WorldWideScience

Sample records for three-dimensional variational ocean

  1. Multi-Scale Three-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation System for Coastal Ocean Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijin; Chao, Yi; Li, P. Peggy

    2012-01-01

    A multi-scale three-dimensional variational data assimilation system (MS-3DVAR) has been formulated and the associated software system has been developed for improving high-resolution coastal ocean prediction. This system helps improve coastal ocean prediction skill, and has been used in support of operational coastal ocean forecasting systems and field experiments. The system has been developed to improve the capability of data assimilation for assimilating, simultaneously and effectively, sparse vertical profiles and high-resolution remote sensing surface measurements into coastal ocean models, as well as constraining model biases. In this system, the cost function is decomposed into two separate units for the large- and small-scale components, respectively. As such, data assimilation is implemented sequentially from large to small scales, the background error covariance is constructed to be scale-dependent, and a scale-dependent dynamic balance is incorporated. This scheme then allows effective constraining large scales and model bias through assimilating sparse vertical profiles, and small scales through assimilating high-resolution surface measurements. This MS-3DVAR enhances the capability of the traditional 3DVAR for assimilating highly heterogeneously distributed observations, such as along-track satellite altimetry data, and particularly maximizing the extraction of information from limited numbers of vertical profile observations.

  2. Three dimensional investigation of oceanic active faults. A demonstration survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    In order to upgrade probability of activity and action potential evaluation of oceanic active faults which have some important effects on nuclear facilities, trench type oceanic active fault was investigated three dimensionally. Contents of the investigation were high precision sea bottom topographic survey and sea bottom back scattering wave image data observation by using a sea bottom topography acoustic imaginator. And, by high resolution earthquake wave survey, high precision survey of an active fault under sea bottom was conducted to detect oceanic active faults three-dimensionally. Furthermore, the generally issued data were summarized to promote to construct a data base for evaluating the active faults. (G.K.)

  3. Three dimensional investigation of oceanic active faults. A demonstration survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio

    1998-01-01

    In order to upgrade probability of activity and action potential evaluation of oceanic active faults which have some important effects on nuclear facilities, trench type oceanic active fault was investigated three dimensionally. Contents of the investigation were high precision sea bottom topographic survey and sea bottom back scattering wave image data observation by using a sea bottom topography acoustic imaginator. And, by high resolution earthquake wave survey, high precision survey of an active fault under sea bottom was conducted to detect oceanic active faults three-dimensionally. Furthermore, the generally issued data were summarized to promote to construct a data base for evaluating the active faults. (G.K.)

  4. Development of three dimensional ocean current model for coastal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takuya

    1999-12-01

    In order to study the migration behavior of radionuclides released into a coastal region around Japan, Princeton Ocean Model (POM) was introduced. This three-dimensional ocean current model was modified to be applied for oceanic simulations around Japan. This report describes the governing equations, numerical methods and model improvements. In addition, database system which is utilized for calculations and visualization system for graphical outputs are also described. Model simulation was carried out at off the area of Shimokita. Aomori-ken, Japan to investigate the effects of the boundary conditions on simulated results. (author)

  5. Moho depth variations over the Maldive Ridge and adjoining Arabian and Central Indian Basins, Western Indian Ocean, from three dimensional inversion of gravity anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnummal, Priyesh; Anand, S. P.; Haritha, C.; Rama Rao, P.

    2018-05-01

    Analysis of high resolution satellite derived free air gravity data has been undertaken in the Greater Maldive Ridge (GMR) (Maldive Ridge, Deep Sea Channel, northern limit of Chagos Bank) segment of the Chagos Laccadive Ridge and the adjoining Arabian and Central Indian Basins. A Complete Bouguer Anomaly (CBA) map was generated from the Indian Ocean Geoidal Low removed Free Air Gravity (hereinafter referred to as "FAG-IOGL") data by incorporating Bullard A, B and C corrections. Using the Parker method, Moho topography was initially computed by inverting the CBA data. From the CBA the Mantle Residual Gravity Anomalies (MRGA) were computed by incorporating gravity effects of sediments and lithospheric temperature and pressure induced anomalies. Further, the MRGA was inverted to get Moho undulations from which the crustal thickness was also estimated. It was found that incorporating the lithospheric thermal and pressure anomaly correction has provided substantial improvement in the computed Moho depths especially in the oceanic areas. But along the GMR, there was not much variation in the Moho thickness computed with and without the thermal and pressure gravity correction implying that the crustal thickness of the ridge does not depend on the oceanic isochrones used for the thermal corrections. The estimated Moho depths in the study area ranges from 7 km to 28 km and the crustal thickness from 2 km to 27 km. The Moho depths are shallower in regions closer to Central Indian Ridge in the Arabian Basin i.e., the region to the west of the GMR is thinner compared to the region in the east (Central Indian Basin). The thickest crust and the deepest Moho are found below the N-S trending GMR segment of the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge. Along the GMR the crustal thickness decreases from north to south with thickness of 27 km below the Maldives Ridge reducing to ∼9 km at 3°S and further increasing towards Chagos Bank. Even though there are similarities in crustal thickness between

  6. TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF ASTEROID OCEAN IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gittings

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations of asteroid impacts into an ocean using the SAGE code from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The SAGE code is a compressible Eulerian hydrodynamics code using continuous adaptive mesh refinement for following discontinuities with a fine grid while treating the bulk of the simulation more coarsely. We have used realistic equations of state for the atmosphere, sea water, the oceanic crust, and the mantle. In two dimensions, we simulated asteroid impactors moving at 20 km/s vertically through an exponential atmosphere into a 5 km deep ocean. The impactors were composed of mantle material (3.32 g/cc or iron (7.8 g/cc with diameters from 250m to 10 km. In our three-dimensional runs we simulated asteroids of 1 km diameter composed of iron moving at 20 km/s at angles of 45 and 60 degrees from the vertical. All impacts, including the oblique ones, produce a large underwater cavities with nearly vertical walls followed by a collapse starting from the bottom and subsequent vertical jetting. Substantial amounts of water are vaporized and lofted high into the atmosphere. In the larger impacts, significant amounts of crustal and even mantle material are lofted as well. Tsunamis up to a kilometer in initial height are generated by the collapse of the vertical jet. These waves are initially complex in form, and interact strongly with shocks propagating through the water and the crust. The tsunami waves are followed out to 100 km from the point of impact. Their periods and wavelengths show them to be intermediate type waves, and not (in general shallow-water waves. At great distances, the waves decay as the inverse of the distance from the impact point, ignoring sea-floor topography. For all impactors smaller than about 2 km diameter, the impacting body is highly fragmented and its remains lofted into the stratosphere with the water

  7. An Examination of a Multi-Scale Three-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation Scheme in the Kuroshio Extension Using the Naval Coastal Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    forecasts. Oceanic applications of the MS3DVAR have been Contents lists available at ScienceDirect journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ csr ...intervals of 12 h. The model grid location and depth can be seen in Fig. 2. In this region the Kuroshio appears as a narrow large magni- tude current in...1997. Introduction to high-frequency radar: reality and myth. Oceanography 10, 36–39. Qu, T., Mitsudera, H., Qui, B., 2001. A climatological view

  8. Three dimensional analysis of cosmic ray intensity variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Shin-ichi; Mori, Satoru; Nagashima, Kazuo.

    1974-01-01

    Three dimensional analysis of cosmic ray anisotropy and its time variation was performed. This paper describes the analysis of the Forbush decrease in Jan. 1968 to investigate by comparing the direction of the magnetic field in interplanetary space and the direction of the reference axis for cosmic ray anisotropy. New anisotropy becomes dominant at the time of Forbush decrease because the anisotropy of cosmic ray in calm state is wiped out. Such anisotropy produces intensity variation in neutron monitors on the ground. The characteristic parameters of three dimensional anisotropy can be determined from theoretical value and observed intensity. Analyzed data were taken for 6 days from Jan. 25 to Jan. 30, 1968, at Deep River. The decrease of intensity at Deep River was seen for several hours from 11 o'clock (UT), Jan. 26, just before The Forbush decrease. This may be due to the loss cone. The Forbush decrease began at 19 o'clock, Jan. 26, and the main phase continued to 5 o'clock in the next morning. The spectrum of variation was Psup(-0.5). The time variations of the magnetic field in interplanetary space and the reference axis of cosmic ray anisotropy are shown for 15 hours. The average directions of both are almost in coincidence. The spatial distribution of cosmic ray near the earth may be expressed by the superposition of axial symmetrical distribution along a reference axis and its push-out to the direction of 12 o'clock. It is considered that the direction of magnetic force line and the velocity of solar wind correspond to the direction of the reference axis and the magnitude of anisotropy in the direction of 12 o'clock, respectively. (Kato, T.)

  9. Three-dimensional total variation norm for SPECT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Mikael; Bone, Dianna; Elmqvist, H.

    2001-01-01

    The total variation (TV) norm has been described in literature as a method for reducing noise in two-dimensional (2D) images. At the same time, the TV-norm is very good at recovering edges in images, without introducing ringing or edge artefacts. It has also been proposed as a 2D regularisation function in Bayesian reconstruction, implemented in an expectation maximisation (EM) algorithm, and called TV-EM. The TV-EM was developed for 2D SPECT imaging, and the algorithm is capable of smoothing noise while maintaining edges without introducing artefacts. We have extended the TV-norm to take into account the third spatial dimension, and developed an iterative EM algorithm based on the three-dimensional (3D) TV-norm, which we call TV3D-EM. This takes into account the correlation between transaxial sections in SPECT, due to system resolution. We have compared the 2D and 3D algorithms using reconstructed images from simulated projection data. Phantoms used were a homogeneous sphere, and a 3D head phantom based on the Shepp-Logan phantom. The TV3D-EM algorithm yielded somewhat lower noise levels than TV-EM. The noise in the TV3D-EM had similar correlation in transaxial and longitudinal sections, which was not the case for TV-EM, or any 2D reconstruction method. In particular, longitudinal sections from TV3D-EM were perceived as less noisy when compared to TV-EM. The use of 3D reconstruction should also be advantageous if compensation for distant dependent collimator blurring is incorporated in the iterative algorithm

  10. Three dimensional investigation of oceanic active faults. A demonstration survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Ikehara, Ken; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio [Geological Survey of Japan, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Oceanic active faults were classified into trench and in-land types, and a bottom survey was conducted on an aim of estimation on activity of a trench type oceanic active faults. For both sides of an oceanic active fault found at high precision sonic investigations in 1996 fiscal year, it was attempted from a record remained in sediments how a fault changed by a fault motion and how long time it acted. And, construction of a data base for evaluation of the active faults was promoted by generalizing the issued publications. As a result, it was found that a method to estimate a fault activity using turbidite in success at shallow sea could not easily be received at deep sea, and that as sedimentation method in deep sea changed largely by topography and so on, the turbidite did not play always a rule of key layer. (G.K.)

  11. Comparison of three-dimensional ocean general circulation models on a benchmark problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.

    1990-12-01

    A french and an american Ocean General Circulation Models for deep-sea disposal of radioactive wastes are compared on a benchmark test problem. Both models are three-dimensional. They solve the hydrostatic primitive equations of the ocean with two different finite difference techniques. Results show that the dynamics simulated by both models are consistent. Several methods for the running of a model from a known state are tested in the French model: the diagnostic method, the prognostic method, the acceleration of convergence and the robust-diagnostic method

  12. Development of a three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for the Seto Island Sea, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, K.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2016-12-01

    By optimally combined ocean models with observation data, numerical oceanic reanalysis and forecast systems allow us to predict the ocean more precisely. In general, data assimilation is exploited to prepare the initial condition for the forecast. This technique has widely been employed in atmospheric prediction, whereas oceanic prediction lags behind weather forecast. Accurate oceanic prediction systems have been demanded for operational purposes such as for fisheries, vessel navigation, marine construction, offshore platform management, marine monitoring, etc. In particular, in crowded harbors and estuaries including the Seto Inland Sea (SIS), Japan, data assimilation has seldom been adapted because data from satellites and Argo floats essential to successful oceanic predictions is desperately limited. In addition, although static data assimilation, typically three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR), is computationally cheap and statistically optimal, but is not physically balanced. For instance, 3DVAR is known to modify velocity and density fields merely mathematically, yet it does not adequately consider quasi-geostrophic balance, which is generally true in most cases. In the present study, we develop a 3DVAR system for Regional Oceanic Modeling Systems (ROMS) and apply to the high-resolution SIS model in a double nested configuration (Kosako et al., 2015). The SIS is the largest estuary in Japan with a number of autonomous in-situ monitoring of vertical profiles of temperature and salinity, tens of tidal gages, along with continuous surface current measurement using HF radars. We first present a theoretical framework of the 3DVAR algorithm by considering geostrophic and thermal-wind balance to find plausible relationships among physical variables to avoid undesirable modifications. Subsequently, the developed 3DVAR is coupled with the SIS ROMS model to compare the model outcomes against some observation data. The 3DVAR ROMS model for the SIS

  13. A numerical three-dimensional ocean general circulation and radionuclides dispersion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.; Marti, O.

    1988-01-01

    The dispersion of radioactive waste disposed of in the deep-sea or transferred from the atmosphere is a complex hydrodynamic problem concerned by space scales as large as the world ocean. The recent development in the high-speed computers has led to significant progress in ocean modelling and now allows a thorough improvement in the accuracy of the simulations of the nuclides dispersion in the sea. A three-dimensional ocean general circulation model has been recently developed in France for research and engineering purposes. The model solves the primitive equation of the ocean hydrodynamics and the advection-diffusion equation for any dissolved tracer. The code has been fully vectorized and multitasked on 1 to 4 processors of the CRAY-2

  14. Mesoscale Eddies in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean: Three-Dimensional Eddy Structures and Heat/Salt Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Di; Brandt, Peter; Chang, Ping; Schütte, Florian; Yang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Jinhui; Zeng, Jisheng

    2017-12-01

    The region encompassing the Kuroshio Extension (KE) in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean (25°N-45°N and 130°E-180°E) is one of the most eddy-energetic regions of the global ocean. The three-dimensional structures and transports of mesoscale eddies in this region are comprehensively investigated by combined use of satellite data and Argo profiles. With the allocation of Argo profiles inside detected eddies, the spatial variations of structures of eddy temperature and salinity anomalies are analyzed. The results show that eddies predominantly have subsurface (near-surface) intensified temperature and salinity anomalies south (north) of the KE jet, which is related to different background stratifications between these regions. A new method based on eddy trajectories and the inferred three-dimensional eddy structures is proposed to estimate heat and salt transports by eddy movements in a Lagrangian framework. Spatial distributions of eddy transports are presented over the vicinity of the KE for the first time. The magnitude of eddy-induced meridional heat (freshwater volume) transport is on the order of 0.01 PW (103 m3/s). The eddy heat transport divergence results in an oceanic heat loss south and heat gain north of the KE, thereby reinforcing and counteracting the oceanic heat loss from air-sea fluxes south and north of the KE jet, respectively. It also suggests a poleward heat transport across the KE jet due to eddy propagation.

  15. Hybrid three-dimensional variation and particle filtering for nonlinear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng Hong-Ze; Song Jun-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of estimating the states of nonlinear dynamic systems with sparse observations. We present a hybrid three-dimensional variation (3DVar) and particle piltering (PF) method, which combines the advantages of 3DVar and particle-based filters. By minimizing the cost function, this approach will produce a better proposal distribution of the state. Afterwards the stochastic resampling step in standard PF can be avoided through a deterministic scheme. The simulation results show that the performance of the new method is superior to the traditional ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF) and the standard PF, especially in highly nonlinear systems

  16. Three-Dimensional Mantle Flow Near an Oceanic Paleotransform Fault System: Geological Constraints From the Bogota Peninsula, New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzaras, V.; Kruckenberg, S. C.; Titus, S.; Tikoff, B.; Teyssier, C. P.; Drury, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    We provide geological constraints on mantle deformation across a system of two oceanic paleotransform faults exposed in the Bogota Peninsula area, New Caledonia. Mantle deformation occurred at depths corresponding to temperatures of 900 oC and is highly heterogeneous. The paleotransform faults consist of mylonitic shear zones ( 1 km wide), and are surrounded by broader areas in which rotation of both the shape fabric (foliation and lineation) and olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) takes place. Outside the plaeotransform faults, mantle flows oblique to the strike of the mylonitic zones and is characterized by lateral variations in the flow direction. To further constrain the kinematics and type of deformation, we determine the orientation of the crystallographic vorticity axes as an independent tool for constraining deformation geometry (e.g., simple shear, transpression, transtension). The observed mantle flow is associated to lateral variations in: 1) the geometry and degree of anisotropy of spinel shape fabric; 2) olivine CPO type; 3) amount of stretching; and 4) the orientation of the crystallographic vorticity axes. Upper mantle in the vicinity of oceanic transform faults may be characterized by complex, three-dimensional flow patterns and deformation geometries deviating from simple shear.

  17. Development of three-dimensional shoulder kinematic and electromyographic exposure variation analysis methodology in violin musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jonathan F; Leduc, Robert E; Kahnert, Emily K; Ludewig, Paula M

    2014-01-01

    A total of 11 male and 19 female violinists performed 30-second random-ordered slow and fast musical repertoire while right shoulder three-dimensional kinematic, and upper trapezius and serratus anterior surface electromyography (EMG) data were summarised using exposure variation analysis (EVA), a bivariate distribution of work time spent at categories of signal amplitude, and duration spent at a fixed category of amplitude. Sixty-two per cent of intraclass correlation coefficients [1,1] for all kinematic and EMG variables exceeded 0.75, and 40% of standard error of the measurement results were below 5%, confirming EVA reliability. When fast repertoire was played, increases in odds ratios in short duration cells were seen in 23 of 24 possible instances, and decreases in longer duration cells were seen in 17 instances in all EVA arrays using multinomial logistic regression with random effects, confirming a shift towards shorter duration. A reliable technique to assess right shoulder kinematic and EMG exposure in violinists was identified. A reliable method of measuring right shoulder motion and muscle activity exposure variation in violinists was developed which can be used to assess ergonomic risk in other occupations. Recently developed statistical methods enabled differentiation between fast and slow musical performance of standardised musical repertoire.

  18. Variation of clinical target volume definition in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valicenti, Richard K.; Sweet, John W.; Hauck, Walter W.; Hudes, Richard S.; Lee, Tony; Dicker, Adam P.; Waterman, Frank M.; Anne, Pramila R.; Corn, Benjamin W.; Galvin, James M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Currently, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) planning relies on the interpretation of computed tomography (CT) axial images for defining the clinical target volume (CTV). This study investigates the variation among multiple observers to define the CTV used in 3D-CRT for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Seven observers independently delineated the CTVs (prostate ± seminal vesicles [SV]) from the CT simulation data of 10 prostate cancer patients undergoing 3D-CRT. Six patients underwent CT simulation without the use of contrast material and serve as a control group. The other 4 had urethral and bladder opacification with contrast medium. To determine interobserver variation, we evaluated the derived volume, the maximum dimensions, and the isocenter for each examination of CTV. We assessed the reliability in the CTVs among the observers by correlating the variation for each class of measurements. This was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), with 1.00 defining absolute correlation. Results: For the prostate volumes, the ICC was 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.96). This changed to 0.92 (95% CI: 0.75-0.99) with the use of contrast material. Similarly, the maximal prostatic dimensions were reliable and improved. There was poor agreement in defining the SV. For this structure, the ICC never exceeded 0.28. The reliability of the isocenter was excellent, with the ICC exceeding 0.83 and 0.90 for the prostate ± SV, respectively. Conclusions: In 3D-CRT for prostate cancer, there was excellent agreement among multiple observers to define the prostate target volume but poor agreement to define the SV. The use of urethral and bladder contrast improved the reliability of localizing the prostate. For all CTVs, the isocenter was very reliable and should be used to compare the variation in 3D dosimetry among multiple observers

  19. Anatomic variation of the clavicle: A novel three-dimensional study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daruwalla, Zubin J

    2010-03-01

    An understanding of the complex anatomy of the clavicle is helpful in the treatment of clavicular fractures. Using three-dimensional (3D) statistical shape analysis, the author presents a novel method to assess geometric morphology of the clavicle. Fifteen fresh frozen shoulder specimens were scanned using high-resolution computerized tomography (CT) but four were excluded from the study. A further 16 high-resolution CT scans of the clavicle were obtained by searching the hospital database. All 27 scans were reconstructed and subsequently imported into and analyzed using a specifically developed statistical software package. Using statistical shape analysis, geometric parameters were then measured. Both gender as well as side specific geometric morphology were observed. Clavicles in men were longer, wider, and thicker than in women. Right clavicles had a greater medial depth than left clavicles, especially in women. Clavicles in men had a greater lateral depth than in women. The sternal angle in women was larger than in men. Using 3D statistical shape analysis and applying it to the clavicle standardizes the study of its anatomy, rules out any variability, and calculates morphological parameters that are accurate, precise, and reproducible. This unique approach provides information that is useful not only to the clinician but also in the modification of current or design of future clavicle fixation devices. More importantly, from an anatomy standpoint, implementation of this novel approach in anatomical studies would eliminate intra- and interobserver variation and allow all studies to be standardized and thus more comparable.

