretical results and numerical data from 3D FE models.

  4. Three-dimensional apoptotic nuclear behavior analyzed by means of Field Emission in Lens Scanning Electron Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salucci

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is an essential biological function required during embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, organ development and immune system regulation. It is an active cell death pathway involved in a variety of pathological conditions. During this process cytoskeletal proteins appear damaged and undergo an enzymatic disassembling, leading to formation of apoptotic features. This study was designed to examine the three-dimensional chromatin behavior and cytoskeleton involvement, in particular actin re-modeling. HL-60 cells, exposed to hyperthermia, a known apoptotic trigger, were examined by means of a Field Emission in Lens Scanning Electron Microscope (FEISEM. Ultrastructural observations revealed in treated cells the presence of apoptotic patterns after hyperthermia trigger. In particular, three-dimensional apoptotic chromatin rearrangements appeared involving the translocation of filamentous actin from cytoplasm to the nucleus. FEISEM immunogold techniques showed actin labeling and its precise three-dimensional localization in the diffuse chromatin, well separated from the condensed one. The actin presence in dispersed chromatin inside the apoptotic nucleus can be considered an important feature, indispensable to permit the apoptotic machinery evolution.

  5. New three-dimensional far-field potential repository thermomechanical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, M.P.; Bai, M.; Goodrich, R.R.; Lin, M.; Carlisle, S.; Bauer, S.J.

    1993-03-01

    The thermomechanical effect on the exploratory ramps, drifts, and shafts as a result of high-level nuclear waste disposal is examined using a three-dimensional thermo-elastic model. The repository layout modeled is based on the use of mechanical mining of all excavations with equivalent waste emplacement areal power densities of 57 and 80 kW/acre. Predicted temperatures and stress changes for the north and south access drifts, east main drift, east-west exploratory drift, the north and south Calico Hills access ramps, the Calico Hills north-south exploratory drift, and the optional exploratory studies facility and man and materials shafts are presented for times 10, 35, 50, 100, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, and 10,000 years after the start of waste emplacement. The study indicates that the east-west exploratory drift at the repository horizon is subject to the highest thermomechanical impact because it is located closest the buried waste canisters. For most exploratory openings, the thermally induced temperatures and stresses tend to reach the maximum magnitudes at approximately 1000 years after waste emplacement

  6. Unsteady three dimensional flow of Casson liquid film over a porous stretching sheet in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field and suction/injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, S., E-mail: susantamaiti@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, Yupia, Papumpare 791112 (India); Singh, S.K. [Engineering Mechanics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); Kumar, A.V. [Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, Yupia, Papumpare 791112 (India)

    2016-12-01

    Three dimensional flow of thin Casson liquid film over a porous unsteady stretching sheet is investigated under assumption of initial uniform film thickness. The effects of the uniform transverse magnetic field, suction and injection are also considered for investigation. The nonlinear governing set of equations and film evolution equation are solved analytically by using singular perturbation technique. It is found that the film thickness decreases with the increasing values of the Casson parameter. The Hartmann number and porosity parameter resist the film thinning process. It is also observed that the film thickness increases with the increasing values of the suction velocity whereas it decreases for increasing values of the injection velocity at the stretching surface.

  7. Topological phases in a three-dimensional topological insulator with a time-reversal invariant external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoyong; Ren, Xiaobin; Wang, Gangzhi; Peng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of a time-reversal invariant external field on the topological phases of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator. By taking the momentum k z as a parameter, we calculate the spin-Chern number analytically. It is shown that both the quantum spin Hall phase and the integer quantum Hall phase can be realized in our system. When the strength of the external field is varied, a series of topological phase transitions occurs with the closing of the energy gap or the spin-spectrum gap. In a tight-binding form, the surface modes are discussed numerically to confirm the analytically results. (paper)

  8. A Transverse Oscillation Approach for Estimation of Three-Dimensional Velocity Vectors, Part I: Concept and Simulation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    A method for 3-D velocity vector estimation us - ing transverse oscillations is presented. The method employs a 2-D transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three orthogonal components, which are estimated simultane - ously and from the same data. The validity of the method is invest......A method for 3-D velocity vector estimation us - ing transverse oscillations is presented. The method employs a 2-D transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three orthogonal components, which are estimated simultane - ously and from the same data. The validity of the method...... is investigated by conducting simulations emulating a 32 × 32 matrix transducer. The results are evaluated using two per - formance metrics related to precision and accuracy. The study includes several parameters including 49 flow directions, the SNR, steering angle, and apodization types. The 49 flow direc...... - tions cover the positive octant of the unit sphere. In terms of accuracy, the median bias is −2%. The precision of v x and v y depends on the flow angle β and ranges from 5% to 31% rela - tive to the peak velocity magnitude of 1 m/s. For comparison, the range is 0.4 to 2% for v z . The parameter study...

  9. Investigating the Local Three-dimensional Velocity Structure of the 2008 Taoyuan Earthquake Sequence of Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, M. H.; Huang, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    March 4, 2008, a moderate earthquake (ML 5.2) occurred in Taoyuan district of Kaohsiung County in the southern Taiwan. It was followed by numerous aftershocks in the following 48 hours, including three events with magnitude larger than 4. The Taoyuan earthquake sequence occurred during the TAIGER (Taiwan Integrated Geodynamic Research) project which is to image lithospheric structure of Taiwan orogeny. The high-resolution waveform data of this sequence were well-recorded by a large number of recording stations belong to several different permanent and TAIGER networks all around Taiwan. We had collected the waveform data and archived to a mega database. Then, we had identified 2,340 events from database in the preliminary locating process by using 1-D velocity model. In this study, we applied the double-difference tomography to investigate not only the fault geometry of the main shock but also the detailed 3-D velocity structure in this area. A total of 3,034 events were selected from preliminary locating result and CWBSN catalog in the vicinity. The resulting aftershocks are extended along the NE-SW direction and located on a 45° SE-dipping plane which agrees to one of the nodal planes of Global CMT solution (strike = 45°, dip = 40° and rake = 119°). We can identify a clear low-velocity area which is enclosed by events next to the main shock in the final 3D velocity model. We also recognized a 45°-dipping zone which is extended to the ground surface with low-velocity; meanwhile, velocity structure variation in study area correspond with major geologic units in Taiwan.

  10. Time-resolved three-dimensional magnetic resonance velocity mapping of chronic thoracic aortic dissection. A preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yasuo; Sekine, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Keiji; Takagi, Ryo; Kumita, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Yuriko

    2011-01-01

    The blood flow patterns of chronic thoracic aortic dissection are complicated, and their clinical significance remains unknown. We evaluated the technical and clinical potentials of time-resolved 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) velocity mapping for assessing these patterns. We used data collected from time-resolved 3D phase-contrast MR imaging of 16 patients with chronic thoracic aortic dissection to generate time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping that included 3D streamline and path line. We investigated blood flow patterns of this disease in the mapping and compared them with the morphological changes of the patent false lumen. Time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping visualized rapid flow at the entry and in the true lumen immediately distal to the entry. We observed slower helical or laminar flow in the patent false lumen. In patients with disease progression, slower helical flow following rapid entry jet collided with the outer wall of the false lumen and was also observed in a growing ulcer-like projection. We showed the potential of time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping for visualizing pathologic flow patterns related to chronic thoracic aortic dissection. (author)

  11. New Multigrid Method Including Elimination Algolithm Based on High-Order Vector Finite Elements in Three Dimensional Magnetostatic Field Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Mitsuo; Hotta, Masashi

    A new multigrid method based on high-order vector finite elements is proposed in this paper. Low level discretizations in this method are obtained by using low-order vector finite elements for the same mesh. Gauss-Seidel method is used as a smoother, and a linear equation of lowest level is solved by ICCG method. But it is often found that multigrid solutions do not converge into ICCG solutions. An elimination algolithm of constant term using a null space of the coefficient matrix is also described. In three dimensional magnetostatic field analysis, convergence time and number of iteration of this multigrid method are discussed with the convectional ICCG method.

  12. Three dimensional viscoelastic simulation on dynamic evolution of stress field in North China induced by the 1966 Xingtai earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lian-Wang; Lu, Yuan-Zhong; Liu, Jie; Guo, Ruo-Mei

    2001-09-01

    Using three dimensional (3D) viscoelastic finite element method (FEM) we study the dynamic evolution pattern of the coseismic change of Coulomb failure stress and postseismic change, on time scale of hundreds years, of rheological effect induced by the M S=7.2 Xingtai earthquake on March 22, 1966. Then, we simulate the coseismic disturbance in stress field in North China and dynamic change rate on one-year scale caused by the Xingtai earthquake and Tangshan earthquake during 15 years from 1966 to 1980. Finally, we discuss the triggering of a strong earthquake to another future strong earthquake.

  13. Real-time three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for characterizing the spatial velocity distribution and quantifying the peak flow rate in the left ventricular outflow tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, H.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Qin, J. X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Cardon, L. A.; Morehead, A. J.; Zetts, A. D.; Travaglini, A.; Bauer, F.; hide

    2001-01-01

    Quantification of flow with pulsed-wave Doppler assumes a "flat" velocity profile in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), which observation refutes. Recent development of real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) color Doppler allows one to obtain an entire cross-sectional velocity distribution of the LVOT, which is not possible using conventional 2-D echo. In an animal experiment, the cross-sectional color Doppler images of the LVOT at peak systole were derived and digitally transferred to a computer to visualize and quantify spatial velocity distributions and peak flow rates. Markedly skewed profiles, with higher velocities toward the septum, were consistently observed. Reference peak flow rates by electromagnetic flow meter correlated well with 3-D peak flow rates (r = 0.94), but with an anticipated underestimation. Real-time 3-D color Doppler echocardiography was capable of determining cross-sectional velocity distributions and peak flow rates, demonstrating the utility of this new method for better understanding and quantifying blood flow phenomena.

  14. Dose calculations for irregular fields using three-dimensional first-scatter integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesecke, R.; Scharfenberg, H.; Schlegel, W.; Hartmann, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a method of dose calculations for irregular fields which requires only the mean energy of the incident photons, the geometrical properties of the irregular field and of the therapy unit, and the attenuation coefficient of tissue. The method goes back to an approach including spatial aspects of photon scattering for inhomogeneities for the calculation of dose reduction factors as proposed by Sontag and Cunningham (1978). It is based on the separation of dose into a primary component and a scattered component. The scattered component can generally be calculated for each field by integration over dose contributions from scattering in neighbouring volume elements. The quotient of this scattering contribution in the irregular field and the scattering contribution in the equivalent open field is then the correction factor for scattering in an irregular field. A correction factor for the primary component can be calculated if the attenuation of the photons in the shielding block is properly taken into account. The correction factor is simply given by the quotient of primary photons of the irregular field and the primary photons of the open field. (author)

  15. Accurate three dimensional characterization of ultrasonic sound fields (by computer controlled rotational scanning)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundtoft, H.E.; Nielsen, T.

    1981-07-01

    A rotational scanning system has recently been developed at Risoe National Laboratory. It allows sound fields from ultrasonic transducers to be examined in 3 dimensions. Using different calculation and plotting programs, any section in the sound field can be plotted. Results from examination of transducers for automatic inspection are presented. (author)

  16. Controlling three-dimensional vortices using multiple and moving external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nirmali Prabha; Dutta, Sumana

    2017-08-01

    Spirals or scroll wave activities in cardiac tissues are the cause of lethal arrhythmias. The external control of these waves is thus of prime interest to scientists and physicians. In this article, we demonstrate the spatial control of scroll waves by using external electric fields and thermal gradients in experiments with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We show that a scroll ring can be made to trace cyclic trajectories under a rotating electric field. Application of a thermal gradient in addition to the electric field deflects the motion and changes the nature of the trajectory. Our experimental results are analyzed and corroborated by numerical simulations based on an excitable reaction diffusion model.

  17. A Three-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of the Formation of Solar Chromospheric Jets with Twisted Magnetic Field Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, H. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-0814 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, T., E-mail: h.iijima@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2017-10-10

    This paper presents a three-dimensional simulation of chromospheric jets with twisted magnetic field lines. Detailed treatments of the photospheric radiative transfer and the equations of state allow us to model realistic thermal convection near the solar surface, which excites various MHD waves and produces chromospheric jets in the simulation. A tall chromospheric jet with a maximum height of 10–11 Mm and lifetime of 8–10 minutes is formed above a strong magnetic field concentration. The magnetic field lines are strongly entangled in the chromosphere, which helps the chromospheric jet to be driven by the Lorentz force. The jet exhibits oscillatory motion as a natural consequence of its generation mechanism. We also find that the produced chromospheric jet forms a cluster with a diameter of several Mm with finer strands. These results imply a close relationship between the simulated jet and solar spicules.

  18. Understanding the response of pulsed electric field on osteoblast functions in three-dimensional mesh structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Nune, K C; Misra, Rdk

    2016-10-01

    The endogenous electric field plays a determining role in impacting biological functions including communication with the physiological system, brain, and bone regeneration by influencing cellular functions. From this perspective, the objective of the study described here is to elucidate the effect of external electric field under dynamic conditions, in providing a guiding cue to osteoblasts in terms of cell-cell interactions and synthesis of prominent adhesion and cytoskeleton proteins. This was accomplished using pulsed direct current electric field of strength 0.1-1 V/cm. The electric field provided guided cue to the cells to migrate toward cathode. Membrane blebbing or necrosis was nearly absent in the vicinity of cathode at 0.1 and 0.5 V/cm electric field strength. Moreover, a higher cell proliferation as well as higher expression of vinculin and densely packed actin stress fibers was observed. At anode, the cells though healthy but expression of actin and vinculin was less. We underscore for the first time that the biological functionality can be favorably modulated on 3D printed scaffolds in the presence of electric field and under dynamic conditions with consequent positive effect on cell proliferation, growth, and expression level of prominent proteins. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Geometric Representations of Condition Queries on Three-Dimensional Vector Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Condition queries on distributed data ask where particular conditions are satisfied. It is possible to represent condition queries as geometric objects by plotting field data in various spaces derived from the data, and by selecting loci within these derived spaces which signify the desired conditions. Rather simple geometric partitions of derived spaces can represent complex condition queries because much complexity can be encapsulated in the derived space mapping itself A geometric view of condition queries provides a useful conceptual unification, allowing one to intuitively understand many existing vector field feature detection algorithms -- and to design new ones -- as variations on a common theme. A geometric representation of condition queries also provides a simple and coherent basis for computer implementation, reducing a wide variety of existing and potential vector field feature detection techniques to a few simple geometric operations.

  20. Determination of two- and three-dimensional radiation fields for neutron radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    The thesis deals with the computerized investigations for fast neutron radiotherapy planning, explaining the calculation and modelling of local dose distributions in patients as a result of mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields. For a computed irradiation program (elaborated for instance by the COMRAD program system), dose distribution functions are required for the simulation of multi-field or moving beam irradiations, the functions being derived semi-empirically by non-linear regression. The necessary data on stationary field doses are derived by measurements or by computed simulation with specific transport programs from the nuclear engineering sector. Transport calculations show the effects of inhomogeneities in the patient's body on the dose distribution. The determined, strong inhomogneity effects (lungs, head) have to be taken into account as precisely as possible in order to achieve optimum irradiation planning. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Three-Dimensional View of Transient Horizontal Magnetic Fields in the Photosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ishikawa, R.; Tsuneta, S.; Jurčák, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 713, č. 2 (2010), s. 1310-1321 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : magnetic fields * Sun * photosphere * granulation * surface magnetism Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 7.436, year: 2010

  2. Three-dimensional computation of magnetic fields and Lorentz forces of an LHC dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daum, C.; Avest, D. ter

    1989-07-01

    Magnetic fields and Lorentz forces of an LHC dipole magnet are calculated using the method of image currents to represent the effect of the iron shield. The calculation is performed for coils of finite length using a parametrization for coil heads of constant perimeter. A comparison with calculations based on POISSON and TOSCA is made. (author). 5 refs.; 31 figs.; 6 tabs

  3. Magnetic field effect on a three-dimensional mixed convective flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A uniform magnetic field is assumed to be applied transversely to the direction of the free stream. The expressions for skin friction at the plate in the direction of the main flow and the rate of heat transfer and mass transfer from the plate to the fluid are obtained in non-dimensional form. The amplitudes of the perturbed parts of ...

  4. Robustness of the filamentation instability in arbitrarily oriented magnetic field: Full three dimensional calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A., E-mail: antoineclaude.bret@uclm.es [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    The filamentation (Weibel) instability plays a key role in the formation of collisionless shocks which are thought to produce Gamma-Ray-Bursts and High-Energy-Cosmic-Rays in astrophysical environments. While it has been known for long that a flow-aligned magnetic field can completely quench the instability, it was recently proved in 2D that in the cold regime, such cancelation is possible if and only if the field is perfectly aligned. Here, this result is finally extended to a 3D geometry. Calculations are conducted for symmetric and asymmetric counter-streaming relativistic plasma shells. 2D results are retrieved in 3D: the instability can never be completely canceled for an oblique magnetic field. In addition, the maximum growth-rate is always larger for wave vectors lying in the plan defined by the flow and the oblique field. On the one hand, this bears consequences on the orientation of the generated filaments. On the other hand, it certifies 2D simulations of the problem can be performed without missing the most unstable filamentation modes.

  5. Three-dimensional analytical field calculation of pyramidal-frustum shaped permanent magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.L.G.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to obtain fully analytical expressions of the magnetic field created by a pyramidal-frustum shaped permanent magnet. Conventional analytical tools only provide expressions for cuboidal permanent magnets and this paper extends these tools to more complex shapes. A

  6. Three-dimensional parallel edge-based finite element modeling of electromagnetic data with field redatuming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Čuma, Martin; Zhdanov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a parallelized version of the edge-based finite element method with a novel post-processing approach for numerical modeling of an electromagnetic field in complex media. The method uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh which can reduce the number of degrees of freedom signific......This paper presents a parallelized version of the edge-based finite element method with a novel post-processing approach for numerical modeling of an electromagnetic field in complex media. The method uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh which can reduce the number of degrees of freedom...... significantly. The linear system of finite element equations is solved using parallel direct solvers which are robust for ill-conditioned systems and efficient for multiple source electromagnetic (EM) modeling. We also introduce a novel approach to compute the scalar components of the electric field from...... the tangential components along each edge based on field redatuming. The method can produce a more accurate result as compared to conventional approach. We have applied the developed algorithm to compute the EM response for a typical 3D anisotropic geoelectrical model of the off-shore HC reservoir with complex...

  7. Three-Dimensional Temperature Field Calculation and Analysis of an Axial-Radial Flux-Type Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article concentrates on the steady-state thermal characteristics of the Axial-Radial Flux-Type Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (ARFTPMSM. Firstly, the three-dimensional mathematical models for electromagnetic calculation and analyses are established, and the machine loss, including the stator loss, armature winding loss, rotor loss, and axial structure loss is calculated by using time-step Finite Element Method (FEM. Then, the loss distribution is assigned as the heat source for the thermal calculation. Secondly, the mathematical model for thermal calculation is also established. The assumptions and the boundary conditions are proposed to simplify the calculation and to improve convergence. Thirdly, the three-dimensional electromagnetic and thermal calculations of the machine, of which the armature winding and axial field winding are developed by using copper wires, are solved, from which the temperature distributions of the machine components are obtained. The experiments are carried out on the prototype with copper wires to validate the accuracy of the established models. Then, the temperature distributions of machine components under different Axial Magnetic Motive Force (AMMF are investigated. Since the machine is finally developing by using HTS wires, the temperature distributions of machine developed by utilizing High Temperature Superconducting (HTS wires, are also studied. The temperature distribution differences of the machine developed by using copper wires and HTS wires are drawn. All of these above will provide a helpful reference for the thermal calculation of the ARFTPMSM, as well as the design of the HTS coils and the cryogenic cooling system.

  8. Axial-gauge formulation of a three-dimensional field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Since the non-Abelian version of a recently formulated gauge theory in two spatial dimensions gives rise to a nonlinear constraint upon the fields in the radiation-gauge approach, one is motivated to attempt a description in terms of the axial gauge. This is accomplished in the Abelian version of the model, with results similar to those encountered in the radiation gauge. The non-Abelian case is then formally solved in the same gauge, it being subsequently shown, however, that the theory is not covariant. It is argued on the basis of perturbation theory that such noncovariance is a real effect which is not readily circumvented by modification of the field transformation properties

  9. Theoretical description and numerical calculations of significant three-dimensional magnetic field configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mierau, Anna; Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (DE). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF); Schnizer, Pierre; Fischer, Egbert [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Akishin, Pavel [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    The heavy ion synchrotron SIS100, the core component of the Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research will accelerate high current ion beams of up to U{sup 27+}. For operating such a machine the static and transient magnetic field quality must be fully understood. This is also necessary to keep the beam losses well below acceptable limits and to prepare a sound strategy for high resolution magnetic measurements and data analysis. Challenging preconditions to perform such work are to find a proper description for the non. Cartesian symmetry of the magnets, most important for curved dipoles with elliptical apertures. We describe the parameterisation methods using elliptic and toroidal multipoles and summarise comparing the calculated to the measured field quality.

  10. Numerical calculation of three-dimensional flow field of servo-piston hydraulic control rod driving mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Mingrui; Han Weishi; Wang Ge

    2014-01-01

    Servo-piston hydraulic control rod driving mechanism is a new type built-in driving mechanism which is suitable for integrated reactor and it can be moved continuously. The numerical calculation and analysis of the internal three-dimensional flow field inside the driving mechanism were carried out by the computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT. The result shows that the unique pressure mutation area of flow field inside the driving mechanism is at the place of the servo variable throttle orifice. The differential pressure of the piston can be effectively controlled by changing the gap of variable throttle orifice. When the gap changes within 0.5 mm, the differential pressure can be greatly changed, and then the driving mechanism motion state would be changed too. When the working pressure is 0.1 MPa, the hoisting capacity of the driving mechanism can meet the design requirements, and the flow rate is small. (authors)

  11. Magnetic field generation by pointwise zero-helicity three-dimensional steady flow of an incompressible electrically conducting fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasskazov, Andrey; Chertovskih, Roman; Zheligovsky, Vladislav

    2018-04-01

    We introduce six families of three-dimensional space-periodic steady solenoidal flows, whose kinetic helicity density is zero at any point. Four families are analytically defined. Flows in four families have zero helicity spectrum. Sample flows from five families are used to demonstrate numerically that neither zero kinetic helicity density nor zero helicity spectrum prohibit generation of large-scale magnetic field by the two most prominent dynamo mechanisms: the magnetic α -effect and negative eddy diffusivity. Our computations also attest that such flows often generate small-scale field for sufficiently small magnetic molecular diffusivity. These findings indicate that kinetic helicity and helicity spectrum are not the quantities controlling the dynamo properties of a flow regardless of whether scale separation is present or not.

  12. Experimental Investigation on Low-velocity Impact and Compression After Impact Properties of Three-dimensional Five-directional Braided Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The low-velocity impact and compression after impact (CAI properties of three-dimensional (3D five-directional carbon fiber/epoxy resin braided composites were experimentally investigated. Specimens prepared with different braiding angles were tested at the same impact energy level. Residual post-impact mechanical properties of the different configurations were characterized by compression after impact tests. Results show that the specimens with bigger braiding angle sustain higher peak loads, and smaller impact damage area, mainly attributes to a more compact space construction. The CAI strength and damage mechanism are found to be mainly dependent on the axial support of the braiding fiber tows. With the increase of braiding angle, the CAI strength decreases, and the damage mode of the composites is changed from transverse fracture to shear failure.

  13. Performance simulation of a three-dimensional nanoscale field-effect diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatabi, Iman Rezanejad; Raissi, Farshid

    2011-01-01

    The modified field effect diode (FED) can provide orders of magnitude larger ratio compared to regular MOSFETs at sub-100 nm channel lengths. However, fabrication of the modified FED requires implantation of very thin and highly doped n- and p-type regions on top of each other, which is a major practical problem to overcome. An improved sub-100 nm channel length 3D configuration of the FED is proposed and simulated using Silvaco TCAD software. Fabrication of this configuration is compatible with a regular CMOS process while providing a larger I ON /I OFF ratio. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of this structure is obtained and compared with that of a semiconductor-on-insulator MOSFET (SOI-MOSFET) with the same dimensions numerically. Simulation results indicate that the I ON /I OFF ratio of the 3D FED is five orders of magnitude larger than that of the comparable SOI-MOSFET

  14. A simple highly accurate field-line mapping technique for three-dimensional Monte Carlo modeling of plasma edge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y.; Sardei, F.; Kisslinger, J.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new simple and accurate numerical field-line mapping technique providing a high-quality representation of field lines as required by a Monte Carlo modeling of plasma edge transport in the complex magnetic boundaries of three-dimensional (3D) toroidal fusion devices. Using a toroidal sequence of precomputed 3D finite flux-tube meshes, the method advances field lines through a simple bilinear, forward/backward symmetric interpolation at the interfaces between two adjacent flux tubes. It is a reversible field-line mapping (RFLM) algorithm ensuring a continuous and unique reconstruction of field lines at any point of the 3D boundary. The reversibility property has a strong impact on the efficiency of modeling the highly anisotropic plasma edge transport in general closed or open configurations of arbitrary ergodicity as it avoids artificial cross-field diffusion of the fast parallel transport. For stellarator-symmetric magnetic configurations, which are the standard case for stellarators, the reversibility additionally provides an average cancellation of the radial interpolation errors of field lines circulating around closed magnetic flux surfaces. The RFLM technique has been implemented in the 3D edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE and is used routinely for plasma transport modeling in the boundaries of several low-shear and high-shear stellarators as well as in the boundary of a tokamak with 3D magnetic edge perturbations

  15. Three-dimensional imaging of absolute blood flow velocity and blood vessel position under low blood flow velocity based on Doppler signal information included in scattered light from red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoden, Tomoaki; Akiguchi, Shunsuke; Tajiri, Tomoki; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Hachiga, Tadashi

    2017-11-01

    The development of a system for in vivo visualization of occluded distal blood vessels for diabetic patients is the main target of our research. We herein describe two-beam multipoint laser Doppler velocimetry (MLDV), which measures the instantaneous multipoint flow velocity and can be used to observe the blood flow velocity in peripheral blood vessels. By including a motorized stage to shift the measurement points horizontally and in the depth direction while measuring the velocity, the path of the blood vessel in the skin could be observed using blood flow velocity in three-dimensional space. The relationship of the signal power density between the blood vessel and the surrounding tissues was shown and helped us identify the position of the blood vessel. Two-beam MLDV can be used to simultaneously determine the absolute blood flow velocity distribution and identify the blood vessel position in skin.

  16. Monte Carlo study of the three-dimensional spatially anisotropic Ising superantiferromagnet in the presence of a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Octavio D.R., E-mail: octaviors@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Neto, Minos A., E-mail: minosneto@pq.cnpq.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Viana, J. Roberto, E-mail: vianafisica@bol.com.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Padilha, Igor T., E-mail: igorfis@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Sousa, J. Ricardo de, E-mail: jsousa@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    The phase transition of the three-dimensional spatially anisotropic Ising antiferromagnetic model in the presence of an uniform longitudinal magnetic field H is studied by using the traditional Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for sizes L=16, 32 and 64. The model consists of ferromagnetic interactions J{sub z}=λ{sub 2}J{sub x} in the x(z) direction and antiferromagnetic interactions J{sub y}=λ{sub 1}J{sub x} in the y direction (Ising superantiferromagnetic). For the particular case λ{sub 1}=λ{sub 2}=1 we obtain the phase diagram in the T–H plane. Was observed first- and second-order transitions in the low and high temperature limits, respectively, with the presence of a tricritical point.

  17. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modelling of Flow and Sediment Transport for Field Scale Application of Stream Barbs at Sawmill Creek, Ottawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, E. C.; Rennie, C. D.; Townsend, R. D.

    2009-05-01

    towards the centre of the channel, away from the outside bank. Sawmill Creek has the added complexity of having predominately clay bed and banks. The erosional behaviour of cohesive sediments such as clay is difficult to model correctly, due to the complex site-specific physio- chemical properties of clay particles. Following the construction of the proposed barbs at our field test site this summer (2009), and data collection the following spring and summer, we hope to advance the current knowledge of cohesive sediment transport processes in a complicated three-dimensional turbulent flow field. For the present modelling effort, erodibility of the consolidated clay bed and bank material was estimated based on establishing an entrainment threshold at near-bankfull conditions. The focus of this research is on (i) the unique site conditions and environmental protection requirements, (ii) design methodology, and (iii) results of the numerical simulation. The three-dimensional numerical model was capable of reproducing the expected distribution of secondary flow in a channel bend, the unique three- dimensional flow field resulting from a series of submerged structures and the associated patterns of soil erosion and deposition. The numerical modelling also demonstrated to be a useful tool for optimizing barb design for stream bank protection at the proposed field test site. Modelling results confirmed that in the vicinity of the barbs, the addition of the proposed barb layout achieved substantial reduction in erosion (up to 98 %), bed shear stress (up to 59 %) and streamwise velocity (up to 51 %).

  18. A model to generate beam profiles of the Varian Clinac 4 for three-dimensional dose calculation: open fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.S.; Lam, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    For the Clinac 4, open field profiles measured in the principal plane have higher intensity ''horns'' than those in off-axis planes. The maximum deviation occurs at 1-cm depth, where in the worst case of large field sizes and off-axis distances the deviation can be as high as 16% in the region near the horns. A model is proposed to generate open field beam profiles in off-axis planes, based on measured profiles in the transverse principal plane and in the largest field size diagonal plane of the machine. Within the central 90% portion of the field, the maximum deviation of the generated profiles from the measured ones at the same off-axis distance varies from about 3% at 1-cm depth to about 2% at 13-cm depth and then increases to less than 5% at 25-cm depth, even for very large field sizes and off-axis distances. Very little additional computer time and data storage are required for this procedure. Using these profiles, the Milan and Bentley method can be extended to three-dimensional treatment planning with good accuracy

  19. Three-dimensional equilibria for the extended magnetotail and the generation of field-aligned current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.

    1989-01-01

    Using the magnetotail equilibrium theory and a solution method outlined by Birn (1987), we have constructed self-consistent three-dimensional models for the quiet average magnetotail beyond about 20 R/sub E/ distance but earthward of a potential distant neutral line, which take into account the decrease of the tail flaring with distance. We find that this effect is coupled with the presence of magnetic shear and thus with field-aligned electric currents. These currents have the signature of region 1 currents, toward the Earth on the dawnside and away on the duskside, and contribute about 5 x 10 5 A to the total Birkeland current. They are strongly concentrated near the plasma sheet-lobe boundary and increase toward the flanks of the tail. Associated with the field-aligned currents and the corresponding magnetic field shear there is a bulging effect that tends to deform a circular cross section of the tail near the Earth into one that has bulges in the low-latitude boundary region. We argue that this effect may be the cause for increased interaction with the solar wind in these regions, producing interconnected fields and tailward flowing plasma on magnetospheric-like fields in the low-latitude boundary layer, and deforming this boundary region into the observed dog bone shape of the plasma sheet cross section. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  20. Laser-Assisted Field Evaporation and Three-Dimensional Atom-by-Atom Mapping of Diamond Isotopic Homojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Samik; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N; Moutanabbir, Oussama

    2016-02-10

    It addition to its high evaporation field, diamond is also known for its limited photoabsorption, strong covalent bonding, and wide bandgap. These characteristics have been thought for long to also complicate the field evaporation of diamond and make its control hardly achievable on the atomistic-level. Herein, we demonstrate that the unique behavior of nanoscale diamond and its interaction with pulsed laser lead to a controlled field evaporation thus enabling three-dimensional atom-by-atom mapping of diamond (12)C/(13)C homojunctions. We also show that one key element in this process is to operate the pulsed laser at high energy without letting the dc bias increase out of bounds for diamond nanotip to withstand. Herein, the role of the dc bias in evaporation of diamond is essentially to generate free charge carriers within the nanotip via impact ionization. The mobile free charges screen the internal electric field, eventually creating a hole rich surface where the pulsed laser is effectively absorbed leading to an increase in the nanotip surface temperature. The effect of this temperature on the uncertainty in the time-of-flight of an ion, the diffusion of atoms on the surface of the nanotip, is also discussed. In addition to paving the way toward a precise manipulation of isotopes in diamond-based nanoscale and quantum structures, this result also elucidates some of the basic properties of dielectric nanostructures under high electric field.

  1. Three-dimensional model of plate geometry and velocity model for Nankai Trough seismogenic zone based on results from structural studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Shimomura, N.; Kodaira, S.; Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneda, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. In order to reduce a great deal of damage to coastal area from both strong ground motion and tsunami generation, it is necessary to understand rupture synchronization and segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake. For a precise estimate of the rupture zone of the Nankai megathrust event based on the knowledge of realistic earthquake cycle and variation of magnitude, it is important to know the geometry and property of the plate boundary of the subduction seismogenic zone. To improve a physical model of the Nankai Trough seismogenic zone, the large-scale high-resolution wide-angle and reflection (MCS) seismic study, and long-term observation has been conducted since 2008. Marine active source seismic data have been acquired along grid two-dimensional profiles having the total length of ~800km every year. A three-dimensional seismic tomography using active and passive seismic data observed both land and ocean bottom stations have been also performed. From those data, we found that several strong lateral variations of the subducting Philippine Sea plate and overriding plate corresponding to margins of coseismic rupture zone of historical large event occurred along the Nankai Trough. Particularly a possible prominent reflector for the forearc Moho is recently imaged in the offshore side in the Kii channel at the depth of ~18km which is shallower than those of other area along the Nankai Trough. Such a drastic variation of the overriding plate might be related to the existence of the segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake. Based on our results derived from seismic studies, we have tried to make a geometrical model of the Philippine Sea plate and a three-dimensional velocity structure model of the Nankai Trough seismogenic zone. In this presentation, we will summarize major results of out seismic studies, and

  2. Three Dimensional Flow Field Study of the Improve Scheme for a Brushless Exciter with Rotating Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Yi-ping

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To study deeply the influence of the frame ring plate increased between rectifier wheel and rotor on the size of eddy current of fluid field of brushless exciter,the fluid field of complete brushless exciter model is established. Based on the computational fluid dynamics ( CFD principles ,the finite volume method is adopted to simulate and analyze the three dimensional turbulent flow field in the computational domain. The distribution character of the fluid field for the brushless exciter is obtained under rated speed,after increasing the frame ring plate between rectifier wheel and rotor. The results show increased the frame ring plate between rectifier wheel and rotor can decrease effectively the size of eddy current in the air region between rectifier wheel and rotor. Compared with the result of running scheme,the air volume flow rate of the scheme has increased 13. 89% and the result is accuracy. It provides theoretical basis for further optimizing the air ducts structure of the brushless exciter .

  3. Three-dimensional flow and turbulence structure in electrostatic precipitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Thorvald Uhrskov; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Özcan, Oktay

    2002-01-01

    Stereo PIV is employed to study the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a laboratory model of a negative corona, barbed-wire, smooth-plate, electrostatic precipitator (figure 1). The study is focused on determining the parametric effects of axial development, mean current density Jm...... and bulk velocity U0 on secondary flows and turbulence levels and structures due to the action of the three-dimensional electrostatic field on the charged gas. At constant bulk velocity (U0 = 1 m/s) and current density (Jm = 0.4 mA/m2), secondary flows in the form of rolls of axial vorticity with swirl...

  4. Three-dimensional models of P wave velocity and P-to-S velocity ratio in the southern central Andes by simultaneous inversion of local earthquake data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeber, Frank M.; Asch, Günter

    1999-09-01

    The PISCO'94 (Proyecto de Investigatión Sismológica de la Cordillera Occidental, 1994) seismological network of 31 digital broad band and short-period three-component seismometers was deployed in northern Chile between the Coastal Cordillera and the Western Cordillera. More than 5300 local seismic events were observed in a 100 day period. A subset of high-quality P and S arrival time data was used to invert simultaneously for hypocenters and velocity structure. Additional data from two other networks in the region could be included. The velocity models show a number of prominent anomalies, outlining an extremely thickened crust (about 70 km) beneath the forearc region, an anomalous crustal structure beneath the recent magmatic arc (Western Cordillera) characterized by very low velocities, and a high-velocity slab. A region of an increased Vp/Vs ratio has been found directly above the Wadati-Benioff zone, which might be caused by hydration processes. A zone of lower than average velocities and a high Vp/Vs ratio might correspond to the asthenospheric wedge. The upper edge of the Wadati-Benioff zone is sharply defined by intermediate depth hypocenters, while evidence for a double seismic zone can hardly be seen. Crustal events between the Precordillera and the Western Cordillera have been observed for the first time and are mainly located in the vicinity of the Salar de Atacama down to depths of about 40 km.

  5. Band structure of a three-dimensional topological insulator quantum wire in the presence of a magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong

    2016-07-13

    By means of a numerical diagonalization approach, we calculate the electronic structure of a three-dimensional topological insulator (3DTI) quantum wire (QW) in the presence of a magnetic field. The QW can be viewed as a 3DTI film with lateral surfaces, when its rectangular cross section has a large aspect ratio. Our calculation indicates that nonchiral edge states emerge because of the confined states at the lateral surfaces. These states completely cover the valence band region among the Landau levels, which reasonably account for the absence of the [Formula: see text] quantum Hall effect in the relevant experimental works. In an ultrathin 3DTI film, inversion between the electron-type and hole-type bands occurs, which leads to the so-called pseudo-spin Hall effect. In a 3DTI QW with a square cross section, a tilting magnetic field can establish well-defined Landau levels in all four surfaces. In such a case, the quantum Hall edge states are localized at the square corners, characterized by the linearly crossing one-dimensional band profile. And they can be shifted between the adjacent corners by simply rotating the magnetic field.

  6. Specimen aspect ratio and progressive field strain development of sandstone under uniaxial compression by three-dimensional digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Munoz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The complete stress–strain characteristics of sandstone specimens were investigated in a series of quasi-static monotonic uniaxial compression tests. Strain patterns development during pre- and post-peak behaviours in specimens with different aspect ratios was also examined. Peak stress, post-peak portion of stress–strain, brittleness, characteristics of progressive localisation and field strain patterns development were affected at different extents by specimen aspect ratio. Strain patterns of the rocks were obtained by applying three-dimensional (3D digital image correlation (DIC technique. Unlike conventional strain measurement using strain gauges attached to specimen, 3D DIC allowed not only measuring large strains, but more importantly, mapping the development of field strain throughout the compression test, i.e. in pre- and post-peak regimes. Field strain development in the surface of rock specimen suggests that strain starts localising progressively and develops at a lower rate in pre-peak regime. However, in post-peak regime, strains increase at different rates as local deformations take place at different extents in the vicinity and outside the localised zone. The extent of localised strains together with the rate of strain localisation is associated with the increase in rate of strength degradation. Strain localisation and local inelastic unloading outside the localised zone both feature post-peak regime.