  20. Variational formulation and stability analysis of a three dimensional superelastic model for shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Roberto; Pham, Kim

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a variational framework for the three-dimensional macroscopic modelling of superelastic shape memory alloys in an isothermal setting. Phase transformation is accounted through a unique second order tensorial internal variable, acting as the transformation strain. Postulating the total strain energy density as the sum of a free energy and a dissipated energy, the model depends on two material scalar functions of the norm of the transformation strain and a material scalar constant. Appropriate calibration of these material functions allows to render a wide range of constitutive behaviours including stress-softening and stress-hardening. The quasi-static evolution problem of a domain is formulated in terms of two physical principles based on the total energy of the system: a stability criterion, which selects the local minima of the total energy, and an energy balance condition, which ensures the consistency of the evolution of the total energy with respect to the external loadings. The local phase transformation laws in terms of Kuhn-Tucker relations are deduced from the first-order stability condition and the energy balance condition. The response of the model is illustrated with a numerical traction-torsion test performed on a thin-walled cylinder. Evolutions of homogeneous states are given for proportional and non-proportional loadings. Influence of the stress-hardening/softening properties on the evolution of the transformation domain is emphasized. Finally, in view of an identification process, the issue of stability of homogeneous states in a multi-dimensional setting is answered based on the study of second-order derivative of the total energy. Explicit necessary and sufficient conditions of stability are provided.

  1. Mapping genetic variations to three-dimensional protein structures to enhance variant interpretation: a proposed framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glusman, Gustavo; Rose, Peter W; Prlić, Andreas; Dougherty, Jennifer; Duarte, José M; Hoffman, Andrew S; Barton, Geoffrey J; Bendixen, Emøke; Bergquist, Timothy; Bock, Christian; Brunk, Elizabeth; Buljan, Marija; Burley, Stephen K; Cai, Binghuang; Carter, Hannah; Gao, JianJiong; Godzik, Adam; Heuer, Michael; Hicks, Michael; Hrabe, Thomas; Karchin, Rachel; Leman, Julia Koehler; Lane, Lydie; Masica, David L; Mooney, Sean D; Moult, John; Omenn, Gilbert S; Pearl, Frances; Pejaver, Vikas; Reynolds, Sheila M; Rokem, Ariel; Schwede, Torsten; Song, Sicheng; Tilgner, Hagen; Valasatava, Yana; Zhang, Yang; Deutsch, Eric W

    2017-12-18

    The translation of personal genomics to precision medicine depends on the accurate interpretation of the multitude of genetic variants observed for each individual. However, even when genetic variants are predicted to modify a protein, their functional implications may be unclear. Many diseases are caused by genetic variants affecting important protein features, such as enzyme active sites or interaction interfaces. The scientific community has catalogued millions of genetic variants in genomic databases and thousands of protein structures in the Protein Data Bank. Mapping mutations onto three-dimensional (3D) structures enables atomic-level analyses of protein positions that may be important for the stability or formation of interactions; these may explain the effect of mutations and in some cases even open a path for targeted drug development. To accelerate progress in the integration of these data types, we held a two-day Gene Variation to 3D (GVto3D) workshop to report on the latest advances and to discuss unmet needs. The overarching goal of the workshop was to address the question: what can be done together as a community to advance the integration of genetic variants and 3D protein structures that could not be done by a single investigator or laboratory? Here we describe the workshop outcomes, review the state of the field, and propose the development of a framework with which to promote progress in this arena. The framework will include a set of standard formats, common ontologies, a common application programming interface to enable interoperation of the resources, and a Tool Registry to make it easy to find and apply the tools to specific analysis problems. Interoperability will enable integration of diverse data sources and tools and collaborative development of variant effect prediction methods.

  2. A HIGH ORDER SOLUTION OF THREE DIMENSIONAL TIME DEPENDENT NONLINEAR CONVECTIVE-DIFFUSIVE PROBLEM USING MODIFIED VARIATIONAL ITERATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Joshi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have achieved high order solution of a three dimensional nonlinear diffusive-convective problem using modified variational iteration method. The efficiency of this approach has been shown by solving two examples. All computational work has been performed in MATHEMATICA.

  3. Climatology and seasonality of upper ocean salinity: a three-dimensional view from argo floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ge; Peng, Lin; Ma, Chunyong

    2018-03-01

    Primarily due to the constraints of observation technologies (both field and satellite measurements), our understanding of ocean salinity is much less mature compared to ocean temperature. As a result, the characterizations of the two most important properties of the ocean are unfortunately out of step: the former is one generation behind the latter in terms of data availability and applicability. This situation has been substantially changed with the advent of the Argo floats which measure the two variables simultaneously on a global scale since early this century. The first decade of Argo-acquired salinity data are analyzed here in the context of climatology and seasonality, yielding the following main findings for the global upper oceans. First, the six well-defined "salty pools" observed around ±20° in each hemisphere of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans are found to tilt westward vertically from the sea surface to about 600 m depth, forming six saline cores within the subsurface oceans. Second, while potential temperature climatology decreases monotonically to the bottom in most places of the ocean, the vertical distribution of salinity can be classified into two categories: A double-halocline type forming immediately above and below the local salinity maximum around 100-150 m depths in the tropical and subtropical oceans, and a single halocline type existing at about 100 m depth in the extratropical oceans. Third, in contrast to the midlatitude dominance for temperature, seasonal variability of salinity in the oceanic mixed layer has a clear tropical dominance. Meanwhile, it is found that a two-mode structure with annual and semiannual periodicities can effectively penetrate through the upper ocean into a depth of 2000 m. Fourth, signature of Rossby waves is identified in the annual phase map of ocean salinity within 200-600 m depths in the tropical oceans, revealing a strongly co-varying nature of ocean temperature and salinity at specific depths

  4. A general methodology for three-dimensional analysis of variation in target volume delineation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remeijer, P.; Rasch, C.; Lebesque, J. V.; van Herk, M.

    1999-01-01

    A generic method for three-dimensional (3-D) evaluation of target volume delineation in multiple imaging modalities is presented. The evaluation includes geometrical and statistical methods to estimate observer differences and variability in defining the Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) in relation to the

  5. Recon3D enables a three-dimensional view of gene variation in human metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunk, Elizabeth; Sahoo, Swagatika; Zielinski, Daniel C.

    2018-01-01

    Genome-scale network reconstructions have helped uncover the molecular basis of metabolism. Here we present Recon3D, a computational resource that includes three-dimensional (3D) metabolite and protein structure data and enables integrated analyses of metabolic functions in humans. We use Recon3D...

  6. Three dimensional investigation on the oceanic active fault. A demonstration survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Okamoto, Yukinobu; Ikehara, Ken; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio; Arai, Kosaku [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    In order to upgrade activity and likelihood ratio on active potential evaluation of the water active fault with possibility of severe effect on nuclear facilities, by generally applying the conventional procedures to some areas and carrying out a demonstration survey, a qualitative upgrading on survey to be conducted by the executives was planned. In 1998 fiscal year, among the water active faults classified to the trench and the inland types, three dimensional survey on the inland type water active fault. The survey was carried out at the most southern part of aftershock area in the 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake, which is understood to be a place changing shallow geological structure (propagation of fault) from an old report using the sonic survey. As a result, a geological structure thought to be an active fault at a foot of two ridge topographies was found. Each fault was thought to be a reverse fault tilt to its opposite direction and an active fault cutting to its sea bottom. (G.K.)

  7. Three dimensional investigation on the oceanic active fault. A demonstration survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Okamoto, Yukinobu; Ikehara, Ken; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio; Arai, Kosaku

    2000-01-01

    In order to upgrade activity and likelihood ratio on active potential evaluation of the water active fault with possibility of severe effect on nuclear facilities, by generally applying the conventional procedures to some areas and carrying out a demonstration survey, a qualitative upgrading on survey to be conducted by the executives was planned. In 1998 fiscal year, among the water active faults classified to the trench and the inland types, three dimensional survey on the inland type water active fault. The survey was carried out at the most southern part of aftershock area in the 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake, which is understood to be a place changing shallow geological structure (propagation of fault) from an old report using the sonic survey. As a result, a geological structure thought to be an active fault at a foot of two ridge topographies was found. Each fault was thought to be a reverse fault tilt to its opposite direction and an active fault cutting to its sea bottom. (G.K.)

  8. Lagrangian Coherent Structure Analysis of Terminal Winds: Three-Dimensionality, Intramodel Variations, and Flight Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Knutson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of three-dimensional Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS near the Hong Kong International Airport and relate to previous developments of two-dimensional (2D LCS analyses. The LCS are contrasted among three independent models and against 2D coherent Doppler light detection and ranging (LIDAR data. Addition of the velocity information perpendicular to the LIDAR scanning cone helps solidify flow structures inferred from previous studies; contrast among models reveals the intramodel variability; and comparison with flight data evaluates the performance among models in terms of Lagrangian analyses. We find that, while the three models and the LIDAR do recover similar features of the windshear experienced by a landing aircraft (along the landing trajectory, their Lagrangian signatures over the entire domain are quite different—a portion of each numerical model captures certain features resembling those LCS extracted from independent 2D LIDAR analyses based on observations.

  9. Characterizations of Stress and Strain Variation in Three-Dimensional Forming of Laser Micro-Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Zhou; Guo-Huan, Zhao; Tao, Huang; Hua, Ding; Lan, Cai

    2010-01-01

    A micro-manufacturing technology is presented to form three-dimensional metallic micro-structures directly. Micro grid array structures are replicated on a metallic foil surface, with high spatial resolution in micron levels. The numerical simulation results indicate that the material deformation process is characterized by an ultrahigh strain rate. With increasing pulse duration, the sample absorption strain energy increases, and the sample deformation degree enlarges. The stress state of the central point fluctuates between tensile stress and compression stress. The stress state of the angular point is altered from compressive stress to tensile stress due to geometry and loading conditions. The duration length of pulse stress has an effect on the stress state, as with the increase of pulse duration, fluctuation in the stress state decreases. Therefore, laser micro-manufacturing technology will be a potential laser micro forming method which is characterized by low cost and high efficiency. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  10. Regional fibrocartilage variations in human anterior cruciate ligament tibial insertion: a histological three-dimensional reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Can; Guo, Lin; Yang, Liu; Wu, Yi; Gou, Jingyue; Li, Bangchun

    2015-02-01

    We studied anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial insertion architecture in humans and investigated regional differences that could suggest unequal force transmission from ligament to bone. ACL tibial insertions were processed histologically. With Photoshop software, digital images taken from the histological slides were collaged, contour lines were drawn, and different gray values were filled based on the structure. The data were exported to Amira software for three-dimensional reconstruction. The uncalcified fibrocartilage (UF) layer was divided into three regions: lateral, medial and posterior according to the architecture. The UF zone was significantly thicker laterally than medially or posteriorly (p fibrocartilage (CF) thickness was significantly greater in the lateral part of the enthesis compared to the medial and posterior parts (p < 0.05). The UF quantity (more UF laterally) corresponding to the CF quantity (more CF laterally) at the ACL tibial insertion provides further evidence suggesting that the load transferred from the ACL to the tibia was greater laterally than medially and posteriorly.

  11. An objective algorithm for reconstructing the three-dimensional ocean temperature field based on Argo profiles and SST data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaojie; Ding, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Jungang; Ma, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    While global oceanic surface information with large-scale, real-time, high-resolution data is collected by satellite remote sensing instrumentation, three-dimensional (3D) observations are usually obtained from in situ measurements, but with minimal coverage and spatial resolution. To meet the needs of 3D ocean investigations, we have developed a new algorithm to reconstruct the 3D ocean temperature field based on the Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) profiles and sea surface temperature (SST) data. The Argo temperature profiles are first optimally fitted to generate a series of temperature functions of depth, with the vertical temperature structure represented continuously. By calculating the derivatives of the fitted functions, the calculation of the vertical temperature gradient of the Argo profiles at an arbitrary depth is accomplished. A gridded 3D temperature gradient field is then found by applying inverse distance weighting interpolation in the horizontal direction. Combined with the processed SST, the 3D temperature field reconstruction is realized below the surface using the gridded temperature gradient. Finally, to confirm the effectiveness of the algorithm, an experiment in the Pacific Ocean south of Japan is conducted, for which a 3D temperature field is generated. Compared with other similar gridded products, the reconstructed 3D temperature field derived by the proposed algorithm achieves satisfactory accuracy, with correlation coefficients of 0.99 obtained, including a higher spatial resolution (0.25° × 0.25°), resulting in the capture of smaller-scale characteristics. Finally, both the accuracy and the superiority of the algorithm are validated.

  12. New techniques for the scientific visualization of three-dimensional multi-variate and vector fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawfis, Roger A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Volume rendering allows us to represent a density cloud with ideal properties (single scattering, no self-shadowing, etc.). Scientific visualization utilizes this technique by mapping an abstract variable or property in a computer simulation to a synthetic density cloud. This thesis extends volume rendering from its limitation of isotropic density clouds to anisotropic and/or noisy density clouds. Design aspects of these techniques are discussed that aid in the comprehension of scientific information. Anisotropic volume rendering is used to represent vector based quantities in scientific visualization. Velocity and vorticity in a fluid flow, electric and magnetic waves in an electromagnetic simulation, and blood flow within the body are examples of vector based information within a computer simulation or gathered from instrumentation. Understand these fields can be crucial to understanding the overall physics or physiology. Three techniques for representing three-dimensional vector fields are presented: Line Bundles, Textured Splats and Hair Splats. These techniques are aimed at providing a high-level (qualitative) overview of the flows, offering the user a substantial amount of information with a single image or animation. Non-homogenous volume rendering is used to represent multiple variables. Computer simulations can typically have over thirty variables, which describe properties whose understanding are useful to the scientist. Trying to understand each of these separately can be time consuming. Trying to understand any cause and effect relationships between different variables can be impossible. NoiseSplats is introduced to represent two or more properties in a single volume rendering of the data. This technique is also aimed at providing a qualitative overview of the flows.

  13. [Variation pattern and its affecting factors of three-dimensional landscape in urban residential community of Shenyang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-Feng; Hu, Yuan-Man; Xiong, Zai-Ping; Liu, Miao

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1:10000 aerial photo in 1997 and the three QuickBird images in 2002, 2005, and 2008, and by using Barista software and GIS and RS techniques, the three-dimensional information of the residential community in Tiexi District of Shenyang was extracted, and the variation pattern of the three-dimensional landscape in the district during its reconstruction in 1997-2008 and related affecting factors were analyzed with the indices, ie. road density, greening rate, average building height, building height standard deviation, building coverage rate, floor area rate, building shape coefficient, population density, and per capita GDP. The results showed that in 1997-2008, the building area for industry decreased, that for commerce and other public affairs increased, and the area for residents, education, and medical cares basically remained stable. The building number, building coverage rate, and building shape coefficient decreased, while the floor area rate, average building height, height standard deviation, road density, and greening rate increased. Within the limited space of residential community, the containing capacity of population and economic activity increased, and the environment quality also improved to some extent. The variation degree of average building height increased, but the building energy consumption decreased. Population growth and economic development had positive correlations with floor area rate, road density, and greening rate, but negative correlation with building coverage rate.

  14. Experimental and biological variation of three-dimensional transcranial Doppler measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1993-01-01

    A new transcranial Doppler system (3-D Transscan, Eden Medizinische Elektronik) was evaluated in relation to sex, age, intersubject, interobserver, side-to-side, and day-to-day variation. Fifty-eight healthy volunteers participated (aged 18-80 yr). Mean velocity was higher in females than in male...

  15. Three-dimensional CT features of occipital squama normal anatomy, anatomic variations and fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jungang; Li Xin; Wang Chunxiang; Zhang Lin; Guo Wanhua

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate 3D CT features of normal anatomy, anatomic variations and fractures of occipital squama. Methods: The 3D CT features on MIP, VR images were analyzed retrospectively in 589 pediatric cases. The normal anatomy, anatomic variations and fractures of occipital squama were observed respectively, and the differential diagnostic features including the individual location, appearance and extension were analyzed. Results: Four hundred and thirty-three patients (75.2%) showed normal anatomy, including 154 patients with adult occipital anatomical features, 279 patients with posterior intraoccipital synchondrosis, and 37 patients with Kerckring-supraoccipital synchondrosis. When cases with recent trauma history were excluded, 113 patients (19.1%) showed anatomic variants, including unpenetrating sutures and penetrating sutures. The former could be subdivided to Mendosal sutures in 23 cases, superior median fissures in 19 cases, and midline supraoccipital fissures in 4 cases, while the latter could be subdivided to the interparietal bone variations in 54 cases, wormian bones in 23 cases, and accessory bones in 7 cases. Two or more variations coexisted in 33 cases. The occipital squama fractures were shown in 34 cases (5.6%), including linear fractures in 27 cases, comminuted fractures in 3 cases, with depression fracture in one case, separation of cranial sutures in 3 cases, and other fractures associated with variants in 3 cases. The fractures were sharp, or jagged, without limitation of the occification. Conclusion: There are different 3D CT features of normal anatomy, anatomic variations and fractures of occipital squama in children, which are important for making the accurate diagnosis. (authors)

  16. Geometrical optics approach in liquid crystal films with three-dimensional director variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, G; Kelly, J; Gartland, E C; Allender, D W

    2003-04-01

    A formal geometrical optics approach (GOA) to the optics of nematic liquid crystals whose optic axis (director) varies in more than one dimension is described. The GOA is applied to the propagation of light through liquid crystal films whose director varies in three spatial dimensions. As an example, the GOA is applied to the calculation of light transmittance for the case of a liquid crystal cell which exhibits the homeotropic to multidomainlike transition (HMD cell). Properties of the GOA solution are explored, and comparison with the Jones calculus solution is also made. For variations on a smaller scale, where the Jones calculus breaks down, the GOA provides a fast, accurate method for calculating light transmittance. The results of light transmittance calculations for the HMD cell based on the director patterns provided by two methods, direct computer calculation and a previously developed simplified model, are in good agreement.

  17. Three-dimensional Seismic Survey of the Continental-Ocean Transition Zone of the Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Wang, Q.; Sibuet, J. C.; Sun, L.; Sun, Z.; Qiu, X.