  7. Three-dimensional temperature fields of the North Patagonian Sea recorded by Magellanic penguins as biological sampling platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Juan E.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Quintana, Flavio

    2017-04-01

    Temperature is a primary determinant of biogeographic patterns and ecosystem processes. Standard techniques to study the ocean temperature in situ are, however, particularly limited by their time and spatial coverage, problems which might be partially mitigated by using marine top predators as biological platforms for oceanographic sampling. We used small archival tags deployed on 33 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), and obtained 21,070 geo-localized profiles of water temperature, during late spring of 2008, 2011, 2012 and 2013; in a region of the North Patagonian Sea with limited oceanographic records in situ. We compared our in situ data of sea surface temperature (SST) with those available from satellite remote sensing; to describe the three-dimensional temperature fields around the area of influence of two important tidal frontal systems; and to study the inter-annual variation in the three-dimensional temperature fields. There was a strong positive relationship between satellite- and animal-derived SST data although there was an overestimation by remote-sensing by a maximum difference of +2 °C. Little inter-annual variability in the 3-dimensional temperature fields was found, with the exception of 2012 (and to a lesser extent in 2013) where the SST was significantly higher. In 2013, we found weak stratification in a region which was unexpected. In addition, during the same year, a warm small-scale vortex is indicated by the animal-derived temperature data. This allowed us to describe and better understand the dynamics of the water masses, which, so far, have been mainly studied by remote sensors and numerical models. Our results highlight again the potential of using marine top predators as biological platforms to collect oceanographic data, which will enhance and accelerate studies on the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. In a changing world, threatened by climate change, it is urgent to fill information gaps on the coupled ocean-atmosphere system

  8. Formation of a three-dimensional plasma boundary after decay of the plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, O.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lasnier, C. L.; Mordijck, S.; Moyer, R. A.; Reimerdes, H.; the DIII-D Team

    2014-01-01

    First time experimental evidence is presented for a direct link between the decay of a n = 3 plasma response and the formation of a three-dimensional (3D) plasma boundary. We inspect a lower single-null L-mode plasma which first reacts at sufficiently high rotation with an ideal resonant screening response to an external toroidal mode number n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbation field. Decay of this response due to reduced bulk plasma rotation changes the plasma state considerably. Signatures such as density pump out and a spin up of the edge rotation—which are usually connected to formation of a stochastic boundary—are detected. Coincident, striation of the divertor single ionized carbon emission and a 3D emission structure in double ionized carbon at the separatrix is seen. The striated C II pattern follows in this stage the perturbed magnetic footprint modelled without a plasma response (vacuum approach). This provides for the first time substantial experimental evidence, that a 3D plasma boundary with direct impact on the divertor particle flux pattern is formed as soon as the internal plasma response decays. The resulting divertor structure follows the vacuum modelled magnetic field topology. However, the inward extension of the perturbed boundary layer can still not directly be determined from these measurements.

  9. An objective algorithm for reconstructing the three-dimensional ocean temperature field based on Argo profiles and SST data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaojie; Ding, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Jungang; Ma, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    While global oceanic surface information with large-scale, real-time, high-resolution data is collected by satellite remote sensing instrumentation, three-dimensional (3D) observations are usually obtained from in situ measurements, but with minimal coverage and spatial resolution. To meet the needs of 3D ocean investigations, we have developed a new algorithm to reconstruct the 3D ocean temperature field based on the Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) profiles and sea surface temperature (SST) data. The Argo temperature profiles are first optimally fitted to generate a series of temperature functions of depth, with the vertical temperature structure represented continuously. By calculating the derivatives of the fitted functions, the calculation of the vertical temperature gradient of the Argo profiles at an arbitrary depth is accomplished. A gridded 3D temperature gradient field is then found by applying inverse distance weighting interpolation in the horizontal direction. Combined with the processed SST, the 3D temperature field reconstruction is realized below the surface using the gridded temperature gradient. Finally, to confirm the effectiveness of the algorithm, an experiment in the Pacific Ocean south of Japan is conducted, for which a 3D temperature field is generated. Compared with other similar gridded products, the reconstructed 3D temperature field derived by the proposed algorithm achieves satisfactory accuracy, with correlation coefficients of 0.99 obtained, including a higher spatial resolution (0.25° × 0.25°), resulting in the capture of smaller-scale characteristics. Finally, both the accuracy and the superiority of the algorithm are validated.

  10. Active feedback wide-field optical low-coherence interferometry for ultrahigh-speed three-dimensional morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo June; Choi, Hae Young; Lee, Byeong Ha; Na, Jihoon; Eom, Jonghyun

    2010-01-01

    A novel optical interferometric scheme for ultrahigh-speed three-dimensional morphometry is proposed. The system is based on wide-field optical coherence tomography (WF-OCT) but with optically chopped illumination. The chopping frequency is feedback-controlled to be always matched with the Doppler frequency of the OCT interferometer, which provides an efficient page-wide demodulation suitable for ultrahigh-speed volumetric imaging. To compensate the unwanted variation in the OCT Doppler frequency of the system, the illumination frequency is phase-locked with an auxiliary laser interferometer which shares the reference arm with the OCT interferometer. The two-dimensional (2D) interference signals projected on the 2D array pixels of a 200 Hz CCD are accumulated during one imaging frame of the CCD. Then, each pixel of the CCD demodulates the OCT signal automatically. Owing to the proposed active frequency-locked illumination scheme, the demodulation does not depend on the variation in the axial scanning speed. Volumetric topograms or/and tomograms of several samples were achieved and rendered with a sensitivity of 58 dB at an axial scan speed of 0.805 mm s −1

  11. Near-Field Three-Dimensional Planar Millimeter-Wave Holographic Imaging by Using Frequency Scaling Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fast three-dimensional (3-D frequency scaling algorithm (FSA with large depth of focus is presented for near-field planar millimeter-wave (MMW holographic imaging. Considering the cross-range range coupling term which is neglected in the conventional range migration algorithm (RMA, we propose an algorithm performing the range cell migration correction for de-chirped signals without interpolation by using a 3-D frequency scaling operation. First, to deal with the cross-range range coupling term, a 3-D frequency scaling operator is derived to eliminate the space variation of range cell migration. Then, a range migration correction factor is performed to compensate for the residual range cell migration. Finally, the imaging results are obtained by matched filtering in the cross-range direction. Compared with the conventional RMA, the proposed algorithm is comparable in accuracy but more efficient by using only chirp multiplications and fast Fourier transforms (FFTs. The algorithm has been tested with satisfying results by both simulation and experiment.

  12. Efficient implementation of three-dimensional reference interaction site model self-consistent-field method: application to solvatochromic shift calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minezawa, Noriyuki; Kato, Shigeki

    2007-02-07

    The authors present an implementation of the three-dimensional reference interaction site model self-consistent-field (3D-RISM-SCF) method. First, they introduce a robust and efficient algorithm for solving the 3D-RISM equation. The algorithm is a hybrid of the Newton-Raphson and Picard methods. The Jacobian matrix is analytically expressed in a computationally useful form. Second, they discuss the solute-solvent electrostatic interaction. For the solute to solvent route, the electrostatic potential (ESP) map on a 3D grid is constructed directly from the electron density. The charge fitting procedure is not required to determine the ESP. For the solvent to solute route, the ESP acting on the solute molecule is derived from the solvent charge distribution obtained by solving the 3D-RISM equation. Matrix elements of the solute-solvent interaction are evaluated by the direct numerical integration. A remarkable reduction in the computational time is observed in both routes. Finally, the authors implement the first derivatives of the free energy with respect to the solute nuclear coordinates. They apply the present method to "solute" water and formaldehyde in aqueous solvent using the simple point charge model, and the results are compared with those from other methods: the six-dimensional molecular Ornstein-Zernike SCF, the one-dimensional site-site RISM-SCF, and the polarizable continuum model. The authors also calculate the solvatochromic shifts of acetone, benzonitrile, and nitrobenzene using the present method and compare them with the experimental and other theoretical results.

  13. Development of a three-dimensional PIV measurement technique for the experimental study of air bubble collapse phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.H.; Hassan, Y.A.; Schmidl, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative flow measurement technique. The objective of this study is to develop a new three-dimensional PIV technique for the experimental study of air bubble collapse phenomena. A three-dimensional measurement technique is necessary since bubble collapse is a three-dimensional phenomenon. The investigation of the velocity flow field around a collapsing air bubble can provide detailed three-dimensional quantitative information to help improve the understanding of the related heat transfer processes

  14. Three-dimensional earthward fast flow in the near-Earth plasma sheet in a sheared field: comparisons between simulations and observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kondoh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional configuration of earthward fast flow in the near-Earth plasma sheet is studied using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD simulations on the basis of the spontaneous fast reconnection model. In this study, the sheared magnetic field in the plasma sheet is newly considered in order to investigate the effects of it to the earthward fast flow, and the results are discussed in comparison with no-shear simulations. The virtual probes located at different positions in our simulation domain in shear/no-shear cases could explain different behavior of fast flows in the real observations.

  15. Computation of Trajectories and Displacement Fields in a Three-Dimensional Ternary Diffusion Couple: Parabolic Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Danielewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of Kirkendall’s trajectories in finite, three- and one-dimensional ternary diffusion couples is studied. By means of the parabolic transformation method, we calculate the solute field, the Kirkendall marker velocity, and displacement fields. The velocity field is generally continuous and can be integrated to obtain a displacement field that is continuous everywhere. Special features observed experimentally and reported in the literature are also studied: (i multiple Kirkendall’s planes where markers placed on an initial compositional discontinuity of the diffusion couple evolve into two locations as a result of the initial distribution, (ii multiple Kirkendall’s planes where markers placed on an initial compositional discontinuity of the diffusion couple move into two locations due to composition dependent mobilities, and (iii a Kirkendall plane that coincides with the interphase interface. The details of the deformation (material trajectories in these special situations are given using both methods and are discussed in terms of the stress-free strain rate associated with the Kirkendall effect. Our nonlinear transform generalizes the diagonalization method by Krishtal, Mokrov, Akimov, and Zakharov, whose transform of diffusivities was linear.

  16. Analysis of the efficacy and safety of conventional radiotherapy of chest wall and clavicular field and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in patients after modified radical mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Lin Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of conventional radiotherapy of chest wall and clavicular field and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in patients after modified radical mastectomy. Methods: A total of 84 patients who were admitted in our hospital after modified radical mastectomy were included in the study and divided into the conventional radiotherapy group (n=42 and the three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy group (n=42 according to different radiotherapy methods. The patients in the conventional radiotherapy group were given conventional radiotherapy of chest wall and clavicular field, while the patients in the three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy group were given three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. The serum tumor markers and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets 6-8 weeks after treatment in the two groups were detected. The clinical efficacy, and toxic and side effects in the two groups were evaluated. Results: The serum CA15-3, CA125, CEA, and CK19 levels after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment, CD3 +,CD4 +, and CD4 +/CD8 + were significantly elevated, while CD8 + was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment, but the comparison of the above indicators between the two groups was not statistically significant. The occurrence rate of radioactive skin damage and pneumonia after treatment in the conventional radiotherapy group was significantly higher than that in the three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy group. Conclusions: The two kinds of radiotherapy schemes have an equal efficacy, but the toxic and side effects of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy are significantly lower than those by the conventional radiotherapy, with a certain advantage.

  17. Three dimensional transport model for toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhauer, C.

    1980-12-01

    A nonlinear MHD model, developed for three-dimensional toroidal geometries (asymmetric) and for high β (β approximately epsilon), is used as a basis for a three-dimensional transport model. Since inertia terms are needed in describing evolving magnetic islands, the model can calculate transport, both in the transient phase before nonlinear saturation of magnetic islands and afterwards on the resistive time scale. In the β approximately epsilon ordering, the plasma does not have sufficient energy to compress the parallel magnetic field, which allows the Alfven wave to be eliminated in the reduced nonlinear equations, and the model then follows the slower time scales. The resulting perpendicular and parallel plasma drift velocities can be identified with those of guiding center theory

  18. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  19. An extended approach for computing the critical properties in the two-and three-dimensional lattices within the effective-field renormalization group method

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Douglas F.; Santos-Silva, Edimilson; Moreno, N. O.

    2009-10-01

    In this letter we employing the effective-field renormalization group (EFRG) to study the Ising model with nearest neighbors to obtain the reduced critical temperature and exponents ν for bi- and three-dimensional lattices by increasing cluster scheme by extending recent works. The technique follows up the same strategy of the mean field renormalization group (MFRG) by introducing an alternative way for constructing classical effective-field equations of state takes on rigorous Ising spin identities.

  20. An extended approach for computing the critical properties in the two-and three-dimensional lattices within the effective-field renormalization group method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Douglas F. de [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000 Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)], E-mail: douglas@ufs.br; Santos-Silva, Edimilson [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000 Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Moreno, N.O. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000 Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    In this letter we employing the effective-field renormalization group (EFRG) to study the Ising model with nearest neighbors to obtain the reduced critical temperature and exponents {nu} for bi- and three-dimensional lattices by increasing cluster scheme by extending recent works. The technique follows up the same strategy of the mean field renormalization group (MFRG) by introducing an alternative way for constructing classical effective-field equations of state takes on rigorous Ising spin identities.

  1. An extended approach for computing the critical properties in the two-and three-dimensional lattices within the effective-field renormalization group method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Douglas F. de; Santos-Silva, Edimilson; Moreno, N.O.

    2009-01-01

    In this letter we employing the effective-field renormalization group (EFRG) to study the Ising model with nearest neighbors to obtain the reduced critical temperature and exponents ν for bi- and three-dimensional lattices by increasing cluster scheme by extending recent works. The technique follows up the same strategy of the mean field renormalization group (MFRG) by introducing an alternative way for constructing classical effective-field equations of state takes on rigorous Ising spin identities.

  2. A new procedure for investigating three-dimensional stress fields in a thin plate with a through-the-thickness crack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dake; Wang, TzuChiang

    2018-06-01

    In the paper, a new procedure is proposed to investigate three-dimensional fracture problems of a thin elastic plate with a long through-the-thickness crack under remote uniform tensile loading. The new procedure includes a new analytical method and high accurate finite element simulations. In the part of theoretical analysis, three-dimensional Maxwell stress functions are employed in order to derive three-dimensional crack tip fields. Based on the theoretical analysis, an equation which can describe the relationship among the three-dimensional J-integral J( z), the stress intensity factor K( z) and the tri-axial stress constraint level T z ( z) is derived first. In the part of finite element simulations, a fine mesh including 153360 elements is constructed to compute the stress field near the crack front, J( z) and T z ( z). Numerical results show that in the plane very close to the free surface, the K field solution is still valid for in-plane stresses. Comparison with the numerical results shows that the analytical results are valid.

  3. A contrastive study on the influences of radial and three-dimensional satellite gravity gradiometry on the accuracy of the Earth's gravitational field recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Hsu Hou-Tse; Zhong Min; Yun Mei-Juan

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of the Earth's gravitational field measured from the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE), up to 250 degrees, influenced by the radial gravity gradient V zz and three-dimensional gravity gradient V ij from the satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG) are contrastively demonstrated based on the analytical error model and numerical simulation, respectively. Firstly, the new analytical error model of the cumulative geoid height, influenced by the radial gravity gradient V zz and three-dimensional gravity gradient V ij are established, respectively. In 250 degrees, the GOCE cumulative geoid height error measured by the radial gravity gradient V zz is about 2 ½ times higher than that measured by the three-dimensional gravity gradient V ij . Secondly, the Earth's gravitational field from GOCE completely up to 250 degrees is recovered using the radial gravity gradient V zz and three-dimensional gravity gradient V ij by numerical simulation, respectively. The study results show that when the measurement error of the gravity gradient is 3 × 10 −12 /s 2 , the cumulative geoid height errors using the radial gravity gradient V zz and three-dimensional gravity gradient V ij are 12.319 cm and 9.295 cm at 250 degrees, respectively. The accuracy of the cumulative geoid height using the three-dimensional gravity gradient V ij is improved by 30%–40% on average compared with that using the radial gravity gradient V zz in 250 degrees. Finally, by mutual verification of the analytical error model and numerical simulation, the orders of magnitude from the accuracies of the Earth's gravitational field recovery make no substantial differences based on the radial and three-dimensional gravity gradients, respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to develop in advance a radial cold-atom interferometric gradiometer with a measurement accuracy of 10 −13 /s 2 −10 −15 /s 2 for precisely producing the next-generation GOCE Follow-On Earth gravity field

  4. Do three-dimensional reconstructions add to the diagnostic value of computed tomography in the field of traumatology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billet, F.P.J.; Schmitt, W.G.H.; Hofmann, M.; Huber, M.; Gay, B.

    1990-01-01

    Very little time was needed for three-dimensional techniques to show that they are of great importance to the accurracy and, above all, interpretation of CT-based diagnostic findings in the skeleton. This method is not associated with any increased risks from radiation and if there is no absolute requirement for a 'second plane' to be displayed, as for instance in fractures of the calcaneus, radiation exposure can be reduced even further. Particular mention should here also be made of the sternoclavicular joint, coracoid process and intervertebral foramina, even more so as we feel that the diagnostic advantages offered by three-dimensional techniques in traumatology have so far not been described in sufficient detail. (orig./GDG) [de

  5. Dynamo generation of magnetic fields in three-dimensional space: Solar cycle main flux tube formation and reversals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamo processes as a magnetic field generation mechanism in astrophysics can be described essentially by movement and deformation of magnetic field lines due to plasma fluid motions. A basic element of the processes is a kinematic problem. As an important prototype of these processes, we investigate the case of the solar magnetic cycle. To follow the movement and deformation, we solve magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations by a numerical method with a prescribed velocity field. A simple combination of differential rotation and global convection, given by a linear analysis of fluid dynamics in a rotating sphere, can perpetually create and reverse great magnetic flux tubes encircling the Sun. We call them the main flux tubes of the solar cycle. They are progenitors of small-scale flux ropes of the solar activity. This shows that magnetic field generation by fluid motions is, in fact, possible and that MHD equations have a new type of oscillatory solution. The solar cycle can be identified with one of such oscillatory solutions. This means that we can follow detailed stages of the field generation and reversal processes of the dynamo by continuously observing the Sun. It is proposed that the magnetic flux tube formation by streaming plasma flows exemplified here could be a universal mechanism of flux tube formation in astrophysics

  6. Three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiklauri, D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies (e.g., Malara et al., Astrophys. J. 533, 523 (2000)) considered small-amplitude Alfven wave (AW) packets in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) magnetic field using WKB approximation. They draw a distinction between 2D AW dissipation via phase mixing and 3D AW dissipation via exponentially divergent magnetic field lines. In the former case, AW dissipation time scales as S 1∕3 and in the latter as log(S), where S is the Lundquist number. In this work, linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in ABC magnetic field via direct 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation is studied for the first time. A Gaussian AW pulse with length-scale much shorter than ABC domain length and a harmonic AW with wavelength equal to ABC domain length are studied for four different resistivities. While it is found that AWs dissipate quickly in the ABC field, contrary to an expectation, it is found the AW perturbation energy increases in time. In the case of the harmonic AW, the perturbation energy growth is transient in time, attaining peaks in both velocity and magnetic perturbation energies within timescales much smaller than the resistive time. In the case of the Gaussian AW pulse, the velocity perturbation energy growth is still transient in time, attaining a peak within few resistive times, while magnetic perturbation energy continues to grow. It is also shown that the total magnetic energy decreases in time and this is governed by the resistive evolution of the background ABC magnetic field rather than AW damping. On contrary, when the background magnetic field is uniform, the total magnetic energy decrease is prescribed by AW damping, because there is no resistive evolution of the background. By considering runs with different amplitudes and by analysing the perturbation spectra, possible dynamo action by AW perturbation-induced peristaltic flow and inverse cascade of magnetic energy have been excluded. Therefore, the perturbation energy growth is attributed to

  7. Three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiklauri, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    Previous studies (e.g., Malara et al., Astrophys. J. 533, 523 (2000)) considered small-amplitude Alfven wave (AW) packets in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) magnetic field using WKB approximation. They draw a distinction between 2D AW dissipation via phase mixing and 3D AW dissipation via exponentially divergent magnetic field lines. In the former case, AW dissipation time scales as S{sup 1∕3} and in the latter as log(S), where S is the Lundquist number. In this work, linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in ABC magnetic field via direct 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation is studied for the first time. A Gaussian AW pulse with length-scale much shorter than ABC domain length and a harmonic AW with wavelength equal to ABC domain length are studied for four different resistivities. While it is found that AWs dissipate quickly in the ABC field, contrary to an expectation, it is found the AW perturbation energy increases in time. In the case of the harmonic AW, the perturbation energy growth is transient in time, attaining peaks in both velocity and magnetic perturbation energies within timescales much smaller than the resistive time. In the case of the Gaussian AW pulse, the velocity perturbation energy growth is still transient in time, attaining a peak within few resistive times, while magnetic perturbation energy continues to grow. It is also shown that the total magnetic energy decreases in time and this is governed by the resistive evolution of the background ABC magnetic field rather than AW damping. On contrary, when the background magnetic field is uniform, the total magnetic energy decrease is prescribed by AW damping, because there is no resistive evolution of the background. By considering runs with different amplitudes and by analysing the perturbation spectra, possible dynamo action by AW perturbation-induced peristaltic flow and inverse cascade of magnetic energy have been excluded. Therefore, the perturbation energy growth is

  8. DenInv3D: a geophysical software for three-dimensional density inversion of gravity field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Ke, Xiaoping; Wang, Yong

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional density inversion software called DenInv3D that operates on gravity and gravity gradient data. The software performs inversion modelling, kernel function calculation, and inversion calculations using the improved preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) algorithm. In the PCG algorithm, due to the uncertainty of empirical parameters, such as the Lagrange multiplier, we use the inflection point of the L-curve as the regularisation parameter. The software can construct unequally spaced grids and perform inversions using such grids, which enables changing the resolution of the inversion results at different depths. Through inversion of airborne gradiometry data on the Australian Kauring test site, we discovered that anomalous blocks of different sizes are present within the study area in addition to the central anomalies. The software of DenInv3D can be downloaded from http://159.226.162.30.

  9. Three dimensional canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A generic construction of canonical transformations is given in three-dimensional phase spaces on which Nambu bracket is imposed. First, the canonical transformations are defined as based on cannonade transformations. Second, it is shown that determination of the generating functions and the transformation itself for given generating function is possible by solving correspondent Pfaffian differential equations. Generating functions of type are introduced and all of them are listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed as the complementary subject. Finally, it is shown that decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase spaces as in the usual two-dimensional ones.

  10. Three-dimensional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toga, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on new neuroimaging technologies that are revolutionizing the study of the brain be enabling investigators to visualize its structure and entire pattern of functional activity in three dimensions. The book provides a theoretical and practical explanation of the new science of creating three-dimensional computer images of the brain. The coverage includes a review of the technology and methodology of neuroimaging, the instrumentation and procedures, issues of quantification, analytic protocols, and descriptions of neuroimaging systems. Examples are given to illustrate the use of three-dimensional enuroimaging to quantitate spatial measurements, perform analysis of autoradiographic and histological studies, and study the relationship between brain structure and function

  11. arXiv Hawking radiation and propagation of massive charged scalar field on a three-dimensional G\\"odel black hole

    CERN Document Server

    González, P.A.; Saavedra, Joel; Vásquez, Yerko

    2018-05-18

    In this paper we consider the three-dimensional G\\"{o}del black hole as a background and we study the vector particle tunneling from this background in order to obtain the Hawking temperature. Then, we study the propagation of a massive charged scalar field and we find the quasinormal modes analytically, which turns out be unstable as a consequence of the existence of closed time-like curves. Also, we consider the flux at the horizon and at infinity, and we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients as well as the absorption cross section. Mainly, we show that massive charged scalar waves can be superradiantly amplified by the three-dimensional G\\"{o}del black hole and that the coefficients have an oscillatory behavior. Moreover, the absorption cross section is null at the high frequency limit and for certain values of the frequency.

  12. Three dimensional energy profile:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowsari, Reza; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    The provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable energy has been considered as a cornerstone of development. More than one-third of the world's population has a very limited access to modern energy services and suffers from its various negative consequences. Researchers have been exploring various dimensions of household energy use in order to design strategies to provide secure access to modern energy services. However, despite more than three decades of effort, our understanding of household energy use patterns is very limited, particularly in the context of rural regions of the developing world. Through this paper, the past and the current trends in the field of energy analysis are investigated. The literature on rural energy and energy transition in developing world has been explored and the factors affecting households' decisions on energy use are listed. The and the factors affecting households' decisions on energy use are listed. The gaps identified in the literature on rural household energy analysis provide a basis for developing an alternative model that can create a more realistic view of household energy use. The three dimensional energy profile is presented as a new conceptual model for assessment of household energy use. This framework acts as a basis for building new theoretical and empirical models of rural household energy use. - Highlights: ► Reviews literature on household energy, energy transitions and decision-making in developing countries. ► Identifies gaps in rural household energy analysis and develops a new conceptual framework. ► The 3-d energy profile provides a holistic view of household energy system characteristics. ► Illustrates the use of the framework for understanding household energy transitions.

  13. Three-dimensional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Presents tips and tricks for beginners and experts Provides educational material for 3D training courses Features comprehensively illustrated cases Includes an accompanying DVD with video clips of all sample cases Three-dimensional echocardiography is the most recent fundamental advancement in echocardiography. Since real-time 3D echocardiography became commercially available in 2002, it has rapidly been accepted in echo labs worldwide. This book covers all clinically relevant aspects of this fascinating new technology, including a comprehensive explanation of its basic principles, practical aspects of clinical application, and detailed descriptions of specific uses in the broad spectrum of clinically important heart disease. The book was written by a group of well-recognized international experts in the field, who have not only been involved in the scientific and clinical evolution of 3D echocardiography since its inception but are also intensively involved in expert training courses. As a result, the clear focus of this book is on the practical application of 3D echocardiography in daily clinical routine with tips and tricks for both beginners and experts, accompanied by more than 150 case examples comprehensively illustrated in more than 800 images and more than 500 videos provided on a DVD. In addition to an in-depth review of the most recent literature on real-time 3D echocardiography, this book represents an invaluable reference work for beginners and expert users of 3D echocardiography. - Tips and tricks for beginners and experts - Educational material for 3D training courses - Comprehensively illustrated cases - DVD with video clips of all sample cases.

  14. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Seeley, C.H.; Henderson, J.A.; Schmidl, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental flow visualization tool, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), is being used to determine the velocity field in two-dimensional fluid flows. In the past few years, the technique has been improved to allow the capture of flow fields in three dimensions. This paper describes changes which were made to two existing two-dimensional tracking algorithms to enable them to track three-dimensional PIV data. Results of the tests performed on these three-dimensional routines with synthetic data are presented. Experimental data was also used to test the tracking algorithms. The test setup which was used to acquire the three-dimensional experimental data is described, along with the results from both of the tracking routines which were used to analyze the experimental data. (author)

  15. Thomas precession: a kinematic effect of the algebra of Einstein's velocity addition law. Comments on 'Deriving relativistic momentum and energy: II. Three-dimensional case'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungar, Abraham A

    2006-01-01

    The authors of a recently published paper (Sonego S and Pin M 2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 851-6) have erroneously asserted that Einstein's velocity addition law is associative. Moreover, they have attributed the alleged associativity of Einstein's velocity addition law to 'The relativity principle[, which] requires that [Einstein's velocity addition] gives the composition law of a group'. Accordingly, we note that Einstein's velocity addition is non-associative and demonstrate that the breakdown of associativity and commutativity in Einstein's velocity addition law results from the presence of Thomas precession. (letters and comments)

  16. Three-dimensional imaging of individual point defects using selective detection angles in annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jared M.; Im, Soohyun; Windl, Wolfgang; Hwang, Jinwoo, E-mail: hwang.458@osu.edu

    2017-01-15

    We propose a new scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) technique that can realize the three-dimensional (3D) characterization of vacancies, lighter and heavier dopants with high precision. Using multislice STEM imaging and diffraction simulations of β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}, we show that selecting a small range of low scattering angles can make the contrast of the defect-containing atomic columns substantially more depth-dependent. The origin of the depth-dependence is the de-channeling of electrons due to the existence of a point defect in the atomic column, which creates extra “ripples” at low scattering angles. The highest contrast of the point defect can be achieved when the de-channeling signal is captured using the 20–40 mrad detection angle range. The effect of sample thickness, crystal orientation, local strain, probe convergence angle, and experimental uncertainty to the depth-dependent contrast of the point defect will also be discussed. The proposed technique therefore opens new possibilities for highly precise 3D structural characterization of individual point defects in functional materials. - Highlights: • A new electron microscopy technique that can visualize 3D position of point defect is proposed. • The technique relies on the electron de-channeling signals at low scattering angles. • The technique enables precise determination of the depth of vacancies and lighter impurity atoms.

  17. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of the three-dimensional flow field and relative analyte concentration distribution in an atmospheric pressure ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, Thorsten; Kunte, Robert; Hoenen, Herwart; Jeschke, Peter; Wissdorf, Walter; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the validation and analysis of steady state numerical simulations of the gas flows within a multi-purpose ion source (MPIS) are presented. The experimental results were obtained with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a non-scaled MPIS. Two-dimensional time-averaged velocity and turbulent kinetic energy distributions are presented for two dry gas volume flow rates. The numerical results of the validation simulations are in very good agreement with the experimental data. All significant flow features have been correctly predicted within the accuracy of the experiments. For technical reasons, the experiments were conducted at room temperature. Thus, numerical simulations of ionization conditions at two operating points of the MPIS are also presented. It is clearly shown that the dry gas volume flow rate has the most significant impact on the overall flow pattern within the APLI source; far less critical is the (larger) nebulization gas flow. In addition to the approximate solution of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, a transport equation for the relative analyte concentration has been solved. The results yield information on the three-dimensional analyte distribution within the source. It becomes evident that for ion transport into the MS ion transfer capillary, electromagnetic forces are at least as important as fluid dynamic forces. However, only the fluid dynamics determines the three-dimensional distribution of analyte gas. Thus, local flow phenomena in close proximity to the spray shield are strongly impacting on the ionization efficiency.

  18. Pore pressure measurement plan of near field rock used on three dimensional groundwater flow analysis in demonstration test of cavern type disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Kazuhiro; Terada, Kenji; Matsumura, Katsuhide; Koyama, Toshihiro; Yajima, Kazuaki

    2008-01-01

    Demonstration test of underground cavern type disposal facilities is planed though carrying out construction of full scale engineering barrier system which simulated in the underground space in full scale and under actual environment. This test consists of three part, these are construction test, performance test and measurement test. Behavior of near field rock mass is measured about hydrological behavior under and after construction to evaluate effect at test facility. To make plan of pore pressure measurement, three dimensional groundwater flow analysis has been carried out. Based on comparison of analysis before and after test, detail plan has been studied. (author)

  19. Effects of Energy Relaxation via Quantum Coupling Among Three-Dimensional Motion on the Tunneling Current of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, Huansheng; Li, Xijun

    2015-12-01

    We report theoretical study of the effects of energy relaxation on the tunneling current through the oxide layer of a two-dimensional graphene field-effect transistor. In the channel, when three-dimensional electron thermal motion is considered in the Schrödinger equation, the gate leakage current at a given oxide field largely increases with the channel electric field, electron mobility, and energy relaxation time of electrons. Such an increase can be especially significant when the channel electric field is larger than 1 kV/cm. Numerical calculations show that the relative increment of the tunneling current through the gate oxide will decrease with increasing the thickness of oxide layer when the oxide is a few nanometers thick. This highlights that energy relaxation effect needs to be considered in modeling graphene transistors.

  20. Three-Dimensional Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, Vitor; Viana, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors present the elements of a general theory for flows on three-dimensional compact boundaryless manifolds, encompassing flows with equilibria accumulated by regular orbits. The book aims to provide a global perspective of this theory and make it easier for the reader to digest the growing literature on this subject. This is not the first book on the subject of dynamical systems, but there are distinct aspects which together make this book unique. Firstly, this book treats mostly continuous time dynamical systems, instead of its discrete counterpart, exhaustively treated

  1. Three dimensional system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Antonis; Radojcic, Riko

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuit (IC) stacking is the next big step in electronic system integration. It enables packing more functionality, as well as integration of heterogeneous materials, devices, and signals, in the same space (volume). This results in consumer electronics (e.g., mobile, handheld devices) which can run more powerful applications, such as full-length movies and 3D games, with longer battery life. This technology is so promising that it is expected to be a mainstream technology a few years from now, less than 10-15 years from its original conception. To achieve thi

  2. Modeling two-phase flow in three-dimensional complex flow-fields of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyong; Luo, Gang; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2017-10-01

    3D fine-mesh flow-fields recently developed by Toyota Mirai improved water management and mass transport in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks, suggesting their potential value for robust and high-power PEM fuel cell stack performance. In such complex flow-fields, Forchheimer's inertial effect is dominant at high current density. In this work, a two-phase flow model of 3D complex flow-fields of PEMFCs is developed by accounting for Forchheimer's inertial effect, for the first time, to elucidate the underlying mechanism of liquid water behavior and mass transport inside 3D complex flow-fields and their adjacent gas diffusion layers (GDL). It is found that Forchheimer's inertial effect enhances liquid water removal from flow-fields and adds additional flow resistance around baffles, which improves interfacial liquid water and mass transport. As a result, substantial improvements in high current density cell performance and operational stability are expected in PEMFCs with 3D complex flow-fields, compared to PEMFCs with conventional flow-fields. Higher current density operation required to further reduce PEMFC stack cost per kW in the future will necessitate optimizing complex flow-field designs using the present model, in order to efficiently remove a large amount of product water and hence minimize the mass transport voltage loss.

  3. Equilibrium: three-dimensional configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter considers toroidal MHD configurations that are inherently three-dimensional. The motivation for investigation such complicated equilibria is that they possess the potential for providing toroidal confinement without the need of a net toroidal current. This leads to a number of advantages with respect to fusion power generation. First, the attractive feature of steady-state operation becomes more feasible since such configurations no longer require a toroidal current transformer. Second, with zero net current, one potentially dangerous class of MHD instabilities, the current-driven kink modes, is eliminated. Finally, three-dimensional configurations possess nondegenerate flux surfaces even in the absence of plasma pressure and plasma current. Although there is an enormous range of possible three-dimensional equilibria, the configurations of interest are accurately described as axisymmetric tori with superimposed helical fields; furthermore, they possess no net toroidal current. Instead, two different and less obvious restoring forces are developed: the helical sideband force and the toroidal dipole current force. Each is discussed in detail in Chapter 7. A detailed discussion of the parallel current constraint, including its physical significance, is given in section 7.2. A general analysis of helical sideband equilibria, along with a detailed description of the Elmo bumpy torus, is presented in sections 7.3 and 7.4. A general description of toroidal dipole-current equilibria, including a detailed discussion of stellarators, heliotrons, and torsatrons, is given in sections 7.5 and 7.6

  4. Reconsidering the advantages of the three-dimensional representation of the interferometric transform for imaging with non-coplanar baselines and wide fields of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. M. P.; Young, A.; Davidson, D. B.

    2017-07-01

    Radio telescopes with baselines that span thousands of kilometres and with fields of view that span tens of degrees have been recently deployed, such as the Low Frequency Array, and are currently being developed, such as the Square Kilometre Array. Additionally, there are proposals for space-based instruments with all-sky imaging capabilities, such as the Orbiting Low Frequency Array. Such telescopes produce observations with three-dimensional visibility distributions and curved image domains. In most work to date, the visibility distribution has been converted to a planar form to compute the brightness map using a two-dimensional Fourier transform. The celestial sphere is faceted in order to counter pixel distortion at wide angles, with each such facet requiring a unique planar form of the visibility distribution. Under the above conditions, the computational and storage complexities of this approach can become excessive. On the other hand, when using the direct Fourier transform approach, which maintains the three-dimensional shapes of the visibility distribution and celestial sphere, the non-coplanar visibility component requires no special attention. Furthermore, as the celestial samples are placed directly on the curved surface of the celestial sphere, pixel distortion at wide angles is avoided. In this paper, a number of examples illustrate that under these conditions (very long baselines and very wide fields of view) the costs of the direct Fourier transform may be comparable to (or even lower than) methods that utilise the two-dimensional fast Fourier transform.

  5. On the conformal higher spin unfolded equation for a three-dimensional self-interacting scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Bengt E.W. [Fundamental Physics, Chalmers University of Technology,SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2016-08-24

    We propose field equations for the conformal higher spin system in three dimensions coupled to a conformal scalar field with a sixth order potential. Both the higher spin equation and the unfolded equation for the scalar field have source terms and are based on a conformal higher spin algebra which we treat as an expansion in multi-commutators. Explicit expressions for the source terms are suggested and subjected to some simple tests. We also discuss a cascading relation between the Chern-Simons action for the higher spin gauge theory and an action containing a term for each spin that generalizes the spin 2 Chern-Simons action in terms of the spin connection expressed in terms of the frame field. This cascading property is demonstrated in the free theory for spin 3 but should work also in the complete higher spin theory.

  6. A comparison of image restoration approaches applied to three-dimensional confocal and wide-field fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verveer, P. J; Gemkow, M. J; Jovin, T. M

    1999-01-01

    We have compared different image restoration approaches for fluorescence microscopy. The most widely used algorithms were classified with a Bayesian theory according to the assumed noise model and the type of regularization imposed. We considered both Gaussian and Poisson models for the noise in combination with Tikhonov regularization, entropy regularization, Good's roughness and without regularization (maximum likelihood estimation). Simulations of fluorescence confocal imaging were used to examine the different noise models and regularization approaches using the mean squared error criterion. The assumption of a Gaussian noise model yielded only slightly higher errors than the Poisson model. Good's roughness was the best choice for the regularization. Furthermore, we compared simulated confocal and wide-field data. In general, restored confocal data are superior to restored wide-field data, but given sufficient higher signal level for the wide-field data the restoration result may rival confocal data in quality. Finally, a visual comparison of experimental confocal and wide-field data is presented.

  7. THREE-DIMENSIONAL NON-VACUUM PULSAR OUTER-GAP MODEL: LOCALIZED ACCELERATION ELECTRIC FIELD IN THE HIGHER ALTITUDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirotani, Kouichi [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-10

    We investigate the particle accelerator that arises in a rotating neutron-star magnetosphere. Simultaneously solving the Poisson equation for the electro-static potential, the Boltzmann equations for relativistic electrons and positrons, and the radiative transfer equation, we demonstrate that the electric field is substantially screened along the magnetic field lines by pairs that are created and separated within the accelerator. As a result, the magnetic-field-aligned electric field is localized in higher altitudes near the light cylinder and efficiently accelerates the positrons created in the lower altitudes outward but does not accelerate the electrons inward. The resulting photon flux becomes predominantly outward, leading to typical double-peak light curves, which are commonly observed from many high-energy pulsars.

  8. Three-Dimensional Steerable Magnetic Field (3DSMF)Sensor System for Classification of Buried Metal Targets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Carl V; Mendat, Deborah P; Huynh, Toan B; Ramac-Thomas, Liane C; Beaty, James D; Craig, Joseph N

    2006-01-01

    .... The 3DSMF is a time-domain (TD) electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor configured with a three-axis magnetic field generator and three receivers that measures the multiple components of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO...

  9. Quantum magnetotransport for the surface states of three-dimensional topological insulators in the presence of a Zeeman field

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, Muhammad; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We show that the surface states of magnetic topological insulators realize an activated behavior and Shubnikov de Haas oscillations. Applying an external magnetic field perpendicular to the surface of the topological insulator in the presence

  10. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Töger, Johannes; Carlsson, Marcus; Söderlind, Gustaf; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar

    2011-01-01

    Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR) can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking complements and provides incremental information compared to particle

  11. Three Dimensional Dirac Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Saad

    2014-03-01

    Dirac points on the Fermi surface of two dimensional graphene are responsible for its unique electronic behavior. One can ask whether any three dimensional materials support similar pseudorelativistic physics in their bulk electronic spectra. This possibility has been investigated theoretically and is now supported by two successful experimental demonstrations reported during the last year. In this talk, I will summarize the various ways in which Dirac semimetals can be realized in three dimensions with primary focus on a specific theory developed on the basis of representations of crystal spacegroups. A three dimensional Dirac (Weyl) semimetal can appear in the presence (absence) of inversion symmetry by tuning parameters to the phase boundary separating a bulk insulating and a topological insulating phase. More generally, we find that specific rules governing crystal symmetry representations of electrons with spin lead to robust Dirac points at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Combining these rules with microscopic considerations identifies six candidate Dirac semimetals. Another method towards engineering Dirac semimetals involves combining crystal symmetry and band inversion. Several candidate materials have been proposed utilizing this mechanism and one of the candidates has been successfully demonstrated as a Dirac semimetal in two independent experiments. Work carried out in collaboration with: Julia A. Steinberg, Steve M. Young, J.C.Y. Teo, C.L. Kane, E.J. Mele and Andrew M. Rappe.

  12. Anomalous particle diffusion and Levy random walk of magnetic field lines in three-dimensional solar wind turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbardo, Gaetano

    2005-01-01

    Plasma transport in the presence of turbulence depends on a variety of parameters such as the fluctuation level, δB/B 0 , the ratio between the particle Larmor radius and the turbulence correlation length, and the turbulence anisotropy. In this paper, we present the results of numerical simulations of plasma and magnetic field line transport in the case of anisotropic magnetic turbulence, for parameter values close to those of the solar wind. We assume a uniform background magnetic field B 0 = B 0 e z and a Fourier representation for magnetic fluctuations, which includes wavectors oblique with respect to B 0 . The energy density spectrum is a power law, and in k space it is described by the correlation lengths l x , l y , l z , which quantify the anisotropy of turbulence. For magnetic field lines, transport perpendicular to the background field depends on the Kubo number R (δB/B 0 ) (l z /l x ). For small Kubo numbers, R 0 , or the ratio l z /l x , we find first a quasilinear regime and then a percolative regime, both corresponding to Gaussian diffusion. For particles, we find that transport parallel and perpendicular to the background magnetic field depends heavily on the turbulence anisotropy and on the particle Larmor radius. For turbulence levels typical of the solar wind, δB/B 0 ≅ 0.5-1, when the ratio between the particle Larmor radius and the turbulence correlation lengths is small, anomalous regimes are found in the case l z /l x ≤ 1, with a Levy random walk (superdiffusion) along the magnetic field and subdiffusion in the perpendicular directions. Conversely, for l z /l x > 1 normal Gaussian diffusion is found. A possible expression for generalized double diffusion is discussed

  13. Viscoelastic effects in three-dimensional microphase separation of block copolymers : Dynamic mean-field density functional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurits, NM; Zvelindovsky, AV; Fraaije, JGEM

    1998-01-01

    In the present paper, we extend the dynamic mean-field density functional method which describes microphase separation phenomena in polymer liquids, to account for viscoelastic effects. The effect of simple steady shear on polymer orientation and elongation is taken into account by adapting the

  14. Numerical simulation of fluid field and in vitro three-dimensional fabrication of tissue-engineered bones in a rotating bioreactor and in vivo implantation for repairing segmental bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kedong; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Bowen; Lim, Mayasari; Liu, Yingchao; Liu, Tianqing

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, two-dimensional flow field simulation was conducted to determine shear stresses and velocity profiles for bone tissue engineering in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWVB). In addition, in vitro three-dimensional fabrication of tissue-engineered bones was carried out in optimized bioreactor conditions, and in vivo implantation using fabricated bones was performed for segmental bone defects of Zelanian rabbits. The distribution of dynamic pressure, total pressure, shear stress, and velocity within the culture chamber was calculated for different scaffold locations. According to the simulation results, the dynamic pressure, velocity, and shear stress around the surface of cell-scaffold construction periodically changed at different locations of the RWVB, which could result in periodical stress stimulation for fabricated tissue constructs. However, overall shear stresses were relatively low, and the fluid velocities were uniform in the bioreactor. Our in vitro experiments showed that the number of cells cultured in the RWVB was five times higher than those cultured in a T-flask. The tissue-engineered bones grew very well in the RWVB. This study demonstrates that stress stimulation in an RWVB can be beneficial for cell/bio-derived bone constructs fabricated in an RWVB, with an application for repairing segmental bone defects.

  15. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arheden Håkan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Methods Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Results Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Conclusion Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking

  16. Anomalous particle diffusion and Levy random walk of magnetic field lines in three dimensional solar wind turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbardo, G.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma transport in the presence of turbulence depends on a variety of parameters like the fluctuation level ? B/B0, the ratio between the particle Larmor radius and the turbulence correlation lengths, and the turbulence anisotropy. In this presentation, we review the results of numerical simulations of plasma and magnetic field line transport in the case of anisotropic magnetic turbulence, for parameter values close to those of the solar wind. We assume a uniform background magnetic field B0 = B0ez and a Fourier representation for magnetic fluctuations, with wavectors forming any angle with respect to B0. The energy density spectrum is a power law, and in k space the constant amplitude surfaces are ellipsoids, described by the correlation lengths lx, ly, lz, which quantify the anisotropy of turbulence. For magnetic field lines, we find that transport perpendicular to the background field depends on the Kubo number R = ? B B0 lz lx . For small Kubo numbers, R ? 1, we find anomalous, non Gaussian transport regimes (both sub and superdiffusive) which can be described as a Levy random walk. Increasing the Kubo number, i.e., the fluctuation level ? B/B0 and/or the ratio lz/lx, we find first a quasilinear and then a percolative regime, both corresponding to Gaussian diffusion. For particles, we find that transport parallel and perpendicular to the background magnetic field heavily depends on the turbulence anisotropy and on the particle Larmor radius. For turbulence levels typical of the solar wind, ? B/B0 ? 0.5 ?1, when the ratio between the particle Larmor radius and the turbulence correlation lengths is small, anomalous regimes are found in the case lz/lx ? 1, with Levy random walk (superdiffusion) along the magnetic field and subdiffusion in the perpendicular directions. Conversely, for lz/lx > 1 normal, Gaussian diffusion is found. Increasing the ratio between the particle Larmor radius and the turbulence correlation lengths, the parallel superdiffusion is

  17. Three-dimensional dose accumulation in pseudo-split-field IMRT and brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Baozhou; Yang, Deshan; Esthappan, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    -field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image-guided BT in locally advanced cervical cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-three patients treated with split-field-IMRT to 45.0-51.2 Gy in 1.6-1.8 Gy per fraction to the elective pelvic lymph nodes and to 20 Gy to the central pelvis region were...... included in this study. Patients received six weekly fractions of high-dose rate BT to 6.5-7.3 Gy per fraction. A dose tracker software was developed to compute the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) to gross tumor volume (GTV), organs-at-risk and point A. Total dose-volume histogram parameters were...

  18. Quantum magnetotransport for the surface states of three-dimensional topological insulators in the presence of a Zeeman field

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, Muhammad

    2013-05-01

    We show that the surface states of magnetic topological insulators realize an activated behavior and Shubnikov de Haas oscillations. Applying an external magnetic field perpendicular to the surface of the topological insulator in the presence of Zeeman interaction, we investigate the opening of a gap at the Dirac point, making the surface Dirac fermions massive, and the effects on the transport properties. Analytical expressions are derived for the collisional conductivity for elastic impurity scattering in the first Born approximation. We also calculate the Hall conductivity using the Kubo formalism. Evidence for a transition from gapless to gapped surface states at n = 0 and activated transport is found from the temperature and magnetic-field dependence of the collisional and Hall conductivities. © Copyright EPLA, 2013.

  19. Greybody factors for a minimally coupled scalar field in a three-dimensional Einstein-power-Maxwell black hole background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panotopoulos, Grigoris; Rincón, Ángel

    2018-04-01

    In the present work we study the propagation of a probe minimally coupled scalar field in Einstein-power-Maxwell charged black hole background in (1 +2 ) dimensions. We find analytical expressions for the reflection coefficient as well as for the absorption cross section in the low energy regime, and we show graphically their behavior as functions of the frequency for several values of the free parameters of the theory.

  20. ROAM: A Radial-Basis-Function Optimization Approximation Method for Diagnosing the Three-Dimensional Coronal Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmasse, Kevin; Nychka, Douglas W.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Fan, Yuhong; Flyer, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    The Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) routinely performs coronal polarimetric measurements using the Fe XIII 10747 and 10798 lines, which are sensitive to the coronal magnetic field. However, inverting such polarimetric measurements into magnetic field data is a difficult task because the corona is optically thin at these wavelengths and the observed signal is therefore the integrated emission of all the plasma along the line of sight. To overcome this difficulty, we take on a new approach that combines a parameterized 3D magnetic field model with forward modeling of the polarization signal. For that purpose, we develop a new, fast and efficient, optimization method for model-data fitting: the Radial-basis-functions Optimization Approximation Method (ROAM). Model-data fitting is achieved by optimizing a user-specified log-likelihood function that quantifies the differences between the observed polarization signal and its synthetic/predicted analog. Speed and efficiency are obtained by combining sparse evaluation of the magnetic model with radial-basis-function (RBF) decomposition of the log-likelihood function. The RBF decomposition provides an analytical expression for the log-likelihood function that is used to inexpensively estimate the set of parameter values optimizing it. We test and validate ROAM on a synthetic test bed of a coronal magnetic flux rope and show that it performs well with a significantly sparse sample of the parameter space. We conclude that our optimization method is well-suited for fast and efficient model-data fitting and can be exploited for converting coronal polarimetric measurements, such as the ones provided by CoMP, into coronal magnetic field data.

  1. Three dimensional numerical study of different parameters effect on the external magnetic field applied to center the arc of the horizontal mercury discharge lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bechir Ben Hamida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the magnitude of the external magnetic field to be applied to a horizontal mercury discharge lamp such that the Lorentz forces counterbalance buoyancy forces and the hot region of the arc remains centered inside the lamp with the variation of six parameters of the lamp such as the external temperature of the lamp, envelope thickness, convective loss, Interelectrodeslength, pressure and current supply pointing to the influence of the parameters to the compensating magnetic field value. To achieve this objective, a commercial numerical software “Comsol Multiphysics” is used to implement the model that solves the equations of mass, energy and momentum for laminar compressible flow combined with the Laplace equation for the plasma in a three dimensional.

  2. Measuring the stress field around an evolving crack in tensile deformed Mg AZ31 using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Camin, Bettina; Schmidt, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The stress field around a notch in a coarse grained Mg AZ31 sample has been measured under tensile load using the individual grains as probes in an in situ high energy synchrotron diffraction experiment. The experimental set-up, a variant of three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy, allows...... the position, orientation and full stress tensor of each illuminated grain to be determined and, hence, enables the study of evolving stress fields in coarse grained materials with a spatial resolution equal to the grain size. Grain resolved information like this is vital for understanding what happens when...... the traditional continuum mechanics approach breaks down and fracture is governed by local heterogeneities (e.g. phase or stress differences) between grains. As a first approximation the results obtained were averaged through the thickness of the sample and compared with an elastic–plastic continuum finite...

  3. Three-dimensional dose accumulation in pseudo-split-field IMRT and brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baozhou; Yang, Deshan; Esthappan, Jackie; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose; Price, Samantha; Mutic, Sasa; Schwarz, Julie K; Grigsby, Perry W; Tanderup, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Dose accumulation of split-field external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy (BT) is challenging because of significant EBRT and BT dose gradients in the central pelvic region. We developed a method to determine biologically effective dose parameters for combined split-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image-guided BT in locally advanced cervical cancer. Thirty-three patients treated with split-field-IMRT to 45.0-51.2 Gy in 1.6-1.8 Gy per fraction to the elective pelvic lymph nodes and to 20 Gy to the central pelvis region were included in this study. Patients received six weekly fractions of high-dose rate BT to 6.5-7.3 Gy per fraction. A dose tracker software was developed to compute the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) to gross tumor volume (GTV), organs-at-risk and point A. Total dose-volume histogram parameters were computed on the 3D combined EQD2 dose based on rigid image registration. The dose accumulation uncertainty introduced by organ deformations between IMRT and BT was evaluated. According to International Commission on Radiation Unit and Measurement and GEC European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology recommendations, D98, D90, D50, and D2cm3 EQD2 dose-volume histogram parameters were computed. GTV D98 was 84.0 ± 26.5 Gy and D2cc was 99.6 ± 13.9 Gy, 67.4 ± 12.2 Gy, 75.0 ± 10.1 Gy, for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid, respectively. The uncertainties induced by organ deformation were estimated to be -1 ± 4 Gy, -3 ± 5 Gy, 2 ± 3 Gy, and -3 ± 5 Gy for bladder, rectum, sigmoid, and GTV, respectively. It is feasible to perform 3D EQD2 dose accumulation to assess high and intermediate dose regions for combined split-field IMRT and BT. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Three-dimensional plasma transport in open chaotic magnetic fields. A computational assessment for tokamak edge layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frerichs, Heinke Gerd

    2010-04-01

    The development of nuclear fusion as an alternative energy source requires the research on magnetically confined, high temperature plasmas. In particular, the quantification of plasma flows in the domain near exposed material surfaces of the plasma container by computer simulations is of key importance, both for guiding interpretation of present fusion experiments and for aiding the ongoing design activities for large future devices such as ITER, W7-X or the DEMO reactor. There is a large number of computational issues related to the physics of hot, fully ionized and magnetized plasmas near surfaces of the vacuum chamber. This thesis is dedicated to one particular such challenge, namely the numerical quantification of self-consistent kinetic neutral gas and plasma fluid flows in very complex 3D (partially chaotic) magnetic fields, in the absence of any common symmetries for plasma and neutral gas dynamics. Such magnetic field configurations are e.g. generated by externally applied magnetic perturbations at the plasma edge, and are of great interest for the control of particle and energy exhausts. In the present thesis the 3D edge plasma and neutral particle transport code EMC3-EIRENE is applied to two distinct configurations of open chaotic magnetic system: at the TEXTOR and DIII-D tokamaks. Improvements of the edge transport model and extensions of the transport code are presented, which have allowed such simulations for the first time for 3D scenarios at DIII-D with ITER similar plasmas. A strong 3D effect of the chaotic magnetic field on the DIII-D edge plasma is found and analyzed in detail. It is found that a pronounced striation pattern of target particle and heat fluxes at DIII-D can only be obtained up to a certain upper limiting level of anomalous cross-field transport. Hence, in comparison to experimental data, these findings allow to narrow down the range of this model parameter. One particular interest at TEXTOR is the achievement of a regime with

  5. Effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on three dimensional equilibria in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaretto, S., E-mail: smunaretto@wisc.edu; Chapman, B. E.; Nornberg, M. D.; Boguski, J.; DuBois, A. M.; Almagri, A. F.; Sarff, J. S. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1150 University Ave, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The orientation of 3D equilibria in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) [R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] reversed-field pinch can now be controlled with a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). Absent the RMP, the orientation of the stationary 3D equilibrium varies from shot to shot in a semi-random manner, making its diagnosis difficult. Produced with a poloidal array of saddle coils at the vertical insulated cut in MST's thick conducting shell, an m = 1 RMP with an amplitude b{sub r}/B ∼ 10% forces the 3D structure into any desired orientation relative to MST's diagnostics. This control has led to improved diagnosis, revealing enhancements in both the central electron temperature and density. With sufficient amplitude, the RMP also inhibits the generation of high-energy (>20 keV) electrons, which otherwise emerge due to a reduction in magnetic stochasticity in the core. Field line tracing reveals that the RMP reintroduces stochasticity to the core. A m = 3 RMP of similar amplitude has little effect on the magnetic topology or the high-energy electrons.

  6. Preliminary experience of a three-dimensional, large-field-of-view PET scanner for the localization of partial epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, D.S.; O'Brien, T.J.; Murphy, M.; Cook, M.J.; Hicks, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: PET scanning is a useful ancillary technique in the localization of intractable partial epilepsy, but its widespread use has been limited by the high cost of traditional PET equipment and radioisotopes. The use of 3D-scanning mode with a large-field of-view PET scanner involves lower equipment costs and requires significantly lower doses of radioisotope. Our aim was to report our preliminary experience of the use of a 3-D, large-field-of-view scanner for FDG-PET studies in the localization of partial epilepsy. 31 patients (pts) with partial epilepsy were studied. The FDG-PET scans were reviewed blindly by a single reviewer without knowledge of seizure localization on structural imaging or ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring. The PET results were correlated with the localization by more traditional techniques and the results on surgery when available. A localized region of hypometabolism on FDG-PET scanning was reported in 26/31 (84%) patients (21 temporal, 5 extratemporal). This compared favourably with volumetric MRI on which 19/31 (61%) had a focal potentially epileptogenic abnormality, all of which were concordant with the PET localization. PET was concordant with ictal EEG onset in all 22 patients with localizing studies, including 5 pts with normal MRI. PET demonstrated localized hypometabolism in 4/5 pts with non-localizing ictal EEG and was concordant in both pts with abnormal MRI in this group. PET was considered normal in 4 pts, including 3 pts with normal MRI but localizing EEG and 1 pt without EEG or MRI abnormality. One pt with a localizing EEG and normal MRI was felt to have bitemporal hypometabolism. Five patients have subsequently had resective epilepsy surgery with 4 currently seizure-free and 1 significantly improved. Four patients are planned for surgery in the near future. In conclusion, FDG-PET using a 3-D, large-field-of view PET scanner provides sensitive and specific localization in partial epilepsy, and may provide a

  7. Three-Dimensional P-wave Velocity Structure Beneath Long Valley Caldera, California, Using Local-Regional Double-Difference Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, H. M.; Thurber, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    Eastern California's Long Valley Caldera (LVC) and the Mono-Inyo Crater volcanic systems have been active for the past ~3.6 million years. Long Valley is known to produce very large silicic eruptions, the last of which resulted in the formation of a 17 km by 32 km wide, east-west trending caldera. Relatively recent unrest began between 1978-1980 with five ML ≥ 5.7 non-double-couple (NDC) earthquakes and associated aftershock swarms. Similar shallow seismic swarms have continued south of the resurgent dome and beneath Mammoth Mountain, surrounding sites of increased CO2 gas emissions. Nearly two decades of increased volcanic activity led to the 1997 installation of a temporary three-component array of 69 seismometers. This network, deployed by the Durham University, the USGS, and Duke University, recorded over 4,000 high-frequency events from May to September. A local tomographic inversion of 283 events surrounding Mammoth Mountain yielded a velocity structure with low Vp and Vp/Vs anomalies at 2-3 km bsl beneath the resurgent dome and Casa Diablo hot springs. These anomalies were interpreted to be CO2 reservoirs (Foulger et al., 2003). Several teleseismic and regional tomography studies have also imaged low Vp anomalies beneath the caldera at ~5-15 km depth, interpreted to be the underlying magma reservoir (Dawson et al., 1990; Weiland et al., 1995; Thurber et al., 2009). This study aims to improve the resolution of the LVC regional velocity model by performing tomographic inversions using the local events from 1997 in conjunction with regional events recorded by the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) between 1980 and 2010 and available refraction data. Initial tomographic inversions reveal a low velocity zone at ~2 to 6 km depth beneath the caldera. This structure may simply represent the caldera fill. Further iterations and the incorporation of teleseismic data may better resolve the overall shape and size of the underlying magma reservoir.

  8. Mean-field model for the interference of matter-waves from a three-dimensional optical trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Sadhan K.; Muruganandam, Paulsamy

    2003-01-01

    Using the mean-field time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation we study the formation of a repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate on a combined optical and harmonic traps in two and three dimensions and subsequent generation of the interference pattern upon the removal of the combined traps as in the experiment by Greiner et al. [Nature (London) 415 (2002) 39]. For optical traps of moderate strength, interference pattern of 27 (9) prominent bright spots is found to be formed in three (two) dimensions on a cubic (square) lattice in agreement with experiment. Similar interference pattern can also be formed upon removal of the optical lattice trap only. The pattern so formed can oscillate for a long time in the harmonic trap which can be observed experimentally

  9. Numerical estimation of structure constants in the three-dimensional Ising conformal field theory through Markov chain uv sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdeiro, Victor

    2017-09-01

    Herdeiro and Doyon [Phys. Rev. E 94, 043322 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.94.043322] introduced a numerical recipe, dubbed uv sampler, offering precise estimations of the conformal field theory (CFT) data of the planar two-dimensional (2D) critical Ising model. It made use of scale invariance emerging at the critical point in order to sample finite sublattice marginals of the infinite plane Gibbs measure of the model by producing holographic boundary distributions. The main ingredient of the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler is the invariance under dilation. This paper presents a generalization to higher dimensions with the critical 3D Ising model. This leads to numerical estimations of a subset of the CFT data—scaling weights and structure constants—through fitting of measured correlation functions. The results are shown to agree with the recent most precise estimations from numerical bootstrap methods [Kos, Poland, Simmons-Duffin, and Vichi, J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2016) 036, 10.1007/JHEP08(2016)036].

  10. Three-Dimensional Transport Modeling for Proton Exchange Membrane(PEM Fuel Cell with Micro Parallel Flow Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Soon Hwang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro channel are beingused extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of thefundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype forengineering application. In this study, we used a single-phase, fully three dimensionalsimulation model for PEMFC that can deal with both anode and cathode flow field forexamining the micro flow channel with electrochemical reaction. The results show thathydrogen and oxygen were solely supplied to the membrane by diffusion mechanism ratherthan convection transport, and the higher pressure drop at cathode side is thought to becaused by higher flow rate of oxygen at cathode. And it is found that the amount of water incathode channel was determined by water formation due to electrochemical reaction pluselectro-osmotic mass flux directing toward the cathode side. And it is very important tomodel the back diffusion and electro-osmotic mass flux accurately since the two flux wasclosely correlated each other and greatly influenced for determination of ionic conductivityof the membrane which directly affects the performance of fuel cell.

  11. Successful adaptation of three-dimensional inversion methodologies for archaeological-scale, total-field magnetic data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyney, S.; Fishwick, S.; Hill, I. A.; Linford, N. T.

    2015-08-01

    Despite the development of advanced processing and interpretation tools for magnetic data sets in the fields of mineral and hydrocarbon industries, these methods have not achieved similar levels of adoption for archaeological or very near surface surveys. Using a synthetic data set we demonstrate that certain methodologies and assumptions used to successfully invert more regional-scale data can lead to large discrepancies between the true and recovered depths when applied to archaeological-type anomalies. We propose variations to the current approach, analysing the choice of the depth-weighting function, mesh design and parameter constraints, to develop an appropriate technique for the 3-D inversion of archaeological-scale data sets. The results show a successful recovery of a synthetic scenario, as well as a case study of a Romano-Celtic temple in the UK. For the case study, the final susceptibility model is compared with two coincident ground penetrating radar surveys, showing a high correlation with the comparative depth slices. The new approach takes interpretation of archaeological data sets beyond a simple 2-D visual interpretation based on pattern recognition.

  12. Three-Dimensional Transport Modeling for Proton Exchange Membrane(PEM) Fuel Cell with Micro Parallel Flow Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pil Hyong; Han, Sang Seok; Hwang, Sang Soon

    2008-03-03

    Modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro channel are beingused extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of thefundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype forengineering application. In this study, we used a single-phase, fully three dimensionalsimulation model for PEMFC that can deal with both anode and cathode flow field forexamining the micro flow channel with electrochemical reaction. The results show thathydrogen and oxygen were solely supplied to the membrane by diffusion mechanism ratherthan convection transport, and the higher pressure drop at cathode side is thought to becaused by higher flow rate of oxygen at cathode. And it is found that the amount of water incathode channel was determined by water formation due to electrochemical reaction pluselectro-osmotic mass flux directing toward the cathode side. And it is very important tomodel the back diffusion and electro-osmotic mass flux accurately since the two flux wasclosely correlated each other and greatly influenced for determination of ionic conductivityof the membrane which directly affects the performance of fuel cell.

  13. Three-dimensional imaging of aquifer and aquitard heterogeneity via transient hydraulic tomography at a highly heterogeneous field site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanfeng; Illman, Walter A.

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that geostatistics-based transient hydraulic tomography (THT) is robust for subsurface heterogeneity characterization through the joint inverse modeling of multiple pumping tests. However, the hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific storage (Ss) estimates can be smooth or even erroneous for areas where pumping/observation densities are low. This renders the imaging of interlayer and intralayer heterogeneity of highly contrasting materials including their unit boundaries difficult. In this study, we further test the performance of THT by utilizing existing and newly collected pumping test data of longer durations that showed drawdown responses in both aquifer and aquitard units at a field site underlain by a highly heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit. The robust performance of the THT is highlighted through the comparison of different degrees of model parameterization including: (1) the effective parameter approach; (2) the geological zonation approach relying on borehole logs; and (3) the geostatistical inversion approach considering different prior information (with/without geological data). Results reveal that the simultaneous analysis of eight pumping tests with the geostatistical inverse model yields the best results in terms of model calibration and validation. We also find that the joint interpretation of long-term drawdown data from aquifer and aquitard units is necessary in mapping their full heterogeneous patterns including intralayer variabilities. Moreover, as geological data are included as prior information in the geostatistics-based THT analysis, the estimated K values increasingly reflect the vertical distribution patterns of permeameter-estimated K in both aquifer and aquitard units. Finally, the comparison of various THT approaches reveals that differences in the estimated K and Ss tomograms result in significantly different transient drawdown predictions at observation ports.

  14. Propagation of Solar Energetic Particles in Three-dimensional Interplanetary Magnetic Fields: Radial Dependence of Peak Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H.-Q.; Zhou, G.; Wan, W.

    2017-06-01

    A functional form {I}\\max (R)={{kR}}-α , where R is the radial distance of a spacecraft, was usually used to model the radial dependence of peak intensities {I}\\max (R) of solar energetic particles (SEPs). In this work, the five-dimensional Fokker-Planck transport equation incorporating perpendicular diffusion is numerically solved to investigate the radial dependence of SEP peak intensities. We consider two different scenarios for the distribution of a spacecraft fleet: (1) along the radial direction line and (2) along the Parker magnetic field line. We find that the index α in the above expression varies in a wide range, primarily depending on the properties (e.g., location and coverage) of SEP sources and on the longitudinal and latitudinal separations between the sources and the magnetic foot points of the observers. Particularly, whether the magnetic foot point of the observer is located inside or outside the SEP source is a crucial factor determining the values of index α. A two-phase phenomenon is found in the radial dependence of peak intensities. The “position” of the break point (transition point/critical point) is determined by the magnetic connection status of the observers. This finding suggests that a very careful examination of the magnetic connection between the SEP source and each spacecraft should be taken in the observational studies. We obtain a lower limit of {R}-1.7+/- 0.1 for empirically modeling the radial dependence of SEP peak intensities. Our findings in this work can be used to explain the majority of the previous multispacecraft survey results, and especially to reconcile the different or conflicting empirical values of the index α in the literature.

  15. Modelization of three-dimensional bone micro-architecture using Markov random fields with a multi-level clique system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamotte, T.; Dinten, J.M.; Peyrin, F.

    2004-01-01

    Imaging trabecular bone micro-architecture in vivo non-invasively is still a challenging issue due to the complexity and small size of the structure. Thus, having a realistic 3D model of bone micro-architecture could be useful in image segmentation or image reconstruction. The goal of this work was to develop a 3D model of trabecular bone micro-architecture which can be seen as a problem of texture synthesis. We investigated a statistical model based on 3D Markov Random Fields (MRF's). Due to the Hammersley-Clifford theorem MRF's may equivalently be defined by an energy function on some set of cliques. In order to model 3D binary bone texture images (bone / background), we first used a particular well-known subclass of MRFs: the Ising model. The local energy function at some voxel depends on the closest neighbors of the voxels and on some parameters which control the shape and the proportion of bone. However, simulations yielded textures organized as connected clusters which even when varying the parameters did not approach the complexity of bone micro-architecture. Then, we introduced a second level of cliques taking into account neighbors located at some distance d from the site s and a new set of cliques allowing to control the plate thickness and spacing. The 3D bone texture images generated using the proposed model were analyzed using the usual bone-architecture quantification tools in order to relate the parameters of the MRF model to the characteristic parameters of bone micro-architecture (trabecular spacing, trabecular thickness, number of trabeculae...). (authors)

  16. The field-matching problem as it applies to the peacock three dimensional conformal system for intensity modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carol, Mark; Grant, Walter H.; Bleier, Alan R.; Kania, Alex A.; Targovnik, Harris S.; Butler, E. Brian; Shiao, W. Woo

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated beam systems have been developed as a means of creating a high-dose region that closely conforms to the prescribed target volume while also providing specific sparing of organs at risk within complex treatment geometries. The slice-by-slice treatment paradigm used by one such system for delivering intensity modulated fields introduces regions of dose nonuniformity where each pair of treatment slices abut. A study was designed to evaluate whether or not the magnitude of the nonuniformity that results from this segmental delivery paradigm is significant relative to the overall dose nonuniformity present in the intensity modulation technique itself. An assessment was also made as to the increase in nonuniformity that would result if errors were made in indexing during treatment delivery. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans were generated to simulate correctly indexed and incorrectly indexed treatments of 4, 10, and 18 cm diameter targets. Indexing errors of from 0.1 to 2.0 mm were studied. Treatment plans were also generated for targets of the same diameter but of lengths that did not require indexing of the treatment couch. Results: The nonuniformity that results from the intensity modulation delivery paradigm is 11-16% for targets where indexing is not required. Correct indexing of the couch adds an additional 1-2% in nonuniformity. However, a couch indexing error of as little as 1 mm can increase the total nonuniformity to as much as 25%. All increases in nonuniformity from indexing are essentially independent of target diameter. Conclusions: The dose nonuniformity introduced by the segmental strip delivery paradigm is small relative to the nonuniformity present in the intensity modulation paradigm itself. A positioning accuracy of better than 0.5 mm appears to be required when implementing segmental intensity modulated treatment plans

  17. Three-dimensional inhomogeneous rain fields: implications for the distribution of intensity and polarization of the microwave thermal radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyushin, Yaroslaw; Kutuza, Boris

    Observations and mapping of the upwelling thermal radiation of the Earth is the very promising remote sensing technique for the global monitoring of the weather and precipitations. For reliable interpretation of the observation data, numerical model of the microwave radiative transfer in the precipitating atmosphere is necessary. In the present work, numerical simulations of thermal microwave radiation in the rain have been performed at three wavelengths (3, 8 and 22 mm). Radiative properties of the rain have been simulated using public accessible T-matrix codes (Mishchenko, Moroz) for non-spherical particles of fixed orientation and realistic raindrop size distributions (Marshall-Palmer) within the range of rain intensity 1-100 mm/h. Thermal radiation of infinite flat slab medium and isolated rain cell of kilometer size has been simulated with finite difference scheme for the vectorial radiative transfer equation (VRTE) in dichroic scattering medium. Principal role of cell structure of the rain field in the formation of angular and spatial distribution of the intensity and polarization of the upwelling thermal radiation has been established. Possible approaches to interpretation of satellite data are also discussed. It is necessary that spatial resolution of microwave radiometers be less than rain cell size. At the present time the resolution is approximately 15 km. It can be considerably improved, for example by two-dimensional synthetic aperture millimeter-wave radiometric interferometer for measuring full-component Stokes vector of emission from hydrometeors. The estimates show that in millimeter band it is possible to develop such equipment with spatial resolution of the order of 1-2 km, which is significantly less than the size of rain cell, with sensitivity 0.3-0.5 K. Under this condition the second Stokes parameter may by successfully measured and may be used for investigation of precipitation regions. Y-shaped phased array antenna is the most promising to

  18. Cold field emission dominated photoconductivity in ordered three-dimensional assemblies of octapod-shaped CdSe/CdS nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, especially their ordered assemblies, are promising materials for various applications. In this paper, we investigate the photoconductive behavior of sub-micron size, ordered three-dimensional (3D) assemblies of octapod-shaped CdSe/CdS nanocrystals that are contacted by overlay electron-beam lithography. The regular structure of the assemblies leads to photocurrent-voltage curves that can be described by the cold field electron emission model. Mapping of the photoconductivity versus excitation wavelength and bias voltage allows the extraction of the band gap and identification of the photoactive region in the voltage and spectral domain. These results have important implications for the understanding of photoconductive transport in similar systems. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Three-dimensional lung tumor segmentation from x-ray computed tomography using sparse field active models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Joseph; Owrangi, Amir; Villemaire, Lauren; O'Riordan, Elaine; Parraga, Grace; Fenster, Aaron

    2012-02-01

    Manual segmentation of lung tumors is observer dependent and time-consuming but an important component of radiology and radiation oncology workflow. The objective of this study was to generate an automated lung tumor measurement tool for segmentation of pulmonary metastatic tumors from x-ray computed tomography (CT) images to improve reproducibility and decrease the time required to segment tumor boundaries. The authors developed an automated lung tumor segmentation algorithm for volumetric image analysis of chest CT images using shape constrained Otsu multithresholding (SCOMT) and sparse field active surface (SFAS) algorithms. The observer was required to select the tumor center and the SCOMT algorithm subsequently created an initial surface that was deformed using level set SFAS to minimize the total energy consisting of mean separation, edge, partial volume, rolling, distribution, background, shape, volume, smoothness, and curvature energies. The proposed segmentation algorithm was compared to manual segmentation whereby 21 tumors were evaluated using one-dimensional (1D) response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST), two-dimensional (2D) World Health Organization (WHO), and 3D volume measurements. Linear regression goodness-of-fit measures (r(2) = 0.63, p < 0.0001; r(2) = 0.87, p < 0.0001; and r(2) = 0.96, p < 0.0001), and Pearson correlation coefficients (r = 0.79, p < 0.0001; r = 0.93, p < 0.0001; and r = 0.98, p < 0.0001) for 1D, 2D, and 3D measurements, respectively, showed significant correlations between manual and algorithm results. Intra-observer intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) demonstrated high reproducibility for algorithm (0.989-0.995, 0.996-0.997, and 0.999-0.999) and manual measurements (0.975-0.993, 0.985-0.993, and 0.980-0.992) for 1D, 2D, and 3D measurements, respectively. The intra-observer coefficient of variation (CV%) was low for algorithm (3.09%-4.67%, 4.85%-5.84%, and 5

  20. Measuring the stress field around an evolving crack in tensile deformed Mg AZ31 using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oddershede, Jette; Camin, Bettina; Schmidt, Søren; Mikkelsen, Lars P.; Sørensen, Henning Osholm; Lienert, Ulrich; Poulsen, Henning Friis; Reimers, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The stress field around a notch in a coarse grained Mg AZ31 sample has been measured under tensile load using the individual grains as probes in an in situ high energy synchrotron diffraction experiment. The experimental set-up, a variant of three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy, allows the position, orientation and full stress tensor of each illuminated grain to be determined and, hence, enables the study of evolving stress fields in coarse grained materials with a spatial resolution equal to the grain size. Grain resolved information like this is vital for understanding what happens when the traditional continuum mechanics approach breaks down and fracture is governed by local heterogeneities (e.g. phase or stress differences) between grains. As a first approximation the results obtained were averaged through the thickness of the sample and compared with an elastic–plastic continuum finite element simulation. It was found that a full three-dimensional simulation was required to account for the measured transition from the overall plane stress case away from the notch to the essentially plane strain case observed near the notch tip. The measured and simulated stress contours were shown to be in good agreement except at the highest applied load, at which stress relaxation at the notch tip was observed in the experimental data. This stress relaxation is attributed to the initiation and propagation of a crack. Finally, it was demonstrated that the measured lattice rotations could be used as a qualitative measure of the shape and extent of the plastic deformation zone.

  1. Three-dimensional structure of the coronal magnetic field and the solar wind speed distribution projected on the photosphere in 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakamada, K.

    1987-01-01

    Since the solar wind and coronal holes were relatively steady in 1974, the average distribution of the solar wind speed on the source surface and that of the line-of-sight component of the photospheric magnetic fields (B 1 ) can be constructed, with fair accuracy, by the superposed epoch analysis. The three-dimensional structure of the coronal magnetic fields is then computed from this average map of B 1 based on the potential model. The average distribution of the solar wind speed on the source surface, obtained from interplanetary scintillation observations, is then projected onto the photosphere along the open field lines in the corona. The high-speed regions thus projected are compared with the He I (1083 nm) coronal holes and are found to have a similar geometry. The results are also suggestive that the solar wind does not blow out uniformly from the vicinity of a coronal hole and that the speed is higher at the east side in that region than at the west side. The slower speed regions on the source surface have a sinusoidal structure in heliographic latitude-longitude coordinates and are similar to the brightness distribution of the K corona and the structure of closed field line regions projected onto the photosphere. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  2. Surface representations of two- and three-dimensional fluid flow topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1990-01-01

    We discuss our work using critical point analysis to generate representations of the vector field topology of numerical flow data sets. Critical points are located and characterized in a two-dimensional domain, which may be either a two-dimensional flow field or the tangential velocity field near a three-dimensional body. Tangent curves are then integrated out along the principal directions of certain classes of critical points. The points and curves are linked to form a skeleton representing the two-dimensional vector field topology. When generated from the tangential velocity field near a body in a three-dimensional flow, the skeleton includes the critical points and curves which provide a basis for analyzing the three-dimensional structure of the flow separation. The points along the separation curves in the skeleton are used to start tangent curve integrations to generate surfaces representing the topology of the associated flow separations.

  3. Three-dimensional MHD simulation of the interaction of the solar wind with the earth's magnetosphere: The generation of field-aligned currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, T.