    2017-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest marginal seas in the western Pacific, which has experienced extension, rifting, breakup, post-spreading magmatism on its northern margin during the Cenozoic era. The complexity of this margin is exacerbated by rifting and seafloor spreading processes, which developed at the expenses of the subducting proto-South China Sea. Based on Sun et al. (2014, 2016) proposals, 6 sites were drilled on the northern SCS margin from February to June 2017, during IODP Expeditions 367/368. The preliminary results indicate that the width of the COT is about 20 km and is different from the typical magma-poor Iberia margin whose width is around 100 km. The combination of three-dimensional (3D) Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) refractive survey with IODP drilling results, will improve the drilling achievement and greatly contribute to the understanding of the specific mechanism of rifting and breakup processes of the northern SCS. In particular, it is expected to constrain: 1) the nature of the crust in the COT, 2) the degree of serpentinization of the upper mantle beneath the COT, and 3) the 3D extension of the COT, the oceanic crust and the serpentinized mantle. We firstly carry out the resolution tests and calculate the interval of OBSs using a ray tracing and travel time modelling software. 7-km interval between OBSs is the optimal interval for the resolution tests and ray coverage, which will provide optimal constraints for the characterization of the 20-km wide COT. The 3D seismic survey will be carried out in 2018. The design of the OBSs arrangement and the location of shooting lines are extremely important. At present, we propose 5 main profiles and 14 shooting lines along the multi-channel seismic lines already acquired in the vicinity of the 6 drilling sites. Any comments and suggestions concerning the OBSs arrangement will be appreciated. This work is supported by the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (contracts

  18. A three-dimensional ocean mesoscale simulation using data from the SEMAPHORE experiment: Mixed layer heat budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniaux, Guy; Planton, Serge

    1998-10-01

    A primitive equation model is used to simulate the mesoscale circulation associated with a portion of the Azores Front investigated during the intensive observation period (IOP) of the Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphere, Proprietes des Heterogeneites Oceaniques: Recherche Experimentale (SEMAPHORE) experiment in fall 1993. The model is a mesoscale version of the ocean general circulation model (OGCM) developed at the Laboratoire d'Océanographie Dynamique et de Climatologie (LODYC) in Paris and includes open lateral boundaries, a 1.5-level-order turbulence closure scheme, and fine mesh resolution (0.11° for latitude and 0.09° for longitude). The atmospheric forcing is provided by satellite data for the solar and infrared fluxes and by analyzed (or reanalyzed for the wind) atmospheric data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecast model. The extended data set collected during the IOP of SEMAPHORE enables a detailed initialization of the model, a coupling with the rest of the basin through time dependent open boundaries, and a model/data comparison for validation. The analysis of model outputs indicates that most features are in good agreement with independent available observations. The surface front evolution is subject to an intense deformation different from that of the deep front system, which evolves only weakly. An estimate of the upper layer heat budget is performed during the 22 days of the integration of the model. Each term of this budget is analyzed according to various atmospheric events that occurred during the experiment, such as the passage of a strong storm. This facilitates extended estimates of mixed layer or relevant surface processes beyond those which are obtainable directly from observations. Surface fluxes represent 54% of the heat loss in the mixed layer and 70% in the top 100-m layer, while vertical transport at the mixed layer bottom accounts for 31% and three-dimensional processes account for 14%.

  19. DISSECTING THE RED SEQUENCE. III. MASS-TO-LIGHT VARIATIONS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL FUNDAMENTAL PLANE SPACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, Genevieve J.; Faber, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental plane (FP) of early-type galaxies is observed to have finite thickness and to be tilted from the virial relation. Both of these represent departures from the simple assumption that dynamical mass-to-light ratios (M dyn /L) are constant for all early-type galaxies. We use a sample of 16,000 quiescent galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to map out the variations in M dyn /L throughout the three-dimensional FP space defined by velocity dispersion (σ), effective radius (R e ), and effective surface brightness (I e ). Dividing M dyn /L into multiple components allows us to separately consider the contribution to the observed M dyn /L variation due to stellar population effects, initial mass function (IMF) variations, and variations in the dark matter fraction within one R e . Along the FP, we find that the stellar population contribution given some constant IMF (M *,IMF /L) scales with σ such that M *,IMF /L ∝ f(σ). Meanwhile, the dark matter and/or IMF contribution (M dyn /M *,IMF ) scales with M dyn such that M dyn /M *,IMF ∝ g(M dyn ). This means that the two contributions to the tilt of the FP rotate the plane around different axes in the three-dimensional space. The observed tilt of the FP requires contributions from both, with dark matter/IMF variations likely comprising the dominant contribution. Looking at M dyn /L variations through the thickness of the FP, we find that M dyn /L variations must be dominated either by IMF variations or by real differences in the dark matter fraction with R e . This means that the finite thickness of the FP is due to variations in the stellar mass surface density within R e (Σ *,IMF ), not the fading of passive stellar populations. It therefore represents genuine structural differences between early-type galaxies. These structural variations are correlated with galaxy star formation histories such that galaxies with higher M dyn /M *,IMF have higher [Mg/Fe], lower metallicities, and older mean

  20. A three-dimensional geometric morphometrics view of the cranial shape variation and population history in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Manon; Friess, Martin

    2016-09-10

    Craniofacial variation in past and present Amerindians has been attributed to the effect of multiple founder events, or to one major migration followed by in situ differentiation and possibly recurrent contacts among Circum-Arctic groups. Our study aims to: (i) detect morphological differences that may indicate several migrations; (ii) test for the presence of genetic isolation; and (iii) test the correlation between shape data and competing settlement hypotheses by taking into account geography, chronology, climate effects, the presence of genetic isolation and recurrent gene flow. We analyzed a large sample of three-dimensional (3D) cranial surface scans (803 specimens) including past and modern groups from America and Australasia. Shape variation was investigated using geometric morphometrics. Differential external gene flow was evaluated by applying genetic concepts to morphometric data (Relethford-Blangero approach). Settlement hypotheses were tested using a matrix correlation approach (Mantel tests). Our results highlight the strong dichotomy between Circum-Arctic and continental Amerindians as well as the impact of climate adaptation, and possibly recurrent gene flow in the Circum-Arctic area. There is also evidence for the impact of genetic isolation on phenetic variation in Baja California. Several settlement hypotheses are correlated with our data. The three approaches used in this study highlight the importance of local processes especially in Baja California, and caution against the use of overly simplistic models when searching for the number of migration events. The results stress the complexity of the settlement of the Americas as well as the mosaic nature of the processes involved in this process. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:646-661, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Three-dimensional variational assimilation of MODIS aerosol optical depth: Implementation and application to a dust storm over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiquan; Liu, Quanhua; Lin, Hui-Chuan; Schwartz, Craig S.; Lee, Yen-Huei; Wang, Tijian

    2011-12-01

    Assimilation of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) total aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval products (at 550 nm wavelength) from both Terra and Aqua satellites have been developed within the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system. This newly developed algorithm allows, in a one-step procedure, the analysis of 3-D mass concentration of 14 aerosol variables from the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) module. The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) was extended to calculate AOD using GOCART aerosol variables as input. Both the AOD forward model and corresponding Jacobian model were developed within the CRTM and used in the 3DVAR minimization algorithm to compute the AOD cost function and its gradient with respect to 3-D aerosol mass concentration. The impact of MODIS AOD data assimilation was demonstrated by application to a dust storm from 17 to 24 March 2010 over East Asia. The aerosol analyses initialized Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model forecasts. Results indicate that assimilating MODIS AOD substantially improves aerosol analyses and subsequent forecasts when compared to MODIS AOD, independent AOD observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument, and surface PM10 (particulate matter with diameters less than 10 μm) observations. The newly developed AOD data assimilation system can serve as a tool to improve simulations of dust storms and general air quality analyses and forecasts.

  2. Assimilation of total lightning data using the three-dimensional variational method at convection-allowing resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Yijun; Xu, Liangtao; Zheng, Dong; Yao, Wen

    2017-08-01

    A large number of observational analyses have shown that lightning data can be used to indicate areas of deep convection. It is important to assimilate observed lightning data into numerical models, so that more small-scale information can be incorporated to improve the quality of the initial condition and the subsequent forecasts. In this study, the empirical relationship between flash rate, water vapor mixing ratio, and graupel mixing ratio was used to adjust the model relative humidity, which was then assimilated by using the three-dimensional variational data assimilation system of the Weather Research and Forecasting model in cycling mode at 10-min intervals. To find the appropriate assimilation time-window length that yielded significant improvement in both the initial conditions and subsequent forecasts, four experiments with different assimilation time-window lengths were conducted for a squall line case that occurred on 10 July 2007 in North China. It was found that 60 min was the appropriate assimilation time-window length for this case, and longer assimilation window length was unnecessary since no further improvement was present. Forecasts of 1-h accumulated precipitation during the assimilation period and the subsequent 3-h accumulated precipitation were significantly improved compared with the control experiment without lightning data assimilation. The simulated reflectivity was optimal after 30 min of the forecast, it remained optimal during the following 42 min, and the positive effect from lightning data assimilation began to diminish after 72 min of the forecast. Overall, the improvement from lightning data assimilation can be maintained for about 3 h.

  3. Three-dimensional technology for linear morphological studies: a re-examination of cranial variation in four southern African indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, D; Freedman, L; Milne, N

    2005-01-01

    In order to compare linear dimensions made by traditional anthropometric techniques, and those obtained from three-dimensional coordinates, samples of four indigenous southern African populations were analysed. Linear measurements were obtained using mathematically transformed, three-dimensional landmark data on 207 male crania of Cape Nguni, Natal Nguni, Sotho and Shangaan. Univariate comparisons for accuracy of the transformed linear data were made with those in a traditional linear study by de Villiers (The Skull of the South African Negro: A Biometrical and Morphological Study. Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg) on similar samples and equivalent landmarks. Comparisons were not made with her Penrose (Ann Eugenics 18 (1954) 337) analysis as an apparently anomalous 'shape'-'size' statistic was found. The univariate comparisons demonstrated that accurate linear measurements could be derived from three-dimensional data, showing that it is possible to simultaneously obtain data for three-dimensional geometric 'shape' and linear interlandmark analyses. Using Penrose and canonical variates analyses of the transformed three-dimensional interlandmark measurements, similar population distances were found for the four indigenous southern African populations. The inter-population distance relationships took the form of three separated pairs of distances, with the within-pair distances very similar in size. The cranial features of the four populations were found to be overall very similar morphometrically. However the populations were each shown by CVA to have population specific features, and using discriminant analyses 50% or more of the individual crania (with the exception of the Sotho) could be referred to their correct populations.

  4. On the variation in crack-opening stresses at different locations in a three-dimensional body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermahini, R. G.; Blom, Anders F.

    1990-01-01

    Crack propagation and closure behavior of thin, and thick middle crack tension specimens under constant amplitude loading were investigated using a three dimensional elastic plastic finite element analysis of fatigue crack propagation and closure. In the thin specimens the crack front closed first on the exterior (free) surface and closed last in the interior during the unloading portion of cyclic loading; a load reduced displacement technique was used to determine crack opening stresses at specified locations in the plate from the displacements calculated after the seven cycle. All the locations were on the plate external surface and were located near the crack tip, behind the crack tip, at the centerline of the crack. With this technique, the opening stresses at the specified points were found to be 0.52, 0.42, and 0.39 times the maximum applied stress.

  5. Variations in gene and protein expression in canine chondrodystrophic nucleus pulposus cells following long-term three-dimensional culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munetaka Iwata

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc (IVD degeneration greatly affects quality of life. The nucleus pulposus (NP of chondrodystrophic dog breeds (CDBs is similar to the human NP, because the cells disappear with age and are replaced by fibrochondrocyte-like cells. However, because IVD develops as early as within the first year of life, we used canines as a model to investigate in vitro the mechanisms underlying IVD degeneration. Specifically, we evaluated the potential of a three-dimensional (3D culture of healthy NP as an in vitro model system to investigate the mechanisms of IVD degeneration. Agarose hydrogels were populated with healthy NP cells from beagles after performing magnetic resonance imaging, and mRNA expression profiles and pericellular extracellular matrix (ECM protein distribution were determined. After 25 days of 3D culture, there was a tendency for redifferentiation into the native NP phenotype, and mRNA levels of Col2A1, COMP, and CK18 were not significantly different from those of freshly isolated cells. Our findings suggest that long-term 3D culture promoted chondrodystrophic NP redifferentiation through reconstruction of the pericellular microenvironment. Further, lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced expression of TNF-α, MMP3, MMP13, VEGF, and PGES mRNA in the 3D cultures, creating a molecular milieu that mimics that of degenerated NP. These results suggest that this in vitro model represents a reliable and cost-effective tool for evaluating new therapies for disc degeneration.

  6. A three-dimensional analysis of fracture mechanics test pieces of different geometries part 2 - Constraint and material variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkach, Y., E-mail: Yuri.Tkach@WGIM.com [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, School of MACE, UMIST/University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Burdekin, F.M., E-mail: mburdekin@aol.com [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, School of MACE, UMIST/University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    This paper reports the second stage of an extensive series of detailed three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analyses on the influence of fracture mechanics test specimen geometry and different material properties on constraint and triaxiality in the near crack tip region. The specimens studied were pre-cracked plain-sided and side-grooved Charpy sized specimens, plain-sided and side-grooved compact tension specimens of thickness B = 25 mm and plain-sided compact tension specimens of thickness B = 100 mm all with the ratio of the crack length to the specimen width a/W = 0.5. Stress-strain curves of materials of different yield strength and strain hardening behaviour spanning the range of practical interest for typical structural steels were implemented into the finite element models. The level of constraint in the specimens modelled has been characterised in terms of both the Q-stress parameter and the ratio of hydrostatic to the equivalent stress components. It has been established that in-plane constraint in the fracture toughness test pieces is significantly affected by the absolute ligament size of the specimen. It has also been shown that the strain hardening behaviour is one of the major material parameters defining constraint level in the fracture toughness specimen. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3D FE analyses on plain and side-grooved Charpy sized and CT specimens of two sizes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crack tip constraint analysed for Q-stress and hydrostatic/equivalent stress ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-plane constraint is significantly affected by the absolute ligament size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constraint level is significantly affected by material strain hardening behaviour.

  7. A three-dimensional analysis of fracture mechanics test pieces of different geometries part 2 - Constraint and material variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkach, Y.; Burdekin, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the second stage of an extensive series of detailed three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analyses on the influence of fracture mechanics test specimen geometry and different material properties on constraint and triaxiality in the near crack tip region. The specimens studied were pre-cracked plain-sided and side-grooved Charpy sized specimens, plain-sided and side-grooved compact tension specimens of thickness B = 25 mm and plain-sided compact tension specimens of thickness B = 100 mm all with the ratio of the crack length to the specimen width a/W = 0.5. Stress–strain curves of materials of different yield strength and strain hardening behaviour spanning the range of practical interest for typical structural steels were implemented into the finite element models. The level of constraint in the specimens modelled has been characterised in terms of both the Q-stress parameter and the ratio of hydrostatic to the equivalent stress components. It has been established that in-plane constraint in the fracture toughness test pieces is significantly affected by the absolute ligament size of the specimen. It has also been shown that the strain hardening behaviour is one of the major material parameters defining constraint level in the fracture toughness specimen. - Highlights: ► 3D FE analyses on plain and side-grooved Charpy sized and CT specimens of two sizes. ► Crack tip constraint analysed for Q-stress and hydrostatic/equivalent stress ratio. ► In-plane constraint is significantly affected by the absolute ligament size. ► Constraint level is significantly affected by material strain hardening behaviour.

  8. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  9. An Oceanic General Circulation Model (OGCM) investigation of the Red Sea circulation: 2. Three-dimensional circulation in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofianos, Sarantis S.; Johns, William E.

    2003-03-01

    The three-dimensional circulation of the Red Sea is studied using a set of Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM) simulations. The model performance is tested against the few available observations in the basin and shows generally good agreement with the main observed features of the circulation. The main findings of this analysis include an intensification of the along-axis flow toward the coasts, with a transition from western intensified boundary flow in the south to eastern intensified flow in the north, and a series of strong seasonal or permanent eddy-like features. Model experiments conducted with different forcing fields (wind-stress forcing only, surface buoyancy forcing only, or both forcings combined) showed that the circulation produced by the buoyancy forcing is stronger overall and dominates the wind-driven part of the circulation. The main circulation pattern is related to the seasonal buoyancy flux (mostly due to the evaporation), which causes the density to increase northward in the basin and produces a northward surface pressure gradient associated with the downward sloping of the sea surface. The response of the eastern boundary to the associated mean cross-basin geostrophic current depends on the stratification and β-effect. In the northern part of the basin this results in an eastward intensification of the northward surface flow associated with the presence of Kelvin waves while in the south the traditional westward intensification due to Rossby waves takes place. The most prominent gyre circulation pattern occurs in the north where a permanent cyclonic gyre is present that is involved in the formation of Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW). Beneath the surface boundary currents are similarly intensified southward undercurrents that carry the RSOW to the sill to flow out of the basin into the Indian Ocean.

  10. Exact and variational calculations of eigenmodes for three-dimensional free electron laser interaction with a warm electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    I present an exact calculation of free-electron-laser (FEL) eigenmodes (fundamental as well as higher order modes) in the exponential-gain regime. These eigenmodes specify transverse profiles and exponential growth rates of the laser field, and they are self-consistent solutions of the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations describing the FEL interaction taking into account the effects due to energy spread, emittance and betatron oscillations of the electron beam, and diffraction and guiding of the laser field. The unperturbed electron distribution is assumed to be of Gaussian shape in four dimensional transverse phase space and in the energy variable, but uniform in longitudinal coordinate. The focusing of the electron beam is assumed to be matched to the natural wiggler focusing in both transverse planes. With these assumptions the eigenvalue problem can be reduced to a numerically manageable integral equation and solved exactly with a kernel iteration method. An approximate, but more efficient solution of the integral equation is also obtained for the fundamental mode by a variational technique, which is shown to agree well with the exact results. Furthermore, I present a handy formula, obtained from interpolating the numerical results, for a quick calculation of FEL exponential growth rate. Comparisons with simulation code TDA will also be presented. Application of these solutions to the design and multi-dimensional parameter space optimization for an X-ray free electron laser driven by SLAC linac will be demonstrated. In addition, a rigorous analysis of transverse mode degeneracy and hence the transverse coherence of the X-ray FEL will be presented based on the exact solutions of the higher order guided modes.

  11. Three-dimensional polarization characteristics of magnetic variations in the Pc 5 frequency range at conjugate areas near L=4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunishi, H.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; MaClennan, C.G.

    1975-01-01

    By using magnetic data measured at a network of stations extending from L approx. 3.2 to L approx. 4.4 and at a station in the conjugate area, ellipticities in the three orthogonal planes (H-D, H-Z, and D-Z) for the frequency range 2-5 mHz were computed continuously by the cross-spectral matrix method over 10 days with various levels of magnetic activity. The ellipticity diagrams in the H-D plane show that, except for the time interval during the main phase of a major magnetic storm, the sense of polarization reverses every day across local noon, with a left-hand polarization observed during local morning hours and a right-hand polarization observed during local evening hours, regardless of the level of magnetic activity. The second reversal of the sense of polarization occurs generally around approx. 2000 LT. The ellipticity diagrams in the H-Z plane show a predominantly clockwise polarization throughout the day, while the diurnal variation of the ellipticity in the D-Z plane tends to be confused. As to the latitude dependence of the wave phase, it is found that the D component oscillations are almost in phase at all latitudes, while the H component oscillations have advanced phase shifts at the lower-latitude stations. As to the conjugate dependence of wave phase, it is found that the D component oscillations are almost out of phase, while the H component oscillations are almost in phase atthe conjugate pair stations. These polarization characteristics are discussed in terms of external driving sources coupling to the shear Alfven waves of the local resonant field lines. Possible energy sources of Pc 5 waves are also discussed on the basis of the local time dependence of the sense of polarization

  12. Three dimensional canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A generic construction of canonical transformations is given in three-dimensional phase spaces on which Nambu bracket is imposed. First, the canonical transformations are defined as based on cannonade transformations. Second, it is shown that determination of the generating functions and the transformation itself for given generating function is possible by solving correspondent Pfaffian differential equations. Generating functions of type are introduced and all of them are listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed as the complementary subject. Finally, it is shown that decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase spaces as in the usual two-dimensional ones.

  13. Three-dimensional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toga, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on new neuroimaging technologies that are revolutionizing the study of the brain be enabling investigators to visualize its structure and entire pattern of functional activity in three dimensions. The book provides a theoretical and practical explanation of the new science of creating three-dimensional computer images of the brain. The coverage includes a review of the technology and methodology of neuroimaging, the instrumentation and procedures, issues of quantification, analytic protocols, and descriptions of neuroimaging systems. Examples are given to illustrate the use of three-dimensional enuroimaging to quantitate spatial measurements, perform analysis of autoradiographic and histological studies, and study the relationship between brain structure and function

  14. The role of the circle of Willis in internal carotid artery stenosis and anatomical variations: a computational study based on a patient-specific three-dimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangyu; Yuan, Qi; Yang, Jian; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2015-11-25

    The aim of this study is to provide better insights into the cerebral perfusion patterns and collateral mechanism of the circle of Willis (CoW) under anatomical and pathological variations. In the current study, a patient-specific three-dimensional computational model of the CoW was reconstructed based on the computed tomography (CT) images. The Carreau model was applied to simulate the non-Newtonian property of blood. Flow distributions in five common anatomical variations coexisting with different degrees of stenosis in the right internal carotid artery (RICA) were investigated to obtain detailed flow information. With the development of stenosis in unilateral internal carotid artery (ICA), the cerebral blood supply decreased when the degree of stenosis increased. The blood supply of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) was most affected by the stenosis of ICA. The anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and ipsilateral posterior communicating artery (PCoA) functioned as the important collateral circulation channels when unilateral stenosis occurred. The blood flow of the anterior circulation and the total cerebral blood flow (CBF) reached to the minimum in the configuration of the contralateral proximal anterior cerebral artery (A1) absence coexisting with unilateral ICA stenosis. Communicating arteries provided important collateral channels in the complete CoW when stenosis in unilateral ICA occurred. The cross-flow in the ACoA is a sensitive indicator of the morphological change of the ICA. The collateral function of the PCoA on the affected side will not be fully activated until a severe stenosis occurred in unilateral ICA. The absence of unilateral A1 coexisting with the stenosis in the contralateral ICA could be the most dangerous configuration in terms of the total cerebral blood supply. The findings of this study would enhance the understanding of the collateral mechanism of the CoW under different anatomical variations.

  15. Three-Dimensional Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, Vitor; Viana, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors present the elements of a general theory for flows on three-dimensional compact boundaryless manifolds, encompassing flows with equilibria accumulated by regular orbits. The book aims to provide a global perspective of this theory and make it easier for the reader to digest the growing literature on this subject. This is not the first book on the subject of dynamical systems, but there are distinct aspects which together make this book unique. Firstly, this book treats mostly continuous time dynamical systems, instead of its discrete counterpart, exhaustively treated

  16. Three dimensional system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Antonis; Radojcic, Riko

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuit (IC) stacking is the next big step in electronic system integration. It enables packing more functionality, as well as integration of heterogeneous materials, devices, and signals, in the same space (volume). This results in consumer electronics (e.g., mobile, handheld devices) which can run more powerful applications, such as full-length movies and 3D games, with longer battery life. This technology is so promising that it is expected to be a mainstream technology a few years from now, less than 10-15 years from its original conception. To achieve thi

  17. Three Dimensional Dirac Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Saad

    2014-03-01

    Dirac points on the Fermi surface of two dimensional graphene are responsible for its unique electronic behavior. One can ask whether any three dimensional materials support similar pseudorelativistic physics in their bulk electronic spectra. This possibility has been investigated theoretically and is now supported by two successful experimental demonstrations reported during the last year. In this talk, I will summarize the various ways in which Dirac semimetals can be realized in three dimensions with primary focus on a specific theory developed on the basis of representations of crystal spacegroups. A three dimensional Dirac (Weyl) semimetal can appear in the presence (absence) of inversion symmetry by tuning parameters to the phase boundary separating a bulk insulating and a topological insulating phase. More generally, we find that specific rules governing crystal symmetry representations of electrons with spin lead to robust Dirac points at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Combining these rules with microscopic considerations identifies six candidate Dirac semimetals. Another method towards engineering Dirac semimetals involves combining crystal symmetry and band inversion. Several candidate materials have been proposed utilizing this mechanism and one of the candidates has been successfully demonstrated as a Dirac semimetal in two independent experiments. Work carried out in collaboration with: Julia A. Steinberg, Steve M. Young, J.C.Y. Teo, C.L. Kane, E.J. Mele and Andrew M. Rappe.

  18. A three-dimensional morphometric analysis of upper forelimb morphology in the enigmatic tapir (Perissodactyla: Tapirus) hints at subtle variations in locomotor ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Jamie A; Nauwelaerts, Sandra

    2016-11-01

    Forelimb morphology is an indicator for terrestrial locomotor ecology. The limb morphology of the enigmatic tapir (Perissodactyla: Tapirus) has often been compared to that of basal perissodactyls, despite the lack of quantitative studies comparing forelimb variation in modern tapirs. Here, we present a quantitative assessment of tapir upper forelimb osteology using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics to test whether the four modern tapir species are monomorphic in their forelimb skeleton. The shape of the upper forelimb bones across four species (T. indicus; T. bairdii; T. terrestris; T. pinchaque) was investigated. Bones were laser scanned to capture surface morphology and 3D landmark analysis was used to quantify shape. Discriminant function analyses were performed to reveal features which could be used for interspecific discrimination. Overall our results show that the appendicular skeleton contains notable interspecific differences. We demonstrate that upper forelimb bones can be used to discriminate between species (>91% accuracy), with the scapula proving the most diagnostic bone (100% accuracy). Features that most successfully discriminate between the four species include the placement of the cranial angle of the scapula, depth of the humeral condyle, and the caudal deflection of the olecranon. Previous studies comparing the limbs of T. indicus and T. terrestris are corroborated by our quantitative findings. Moreover, the mountain tapir T. pinchaque consistently exhibited the greatest divergence in morphology from the other three species. Despite previous studies describing tapirs as functionally mediportal in their locomotor style, we find osteological evidence suggesting a spectrum of locomotor adaptations in the tapirs. We conclude that modern tapir forelimbs are neither monomorphic nor are tapirs as conserved in their locomotor habits as previously described. J. Morphol. 277:1469-1485, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  19. A three-dimensional mixed finite-difference Galerkin function model for the oceanic circulation in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in the presence of M 2 tide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Jung, Kyung Tae; So, Jae Kwi; Chung, Jong Yul

    2002-01-01

    This paper, as a sequel to Lee et al. (Continental Shelf Research 20 (2000) 863) describes the simulation of the oceanic current in the Yellow Sea (YS) and the East China Sea (ECS) with forcings of M 2 tide as well as oceanic flows prescribed at the open boundary. The model is three dimensional and barotropic, and uses a finite-difference approximation in the horizontal plane and function expansions in the vertical direction. The bottom stress is represented by the conventional quadratic friction law and the vertical eddy viscosity takes a flow-related form. A radiation condition is employed along the open boundaries to handle the M 2 tide and oceanic flows simultaneously. From a series of numerical calculations with M 2 tide forcing only, the bottom friction coefficient, 0.0035, has been found as an optimum value with which RMS errors (amplitude, phase lag) are calculated as 16.4 cm, 19.5°. Calculations have also been carried out to investigate the effects of using an empirical function expansion for the current profiles below the main stream of Kuroshio. Despite the bias of the tidal propagation and the associated flux, the tidal chart has been calculated with tolerable accuracy. The model calculation confirms the results of Exp. 4 of Lee et al. (Continental Shelf Research 20 (2000) 863), in that the tide-enhanced bottom friction effectively blocks the penetration of northwestward flow into the YS known as the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC). The presence of small gyres, however, complicates the circulation near the southern YS and west of Cheju Island and tidal residual currents omnipresent at the shallow sea region off the Chinese coast between 32°N and 34.5°N also contribute to the suppression of the formation of the YSWC. The distribution of the sea surface elevation averaged over the M 2 tidal period is qualitatively in good agreement with that of Yanagi et al. (Continental Shelf Research 17 (1997) 655), calculated from the TOPEX altimetric data

  20. Responses of three-dimensional flow to variations in the angle of incident wind and profile form of dunes: Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian J.; Hesp, Patrick A.; Davidson-Arnott, Robin G. D.; Bauer, Bernard O.; Namikas, Steven L.; Ollerhead, Jeff

    2009-04-01

    This study reports the responses of three-dimensional near-surface airflow over a vegetated foredune to variations in the conditions of incident flow during an 8-h experiment. Two parallel measurement transects were established on morphologically different dune profiles: i) a taller, concave-convex West foredune transect with 0.5-m high, densely vegetated (45%), seaward incipient foredune, and ii) a shorter, concave-straight East foredune transect with lower, sparsely vegetated (14%) seaward incipient foredune. Five stations on each transect from the incipient dune to the crest were equipped with ultrasonic anemometers at 0.6 and 1.65 m height and logged at 1 Hz. Incident conditions were recorded from a 4-m tower over a flat beach. Winds increased from 6 m s - 1 to > 20 m s - 1 and were generally obliquely onshore (ENE, 73°). Three sub-events and the population of 10-minute averages of key properties of flow ( U, W, S, CV U) from all sample locations on the East transect ( n = 235) are examined to identify location- and profile-specific responses over 52° of the incident direction of flow (from 11 to 63° onshore). Topographic steering and forcing cause major deviations in the properties and vectors of near-surface flow from the regional wind. Topographic forcing on the concave-straight dune profile increases wind speed and steadiness toward the crest, with speed-up values to 65% in the backshore. Wind speed and steadiness of flow are least responsive to changes in incident angle in the backshore because of stagnation of flow and are most responsive at the lower stoss under pronounced streamline compression. On the steeper concave-convex profile, speed and steadiness decrease toward the crest because of stagnation of flow at the toe and flow expansion at the slope inflection point on the lower stoss. Net downward vertical velocity occurs over both profiles, increases toward the crest, and reflects enhanced turbulent momentum conveyance toward the surface. All of

  1. Three dimensional energy profile:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowsari, Reza; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    The provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable energy has been considered as a cornerstone of development. More than one-third of the world's population has a very limited access to modern energy services and suffers from its various negative consequences. Researchers have been exploring various dimensions of household energy use in order to design strategies to provide secure access to modern energy services. However, despite more than three decades of effort, our understanding of household energy use patterns is very limited, particularly in the context of rural regions of the developing world. Through this paper, the past and the current trends in the field of energy analysis are investigated. The literature on rural energy and energy transition in developing world has been explored and the factors affecting households' decisions on energy use are listed. The and the factors affecting households' decisions on energy use are listed. The gaps identified in the literature on rural household energy analysis provide a basis for developing an alternative model that can create a more realistic view of household energy use. The three dimensional energy profile is presented as a new conceptual model for assessment of household energy use. This framework acts as a basis for building new theoretical and empirical models of rural household energy use. - Highlights: ► Reviews literature on household energy, energy transitions and decision-making in developing countries. ► Identifies gaps in rural household energy analysis and develops a new conceptual framework. ► The 3-d energy profile provides a holistic view of household energy system characteristics. ► Illustrates the use of the framework for understanding household energy transitions.

  2. Three-dimensional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Presents tips and tricks for beginners and experts Provides educational material for 3D training courses Features comprehensively illustrated cases Includes an accompanying DVD with video clips of all sample cases Three-dimensional echocardiography is the most recent fundamental advancement in echocardiography. Since real-time 3D echocardiography became commercially available in 2002, it has rapidly been accepted in echo labs worldwide. This book covers all clinically relevant aspects of this fascinating new technology, including a comprehensive explanation of its basic principles, practical aspects of clinical application, and detailed descriptions of specific uses in the broad spectrum of clinically important heart disease. The book was written by a group of well-recognized international experts in the field, who have not only been involved in the scientific and clinical evolution of 3D echocardiography since its inception but are also intensively involved in expert training courses. As a result, the clear focus of this book is on the practical application of 3D echocardiography in daily clinical routine with tips and tricks for both beginners and experts, accompanied by more than 150 case examples comprehensively illustrated in more than 800 images and more than 500 videos provided on a DVD. In addition to an in-depth review of the most recent literature on real-time 3D echocardiography, this book represents an invaluable reference work for beginners and expert users of 3D echocardiography. - Tips and tricks for beginners and experts - Educational material for 3D training courses - Comprehensively illustrated cases - DVD with video clips of all sample cases.

  3. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2005-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context, qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  4. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by order, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  5. Three dimensional MEMS supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei

    2011-10-15

    The overall objective of this research is to achieve compact supercapacitors with high capacitance, large power density, and long cycle life for using as micro power sources to drive low power devices and sensors. The main shortcoming of supercapacitors as a power source is that its energy density typically is about 1/10 of that of batteries. To achieve compact supercapacitors of large energy density, supercapacitors must be developed with high capacitance and power density which are mainly depended on the effective surface area of the electrodes of the supercapacitors. Many studies have been done to increase the effective surface area by modifying the electrode materials, however, much less investigations are focus on machining the electrodes. In my thesis work, micro- and nano-technologies are applied as technology approaches for machining the electrodes with three dimensional (3D) microstructures. More specific, Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) fabrication process flow, which integrates the key process such as LIGA-like (German acronym for Lithographie, Galvanoformung, Abformung, which mean Lithography, Electroplating and Molding) technology or DRIE (deep reactive ion etching), has been developed to enable innovative designs of 3D MEMS supercapacitors which own the electrodes of significantly increased geometric area. Two types of 3D MEMS supercapcitors, based on LIGA-like and DRIE technology respectively, were designed and successfully created. The LIGA-like based 3D MEMS supercapacitor is with an interdigital 3D structure, and consists of silicon substrate, two electroplated nickel current collectors, two PPy (poly pyrrole) electrodes, and solid state electrolyte. The fabrication process flow developed includes the flowing key processes, SU-8 lithography, nickel electroplating, PPy polymerization and solid state electrolyte coating. Electrochemical tests showed that the single electrode of the supercapacitor has the specific capacitance of 0.058 F cm-2

  6. Assessment of the sea-ice carbon pump: Insights from a three-dimensional ocean-sea-ice biogeochemical model (NEMO-LIM-PISCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Moreau

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of sea ice in the carbon cycle is minimally represented in current Earth System Models (ESMs. Among potentially important flaws, mentioned by several authors and generally overlooked during ESM design, is the link between sea-ice growth and melt and oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and total alkalinity (TA. Here we investigate whether this link is indeed an important feature of the marine carbon cycle misrepresented in ESMs. We use an ocean general circulation model (NEMO-LIM-PISCES with sea-ice and marine carbon cycle components, forced by atmospheric reanalyses, adding a first-order representation of DIC and TA storage and release in/from sea ice. Our results suggest that DIC rejection during sea-ice growth releases several hundred Tg C yr−1 to the surface ocean, of which < 2% is exported to depth, leading to a notable but weak redistribution of DIC towards deep polar basins. Active carbon processes (mainly CaCO3 precipitation but also ice-atmosphere CO2 fluxes and net community production increasing the TA/DIC ratio in sea-ice modified ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes by a few Tg C yr−1 in the sea-ice zone, with specific hemispheric effects: DIC content of the Arctic basin decreased but DIC content of the Southern Ocean increased. For the global ocean, DIC content increased by 4 Tg C yr−1 or 2 Pg C after 500 years of model run. The simulated numbers are generally small compared to the present-day global ocean annual CO2 sink (2.6 ± 0.5 Pg C yr−1. However, sea-ice carbon processes seem important at regional scales as they act significantly on DIC redistribution within and outside polar basins. The efficiency of carbon export to depth depends on the representation of surface-subsurface exchanges and their relationship with sea ice, and could differ substantially if a higher resolution or different ocean model were used.

  7. A Variational Reduction and the Existence of a Fully Localised Solitary Wave for the Three-Dimensional Water-Wave Problem with Weak Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoni, Boris; Groves, Mark D.; Wahlén, Erik

    2018-06-01

    Fully localised solitary waves are travelling-wave solutions of the three- dimensional gravity-capillary water wave problem which decay to zero in every horizontal spatial direction. Their existence has been predicted on the basis of numerical simulations and model equations (in which context they are usually referred to as `lumps'), and a mathematically rigorous existence theory for strong surface tension (Bond number {β} greater than {1/3}) has recently been given. In this article we present an existence theory for the physically more realistic case {0 point of the reduced functional is found by minimising it over its natural constraint set.

  8. IODP Expedition 301 Installs Three Borehole Crustal Observatories, Prepares for Three-Dimensional, Cross-Hole Experiments in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Klaus

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Goals The basaltic upper oceanic crust comprises the largestaquifer on Earth, containing a volume of water about equalto that currently stored in ice sheets and glaciers. Annualfluid fluxes through the upper oceanic crust are at leastas large as the global river flux to the ocean. Much of theseafloor is hydrogeologically active, but the majority ofthe fluid flow within oceanic crust occurs on ridge flanks,regions located kilometers or more from active seafloorspreading centers. Fluid circulation in these areas is drivenmainly by lithospheric heat rising from deep within theplate but is influenced by seafloor and basement topography,seismic and tectonic events, and tides.Subseaf loor f luid f low on ridge f lanks inf luences adiverse array of processes and properties, including thethermal state and evolution of oceanic plates, alteration ofthe lithosphere and crustal pore waters, establishment andmaintenance of vast subseaf loor microbial ecosystems,and diagenetic, seismic, and magmatic activity along plateboundaryfaults. Although numerous drilling expeditionsand surface and submersible surveys over the last severaldecades have focused on hydrogeologic phenomena, we stillknow relatively little about driving forces, property distributions,scales of flow, rates of flow, extent of compartmentalizationor isolation of distinct fluid-rock systems, or linksbetween hydrogeologic, geochemical, microbiological, andgeophysical processes. Progress through drilling has beenlimited in the past by the perturbing effects of boreholecreation on subseafloor thermal, pressure, chemical, andbiological conditions. Subseafloor observatories addressthis challenge by allowing the formation to recover fromdrilling perturbations, and also allow scientists to runpassive and active experiments for years to decades.IODP Expedition 301 was part of a multi-disciplinaryprogram designed to evaluate the formation-scale hydrogeologicproperties within oceanic crust

  9. A combinatorial variation in surface chemistry and pore size of three-dimensional porous poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds modulates the behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yingdi; Tan, Ke; Zhou, Yan; Ye, Zhaoyang, E-mail: zhaoyangye@ecust.edu.cn; Tan, Wen-Song

    2016-02-01

    Biomaterial properties play significant roles in controlling cellular behaviors. The objective of the present study was to investigate how pore size and surface chemistry of three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds regulate the fate of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro in combination. First, on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) films, the hydrolytic treatment was found to stimulate the adhesion, spreading and proliferation of human MSCs (hMSCs) in comparison with pristine films, while the aminolysis showed mixed effects. Then, 3D porous PCL scaffolds with varying pore sizes (100–200 μm, 200–300 μm and 300–450 μm) were fabricated and subjected to either hydrolysis or aminolysis. It was found that a pore size of 200–300 μm with hydrolysis in 3D scaffolds was the most favorable condition for growth of hMSCs. Importantly, while a pore size of 200–300 μm with hydrolysis for 1 h supported the best osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, the chondrogenic differentiation was greatest in scaffolds with a pore size of 300–450 μm and treated with aminolysis for 1 h. Taken together, these results suggest that surface chemistry and pore size of 3D porous scaffolds may potentially have a synergistic impact on the behaviors of MSCs. - Highlights: • Surface chemistry of poly(ε-caprolactone) films actively modulates MSC behaviors. • Varying surface chemistry and pore size in combination is enabled in 3D scaffolds. • Surface chemistry and pore size potentially dictate MSC fates in synergy.