    1986-01-01

    A global computer simulation of the interaction of the solar wind with the earth's magnetosphere was executed by using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model. As a result, we were able to reproduce quasi-steady-state magnetospheric configurations and a Birkeland field-aligned current system which depend on the polarity of the z component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Twin convection cells and a dawn to dusk electric potential of 30--100 kV appeared at the equator in the magnetosphere. Four types of field-aligned currents were observed. Region 1 and 2 field-aligned currents generated for all IMF conditions were 0.6--1.0 x 10 6 A and 0.15--0.61 x 10 6 A, respectively, in the total current. Region 1 currents at high latitudes are generated from the field-aligned vorticity at the flanks through a viscous interaction and are strengthened by a twisting of open magnetic field lines in the tail region for southward IMF. On the other hand, the low-latitude region 2 currents probably are generated mainly from the inner pressure gradient of the plasma sheet. The region 1 current obtained from the simulation was in good agreement with an estimate from our theoretical analysis of the localized Alfven mode. The other two types of field-aligned currents are the dayside magnetopause currents in the dayside cusp region, which increase for northward IMF, and the dayside cusp currents for southward IMF. The cusp currents are associated with a twisting of open magnetic field lines in the magnetopause region

  4. A new method of fully three dimensional analysis of stress field in the soil layer of a soil-mantled hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y. H.; Nakakita, E.

    2017-12-01

    Hillslope stability is highly related to stress equilibrium near the top surface of soil-mantled hillslopes. Stress field in a hillslope can also be significantly altered by variable groundwater motion under the rainfall influence as well as by different vegetation above and below the slope. The topographic irregularity, biological effects from vegetation and variable rainfall patterns couple with others to make the prediction of shallow landslide complicated and difficult. In an increasing tendency of extreme rainfall, the mountainous area in Japan has suffered more and more shallow landslides. To better assess shallow landslide hazards, we would like to develop a new mechanically-based method to estimate the fully three-dimensional stress field in hillslopes. The surface soil-layer of hillslope is modelled as a poroelastic medium, and the tree surcharge on the slope surface is considered as a boundary input of stress forcing. The modelling of groundwater motion is involved to alter effective stress state in the soil layer, and the tree root-reinforcement estimated by allometric equations is taken into account for influencing the soil strength. The Mohr-Coulomb failure theory is then used for locating possible yielding surfaces, or says for identifying failure zones. This model is implemented by using the finite element method. Finally, we performed a case study of the real event of massive shallow landslides occurred in Hiroshima in August, 2014. The result shows good agreement with the field condition.

  5. Simulation of three-dimensional tectonic stress fields and quantitative prediction of tectonic fracture within the Damintun Depression, Liaohe Basin, northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Yao, Leihua; Ren, Desheng

    2016-05-01

    Tectonic fractures are important factors that influence oil and natural gas migration and accumulation within "buried hill" reservoirs. To obtain a quantitative forecast of the development and distribution of reservoir fractures in the Damintun Depression, we analyzed the characteristics of regional structural evolution and paleotectonic stress field setting. A reasonable geological model of the research area was built based on an interpretation of the geological structure, a test for rock mechanics, and experiment on acoustic emission. Thereafter, a three-dimensional paleotectonic stress field during the Yanshan movement was simulated by the finite element method. Rock failure criterion and comprehensive evaluation coefficient of fractures were used to determine the quantitative development of fractures and predict zones that are prone to fracture development. Under an intense Yanshan movement, high stress strength is distributed in the south and northeast parts of the study area, where stress is extremely high. The fracture development zones are mainly controlled by the tectonic stress field and typically located in the same areas as those of high maximum principal and shear stresses. The predicted areas with developed fractures are consistent with the wells with high fracture linear density and in locations with high-producing oil and gas wells.

  6. Calculation of three-dimensional groundwater transport using second-order moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Groundwater transport of contaminants from the F-Area seepage basin at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) was calculated using a three-dimensional, second-order moment technique. The numerical method calculates the zero, first, and second moment distributions of concentration within a cell volume. By summing the moments over the entire solution domain, and using a Lagrangian advection scheme, concentrations are transported without numerical dispersion errors. Velocities obtained from field tests are extrapolated and interpolated to all nodal points; a variational analysis is performed over the three-dimensional velocity field to ensure mass consistency. Transport predictions are calculated out to 12,000 days. 28 refs., 9 figs

  7. Three-dimensional effects in fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    An overall view of the pioneering theories and works, which enlighten the three-dimensional nature of fracture mechanics during the last years is given. the main aim is not an exhaustive reviewing but the displaying of the last developments on this scientific field in a natural way. This work attempts to envisage the limits of disregarding the three-dimensional behaviour in theories, analyses and experiments. Moreover, it tries to draw attention on the scant fervour, although increasing, this three-dimensional nature of fracture has among the scientific community. Finally, a constructive discussion is presented on the use of two-dimensional solutions in the analysis of geometries which bear a three-dimensional configuration. the static two-dimensional solutions and its applications fields are reviewed. also, the static three-dimensional solutions, wherein a comparative analysis with elastoplastic and elastostatic solutions are presented. to end up, the dynamic three-dimensional solutions are compared to the asymptotic two-dimensional ones under the practical applications point of view. (author)

  8. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2005-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context, qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  9. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by order, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  10. Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Grams, C. M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-07-01

    We present the application of interactive three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 (THORPEX - North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment) campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts (WCBs) has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and grid spacing of the forecast wind field. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (3 to 7 days before take-off).

  11. Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts – Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rautenhaus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the application of interactive three-dimensional (3-D visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 (THORPEX – North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts (WCBs has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and grid spacing of the forecast wind field. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (3 to 7 days before take-off.

  12. Three-dimensional scanning near field optical microscopy (3D-SNOM) imaging of random arrays of copper nanoparticles: implications for plasmonic solar cell enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezugwu, Sabastine; Ye, Hanyang; Fanchini, Giovanni

    2015-01-07

    In order to investigate the suitability of random arrays of nanoparticles for plasmonic enhancement in the visible-near infrared range, we introduced three-dimensional scanning near-field optical microscopy (3D-SNOM) imaging as a useful technique to probe the intensity of near-field radiation scattered by random systems of nanoparticles at heights up to several hundred nm from their surface. We demonstrated our technique using random arrays of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) at different particle diameter and concentration. Bright regions in the 3D-SNOM images, corresponding to constructive interference of forward-scattered plasmonic waves, were obtained at heights Δz ≥ 220 nm from the surface for random arrays of Cu-NPs of ∼ 60-100 nm in diameter. These heights are too large to use Cu-NPs in contact of the active layer for light harvesting in thin organic solar cells, which are typically no thicker than 200 nm. Using a 200 nm transparent spacer between the system of Cu-NPs and the solar cell active layer, we demonstrate that forward-scattered light can be conveyed in 200 nm thin film solar cells. This architecture increases the solar cell photoconversion efficiency by a factor of 3. Our 3D-SNOM technique is general enough to be suitable for a large number of other applications in nanoplasmonics.

  13. Velocity field calculation for non-orthogonal numerical grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-01

    -orthogonal grid, Darcy velocity components are rigorously derived in this study from normal fluxes to cell faces, which are assumed to be provided by or readily computed from porous-medium simulation code output. The normal fluxes are presumed to satisfy mass balances for every computational cell, and if so, the derived velocity fields are consistent with these mass balances. Derivations are provided for general two-dimensional quadrilateral and three-dimensional hexagonal systems, and for the commonly encountered special cases of perfectly vertical side faces in 2D and 3D and a rectangular footprint in 3D.

  14. Three dimensional MEMS supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei

    2011-10-15

    The overall objective of this research is to achieve compact supercapacitors with high capacitance, large power density, and long cycle life for using as micro power sources to drive low power devices and sensors. The main shortcoming of supercapacitors as a power source is that its energy density typically is about 1/10 of that of batteries. To achieve compact supercapacitors of large energy density, supercapacitors must be developed with high capacitance and power density which are mainly depended on the effective surface area of the electrodes of the supercapacitors. Many studies have been done to increase the effective surface area by modifying the electrode materials, however, much less investigations are focus on machining the electrodes. In my thesis work, micro- and nano-technologies are applied as technology approaches for machining the electrodes with three dimensional (3D) microstructures. More specific, Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) fabrication process flow, which integrates the key process such as LIGA-like (German acronym for Lithographie, Galvanoformung, Abformung, which mean Lithography, Electroplating and Molding) technology or DRIE (deep reactive ion etching), has been developed to enable innovative designs of 3D MEMS supercapacitors which own the electrodes of significantly increased geometric area. Two types of 3D MEMS supercapcitors, based on LIGA-like and DRIE technology respectively, were designed and successfully created. The LIGA-like based 3D MEMS supercapacitor is with an interdigital 3D structure, and consists of silicon substrate, two electroplated nickel current collectors, two PPy (poly pyrrole) electrodes, and solid state electrolyte. The fabrication process flow developed includes the flowing key processes, SU-8 lithography, nickel electroplating, PPy polymerization and solid state electrolyte coating. Electrochemical tests showed that the single electrode of the supercapacitor has the specific capacitance of 0.058 F cm-2

  15. Grid generation method to calculate the flow field in a three-dimensional cascade of blades. Sanjigen yokuretsu nagare keisan no tame no koshi keisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, K [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-05-01

    For the purpose of developing a fan for an engine with ultra-high by-pass ratio, the design code of three-dimensional cascade of blades based on the Navier-Stokes equation has already been developed. This paper describes a method created by calculation grids which are part of this design code. This method is to generate boundary fitted grids to calculate the flow field across a cascade of blades placed radially in the axially symmetric space between hub and casing. In this method, one-period domain of the cascade of blades is mapped on a box in computational space by a series of combined streching transformation and conformal mapping. The grid in physical space is then obtained by successive inverse conformal mapping on the grid points in computational space. The grid obtained in this method is H-type and has a periodicity which includes the inclination of grid lines at the periodic boundary. As an example of the grid generated by this method, grids for primary and secondary models of the fan with ultra-high by-pass ratio are shown. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Grid generation method to calculate the flow field in a three-dimensional cascade of blades; Sanjigen yokuretsu nagare keisan no tame no koshi keisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, K [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-05-01

    For the purpose of developing a fan for an engine with ultra-high by-pass ratio, the design code of three-dimensional cascade of blades based on the Navier-Stokes equation has already been developed. This paper describes a method created by calculation grids which are part of this design code. This method is to generate boundary fitted grids to calculate the flow field across a cascade of blades placed radially in the axially symmetric space between hub and casing. In this method, one-period domain of the cascade of blades is mapped on a box in computational space by a series of combined streching transformation and conformal mapping. The grid in physical space is then obtained by successive inverse conformal mapping on the grid points in computational space. The grid obtained in this method is H-type and has a periodicity which includes the inclination of grid lines at the periodic boundary. As an example of the grid generated by this method, grids for primary and secondary models of the fan with ultra-high by-pass ratio are shown. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  17. Determining the Critical Slip Surface of Three-Dimensional Soil Slopes from the Stress Fields Solved Using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-chuan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The slope stability problem is an important issue for the safety of human beings and structures. The stability analysis of the three-dimensional (3D slope is essential to prevent landslides, but the most important and difficult problem is how to determine the 3D critical slip surface with the minimum factor of safety in earth slopes. Basing on the slope stress field with the finite element method, a stability analysis method is proposed to determine the critical slip surface and the corresponding safety factor of 3D soil slopes. Spherical and ellipsoidal slip surfaces are considered through the analysis. The moment equilibrium is used to compute the safety factor combined with the Mohr-Coulomb criteria and the limit equilibrium principle. Some assumptions are introduced to reduce the search range of center points and the radius of spheres or ellipsoids. The proposed method is validated by a classical 3D benchmark soil slope. Simulated results indicate that the safety factor of the benchmark slope is 2.14 using the spherical slip surface and 2.19 using the ellipsoidal slip surface, which is close to the results of previous methods. The simulated results indicate that the proposed method can be used for the stability analysis of a 3D soil slope.

  18. Evolution of magnetic field and atmospheric response. I - Three-dimensional formulation by the method of projected characteristics. II - Formulation of proper boundary equations. [stellar magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The method described as the method of nearcharacteristics by Nakagawa (1980) is renamed the method of projected characteristics. Making full use of properties of the projected characteristics, a new and simpler formulation is developed. As a result, the formulation for the examination of the general three-dimensional problems is presented. It is noted that since in practice numerical solutions must be obtained, the final formulation is given in the form of difference equations. The possibility of including effects of viscous and ohmic dissipations in the formulation is considered, and the physical interpretation is discussed. A systematic manner is then presented for deriving physically self-consistent, time-dependent boundary equations for MHD initial boundary problems. It is demonstrated that the full use of the compatibility equations (differential equations relating variations at two spatial locations and times) is required in determining the time-dependent boundary conditions. In order to provide a clear physical picture as an example, the evolution of axisymmetric global magnetic field by photospheric differential rotation is considered.

  19. Self-consistent field theory of tethered polymers: one dimensional, three dimensional, strong stretching theories and the effects of excluded-volume-only interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Tongchuan; Whitmore, Mark D

    2014-11-28

    We examine end-tethered polymers in good solvents, using one- and three-dimensional self-consistent field theory, and strong stretching theories. We also discuss different tethering scenarios, namely, mobile tethers, fixed but random ones, and fixed but ordered ones, and the effects and important limitations of including only binary interactions (excluded volume terms). We find that there is a "mushroom" regime in which the layer thickness is independent of the tethering density, σ, for systems with ordered tethers, but we argue that there is no such plateau for mobile or disordered anchors, nor is there one in the 1D theory. In the other limit of brushes, all approaches predict that the layer thickness scales linearly with N. However, the σ(1/3) scaling is a result of keeping only excluded volume interactions: when the full potential is included, the dependence is faster and more complicated than σ(1/3). In fact, there does not appear to be any regime in which the layer thickness scales in the combination Nσ(1/3). We also compare the results for two different solvents with each other, and with earlier Θ solvent results.

  20. Self-consistent field theory of tethered polymers: One dimensional, three dimensional, strong stretching theories and the effects of excluded-volume-only interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, Tongchuan; Whitmore, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    We examine end-tethered polymers in good solvents, using one- and three-dimensional self-consistent field theory, and strong stretching theories. We also discuss different tethering scenarios, namely, mobile tethers, fixed but random ones, and fixed but ordered ones, and the effects and important limitations of including only binary interactions (excluded volume terms). We find that there is a “mushroom” regime in which the layer thickness is independent of the tethering density, σ, for systems with ordered tethers, but we argue that there is no such plateau for mobile or disordered anchors, nor is there one in the 1D theory. In the other limit of brushes, all approaches predict that the layer thickness scales linearly with N. However, the σ 1/3 scaling is a result of keeping only excluded volume interactions: when the full potential is included, the dependence is faster and more complicated than σ 1/3 . In fact, there does not appear to be any regime in which the layer thickness scales in the combination Nσ 1/3 . We also compare the results for two different solvents with each other, and with earlier Θ solvent results

  1. Evaluation of the chondromalacia patella using a microscopy coil: comparison of the two-dimensional fast spin echo techniques and the three-dimensional fast field echo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-joo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kang, Chang Ho; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Shin, Myung Jin; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Cho, Woo Shin

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to compare the two-dimensional (2D) fast spin echo (FSE) techniques and the three-dimensional (3D) fast field echo techniques for the evaluation of the chondromalacia patella using a microscopy coil. Twenty five patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were included in this study. Preoperative MRI evaluation of the patella was performed using a microscopy coil (47 mm). The proton density-weighted fast spin echo images (PD), the fat-suppressed PD images (FS-PD), the intermediate weighted-fat suppressed fast spin echo images (iw-FS-FSE), the 3D balanced-fast field echo images (B-FFE), the 3D water selective cartilage scan (WATS-c) and the 3D water selective fluid scan (WATS-f) were obtained on a 1.5T MRI scanner. The patellar cartilage was evaluated in nine areas: the superior, middle and the inferior portions that were subdivided into the medial, central and lateral facets in a total of 215 areas. Employing the Noyes grading system, the MRI grade 0-I, II and III lesions were compared using the gross and microscopic findings. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were evaluated for each sequence. The significance of the differences for the individual sequences was calculated using the McNemar test. The gross and microscopic findings demonstrated 167 grade 0-I lesions, 40 grade II lesions and eight grade III lesions. Iw-FS-FSE had the highest accuracy (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy = 88%/98%/96%), followed by FS-PD (78%/98%/93%, respectively), PD (76%/98%/93%, respectively), B-FFE (71%/100%/93%, respectively), WATS-c (67%/100%/92%, respectively) and WATS-f (58%/99%/89%, respectively). There were statistically significant differences for the iw-FS-FSE and WATS-f and for the PD-FS and WATS-f (p chondromalacia patella.

  2. Development and Clinical Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Estimation Method Using a Deformation Field Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Lei; Chetty, Indrin J.; Zhang Junan; Jin Jianyue; Wu, Q. Jackie; Yan Hui; Brizel, David M.; Lee, W. Robert; Movsas, Benjamin; Yin Fangfang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a three-dimensional (3D) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) estimation method using a deformation field map, and to evaluate and optimize the efficiency and accuracy of the method for use in the clinical setting. Methods and Materials: We propose a method to estimate patient CBCT images using prior information and a deformation model. Patients’ previous CBCT data are used as the prior information, and the new CBCT volume to be estimated is considered as a deformation of the prior image volume. The deformation field map is solved by minimizing deformation energy and maintaining new projection data fidelity using a nonlinear conjugate gradient method. This method was implemented in 3D form using hardware acceleration and multi-resolution scheme, and it was evaluated for different scan angles, projection numbers, and scan directions using liver, lung, and prostate cancer patient data. The accuracy of the estimation was evaluated by comparing the organ volume difference and the similarity between estimated CBCT and the CBCT reconstructed from fully sampled projections. Results: Results showed that scan direction and number of projections do not have significant effects on the CBCT estimation accuracy. The total scan angle is the dominant factor affecting the accuracy of the CBCT estimation algorithm. Larger scan angles yield better estimation accuracy than smaller scan angles. Lung cancer patient data showed that the estimation error of the 3D lung tumor volume was reduced from 13.3% to 4.3% when the scan angle was increased from 60° to 360° using 57 projections. Conclusions: The proposed estimation method is applicable for 3D DTS, 3D CBCT, four-dimensional CBCT, and four-dimensional DTS image estimation. This method has the potential for significantly reducing the imaging dose and improving the image quality by removing the organ distortion artifacts and streak artifacts shown in images reconstructed by the conventional Feldkamp

  3. Visualizing flow fields using acoustic Doppler current profilers and the Velocity Mapping Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide examples of how the U.S. Geological Survey is using acoustic Doppler current profilers for much more than routine discharge measurements. These instruments are capable of mapping complex three-dimensional flow fields within rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Using the Velocity Mapping Toolbox to process the ADCP data allows detailed visualization of the data, providing valuable information for a range of studies and applications.

  4. Neutron stars velocities and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paret, Daryel Manreza; Martinez, A. Perez; Ayala, Alejandro.; Piccinelli, G.; Sanchez, A.

    2018-01-01

    We study a model that explain neutron stars velocities due to the anisotropic emission of neutrinos. Strong magnetic fields present in neutron stars are the source of the anisotropy in the system. To compute the velocity of the neutron star we model its core as composed by strange quark matter and analice the properties of a magnetized quark gas at finite temperature and density. Specifically we have obtained the electron polarization and the specific heat of magnetized fermions as a functions of the temperature, chemical potential and magnetic field which allow us to study the velocity of the neutron star as a function of these parameters.

  5. Verification and Improvement of the Three-Dimensional Basin Velocity Structure Model in the Osaka Sedimentary Basin, Japan Using Interstation Green's Functions and H/V Spectral Ratios of Microtremors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, K.; Iwata, T.; Sekiguchi, H.; Somei, K.; Nishimura, T.; Miyakoshi, K.; Aoi, S.; Kunugi, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Osaka sedimentary basin is filled by the Plio-Pleistocene Osaka group, terrace deposits, and alluvium deposits with thickness of 1 to 2 km over the bedrock, and it is surrounded by active fault systems. The Uemachi active fault system underlies the Osaka urban area. In order to predict the strong ground motions for future events of the Uemachi fault and others, the precise basin velocity structure model is indispensable as well as the detailed source fault model. The velocity structure of the Osaka basin has been extensively investigated by using various techniques such as gravity anomaly measurements, reflection surveys, boring explorations, and microtremor measurements. Based on these surveys and ground motion simulations for observed events, the three-dimensional velocity structure models of the Osaka basin have been developed and improved for decades (e.g., Kagawa et al., 1993; Horikawa et al., 2003; Iwata et al., 2008; Iwaki and Iwata, 2011). Now we are trying to verify the velocity structure model of the Osaka basin and to improve it incorporating new data sets. We have conducted two kinds of observations in the Osaka basin. The first observation is continuous microtremor observation. We have temporarily installed three-component velocity sensors at 15 sites covering the Osaka basin to record microtremors continuously for more than one year. The seismic interferometry technique (e.g. Shapiro and Campillo, 2004) is applied to retrieve interstation Green's function for analyzing the wave propagation characteristics inside the sedimentary basin. Both Rayleigh- and Love-wave type signals are identified in 0.1-0.5 Hz from observed interstation Green's functions. The group velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves propagating between two stations are estimated from them using the multiple filter analysis method, and they are compared with the theoretical group-velocities of the model. For example, estimated Love-wave group velocity along a line inside the basin is

  6. THREE-DIMENSIONAL FEATURES OF THE OUTER HELIOSPHERE DUE TO COUPLING BETWEEN THE INTERSTELLAR AND INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELDS. IV. SOLAR CYCLE MODEL BASED ON ULYSSES OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Suess, S. T. [National Space Science and Technology Center, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Borovikov, S. N. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Dr., Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Ebert, R. W.; McComas, D. J., E-mail: np0002@uah.edu [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78227 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    The solar cycle has a profound influence on the solar wind (SW) interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) on more than one timescales. Also, there are substantial differences in individual solar cycle lengths and SW behavior within them. The presence of a slow SW belt, with a variable latitudinal extent changing within each solar cycle from rather small angles to 90 Degree-Sign , separated from the fast wind that originates at coronal holes substantially affects plasma in the inner heliosheath (IHS)-the SW region between the termination shock (TS) and the heliopause (HP). The solar cycle may be the reason why the complicated flow structure is observed in the IHS by Voyager 1. In this paper, we show that a substantial decrease in the SW ram pressure observed by Ulysses between the TS crossings by Voyager 1 and 2 contributes significantly to the difference in the heliocentric distances at which these crossings occurred. The Ulysses spacecraft is the source of valuable information about the three-dimensional and time-dependent properties of the SW. Its unique fast latitudinal scans of the SW regions make it possible to create a solar cycle model based on the spacecraft in situ measurements. On the basis of our analysis of the Ulysses data over the entire life of the mission, we generated time-dependent boundary conditions at 10 AU from the Sun and applied our MHD-neutral model to perform a numerical simulation of the SW-LISM interaction. We analyzed the global variations in the interaction pattern, the excursions of the TS and the HP, and the details of the plasma and magnetic field distributions in the IHS. Numerical results are compared with Voyager data as functions of time in the spacecraft frame. We discuss solar cycle effects which may be reasons for the recent decrease in the TS particles (ions accelerated to anomalous cosmic-ray energies) flux observed by Voyager 1.

  7. THREE-DIMENSIONAL FEATURES OF THE OUTER HELIOSPHERE DUE TO COUPLING BETWEEN THE INTERSTELLAR AND INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELDS. IV. SOLAR CYCLE MODEL BASED ON ULYSSES OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.; Suess, S. T.; Borovikov, S. N.; Ebert, R. W.; McComas, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    The solar cycle has a profound influence on the solar wind (SW) interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) on more than one timescales. Also, there are substantial differences in individual solar cycle lengths and SW behavior within them. The presence of a slow SW belt, with a variable latitudinal extent changing within each solar cycle from rather small angles to 90°, separated from the fast wind that originates at coronal holes substantially affects plasma in the inner heliosheath (IHS)—the SW region between the termination shock (TS) and the heliopause (HP). The solar cycle may be the reason why the complicated flow structure is observed in the IHS by Voyager 1. In this paper, we show that a substantial decrease in the SW ram pressure observed by Ulysses between the TS crossings by Voyager 1 and 2 contributes significantly to the difference in the heliocentric distances at which these crossings occurred. The Ulysses spacecraft is the source of valuable information about the three-dimensional and time-dependent properties of the SW. Its unique fast latitudinal scans of the SW regions make it possible to create a solar cycle model based on the spacecraft in situ measurements. On the basis of our analysis of the Ulysses data over the entire life of the mission, we generated time-dependent boundary conditions at 10 AU from the Sun and applied our MHD-neutral model to perform a numerical simulation of the SW-LISM interaction. We analyzed the global variations in the interaction pattern, the excursions of the TS and the HP, and the details of the plasma and magnetic field distributions in the IHS. Numerical results are compared with Voyager data as functions of time in the spacecraft frame. We discuss solar cycle effects which may be reasons for the recent decrease in the TS particles (ions accelerated to anomalous cosmic-ray energies) flux observed by Voyager 1.

  8. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAli, Ahmad B; Griffin, Michelle F; Butler, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice.

  9. Towards three-dimensional optical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuo; Ishikawa, Atsushi

    2017-12-01

    Metamaterials have opened up the possibility of unprecedented and fascinating concepts and applications in optics and photonics. Examples include negative refraction, perfect lenses, cloaking, perfect absorbers, and so on. Since these metamaterials are man-made materials composed of sub-wavelength structures, their development strongly depends on the advancement of micro- and nano-fabrication technologies. In particular, the realization of three-dimensional metamaterials is one of the big challenges in this research field. In this review, we describe recent progress in the fabrication technologies for three-dimensional metamaterials, as well as proposed applications.

  10. Three-dimensional topological insulators and bosonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Andrea [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Randellini, Enrico [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Sisti, Jacopo [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA),Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2017-05-25

    Massless excitations at the surface of three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulators possess both fermionic and bosonic descriptions, originating from band theory and hydrodynamic BF theory, respectively. We analyze the corresponding field theories of the Dirac fermion and compactified boson and compute their partition functions on the three-dimensional torus geometry. We then find some non-dynamic exact properties of bosonization in (2+1) dimensions, regarding fermion parity and spin sectors. Using these results, we extend the Fu-Kane-Mele stability argument to fractional topological insulators in three dimensions.

  11. Jovian cloud structure and velocity fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.L.; Terrile, R.J.; Collins, S.A.; Smith, B.A.; Muller, J.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Hunt, G.E.; Beebe, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    A regional comparison of the cloud structures and velocity fields (meridional as well as zonal velocities) in the jovian atmosphere (scales > 200 km) as observed by the Voyager 1 imaging system is given. It is shown that although both hemispheres of Jupiter show similar patterns of diminishing and alternating eastward and westward jets as one progresses polewards, there is a pronounced asymmetry in the structural appearance of the two hemispheres. (UK)

  12. Evaluation of the Chondromalacia Patella Using a Microscopy Coil: Comparison of the Two-Dimensional Fast Spin Echo Techniques and the Three-Dimensional Fast Field Echo Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kang, Chang Ho; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Shin, Myung Jin; Cho, Kyung Ja; Cho, Woo Shin

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to compare the two-dimensional (2D) fast spin echo (FSE) techniques and the three-dimensional (3D) fast field echo techniques for the evaluation of the chondromalacia patella using a microscopy coil. Twenty five patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were included in this study. Preoperative MRI evaluation of the patella was performed using a microscopy coil (47 mm). The proton density-weighted fast spin echo images (PD), the fat-suppressed PD images (FS-PD), the intermediate weighted-fat suppressed fast spin echo images (iw-FS-FSE), the 3D balanced-fast fi eld echo images (B-FFE), the 3D water selective cartilage scan (WATS-c) and the 3D water selective fluid scan (WATS-f) were obtained on a 1.5T MRI scanner. The patellar cartilage was evaluated in nine areas: the superior, middle and the inferior portions that were subdivided into the medial, central and lateral facets in a total of 215 areas. Employing the Noyes grading system, the MRI grade 0-I, II and III lesions were compared using the gross and microscopic findings. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were evaluated for each sequence. The significance of the differences for the individual sequences was calculated using the McNemar test. The gross and microscopic findings demonstrated 167 grade 0-I lesions, 40 grade II lesions and eight grade III lesions. Iw-FS-FSE had the highest accuracy (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy = 88%/98%/96%), followed by FSPD (78%/98%/93%, respectively), PD (76%/98%/93%, respectively), B-FFE (71%/100%/93%, respectively), WATS-c (67%/100%/92%, respectively) and WATS-f (58%/99%/89%, respectively). There were statistically significant differences for the iw-FS-FSE and WATS-f and for the PD-FS and WATS-f (p < 0.01). The iw-FS-FSE images obtained with a microscopy coil show best diagnostic performance among the 2D and 3D GRE images for evaluating the chondromalacia patella

  13. Evaluation of the Chondromalacia Patella Using a Microscopy Coil: Comparison of the Two-Dimensional Fast Spin Echo Techniques and the Three-Dimensional Fast Field Echo Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kang, Chang Ho; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Shin, Myung Jin; Cho, Kyung Ja; Cho, Woo Shin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    We wanted to compare the two-dimensional (2D) fast spin echo (FSE) techniques and the three-dimensional (3D) fast field echo techniques for the evaluation of the chondromalacia patella using a microscopy coil. Twenty five patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were included in this study. Preoperative MRI evaluation of the patella was performed using a microscopy coil (47 mm). The proton density-weighted fast spin echo images (PD), the fat-suppressed PD images (FS-PD), the intermediate weighted-fat suppressed fast spin echo images (iw-FS-FSE), the 3D balanced-fast fi eld echo images (B-FFE), the 3D water selective cartilage scan (WATS-c) and the 3D water selective fluid scan (WATS-f) were obtained on a 1.5T MRI scanner. The patellar cartilage was evaluated in nine areas: the superior, middle and the inferior portions that were subdivided into the medial, central and lateral facets in a total of 215 areas. Employing the Noyes grading system, the MRI grade 0-I, II and III lesions were compared using the gross and microscopic findings. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were evaluated for each sequence. The significance of the differences for the individual sequences was calculated using the McNemar test. The gross and microscopic findings demonstrated 167 grade 0-I lesions, 40 grade II lesions and eight grade III lesions. Iw-FS-FSE had the highest accuracy (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy = 88%/98%/96%), followed by FSPD (78%/98%/93%, respectively), PD (76%/98%/93%, respectively), B-FFE (71%/100%/93%, respectively), WATS-c (67%/100%/92%, respectively) and WATS-f (58%/99%/89%, respectively). There were statistically significant differences for the iw-FS-FSE and WATS-f and for the PD-FS and WATS-f (p < 0.01). The iw-FS-FSE images obtained with a microscopy coil show best diagnostic performance among the 2D and 3D GRE images for evaluating the chondromalacia patella

  14. Spatial-temporal three-dimensional ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound in free field and pulsatile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ting; Hu, Hong; Bai, Chen; Guo, Shifang; Yang, Miao; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-07-01

    Cavitation plays important roles in almost all high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications. However, current two-dimensional (2D) cavitation mapping could only provide cavitation activity in one plane. This study proposed a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping (3D-UPACM) for HIFU in free field and pulsatile flow. The acquisition of channel-domain raw radio-frequency (RF) data in 3D space was performed by sequential plane-by-plane 2D ultrafast active cavitation mapping. Between two adjacent unit locations, there was a waiting time to make cavitation nuclei distribution of the liquid back to the original state. The 3D cavitation map equivalent to the one detected at one time and over the entire volume could be reconstructed by Marching Cube algorithm. Minimum variance (MV) adaptive beamforming was combined with coherence factor (CF) weighting (MVCF) or compressive sensing (CS) method (MVCS) to process the raw RF data for improved beamforming or more rapid data processing. The feasibility of 3D-UPACM was demonstrated in tap-water and a phantom vessel with pulsatile flow. The time interval between temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud could be several microseconds. MVCF beamformer had a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at 14.17dB higher, lateral and axial resolution at 2.88times and 1.88times, respectively, which were compared with those of B-mode active cavitation mapping. MVCS beamformer had only 14.94% time penalty of that of MVCF beamformer. This 3D-UPACM technique employs the linear array of a current ultrasound diagnosis system rather than a 2D array transducer to decrease the cost of the instrument. Moreover, although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid medium or a constant supply of new cavitation nuclei that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, this technique may exhibit a useful tool in 3D cavitation mapping for HIFU with high speed, precision and resolution

  15. Three-dimensional Features of the Outer Heliosphere Due to Coupling between the Interstellar and Heliospheric Magnetic Field. V. The Bow Wave, Heliospheric Boundary Layer, Instabilities, and Magnetic Reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, N. V.; Heerikhuisen, J. [Department of Space Science, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Roytershteyn, V. [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Burlaga, L. F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S., E-mail: nikolai.pogorelov@uah.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The heliosphere is formed due to interaction between the solar wind (SW) and local interstellar medium (LISM). The shape and position of the heliospheric boundary, the heliopause, in space depend on the parameters of interacting plasma flows. The interplay between the asymmetrizing effect of the interstellar magnetic field and charge exchange between ions and neutral atoms plays an important role in the SW–LISM interaction. By performing three-dimensional, MHD plasma/kinetic neutral atom simulations, we determine the width of the outer heliosheath—the LISM plasma region affected by the presence of the heliosphere—and analyze quantitatively the distributions in front of the heliopause. It is shown that charge exchange modifies the LISM plasma to such extent that the contribution of a shock transition to the total variation of plasma parameters becomes small even if the LISM velocity exceeds the fast magnetosonic speed in the unperturbed medium. By performing adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we show that a distinct boundary layer of decreased plasma density and enhanced magnetic field should be observed on the interstellar side of the heliopause. We show that this behavior is in agreement with the plasma oscillations of increasing frequency observed by the plasma wave instrument onboard Voyager 1. We also demonstrate that Voyager observations in the inner heliosheath between the heliospheric termination shock and the heliopause are consistent with dissipation of the heliospheric magnetic field. The choice of LISM parameters in this analysis is based on the simulations that fit observations of energetic neutral atoms performed by Interstellar Boundary Explorer .

  16. Three-dimensional numerical study of heat transfer characteristics of plain plate fin-and-tube heat exchangers from view point of field synergy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.L.; Tao, W.Q.; Song, F.Q.; Zhang, W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, 3-D numerical simulations were performed for laminar heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of plate fin-and-tube heat exchanger. The effects of five factors were examined: Re number, fin pitch, tube row number, spanwise and longitudinal tube pitch. The Reynolds number based on the tube diameter varied from 288 to 5000, the non-dimensional fin pitch based on the tube diameter varied from 0.04 to 0.5, the tube row number from 1 to 4, the spanwise tube pitch S 1 /d varies from 1.2 to 3, and the longitudinal tube pitch S 2 /d from 1.0 to 2.4. The numerical results were analyzed from the view point of field synergy principle, which says that the reduction of the intersection angle between velocity and fluid temperature gradient is the basic mechanism to enhance convective heat transfer. It is found that the effects of the five parameters on the heat transfer performance of the finned tube banks can be well described by the field synergy principle, i.e., the enhancement or deterioration of the convective heat transfer across the finned tube banks is inherently related to the variation of the intersection angle between the velocity and the fluid temperature gradient. It is also recommended that to further enhance the convective heat transfer, the enhancement techniques, such as slotting the fin, should be adopted mainly in the rear part of the fin where the synergy between local velocity and temperature gradient become worse

  17. Three-dimensional biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Scientists in biomedical imaging provide researchers, physicians, and academicians with an understanding of the fundamental theories and practical applications of three-dimensional biomedical imaging methodologies. Succinct descriptions of each imaging modality are supported by numerous diagrams and illustrations which clarify important concepts and demonstrate system performance in a variety of applications. Comparison of the different functional attributes, relative advantages and limitations, complementary capabilities, and future directions of three-dimensional biomedical imaging modalities are given. Volume 1: Introductions to Three-Dimensional Biomedical Imaging Photoelectronic-Digital Imaging for Diagnostic Radiology. X-Ray Computed Tomography - Basic Principles. X-Ray Computed Tomography - Implementation and Applications. X-Ray Computed Tomography: Advanced Systems and Applications in Biomedical Research and Diagnosis. Volume II: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography. Position Emission Tomography (PET). Computerized Ultrasound Tomography. Fundamentals of NMR Imaging. Display of Multi-Dimensional Biomedical Image Information. Summary and Prognostications

  18. The three-dimensional compressible flow in a radial inflow turbine scroll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, A.; Tabakoff, W.; Malak, M.

    1984-01-01

    This work presents the results of an analytical study and an experimental investigation of the three-dimensional flow in a turbine scroll. The finite element method is used in the iterative numerical solution of the locally linearized governing equations for the three-dimensional velocity potential field. The results of the numerical computations are compared with the experimental measurements in the scroll cross sections, which were obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot wire techniques. The results of the computations show a variation in the flow conditions around the rotor periphery which was found to depend on the scroll geometry.

  19. Turbulence in Three Dimensional Simulations of Magnetopause Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, J. F.; Price, L.; Swisdak, M.; Burch, J. L.; Cassak, P.; Dahlin, J. T.; Ergun, R.

    2017-12-01

    We present two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the 16 October 2015 MMS magnetopause reconnection event. While the two-dimensional simulation is laminar, turbulence develops at both the x-line and along the magnetic separatrices in the three-dimensional simulation. This turbulence is electromagnetic in nature, is characterized by a wavevector k given by kρ e ˜(m_e/m_i)0.25 with ρ e the electron Larmor radius, and appears to have the ion pressure gradient as its source of free energy. Taken together, these results suggest the instability is a variant of the lower-hybrid drift instability. The turbulence produces electric field fluctuations in the out-of-plane direction (the direction of the reconnection electric field) with an amplitude of around ± 10 mV/m, which is much greater than the reconnection electric field of around 0.1 mV/m. Such large values of the out-of-plane electric field have been identified in the MMS data. The turbulence in the simulation controls the scale lengths of the density profile and current layers in asymmetric reconnection, driving them closer to √ {ρ eρ_i } than the ρ e or de scalings seen in 2D reconnection simulations, where de is the electron inertial length. The turbulence is strong enough to make the magnetic field around the reconnection island chaotic and produces both anomalous resistivity and anomalous viscosity. Each contribute significantly to breaking the frozen-in condition in the electron diffusion region. The crescent-shaped features in velocity space seen both in MMS observations and in two-dimensional simulations survive, even in the turbulent environment of the three-dimensional system. We compare and contrast these results to a three-dimensional simulation of the 8 December 2015 MMS magnetopause reconnection event in which the reconnecting and out-of-plane guide fields are comparable. LHDI is still present in this event, although its appearance is modified by the presence of the guide

  20. Three-dimensional investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a bubbly pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidl, W.; Hassan, Y.A.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.