  10. A combinatorial variation in surface chemistry and pore size of three-dimensional porous poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds modulates the behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yingdi; Tan, Ke; Zhou, Yan; Ye, Zhaoyang; Tan, Wen-Song

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterial properties play significant roles in controlling cellular behaviors. The objective of the present study was to investigate how pore size and surface chemistry of three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds regulate the fate of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro in combination. First, on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) films, the hydrolytic treatment was found to stimulate the adhesion, spreading and proliferation of human MSCs (hMSCs) in comparison with pristine films, while the aminolysis showed mixed effects. Then, 3D porous PCL scaffolds with varying pore sizes (100–200 μm, 200–300 μm and 300–450 μm) were fabricated and subjected to either hydrolysis or aminolysis. It was found that a pore size of 200–300 μm with hydrolysis in 3D scaffolds was the most favorable condition for growth of hMSCs. Importantly, while a pore size of 200–300 μm with hydrolysis for 1 h supported the best osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, the chondrogenic differentiation was greatest in scaffolds with a pore size of 300–450 μm and treated with aminolysis for 1 h. Taken together, these results suggest that surface chemistry and pore size of 3D porous scaffolds may potentially have a synergistic impact on the behaviors of MSCs. - Highlights: • Surface chemistry of poly(ε-caprolactone) films actively modulates MSC behaviors. • Varying surface chemistry and pore size in combination is enabled in 3D scaffolds. • Surface chemistry and pore size potentially dictate MSC fates in synergy.

  11. Three-dimensional biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Scientists in biomedical imaging provide researchers, physicians, and academicians with an understanding of the fundamental theories and practical applications of three-dimensional biomedical imaging methodologies. Succinct descriptions of each imaging modality are supported by numerous diagrams and illustrations which clarify important concepts and demonstrate system performance in a variety of applications. Comparison of the different functional attributes, relative advantages and limitations, complementary capabilities, and future directions of three-dimensional biomedical imaging modalities are given. Volume 1: Introductions to Three-Dimensional Biomedical Imaging Photoelectronic-Digital Imaging for Diagnostic Radiology. X-Ray Computed Tomography - Basic Principles. X-Ray Computed Tomography - Implementation and Applications. X-Ray Computed Tomography: Advanced Systems and Applications in Biomedical Research and Diagnosis. Volume II: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography. Position Emission Tomography (PET). Computerized Ultrasound Tomography. Fundamentals of NMR Imaging. Display of Multi-Dimensional Biomedical Image Information. Summary and Prognostications

  12. Arching in three-dimensional clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, János; Lévay, Sára; Szabó, Balázs; Somfai, Ellák; Wegner, Sandra; Stannarius, Ralf; Börzsönyi, Tamás

    2017-06-01

    Arching in dry granular material is a long established concept, however it remains still an open question how three-dimensional orifices clog. We investigate by means of numerical simulations and experimental data how the outflow creates a blocked configuration of particles. We define the concave surface of the clogged dome by two independent methods (geometric and density based). The average shape of the cupola for spheres is almost a hemisphere but individual samples have large holes in the structure indicating a blocked state composed of two-dimensional force chains rather than three-dimensional objects. The force chain structure justifies this assumption. For long particles the clogged configurations display large variations, and in certain cases the empty region reaches a height of 5 hole diameters. These structures involve vertical walls consisting of horizontally placed stable stacking of particles.

  13. (Weakly) three-dimensional caseology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomraning, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    The singular eigenfunction technique of Case for solving one-dimensional planar symmetry linear transport problems is extended to a restricted class of three-dimensional problems. This class involves planar geometry, but with forcing terms (either boundary conditions or internal sources) which are weakly dependent upon the transverse spatial variables. Our analysis involves a singular perturbation about the classic planar analysis, and leads to the usual Case discrete and continuum modes, but modulated by weakly dependent three-dimensional spatial functions. These functions satisfy parabolic differential equations, with a different diffusion coefficient for each mode. Representative one-speed time-independent transport problems are solved in terms of these generalised Case eigenfunctions. Our treatment is very heuristic, but may provide an impetus for more rigorous analysis. (author)

  14. Three-dimensional analytical model for the spatial variation of the foreshock electron distribution function - Systematics and comparisons with ISEE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Scudder, J. D.; Klimas, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    A model which is consistent with the solar wind and shock surface boundary conditions for the foreshock electron distribution in the absence of wave-particle effects is formulated for an arbitrary location behind the magnetic tangent to the earth's bow shock. Variations of the gyrophase-averaged velocity distribution are compared and contrasted with in situ ISEE observations. It is found that magnetic mirroring of solar wind electrons is the most important process by which nonmonotonic reduced electron distributions in the foreshock are produced. Leakage of particles from the magnetosheath is shown to be relatively unimportant in determining reduced distributions that are nonmonotonic. The two-dimensional distribution function off the magnetic field direction is the crucial contribution in producing reduced distributions which have beams. The time scale for modification of the electron velocity distribution in velocity space can be significantly influenced by steady state spatial gradients in the background imposed by the curved shock geometry.

  15. Three-dimensional analytical model for the spatial variation of the foreshock electron distribution function: Systematics and comparisons with ISEE observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzenreiter, R.J.; Scudder, J.D.; Klimas, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    A model of the gyrophase-averaged electron distribution in the Earth's foreshock consistent with boundary conditions at the bow shock and in the solar wind has been constructed according to the reversible guiding center characteristics and compared with ISEE electron and wave observations. This model demonstrates (1) that the basic features and morphology of beams in the observed and reduced distributions F(υ parallel ) are determined almost exclusively by the solar wind electrons mirrored at the shock's magnetic ramp and are relatively insensitive to the leakage fluxes from the magnetosheath, (2) that the wave particle modifications have been detected by contrasting the reversible model with the direct observations, (3) that the nonmonotonic reduced distributions F(υ parallel ) are rarely the result of a nonmonotonic energy spectra but are rather the result of the transverse velocity space integration necessary to produce F(υ parallel ) from the directly observed electron distribution function f(v), (4) that the time scale for beam resupply to F(υ parallel ) from the dc spatial gradients of the self-consistent reversible distribution function can have a factor of 100 variation across the foreshock, being shortest within a few degrees of the magnetic tangent surface, (5) that the beams predicted by the model have strongly varying and correlated variations of mean energy, thermal spread, and number density with angular departure from the magnetic tangent with the coldest, most tenuous, and lowest mean energy beams suggested to be present deep behind the magnetic tangent (≅5 degree-10 degree), and (6) that the lowest-energy beams have low contrast to the background solar wind distributing and although difficult to detect have beam density and temperature parameters compatible with ω pe growth of electrostatic waves

  16. Equilibrium: three-dimensional configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter considers toroidal MHD configurations that are inherently three-dimensional. The motivation for investigation such complicated equilibria is that they possess the potential for providing toroidal confinement without the need of a net toroidal current. This leads to a number of advantages with respect to fusion power generation. First, the attractive feature of steady-state operation becomes more feasible since such configurations no longer require a toroidal current transformer. Second, with zero net current, one potentially dangerous class of MHD instabilities, the current-driven kink modes, is eliminated. Finally, three-dimensional configurations possess nondegenerate flux surfaces even in the absence of plasma pressure and plasma current. Although there is an enormous range of possible three-dimensional equilibria, the configurations of interest are accurately described as axisymmetric tori with superimposed helical fields; furthermore, they possess no net toroidal current. Instead, two different and less obvious restoring forces are developed: the helical sideband force and the toroidal dipole current force. Each is discussed in detail in Chapter 7. A detailed discussion of the parallel current constraint, including its physical significance, is given in section 7.2. A general analysis of helical sideband equilibria, along with a detailed description of the Elmo bumpy torus, is presented in sections 7.3 and 7.4. A general description of toroidal dipole-current equilibria, including a detailed discussion of stellarators, heliotrons, and torsatrons, is given in sections 7.5 and 7.6

  17. Multiparallel Three-Dimensional Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Kellner, Albert L.; Bravo-Zanoquera, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Multiparallel three-dimensional optical microscopy is a method of forming an approximate three-dimensional image of a microscope sample as a collection of images from different depths through the sample. The imaging apparatus includes a single microscope plus an assembly of beam splitters and mirrors that divide the output of the microscope into multiple channels. An imaging array of photodetectors in each channel is located at a different distance along the optical path from the microscope, corresponding to a focal plane at a different depth within the sample. The optical path leading to each photodetector array also includes lenses to compensate for the variation of magnification with distance so that the images ultimately formed on all the photodetector arrays are of the same magnification. The use of optical components common to multiple channels in a simple geometry makes it possible to obtain high light-transmission efficiency with an optically and mechanically simple assembly. In addition, because images can be read out simultaneously from all the photodetector arrays, the apparatus can support three-dimensional imaging at a high scanning rate.

  18. An experimental investigation of the hemodynamic variations due to aplastic vessels within three-dimensional phantom models of the Circle of Willis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fahy, Paul

    2013-09-10

    A complete circle of Willis (CoW) is found in approximately 30-50% of the population. Anatomical variations, such as absent or surgically clamped vessels, can result in undesirable flow patterns. These can affect the brain\\'s ability to maintain cerebral perfusion and the formation of cerebral aneurysms. An experimental test system was developed to simulate cerebral physiological conditions through three flexible 3D patient-specific models of complete and incomplete CoW geometries. Flow visualizations were performed with isobaric dyes and the mapped dye streamlines were tracked throughout the models. Three to seven flow impact locations were observed for all configurations, corresponding to known sites for aneurysmal formation. Uni and bi-directional cross-flows occurred along the communicating arteries. The greatest shunting of flow occurred for a missing pre-communicating anterior (A1) and posterior (P1) cerebral arteries. The anterior cerebral arteries had the greatest reduction (15-37%) in efferent flow rates for missing either a unilateral A1 or bilateral P1 segments. The bi-directional cross-flows, with multiple afferent flow mixing, observed along the communicating arteries may explain the propensity of aneurysm formation at these sites. Reductions in efferent flow rates due to aplastic vessel configurations may affect normal brain function.

  19. Studying the errors in the estimation of the variation of energy by the "patched-conics" model in the three-dimensional swing-by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Rodolfo Batista; Prado, Antonio Fernando Bertachini de Almeida; Sukhanov, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The swing-by maneuver is a technique used to change the energy of a spacecraft by using a close approach in a celestial body. This procedure was used many times in real missions. Usually, the first approach to design this type of mission is based on the "patched-conics" model, which splits the maneuver into three "two-body dynamics." This approach causes an error in the estimation of the energy variations, which depends on the geometry of the maneuver and the system of primaries considered. Therefore, the goal of the present paper is to study the errors caused by this approximation. The comparison of the results are made with the trajectories obtained using the more realistic restricted three-body problem, assumed here to be the "real values" for the maneuver. The results shown here describe the effects of each parameter involved in the swing-by. Some examples using bodies in the solar system are used in this part of the paper. The study is then generalized to cover different mass parameters, and its influence is analyzed to give an idea of the amount of the error expected for a given system of primaries. The results presented here may help in estimating errors in the preliminary mission analysis using the "patched-conics" approach.

  20. Three-dimensional analysis of the respiratory interplay effect in helical tomotherapy: Baseline variations cause the greater part of dose inhomogeneities seen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, G Samuel J; Harden, Susan V; Thomas, Simon J

    2014-03-01

    Dose differences from those planned can occur due to the respiratory interplay effect on helical tomotherapy. The authors present a technique to calculate single-fraction doses in three-dimensions resulting from craniocaudal motion applied to a patient CT set. The technique is applied to phantom and patient plans using patient respiratory traces. An additional purpose of the work is to determine the contribution toward the interplay effect of different components of the respiratory trace. MATLAB code used to calculate doses to a CT dataset from a helical tomotherapy plan has been modified to permit craniocaudal motion and improved temporal resolution. Real patient traces from seven patients were applied to ten phantom plans of differing field width, modulation factor, pitch and fraction dose, and simulations made with peak-to-peak amplitudes ranging from 0 to 2.5 cm. PTV voxels near the superior or inferior limits of the PTV are excluded from the analysis. The maximum dose discrepancy compared with the static case recorded along with the proportion of voxels receiving more than 10% and 20% different from prescription dose. The analysis was repeated with the baseline variation of the respiratory trace removed, leaving the cyclic component of motion only. Radiochromic film was used on one plan-trace combination and compared with the software simulation. For one case, filtered traces were generated and used in simulations which consisted only of frequencies near to particular characteristic frequencies of the treatment delivery. Intraslice standard deviation of dose differences was used to identify potential MLC interplay, which was confirmed using nonmodulated simulations. Software calculations were also conducted for four realistic patient plans and modeling movement of a patient CT set with amplitudes informed by the observed motion of the GTV on 4DCT. The maximum magnitude of dose difference to a PTV voxel due to the interplay effect within a particular plan

  1. An Ensemble Three-Dimensional Constrained Variational Analysis Method to Derive Large-Scale Forcing Data for Single-Column Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shuaiqi

    Atmospheric vertical velocities and advective tendencies are essential as large-scale forcing data to drive single-column models (SCM), cloud-resolving models (CRM) and large-eddy simulations (LES). They cannot be directly measured or easily calculated with great accuracy from field measurements. In the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, a constrained variational algorithm (1DCVA) has been used to derive large-scale forcing data over a sounding network domain with the aid of flux measurements at the surface and top of the atmosphere (TOA). We extend the 1DCVA algorithm into three dimensions (3DCVA) along with other improvements to calculate gridded large-scale forcing data. We also introduce an ensemble framework using different background data, error covariance matrices and constraint variables to quantify the uncertainties of the large-scale forcing data. The results of sensitivity study show that the derived forcing data and SCM simulated clouds are more sensitive to the background data than to the error covariance matrices and constraint variables, while horizontal moisture advection has relatively large sensitivities to the precipitation, the dominate constraint variable. Using a mid-latitude cyclone case study in March 3rd, 2000 at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, we investigate the spatial distribution of diabatic heating sources (Q1) and moisture sinks (Q2), and show that they are consistent with the satellite clouds and intuitive structure of the mid-latitude cyclone. We also evaluate the Q1 and Q2 in analysis/reanalysis, finding that the regional analysis/reanalysis all tend to underestimate the sub-grid scale upward transport of moist static energy in the lower troposphere. With the uncertainties from large-scale forcing data and observation specified, we compare SCM results and observations and find that models have large biases on cloud properties which could not be fully explained by the uncertainty from the large-scale forcing

  2. Three-dimensional aromatic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Shinji; Iwanaga, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of aromatic units and linkers are reviewed from various aspects. To understand principles for the construction of such compounds, we generalize the roles of building units, the synthetic approaches, and the classification of networks. As fundamental compounds, cyclophanes with large aromatic units and aromatic macrocycles with linear acetylene linkers are highlighted in terms of transannular interactions between aromatic units, conformational preference, and resolution of chiral derivatives. Polycyclic cage compounds are constructed from building units by linkages via covalent bonds, metal-coordination bonds, or hydrogen bonds. Large cage networks often include a wide range of guest species in their cavity to afford novel inclusion compounds. Topological isomers consisting of two or more macrocycles are formed by cyclization of preorganized species. Some complicated topological networks are constructed by self-assembly of simple building units.

  3. Variational Data Assimilation for the Global Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    ocean includes the Geoid (a fixed gravity equipotential surface ) as well as the MDT, which is not known accurately enough relative to the centimeter...scales, including processes that control the surface mixed layer, the formation of ocean eddies, meandering ocean J.A. Cummings (E3) nography Division...variables. Examples of this in the ocean are integral quantities, such as acous^B travel time and altimeter measures of sea surface height, and direct

  4. Three dimensional imaging of otoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.; David, B.

    2008-01-01

    Otoliths are small structures in fish ears made of calcium carbonate which carry a record of the environment in which the fish live. Traditionally, in order to study their microchemistry by a scanning technique such as PIXE the otoliths have been either ground down by hand or thin sectioned to expose the otolith core. However this technique is subject to human error in judging the core position. In this study we have scanned successive layers of otoliths 50 and 100 μm apart by removing the otolith material in a lapping machine which can be set to a few μm precision. In one study by comparing data from otoliths from the two ears of a freshwater species we found that polishing by hand could miss the core and thus give misleading results as to the life cycle of the fish. In another example we showed detail in a marine species which could be used to build a three dimensional picture of the Sr distribution. (author)

  5. Three-Dimensional Rebar Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Junwei; Salvatierra, Rodrigo V; Dong, Pei; Li, Yilun; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Wang, Tuo; Zhang, Chenhao; Zhang, Jibo; Ji, Yongsung; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun; Zhao, Naiqin; Tour, James M

    2017-03-01

    Free-standing robust three-dimensional (3D) rebar graphene foams (GFs) were developed by a powder metallurgy template method with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a reinforcing bar, sintered Ni skeletons as a template and catalyst, and sucrose as a solid carbon source. As a reinforcement and bridge between different graphene sheets and carbon shells, MWCNTs improved the thermostability, storage modulus (290.1 kPa) and conductivity (21.82 S cm -1 ) of 3D GF resulting in a high porosity and structurally stable 3D rebar GF. The 3D rebar GF can support >3150× the foam's weight with no irreversible height change, and shows only a ∼25% irreversible height change after loading >8500× the foam's weight. The 3D rebar GF also shows stable performance as a highly porous electrode in lithium ion capacitors (LICs) with an energy density of 32 Wh kg -1 . After 500 cycles of testing at a high current density of 6.50 mA cm -2 , the LIC shows 78% energy density retention. These properties indicate promising applications with 3D rebar GFs in devices requiring stable mechanical and electrochemical properties.

  6. Three dimensional global modeling of atmospheric CO2. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, I.; Hansen, J.; Rind, D.

    1983-01-01

    A modeling effort has been initiated to study the prospects of extracting information on carbon dioxide sources and sinks from observed CO 2 variations. The approach uses a three-dimensional global transport model, based on winds from a 3-D general circulation model (GCM), to advect CO 2 noninteractively, i.e., as a tracer, with specified sources and sinks of CO 2 at the surface. This report identifies the 3-D model employed in this study and discusses biosphere, ocean and fossil fuel sources and sinks. Some preliminary model results are presented. 14 figures

  7. Three-Dimensional Wind Profiling of Offshore Wind Energy Areas With Airborne Doppler Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Cowen, Larry J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Grant, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    A technique has been developed for imaging the wind field over offshore areas being considered for wind farming. This is accomplished with an eye-safe 2-micrometer wavelength coherent Doppler lidar installed in an aircraft. By raster scanning the aircraft over the wind energy area (WEA), a three-dimensional map of the wind vector can be made. This technique was evaluated in 11 flights over the Virginia and Maryland offshore WEAs. Heights above the ocean surface planned for wind turbines are shown to be within the marine boundary layer, and the wind vector is seen to show variation across the geographical area of interest at turbine heights.

  8. Elastocapillary fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honschoten, J.W.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Ondarcuhu, T.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Sundaram, J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2010-01-01

    We describe the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures by means of capillary forces. Using an origami-like technique, planar silicon nitride structures of various geometries are folded to produce three-dimensional objects of 50–100 m. Capillarity is a particularly effective mechanism since

  9. Tsunami Speed Variations in Density-stratified Compressible Global Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watada, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent tsunami observations in the deep ocean have accumulated unequivocal evidence that tsunami traveltime delays compared with the linear long-wave tsunami simulations occur during tsunami propagation in the deep ocean. The delay is up to 2% of the tsunami traveltime. Watada et al. [2013] investigated the cause of the delay using the normal mode theory of tsunamis and attributed the delay to the compressibility of seawater, the elasticity of the solid earth, and the gravitational potential change associated with mass motion during the passage of tsunamis. Tsunami speed variations in the deep ocean caused by seawater density stratification is investigated using a newly developed propagator matrix method that is applicable to seawater with depth-variable sound speeds and density gradients. For a 4-km deep ocean, the total tsunami speed reduction is 0.45% compared with incompressible homogeneous seawater; two thirds of the reduction is due to elastic energy stored in the water and one third is due to water density stratification mainly by hydrostatic compression. Tsunami speeds are computed for global ocean density and sound speed profiles and characteristic structures are discussed. Tsunami speed reductions are proportional to ocean depth with small variations, except for in warm Mediterranean seas. The impacts of seawater compressibility and the elasticity effect of the solid earth on tsunami traveltime should be included for precise modeling of trans-oceanic tsunamis. Data locations where a vertical ocean profile deeper than 2500 m is available in World Ocean Atlas 2009. The dark gray area indicates the Pacific Ocean defined in WOA09. a) Tsunami speed variations. Red, gray and black bars represent global, Pacific, and Mediterranean Sea, respectively. b) Regression lines of the tsunami velocity reduction for all oceans. c)Vertical ocean profiles at grid points indicated by the stars in Figure 1.

  10. Three-dimensional triaxial testing of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.; Thompson, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation has been to develop testing methods and upgrade equipment for the determination of shear strength of and constitutive relationships for ocean bottom sediments under true three dimensional triaxial states of stress. The research to date has utilized existing 3-D triaxial equipment capable of controlling the three principal stresses independently of each other. Experiments are currently concerned with up-grading the equipment for use with ocean bottom cohesive soils. In addition, stage triaxial tests using conventional laboratory test equipment are being performed

  11. Three dimensional visualization of medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yasuzo

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional visualization is a stereoscopic technique that allows the diagnosis and treatment of complicated anatomy site of the bone and organ. In this article, the current status and technical application of three dimensional visualization are introduced with special reference to X-ray CT and MRI. The surface display technique is the most common for three dimensional visualization, consisting of geometric model, voxel element, and stereographic composition techniques. Recent attention has been paid to display method of the content of the subject called as volume rendering, whereby information on the living body is provided accurately. The application of three dimensional visualization is described in terms of diagnostic imaging and surgical simulation. (N.K.)

  12. three dimensional photoelastic investigations on thick rectangular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... Thick rectangular plates are investigated by means of three-dimensional photoelasticity ... a thin plate theory and a higher order thick plate theory. 1. ..... number of fringes lest the accuracy of the results will be considerably.

  13. Three dimensional diffusion calculations of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspo, N.

    1981-07-01

    This work deals with the three dimensional calculation of nuclear reactors using the code TRITON. The purposes of the work were to perform three-dimensional computations of the core of the Soreq nuclear reactor and of the power reactor ZION and to validate the TRITON code. Possible applications of the TRITON code in Soreq reactor calculations and in power reactor research are suggested. (H.K.)

  14. Three-dimensional effects in fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    An overall view of the pioneering theories and works, which enlighten the three-dimensional nature of fracture mechanics during the last years is given. the main aim is not an exhaustive reviewing but the displaying of the last developments on this scientific field in a natural way. This work attempts to envisage the limits of disregarding the three-dimensional behaviour in theories, analyses and experiments. Moreover, it tries to draw attention on the scant fervour, although increasing, this three-dimensional nature of fracture has among the scientific community. Finally, a constructive discussion is presented on the use of two-dimensional solutions in the analysis of geometries which bear a three-dimensional configuration. the static two-dimensional solutions and its applications fields are reviewed. also, the static three-dimensional solutions, wherein a comparative analysis with elastoplastic and elastostatic solutions are presented. to end up, the dynamic three-dimensional solutions are compared to the asymptotic two-dimensional ones under the practical applications point of view. (author)

  15. Variation of Marine Geoid Due to Ocean Circulation and Sea Level Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Sea level (S) change and ocean circulation largely affect the gravity field and in turns the marine geoid (N). Difference between the two, D = S - N, is the dynamic ocean topography (DOT), whose gradient represents the large-scale surface geostrophic circulations. Thus, temporal variability of marine geoid (δN) is caused by the sea level change (δS) and the DOT variation (δD), δN = δS - δD. Here, δS is identified from temporally varying satellite altimeter measures; δD is calculated from the change of DOT. For large-scale processes with conservation of potential vorticity, the geostrophic flows take minimum energy state. Based on that, a new elliptic equation is derived in this study to determine D. Here, H is the water depth; and (X, Y) are forcing functions calculated from the in-situ density. The well-posed elliptic equation is integrated numerically on 1o grids for the world oceans with the boundary values taken from the mean DOT (1993-2006) field at the NASA/JPL website: https://grace.jpl.nasa.gov/data/get-data/dynamic-ocean-typography/, the forcing function F calculated from the three-dimensional temperature and salinity of the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) World Ocean Atlas 2013 version 2, and sea-floor topography (H) from the NOAA ETOPO5. The numerical solution compares reasonably well (relative root mean square difference of 0.09) with the NASA/JPL satellite observation of the difference between the time-averaged sea surface height and the geoid. In-situ ocean measurements of temperature, salinity, and velocity have also rapidly advanced such that the global ocean is now continuously monitored by near 4,000 free-drifting profiling floats (called Argo) from the surface to 2000 m depth with all data being relayed and made publicly available within hours after collection (http://www.argo.ucsd.edu/). This provides a huge database of temperature and salinity and in turns the forcing function F for the governing elliptic

  16. Three-dimensional microbubble streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Marin, Alvaro; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kaehler, Christian; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2014-11-01

    Streaming due to acoustically excited bubbles has been used successfully for applications such as size-sorting, trapping and focusing of particles, as well as fluid mixing. Many of these applications involve the precise control of particle trajectories, typically achieved using cylindrical bubbles, which establish planar flows. Using astigmatic particle tracking velocimetry (APTV), we show that, while this two-dimensional picture is a useful description of the flow over short times, a systematic three-dimensional flow structure is evident over long time scales. We demonstrate that this long-time three-dimensional fluid motion can be understood through asymptotic theory, superimposing secondary axial flows (induced by boundary conditions at the device walls) onto the two-dimensional description. This leads to a general framework that describes three-dimensional flows in confined microstreaming systems, guiding the design of applications that profit from minimizing or maximizing these effects.

  17. Three Dimensional Steady Subsonic Euler Flows in Bounded Nozzles

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chao; Xie, Chunjing

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the existence and uniqueness of three dimensional steady Euler flows in rectangular nozzles when prescribing normal component of momentum at both the entrance and exit. If, in addition, the normal component of the voriticity and the variation of Bernoulli's function at the exit are both zero, then there exists a unique subsonic potential flow when the magnitude of the normal component of the momentum is less than a critical number. As the magnitude of the normal compon...

  18. Towards three-dimensional optical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuo; Ishikawa, Atsushi

    2017-12-01

    Metamaterials have opened up the possibility of unprecedented and fascinating concepts and applications in optics and photonics. Examples include negative refraction, perfect lenses, cloaking, perfect absorbers, and so on. Since these metamaterials are man-made materials composed of sub-wavelength structures, their development strongly depends on the advancement of micro- and nano-fabrication technologies. In particular, the realization of three-dimensional metamaterials is one of the big challenges in this research field. In this review, we describe recent progress in the fabrication technologies for three-dimensional metamaterials, as well as proposed applications.

  19. Development of three dimensional solid modeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, R.M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is aimed at developing a three dimensional solid modeler employing computer graphics techniques using C-Language. Primitives have been generated, by combination of plane surfaces, for various basic geometrical shapes including cylinder, cube and cone. Back face removal technique for hidden surface removal has also been incorporated. Various transformation techniques such as scaling, translation, and rotation have been included for the object animation. Three dimensional solid modeler has been created by the union of two primitives to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed program. (author)

  20. Three-dimensional topological insulators and bosonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Andrea [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Randellini, Enrico [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Sisti, Jacopo [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA),Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2017-05-25

    Massless excitations at the surface of three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulators possess both fermionic and bosonic descriptions, originating from band theory and hydrodynamic BF theory, respectively. We analyze the corresponding field theories of the Dirac fermion and compactified boson and compute their partition functions on the three-dimensional torus geometry. We then find some non-dynamic exact properties of bosonization in (2+1) dimensions, regarding fermion parity and spin sectors. Using these results, we extend the Fu-Kane-Mele stability argument to fractional topological insulators in three dimensions.

  1. Three-dimensional imaging utilizing energy discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, D.L.; Hoffman, K.R.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for three-dimensional image reconstruction in nuclear medicine which uses scattered radiation rather than multiple projected images to determine the source depth within the body. Images taken from numerous energy windows are combined to construct the source distribution in the body. The gamma-ray camera is not moved during the imaging process. Experiments with both Tc-99m and Ga-67 demonstrate that two channels of depth information can be extracted from the low energy images produced by scattered radiation. By combining this technique with standard SPECT reconstruction using multiple projections the authors anticipate much improved spatial resolution in the overall three-dimensional reconstruction

  2. Decadal variation of ocean heat content and tropical cyclone activity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The upper ocean heat content up to 700 m depth (OHC700) is an important ... made to examine the inter-decadal variations of tropical cyclone (TC) activity and OHC700 over the ..... In: Climate change 2007: The physical science basis (eds).

  3. Meteorological Research Institute multivariate ocean variational estimation (MOVE) system: Some early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Norihisa; Ishizaki, Shiro; Fujii, Yosuke; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Tamaki; Kamachi, Masafumi

    The Meteorological Research Institute multivariate ocean variational estimation (MOVE) System has been developed as the next-generation ocean data assimilation system in Japan Meteorological Agency. A multivariate three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) analysis scheme with vertical coupled temperature salinity empirical orthogonal function modes is adopted. The MOVE system has two varieties, the global (MOVE-G) and North Pacific (MOVE-NP) systems. The equatorial Pacific and western North Pacific are analyzed with assimilation experiments using MOVE-G and -NP, respectively. In each system, the salinity and velocity fields are well reproduced, even in cases without salinity data. Changes in surface and subsurface zonal currents during the 1997/98 El Niño event are captured well, and their transports are reasonably consistent with in situ observations. For example, the eastward transport in the upper layer around the equator has 70 Sv in spring 1997 and weakens in spring 1998. With MOVE-NP, the Kuroshio transport has 25 Sv in the East China Sea, and 40 Sv crossing the ASUKA (Affiliated Surveys of the Kuroshio off Cape Ashizuri) line south of Japan. The variations in the Kuroshio transports crossing the ASUKA line agree well with observations. The Ryukyu Current System has a transport ranging from 6 Sv east of Taiwan to 17 Sv east of Amami. The Oyashio transport crossing the OICE (Oyashio Intensive observation line off Cape Erimo) line south of Hokkaido has 14 Sv southwestward (near shore) and 11 Sv northeastward (offshore). In the Kuroshio Oyashio transition area east of Japan, the eastward transport has 41 Sv (32 36°N) and 12 Sv (36 39°N) crossing the 145°E line.

  4. Three-Dimensional Messages for Interstellar Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    One of the challenges facing independently evolved civilizations separated by interstellar distances is to communicate information unique to one civilization. One commonly proposed solution is to begin with two-dimensional pictorial representations of mathematical concepts and physical objects, in the hope that this will provide a foundation for overcoming linguistic barriers. However, significant aspects of such representations are highly conventional, and may not be readily intelligible to a civilization with different conventions. The process of teaching conventions of representation may be facilitated by the use of three-dimensional representations redundantly encoded in multiple formats (e.g., as both vectors and as rasters). After having illustrated specific conventions for representing mathematical objects in a three-dimensional space, this method can be used to describe a physical environment shared by transmitter and receiver: a three-dimensional space defined by the transmitter--receiver axis, and containing stars within that space. This method can be extended to show three-dimensional representations varying over time. Having clarified conventions for representing objects potentially familiar to both sender and receiver, novel objects can subsequently be depicted. This is illustrated through sequences showing interactions between human beings, which provide information about human behavior and personality. Extensions of this method may allow the communication of such culture-specific features as aesthetic judgments and religious beliefs. Limitations of this approach will be noted, with specific reference to ETI who are not primarily visual.

  5. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAli, Ahmad B; Griffin, Michelle F; Butler, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice.

  6. Electron crystallography of three dimensional protein crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Dilyana

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation of the potential of electron diffraction for studying three dimensional sub-micro-crystals of proteins and pharmaceuticals. A prerequisite for using electron diffraction for structural studies is the predictable availability of tiny crystals. A method for

  7. Three dimensional electrochemical system for neurobiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez, Patricia; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report a novel three dimensional electrode array for electrochemical measurements in neuronal studies. The main advantage of working with these out-of-plane structures is the enhanced sensitivity of the system in terms of measuring electrochemical changes in the environment...

  8. Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... The image data can be jointly analysed with the physical laws governing transport and principles of image formation. Hence, with the experiment suitably carried out, three-dimensional physical domains with unsteady processes can be accommodated. Optical methods promise to breach the holy grail of ...

  9. Computerized three-dimensional normal atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mano, Isamu; Suto, Yasuzo; Suzuki, Masataka; Iio, Masahiro.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents our ongoing project in which normal human anatomy and its quantitative data are systematically arranged in a computer. The final product, the Computerized Three-Dimensional Normal Atlas, will be able to supply tomographic images in any direction, 3-D images, and coded information on organs, e.g., anatomical names, CT numbers, and T 1 and T 2 values. (author)

  10. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    medium properties, so horizontal refraction and reflection of sound can occur and produce significant three-dimensional (3-D) sound propagation ...by the environmental factors existing commonly in the continental shelf and shelfbreak areas, such as slopes, submarine canyons, sub-bottom layers ...surface waves, internal waves and shelfbreak fronts. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Continental Shelf; 3-D Acoustics , Surface Waves, Sound Propagation 16

  11. Three-dimensional bio-printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing.

  12. Three dimensional imaging in cardiac nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, Kanji; Ishii, Yasushi; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Tamaki, Takeyoshi

    1981-01-01

    Methods to obtain three dimensional images of the heart were reviewed. Gated three dimensional display reconstructed from images using bidirectional collimator, was a useful method to detect akinesis of the heart wall. Tomographic observation of the heart can be carried out by a pinhole collimator to image ischemia with high sensitivity. However the focusing plane must be carefully selected to prevent false positives. In the case of emission CT (ECT), utilization of positron emitters gave a quantitative image without correction, whereas single photon ECT needed the correction due to the absorption of γ-ray. Though the reliability of the images by ECT was high, the time required for data acquisition was much longer than that by a 7 pinhole or bidirectional collimator. (Nakanishi, T.)

  13. Three dimensional transport model for toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhauer, C.

    1980-12-01

    A nonlinear MHD model, developed for three-dimensional toroidal geometries (asymmetric) and for high β (β approximately epsilon), is used as a basis for a three-dimensional transport model. Since inertia terms are needed in describing evolving magnetic islands, the model can calculate transport, both in the transient phase before nonlinear saturation of magnetic islands and afterwards on the resistive time scale. In the β approximately epsilon ordering, the plasma does not have sufficient energy to compress the parallel magnetic field, which allows the Alfven wave to be eliminated in the reduced nonlinear equations, and the model then follows the slower time scales. The resulting perpendicular and parallel plasma drift velocities can be identified with those of guiding center theory

  14. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.L.; Eddy, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory has recently acquired the computer hardware (Silicon Graphics Personal Iris Workstations) and software (Dynamic Graphics, Interactive Surface and Volume Modeling) to perform three dimensional analysis of hydrogeologic data. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data is a powerful technique that can be used to incorporate field, analytical, and modeling results from geologic, hydrologic, ecologic, and chemical studies into a comprehensive model for visualization and interpretation. This report covers the contamination of four different sites of the Savannah River Plant. Each section of this report has a computer graphic display of the concentration of contamination in the groundwater and/or sediments of each site

  15. SNAP - a three dimensional neutron diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallien, C.W.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes a one- two- three-dimensional multi-group diffusion code, SNAP, which is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations but can also carry out gamma calculations if the diffusion approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. SNAP can solve the multi-group neutron diffusion equations using finite difference methods. The one-dimensional slab, cylindrical and spherical geometries and the two-dimensional case are all treated as simple special cases of three-dimensional geometries. Numerous reflective and periodic symmetry options are available and may be used to reduce the number of mesh points necessary to represent the system. Extrapolation lengths can be specified at internal and external boundaries. (Author)

  16. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  17. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337

  18. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome.

  19. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome

  20. THREE DIMENSIONAL GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V. Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality is an important aspect for every firm in modern era of competition. Every product has tough competition in terms of market reach. The factor, which actually makes any product long run in market, is quality and hence quality is the stepping-stone for success of any firm. For everyone meaning of quality is different. We have seen several economists who have defined quality by considering different factors, but what all of them have common in them is Customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is the ultimate result of quality. In three-dimensional graphical representation of quality, optimum quality is obtained by using three-dimensional graph by considering some important factors governing quality of any product, limiting factor, and customer satisfaction.

  1. Three dimensional contact/impact methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The simulation of three-dimensional interface mechanics between reactor components and structures during static contact or dynamic impact is necessary to realistically evaluate their structural integrity to off-normal loads. In our studies of postulated core energy release events, we have found that significant structure-structure interactions occur in some reactor vessel head closure designs and that fluid-structure interactions occur within the reactor vessel. Other examples in which three-dimensional interface mechanics play an important role are: (1) impact response of shipping casks containing spent fuel, (2) whipping pipe impact on reinforced concrete panels or pipe-to-pipe impact after a pipe break, (3) aircraft crash on secondary containment structures, (4) missiles generated by turbine failures or tornados, and (5) drops of heavy components due to lifting accidents. The above is a partial list of reactor safety problems that require adequate treatment of interface mechanics and are discussed in this paper

  2. Three-dimensional simulation of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvila, G.; Salas, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The integral form of the complete, unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the conservation form, cast in generalized coordinate system, are solved, numerically, to simulate the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The inviscid fluxes are discretized using Roe's upwind-biased flux-difference splitting scheme and the viscous fluxes are discretized using central differencing. Time integration is performed using a backward Euler ADI (alternating direction implicit) scheme. A full approximation multigrid is used to accelerate the convergence to steady state.

  3. Impermeability effects in three-dimensional vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscari, P; Canevese, S M; Napoli, G

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the effects of the impermeability constraint on the equilibrium shapes of a three-dimensional vesicle hosting a rigid inclusion. A given alteration of the inclusion and/or vesicle parameters leads to shape modifications of different orders of magnitude, when applied to permeable or impermeable vesicles. Moreover, the enclosed-volume constraint wrecks the uniqueness of stationary equilibrium shapes, and gives rise to pear-shaped or stomatocyte-like vesicles

  4. Three dimensional analysis of laterally loaded piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this study static analysis of laterally loaded pile is studied by the three models. The first model is the beam on discrete elastic springs. This model is analyzed using a flexibility method. The second model is the beam on a two-parameter elastic foundation. This model is analyzed using the linear finite element method. The third model is the finite element model, using the three-dimensional iso-parametric parabolic brick element. Three-dimensional pile group analysis is also performed using elastic constants of single pile obtained by any one of the above analyses. The main objective is to develop computer programs for each model related to single piles and to group analysis. Then, the deflections, rotations, moments, shears, stresses and strains of the single pile are obtained at any arbitrary point. Comparison is made between each model and with other studies such as Poulos 1971, Desai and Appel 1976. In addition, to provide a benchmark of three-dimensional finite element analysis, the Boussinesq problem is analyzed. (orig.)

  5. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Sandpile Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, G. T.

    2001-03-01

    The granular bed, or sandpile, has become one of the condensed matter physicist's favorite systems. In addition to conceptual appeal, the simplest sandpile of monodisperse hard spheres is a valuable model system for understanding powders, liquids, and metallic glasses. Any fundamental approach to the transport and mechanical properties of three-dimensional mesoscale disordered materials must follow from a thorough understanding of their structure. However, in the overwhelming majority of cases, structure measurements have been limited to the mean filling fraction and the structural autocorrelation function. This is particularly unfortunate in the ongoing sandpile renaissance, where some of the most interesting questions concern structure and the relationship between structure and dynamics. I will discuss the combination of synchrotron x-ray microtomography and computer vision algorithms to perform three-dimensional virtual reconstructions of real sandpiles. This technique is rapid and noninvasive, and is applicable to samples large enough to separate bulk and boundary properties. The resulting complete knowledge of structure can be used to calculate otherwise inaccessible correlation functions. I will present results for several measures of the bond-orientational order in three-dimensional sandpiles, including fabric tensors and nematic order parameters.