    1996-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a nonintrusive measurement technique that can be used to study the structure of various fluid flows. PIV is used to measure the time-varying, full-field velocity data of a particle-seeded flow field within either a two-dimensional plane or three-dimensional volume. PIV is a very efficient measurement technique since it can obtain both qualitative and quantitative spatial information about the flow field being studied. The quantitative spatial velocity information can be further processed into information of flow parameters such as vorticity and turbulence over extended areas. The objective of this study was to apply recent advances and improvements in the PIV flow measurement technique to the full-field, nonintrusive analysis of a three-dimensional, two-phase fluid flow system in such a manner that both components of the two-phase system could be experimentally quantified

  1. An internal magnetic field strategy to reuse pulverized active materials for high performance: a magnetic three-dimensional ordered macroporous TiO2/CoPt/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yiping; Hong, Liang; Li, Jiquan; Hou, Guangya; Cao, Huazhen; Wu, Liankui; Zheng, Guoqu; Wu, Qingliu

    2017-05-09

    A ferromagnetic three-dimensional ordered macroporous TiO 2 /CoPt/α-Fe 2 O 3 (3DOMTCF) nanocomposite was synthesized via a sol-gel approach templated by poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microspheres. After magnetization, it exhibited an extremely high reversible capacity and a long cycle life, which were ascribed to the internal magnetic field for reusing pulverized active materials and its unique structure.

  2. Temporal Changes of the Photospheric Velocity Fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klvaňa, Miroslav; Švanda, Michal; Bumba, Václav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2005), s. 89-98 ISSN 0351-2657. [Hvar astrophysical colloquium /7./: Solar activity cycle and global phenomena. Hvar, 20.09.2004-24.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/2129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Solar photosphere * velocity fields * tidal waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  3. (Weakly) three-dimensional caseology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomraning, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    The singular eigenfunction technique of Case for solving one-dimensional planar symmetry linear transport problems is extended to a restricted class of three-dimensional problems. This class involves planar geometry, but with forcing terms (either boundary conditions or internal sources) which are weakly dependent upon the transverse spatial variables. Our analysis involves a singular perturbation about the classic planar analysis, and leads to the usual Case discrete and continuum modes, but modulated by weakly dependent three-dimensional spatial functions. These functions satisfy parabolic differential equations, with a different diffusion coefficient for each mode. Representative one-speed time-independent transport problems are solved in terms of these generalised Case eigenfunctions. Our treatment is very heuristic, but may provide an impetus for more rigorous analysis. (author)

  4. Development Report on the Idaho National Laboratory Sitewide Three-Dimensional Aquifer Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas R. Wood; Catherine M. Helm-Clark; Hai Huang; Swen Magnuson; Travis McLing; Brennon Orr; Michael J. Rohe; Mitchell A. Plummer; Robert Podgorney; Erik Whitmore; Michael S. Roddy

    2007-09-01

    region near the toe of the Arco Hills. This discrepancy persisted in each of the aquifer bottom thickness scenarios that were simulated precluding decisions on which aquifer bottom thickness to use in transport simulations. When joint-calibration was performed using both water levels and velocities assigned as calibration targets, the discrepancy was prevented. This result highlighted the need to consider multiple calibration objectives and not rely solely on calibration to water levels. The next and last step in the process of constructing a fully three-dimensional groundwater flow and contaminant transport model will be calibration directly to transport from facilities. This last step will likely require further modification of the velocity fields resulting from the three-dimensional groundwater flow model presented in this report.

  5. A full three dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical simulation of flow field inside a power plant Kaplan turbine using some model test turbine hill chart points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinalipour, S. M.; Raja, A.; Hajikhani, S.

    2012-06-01

    A full three dimensional Navier - Stokes numerical simulation has been performed for performance analysis of a Kaplan turbine which is installed in one of the Irans south dams. No simplifications have been enforced in the simulation. The numerical results have been evaluated using some integral parameters such as the turbine efficiency via comparing the results with existing experimental data from the prototype Hill chart. In part of this study the numerical simulations were performed in order to calculate the prototype turbine efficiencies in some specific points which comes from the scaling up of the model efficiency that are available in the model experimental Hill chart. The results are very promising which shows the good ability of the numerical techniques for resolving the flow characteristics in these kind of complex geometries. A parametric study regarding the evaluation of turbine performance in three different runner angles of the prototype is also performed and the results are cited in this paper.

  6. Three-dimensional bio-printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing.

  7. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.L.; Eddy, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory has recently acquired the computer hardware (Silicon Graphics Personal Iris Workstations) and software (Dynamic Graphics, Interactive Surface and Volume Modeling) to perform three dimensional analysis of hydrogeologic data. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data is a powerful technique that can be used to incorporate field, analytical, and modeling results from geologic, hydrologic, ecologic, and chemical studies into a comprehensive model for visualization and interpretation. This report covers the contamination of four different sites of the Savannah River Plant. Each section of this report has a computer graphic display of the concentration of contamination in the groundwater and/or sediments of each site

  8. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  9. The Group Evacuation Behavior Based on Fire Effect in the Complicated Three-Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively depict the group evacuation behavior in the complicated three-dimensional space, a novel pedestrian flow model is proposed with three-dimensional cellular automata. In this model the calculation methods of floor field and fire gain are elaborated at first, and the transition gain of target position at the next moment is defined. Then, in consideration of pedestrian intimacy and velocity change, the group evacuation strategy and evolution rules are given. Finally, the experiments were conducted with the simulation platform to study the relationships of evacuation time, pedestrian density, average system velocity, and smoke spreading velocity. The results had shown that large-scale group evacuation should be avoided, and in case of large pedestrian density, the shortest route of evacuation strategy would extend system evacuation time.

  10. Numerical study of effects of the beam tube on laser fields with a three-dimensional simulation code using the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Sobajima, M; Yamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, K; Ohnishi, M; Toku, H; Masuda, K; Kitagaki, J; Nakamura, T

    1999-01-01

    In January 1997, the Beijing FEL observed large laser amplification at 8-18 mu m. However, through the collaborative work, it was found from both experiments and numerical simulations that the laser loss on the beam tube wall was not negligible, and that the saturation was not seen in the relatively long wavelength range because of this loss. This calls for further investigation on the effects of the beam tube of finite size. In order to include such effects self-consistently, we have developed a new three-dimensional code that can solve equations with the boundary conditions of the beam tube by using the Finite Element Method. Results show that the beam tube effects are dominant in deriving higher laser modes in the tube, compared with the optical guiding effects, and consequently reduced gain especially in the longer wavelength range, where the beam tube effects are greatly emphasized. It is also found that TEM sub 0 sub 2 mode is the most dominant higher mode in the beam tube, and is also the main cause of...

  11. Three Dimensional Double Layers in Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, D.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1982-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the formation of fully three dimensional double layers in a magnetized plasma. The measurements are performed in a magnetized stationary plasma column with radius 1.5 cm. Double layers are produced by introducing an electron beam with radius 0.......4 cm along the magnetic field from one end of the column. The voltage drop across the double layer is found to be determined by the energy of the incoming electron beam. In general we find that the width of the double layer along the external magnetic field is determined by plasma density and beam...

  12. A three dimensional model of a vane rheometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, Behzad; Moghaddam, Ramin Heidari; Bousfield, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • FEM was used to calculate the isothermal flow parameters in a vane geometry. • Velocity, pressure and then stress fields were obtained. • Using total stress, shaft torque was calculated to compare with experimental data. • A modified cell Reynolds number and power number were used to study flow pattern. • A comparison between 2D and 3D modeling was done based on calculated torques. -- Abstract: Vane type geometries are often used in rheometers to avoid slippage between the sample and the fixtures. While yield stress and other rheological properties can be obtained with this geometry, a complete analysis of this complex flow field is lacking in the literature. In this work, a finite element method is used to calculate the isothermal flow parameters in a vane geometry. The method solves the mass and momentum continuity equations to obtain velocity, pressure and then stress fields. Using the total stress numerical data, we calculated the torque applied on solid surfaces. The validity of the computational model was established by comparing the results to experimental results of shaft torque at different angular velocities. The conditions where inertial terms become important and the linear relationship between torque and stress are quantified with dimensionless groups. The accuracy of a two dimensional analysis is compared to the three dimensional results

  13. Potential, velocity, and density fields from redshift-distance samples: Application - Cosmography within 6000 kilometers per second

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, E.; Dekel, A.; Faber, S.M.; Dressler, A.; Burstein, D.

    1990-01-01

    A potential flow reconstruction algorithm has been applied to the real universe to reconstruct the three-dimensional potential, velocity, and mass density fields smoothed on large scales. The results are shown as maps of these fields, revealing the three-dimensional structure within 6000 km/s distance from the Local Group. The dominant structure is an extended deep potential well in the Hydra-Centaurus region, stretching across the Galactic plane toward Pavo, broadly confirming the Great Attractor (GA) model of Lynden-Bell et al. (1988). The Local Supercluster appears to be an extended ridge on the near flank of the GA, proceeding through the Virgo Southern Extension to the Virgo and Ursa Major clusters. The Virgo cluster and the Local Group are both falling toward the bottom of the GA potential well with peculiar velocities of 658 + or - 121 km/s and 565 + or - 125 km/s, respectively. 65 refs

  14. Potential, velocity, and density fields from redshift-distance samples: Application - Cosmography within 6000 kilometers per second

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschinger, Edmund; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, Sandra M.; Dressler, Alan; Burstein, David

    1990-12-01

    A potential flow reconstruction algorithm has been applied to the real universe to reconstruct the three-dimensional potential, velocity, and mass density fields smoothed on large scales. The results are shown as maps of these fields, revealing the three-dimensional structure within 6000 km/s distance from the Local Group. The dominant structure is an extended deep potential well in the Hydra-Centaurus region, stretching across the Galactic plane toward Pavo, broadly confirming the Great Attractor (GA) model of Lynden-Bell et al. (1988). The Local Supercluster appears to be an extended ridge on the near flank of the GA, proceeding through the Virgo Southern Extension to the Virgo and Ursa Major clusters. The Virgo cluster and the Local Group are both falling toward the bottom of the GA potential well with peculiar velocities of 658 + or - 121 km/s and 565 + or - 125 km/s, respectively.

  15. Three dimensional periodic foundations for base seismic isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y; Mo, Y L; Cheng, Z; Shi, Z; Menq, F; Tang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Based on the concept of phononic crystals, periodic foundations made of periodic materials are investigated in this paper. The periodic foundations can provide low frequency band gaps, which cover the main frequency ranges of seismic waves. Therefore, the periodic foundations are able to protect the upper structures during earthquake events. In this paper, the basic theory of three dimensional periodic foundations is studied and the finite element method was used to conduct the sensitivity study. A simplified three-dimensional periodic foundation with a superstructure was tested in the field and the feasibility of three dimensional periodic foundations was proved. The test results showed that the response of the upper structure with the three dimensional periodic foundation was reduced under excitation waves with the main frequency falling in the attenuation zones. The finite element analysis results are consistent with the experimental data, indicating that three dimensional periodic foundations are a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations. (paper)

  16. Diffraction limited focusing with controllable arbitrary three-dimensional polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weibin; Zhan, Qiwen

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new approach that enables full control over the three-dimensional state of polarization and the field distribution near the focus of a high numerical aperture objective lens. By combining the electric dipole radiation and a vectorial diffraction method, the input field at the pupil plane for generating arbitrary three-dimensionally oriented linear polarization at the focal point with a diffraction limited spot size is found analytically by solving the inverse problem. Arbitrary three-dimensional elliptical polarization can be obtained by introducing a second electric dipole oriented in the orthogonal plane with appropriate amplitude and phase differences

  17. Three-dimensional aromatic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Shinji; Iwanaga, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of aromatic units and linkers are reviewed from various aspects. To understand principles for the construction of such compounds, we generalize the roles of building units, the synthetic approaches, and the classification of networks. As fundamental compounds, cyclophanes with large aromatic units and aromatic macrocycles with linear acetylene linkers are highlighted in terms of transannular interactions between aromatic units, conformational preference, and resolution of chiral derivatives. Polycyclic cage compounds are constructed from building units by linkages via covalent bonds, metal-coordination bonds, or hydrogen bonds. Large cage networks often include a wide range of guest species in their cavity to afford novel inclusion compounds. Topological isomers consisting of two or more macrocycles are formed by cyclization of preorganized species. Some complicated topological networks are constructed by self-assembly of simple building units.

  18. Feynman diagrams coupled to three-dimensional quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, John W

    2006-01-01

    A framework for quantum field theory coupled to three-dimensional quantum gravity is proposed. The coupling with quantum gravity regulates the Feynman diagrams. One recovers the usual Feynman amplitudes in the limit as the cosmological constant tends to zero

  19. A simple remark on three dimensional gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemes, V.E.R.; Linhares de Jesus, C.; Sasaki, C.A.G.; Sorella, S.P.; Vilar, L.C.Q.; Ventura, O.S.

    1997-08-01

    Classical three dimensional Yang-Mills is seen to be related to the topological Chern-Simons term through a nonlinear but fully local and covariant gauge field redefinition. A classical recursive cohomological argument is proved. (author)

  20. Three-dimensional cooling of muons

    CERN Document Server

    Vsevolozhskaya, T A

    2000-01-01

    The simultaneous ionization cooling of muon beams in all three - the longitudinal and two transverse - directions is considered in a scheme, based on bent lithium lenses with dipole constituent of magnetic field in them, created by a special configuration of current-carrying rod. An analysis of three-dimensional cooling is performed with the use of kinetic equation method. Results of numerical calculation for a specific beam line configuration are presented together with results of computer simulation using the Moliere distribution to describe the Coulomb scattering and the Vavilov distribution used to describe the ionization loss of energy.

  1. The relation between reconnected flux, the parallel electric field, and the reconnection rate in a three-dimensional kinetic simulation of magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendel, D. E.; Olson, D. K.; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M.; Adrian, M. L.; Aunai, N.; Karimabadi, H.; Daughton, W.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the distribution of parallel electric fields and their relationship to the location and rate of magnetic reconnection in a large particle-in-cell simulation of 3D turbulent magnetic reconnection with open boundary conditions. The simulation's guide field geometry inhibits the formation of simple topological features such as null points. Therefore, we derive the location of potential changes in magnetic connectivity by finding the field lines that experience a large relative change between their endpoints, i.e., the quasi-separatrix layer. We find a good correspondence between the locus of changes in magnetic connectivity or the quasi-separatrix layer and the map of large gradients in the integrated parallel electric field (or quasi-potential). Furthermore, we investigate the distribution of the parallel electric field along the reconnecting field lines. We find the reconnection rate is controlled by only the low-amplitude, zeroth and first–order trends in the parallel electric field while the contribution from fluctuations of the parallel electric field, such as electron holes, is negligible. The results impact the determination of reconnection sites and reconnection rates in models and in situ spacecraft observations of 3D turbulent reconnection. It is difficult through direct observation to isolate the loci of the reconnection parallel electric field amidst the large amplitude fluctuations. However, we demonstrate that a positive slope of the running sum of the parallel electric field along the field line as a function of field line length indicates where reconnection is occurring along the field line

  2. Enhancement of the guide field during the current sheet formation in the three-dimensional magnetic configuration with an X line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Anna; Bugrov, Sergey; Markov, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the formation of current sheets during exciting a current aligned with the X line of the 3D magnetic configuration, in the CS-3D device. Enhancement of the guide field (parallel to the X line) was directly observed for the first time, on the basis of magnetic measurements. After the current sheet formation, the guide field inside the sheet exceeds its initial value, as well as the field outside. It is convincingly demonstrated that an enhancement of the guide field is due to its transportation by plasma flows on the early stage of the sheet formation. The in-plane plasma currents, which produce the excess guide field, are comparable to the total current along the X line that initiates the sheet itself.

  3. Three dimensional imaging of otoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.; David, B.

    2008-01-01

    Otoliths are small structures in fish ears made of calcium carbonate which carry a record of the environment in which the fish live. Traditionally, in order to study their microchemistry by a scanning technique such as PIXE the otoliths have been either ground down by hand or thin sectioned to expose the otolith core. However this technique is subject to human error in judging the core position. In this study we have scanned successive layers of otoliths 50 and 100 μm apart by removing the otolith material in a lapping machine which can be set to a few μm precision. In one study by comparing data from otoliths from the two ears of a freshwater species we found that polishing by hand could miss the core and thus give misleading results as to the life cycle of the fish. In another example we showed detail in a marine species which could be used to build a three dimensional picture of the Sr distribution. (author)

  4. Three-Dimensional Rebar Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Junwei; Salvatierra, Rodrigo V; Dong, Pei; Li, Yilun; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Wang, Tuo; Zhang, Chenhao; Zhang, Jibo; Ji, Yongsung; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun; Zhao, Naiqin; Tour, James M

    2017-03-01

    Free-standing robust three-dimensional (3D) rebar graphene foams (GFs) were developed by a powder metallurgy template method with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a reinforcing bar, sintered Ni skeletons as a template and catalyst, and sucrose as a solid carbon source. As a reinforcement and bridge between different graphene sheets and carbon shells, MWCNTs improved the thermostability, storage modulus (290.1 kPa) and conductivity (21.82 S cm -1 ) of 3D GF resulting in a high porosity and structurally stable 3D rebar GF. The 3D rebar GF can support >3150× the foam's weight with no irreversible height change, and shows only a ∼25% irreversible height change after loading >8500× the foam's weight. The 3D rebar GF also shows stable performance as a highly porous electrode in lithium ion capacitors (LICs) with an energy density of 32 Wh kg -1 . After 500 cycles of testing at a high current density of 6.50 mA cm -2 , the LIC shows 78% energy density retention. These properties indicate promising applications with 3D rebar GFs in devices requiring stable mechanical and electrochemical properties.

  5. NMR experiments on a three-dimensional vibrofluidized granular medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Chao; Yang, Xiaoyu; Candela, D.; Mair, R. W.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2004-04-01

    A three-dimensional granular system fluidized by vertical container vibrations was studied using pulsed field gradient NMR coupled with one-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. The system consisted of mustard seeds vibrated vertically at 50 Hz, and the number of layers Nl⩽4 was sufficiently low to achieve a nearly time-independent granular fluid. Using NMR, the vertical profiles of density and granular temperature were directly measured, along with the distributions of vertical and horizontal grain velocities. The velocity distributions showed modest deviations from Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, except for the vertical velocity distribution near the sample bottom, which was highly skewed and non-Gaussian. Data taken for three values of Nl and two dimensionless accelerations Γ=15,18 were fitted to a hydrodynamic theory, which successfully models the density and temperature profiles away from the vibrating container bottom. A temperature inversion near the free upper surface is observed, in agreement with predictions based on the hydrodynamic parameter μ which is nonzero only in inelastic systems.

  6. Exact solutions in three-dimensional gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Diaz, Alberto A

    2017-01-01

    A self-contained text, systematically presenting the determination and classification of exact solutions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity. This book explores the theoretical framework and general physical and geometrical characteristics of each class of solutions, and includes information on the researchers responsible for their discovery. Beginning with the physical character of the solutions, these are identified and ordered on the basis of their geometrical invariant properties, symmetries, and algebraic classifications, or from the standpoint of their physical nature, for example electrodynamic fields, fluid, scalar field, or dilaton. Consequently, this text serves as a thorough catalogue on 2+1 exact solutions to the Einstein equations coupled to matter and fields, and on vacuum solutions of topologically massive gravity with a cosmological constant. The solutions are also examined from different perspectives, enabling a conceptual bridge between exact solutions of three- and four-dimensional gravit...

  7. UTILIZATION OF MULTIPLE MEASUREMENTS FOR GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A. H.; Wu, S. T.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hill, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic field measurements, line of sight (LOS) and/or vector magnetograms, have been used in a variety of solar physics studies. Currently, the global transverse velocity measurements near the photosphere from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) are available. We have utilized these multiple observational data, for the first time, to present a data-driven global three-dimensional and resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, and to investigate the energy transport across the photosphere to the corona. The measurements of the LOS magnetic field and transverse velocity reflect the effects of convective zone dynamics and provide information from the sub-photosphere to the corona. In order to self-consistently include the observables on the lower boundary as the inputs to drive the model, a set of time-dependent boundary conditions is derived by using the method of characteristics. We selected GONG's global transverse velocity measurements of synoptic chart CR2009 near the photosphere and SOLIS full-resolution LOS magnetic field maps of synoptic chart CR2009 on the photosphere to simulate the equilibrium state and compute the energy transport across the photosphere. To show the advantage of using both observed magnetic field and transverse velocity data, we have studied two cases: (1) with the inputs of the LOS magnetic field and transverse velocity measurements, and (2) with the input of the LOS magnetic field and without the input of transverse velocity measurements. For these two cases, the simulation results presented here are a three-dimensional coronal magnetic field configuration, density distributions on the photosphere and at 1.5 solar radii, and the solar wind in the corona. The deduced physical characteristics are the total current helicity and the synthetic emission. By comparing all the physical parameters of case 1 and case 2 and their synthetic emission images with the EIT image, we find that using both the measured magnetic field and the

  8. Three dimensional simulated modelling of diffusion capacitance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three dimensional (3-D) simulated modelling was developed to analyse the excess minority carrier density in the base of a polycrystalline bifacial silicon solar cell. The concept of junction recombination velocity was ado-pted to quantify carrier flow through the junction, and to examine the solar cell diffusion capacitance for ...

  9. Three dimensional magnetic fields in extra high speed modified Lundell alternators computed by a combined vector-scalar magnetic potential finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Wang, R.; Secunde, R.

    1992-01-01

    A 3D finite element (FE) approach was developed and implemented for computation of global magnetic fields in a 14.3 kVA modified Lundell alternator. The essence of the new method is the combined use of magnetic vector and scalar potential formulations in 3D FEs. This approach makes it practical, using state of the art supercomputer resources, to globally analyze magnetic fields and operating performances of rotating machines which have truly 3D magnetic flux patterns. The 3D FE-computed fields and machine inductances as well as various machine performance simulations of the 14.3 kVA machine are presented in this paper and its two companion papers.

  10. Quasi-static three-dimensional magnetic field evolution in solar active region NOAA 11166 associated with an X1.5 flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vemareddy, P.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2014-01-01

    We study the quasi-static evolution of coronal magnetic fields constructed from the non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) approximation aiming to understand the relation between the magnetic field topology and ribbon emission during an X1.5 flare in active region (AR) NOAA 11166. The flare with a quasi-elliptical and two remote ribbons occurred on 2011 March 9 at 23:13 UT over a positive flux region surrounded by negative flux at the center of the bipolar AR. Our analysis of the coronal magnetic structure with potential and NLFFF solutions unveiled the existence of a single magnetic null point associated with a fan-spine topology and is co-spatial with the hard X-ray source. The footpoints of the fan separatrix surface agree with the inner edge of the quasi-elliptical ribbon and the outer spine is linked to one of the remote ribbons. During the evolution, the slow footpoint motions stressed the field lines along the polarity inversion line and caused electric current layers in the corona around the fan separatrix surface. These current layers trigger magnetic reconnection as a consequence of dissipating currents, which are visible as cusp-shaped structures at lower heights. The reconnection process reorganized the magnetic field topology whose signatures are observed at the separatrices/quasi-separatrix layer structure in both the photosphere and the corona during the pre-to-post flare evolution. In agreement with previous numerical studies, our results suggest that the line-tied footpoint motions perturb the fan-spine system and cause null point reconnection, which eventually causes the flare emission at the footpoints of the field lines.

  11. Three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals based on artificial opals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshev, A. V.; Kodama, T.; Nishimura, K.; Uchida, H.; Inoue, M.

    2004-06-01

    We fabricated and experimentally investigated three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals (3D MPCs) based on artificial opals. Opal samples with three-dimensional dielectric lattices were impregnated with different types of magnetic material. Magnetic and structural properties of 3D MPCs were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometer. We have shown that magnetic materials synthesized in voids of opal lattices and the composites obtained have typical magnetic properties.

  12. Three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals based on artificial opals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshev, A.V.; Kodama, T.; Nishimura, K.; Uchida, H.; Inoue, M.

    2004-01-01

    We fabricated and experimentally investigated three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals (3D MPCs) based on artificial opals. Opal samples with three-dimensional dielectric lattices were impregnated with different types of magnetic material. Magnetic and structural properties of 3D MPCs were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometer. We have shown that magnetic materials synthesized in voids of opal lattices and the composites obtained have typical magnetic properties

  13. Three-dimensional analysis of antenna sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Ho, Y.L.

    1996-01-01

    The present work is motivated by the importance of r.f. sheaths in determining the antenna-plasma interaction and the sensitivity of the sheaths to the complicated three-dimensional structure of modern ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antennas. To analyze r.f. sheaths on the plasma facing regions of the launcher, we first calculate the contact points of the tokamak magnetic field lines on the surface of the antenna Faraday screen and nearby limiters for realistic three-dimensional magnetic flux surface and antenna geometries. Next, the r.f. voltage that can drive sheaths at the contact points is determined and used to assess the resulting sheath power dissipation, r.f.-driven sputtering, and r.f.-induced convective cells (which produce edge profile modification). The calculations are embodied in a computer code, ANSAT (antenna sheath analysis tool), and sample ANSAT runs are shown to highlight the physics- and geometry-dependent characteristics of the r.f. sheaths and their relationship to the antenna design. One use of ANSAT is therefore as a design tool, to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a given design with respect to critical voltage handling and edge plasma interaction issues. Additionally, examples are presented where ANSAT has been useful in the analysis and interpretation of ICRF experiments (orig.)

  14. Hybrid micro-/nano-particle image velocimetry for 3D3C multi-scale velocity field measurement in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Young Uk; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2011-01-01

    The conventional two-dimensional (2D) micro-particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) technique has inherent bias error due to the depth of focus along the optical axis to measure the velocity field near the wall of a microfluidics device. However, the far-field measurement of velocity vectors yields good accuracy for micro-scale flows. Nano-PIV using the evanescent wave of total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy can measure near-field velocity vectors within a distance of around 200 nm from the solid surface. A micro-/nano-hybrid PIV system is proposed to measure both near- and far-field velocity vectors simultaneously in microfluidics. A near-field particle image can be obtained by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy using nanoparticles, and the far-field velocity vectors are measured by three-hole defocusing micro-particle tracking velocimetry (micro-PTV) using micro-particles. In order to identify near- and far-field particle images, lasers of different wavelengths are adopted and tested in a straight microchannel for acquiring the three-dimensional three-component velocity field. We found that the new technique gives superior accuracy for the velocity profile near the wall compared to that of conventional nano-PIV. This method has been successfully applied to precisely measure wall shear stress in 2D microscale Poiseulle flows

  15. Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa, E-mail: sekikawa@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Kamiyama, Kyohei [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

  16. Three-Dimensional Interaction of a Large Number of Dense DEP Particles on a Plane Perpendicular to an AC Electrical Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanchuan Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of dielectrophoresis (DEP particles in an electric field has been observed in many experiments, known as the “particle chains phenomenon”. However, the study in 3D models (spherical particles is rarely reported due to its complexity and significant computational cost. In this paper, we employed the iterative dipole moment (IDM method to study the 3D interaction of a large number of dense DEP particles randomly distributed on a plane perpendicular to a uniform alternating current (AC electric field in a bounded or unbounded space. The numerical results indicated that the particles cannot move out of the initial plane. The similar particles (either all positive or all negative DEP particles always repelled each other, and did not form a chain. The dissimilar particles (a mixture of positive and negative DEP particles always attracted each other, and formed particle chains consisting of alternately arranged positive and negative DEP particles. The particle chain patterns can be randomly multitudinous depending on the initial particle distribution, the electric properties of particles/fluid, the particle sizes and the number of particles. It is also found that the particle chain patterns can be effectively manipulated via tuning the frequency of the AC field and an almost uniform distribution of particles in a bounded plane chip can be achieved when all of the particles are similar, which may have potential applications in the particle manipulation of microfluidics.

  17. Three-dimensional dynamics of protostellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, T.L.

    1977-06-01

    A three-dimensional finite difference numerical methodology was developed for self-gravitating, rotating gaseous systems. The fully nonlinear equations for time-varying fluid dynamics are solved by high speed computer in a cylindrical coordinate system rotating with an instantaneous angular velocity, selected such that the net angular momentum relative to the rotating frame is zero. The time-dependent adiabatic collapse of gravitationally bound, rotating, protostellar clouds is studied for specified uniform and nonuniform initial conditions. Uniform clouds can form axisymmetric, rotating toroidal configurations. If the thermal pressure is high, nonuniform clouds can also collapse to axisymmetric toroids. For low thermal pressures, however, the collapsing cloud is unstable to initial perturbations. The fragmentation of protostellar clouds is investigated by studying the response of rotating, self-gravitating, equilibrium toroids to non-axisymmetric perturbations. The detailed evolution of the fragmenting toroid depends upon a non-dimensional function of the initial entropy, the total mass in the toroid, the angular velocity of rotation, and the number of perturbation wavelengths around the circumference of the toroid. For low and intermediate entropies, the configuration develops into co-rotating components with spiral streamers. In the spiral regions retrograde vortices are observed in some examples. For high levels of entropy, barred spirals can exist as intermediate states of the fragmentation

  18. Three-dimensional dynamics of protostellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, T.L.; Harlow, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite difference numerical methodology has been developed for self-gravitating, rotating gaseous systems. The fully nonlinear equations for time-varying fluid dynamics are solved by high-speed computer in a cylindrical coordinate system rotating with an instantaneous angular velocity. The time-dependent adiabatic collapse of gravitationally bound, rotating, protostellar clouds is studied for specified uniform and nonuniform initial conditions. Uniform clouds can form axisymmetric, rotating toroidal configurations. If the thermal pressure is high, nonuniform clouds can also collapse to axisymmetric ellipsoids. For low thermal pressures, however, the collapsing cloud is unstable to perturbations. The resulting fragmentation of unstable protostellar clouds is investigated by studying the response of rotating, self-gravitating, equilibrium toroids to nonaxisymmetric perturbations. The detailed evolution of the fragmentation toroid depends upon a nondimensional function of the initial entropy, the total mass in the toroid, the angular velocity of rotation, and the number of perturbation wave-lengths around the circumference of the toroid. For low and intermediate entropies, the configuration develops into corotating components with spiral streamers. In the spiral regions retrograde vortices are observed in some examples. For high levels of entropy, barred spirals can exist as intermediate states of the fragmentation

  19. Three dimensional analysis of cosmic ray intensity variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Shin-ichi; Mori, Satoru; Nagashima, Kazuo.

    1974-01-01

    Three dimensional analysis of cosmic ray anisotropy and its time variation was performed. This paper describes the analysis of the Forbush decrease in Jan. 1968 to investigate by comparing the direction of the magnetic field in interplanetary space and the direction of the reference axis for cosmic ray anisotropy. New anisotropy becomes dominant at the time of Forbush decrease because the anisotropy of cosmic ray in calm state is wiped out. Such anisotropy produces intensity variation in neutron monitors on the ground. The characteristic parameters of three dimensional anisotropy can be determined from theoretical value and observed intensity. Analyzed data were taken for 6 days from Jan. 25 to Jan. 30, 1968, at Deep River. The decrease of intensity at Deep River was seen for several hours from 11 o'clock (UT), Jan. 26, just before The Forbush decrease. This may be due to the loss cone. The Forbush decrease began at 19 o'clock, Jan. 26, and the main phase continued to 5 o'clock in the next morning. The spectrum of variation was Psup(-0.5). The time variations of the magnetic field in interplanetary space and the reference axis of cosmic ray anisotropy are shown for 15 hours. The average directions of both are almost in coincidence. The spatial distribution of cosmic ray near the earth may be expressed by the superposition of axial symmetrical distribution along a reference axis and its push-out to the direction of 12 o'clock. It is considered that the direction of magnetic force line and the velocity of solar wind correspond to the direction of the reference axis and the magnitude of anisotropy in the direction of 12 o'clock, respectively. (Kato, T.)

  20. Three dimensional equilibrium solutions for a current-carrying reversed-field pinch plasma with a close-fitting conducting shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koliner, J. J.; Boguski, J., E-mail: boguski@wisc.edu; Anderson, J. K.; Chapman, B. E.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J. R.; Goetz, J. A.; McGarry, M.; Morton, L. A.; Parke, E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Cianciosa, M. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Hanson, J. D. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    In order to characterize the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas that bifurcate to a helical equilibrium, the V3FIT equilibrium reconstruction code was modified to include a conducting boundary. RFP plasmas become helical at a high plasma current, which induces large eddy currents in MST's thick aluminum shell. The V3FIT conducting boundary accounts for the contribution from these eddy currents to external magnetic diagnostic coil signals. This implementation of V3FIT was benchmarked against MSTFit, a 2D Grad-Shafranov solver, for axisymmetric plasmas. The two codes both fit B{sub θ} measurement loops around the plasma minor diameter with qualitative agreement between each other and the measured field. Fits in the 3D case converge well, with q-profile and plasma shape agreement between two distinct toroidal locking phases. Greater than 60% of the measured n = 5 component of B{sub θ} at r = a is due to eddy currents in the shell, as calculated by the conducting boundary model.

  1. High-energy Gamma Rays from the Milky Way: Three-dimensional Spatial Models for the Cosmic-Ray and Radiation Field Densities in the Interstellar Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, T. A.; Moskalenko, I. V. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Jóhannesson, G., E-mail: tporter@stanford.edu [Science Institute, University of Iceland, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2017-09-01

    High-energy γ -rays of interstellar origin are produced by the interaction of cosmic-ray (CR) particles with the diffuse gas and radiation fields in the Galaxy. The main features of this emission are well understood and are reproduced by existing CR propagation models employing 2D galactocentric cylindrically symmetrical geometry. However, the high-quality data from instruments like the Fermi Large Area Telescope reveal significant deviations from the model predictions on few to tens of degrees scales, indicating the need to include the details of the Galactic spiral structure and thus requiring 3D spatial modeling. In this paper, the high-energy interstellar emissions from the Galaxy are calculated using the new release of the GALPROP code employing 3D spatial models for the CR source and interstellar radiation field (ISRF) densities. Three models for the spatial distribution of CR sources are used that are differentiated by their relative proportion of input luminosity attributed to the smooth disk or spiral arms. Two ISRF models are developed based on stellar and dust spatial density distributions taken from the literature that reproduce local near- to far-infrared observations. The interstellar emission models that include arms and bulges for the CR source and ISRF densities provide plausible physical interpretations for features found in the residual maps from high-energy γ -ray data analysis. The 3D models for CR and ISRF densities provide a more realistic basis that can be used for the interpretation of the nonthermal interstellar emissions from the Galaxy.

  2. Indirect boundary element method for three dimensional problems. Analytical solution for contribution to wave field by triangular element; Sanjigen kansetsu kyokai yosoho. Sankakukei yoso no kiyo no kaisekikai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, T [Building Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Sanchez-Sesma, F [Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Institute de Ingenieria

    1997-05-27

    Formulation is introduced for discretizing a boundary integral equation into an indirect boundary element method for the solution of 3-dimensional topographic problems. Yokoi and Takenaka propose an analytical solution-capable reference solution (solution for the half space elastic body with flat free surface) to problems of topographic response to seismic motion in a 2-dimensional in-plane field. That is to say, they propose a boundary integral equation capable of effectively suppressing the non-physical waves that emerge in the result of computation in the wake of the truncation of the discretized ground surface making use of the wave field in a semi-infinite elastic body with flat free surface. They apply the proposed boundary integral equation discretized into the indirect boundary element method to solve some examples, and succeed in proving its validity. In this report, the equation is expanded to deal with 3-dimensional topographic problems. A problem of a P-wave vertically landing on a flat and free surface is solved by the conventional boundary integral equation and the proposed boundary integral equation, and the solutions are compared with each other. It is found that the new method, different from the conventional one, can delete non-physical waves from the analytical result. 4 figs.

  3. Mean-field density functional theory of a nanoconfined classical, three-dimensional Heisenberg fluid. I. The role of molecular anchoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattes, Stefanie M.; Gubbins, Keith E.; Schoen, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we employ classical density functional theory (DFT) to investigate for the first time equilibrium properties of a Heisenberg fluid confined to nanoscopic slit pores of variable width. Within DFT pair correlations are treated at modified mean-field level. We consider three types of walls: hard ones, where the fluid-wall potential becomes infinite upon molecular contact but vanishes otherwise, and hard walls with superimposed short-range attraction with and without explicit orientation dependence. To model the distance dependence of the attractions, we employ a Yukawa potential. The orientation dependence is realized through anchoring of molecules at the substrates, i.e., an energetic discrimination of specific molecular orientations. If the walls are hard or attractive without specific anchoring, the results are "quasi-bulk"-like in that they can be linked to a confinement-induced reduction of the bulk mean field. In these cases, the precise nature of the walls is completely irrelevant at coexistence. Only for specific anchoring nontrivial features arise, because then the fluid-wall interaction potential affects the orientation distribution function in a nontrivial way and thus appears explicitly in the Euler-Lagrange equations to be solved for minima of the grand potential of coexisting phases.

  4. Progress of radiotherapy by three-dimensional treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Hajime; Nomoto, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Nakata, Hajime

    1998-01-01

    The recent progress of three-dimensional radiation treatment planning was reviewed. And clinical cases such as lung cancer and breast cancer are introduced. In the University of Occupational and Development Health, the treatment system FOCUS which is made up of CT simulator and linac was used mainly. Three-dimensional treatment planning was carried for about 90% of 330 patients who underwent radiotherapy for one year. The target becomes to be accurate and dose distribution with all CT slices in radiation field can be confirmed by using three-dimensional radiation treatment planning apparatus. High dose irradiation localized to tumor part is possible. Relations between total dose and volume of normal tissue and/or tumor can be estimated numerically and easily by DVH. A prediction of indication and affection became possible by this procedure. In conclusion, generalization of three-dimensional radiation treatment planning will bring progress of more effective radiotherapy with less adverse reaction. (K.H.). 21 refs

  5. Three-dimensional modelling for assessment of far-field impact of tidal stream turbine: A case study at the Anglesey Coast, Wales, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaorong; Li, Ming; Wolf, Judith

    2017-04-01

    As a response to worldwide climate change, clean non-carbon renewable energy resources have been gaining significant attention. Among a range of renewable alternatives, tidal stream energy is considered very promising; due to its consistent predictability and availability. To investigate impacts of tidal stream devices on their surroundings, prototype experiments involving small scale laboratory studies have been implemented. Computational Flow Dynamics (CFD) modelling is also commonly applied to study turbine behaviours. However, these studies focus on impacts of the turbine in the near-field scale. As a result, in order to study and predict the far-field impacts caused by the operation of turbines, large scale 2D and 3D numerical oceanography models have been used, with routines added to reflect the impacts of turbines. In comparison to 2D models, 3D models are advantageous in providing complete prediction of vertical flow structures and hence mixing in the wake of a turbine. This research aims to deliver a thorough 3D tidal stream turbine simulation system, by considering major coastal processes, i.e. current, waves and sediment transport, based on a 3D wave-current-sediment fully coupled numerical oceanography model — the Unstructured Grid Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). The energy extraction of turbines is simulated by adding a body force to the momentum equations. Across the water depth, the coefficient related to the additional body force is given different values according to the turbine configuration and operation to reflect the vertical variation of the turbine's impacts on the passing flow. Three turbulence perturbation terms are added to the turbulence closure to simulate the turbine-induced turbulence generation, dissipation and interference for the turbulence length-scale. Impacts of turbine operation on surface waves are also considered by modification of wave energy flux across the device. A thorough validation study is carried out in

  6. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao

    1999-01-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  7. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  8. Resonance fluorescence based two- and three-dimensional atom localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Abdul; Rahmatullah; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-06-01

    Two- and three-dimensional atom localization in a two-level atom-field system via resonance fluorescence is suggested. For the two-dimensional localization, the atom interacts with two orthogonal standing-wave fields, whereas for the three-dimensional atom localization, the atom interacts with three orthogonal standing-wave fields. The effect of the detuning and phase shifts associated with the corresponding standing-wave fields is investigated. A precision enhancement in position measurement of the single atom can be noticed via the control of the detuning and phase shifts.