  6. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  7. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W; Carey, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire-bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design.

  8. Three dimensional illustrating - three-dimensional vision and deception of sensibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gánóczy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena of movement parallax, which can be used efficiently in making three-dimensional graphics, the Zöllner- and Corridor-illusion. There are present in this paper the visual elements, which contribute to define a plane two-dimensional image in three-dimension: coherent lines, the covering, the measurement changes, the relative altitude state, the abatement of detail profusion, the shadings and the perspective effects of colors.

  9. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.)

  10. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-08-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.).

  11. Three-dimensional instability of standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing surface waves under the influence of gravity. The analysis employs the transition matrix (TM) approach and uses a new high-order spectral element (HOSE) method for computation of the nonlinear wave dynamics. HOSE is an extension of the original high-order spectral method (HOS) wherein nonlinear wave wave and wave body interactions are retained up to high order in wave steepness. Instead of global basis functions in HOS, however, HOSE employs spectral elements to allow for complex free-surface geometries and surface-piercing bodies. Exponential convergence of HOS with respect to the total number of spectral modes (for a fixed number of elements) and interaction order is retained in HOSE. In this study, we use TM-HOSE to obtain the stability of general three-dimensional perturbations (on a two-dimensional surface) on two classes of standing waves: plane standing waves in a rectangular tank; and radial/azimuthal standing waves in a circular basin. For plane standing waves, we confirm the known result of two-dimensional side-bandlike instability. In addition, we find a novel three-dimensional instability for base flow of any amplitude. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique (standing) wave oriented at an arbitrary angle whose frequency is close to the (nonlinear) frequency of the original standing wave. This finding is confirmed by direct long-time simulations using HOSE which show that the nonlinear evolution leads to classical Fermi Pasta Ulam recurrence. For the circular basin, we find that, beyond a threshold wave steepness, a standing wave (of nonlinear frequency Omega) is unstable to three-dimensional perturbations. The unstable perturbation contains two dominant (standing-wave) components, the sum of whose frequencies is close to 2Omega. From the cases we consider, the critical wave steepness is found to generally decrease/increase with increasing radial

  12. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy

  13. ORMEC: a three-dimensional MHD spectral inverse equilibrium code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshman, S.P.; Hogan, J.T.

    1986-02-01

    The Oak Ridge Moments Equilibrium Code (ORMEC) is an efficient computer code that has been developed to calculate three-dimensional MHD equilibria using the inverse spectral method. The fixed boundary formulation, which is based on a variational principle for the spectral coefficients (moments) of the cylindrical coordinates R and Z, is described and compared with the finite difference code BETA developed by Bauer, Betancourt, and Garabedian. Calculations for the Heliotron, Wendelstein VIIA, and Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) configurations are performed to establish the accuracy and mesh convergence properties for the spectral method. 16 refs., 13 figs

  14. Study of guided modes in three-dimensional composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, S.; Gerard, A.

    The propagation of elastic waves in a three-dimensional carbon-carbon composite is modeled with a mixed variational method, using the Bloch or Floquet theories and the Hellinger-Reissner function for two independent fields. The model of the equivalent homogeneous material only exists below a cut-off frequency of about 600 kHz. The existence below the cut-off frequency of two guided waves can account for the presence of a slow guided wave on either side of the cut-off frequency. Optical modes are generated at low frequencies, and can attain high velocites (rapid guided modes of 15,000 m/sec).

  15. Three-dimensional CT of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinreich, S.J.; Price, J.C.; Wang, H.; Ahn, H.S.; Kashima, H.

    1988-01-01

    Seventeen patients with mandibular oblation for facial neoplasia, primary neoplasm, and trauma were evaluated with CT and three-dimensional CT. In eight of these patients, a computerized acrylic model was generated for preoperative planning and postoperative reconstruction. The ramus and body of the mandible were reconstructed with mirror image and fusion techniques. Reconstructions of the anterior mandible were generated from models including the midface, skull based, and residual mandibular fragments. The results are preliminary; however, the authors believe that these represent a powerful new tool and a significant advance in mandibular reconstructive technique, reduced anesthesia time, and the optimized restoration of dental alignment and facial contour

  16. Three-dimensional interpretation of TEM soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukov, P. O.; Fainberg, E. B.

    2013-07-01

    We describe the approach to the interpretation of electromagnetic (EM) sounding data which iteratively adjusts the three-dimensional (3D) model of the environment by local one-dimensional (1D) transformations and inversions and reconstructs the geometrical skeleton of the model. The final 3D inversion is carried out with the minimal number of the sought parameters. At each step of the interpretation, the model of the medium is corrected according to the geological information. The practical examples of the suggested method are presented.

  17. Three Dimensional Double Layers in Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, D.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1982-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the formation of fully three dimensional double layers in a magnetized plasma. The measurements are performed in a magnetized stationary plasma column with radius 1.5 cm. Double layers are produced by introducing an electron beam with radius 0.......4 cm along the magnetic field from one end of the column. The voltage drop across the double layer is found to be determined by the energy of the incoming electron beam. In general we find that the width of the double layer along the external magnetic field is determined by plasma density and beam...

  18. Three-dimensional flow about penguin wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noca, Flavio; Sudki, Bassem; Lauria, Michel

    2012-11-01

    Penguins, contrary to airborne birds, do not need to compensate for gravity. Yet, the kinematics of their wings is highly three-dimensional and seems exceedingly complex for plain swimming. Is such kinematics the result of an evolutionary optimization or is it just a forced adaptation of an airborne flying apparatus to underwater swimming? Some answers will be provided based on flow dynamics around robotic penguin wings. Updates will also be presented on the development of a novel robotic arm intended to simulate penguin swimming and enable novel propulsion devices.

  19. Three-dimensional teletherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panthaleon van Eck, R.B. van.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with physical/mathematical backgrounds of computerized teletherapy treatment planning. The subjects discussed in this thesis can be subdivided into three main categories: a) Three-dimensional treatment planning. A method is evaluated which can be used for the purpose of simulation and optimization of dose distributions in three dimensions. b) The use of Computed Tomography. The use of patient information obtained from Computed Tomography for the purpose of dose computations is evaluated. c) Dose computational models for photon- and electron beams. Models are evaluated which provide information regarding the way in which the radiation dose is distributed in the patient (viz. is absorbed and/or dispersed). (Auth.)

  20. Creating three-dimensional thermal maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Price

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Price_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 30895 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Price_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Creating Three...-Dimensional Thermal Maps Mathew Price Cogency cc Cape Town Email: mathew@cogency.co.za Jeremy Green CSIR Centre for Mining Innovation Johannesburg Email: jgreen@csir.co.za John Dickens CSIR Centre for Mining Innovation Johannesburg Email: jdickens...

  1. Three-dimensional cooling of muons

    CERN Document Server

    Vsevolozhskaya, T A

    2000-01-01

    The simultaneous ionization cooling of muon beams in all three - the longitudinal and two transverse - directions is considered in a scheme, based on bent lithium lenses with dipole constituent of magnetic field in them, created by a special configuration of current-carrying rod. An analysis of three-dimensional cooling is performed with the use of kinetic equation method. Results of numerical calculation for a specific beam line configuration are presented together with results of computer simulation using the Moliere distribution to describe the Coulomb scattering and the Vavilov distribution used to describe the ionization loss of energy.

  2. Three-dimensional radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, R.

    1989-01-01

    A major aim of radiation therapy is to deliver sufficient dose to the tumour volume to kill the cancer cells while sparing the nearby health organs to prevent complications. With the introduction of devices such as CT and MR scanners, radiation therapy treatment planners have access to full three-dimensional anatomical information to define, simulate, and evaluate treatments. There are a limited number of prototype software systems that allow 3D treatment planning currently in use. In addition, there are more advanced tools under development or still in the planning stages. They require sophisticated graphics and computation equipment, complex physical and mathematical algorithms, and new radiation treatment machines that deliver dose very precisely under computer control. Components of these systems include programs for the identification and delineation of the anatomy and tumour, the definition of radiation beams, the calculation of dose distribution patterns, the display of dose on 2D images and as three dimensional surfaces, and the generation of computer images to verify proper patient positioning in treatment. Some of these functions can be performed more quickly and accurately if artificial intelligence or expert systems techniques are employed. 28 refs., figs

  3. Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J.

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores

  4. Three-dimensional image signals: processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2010-11-01

    Over the years extensive studies have been carried out to apply coherent optics methods in real-time processing, communications and transmission image. This is especially true when a large amount of information needs to be processed, e.g., in high-resolution imaging. The recent progress in data-processing networks and communication systems has considerably increased the capacity of information exchange. We describe the results of literature investigation research of processing methods for the signals of the three-dimensional images. All commercially available 3D technologies today are based on stereoscopic viewing. 3D technology was once the exclusive domain of skilled computer-graphics developers with high-end machines and software. The images capture from the advanced 3D digital camera can be displayed onto screen of the 3D digital viewer with/ without special glasses. For this is needed considerable processing power and memory to create and render the complex mix of colors, textures, and virtual lighting and perspective necessary to make figures appear three-dimensional. Also, using a standard digital camera and a technique called phase-shift interferometry we can capture "digital holograms." These are holograms that can be stored on computer and transmitted over conventional networks. We present some research methods to process "digital holograms" for the Internet transmission and results.

  5. Three dimensional animated images of anorectal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Shigeru; Yanagimachi, Noriharu; Muro, Isao; Komiya, Taizo; Yokoyama, Seishichi; Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Tajima, Tomoo; Mitomi, Toshio; Suto, Yasuzo.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the pelvic structures is a most important factor in obtaining a desirable result after anorectoplasty for a patient with anorectal malformation. Preoperative evaluation of the anatomy is indispensable for choosing an appropriate operative method in each case. To facilitate preoperative evaluation, three dimensional animated images of the pelvic structure of patients with anorectal malformations were constructed by computer graphics based upon tomographic images obtained from magnetic resonance imaging. Axial 1-mm thick images of the pelvic portion were generated with spoiling pulse gradient echo sequences using short repetition times (13 msec TR) and short echo times (6 msec TE) with a flip angle of 25 degrees with the patient in the jack-knife position. Graphic data from MR images were transferred to a graphic work station and processed on it. The skin surface, the ano-rectum, the lower urinary tract and the sphincter musculature were segmented by thresholding images by the signal intensity. Three dimensional images were displayed by surface rendering method using the segmented data of each organ and then animation images of these organs were obtained. The anatomy of each type of anomaly was easily recognized by 3-D visualization, and animation of the pelvic viscera and the sphincter musculature made the images more realistic. Animated images of the musculature were especially useful for simulating surgical procedures and could be helpful for reviewing surgical results. (author)

  6. Three-dimensional analysis of antenna sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Ho, Y.L.

    1996-01-01

    The present work is motivated by the importance of r.f. sheaths in determining the antenna-plasma interaction and the sensitivity of the sheaths to the complicated three-dimensional structure of modern ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antennas. To analyze r.f. sheaths on the plasma facing regions of the launcher, we first calculate the contact points of the tokamak magnetic field lines on the surface of the antenna Faraday screen and nearby limiters for realistic three-dimensional magnetic flux surface and antenna geometries. Next, the r.f. voltage that can drive sheaths at the contact points is determined and used to assess the resulting sheath power dissipation, r.f.-driven sputtering, and r.f.-induced convective cells (which produce edge profile modification). The calculations are embodied in a computer code, ANSAT (antenna sheath analysis tool), and sample ANSAT runs are shown to highlight the physics- and geometry-dependent characteristics of the r.f. sheaths and their relationship to the antenna design. One use of ANSAT is therefore as a design tool, to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a given design with respect to critical voltage handling and edge plasma interaction issues. Additionally, examples are presented where ANSAT has been useful in the analysis and interpretation of ICRF experiments (orig.)

  7. Three-dimensional S-wave tomography under Axial Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillard, C.; Wilcock, W. S. D.; Arnulf, A. F.; Tolstoy, M.; Waldhauser, F.

    2017-12-01

    Axial Seamount is a submarine volcano located at the intersection of the Juande Fuca Ridge and the Cobb-Eickelberg hotspot 500 km off the coast of thenorthwestern United States. The seamount, which rises 1 km above the seafloor, ischaracterized by a shallow caldera that is elongated in the N-S direction, measure 8km by 3 km and sits on top of a 14 km by 3 km magma reservoir. Two eruptive eventsin 1998 and 2011 motivated the deployment in 2014 of a real time cabled observatorywithin the Axial caldera, as part of the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI).Theobservatory includes a network of seven seismometers that span the southern half ofthe caldera. Five months after the observatory came on-line in November 2014, thevolcano erupted on April 24, 2015. Well over 100,000 events were located in thevicinity of the caldera, delineating an outward dipping ring fault that extends fromnear the surface to the magma body at 2 km depth and which accommodatesinflation and deflation of the volcano.The initial earthquake locations have beenobtained with a one-dimensional velocity model but the travel time residuals suggeststrong heterogeneities. A three-dimensional P-wave velocity model, obtained bycombining multichannel and ocean bottom seismometer refraction data, is being usedto refine locations but the three-dimensional S-wave structure is presently unknown.In most mid-ocean ridge settings, the distribution of earthquakes is not conducive forjoint inversions for S-wave velocity and hypocentral parameters because there are fewcrossing ray paths but at Axial the presence of a ring fault that is seismically active atall depths on both the east and west side of the caldera, provides a reasonablegeometry for such efforts. We will present the results of joint inversions that assumethe existing three-dimensional P wave velocity model and solve for VP/VS structure andhypocentral parameters using LOTOS, an algorithm that solves the forward problemusing ray bending.The resulting model

  8. Decadal atmosphere-ocean variations in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Hurrell, James W.

    1994-03-01

    Considerable evidence has emerged of a substantial decade-long change in the north Pacific atmosphere and ocean lasting from about 1976 to 1988. Observed significant changes in the atmospheric circulation throughout the troposphere revealed a deeper and eastward shifted Aleutian low pressure system in the winter half year which advected warmer and moister air along the west coast of North America and into Alaska and colder air over the north Pacific. Consequently, there were increases in temperatures and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the west coast of North America and Alaska but decreases in SSTs over the central north Pacific, as well as changes in coastal rainfall and streamflow, and decreases in sea ice in the Bering Sea. Associated changes occurred in the surface wind stress, and, by inference, in the Sverdrup transport in the north Pacific Ocean. Changes in the monthly mean flow were accompanied by a southward shift in the storm tracks and associated synoptic eddy activity and in the surface ocean sensible and latent heat fluxes. In addition to the changes in the physical environment, the deeper Aleutian low increased the nutrient supply as seen through increases in total chlorophyll in the water column, phytoplankton and zooplankton. These changes, along with the altered ocean currents and temperatures, changed the migration patterns and increased the stock of many fish species. A north Pacific (NP) index is defined to measure the decadal variations, and the temporal variability of the index is explored on daily, annual, interannual and decadal time scales. The dominant atmosphere-ocean relation in the north Pacific is one where atmospheric changes lead SSTs by one to two months. However, strong ties are revealed with events in the tropical Pacific, with changes in tropical Pacific SSTs leading SSTs in the north Pacific by three months. Changes in the storm tracks in the north Pacific help to reinforce and maintain the anomalous circulation in the

  9. Steady, three-dimensional, internally heated convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, G.; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Travis, B.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical calculations have been carried out of steady, symmetric, three-dimensional modes of convection in internally heated, infinite Prandtl number, Boussinesq fluids at a Rayleigh number of 1.4x10 4 in a spherical shell with inner/outer radius of 0.55 and in a 3x3x1 rectangular box. Multiple patterns of convection occur in both geometries. In the Cartesian geometry the patterns are dominated by cylindrical cold downflows and a broad hot upwelling. In the spherical geometry the patterns consist of cylindrical cold downwellings centered either at the vertices of a tetrahedron or the centers of the faces of a cube. The cold downflow cylinders are immersed in a background of upwelling within which there are cylindrical hot concentrations (plumes) and hot halos around the downflows. The forced hot upflow return plumes of internally heated spherical convection are fundamentally different from the buoyancy-driven plumes of heated from below convection

  10. Exact solutions in three-dimensional gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Diaz, Alberto A

    2017-01-01

    A self-contained text, systematically presenting the determination and classification of exact solutions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity. This book explores the theoretical framework and general physical and geometrical characteristics of each class of solutions, and includes information on the researchers responsible for their discovery. Beginning with the physical character of the solutions, these are identified and ordered on the basis of their geometrical invariant properties, symmetries, and algebraic classifications, or from the standpoint of their physical nature, for example electrodynamic fields, fluid, scalar field, or dilaton. Consequently, this text serves as a thorough catalogue on 2+1 exact solutions to the Einstein equations coupled to matter and fields, and on vacuum solutions of topologically massive gravity with a cosmological constant. The solutions are also examined from different perspectives, enabling a conceptual bridge between exact solutions of three- and four-dimensional gravit...

  11. Three-dimensional printing physiology laboratory technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkin, Matthew S; Widder, Emily; Shao, Connie; Holzem, Katherine M; Gloschat, Christopher; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Efimov, Igor R

    2013-12-01

    Since its inception in 19th-century Germany, the physiology laboratory has been a complex and expensive research enterprise involving experts in various fields of science and engineering. Physiology research has been critically dependent on cutting-edge technological support of mechanical, electrical, optical, and more recently computer engineers. Evolution of modern experimental equipment is constrained by lack of direct communication between the physiological community and industry producing this equipment. Fortunately, recent advances in open source technologies, including three-dimensional printing, open source hardware and software, present an exciting opportunity to bring the design and development of research instrumentation to the end user, i.e., life scientists. Here we provide an overview on how to develop customized, cost-effective experimental equipment for physiology laboratories.

  12. Towards microscale electrohydrodynamic three-dimensional printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jiankang; Xu, Fangyuan; Cao, Yi; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging for the existing three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques to fabricate high-resolution 3D microstructures with low costs and high efficiency. In this work we present a solvent-based electrohydrodynamic 3D printing technique that allows fabrication of microscale structures like single walls, crossed walls, lattice and concentric circles. Process parameters were optimized to deposit tiny 3D patterns with a wall width smaller than 10 μm and a high aspect ratio of about 60. Tight bonding among neighbour layers could be achieved with a smooth lateral surface. In comparison with the existing microscale 3D printing techniques, the presented method is low-cost, highly efficient and applicable to multiple polymers. It is envisioned that this simple microscale 3D printing strategy might provide an alternative and innovative way for application in MEMS, biosensor and flexible electronics. (paper)

  13. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  14. Three-dimensional echocardiography in valve disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Fiorentini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the role of three-dimensional (3D echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart valve disease. Several factors have contributed to the evolution of this technique, which is currently a simple and routine method: rapid evolution in probe and computer technologies, demonstration that 3D data sets allowed more complete and accurate evaluation of cardiac structures, emerging clinical experience indicating the strong potential particularly in valve diseases, volume and function of the two ventricle measurements and several other fields. This report will review current and future applications of 3D echocardiography in mitral, aortic and tricuspid valve diseases underlying both qualitative (morphologic and quantitative advantages of this technique. (Heart International 2007; 3: 35-41

  15. Towards microscale electrohydrodynamic three-dimensional printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiankang; Xu, Fangyuan; Cao, Yi; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen

    2016-02-01

    It is challenging for the existing three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques to fabricate high-resolution 3D microstructures with low costs and high efficiency. In this work we present a solvent-based electrohydrodynamic 3D printing technique that allows fabrication of microscale structures like single walls, crossed walls, lattice and concentric circles. Process parameters were optimized to deposit tiny 3D patterns with a wall width smaller than 10 μm and a high aspect ratio of about 60. Tight bonding among neighbour layers could be achieved with a smooth lateral surface. In comparison with the existing microscale 3D printing techniques, the presented method is low-cost, highly efficient and applicable to multiple polymers. It is envisioned that this simple microscale 3D printing strategy might provide an alternative and innovative way for application in MEMS, biosensor and flexible electronics.