  9. Critical behavior of two- and three-dimensional ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic spin-ice systems using the effective-field renormalization group technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Adeva, Angel J.; Huber, David L.

    2001-07-01

    In this work we generalize and subsequently apply the effective-field renormalization-group (EFRG) technique to the problem of ferro- and antiferromagnetically coupled Ising spins with local anisotropy axes in geometrically frustrated geometries (kagomé and pyrochlore lattices). In this framework, we calculate the various ground states of these systems and the corresponding critical points. Excellent agreement is found with exact and Monte Carlo results. The effects of frustration are discussed. As pointed out by other authors, it turns out that the spin-ice model can be exactly mapped to the standard Ising model, but with effective interactions of the opposite sign to those in the original Hamiltonian. Therefore, the ferromagnetic spin ice is frustrated and does not order. Antiferromagnetic spin ice (in both two and three dimensions) is found to undergo a transition to a long-range-ordered state. The thermal and magnetic critical exponents for this transition are calculated. It is found that the thermal exponent is that of the Ising universality class, whereas the magnetic critical exponent is different, as expected from the fact that the Zeeman term has a different symmetry in these systems. In addition, the recently introduced generalized constant coupling method is also applied to the calculation of the critical points and ground-state configurations. Again, a very good agreement is found with exact, Monte Carlo, and renormalization-group calculations for the critical points. Incidentally, we show that the generalized constant coupling approach can be regarded as the lowest-order limit of the EFRG technique, in which correlations outside a frustrated unit are neglected, and scaling is substituted by strict equality of the thermodynamic quantities.

  10. Maintaining balance when looking at a virtual reality three dimensional display of a field of moving dots or at a virtual reality scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie eChiarovano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental objective. To provide a safe, simple, relatively inexpensive, fast, accurate way of quantifying balance performance either in isolation, or in the face of challenges provided by 3D high definition moving visual stimuli as well as by the proprioceptive challenge from standing on a foam pad. This method uses the new technology of the Wii balance board to measure postural stability during powerful, realistic visual challenges from immersive virtual reality. Limitations of current techniques. Present computerized methods for measuring postural stability are large, complex, slow and expensive, and do not allow for testing the response to realistic visual challenges.Protocol. Subjects stand on a 6cm thick, firm, foam pad on a Wii balance board. They wear a fast, high resolution, low persistence, virtual reality head set (Oculus Rift DK2. This allows displays of varying speed, direction, depth and complexity to be delivered. The subject experiences a visual illusion of real objects fixed relative to the world, and any of these displays can be perturbed in an unpredictable fashion. A special app (Balance Rite used the same procedures for analysing postural analysis as used by the Equitest.Power of the technique. Four simple proof of concept experiments demonstrate that this technique matches the gold standard Equitest in terms of the measurement of postural stability but goes beyond the Equitest by measuring stability in the face of visual challenges, which are so powerful that even healthy subjects fall. The response to these challenges presents an opportunity for predicting falls and for rehabilitation of seniors and patients with poor postural stability.Significance for the field. This new method provides a simpler, quicker, cheaper method of measurement than the Equitest. It may provide a new mode of training to prevent falls, by maintaining postural stability in the face of visual and proprioceptive challenges similar to those

  11. Three-dimensional printing physiology laboratory technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkin, Matthew S; Widder, Emily; Shao, Connie; Holzem, Katherine M; Gloschat, Christopher; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Efimov, Igor R

    2013-12-01

    Since its inception in 19th-century Germany, the physiology laboratory has been a complex and expensive research enterprise involving experts in various fields of science and engineering. Physiology research has been critically dependent on cutting-edge technological support of mechanical, electrical, optical, and more recently computer engineers. Evolution of modern experimental equipment is constrained by lack of direct communication between the physiological community and industry producing this equipment. Fortunately, recent advances in open source technologies, including three-dimensional printing, open source hardware and software, present an exciting opportunity to bring the design and development of research instrumentation to the end user, i.e., life scientists. Here we provide an overview on how to develop customized, cost-effective experimental equipment for physiology laboratories.

  12. Three-dimensional echocardiography in valve disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Fiorentini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the role of three-dimensional (3D echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart valve disease. Several factors have contributed to the evolution of this technique, which is currently a simple and routine method: rapid evolution in probe and computer technologies, demonstration that 3D data sets allowed more complete and accurate evaluation of cardiac structures, emerging clinical experience indicating the strong potential particularly in valve diseases, volume and function of the two ventricle measurements and several other fields. This report will review current and future applications of 3D echocardiography in mitral, aortic and tricuspid valve diseases underlying both qualitative (morphologic and quantitative advantages of this technique. (Heart International 2007; 3: 35-41

  13. Full three-dimensional isotropic transformation media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Meca, C; Martí, J; Martínez, A; Ortuño, R

    2014-01-01

    We present a method that enables the implementation of full three-dimensional (3D) transformation media with minimized anisotropy. It is based on a special kind of shape-preserving mapping and a subsequent optimization process. For sufficiently smooth transformations, the resulting anisotropy can be neglected, paving the way for practically realizable 3D devices. The method is independent of the considered wave phenomenon and can thus be applied to any field for which a transformational technique exists, such as acoustics or thermodynamics. Full 3D isotropy has an additional important implication for optical transformation media, as it eliminates the need for magnetic materials in many situations. To illustrate the potential of the method, we design 3D counterparts of transformation-based electromagnetic squeezers and bends. (paper)

  14. A stochastic differential equation framework for the turbulent velocity field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    We discuss a stochastic differential equation, as a modelling framework for the turbulent velocity field, that is capable of capturing basic stylized facts of the statistics of velocity increments. In particular, we focus on the evolution of the probability density of velocity increments...

  15. Self-organization in three-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Ritoku; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1987-07-01

    A three-dimensional self-organization process of a compressible dissipative plasma with a velocity-magnetic field correlation is investigated in detail by means of a variational method and a magnetohydrodynamic simulation. There are two types of relaxation, i.e., fast relaxation in which the cross helicity is not conserved, and slow relaxation in which the cross helicity is approximately conserved. In the slow relaxation case the cross helicity consists of two components with opposite sign which have almost the same amplitude in the large wavenumber region. In both cases the system approaches a high correlation state, dependent on the initial condition. These results are consistent with an observational data of the solar wind. Selective dissipation of magnetic energy, normal cascade of magnetic energy spectrum and inverse cascade of magnetic helicity spectrum are observed for the sub-Alfvenic flow case as was previously observed for the zero flow case. When the flow velocity is super-Alfvenic, the relaxation process is significantly altered from the zero flow case. (author)

  16. Three-dimensional quadrupole lenses made with permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of accelerator systems with quadrupole magnets can be improved by using permanent magnets in quadrupole lenses. This requires better methods for treating the three-dimensional nature of the magnetic fields and the nonlinear characteristics of the magnets. A numerical method is described for simulating three-dimensional magnetic fields and used to analyze quadrupole lenses and doublets with permanent magnets. The results, which are confirmed experimentally, indicate that both the quadrupole magnetic gradient and the effective field length are changed in permanent-magnet quadrupole lenses when the pole lengths and the gap between the lenses are varied while the other characteristics of the magnets remain unchanged

  17. Radial basis function interpolation of unstructured, three-dimensional, volumetric particle tracking velocimetry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casa, L D C; Krueger, P S

    2013-01-01

    Unstructured three-dimensional fluid velocity data were interpolated using Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) interpolation. Data were generated to imitate the spatial resolution and experimental uncertainty of a typical implementation of defocusing digital particle image velocimetry. The velocity field associated with a steadily rotating infinite plate was simulated to provide a bounded, fully three-dimensional analytical solution of the Navier–Stokes equations, allowing for robust analysis of the interpolation accuracy. The spatial resolution of the data (i.e. particle density) and the number of RBFs were varied in order to assess the requirements for accurate interpolation. Interpolation constraints, including boundary conditions and continuity, were included in the error metric used for the least-squares minimization that determines the interpolation parameters to explore methods for improving RBF interpolation results. Even spacing and logarithmic spacing of RBF locations were also investigated. Interpolation accuracy was assessed using the velocity field, divergence of the velocity field, and viscous torque on the rotating boundary. The results suggest that for the present implementation, RBF spacing of 0.28 times the boundary layer thickness is sufficient for accurate interpolation, though theoretical error analysis suggests that improved RBF positioning may yield more accurate results. All RBF interpolation results were compared to standard Gaussian weighting and Taylor expansion interpolation methods. Results showed that RBF interpolation improves interpolation results compared to the Taylor expansion method by 60% to 90% based on the average squared velocity error and provides comparable velocity results to Gaussian weighted interpolation in terms of velocity error. RMS accuracy of the flow field divergence was one to two orders of magnitude better for the RBF interpolation compared to the other two methods. RBF interpolation that was applied to

  18. Three Dimensional Explicit Model for Cometary Tail Ions Interactions with Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bermani, M. J. F.; Alhamed, S. A.; Khalaf, S. Z.; Ali, H. Sh.; Selman, A. A.

    2009-06-01

    The different interactions between cometary tail and solar wind ions are studied in the present paper based on three-dimensional Lax explicit method. The model used in this research is based on the continuity equations describing the cometary tail-solar wind interactions. Three dimensional system was considered in this paper. Simulation of the physical system was achieved using computer code written using Matlab 7.0. The parameters studied here assumed Halley comet type and include the particle density rho, the particles velocity v, the magnetic field strength B, dynamic pressure p and internal energy E. The results of the present research showed that the interaction near the cometary nucleus is mainly affected by the new ions added to the plasma of the solar wind, which increases the average molecular weight and result in many unique characteristics of the cometary tail. These characteristics were explained in the presence of the IMF.

  19. Elastocapillary fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honschoten, J.W.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Ondarcuhu, T.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Sundaram, J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2010-01-01

    We describe the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures by means of capillary forces. Using an origami-like technique, planar silicon nitride structures of various geometries are folded to produce three-dimensional objects of 50–100 m. Capillarity is a particularly effective mechanism since

  20. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography: imaging and quantifying blood flow and vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairleitner, H; Steiner, H; Hasenoehrl, G; Staudach, A

    1999-08-01

    To assess the feasibility of imaging low-velocity blood flow in adnexal masses by transvaginal three-dimensional power Doppler sonography, to analyze three-dimensional power Doppler sonography data sets with a new computer-assisted method and to test the reproducibility of the technique. A commercially available 5-MHz Combison 530 ultrasound system was used to perform three-dimensional power Doppler sonography transvaginally. A cube (= volume of interest) was defined enclosing the vessels of the cyst and the Cartesian characteristics were stored on a hard disk. This cube was analyzed using specially designed software. Five indices representing vascularization (the vascularization index (VI) or blood flow (the flow index (FI)) or both (the vascularization-flow index (VFI)) were calculated. The intraobserver repeatability of cube definition and scan repetition was assessed using Hartley's test for homogeneous variances. Interobserver agreement was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Imaging of vessels with low-velocity blood flow by three-dimensional power Doppler sonography and cube definition was possible in all adnexal massed studied. In some cases even induced non-vascular flow related to endometriosis was detected. The calculated F value with intraobserver repeated Cartesian file-saving ranged from 0 to 18.8, with intraobserver scan repetition from 4.74 to 24.8 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the calculated F value was 64. The interobserver correlation coefficient ranged between 0.83 and 0.92 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the correlation coefficient was less than 0.75. Vessels with low-velocity blood flow can be imaged using three-dimensional power Doppler sonography. Induced non-vascular flow was detected in endometriotic cyst fluid. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography combined with the cube method gave reproducible information for all indices except VFI 2. These indices might prove to be a new predictor in all fields of

  1. Three-dimensional magnetospheric equilibrium with isotropic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1995-05-01

    In the absence of the toroidal flux, two coupled quasi two-dimensional elliptic equilibrium equations have been derived to describe self-consistent three-dimensional static magnetospheric equilibria with isotropic pressure in an optimal (Ψ,α,χ) flux coordinate system, where Ψ is the magnetic flux function, χ is a generalized poloidal angle, α is the toroidal angle, α = φ - δ(Ψ,φ,χ) is the toroidal angle, δ(Ψ,φ,χ) is periodic in φ, and the magnetic field is represented as rvec B = ∇Ψ x ∇α. A three-dimensional magnetospheric equilibrium code, the MAG-3D code, has been developed by employing an iterative metric method. The main difference between the three-dimensional and the two-dimensional axisymmetric solutions is that the field-aligned current and the toroidal magnetic field are finite for the three-dimensional case, but vanish for the two-dimensional axisymmetric case. With the same boundary flux surface shape, the two-dimensional axisymmetric results are similar to the three-dimensional magnetosphere at each local time cross section

  2. Three-dimensional flow measurements induced from serpentine plasma actuators in quiescent air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durscher, R J; Roy, S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents three-dimensional flow measurements performed on a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator with the electrodes in a serpentine design. Such a configuration induces a local pinching and a local spreading of the fluid as one follows along the span of the actuator. In this work two different variations on the serpentine configuration are evaluated: one constructed from patterned circular arcs and one from patterned rectangles. The influence of applied voltage is studied for the former case. To quantify these effects stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to generate time averaged, spatially resolved measurements of the detailed flow structure. The three components of the velocity vector are measured along spanwise and streamwise cuts. These slices are then reconstructed to provide a three-dimensional view of the induced flow field. The results for the induced flow fields are also compared with stereo-PIV measurements made on a standard linear DBD actuator. A truly three-dimensional induced flow field was observed as a result of the serpentine configuration. These designs could be beneficial for rapid mixing of the local fluid. (paper)

  3. A fully magnetohydrodynamic simulation of three-dimensional non-null reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontin, D.I.; Galsgaard, K.; Hornig, G.; Priest, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    A knowledge of the nature of fully three-dimensional magnetic reconnection is crucial in understanding a great many processes in plasmas. It has been previously shown that in the kinematic regime the evolution of magnetic flux in three-dimensional reconnection is very different from two dimensions. In this paper a numerical fully magnetohydrodynamic simulation is described, in which this evolution is investigated. The reconnection takes place in the absence of a magnetic null point, and the nonideal region is localized in the center of the domain. The effect of differently prescribed resistivities is considered. The magnetic field is stressed by shear boundary motions, and a current concentration grows within the volume. A stagnation-point flow develops, with strong outflow jets emanating from the reconnection region. The behavior of the magnetic flux matches closely that discovered in the kinematic regime. In particular, it is found that no unique field line velocity exists, and that as a result field lines change their connections continually and continuously throughout the nonideal region. In order to describe the motion of magnetic flux within the domain, it is therefore necessary to use two different field line velocities. The importance of a component of the electric field parallel to the magnetic field is also demonstrated

  4. Patch near field acoustic holography based on particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yong-Bin; Jacobsen, Finn; Bi, Chuan-Xing

    2009-01-01

    Patch near field acoustic holography (PNAH) based on sound pressure measurements makes it possible to reconstruct the source field near a source by measuring the sound pressure at positions on a surface. that is comparable in size to the source region of concern. Particle velocity is an alternative...... examines the use of particle velocity as the input of PNAH. Because the particle velocity decays faster toward the edges of the measurement aperture than the pressure does and because the wave number ratio that enters into the inverse propagator from pressure to velocity amplifies high spatial frequencies...

  5. Three-dimensional polarization algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Sheppard, Colin J; Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    If light is focused or collected with a high numerical aperture lens, as may occur in imaging and optical encryption applications, polarization should be considered in three dimensions (3D). The matrix algebra of polarization behavior in 3D is discussed. It is useful to convert between the Mueller matrix and two different Hermitian matrices, representing an optical material or system, which are in the literature. Explicit transformation matrices for converting the column vector form of these different matrices are extended to the 3D case, where they are large (81×81) but can be generated using simple rules. It is found that there is some advantage in using a generalization of the Chandrasekhar phase matrix treatment, rather than that based on Gell-Mann matrices, as the resultant matrices are of simpler form and reduce to the two-dimensional case more easily. Explicit expressions are given for 3D complex field components in terms of Chandrasekhar-Stokes parameters.

  6. Turbulent structure of thermal plume. Velocity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, B.; Brahimi, M.; Doan-kim-son

    1986-01-01

    An experimental investigation and a numerical study of the dynamics of a turbulent plume rising from a strongly heated source are described. This type of flow is met in thermal effluents (air, vapor) from, e.g., cooling towers of thermal power plants. The mean and fluctuating values of the vertical component of the velocity were determined using a Laser-Doppler anemometer. The measurements allow us to distinguish three regions in the plume-a developing region near the source, an intermediate region, and a self-preserving region. The characteristics of each zone have been determined. In the self-preserving zone, especially, the turbulence level on the axis and the entrainment coefficient are almost twice of the values observed in jets. The numerical model proposed takes into account an important phenomenon, the intermittency, observed in the plume. This model, established with the self-preserving hypothesis, brings out analytical laws. These laws and the predicted velocity profile are in agreement with the experimental evolutions [fr

  7. Estimation of 3-D conduction velocity vector fields from cardiac mapping data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnette, A R; Bayly, P V; Zhang, S; Walcott, G P; Ideker, R E; Smith, W M

    2000-08-01

    A method to estimate three-dimensional (3-D) conduction velocity vector fields in cardiac tissue is presented. The speed and direction of propagation are found from polynomial "surfaces" fitted to space-time (x, y, z, t) coordinates of cardiac activity. The technique is applied to sinus rhythm and paced rhythm mapped with plunge needles at 396-466 sites in the canine myocardium. The method was validated on simulated 3-D plane and spherical waves. For simulated data, conduction velocities were estimated with an accuracy of 1%-2%. In experimental data, estimates of conduction speeds during paced rhythm were slower than those found during normal sinus rhythm. Vector directions were also found to differ between different types of beats. The technique was able to distinguish between premature ventricular contractions and sinus beats and between sinus and paced beats. The proposed approach to computing velocity vector fields provides an automated, physiological, and quantitative description of local electrical activity in 3-D tissue. This method may provide insight into abnormal conduction associated with fatal ventricular arrhythmias.

  8. Three dimensional visualization of medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yasuzo

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional visualization is a stereoscopic technique that allows the diagnosis and treatment of complicated anatomy site of the bone and organ. In this article, the current status and technical application of three dimensional visualization are introduced with special reference to X-ray CT and MRI. The surface display technique is the most common for three dimensional visualization, consisting of geometric model, voxel element, and stereographic composition techniques. Recent attention has been paid to display method of the content of the subject called as volume rendering, whereby information on the living body is provided accurately. The application of three dimensional visualization is described in terms of diagnostic imaging and surgical simulation. (N.K.)

  9. three dimensional photoelastic investigations on thick rectangular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... Thick rectangular plates are investigated by means of three-dimensional photoelasticity ... a thin plate theory and a higher order thick plate theory. 1. ..... number of fringes lest the accuracy of the results will be considerably.

  10. Variational multi-valued velocity field estimation for transparent sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez-Manzanares, Alonso; Rivera, Mariano; Kornprobst, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Motion estimation in sequences with transparencies is an important problem in robotics and medical imaging applications. In this work we propose a variational approach for estimating multi-valued velocity fields in transparent sequences. Starting from existing local motion estimators, we derive...... a variational model for integrating in space and time such a local information in order to obtain a robust estimation of the multi-valued velocity field. With this approach, we can indeed estimate multi-valued velocity fields which are not necessarily piecewise constant on a layer –each layer can evolve...

  11. Three-dimensional printing and pediatric liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhouri, Naim; Zein, Nizar N

    2016-10-01

    Enthusiastic physicians and medical researchers are investigating the role of three-dimensional printing in medicine. The purpose of the current review is to provide a concise summary of the role of three-dimensional printing technology as it relates to the field of pediatric hepatology and liver transplantation. Our group and others have recently demonstrated the feasibility of printing three-dimensional livers with identical anatomical and geometrical landmarks to the native liver to facilitate presurgical planning of complex liver surgeries. Medical educators are exploring the use of three-dimensional printed organs in anatomy classes and surgical residencies. Moreover, mini-livers are being developed by regenerative medicine scientist as a way to test new drugs and, eventually, whole livers will be grown in the laboratory to replace organs with end-stage disease solving the organ shortage problem. From presurgical planning to medical education to ultimately the bioprinting of whole organs for transplantation, three-dimensional printing will change medicine as we know in the next few years.

  12. Three-dimensional hydrodynamics of the deceleration stage in inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C. R., E-mail: weber30@llnl.gov; Clark, D. S.; Cook, A. W.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J. L.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sepke, S. M.; Thomas, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The deceleration stage of inertial confinement fusion implosions is modeled in detail using three-dimensional simulations designed to match experiments at the National Ignition Facility. In this final stage of the implosion, shocks rebound from the center of the capsule, forming the high-temperature, low-density hot spot and slowing the incoming fuel. The flow field that results from this process is highly three-dimensional and influences many aspects of the implosion. The interior of the capsule has high-velocity motion, but viscous effects limit the range of scales that develop. The bulk motion of the hot spot shows qualitative agreement with experimental velocity measurements, while the variance of the hot spot velocity would broaden the DT neutron spectrum, increasing the inferred temperature by 400–800 eV. Jets of ablator material are broken apart and redirected as they enter this dynamic hot spot. Deceleration stage simulations using two fundamentally different rad-hydro codes are compared and the flow field is found to be in good agreement.

  13. Three-dimensional hydrodynamics of the deceleration stage in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C. R.; Clark, D. S.; Cook, A. W.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J. L.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sepke, S. M.; Thomas, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    The deceleration stage of inertial confinement fusion implosions is modeled in detail using three-dimensional simulations designed to match experiments at the National Ignition Facility. In this final stage of the implosion, shocks rebound from the center of the capsule, forming the high-temperature, low-density hot spot and slowing the incoming fuel. The flow field that results from this process is highly three-dimensional and influences many aspects of the implosion. The interior of the capsule has high-velocity motion, but viscous effects limit the range of scales that develop. The bulk motion of the hot spot shows qualitative agreement with experimental velocity measurements, while the variance of the hot spot velocity would broaden the DT neutron spectrum, increasing the inferred temperature by 400–800 eV. Jets of ablator material are broken apart and redirected as they enter this dynamic hot spot. Deceleration stage simulations using two fundamentally different rad-hydro codes are compared and the flow field is found to be in good agreement

  14. Three dimensional diffusion calculations of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspo, N.

    1981-07-01

    This work deals with the three dimensional calculation of nuclear reactors using the code TRITON. The purposes of the work were to perform three-dimensional computations of the core of the Soreq nuclear reactor and of the power reactor ZION and to validate the TRITON code. Possible applications of the TRITON code in Soreq reactor calculations and in power reactor research are suggested. (H.K.)

  15. Edge states of a three-dimensional topological insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, Oindrila; Sen, Diptiman; Soori, Abhiram

    2014-01-01

    We use the bulk Hamiltonian for a three-dimensional topological insulator such as Bi 2 Se 3 to study the states which appear on its various surfaces and along the edge between two surfaces. We use both analytical methods based on the surface Hamiltonians (which are derived from the bulk Hamiltonian) and numerical methods based on a lattice discretization of the bulk Hamiltonian. We find that the application of a potential barrier along an edge can give rise to states localized at that edge. These states have an unusual energy-momentum dispersion which can be controlled by applying a potential along the edge; in particular, the velocity of these states can be tuned to zero. The scattering and conductance across the edge is studied as a function of the edge potential. We show that a magnetic field in a particular direction can also give rise to zero energy states on certain edges. We point out possible experimental ways of looking for the various edge states. (paper)

  16. Magnetic and Velocity Field Variations in the Active Regions NOAA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the magnetic and velocity field evolution in the two magnetically complex active regions NOAA 10486 and NOAA 10488 observed during October–November 2003. We have used the available data to examine net flux and Doppler velocity time profiles to identify changes associated with evolutionary and ...

  17. The geostrophic velocity field in shallow water over topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Henry; Killworth, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    A recent note (Hopkins, T.S., 1996. A note on the geostrophic velocity field referenced to a point. Continental Shelf Research 16, 1621-1630) suggests a method for evaluating absolute pressure gradients in stratified water over topography. We demonstrate that this method requires no along-slope bottom velocity, in contradiction to what is usually observed, and that mass is not conserved.

  18. Three-dimensional, three-component wall-PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthe, André; Kondermann, Daniel; Christensen, Carolyn; Goubergrits, Leonid; Garbe, Christoph; Affeld, Klaus; Kertzscher, Ulrich

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a new time-resolved three-dimensional, three-component (3D-3C) measurement technique called wall-PIV. It was developed to assess near wall flow fields and shear rates near non-planar surfaces. The method is based on light absorption according to Beer-Lambert’s law. The fluid containing a molecular dye and seeded with buoyant particles is illuminated by a monochromatic, diffuse light. Due to the dye, the depth of view is limited to the near wall layer. The three-dimensional particle positions can be reconstructed by the intensities of the particle’s projection on an image sensor. The flow estimation is performed by a new algorithm, based on learned particle trajectories. Possible sources of measurement errors related to the wall-PIV technique are analyzed. The accuracy analysis was based on single particle experiments and a three-dimensional artificial data set simulating a rotating sphere.

  19. Three-dimensional computer models of electrospinning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smółka Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning is a very interesting method that allows the fabrication of continuous fibers with diameters down to a few nanometers. This paper presents an overview of electrospinning systems as well as their comparison using proposed three-dimensional parameterized numerical models. The presented solutions allow an analysis of the electric field distribution.

  20. Three-Dimensional Printed Graphene Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Junwei; Li, Yilun; Villegas Salvatierra, Rodrigo; Wang, Tuo; Dong, Pei; Ji, Yongsung; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Zhang, Chenhao; Zhang, Jibo; Smith, Robert H; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun; Zhao, Naiqin; Tour, James M

    2017-07-25

    An automated metal powder three-dimensional (3D) printing method for in situ synthesis of free-standing 3D graphene foams (GFs) was successfully modeled by manually placing a mixture of Ni and sucrose onto a platform and then using a commercial CO 2 laser to convert the Ni/sucrose mixture into 3D GFs. The sucrose acted as the solid carbon source for graphene, and the sintered Ni metal acted as the catalyst and template for graphene growth. This simple and efficient method combines powder metallurgy templating with 3D printing techniques and enables direct in situ 3D printing of GFs with no high-temperature furnace or lengthy growth process required. The 3D printed GFs show high-porosity (∼99.3%), low-density (∼0.015g cm -3 ), high-quality, and multilayered graphene features. The GFs have an electrical conductivity of ∼8.7 S cm -1 , a remarkable storage modulus of ∼11 kPa, and a high damping capacity of ∼0.06. These excellent physical properties of 3D printed GFs indicate potential applications in fields requiring rapid design and manufacturing of 3D carbon materials, for example, energy storage devices, damping materials, and sound absorption.

  1. A hybrid framework of first principles molecular orbital calculations and a three-dimensional integral equation theory for molecular liquids: Multi-center molecular Ornstein-Zernike self-consistent field approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Kentaro; Kasahara, Kento; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Sato, Hirofumi

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we reported the development of a new quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM)-type framework to describe chemical processes in solution by combining standard molecular-orbital calculations with a three-dimensional formalism of integral equation theory for molecular liquids (multi-center molecular Ornstein-Zernike (MC-MOZ) method). The theoretical procedure is very similar to the 3D-reference interaction site model self-consistent field (RISM-SCF) approach. Since the MC-MOZ method is highly parallelized for computation, the present approach has the potential to be one of the most efficient procedures to treat chemical processes in solution. Benchmark tests to check the validity of this approach were performed for two solute (solute water and formaldehyde) systems and a simple SN2 reaction (Cl- + CH3Cl → ClCH3 + Cl-) in aqueous solution. The results for solute molecular properties and solvation structures obtained by the present approach were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by other hybrid frameworks and experiments. In particular, the results of the proposed approach are in excellent agreements with those of 3D-RISM-SCF.

  2. A hybrid framework of first principles molecular orbital calculations and a three-dimensional integral equation theory for molecular liquids: Multi-center molecular Ornstein–Zernike self-consistent field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, Kentaro; Kasahara, Kento; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Sato, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we reported the development of a new quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM)-type framework to describe chemical processes in solution by combining standard molecular-orbital calculations with a three-dimensional formalism of integral equation theory for molecular liquids (multi-center molecular Ornstein–Zernike (MC-MOZ) method). The theoretical procedure is very similar to the 3D-reference interaction site model self-consistent field (RISM-SCF) approach. Since the MC-MOZ method is highly parallelized for computation, the present approach has the potential to be one of the most efficient procedures to treat chemical processes in solution. Benchmark tests to check the validity of this approach were performed for two solute (solute water and formaldehyde) systems and a simple S N 2 reaction (Cl − + CH 3 Cl → ClCH 3 + Cl − ) in aqueous solution. The results for solute molecular properties and solvation structures obtained by the present approach were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by other hybrid frameworks and experiments. In particular, the results of the proposed approach are in excellent agreements with those of 3D-RISM-SCF

  3. A hybrid framework of first principles molecular orbital calculations and a three-dimensional integral equation theory for molecular liquids: multi-center molecular Ornstein-Zernike self-consistent field approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Kentaro; Kasahara, Kento; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Sato, Hirofumi

    2015-07-07

    In this study, we reported the development of a new quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM)-type framework to describe chemical processes in solution by combining standard molecular-orbital calculations with a three-dimensional formalism of integral equation theory for molecular liquids (multi-center molecular Ornstein-Zernike (MC-MOZ) method). The theoretical procedure is very similar to the 3D-reference interaction site model self-consistent field (RISM-SCF) approach. Since the MC-MOZ method is highly parallelized for computation, the present approach has the potential to be one of the most efficient procedures to treat chemical processes in solution. Benchmark tests to check the validity of this approach were performed for two solute (solute water and formaldehyde) systems and a simple SN2 reaction (Cl(-) + CH3Cl → ClCH3 + Cl(-)) in aqueous solution. The results for solute molecular properties and solvation structures obtained by the present approach were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by other hybrid frameworks and experiments. In particular, the results of the proposed approach are in excellent agreements with those of 3D-RISM-SCF.

  4. The impact of groundwater velocity fields on streamlines in an aquifer system with a discontinuous aquitard (Inner Mongolia, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Zhao, Yingwang; Xu, Hua

    2018-04-01

    Many numerical methods that simulate groundwater flow, particularly the continuous Galerkin finite element method, do not produce velocity information directly. Many algorithms have been proposed to improve the accuracy of velocity fields computed from hydraulic potentials. The differences in the streamlines generated from velocity fields obtained using different algorithms are presented in this report. The superconvergence method employed by FEFLOW, a popular commercial code, and some dual-mesh methods proposed in recent years are selected for comparison. The applications to depict hydrogeologic conditions using streamlines are used, and errors in streamlines are shown to lead to notable errors in boundary conditions, the locations of material interfaces, fluxes and conductivities. Furthermore, the effects of the procedures used in these two types of methods, including velocity integration and local conservation, are analyzed. The method of interpolating velocities across edges using fluxes is shown to be able to eliminate errors associated with refraction points that are not located along material interfaces and streamline ends at no-flow boundaries. Local conservation is shown to be a crucial property of velocity fields and can result in more accurate streamline densities. A case study involving both three-dimensional and two-dimensional cross-sectional models of a coal mine in Inner Mongolia, China, are used to support the conclusions presented.

  5. The velocity field induced by a helical vortex tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukumoto, Y.; Okulov, Valery

    2005-01-01

    The influence of finite-core thickness on the velocity field around a vortex tube is addressed. An asymptotic expansion of the Biot-Savart law is made to a higher order in a small parameter, the ratio of core radius to curvature radius, which consists of the velocity field due to lines of monopoles...... and dipoles arranged on the centerline of the tube. The former is associated with an infinitely thin core and is featured by the circulation alone. The distribution of vorticity in the core reflects on the strength of dipole. This result is applied to a helical vortex tube, and the induced velocity due...

  6. Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux Model for MHD Three-Dimensional Flow of Maxwell Fluid over a Stretching Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubab, Khansa; Mustafa, M

    2016-01-01

    This letter investigates the MHD three-dimensional flow of upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a bi-directional stretching surface by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This model has tendency to capture the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The governing partial differential equations even after employing the boundary layer approximations are non linear. Accurate analytic solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are computed through well-known homotopy analysis method (HAM). It is noticed that velocity decreases and temperature rises when stronger magnetic field strength is accounted. Penetration depth of temperature is a decreasing function of thermal relaxation time. The analysis for classical Fourier heat conduction law can be obtained as a special case of the present work. To our knowledge, the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model law for three-dimensional viscoelastic flow problem is just introduced here.

  7. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DOPPLER TOMOGRAPHY OF THE RS VULPECULAE INTERACTING BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Sharova, Olga I.; Agafonov, Michail I.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional Doppler tomography has been used to study the Hα emission sources in the RS Vulpeculae (RS Vul) interacting binary. The two-dimensional tomogram of this binary suggested that most of the emission arises from the cool mass losing star with additional evidence of a gas stream flowing close to its predicted trajectory. However, the three-dimensional tomogram revealed surprising evidence that the gas stream has an average velocity of -85 km s -1 relative to the central velocity plane at V z = 0 km s -1 , unlike U CrB in which the stream was prominent along this central plane. These unexpected V z motions may result from the interaction between magnetic activity on the cool star and the gravitationally induced Roche lobe overflow from that star. Evidence of a loop prominence on the cool star close to the L1 point has been found in the three-dimensional tomogram of RS Vul; hence, the magnetic field lines may have deflected the gas stream relative to the central plane. This result is consistent with earlier detections of RS Vul as both an X-ray and a radio source, and represents the first detection of a loop prominence in an interacting binary based on tomography. Moreover, recent radio images of β Per, the prototype of the Algols, show that the magnetic field of the mass losing star is asymmetric and extends well beyond the orbital plane of the binary, so it is now plausible that the gas flow between the stars in RS Vul could be deflected in an asymmetric way by the magnetic field.

  8. Three-dimensional microbubble streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Marin, Alvaro; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kaehler, Christian; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2014-11-01

    Streaming due to acoustically excited bubbles has been used successfully for applications such as size-sorting, trapping and focusing of particles, as well as fluid mixing. Many of these applications involve the precise control of particle trajectories, typically achieved using cylindrical bubbles, which establish planar flows. Using astigmatic particle tracking velocimetry (APTV), we show that, while this two-dimensional picture is a useful description of the flow over short times, a systematic three-dimensional flow structure is evident over long time scales. We demonstrate that this long-time three-dimensional fluid motion can be understood through asymptotic theory, superimposing secondary axial flows (induced by boundary conditions at the device walls) onto the two-dimensional description. This leads to a general framework that describes three-dimensional flows in confined microstreaming systems, guiding the design of applications that profit from minimizing or maximizing these effects.

  9. Development of three dimensional solid modeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, R.M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is aimed at developing a three dimensional solid modeler employing computer graphics techniques using C-Language. Primitives have been generated, by combination of plane surfaces, for various basic geometrical shapes including cylinder, cube and cone. Back face removal technique for hidden surface removal has also been incorporated. Various transformation techniques such as scaling, translation, and rotation have been included for the object animation. Three dimensional solid modeler has been created by the union of two primitives to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed program. (author)

  10. Three-dimensional imaging utilizing energy discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, D.L.; Hoffman, K.R.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for three-dimensional image reconstruction in nuclear medicine which uses scattered radiation rather than multiple projected images to determine the source depth within the body. Images taken from numerous energy windows are combined to construct the source distribution in the body. The gamma-ray camera is not moved during the imaging process. Experiments with both Tc-99m and Ga-67 demonstrate that two channels of depth information can be extracted from the low energy images produced by scattered radiation. By combining this technique with standard SPECT reconstruction using multiple projections the authors anticipate much improved spatial resolution in the overall three-dimensional reconstruction

  11. Spinorial characterizations of surfaces into three-dimensional homogeneous manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Julien

    2010-06-01

    We give spinorial characterizations of isometrically immersed surfaces into three-dimensional homogeneous manifolds with four-dimensional isometry group in terms of the existence of a particular spinor field. This generalizes works by Friedrich for R3 and Morel for S3 and H3. The main argument is the interpretation of the energy-momentum tensor of such a spinor field as the second fundamental form up to a tensor depending on the structure of the ambient space.

  12. Three-dimensional harmonic control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapenko, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithms for neutron flux control based on harmonic three-dimensional core are considered. The essence of the considered approach includes determination of harmonics amplitudes by signals self-powered detectors placed in reactor channels and reconstruction of neutron field distribution over the reactor core volume using the data obtained. Neutron field harmonic control is shown to be reduced to independent measurement and calculation of height harmonics in channels using techniques developed for channel power control

  13. Analysis of the three dimensional flow in a turbine scroll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, A.; Baskharone, E.

    1979-01-01

    The present analysis describes the three-dimensional compressible inviscid flow in the scroll and the vaneless nozzle of a radial inflow turbine. The solution to this flow field, which is further complicated by the geometrical shape of the boundaries, is obtained using the finite element method. Symmetric and nonsymmetric scroll cross sectional geometries are investigated to determine their effect on the general flow field and on the exit flow conditions.

  14. Measuring average angular velocity with a smartphone magnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pili, Unofre; Violanda, Renante

    2018-02-01

    The angular velocity of a spinning object is, by standard, measured using a device called a tachometer. However, by directly using it in a classroom setting, the activity is likely to appear as less instructive and less engaging. Indeed, some alternative classroom-suitable methods for measuring angular velocity have been presented. In this paper, we present a further alternative that is smartphone-based, making use of the real-time magnetic field (simply called B-field in what follows) data gathering capability of the B-field sensor of the smartphone device as the timer for measuring average rotational period and average angular velocity. The in-built B-field sensor in smartphones has already found a number of uses in undergraduate experimental physics. For instance, in elementary electrodynamics, it has been used to explore the well-known Bio-Savart law and in a measurement of the permeability of air.

  15. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of in situ shock formation in the coronal streamer belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaliznyak, Yu.; Keppens, R.; Goedbloed, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    A numerical study of an idealized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) configuration consisting of a planar wake flow embedded into a three-dimensional (3D) sheared magnetic field is presented. The simulations investigate the possibility for in situ development of large-scale compressive disturbances at cospatial current sheet-velocity shear regions in the heliosphere. Using a linear MHD solver, the systematical investigation of the destabilized wavenumbers, corresponding growth rates, and physical parameter ranges for dominant 3D sinuous-type instabilities in an equilibrium wake-current sheet system was done. Wakes bounded by sufficiently supersonic (Mach number M s >2.6) flow streams are found to support dominant fully 3D sinuous instabilities when the plasma beta is of order unity. Fully nonlinear, compressible 2.5D and 3D MHD simulations show the self-consistent formation of shock fronts of fast magnetosonic type. They carry density perturbations far away from the wake's center. Shock formation conditions are identified in sonic and Alfvenic Mach number parameter space. Depending on the wake velocity contrast and magnetic field magnitude, as well as on the initial perturbation, the emerging shock patterns can be plane-parallel as well as fully three-dimensionally structured. Similar large-scale transients could therefore originate at distances far above coronal helmet streamers or at the location of the ecliptic current sheet

  16. Secondary motion in three-dimensional branching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Abhijit; Pradhan, Kaustav

    2017-06-01

    A major aim of the present work is to understand and thoroughly document the generation, the three-dimensional distribution, and the evolution of the secondary motion as the fluid progresses downstream through a branched network. Six generations (G0-G5) of branches (involving 63 straight portions and 31 bifurcation modules) are computed in one go; such computational challenges are rarely taken in the literature. More than 30 × 106 computational elements are employed for high precision of computed results and fine quality of the flow visualization diagrams. The study of co-planar vis-à-vis non-planar space-filling configurations establishes a quantitative evaluation of the dependence of the fluid dynamics on the three-dimensional arrangement of the same individual branches. As compared to the secondary motion in a simple curved pipe, three distinctive features, viz., the change of shape and size of the flow-cross-section, the division of non-uniform primary flow in a bifurcation module, and repeated switchover from clockwise to anticlockwise curvature and vice versa in the flow path, make the present situation more complex. It is shown that the straight portions in the network, in general, attenuate the secondary motion, while the three-dimensionally complex bifurcation modules generate secondary motion and may alter the number, arrangement, and structure of vortices. A comprehensive picture of the evolution of quantitative flow visualizations of the secondary motion is achieved by constructing contours of secondary velocity | v → S | , streamwise vorticity ω S , and λ 2 iso-surfaces. It is demonstrated, for example, that for in-plane configuration, the vortices on any plane appear in pair (i.e., for each clockwise rotating vortex, there is an otherwise identical anticlockwise vortex), whereas the vortices on a plane for the out-of-plane configuration may be dissimilar, and there may even be an odd number of vortices. We have formulated three new parameters

  17. Three-Dimensional Messages for Interstellar Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    One of the challenges facing independently evolved civilizations separated by interstellar distances is to communicate information unique to one civilization. One commonly proposed solution is to begin with two-dimensional pictorial representations of mathematical concepts and physical objects, in the hope that this will provide a foundation for overcoming linguistic barriers. However, significant aspects of such representations are highly conventional, and may not be readily intelligible to a civilization with different conventions. The process of teaching conventions of representation may be facilitated by the use of three-dimensional representations redundantly encoded in multiple formats (e.g., as both vectors and as rasters). After having illustrated specific conventions for representing mathematical objects in a three-dimensional space, this method can be used to describe a physical environment shared by transmitter and receiver: a three-dimensional space defined by the transmitter--receiver axis, and containing stars within that space. This method can be extended to show three-dimensional representations varying over time. Having clarified conventions for representing objects potentially familiar to both sender and receiver, novel objects can subsequently be depicted. This is illustrated through sequences showing interactions between human beings, which provide information about human behavior and personality. Extensions of this method may allow the communication of such culture-specific features as aesthetic judgments and religious beliefs. Limitations of this approach will be noted, with specific reference to ETI who are not primarily visual.

  18. Electron crystallography of three dimensional protein crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Dilyana

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation of the potential of electron diffraction for studying three dimensional sub-micro-crystals of proteins and pharmaceuticals. A prerequisite for using electron diffraction for structural studies is the predictable availability of tiny crystals. A method for

  19. Three dimensional electrochemical system for neurobiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez, Patricia; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report a novel three dimensional electrode array for electrochemical measurements in neuronal studies. The main advantage of working with these out-of-plane structures is the enhanced sensitivity of the system in terms of measuring electrochemical changes in the environment...

  20. Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... The image data can be jointly analysed with the physical laws governing transport and principles of image formation. Hence, with the experiment suitably carried out, three-dimensional physical domains with unsteady processes can be accommodated. Optical methods promise to breach the holy grail of ...

  1. Computerized three-dimensional normal atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mano, Isamu; Suto, Yasuzo; Suzuki, Masataka; Iio, Masahiro.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents our ongoing project in which normal human anatomy and its quantitative data are systematically arranged in a computer. The final product, the Computerized Three-Dimensional Normal Atlas, will be able to supply tomographic images in any direction, 3-D images, and coded information on organs, e.g., anatomical names, CT numbers, and T 1 and T 2 values. (author)

  2. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    medium properties, so horizontal refraction and reflection of sound can occur and produce significant three-dimensional (3-D) sound propagation ...by the environmental factors existing commonly in the continental shelf and shelfbreak areas, such as slopes, submarine canyons, sub-bottom layers ...surface waves, internal waves and shelfbreak fronts. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Continental Shelf; 3-D Acoustics , Surface Waves, Sound Propagation 16

  3. POLARIZED LINE FORMATION IN NON-MONOTONIC VELOCITY FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N., E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in, E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bengaluru 560034 (India)

    2016-12-10

    For a correct interpretation of the observed spectro-polarimetric data from astrophysical objects such as the Sun, it is necessary to solve the polarized line transfer problems taking into account a realistic temperature structure, the dynamical state of the atmosphere, a realistic scattering mechanism (namely, the partial frequency redistribution—PRD), and the magnetic fields. In a recent paper, we studied the effects of monotonic vertical velocity fields on linearly polarized line profiles formed in isothermal atmospheres with and without magnetic fields. However, in general the velocity fields that prevail in dynamical atmospheres of astrophysical objects are non-monotonic. Stellar atmospheres with shocks, multi-component supernova atmospheres, and various kinds of wave motions in solar and stellar atmospheres are examples of non-monotonic velocity fields. Here we present studies on the effect of non-relativistic non-monotonic vertical velocity fields on the linearly polarized line profiles formed in semi-empirical atmospheres. We consider a two-level atom model and PRD scattering mechanism. We solve the polarized transfer equation in the comoving frame (CMF) of the fluid using a polarized accelerated lambda iteration method that has been appropriately modified for the problem at hand. We present numerical tests to validate the CMF method and also discuss the accuracy and numerical instabilities associated with it.

  4. TRAJ - a FORTRAN 77 computer program for the calculation of trajectories on the basis of space and time varying velocity fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, J.

    1986-09-01

    The computation of three dimensional trajectories is described in this report. Since measurements of the position and velocity of individual fluid parcels are difficult to be carried out and analytic solutions applicable to the trajectory problem are not available, trajectories have to be calculated by successive observations of the corresponding velocity fields using a method of successive approximation. The application is restricted to cartesian grid coordinate system with equidistant grid points. This model was developed for meteorological purposes (transport of pollutants) but can also be used for other fluids and scales. (orig./PW) [de

  5. A new three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique for large breast and/or high body mass index patients: evaluation of a novel fields assessment aimed to reduce extra–target-tissue irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimato, Gerardina; Ippolito, Edy; Silipigni, Sonia; Venanzio, Cristina Di; Gaudino, Diego; Fiore, Michele; Trodella, Lucio; D'Angelillo, Rolando Maria; Ramella, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To develop an alternative three-dimensional treatment plan with standardized fields class solution for whole-breast radiotherapy in patients with large/pendulous breast and/or high body mass index (BMI). Methods: Two treatment plans [tangential fields and standardized five-fields technique (S5F)] for a total dose of 50 Gy/25 fractions were generated for patients with large breasts [planning target volume (PTV) >1000 cm3 and/or BMI >25 kg m−2], supine positioned. S5F plans consist of two wedged tangential beams, anteroposterior: 20° for the right breast and 340° for the left breast, and posteroanterior: 181° for the right breast and 179° for the left breast. A field in field in medial–lateral beam and additional fields were added to reduce hot spot areas and extra–target-tissue irradiation and to improve dose distribution. The percentage of PTV receiving 95% of the prescribed dose (PTV V95%), percentage of PTV receiving 105% of the prescribed dose (PTV V105%), maximal dose to PTV (PTV Dmax), homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index were recorded. V10%, V20%, V105% and V107% of a “proper” normal tissue structure (body-PTV healthy tissue) were recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using SYSTAT v.12.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). Results: In 38 patients included, S5F improved HI (8.4 vs 10.1; p ≤ 0.001) and significantly reduced PTV Dmax and PTV V105%. The extra–target-tissue irradiation was significantly reduced using S5F for V105% (cm3) and V107% (cm3) with a very high difference in tissue irradiation (46.6 vs 3.0 cm3, p ≤ 0.001 for V105% and 12.2 vs 0.0 cm3, p ≤ 0.001 for V107% for tangential field and S5F plans, respectively). Only a slight increase in low-dose extra–target-tissue irradiation (V10%) was observed (2.2719 vs 1.8261 cm3, p = 0.002). Conclusion: The S5F technique in patients with large breast or high BMI increases HI and decreases hot spots in extra-target-tissues and can therefore be

  6. Anomalous cross-field velocities in a CIV laboratory experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axnaes, I.

    1988-10-01

    The axial and radial ion velocities and the electron radial velocity are determined in coaxial plasma gun operated under critical velocity conditions. The particle celocities are determined from probe measurement together with He I 3889 AA absolute intensity measurements and the consideration of the total momentum balance of the current sheet. The ions are found move axially and the electrons radially much faster than predicted by the E/B drift in the macroscopic fields. These results agree with what can be expected from the instability processes, which has earlier been proposed to operate in these experiments. It is therefore a direct experimental demonstration that instability processes have to be invoked not only for the electron heating, but also to explain the macroscopic velocities and currents. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chenghai; Hsu, Andrew T

    2003-07-01

    A three-dimensional compressible lattice Boltzmann model is formulated on a cubic lattice. A very large particle-velocity set is incorporated in order to enable a greater variation in the mean velocity. Meanwhile, the support set of the equilibrium distribution has only six directions. Therefore, this model can efficiently handle flows over a wide range of Mach numbers and capture shock waves. Due to the simple form of the equilibrium distribution, the fourth-order velocity tensors are not involved in the formulation. Unlike the standard lattice Boltzmann model, no special treatment is required for the homogeneity of fourth-order velocity tensors on square lattices. The Navier-Stokes equations were recovered, using the Chapman-Enskog method from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) lattice Boltzmann equation. The second-order discretization error of the fluctuation velocity in the macroscopic conservation equation was eliminated by means of a modified collision invariant. The model is suitable for both viscous and inviscid compressible flows with or without shocks. Since the present scheme deals only with the equilibrium distribution that depends only on fluid density, velocity, and internal energy, boundary conditions on curved wall are easily implemented by an extrapolation of macroscopic variables. To verify the scheme for inviscid flows, we have successfully simulated a three-dimensional shock-wave propagation in a box and a normal shock of Mach number 10 over a wedge. As an application to viscous flows, we have simulated a flat plate boundary layer flow, flow over a cylinder, and a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil cascade.

  8. The three-dimensional properties and energetics of radio-jet-driven outflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan, E-mail: hsshih@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Extended emission-line regions (EELRs), found around radio-loud sources, are likely outflows driven by one form of powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback mechanism. We seek to constrain the three-dimensional gas properties and the outflow energetics of the EELRs in this study. We used an integral field unit to observe EELRs around two samples of radio-loud AGNs with similar radio properties, but different orientations: a sample of quasars and a sample of radio galaxies. A morphological comparison suggests a scenario where the three-dimensional EELR gas distribution follows rough biconical shapes with wide opening angles. The average extent of the EELRs is ∼18.5 kpc. The estimated average mass of the EELRs, with reasonable assumptions for gas densities, is ∼3 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}, and the average mass outflow rate is ∼30 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The EELRs around quasars and radio galaxies share similar kinematic properties. Both samples have velocity structures that display a range of complexities, they do not appear to correlate with the jet orientations, and both span a similar range of velocity dispersions. Around 30% of the detected EELRs show large-scale rotational motions, which may have originated from recent mergers involving gas-rich disk galaxies.

  9. Influence of convective conditions on three dimensional mixed convective hydromagnetic boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauf, A., E-mail: raufamar@ciitsahiwal.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, M.K. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Meraj, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, M. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)

    2016-10-15

    The present work deals with the steady laminar three-dimensional mixed convective magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. Similarity variables are implemented to convert the non-linear partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Convective boundary conditions are utilized at surface of the sheet. A numerical technique of Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg (RFK45) is used to obtain the results of velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The physical dimensionless parameters are discussed through tables and graphs. - Highlights: • Mixed convective boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid is taken into account. • Impact of magnetic field is examined. • Convective heat and mass conditions are imposed. • Numerical solutions are presented and discussed.

  10. Equatorial spread F studies using SAMI3 with two-dimensional and three-dimensional electrostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Aveiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents a study of equatorial F region irregularities using the NRL SAMI3/ESF model, comparing results using a two-dimensional (2-D and a three-dimensional (3-D electrostatic potential solution. For the 3-D potential solution, two cases are considered for parallel plasma transport: (1 transport based on the parallel ambipolar field, and (2 transport based on the parallel electric field. The results show that the growth rate of the generalized Rayleigh–Taylor instability is not affected by the choice of the potential solution. However, differences are observed in the structures of the irregularities between the 2-D and 3-D solutions. Additionally, the plasma velocity along the geomagnetic field computed using the full 3-D solution shows complex structures that are not captured by the simplified model. This points out that only the full 3-D model is able to fully capture the complex physics of the equatorial F region.

  11. [Application Progress of Three-dimensional Laser Scanning Technology in Medical Surface Mapping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghong; Hou, He; Han, Yuchuan; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Xianfeng; Wang, Mingshi

    2016-04-01

    The booming three-dimensional laser scanning technology can efficiently and effectively get spatial three-dimensional coordinates of the detected object surface and reconstruct the image at high speed,high precision and large capacity of information.Non-radiation,non-contact and the ability of visualization make it increasingly popular in three-dimensional surface medical mapping.This paper reviews the applications and developments of three-dimensional laser scanning technology in medical field,especially in stomatology,plastic surgery and orthopedics.Furthermore,the paper also discusses the application prospects in the future as well as the biomedical engineering problems it would encounter with.

  12. Three-dimensional charge transport in organic semiconductor single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Zhang, Xiying; Jia, Jiong; Li, Yexin; Tao, Xutang

    2012-04-24

    Three-dimensional charge transport anisotropy in organic semiconductor single crystals - both plates and rods (above and below, respectively, in the figure) - is measured in well-performing organic field-effect transistors for the first time. The results provide an excellent model for molecular design and device preparation that leads to good performance. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Is a three-dimensional-printed tooth filling possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet Kerim Ayar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Three-dimensional (3-D) printing is seen as an innovative production process in many fields of dentistry and medicine. But implantation of this novel production process into the treatment of decayed teeth in dentistry remains lacking. Destruction of dental tissues as a result of dental caries is generally treated with dental resin composite fillings. However, a 3-D-printed tooth filling approach, which could be an alternative to traditional approaches, has a potential to reduce ...

  14. Arching in three-dimensional clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, János; Lévay, Sára; Szabó, Balázs; Somfai, Ellák; Wegner, Sandra; Stannarius, Ralf; Börzsönyi, Tamás

    2017-06-01

    Arching in dry granular material is a long established concept, however it remains still an open question how three-dimensional orifices clog. We investigate by means of numerical simulations and experimental data how the outflow creates a blocked configuration of particles. We define the concave surface of the clogged dome by two independent methods (geometric and density based). The average shape of the cupola for spheres is almost a hemisphere but individual samples have large holes in the structure indicating a blocked state composed of two-dimensional force chains rather than three-dimensional objects. The force chain structure justifies this assumption. For long particles the clogged configurations display large variations, and in certain cases the empty region reaches a height of 5 hole diameters. These structures involve vertical walls consisting of horizontally placed stable stacking of particles.

  15. Three dimensional imaging in cardiac nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, Kanji; Ishii, Yasushi; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Tamaki, Takeyoshi

    1981-01-01

    Methods to obtain three dimensional images of the heart were reviewed. Gated three dimensional display reconstructed from images using bidirectional collimator, was a useful method to detect akinesis of the heart wall. Tomographic observation of the heart can be carried out by a pinhole collimator to image ischemia with high sensitivity. However the focusing plane must be carefully selected to prevent false positives. In the case of emission CT (ECT), utilization of positron emitters gave a quantitative image without correction, whereas single photon ECT needed the correction due to the absorption of γ-ray. Though the reliability of the images by ECT was high, the time required for data acquisition was much longer than that by a 7 pinhole or bidirectional collimator. (Nakanishi, T.)

  16. SNAP - a three dimensional neutron diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallien, C.W.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes a one- two- three-dimensional multi-group diffusion code, SNAP, which is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations but can also carry out gamma calculations if the diffusion approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. SNAP can solve the multi-group neutron diffusion equations using finite difference methods. The one-dimensional slab, cylindrical and spherical geometries and the two-dimensional case are all treated as simple special cases of three-dimensional geometries. Numerous reflective and periodic symmetry options are available and may be used to reduce the number of mesh points necessary to represent the system. Extrapolation lengths can be specified at internal and external boundaries. (Author)

  17. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337

  18. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome.

  19. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome

  20. THREE DIMENSIONAL GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V. Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality is an important aspect for every firm in modern era of competition. Every product has tough competition in terms of market reach. The factor, which actually makes any product long run in market, is quality and hence quality is the stepping-stone for success of any firm. For everyone meaning of quality is different. We have seen several economists who have defined quality by considering different factors, but what all of them have common in them is Customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is the ultimate result of quality. In three-dimensional graphical representation of quality, optimum quality is obtained by using three-dimensional graph by considering some important factors governing quality of any product, limiting factor, and customer satisfaction.

  1. Three dimensional contact/impact methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The simulation of three-dimensional interface mechanics between reactor components and structures during static contact or dynamic impact is necessary to realistically evaluate their structural integrity to off-normal loads. In our studies of postulated core energy release events, we have found that significant structure-structure interactions occur in some reactor vessel head closure designs and that fluid-structure interactions occur within the reactor vessel. Other examples in which three-dimensional interface mechanics play an important role are: (1) impact response of shipping casks containing spent fuel, (2) whipping pipe impact on reinforced concrete panels or pipe-to-pipe impact after a pipe break, (3) aircraft crash on secondary containment structures, (4) missiles generated by turbine failures or tornados, and (5) drops of heavy components due to lifting accidents. The above is a partial list of reactor safety problems that require adequate treatment of interface mechanics and are discussed in this paper

  2. Reconstructing the velocity field beyond the local universe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnston, R

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available an estimate of the velocity field derived from the galaxy over-density d(sub g) and the second makes use of the matter linear density power spectrum P(sub k). Using N-body simulations we find, with an SDSS-like sample (N(sub gal) 33 per deg(sup 2...

  3. Channel flow analysis. [velocity distribution throughout blade flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanis, T.

    1973-01-01

    The design of a proper blade profile requires calculation of the blade row flow field in order to determine the velocities on the blade surfaces. An analysis theory is presented for several methods used for this calculation and associated computer programs that were developed are discussed.

  4. Transformations Based on Continuous Piecewise-Affine Velocity Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freifeld, Oren; Hauberg, Søren; Batmanghelich, Kayhan

    2017-01-01

    We propose novel finite-dimensional spaces of well-behaved transformations. The latter are obtained by (fast and highly-accurate) integration of continuous piecewise-affine velocity fields. The proposed method is simple yet highly expressive, effortlessly handles optional constraints (e.g., volum...

  5. Three-dimensional simulation of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvila, G.; Salas, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The integral form of the complete, unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the conservation form, cast in generalized coordinate system, are solved, numerically, to simulate the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The inviscid fluxes are discretized using Roe's upwind-biased flux-difference splitting scheme and the viscous fluxes are discretized using central differencing. Time integration is performed using a backward Euler ADI (alternating direction implicit) scheme. A full approximation multigrid is used to accelerate the convergence to steady state.

  6. Impermeability effects in three-dimensional vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscari, P; Canevese, S M; Napoli, G

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the effects of the impermeability constraint on the equilibrium shapes of a three-dimensional vesicle hosting a rigid inclusion. A given alteration of the inclusion and/or vesicle parameters leads to shape modifications of different orders of magnitude, when applied to permeable or impermeable vesicles. Moreover, the enclosed-volume constraint wrecks the uniqueness of stationary equilibrium shapes, and gives rise to pear-shaped or stomatocyte-like vesicles

  7. Multiparallel Three-Dimensional Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Kellner, Albert L.; Bravo-Zanoquera, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Multiparallel three-dimensional optical microscopy is a method of forming an approximate three-dimensional image of a microscope sample as a collection of images from different depths through the sample. The imaging apparatus includes a single microscope plus an assembly of beam splitters and mirrors that divide the output of the microscope into multiple channels. An imaging array of photodetectors in each channel is located at a different distance along the optical path from the microscope, corresponding to a focal plane at a different depth within the sample. The optical path leading to each photodetector array also includes lenses to compensate for the variation of magnification with distance so that the images ultimately formed on all the photodetector arrays are of the same magnification. The use of optical components common to multiple channels in a simple geometry makes it possible to obtain high light-transmission efficiency with an optically and mechanically simple assembly. In addition, because images can be read out simultaneously from all the photodetector arrays, the apparatus can support three-dimensional imaging at a high scanning rate.

  8. Three dimensional analysis of laterally loaded piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this study static analysis of laterally loaded pile is studied by the three models. The first model is the beam on discrete elastic springs. This model is analyzed using a flexibility method. The second model is the beam on a two-parameter elastic foundation. This model is analyzed using the linear finite element method. The third model is the finite element model, using the three-dimensional iso-parametric parabolic brick element. Three-dimensional pile group analysis is also performed using elastic constants of single pile obtained by any one of the above analyses. The main objective is to develop computer programs for each model related to single piles and to group analysis. Then, the deflections, rotations, moments, shears, stresses and strains of the single pile are obtained at any arbitrary point. Comparison is made between each model and with other studies such as Poulos 1971, Desai and Appel 1976. In addition, to provide a benchmark of three-dimensional finite element analysis, the Boussinesq problem is analyzed. (orig.)

  9. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Sandpile Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, G. T.

    2001-03-01

    The granular bed, or sandpile, has become one of the condensed matter physicist's favorite systems. In addition to conceptual appeal, the simplest sandpile of monodisperse hard spheres is a valuable model system for understanding powders, liquids, and metallic glasses. Any fundamental approach to the transport and mechanical properties of three-dimensional mesoscale disordered materials must follow from a thorough understanding of their structure. However, in the overwhelming majority of cases, structure measurements have been limited to the mean filling fraction and the structural autocorrelation function. This is particularly unfortunate in the ongoing sandpile renaissance, where some of the most interesting questions concern structure and the relationship between structure and dynamics. I will discuss the combination of synchrotron x-ray microtomography and computer vision algorithms to perform three-dimensional virtual reconstructions of real sandpiles. This technique is rapid and noninvasive, and is applicable to samples large enough to separate bulk and boundary properties. The resulting complete knowledge of structure can be used to calculate otherwise inaccessible correlation functions. I will present results for several measures of the bond-orientational order in three-dimensional sandpiles, including fabric tensors and nematic order parameters.

  10. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  11. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W; Carey, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire-bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design.

  12. Results of verification and investigation of wind velocity field forecast. Verification of wind velocity field forecast model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Takeshi; Kayano, Mitsunaga; Kikuchi, Hideo; Abe, Takeo; Saga, Kyoji

    1995-01-01

    In Environmental Radioactivity Research Institute, the verification and investigation of the wind velocity field forecast model 'EXPRESS-1' have been carried out since 1991. In fiscal year 1994, as the general analysis, the validity of weather observation data, the local features of wind field, and the validity of the positions of monitoring stations were investigated. The EXPRESS which adopted 500 m mesh so far was improved to 250 m mesh, and the heightening of forecast accuracy was examined, and the comparison with another wind velocity field forecast model 'SPEEDI' was carried out. As the results, there are the places where the correlation with other points of measurement is high and low, and it was found that for the forecast of wind velocity field, by excluding the data of the points with low correlation or installing simplified observation stations to take their data in, the forecast accuracy is improved. The outline of the investigation, the general analysis of weather observation data and the improvements of wind velocity field forecast model and forecast accuracy are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Three dimensional illustrating - three-dimensional vision and deception of sensibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gánóczy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena of movement parallax, which can be used efficiently in making three-dimensional graphics, the Zöllner- and Corridor-illusion. There are present in this paper the visual elements, which contribute to define a plane two-dimensional image in three-dimension: coherent lines, the covering, the measurement changes, the relative altitude state, the abatement of detail profusion, the shadings and the perspective effects of colors.

  14. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.)

  15. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-08-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.).

  16. Three-dimensional instability of standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing surface waves under the influence of gravity. The analysis employs the transition matrix (TM) approach and uses a new high-order spectral element (HOSE) method for computation of the nonlinear wave dynamics. HOSE is an extension of the original high-order spectral method (HOS) wherein nonlinear wave wave and wave body interactions are retained up to high order in wave steepness. Instead of global basis functions in HOS, however, HOSE employs spectral elements to allow for complex free-surface geometries and surface-piercing bodies. Exponential convergence of HOS with respect to the total number of spectral modes (for a fixed number of elements) and interaction order is retained in HOSE. In this study, we use TM-HOSE to obtain the stability of general three-dimensional perturbations (on a two-dimensional surface) on two classes of standing waves: plane standing waves in a rectangular tank; and radial/azimuthal standing waves in a circular basin. For plane standing waves, we confirm the known result of two-dimensional side-bandlike instability. In addition, we find a novel three-dimensional instability for base flow of any amplitude. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique (standing) wave oriented at an arbitrary angle whose frequency is close to the (nonlinear) frequency of the original standing wave. This finding is confirmed by direct long-time simulations using HOSE which show that the nonlinear evolution leads to classical Fermi Pasta Ulam recurrence. For the circular basin, we find that, beyond a threshold wave steepness, a standing wave (of nonlinear frequency Omega) is unstable to three-dimensional perturbations. The unstable perturbation contains two dominant (standing-wave) components, the sum of whose frequencies is close to 2Omega. From the cases we consider, the critical wave steepness is found to generally decrease/increase with increasing radial

  17. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric axial anisotropic forward modeling and inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Wang, Kunpeng; Wang, Tao; Hua, Boguang

    2018-06-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data has been widely used to image underground electrical structural. However, when the significant axial resistivity anisotropy presents, how this influences three-dimensional MT data has not been resolved clearly yet. We here propose a scheme for three-dimensional modeling of MT data in presence of axial anisotropic resistivity, where the electromagnetic fields are decomposed into primary and secondary components. A 3D staggered-grid finite difference method is then used to resolve the resulting 3D governing equations. Numerical tests have completed to validate the correctness and accuracy of the present algorithm. A limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno method is then utilized to realize the 3D MT axial anisotropic inversion. The testing results show that, compared to the results of isotropic resistivity inversion, taking account the axial anisotropy can much improve the inverted results.

  18. Three-Dimensional Flow Behavior Inside the Submerged Entry Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-Ramirez, Cesar Augusto; Carvajal-Mariscal, Ignacio; Sanchez-Silva, Florencio; Cervantes-de-la-Torre, Francisco; Diaz-Montes, Jesus; Gonzalez-Trejo, Jesus

    2018-05-01

    According to various authors, the surface quality of steel depends on the dynamic conditions that occur within the continuous casting mold's upper region. The meniscus, found in that upper region, is where the solidification process begins. The liquid steel is distributed into the mold through a submerged entry nozzle (SEN). In this paper, the dynamic behavior inside the SEN is analyzed by means of physical experiments and numerical simulations. The particle imaging velocimetry technique was used to obtain the vector field in different planes and three-dimensional flow patterns inside the SEN volume. Moreover, large eddy simulation was performed, and the turbulence model results were used to understand the nonlinear flow pattern inside the SEN. Using scaled physical and numerical models, quasi-periodic behavior was observed due to the interaction of two three-dimensional vortices that move inside the SEN lower region located between the exit ports of the nozzle.

  19. Three Dimensional Energy Transmitting Boundary in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro eNakamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the energy transmitting boundary is accurate and efficient for the FEM earthquake response analysis, it could be applied in the frequency domain only. In the previous papers, the author proposed an earthquake response analysis method using the time domain energy transmitting boundary for two dimensional problems. In this paper, this technique is expanded for three dimensional problems. The inner field is supposed to be a hexahedron shape and the approximate time domain boundary is explained, first. Next, two dimensional anti-plane time domain boundary is studied for a part of the approximate three dimensional boundary method. Then, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are confirmed by example problems.

  20. Three-dimensional theory for light-matter interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martin Westring; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2008-01-01

    We present a full quantum mechanical three dimensional theory describing an electromagnetic field interacting with an ensemble of identical atoms. The theory is constructed such that it describes recent experiments on light-matter quantum interfaces, where the quantum fluctuations of light...... to a dressed state picture, where the light modes are solutions to the diffraction problem, and develop a perturbative expansion in the fluctuations. The fluctuations are due to quantum fluctuations as well as the random positions of the atoms. In this perturbative expansion we show how the quantum...... fluctuations are mapped between atoms and light while the random positioning of the atoms give rise to decay due to spontaneous emission. Furthermore we identify limits, where the full three dimensional theory reduce to the one dimensional theory typically used to describe the interaction....

  1. Three-dimensional imaging technology offers promise in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karako, Kenji; Wu, Qiong; Gao, Jianjun

    2014-04-01

    Medical imaging plays an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Currently, medical equipment mainly has two-dimensional (2D) imaging systems. Although this conventional imaging largely satisfies clinical requirements, it cannot depict pathologic changes in 3 dimensions. The development of three-dimensional (3D) imaging technology has encouraged advances in medical imaging. Three-dimensional imaging technology offers doctors much more information on a pathology than 2D imaging, thus significantly improving diagnostic capability and the quality of treatment. Moreover, the combination of 3D imaging with augmented reality significantly improves surgical navigation process. The advantages of 3D imaging technology have made it an important component of technological progress in the field of medical imaging.

  2. Single florescent nanodiamond in a three dimensional ABEL trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayci, Metin; Radenovic, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional single particle trapping and manipulation is an outstanding challenge in various fields ranging from basic physics to life sciences. By monitoring the response of a trapped particle to a designed environment one can extract its characteristics. In addition, quantum dynamics of a spatially scanned well-known particle can provide environmental information. Precise tracking and positioning of such a particle in aqueous environment is crucial task for achieving nano-scale resolution. Here we experimentally demonstrate three dimensional ABEL trap operating at high frequency by employing a hybrid approach in particle tracking. The particle location in the transverse plane is detected via a scanning laser beam while the axial position is determined by defocused imaging. The scanning of the trapped particle is accomplished through a nano positioning stage integrated to the trap platform. PMID:26559890

  3. Heat transfer in gas turbine engines and three-dimensional flows; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, Nov. 27-Dec. 2, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovic, E. (Editor); O'Brien, J. E. (Editor); Pepper, D. W. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The present conference on heat transfer characteristics of gas turbines and three-dimensional flows discusses velocity-temperature fluctuation correlations at the flow stagnation flow of a circular cylinder in turbulent flow, heat transfer across turbulent boundary layers with pressure gradients, the effect of jet grid turbulence on boundary layer heat transfer, and heat transfer characteristics predictions for discrete-hole film cooling. Also discussed are local heat transfer in internally cooled turbine airfoil leading edges, secondary flows in vane cascades and curved ducts, three-dimensional numerical modeling in gas turbine coal combustor design, numerical and experimental results for tube-fin heat exchanger airflow and heating characteristics, and the computation of external hypersonic three-dimensional flow field and heat transfer characteristics.

  4. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...

  5. Three-dimensional S-wave tomography under Axial Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillard, C.; Wilcock, W. S. D.; Arnulf, A. F.; Tolstoy, M.; Waldhauser, F.

    2017-12-01

    Axial Seamount is a submarine volcano located at the intersection of the Juande Fuca Ridge and the Cobb-Eickelberg hotspot 500 km off the coast of thenorthwestern United States. The seamount, which rises 1 km above the seafloor, ischaracterized by a shallow caldera that is elongated in the N-S direction, measure 8km by 3 km and sits on top of a 14 km by 3 km magma reservoir. Two eruptive eventsin 1998 and 2011 motivated the deployment in 2014 of a real time cabled observatorywithin the Axial caldera, as part of the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI).Theobservatory includes a network of seven seismometers that span the southern half ofthe caldera. Five months after the observatory came on-line in November 2014, thevolcano erupted on April 24, 2015. Well over 100,000 events were located in thevicinity of the caldera, delineating an outward dipping ring fault that extends fromnear the surface to the magma body at 2 km depth and which accommodatesinflation and deflation of the volcano.The initial earthquake locations have beenobtained with a one-dimensional velocity model but the travel time residuals suggeststrong heterogeneities. A three-dimensional P-wave velocity model, obtained bycombining multichannel and ocean bottom seismometer refraction data, is being usedto refine locations but the three-dimensional S-wave structure is presently unknown.In most mid-ocean ridge settings, the distribution of earthquakes is not conducive forjoint inversions for S-wave velocity and hypocentral parameters because there are fewcrossing ray paths but at Axial the presence of a ring fault that is seismically active atall depths on both the east and west side of the caldera, provides a reasonablegeometry for such efforts. We will present the results of joint inversions that assumethe existing three-dimensional P wave velocity model and solve for VP/VS structure andhypocentral parameters using LOTOS, an algorithm that solves the forward problemusing ray bending.The resulting model

  6. Three dimensional winds: A maximum cross-correlation application to elastic lidar data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttler, William Tillman [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Maximum cross-correlation techniques have been used with satellite data to estimate winds and sea surface velocities for several years. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently using a variation of the basic maximum cross-correlation technique, coupled with a deterministic application of a vector median filter, to measure transverse winds as a function of range and altitude from incoherent elastic backscatter lidar (light detection and ranging) data taken throughout large volumes within the atmospheric boundary layer. Hourly representations of three-dimensional wind fields, derived from elastic lidar data taken during an air-quality study performed in a region of complex terrain near Sunland Park, New Mexico, are presented and compared with results from an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved laser doppler velocimeter. The wind fields showed persistent large scale eddies as well as general terrain-following winds in the Rio Grande valley.

  7. Three-dimensional investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a bubbly pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Schmidl, W.D.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.

    1997-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a non-intrusive measurement technique, which can be used to study the structure of various fluid flows. PIV is used to measure the time varying full field velocity data of a particle-seeded flow field within either a two-dimensional plane or three-dimensional volume. PIV is a very efficient measurement technique since it can obtain both qualitative and quantitative spatial information about the flow field being studied. This information can be further processed into information such as vorticity and pathlines. Other flow measurement techniques (Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Hot Wire Anemometry, etc...) only provide quantitative information at a single point. PIV can be used to study turbulence structures if a sufficient amount of data can be acquired and analyzed, and it can also be extended to study two-phase flows if both phases can be distinguished. In this study, the flow structure around a bubble rising in a pipe filled with water was studied in three-dimensions. The velocity of the rising bubble and the velocity field of the surrounding water was measured. Then the turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses were calculated from the experimental data. (author)

  8. Mass conservative fluid flow visualization for CFD velocity fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhenquan; Mallinson, Gordon D.

    2001-01-01

    Mass conservation is a key issue for accurate streamline and stream surface visualization of flow fields. This paper complements an existing method (Feng et al., 1997) for CFD velocity fields defined at discrete locations in space that uses dual stream functions to generate streamlines and stream surfaces. Conditions for using the method have been examined and its limitations defined. A complete set of dual stream functions for all possible cases of the linear fields on which the method relies are presented. The results in this paper are important for developing new methods for mass conservative streamline visualization from CFD data and using the existing method

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic nanofluid in the presence of nonlinear thermal radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Muhammad, Taseer, E-mail: taseer_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A.; Alhuthali, M.S. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of couple stress nanofluid in the presence of thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects is analyzed. Energy equation subject to nonlinear thermal radiation is taken into account. The flow is generated by a bidirectional stretching surface. Fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of a constant applied magnetic field. The induced magnetic field is neglected for a small magnetic Reynolds number. Mathematical formulation is performed using boundary layer analysis. Newly proposed boundary condition requiring zero nanoparticle mass flux is employed. The governing nonlinear mathematical problems are first converted into dimensionless expressions and then solved for the series solutions of velocities, temperature and nanoparticles concentration. Convergence of the constructed solutions is verified. Effects of emerging parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are plotted and discussed. Skin friction coefficients and Nusselt number are also computed and analyzed. It is found that the thermal boundary layer thickness is an increasing function of radiative effect. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional boundary layer flow of viscoelastic nanofluid is examined. • Nonlinear thermal radiation is analyzed. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are present. • Recently developed condition requiring zero nanoparticle mass flux is implemented. • Construction of convergent solutions of nonlinear flow is possible.

  10. On the measurements of large scale solar velocity fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.N.

    1985-01-01

    A general mathematical formulation for the correction of the scattered light influence on solar Doppler shift measurements has been developed. This method has been applied to the straylight correction of measurements of solar rotation, limb effect, large scale flows and oscillations. It is shown that neglecting the straylight errors may cause spurious large scale velocity fields, oscillations and erronous values for the solar rotation and limb effect. The influence of active regions on full disc velocity measurements has been studied. It is shown that a 13 day periodicity in the global velocity signal will be introduced by the passage of sunspots over the solar disc. With different types of low resolution apertures, other periodicities may be introduced. Accurate measurements of the center-to-limb velocity shift are presented for a set of magnetic insensitive lines well suited for solar velocity measurements. The absolute wavelenght shifts are briefly discussed. The stronger lines have a ''supergravitational'' shift of 300-400 m/s at the solar limb. The results may be explained by the presence of a 20-25 m/s poleward meridional flow and a latitudinal dependence of the granular parameters. Using a simple model it is shown that the main properites of the observations are explained by a 5% increase in the granular size with latitude. Data presented indicate that the resonance line K I, 769.9 nm has a small but significant limb effect of 125 m/s from center to limb

  11. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy

  12. Three-dimensional CT of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinreich, S.J.; Price, J.C.; Wang, H.; Ahn, H.S.; Kashima, H.

    1988-01-01

    Seventeen patients with mandibular oblation for facial neoplasia, primary neoplasm, and trauma were evaluated with CT and three-dimensional CT. In eight of these patients, a computerized acrylic model was generated for preoperative planning and postoperative reconstruction. The ramus and body of the mandible were reconstructed with mirror image and fusion techniques. Reconstructions of the anterior mandible were generated from models including the midface, skull based, and residual mandibular fragments. The results are preliminary; however, the authors believe that these represent a powerful new tool and a significant advance in mandibular reconstructive technique, reduced anesthesia time, and the optimized restoration of dental alignment and facial contour

  13. Three-dimensional interpretation of TEM soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukov, P. O.; Fainberg, E. B.

    2013-07-01

    We describe the approach to the interpretation of electromagnetic (EM) sounding data which iteratively adjusts the three-dimensional (3D) model of the environment by local one-dimensional (1D) transformations and inversions and reconstructs the geometrical skeleton of the model. The final 3D inversion is carried out with the minimal number of the sought parameters. At each step of the interpretation, the model of the medium is corrected according to the geological information. The practical examples of the suggested method are presented.

  14. Three-dimensional flow about penguin wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noca, Flavio; Sudki, Bassem; Lauria, Michel

    2012-11-01

    Penguins, contrary to airborne birds, do not need to compensate for gravity. Yet, the kinematics of their wings is highly three-dimensional and seems exceedingly complex for plain swimming. Is such kinematics the result of an evolutionary optimization or is it just a forced adaptation of an airborne flying apparatus to underwater swimming? Some answers will be provided based on flow dynamics around robotic penguin wings. Updates will also be presented on the development of a novel robotic arm intended to simulate penguin swimming and enable novel propulsion devices.

  15. Three-dimensional teletherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panthaleon van Eck, R.B. van.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with physical/mathematical backgrounds of computerized teletherapy treatment planning. The subjects discussed in this thesis can be subdivided into three main categories: a) Three-dimensional treatment planning. A method is evaluated which can be used for the purpose of simulation and optimization of dose distributions in three dimensions. b) The use of Computed Tomography. The use of patient information obtained from Computed Tomography for the purpose of dose computations is evaluated. c) Dose computational models for photon- and electron beams. Models are evaluated which provide information regarding the way in which the radiation dose is distributed in the patient (viz. is absorbed and/or dispersed). (Auth.)

  16. Creating three-dimensional thermal maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Price

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Price_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 30895 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Price_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Creating Three...-Dimensional Thermal Maps Mathew Price Cogency cc Cape Town Email: mathew@cogency.co.za Jeremy Green CSIR Centre for Mining Innovation Johannesburg Email: jgreen@csir.co.za John Dickens CSIR Centre for Mining Innovation Johannesburg Email: jdickens...

  17. Three-dimensional friction measurement during hip simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sonntag

    Full Text Available Wear of total hip replacements has been the focus of many studies. However, frictional effects, such as high loading on intramodular connections or the interface to the bone, as well as friction associated squeaking have recently increased interest about the amount of friction that is generated during daily activities. The aim of this study was thus to establish and validate a three-dimensional friction setup under standardized conditions.A standard hip simulator was modified to allow for high precision measurements of small frictional effects in the hip during three-dimensional hip articulation. The setup was verified by an ideal hydrostatic bearing and validated with a static-load physical pendulum and an extension-flexion rotation with a dynamic load profile. Additionally, a pendulum model was proposed for screening measurement of frictional effects based on the damping behavior of the angular oscillation without the need for any force/moment transducer. Finally, three-dimensional friction measurements have been realized for ceramic-on-polyethylene bearings of three different sizes (28, 36 and 40 mm.A precision of less than 0.2 Nm during three-dimensional friction measurements was reported, while increased frictional torque (resultant as well as taper torque was measured for larger head diameters. These effects have been confirmed by simple pendulum tests and the theoretical model. A comparison with current literature about friction measurements is presented.This investigation of friction is able to provide more information about a field that has been dominated by the reduction of wear. It should be considered in future pre-clinical testing protocols given by international organizations of standardization.

  18. Three-dimensional measurement of a tightly focused laser beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangsheng Xie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of a tightly focused light field is measured with a double knife-edge scanning method. The measurement method is based on the use of a high-quality double knife-edge fabricated from a right-angled silicon fragment mounted on a photodetector. The reconstruction of the three-dimensional structures of tightly focused spots is carried out with both uniform and partially obstructed linearly polarized incident light beams. The optical field distribution is found to deviate substantially from the input beam profile in the tightly focused region, which is in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations.

  19. Velocity fields and transition densities in nuclear collective modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringari, S [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Libera Universita di Trento, Italy

    1979-08-13

    The shape of the deformations occurring in nuclear collective modes is investigated by means of a microscopic approach. Analytical solutions of the equations of motion are obtained by using simplified nuclear potentials. It is found that the structure of the velocity field and of the transition density of low-lying modes is considerably different from the predictions of irrotational hydrodynamic models. The low-lying octupole state is studied in particular detail by using the Skyrme force.

  20. Newly velocity field of Sulawesi Island from GPS observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsito, D. A.; Susilo, Simons, W. J. F.; Abidin, H. Z.; Sapiie, B.; Triyoso, W.; Andreas, H.

    2017-07-01

    Sulawesi microplate Island is located at famous triple junction area of the Eurasian, India-Australian, and Philippine Sea plates. Under the influence of the northward moving Australian plate and the westward motion of the Philippine plate, the island at Eastern part of Indonesia is collide and with the Eurasian plate and Sunda Block. Those recent microplate tectonic motions can be quantitatively determine by GNSS-GPS measurement. We use combine GNSS-GPS observation types (campaign type and continuous type) from 1997 to 2015 to derive newly velocity field of the area. Several strategies are applied and tested to get the optimum result, and finally we choose regional strategy to reduce error propagation contribution from global multi baseline processing using GAMIT/GLOBK 10.5. Velocity field are analyzed in global reference frame ITRF 2008 and local reference frame by fixing with respect alternatively to Eurasian plate - Sunda block, India-Australian plate and Philippine Sea plates. Newly results show dense distribution of velocity field. This information is useful for tectonic deformation studying in geospatial era.

  1. Three-dimensional radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, R.

    1989-01-01

    A major aim of radiation therapy is to deliver sufficient dose to the tumour volume to kill the cancer cells while sparing the nearby health organs to prevent complications. With the introduction of devices such as CT and MR scanners, radiation therapy treatment planners have access to full three-dimensional anatomical information to define, simulate, and evaluate treatments. There are a limited number of prototype software systems that allow 3D treatment planning currently in use. In addition, there are more advanced tools under development or still in the planning stages. They require sophisticated graphics and computation equipment, complex physical and mathematical algorithms, and new radiation treatment machines that deliver dose very precisely under computer control. Components of these systems include programs for the identification and delineation of the anatomy and tumour, the definition of radiation beams, the calculation of dose distribution patterns, the display of dose on 2D images and as three dimensional surfaces, and the generation of computer images to verify proper patient positioning in treatment. Some of these functions can be performed more quickly and accurately if artificial intelligence or expert systems techniques are employed. 28 refs., figs

  2. Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J.

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores

  3. Three-dimensional image signals: processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2010-11-01

    Over the years extensive studies have been carried out to apply coherent optics methods in real-time processing, communications and transmission image. This is especially true when a large amount of information needs to be processed, e.g., in high-resolution imaging. The recent progress in data-processing networks and communication systems has considerably increased the capacity of information exchange. We describe the results of literature investigation research of processing methods for the signals of the three-dimensional images. All commercially available 3D technologies today are based on stereoscopic viewing. 3D technology was once the exclusive domain of skilled computer-graphics developers with high-end machines and software. The images capture from the advanced 3D digital camera can be displayed onto screen of the 3D digital viewer with/ without special glasses. For this is needed considerable processing power and memory to create and render the complex mix of colors, textures, and virtual lighting and perspective necessary to make figures appear three-dimensional. Also, using a standard digital camera and a technique called phase-shift interferometry we can capture "digital holograms." These are holograms that can be stored on computer and transmitted over conventional networks. We present some research methods to process "digital holograms" for the Internet transmission and results.

  4. Three dimensional animated images of anorectal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Shigeru; Yanagimachi, Noriharu; Muro, Isao; Komiya, Taizo; Yokoyama, Seishichi; Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Tajima, Tomoo; Mitomi, Toshio; Suto, Yasuzo.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the pelvic structures is a most important factor in obtaining a desirable result after anorectoplasty for a patient with anorectal malformation. Preoperative evaluation of the anatomy is indispensable for choosing an appropriate operative method in each case. To facilitate preoperative evaluation, three dimensional animated images of the pelvic structure of patients with anorectal malformations were constructed by computer graphics based upon tomographic images obtained from magnetic resonance imaging. Axial 1-mm thick images of the pelvic portion were generated with spoiling pulse gradient echo sequences using short repetition times (13 msec TR) and short echo times (6 msec TE) with a flip angle of 25 degrees with the patient in the jack-knife position. Graphic data from MR images were transferred to a graphic work station and processed on it. The skin surface, the ano-rectum, the lower urinary tract and the sphincter musculature were segmented by thresholding images by the signal intensity. Three dimensional images were displayed by surface rendering method using the segmented data of each organ and then animation images of these organs were obtained. The anatomy of each type of anomaly was easily recognized by 3-D visualization, and animation of the pelvic viscera and the sphincter musculature made the images more realistic. Animated images of the musculature were especially useful for simulating surgical procedures and could be helpful for reviewing surgical results. (author)

  5. The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism. We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (10.5, 18.5, 7.3) +/- 0.1 km s(exp -1) not corrected for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (9.9, 15.6, 6.9) +/- 0.2 km s(exp -1). The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star. The Oort parameters determined by a straightforward least-squares adjustment in vector spherical harmonics are A=14.0 +/- 1.4, B=13.1 +/- 1.2, K=1.1 +/- 1.8, and C=2.9 +/- 1.4 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). The physical meaning and the implications of these parameters are discussed in the framework of a general linear model of the velocity field. We find a few statistically significant higher degree harmonic terms that do not correspond to any parameters in the classical linear model. One of them, a third-degree electric harmonic, is tentatively explained as the response to a negative linear gradient of rotation velocity with distance from the Galactic plane, which we estimate at approximately -20 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). A similar vertical gradient of rotation velocity has been detected for more distant stars representing the thick disk (z greater than 1 kpc

  6. Three-dimensional appearance of the lips muscles with three-dimensional isotropic MRI: in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Raphael; Reychler, H. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Liu, Y.; Xu, T.M. [Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Department of Orthodontics, Beijing (China); Duprez, T. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    Our knowledge of facial muscles is based primarily on atlases and cadaveric studies. This study describes a non-invasive in vivo method (3D MRI) for segmenting and reconstructing facial muscles in a three-dimensional fashion. Three-dimensional (3D), T1-weighted, 3 Tesla, isotropic MRI was applied to a subject. One observer performed semi-automatic segmentation using the Editor module from the 3D Slicer software (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA), version 3.2. We were able to successfully outline and three-dimensionally reconstruct the following facial muscles: pars labialis orbicularis oris, m. levatro labii superioris alaeque nasi, m. levator labii superioris, m. zygomaticus major and minor, m. depressor anguli oris, m. depressor labii inferioris, m. mentalis, m. buccinator, and m. orbicularis oculi. 3D reconstruction of the lip muscles should be taken into consideration in order to improve the accuracy and individualization of existing 3D facial soft tissue models. More studies are needed to further develop efficient methods for segmentation in this field. (orig.)

  7. Three-dimensional appearance of the lips muscles with three-dimensional isotropic MRI: in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Raphael; Liu, Y; Duprez, T; Xu, T M; Reychler, H

    2009-06-01

    Our knowledge of facial muscles is based primarily on atlases and cadaveric studies. This study describes a non-invasive in vivo method (3D MRI) for segmenting and reconstructing facial muscles in a three-dimensional fashion. Three-dimensional (3D), T1-weighted, 3 Tesla, isotropic MRI was applied to a subject. One observer performed semi-automatic segmentation using the Editor module from the 3D Slicer software (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA), version 3.2. We were able to successfully outline and three-dimensionally reconstruct the following facial muscles: pars labialis orbicularis oris, m. levatro labii superioris alaeque nasi, m. levator labii superioris, m. zygomaticus major and minor, m. depressor anguli oris, m. depressor labii inferioris, m. mentalis, m. buccinator, and m. orbicularis oculi. 3D reconstruction of the lip muscles should be taken into consideration in order to improve the accuracy and individualization of existing 3D facial soft tissue models. More studies are needed to further develop efficient methods for segmentation in this field.

  8. Three-dimensional nanostructure determination from a large diffraction data set recorded using scanning electron nanodiffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Meng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A diffraction-based technique is developed for the determination of three-dimensional nanostructures. The technique employs high-resolution and low-dose scanning electron nanodiffraction (SEND to acquire three-dimensional diffraction patterns, with the help of a special sample holder for large-angle rotation. Grains are identified in three-dimensional space based on crystal orientation and on reconstructed dark-field images from the recorded diffraction patterns. Application to a nanocrystalline TiN thin film shows that the three-dimensional morphology of columnar TiN grains of tens of nanometres in diameter can be reconstructed using an algebraic iterative algorithm under specified prior conditions, together with their crystallographic orientations. The principles can be extended to multiphase nanocrystalline materials as well. Thus, the tomographic SEND technique provides an effective and adaptive way of determining three-dimensional nanostructures.

  9. Intermittency and geometrical statistics of three-dimensional homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: A wavelet viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimatsu, Katsunori; Kawahara, Yasuhiro; Schneider, Kai; Okamoto, Naoya; Farge, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Scale-dependent and geometrical statistics of three-dimensional incompressible homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence without mean magnetic field are examined by means of the orthogonal wavelet decomposition. The flow is computed by direct numerical simulation with a Fourier spectral method at resolution 512 3 and a unit magnetic Prandtl number. Scale-dependent second and higher order statistics of the velocity and magnetic fields allow to quantify their intermittency in terms of spatial fluctuations of the energy spectra, the flatness, and the probability distribution functions at different scales. Different scale-dependent relative helicities, e.g., kinetic, cross, and magnetic relative helicities, yield geometrical information on alignment between the different scale-dependent fields. At each scale, the alignment between the velocity and magnetic field is found to be more pronounced than the other alignments considered here, i.e., the scale-dependent alignment between the velocity and vorticity, the scale-dependent alignment between the magnetic field and its vector potential, and the scale-dependent alignment between the magnetic field and the current density. Finally, statistical scale-dependent analyses of both Eulerian and Lagrangian accelerations and the corresponding time-derivatives of the magnetic field are performed. It is found that the Lagrangian acceleration does not exhibit substantially stronger intermittency compared to the Eulerian acceleration, in contrast to hydrodynamic turbulence where the Lagrangian acceleration shows much stronger intermittency than the Eulerian acceleration. The Eulerian time-derivative of the magnetic field is more intermittent than the Lagrangian time-derivative of the magnetic field.

  10. Velocity field measurements on high-frequency, supersonic microactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreth, Phillip A.; Ali, Mohd Y.; Fernandez, Erik J.; Alvi, Farrukh S.

    2016-05-01

    The resonance-enhanced microjet actuator which was developed at the Advanced Aero-Propulsion Laboratory at Florida State University is a fluidic-based device that produces pulsed, supersonic microjets by utilizing a number of microscale, flow-acoustic resonance phenomena. The microactuator used in this study consists of an underexpanded source jet that flows into a cylindrical cavity with a single, 1-mm-diameter exhaust orifice through which an unsteady, supersonic jet issues at a resonant frequency of 7 kHz. The flowfields of a 1-mm underexpanded free jet and the microactuator are studied in detail using high-magnification, phase-locked flow visualizations (microschlieren) and two-component particle image velocimetry. These are the first direct measurements of the velocity fields produced by such actuators. Comparisons are made between the flow visualizations and the velocity field measurements. The results clearly show that the microactuator produces pulsed, supersonic jets with velocities exceeding 400 m/s for roughly 60 % of their cycles. With high unsteady momentum output, this type of microactuator has potential in a range of ow control applications.

  11. Velocity field measurement in micro-bubble emission boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Daisuke; Saito, Yasushi; Natazuka, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Liquid inlet behavior to a heat surface in micro-bubble emission boiling (MEB) was investigated by flow measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Subcooled pool boiling experiments under atmospheric pressure were carried out using a heat surface with a diameter of 10 mm. An upper end of a heater block made of copper was used as the heat surface. Working fluid was the deionized water and the subcooling was varied from 40 K to 70 K. Three K-type thermocouples were installed in the copper block to measure the temperature gradient, and the heat flux and wall superheat were estimated from these temperature data to make a boiling curve. The flow visualization around the heat surface was carried out using a high-speed video camera and a light sheet. The microbubbles generated in the MEB were used as tracer particles and the velocity field was obtained by PIV analysis of the acquired image sequence. As a result, the higher heat fluxes than the critical heat flux could be obtained in the MEB region. In addition, the distribution characteristics of the velocity in MEB region were studied using the PIV results and the location of the stagnation point in the velocity fields was discussed. (author)

  12. Three-dimensional continuous particle focusing in a microfluidic channel via standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinjie; Yazdi, Shahrzad; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Ding, Xiaoyun; Chiang, I-Kao; Sharp, Kendra; Huang, Tony Jun

    2011-07-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) continuous microparticle focusing has been achieved in a single-layer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel using a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW). The SSAW was generated by the interference of two identical surface acoustic waves (SAWs) created by two parallel interdigital transducers (IDTs) on a piezoelectric substrate with a microchannel precisely bonded between them. To understand the working principle of the SSAW-based 3D focusing and investigate the position of the focal point, we computed longitudinal waves, generated by the SAWs and radiated into the fluid media from opposite sides of the microchannel, and the resultant pressure and velocity fields due to the interference and reflection of the longitudinal waves. Simulation results predict the existence of a focusing point which is in good agreement with our experimental observations. Compared with other 3D focusing techniques, this method is non-invasive, robust, energy-efficient, easy to implement, and applicable to nearly all types of microparticles.

  13. Quantitative, three-dimensional diagnostics of multiphase drop fragmentation via digital in-line holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Guildenbecher, Daniel R; Reu, Phillip L; Kulkarni, Varun; Sojka, Paul E; Chen, Jun

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative application of digital in-line holography (DIH) to characterize multiphase fragmentation is demonstrated. DIH is applied to record sequential holograms of the breakup of an ethanol droplet in an aerodynamic flow field. Various stages of the breakup process are recorded, including deformation, bag growth, bag breakup, and rim breakup. A recently proposed hybrid method is applied to extract the three-dimensional (3D) location and size of secondary droplets as well as the 3D morphology of the rim. Particle matching between sequential frames is used to determine the velocity. Coincidence with the results obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurement demonstrates the accuracy of measurement by DIH and the hybrid method.

  14. Dose response study of PVA-Fx gel for three dimensional dose distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindha, S.; Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Shen, Bin; Saw, Cheng B.

    2001-01-01

    Modern radiotherapy techniques involve complex field arrangements using conformal and intensity modulated radiation that requires three dimensional treatment planning. The verification of these plans poses even more challenge. In 1984, Gore et al., proposed that ferrous gel dosimeters combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be used to measure three dimensional radiation dose distributions. Since then, there has been much interest in the development of gel dosimetry to aid the determination of three dimensional dose distributions during field arrangements. In this work, preparation and study of the MR characteristics of a PVA-Fx gel reported in the literature is presented

  15. Steady, three-dimensional, internally heated convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, G.; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Travis, B.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical calculations have been carried out of steady, symmetric, three-dimensional modes of convection in internally heated, infinite Prandtl number, Boussinesq fluids at a Rayleigh number of 1.4x10 4 in a spherical shell with inner/outer radius of 0.55 and in a 3x3x1 rectangular box. Multiple patterns of convection occur in both geometries. In the Cartesian geometry the patterns are dominated by cylindrical cold downflows and a broad hot upwelling. In the spherical geometry the patterns consist of cylindrical cold downwellings centered either at the vertices of a tetrahedron or the centers of the faces of a cube. The cold downflow cylinders are immersed in a background of upwelling within which there are cylindrical hot concentrations (plumes) and hot halos around the downflows. The forced hot upflow return plumes of internally heated spherical convection are fundamentally different from the buoyancy-driven plumes of heated from below convection

  16. Towards microscale electrohydrodynamic three-dimensional printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jiankang; Xu, Fangyuan; Cao, Yi; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging for the existing three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques to fabricate high-resolution 3D microstructures with low costs and high efficiency. In this work we present a solvent-based electrohydrodynamic 3D printing technique that allows fabrication of microscale structures like single walls, crossed walls, lattice and concentric circles. Process parameters were optimized to deposit tiny 3D patterns with a wall width smaller than 10 μm and a high aspect ratio of about 60. Tight bonding among neighbour layers could be achieved with a smooth lateral surface. In comparison with the existing microscale 3D printing techniques, the presented method is low-cost, highly efficient and applicable to multiple polymers. It is envisioned that this simple microscale 3D printing strategy might provide an alternative and innovative way for application in MEMS, biosensor and flexible electronics. (paper)

  17. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  18. Towards microscale electrohydrodynamic three-dimensional printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiankang; Xu, Fangyuan; Cao, Yi; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen

    2016-02-01

    It is challenging for the existing three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques to fabricate high-resolution 3D microstructures with low costs and high efficiency. In this work we present a solvent-based electrohydrodynamic 3D printing technique that allows fabrication of microscale structures like single walls, crossed walls, lattice and concentric circles. Process parameters were optimized to deposit tiny 3D patterns with a wall width smaller than 10 μm and a high aspect ratio of about 60. Tight bonding among neighbour layers could be achieved with a smooth lateral surface. In comparison with the existing microscale 3D printing techniques, the presented method is low-cost, highly efficient and applicable to multiple polymers. It is envisioned that this simple microscale 3D printing strategy might provide an alternative and innovative way for application in MEMS, biosensor and flexible electronics.

  19. An Introduction of Three-dimensional Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces some key points of Three-dimensional Grammar. As for the structure, it can be distinguished into syntactic structure, semantic structure and pragmatic structure from the perspectives of syntax, semantics and pragmatics. And the same is true with the followings, such as grammatical constituents, grammatical functions, grammatical meanings, grammatical focuses. Sentence types which is called sentence pattern, sentence model and sentence types respectively, and analysis methods. This paper proposes that grammatical researches should be done in accordance with the four principles, that is form and meaning co-verified, static and dynamic co-referenced, structure and function co-testified and description and interpretation co-promoted.

  20. Three-dimensional function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the properties of the photonic band gaps (PBGs) of three-dimensional (3D) function photonic crystals (PCs) are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method, whose equations for computations are deduced. The configuration of 3D function PCs is the dielectric spheres inserted in the air background with simple-cubic (SC) lattices whose dielectric constants are the functions of space coordinates, which can be realized by the electro-optical or optical Kerr effect in the practice. The influences of the parameter for 3D function PCs on the PBGs also are discussed. The calculated results show that the bandwidths and number of PBGs can be tuned with different distributions of function dielectrics. Compared with the conventional 3D dielectric PCs with SC lattices, the larger and more PBGs can be obtained in the 3D function PCs. Those results provide a new way to design the novel practical devices.

  1. Multiscale modeling of three-dimensional genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter

    The genome, the blueprint of life, contains nearly all the information needed to build and maintain an entire organism. A comprehensive understanding of the genome is of paramount interest to human health and will advance progress in many areas, including life sciences, medicine, and biotechnology. The overarching goal of my research is to understand the structure-dynamics-function relationships of the human genome. In this talk, I will be presenting our efforts in moving towards that goal, with a particular emphasis on studying the three-dimensional organization, the structure of the genome with multi-scale approaches. Specifically, I will discuss the reconstruction of genome structures at both interphase and metaphase by making use of data from chromosome conformation capture experiments. Computationally modeling of chromatin fiber at atomistic level from first principles will also be presented as our effort for studying the genome structure from bottom up.

  2. Three-dimensional reconstruction of CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Toshiaki; Kattoh, Keiichi; Kawakami, Genichiroh; Igami, Isao; Mariya, Yasushi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Saitoh, Yohko; Tamura, Koreroku; Shinozaki, Tatsuyo

    1986-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has the ability to provide sensitive visualization of organs and lesions. Owing to the nature of CT to be transaxial images, a structure which is greater than a certain size appears as several serial CT images. Consequently each observer must reconstruct those images into a three-dimensional (3-D) form mentally. It has been supposed to be of great use if such a 3-D form can be described as a definite figure. A new computer program has been developed which can produce 3-D figures from the profiles of organs and lesions on CT images using spline curves. The figures obtained through this method are regarded to have practical applications.

  3. The Three-Dimensional EIT Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gilbert, H. R.; Lawrence, G. R.; Ofman, L.; Wu, S. T.; Warmuth, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An EIT wave is an impulsive disturbance which has been observed in the EUV, Soft X-ray and white light corona, with corresponding observations in the chromosphere. The effects of these disturbances can be observed across the entire solar disk of the Sun, and throughout the inner heliosphere as well. However, the picture is not complete; observations alone do not establish a complete understanding of the nature of this three-dimensional phenomenon. A number of associated phenomena have been documented, though in most cases causality has not determined. Additionally, it is unclear which factors govern the impulse's ability to affect regions of the corona and heliosphere. We discuss the various observations and the models which provided links between the associated phenomena.

  4. Chern-Simons as a geometrical set up for three dimensional gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemes, V.E.R; Jesus, C. Linhares de; Sorella, S.P.; Villar, L.C.Q.; Ventura, O.S.

    1997-12-01

    Three dimensional Yang-Mills gauge theories in the presence of the Chern-Simons action are seen as being generated by the pure topological Chern-Simons term through nonlinear covariant redefinitions of the gauge field. (author)

  5. Three-dimensional problems in the theory of cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasyuk, V.V.; Andrejkiv, A.E.; Stadnik, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    Review of the main mechanical conceptions and mathematic methods, used in solving of spatial problems of the theory of cracks is given. At that, cases of effects upon a body of force static and cyclic and geometrically variable temperature fields are considered. The main calculation models of the theory of cracks are characterized in detail. Other models, derived from these ones and used in solving the above problems are also mentioned. Analysis and synthesis of the most general mathematic methods of solving three-dimensional problems of the theory of cracks are made. Besides precise methods, approximate ones are also presented, being efficient enough in engineering practice

  6. 3D radiation sensors with three dimensional electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Da Via, Cinzia; Parker, Sherwood

    2018-01-01

    This book covers the technical properties, fabrication details, measurement results and applications of three-dimensional silicon radiation sensors. Such devices are currently used in the ATLAS experiment at the European Centre for Particle Physics (CERN) for particle tracking in high energy physics. They are the radiation hardest devices ever fabricated. They have applications in neutron detection, medical dosimetry and space. Written by the leading names in this field, the book explains to non-experts the essential features of silicon particle detectors, interactions of radiation with matter, radiation damage effects, and micro-fabrication. It also provides an historical view of the above.

  7. Integrating three-dimensional printing and nanotechnology for musculoskeletal regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Margaret; Castro, Nathan J.; Rao, Raj; Plesniak, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2017-09-01

    The field of tissue engineering is advancing steadily, partly due to advancements in rapid prototyping technology. Even with increasing focus, successful complex tissue regeneration of vascularized bone, cartilage and the osteochondral interface remains largely illusive. This review examines current three-dimensional printing techniques and their application towards bone, cartilage and osteochondral regeneration. The importance of, and benefit to, nanomaterial integration is also highlighted with recent published examples. Early-stage successes and challenges of recent studies are discussed, with an outlook to future research in the related areas.

  8. Study of guided modes in three-dimensional composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, S.; Gerard, A.

    The propagation of elastic waves in a three-dimensional carbon-carbon composite is modeled with a mixed variational method, using the Bloch or Floquet theories and the Hellinger-Reissner function for two independent fields. The model of the equivalent homogeneous material only exists below a cut-off frequency of about 600 kHz. The existence below the cut-off frequency of two guided waves can account for the presence of a slow guided wave on either side of the cut-off frequency. Optical modes are generated at low frequencies, and can attain high velocites (rapid guided modes of 15,000 m/sec).

  9. Coherent states on horospheric three-dimensional Lobachevsky space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurochkin, Yu., E-mail: y.kurochkin@ifanbel.bas-net.by; Shoukavy, Dz., E-mail: shoukavy@ifanbel.bas-net.by [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezalezhnasci Ave., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Rybak, I., E-mail: Ivan.Rybak@astro.up.pt [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezalezhnasci Ave., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2016-08-15

    In the paper it is shown that due to separation of variables in the Laplace-Beltrami operator (Hamiltonian of a free quantum particle) in horospheric and quasi-Cartesian coordinates of three dimensional Lobachevsky space, it is possible to introduce standard (“conventional” according to Perelomov [Generalized Coherent States and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, 1986), p. 320]) coherent states. Some problems (oscillator on horosphere, charged particle in analogy of constant uniform magnetic field) where coherent states are suitable for treating were considered.

  10. Three-dimensional modeling of nuclear steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdan, Z.; Afgan, N.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper mathematical model for steady-state simulation of thermodynamic and hydraulic behaviour of U-tube nuclear steam generator is described. The model predicts three-dimensional distribution of temperatures, pressures, steam qualities and velocities in the steam generator secondary loop. In this analysis homogeneous two phase flow model is utilized. Foe purpose of the computer implementation of the mathematical model, a special flow distribution code NUGEN was developed. Calculations are performed with the input data and geometrical characteristics related to the D-4 (westinghouse) model of U-tube nuclear steam generator built in Krsko, operating under 100% load conditions. Results are shown in diagrams giving spatial distribution of pertinent variables in the secondary loop. (author)

  11. Three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry using dynamic vision sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, D.; Delbruck, T.; Rösgen, T.

    2017-12-01

    A fast-flow visualization method is presented based on tracking neutrally buoyant soap bubbles with a set of neuromorphic cameras. The "dynamic vision sensors" register only the changes in brightness with very low latency, capturing fast processes at a low data rate. The data consist of a stream of asynchronous events, each encoding the corresponding pixel position, the time instant of the event and the sign of the change in logarithmic intensity. The work uses three such synchronized cameras to perform 3D particle tracking in a medium sized wind tunnel. The data analysis relies on Kalman filters to associate the asynchronous events with individual tracers and to reconstruct the three-dimensional path and velocity based on calibrated sensor information.

  12. Three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the temporomandibular joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitai, N.; Kreiborg, S.; Murakami, S.

    Symposium Orthodontics 2001: Where are We Now? Where are We Going?, three-dimensional analysis, temporomandibular joint......Symposium Orthodontics 2001: Where are We Now? Where are We Going?, three-dimensional analysis, temporomandibular joint...

  13. The three-dimensional origin of the classifying algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Juergen; Schweigert, Christoph; Stigner, Carl

    2010-01-01

    It is known that reflection coefficients for bulk fields of a rational conformal field theory in the presence of an elementary boundary condition can be obtained as representation matrices of irreducible representations of the classifying algebra, a semisimple commutative associative complex algebra. We show how this algebra arises naturally from the three-dimensional geometry of factorization of correlators of bulk fields on the disk. This allows us to derive explicit expressions for the structure constants of the classifying algebra as invariants of ribbon graphs in the three-manifold S 2 xS 1 . Our result unravels a precise relation between intertwiners of the action of the mapping class group on spaces of conformal blocks and boundary conditions in rational conformal field theories.

  14. Migration velocity analysis using pre-stack wave fields

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Wu, Zedong

    2016-01-01

    Using both image and data domains to perform velocity inversion can help us resolve the long and short wavelength components of the velocity model, usually in that order. This translates to integrating migration velocity analysis into full waveform

  15. Study on three dimensional seismic isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki; Kitamura, Seiji

    2003-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) launched joint research programs on structural design and three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, as part of the supporting R and D activities for the feasibility studies on commercialized fast breeder reactor cycle systems. A research project by JAPC under the auspices of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) with technical support by JNC is included in this joint study. This report contains the results of the research on the three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, and the results of this year's study are summarized in the following five aspects. (1) Study on Earthquake Condition for Developing 3-dimensional Base Isolation System. The case study S2 is one of the maximum ground motions, of which the records were investigated up to this time. But a few observed near the fault exceed the case study S2 in the long period domain, depending on the fault length and conditions. Generally it is appropriate that the response spectra ratio (vertical/horizontal) is 0.6. (2) Performance Requirement for 3-dimensional Base Isolation System and Devices. Although the integrity map of main equipment/piping dominate the design criteria for the 3-dimensional base isolation system, the combined integrity map is the same as those of FY 2000, which are under fv=1Hz and over hv=20%. (3) Developing Targets and Schedule for 3-dimensional Isolation Technology. The target items for 3-dimensional base isolation system were rearranged into a table, and developing items to be examined concerning the device were also adjusted. A development plan until FY 2009 was made from the viewpoint of realization and establishment of a design guideline on 3-dimensional base isolation system. (4) Study on 3-dimensional Entire Building Base Isolation System. Three ideas among six ideas that had been proposed in FY2001, i.e., '3-dimensional base isolation system incorporating hydraulic

  16. THREE DIMENSIONAL CFD MODELLING OF FLOW STRUCTURE IN COMPOUND CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ghani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The computational modeling of three dimensional flows in a meandering compound channel has been performed in this research work. The flow calculations are performed by solving 3D steady state continuity and Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence closure is approximated with standard - turbulence model. The model equations are solved numerically with a general purpose software package. A comprehensive validation of the simulated results against the experimental data and a demonstration that the software used in this study has matured enough for investigating practical engineering problems are the major contributions of this paper. The model was initially validated. This was achieved by computing streamwise point velocities at different depths of various sections and depth averaged velocities at three cross sections along the main channel and comparing these results with experimental data. After the validation of the model, predictions were made for different flow parameters including velocity contours at the surface, pressure distribution, turbulence intensity etc. The results gave an overall understanding of these flow variables in meandering channels. The simulation also established the good prediction capability of the standard - turbulence model for flows in compound channels.

  17. Plasma cloud expansion in the ionosphere: Three-dimensional simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, T.Z.; Schunk, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    A three-dimensional time-dependent model was developed to study the characteristics of a plasma cloud expansion in the ionosphere. The electrostatic potential is solved in three dimensions taking into account the large parallel-to-perpendicular conductivity ratio. Three sample simulations are presented: a plasma expansion of a nearly spherical 1 km Ba + cloud, both with and without a background neutral wind, and a long thin Ba + cloudlet. With or without the neutral wind the effective potential, which is different from the electrostatic potential if the electron temperature is included, is constant along the magnetic field for typical cloud sizes. The expanding plasma clouds become elongated in the magnetic field direction. The released Ba + ions push the background O + ions away along the magnetic field as they expand. Consequently, a hole develops in the background O + distribution at the cloud location and on the two sides of the cloud O + bumps form. The entire three-dimensional structure, composed of the plasma cloud and the background plasma embedded in the cloud, slowly rotates about the magnetic field, with the ions and electrons rotating in opposite directions. The cloud configuration takes the shape of a rotating ellipsoid with a major axis that expands with time. Perpendicular to the magnetic field, in the absence of the neutral wind the motion is insignificant compared to the parallel motion. With a neutral wind the motion along the magnetic field and the rotational motion are qualitatively unchanged, but the cloud and the perturbed background structure move in the direction of the wind, with a speed less than the wind speed. Perpendicular to the magnetic field the deformation of the cloud indiced by the wind is characterized by steepening of the backside

  18. Magnetic fields, velocity fields and brightness in the central region of the Solar disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsap, T T

    1978-01-01

    The longitudinal magnetic fields, velocity fields and brightness at the center of the Solar disk are studied. Observations of the magnetic field, line-of-sight velocities and brightness have been made with the doublemagnetograph of the Crimean astrophysical observatory. It is found that the average magnetic field strength recorded in the iron line lambda 5233 A is 18 Gs for the elements of N-polarity and 23 Gs for the elements of S-polarity. The magnetic elements with the field strength more than 200 Gs are observed in some of the cases. There is a close correlation between the magnetic field distribution in the lambda 5250 A FeI and D/sub 1/ Na I lines and between the magnetic field in the lambda 5250 A and brightness in the K/sub 3/CaII line. The dimensions of the magnetic elements in the lambda and D/sub 1/NaI lines are equal. The comparison of the magnetic field with the radial velocity recorded in the lambda 5250 and 5233 A lines has shown that radial velocities are close to zero in the regions of maximum longitudinal magnetic field. The chromospheric network-like pattern is observed in the brightness distribution of ten different spectral lines.

  19. Magnetic properties of three-dimensional Hubbard-sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hisashi; Ichinose, Ikuo; Tatara, Gen; Matsui, Tetsuo.

    1989-11-01

    It is broadly viewed that the magnetism may play an important role in the high-T c superconductivity in the lamellar CuO 2 materials. In this paper, based on a Hubbard-inspired CP 1 or S 2 nonlinear σ model, we give a quantitative study of some magnetic properties in and around the Neel ordered state of three-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets such as La 2 CuO 4 with and without small hole doping. Our model is a (3+1) dimensional effective field theory describing the low energy spin dynamics of a three-dimensional Hubbard model with a very weak interlayer coupling. The effect of hole dynamics is taken into account in the leading approximation by substituting the CP 1 coupling with an 'effective' one determined by the concentration and the one-loop correction of hole fermions. A stationary-phase equation for the one-loop effective potential of S 2 model is analyzed numerically. The behavior of Neel temperature, magnetization (long range Neel order), spin correlation length, etc as functions of anisotropic parameter, temperature, hole concentrations, etc are investigated in detail. A phase diagram is also supported by the renormlization group analysis. The results show that our anisotropic field theory model with certain values of parameters could give a reasonably well description of the magnetic properties indicated by some experiments on pure and doped La 2 CuO 4 . (author)

  20. Interface fracture in laminates at three-dimensional corners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre Jensen, H.; Veluri, B. [Aarhus Univ.. Aarhus School of Engineering, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2012-07-01

    Interface failure close to corners has been observed in laminated layered structures. A fracture mechanics based approach focused on modelling the shape of such interface cracks and calculating the critical stress for steady-state propagation has been developed. The crack propagation is investigated by estimating the fracture mechanics parameters including the energy release rate and the three-dimensional mode-mixity along the crack front allowing determining the shape of the crack front profiles. A numerical approach is applied for coupling the far field solutions utilizing the capability of the Finite Element Method to the near field solutions at the crack front based on the J-integral. The developed two-dimensional numerical approach for the calculation of fracture mechanical properties has been validated with three-dimensional models for varying crack front shapes. In this study, a quantitative approach was formulated based on the finite element method with iterative adjustment of the crack front to estimate the critical delamination stress as a function of the fracture criterion and corner angles. The implication of the results on the delamination is discussed in terms of crack front profiles and the critical stresses. (Author)