  16. An Introduction of Three-dimensional Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces some key points of Three-dimensional Grammar. As for the structure, it can be distinguished into syntactic structure, semantic structure and pragmatic structure from the perspectives of syntax, semantics and pragmatics. And the same is true with the followings, such as grammatical constituents, grammatical functions, grammatical meanings, grammatical focuses. Sentence types which is called sentence pattern, sentence model and sentence types respectively, and analysis methods. This paper proposes that grammatical researches should be done in accordance with the four principles, that is form and meaning co-verified, static and dynamic co-referenced, structure and function co-testified and description and interpretation co-promoted.

  17. Three-dimensional function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the properties of the photonic band gaps (PBGs) of three-dimensional (3D) function photonic crystals (PCs) are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method, whose equations for computations are deduced. The configuration of 3D function PCs is the dielectric spheres inserted in the air background with simple-cubic (SC) lattices whose dielectric constants are the functions of space coordinates, which can be realized by the electro-optical or optical Kerr effect in the practice. The influences of the parameter for 3D function PCs on the PBGs also are discussed. The calculated results show that the bandwidths and number of PBGs can be tuned with different distributions of function dielectrics. Compared with the conventional 3D dielectric PCs with SC lattices, the larger and more PBGs can be obtained in the 3D function PCs. Those results provide a new way to design the novel practical devices.

  18. Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa, E-mail: sekikawa@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Kamiyama, Kyohei [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

  19. Multiscale modeling of three-dimensional genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter

    The genome, the blueprint of life, contains nearly all the information needed to build and maintain an entire organism. A comprehensive understanding of the genome is of paramount interest to human health and will advance progress in many areas, including life sciences, medicine, and biotechnology. The overarching goal of my research is to understand the structure-dynamics-function relationships of the human genome. In this talk, I will be presenting our efforts in moving towards that goal, with a particular emphasis on studying the three-dimensional organization, the structure of the genome with multi-scale approaches. Specifically, I will discuss the reconstruction of genome structures at both interphase and metaphase by making use of data from chromosome conformation capture experiments. Computationally modeling of chromatin fiber at atomistic level from first principles will also be presented as our effort for studying the genome structure from bottom up.

  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction of CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Toshiaki; Kattoh, Keiichi; Kawakami, Genichiroh; Igami, Isao; Mariya, Yasushi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Saitoh, Yohko; Tamura, Koreroku; Shinozaki, Tatsuyo

    1986-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has the ability to provide sensitive visualization of organs and lesions. Owing to the nature of CT to be transaxial images, a structure which is greater than a certain size appears as several serial CT images. Consequently each observer must reconstruct those images into a three-dimensional (3-D) form mentally. It has been supposed to be of great use if such a 3-D form can be described as a definite figure. A new computer program has been developed which can produce 3-D figures from the profiles of organs and lesions on CT images using spline curves. The figures obtained through this method are regarded to have practical applications.

  1. Full three-dimensional isotropic transformation media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Meca, C; Martí, J; Martínez, A; Ortuño, R

    2014-01-01

    We present a method that enables the implementation of full three-dimensional (3D) transformation media with minimized anisotropy. It is based on a special kind of shape-preserving mapping and a subsequent optimization process. For sufficiently smooth transformations, the resulting anisotropy can be neglected, paving the way for practically realizable 3D devices. The method is independent of the considered wave phenomenon and can thus be applied to any field for which a transformational technique exists, such as acoustics or thermodynamics. Full 3D isotropy has an additional important implication for optical transformation media, as it eliminates the need for magnetic materials in many situations. To illustrate the potential of the method, we design 3D counterparts of transformation-based electromagnetic squeezers and bends. (paper)

  2. The Three-Dimensional EIT Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gilbert, H. R.; Lawrence, G. R.; Ofman, L.; Wu, S. T.; Warmuth, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An EIT wave is an impulsive disturbance which has been observed in the EUV, Soft X-ray and white light corona, with corresponding observations in the chromosphere. The effects of these disturbances can be observed across the entire solar disk of the Sun, and throughout the inner heliosphere as well. However, the picture is not complete; observations alone do not establish a complete understanding of the nature of this three-dimensional phenomenon. A number of associated phenomena have been documented, though in most cases causality has not determined. Additionally, it is unclear which factors govern the impulse's ability to affect regions of the corona and heliosphere. We discuss the various observations and the models which provided links between the associated phenomena.

  3. Three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the temporomandibular joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitai, N.; Kreiborg, S.; Murakami, S.

    Symposium Orthodontics 2001: Where are We Now? Where are We Going?, three-dimensional analysis, temporomandibular joint......Symposium Orthodontics 2001: Where are We Now? Where are We Going?, three-dimensional analysis, temporomandibular joint...

  4. Study on three dimensional seismic isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki; Kitamura, Seiji

    2003-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) launched joint research programs on structural design and three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, as part of the supporting R and D activities for the feasibility studies on commercialized fast breeder reactor cycle systems. A research project by JAPC under the auspices of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) with technical support by JNC is included in this joint study. This report contains the results of the research on the three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, and the results of this year's study are summarized in the following five aspects. (1) Study on Earthquake Condition for Developing 3-dimensional Base Isolation System. The case study S2 is one of the maximum ground motions, of which the records were investigated up to this time. But a few observed near the fault exceed the case study S2 in the long period domain, depending on the fault length and conditions. Generally it is appropriate that the response spectra ratio (vertical/horizontal) is 0.6. (2) Performance Requirement for 3-dimensional Base Isolation System and Devices. Although the integrity map of main equipment/piping dominate the design criteria for the 3-dimensional base isolation system, the combined integrity map is the same as those of FY 2000, which are under fv=1Hz and over hv=20%. (3) Developing Targets and Schedule for 3-dimensional Isolation Technology. The target items for 3-dimensional base isolation system were rearranged into a table, and developing items to be examined concerning the device were also adjusted. A development plan until FY 2009 was made from the viewpoint of realization and establishment of a design guideline on 3-dimensional base isolation system. (4) Study on 3-dimensional Entire Building Base Isolation System. Three ideas among six ideas that had been proposed in FY2001, i.e., '3-dimensional base isolation system incorporating hydraulic

  5. Tailoring thermal conductivity via three-dimensional porous alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Begoña; Maiz, Jon; Ruiz-Clavijo, Alejandra; Caballero-Calero, Olga; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2016-12-09

    Three-dimensional anodic alumina templates (3D-AAO) are an astonishing framework with open highly ordered three-dimensional skeleton structures. Since these templates are architecturally different from conventional solids or porous templates, they teem with opportunities for engineering thermal properties. By establishing the mechanisms of heat transfer in these frameworks, we aim to create materials with tailored thermal properties. The effective thermal conductivity of an empty 3D-AAO membrane was measured. As the effective medium theory was not valid to extract the skeletal thermal conductivity of 3D-AAO, a simple 3D thermal conduction model was developed, based on a mixed series and parallel thermal resistor circuit, giving a skeletal thermal conductivity value of approximately 1.25 W·m -1 ·K -1 , which matches the value of the ordinary AAO membranes prepared from the same acid solution. The effect of different filler materials as well as the variation of the number of transversal nanochannels and the length of the 3D-AAO membrane in the effective thermal conductivity of the composite was studied. Finally, the thermal conductivity of two 3D-AAO membranes filled with cobalt and bismuth telluride was also measured, which was in good agreement with the thermal model predictions. Therefore, this work proved this structure as a powerful approach to tailor thermal properties.

  6. Creation of three-dimensional craniofacial standards from CBCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyan, Krishna; Palomo, Martin; Hans, Mark

    2006-03-01

    Low-dose three-dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is becoming increasingly popular in the clinical practice of dental medicine. Two-dimensional Bolton Standards of dentofacial development are routinely used to identify deviations from normal craniofacial anatomy. With the advent of CBCT three dimensional imaging, we propose a set of methods to extend these 2D Bolton Standards to anatomically correct surface based 3D standards to allow analysis of morphometric changes seen in craniofacial complex. To create 3D surface standards, we have implemented series of steps. 1) Converting bi-plane 2D tracings into set of splines 2) Converting the 2D splines curves from bi-plane projection into 3D space curves 3) Creating labeled template of facial and skeletal shapes and 4) Creating 3D average surface Bolton standards. We have used datasets from patients scanned with Hitachi MercuRay CBCT scanner providing high resolution and isotropic CT volume images, digitized Bolton Standards from age 3 to 18 years of lateral and frontal male, female and average tracings and converted them into facial and skeletal 3D space curves. This new 3D standard will help in assessing shape variations due to aging in young population and provide reference to correct facial anomalies in dental medicine.

  7. Tailoring thermal conductivity via three-dimensional porous alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Begoña; Maiz, Jon; Ruiz-Clavijo, Alejandra; Caballero-Calero, Olga; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional anodic alumina templates (3D-AAO) are an astonishing framework with open highly ordered three-dimensional skeleton structures. Since these templates are architecturally different from conventional solids or porous templates, they teem with opportunities for engineering thermal properties. By establishing the mechanisms of heat transfer in these frameworks, we aim to create materials with tailored thermal properties. The effective thermal conductivity of an empty 3D-AAO membrane was measured. As the effective medium theory was not valid to extract the skeletal thermal conductivity of 3D-AAO, a simple 3D thermal conduction model was developed, based on a mixed series and parallel thermal resistor circuit, giving a skeletal thermal conductivity value of approximately 1.25 W·m−1·K−1, which matches the value of the ordinary AAO membranes prepared from the same acid solution. The effect of different filler materials as well as the variation of the number of transversal nanochannels and the length of the 3D-AAO membrane in the effective thermal conductivity of the composite was studied. Finally, the thermal conductivity of two 3D-AAO membranes filled with cobalt and bismuth telluride was also measured, which was in good agreement with the thermal model predictions. Therefore, this work proved this structure as a powerful approach to tailor thermal properties. PMID:27934930

  8. Clinical significance of three-dimensional sonohysterography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Mi Hwa; Lee, Chan; Kim, Jong Wook; Shin, Myung Choel

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of three dimensional sonohysterography (3D SHG) in the evaluation of uterine endometrial and submucosal lesions in comparison with conventional two-dimensional sonohysterography (2D SHG). Our series consisted of 26 patients (mean aged 41 years) who complained of uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, or dysmenorrhea. 2D SHG was performed, and then 3D SHG was done after the volume mode was switched on. Simultaneous display of three perpendicular two-dimensional planes and surface rendering of findings on particular section were obtained. We analyzed whether the endometrium was thickened or not, and the location, size, shape, echogenicity, posterior shadowing, and echogenic rim of the focal lesion. The results were compared with the pathologic findings or MRI. There were submucosal myomas (n=12), intramural myomas (n=2), endometrial polyps (n=7), placental polyp (n=1), and normal endometrial cavities (n=4) on SHG. Nineteen cases were confirmed by pathologic findings or MRI. The results were correlated in 89% (17/19) of the cases. We misdiagnosed 2 cases: focal endometrial hyperplasia and choriocarcinoma were misdiagnosed as endometrial polyp and placental polyp, respectively. Imaging diagnoses were same in the techniques. Comparing with 2D SHG, 3D SHG provided a subjective display of pathologic findings and an additional information about spatial relationship between focal lesion and surroundings.

  9. Clinical significance of three-dimensional sonohysterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Mi Hwa; Lee, Chan; Kim, Jong Wook; Shin, Myung Choel [Pochon Cha University College of Medicine, Pochon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of three dimensional sonohysterography (3D SHG) in the evaluation of uterine endometrial and submucosal lesions in comparison with conventional two-dimensional sonohysterography (2D SHG). Our series consisted of 26 patients (mean aged 41 years) who complained of uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, or dysmenorrhea. 2D SHG was performed, and then 3D SHG was done after the volume mode was switched on. Simultaneous display of three perpendicular two-dimensional planes and surface rendering of findings on particular section were obtained. We analyzed whether the endometrium was thickened or not, and the location, size, shape, echogenicity, posterior shadowing, and echogenic rim of the focal lesion. The results were compared with the pathologic findings or MRI. There were submucosal myomas (n=12), intramural myomas (n=2), endometrial polyps (n=7), placental polyp (n=1), and normal endometrial cavities (n=4) on SHG. Nineteen cases were confirmed by pathologic findings or MRI. The results were correlated in 89% (17/19) of the cases. We misdiagnosed 2 cases: focal endometrial hyperplasia and choriocarcinoma were misdiagnosed as endometrial polyp and placental polyp, respectively. Imaging diagnoses were same in the techniques. Comparing with 2D SHG, 3D SHG provided a subjective display of pathologic findings and an additional information about spatial relationship between focal lesion and surroundings.

  10. Bifurcation analysis of a three dimensional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwen WANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to enrich the stability and bifurcation theory of the three dimensional chaotic systems, taking a quadratic truncate unfolding system with the triple singularity equilibrium as the research subject, the existence of the equilibrium, the stability and the bifurcation of the system near the equilibrium under different parametric conditions are studied. Using the method of mathematical analysis, the existence of the real roots of the corresponding characteristic equation under the different parametric conditions is analyzed, and the local manifolds of the equilibrium are gotten, then the possible bifurcations are guessed. The parametric conditions under which the equilibrium is saddle-focus are analyzed carefully by the Cardan formula. Moreover, the conditions of codimension-one Hopf bifucation and the prerequisites of the supercritical and subcritical Hopf bifurcation are found by computation. The results show that the system has abundant stability and bifurcation, and can also supply theorical support for the proof of the existence of the homoclinic or heteroclinic loop connecting saddle-focus and the Silnikov's chaos. This method can be extended to study the other higher nonlinear systems.

  11. Three-dimensional dynamics of protostellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, T.L.

    1977-06-01

    A three-dimensional finite difference numerical methodology was developed for self-gravitating, rotating gaseous systems. The fully nonlinear equations for time-varying fluid dynamics are solved by high speed computer in a cylindrical coordinate system rotating with an instantaneous angular velocity, selected such that the net angular momentum relative to the rotating frame is zero. The time-dependent adiabatic collapse of gravitationally bound, rotating, protostellar clouds is studied for specified uniform and nonuniform initial conditions. Uniform clouds can form axisymmetric, rotating toroidal configurations. If the thermal pressure is high, nonuniform clouds can also collapse to axisymmetric toroids. For low thermal pressures, however, the collapsing cloud is unstable to initial perturbations. The fragmentation of protostellar clouds is investigated by studying the response of rotating, self-gravitating, equilibrium toroids to non-axisymmetric perturbations. The detailed evolution of the fragmenting toroid depends upon a non-dimensional function of the initial entropy, the total mass in the toroid, the angular velocity of rotation, and the number of perturbation wavelengths around the circumference of the toroid. For low and intermediate entropies, the configuration develops into co-rotating components with spiral streamers. In the spiral regions retrograde vortices are observed in some examples. For high levels of entropy, barred spirals can exist as intermediate states of the fragmentation

  12. Three-dimensional dynamics of protostellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, T.L.; Harlow, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite difference numerical methodology has been developed for self-gravitating, rotating gaseous systems. The fully nonlinear equations for time-varying fluid dynamics are solved by high-speed computer in a cylindrical coordinate system rotating with an instantaneous angular velocity. The time-dependent adiabatic collapse of gravitationally bound, rotating, protostellar clouds is studied for specified uniform and nonuniform initial conditions. Uniform clouds can form axisymmetric, rotating toroidal configurations. If the thermal pressure is high, nonuniform clouds can also collapse to axisymmetric ellipsoids. For low thermal pressures, however, the collapsing cloud is unstable to perturbations. The resulting fragmentation of unstable protostellar clouds is investigated by studying the response of rotating, self-gravitating, equilibrium toroids to nonaxisymmetric perturbations. The detailed evolution of the fragmentation toroid depends upon a nondimensional function of the initial entropy, the total mass in the toroid, the angular velocity of rotation, and the number of perturbation wave-lengths around the circumference of the toroid. For low and intermediate entropies, the configuration develops into corotating components with spiral streamers. In the spiral regions retrograde vortices are observed in some examples. For high levels of entropy, barred spirals can exist as intermediate states of the fragmentation

  13. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D ampersand D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. Chemical analysis plays a vital role throughout the process of decontamination. Before clean-up operations can begin the site must be characterized with respect to the type and concentration of contaminants, and detailed site mapping must clarify areas of both high and low risk. During remediation activities chemical analysis provides a means to measure progress and to adjust clean-up strategy. Once the clean-up process has been completed the results of chemical analysis will verify that the site is in compliance with federal and local regulations

  14. MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTIONS USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL WAVEFRONTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Serra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the analysis of three-dimensional binary objects whose structure is not obvious nor generally clearly visible. Our approach is illustrated through three examples taken from biological microscopy. In one of our examples, we need to extract the osteocytes contained in sixty confocal sections. The cells are not numerous, but are characterized by long branches, hence they will be separated using a directional wavefront The two other objects are more complex and will be analysed by means of a spherical wavefront In the first case, a kidney of a rat embryo, the tissue grows like a tree, where we want to detect the branches, their extremities,and their spatial arrangement. The wavefront method enables us to define precisely branches and extremities, and gives flexible algorithms. The last example deals with the embryonic growth of the chicken shinbone. The central part of the bone (or shaft is structured as a series of nested cylinders following the same axis, and connected by more or less long bridges. Using wavefronts, we show that it is possible to separate the cylinders,and to extract and count the bridges that connect them.

  15. Multimodal three-dimensional dynamic signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury E. Kozlov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliable authentication in mobile applications is among the most important information security challenges. Today, we can hardly imagine a person who would not own a mobile device that connects to the Internet. Mobile devices are being used to store large amounts of confidential information, ranging from personal photos to electronic banking tools. In 2009, colleagues from Rice University together with their collaborators from Motorola, proposed an authentication through in-air gestures. This and subsequent work contributing to the development of the method are reviewed in our introduction. At the moment, there exists a version of the gesture-based authentication software available for Android mobile devices. This software has not become widespread yet. One of likely reasons for that is the insufficient reliability of the method, which involves similar to its earlier analogs the use of only one device. Here we discuss the authentication based on the multimodal three-dimensional dynamic signature (MTDS performed by two independent mobile devices. The MTDS-based authentication technique is an advanced version of in-air gesture authentication. We describe the operation of a prototype of MTDS-based authentication, including the main implemented algorithms, as well as some preliminary results of testing the software. We expect that our method can be used in any mobile application, provided a number of additional improvements discussed in the conclusion are made.

  16. Three dimensional image alignment, registration and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treves, S.T.; Mitchell, K.D.; Habboush, I.H.

    1998-01-01

    Combined assessment of three dimensional anatomical and functional images (SPECT, PET, MRI, CT) is useful to determine the nature and extent of lesions in many parts of the body. Physicians principally rely on their spatial sense of mentally re-orient and overlap images obtained with different imaging modalities. Objective methods that enable easy and intuitive image registration can help the physician arrive at more optimal diagnoses and better treatment decisions. This review describes a simple, intuitive and robust image registration approach developed in our laboratory. It differs from most other registration techniques in that it allows the user to incorporate all of the available information within the images in the registration process. This method takes full advantage of the ability of knowledgeable operators to achieve image registration and fusion using an intuitive interactive visual approach. It can register images accurately and quickly without the use of elaborate mathematical modeling or optimization techniques. The method provides the operator with tools to manipulate images in three dimensions, including visual feedback techniques to assess the accuracy of registration (grids, overlays, masks, and fusion of images in different colors). Its application is not limited to brain imaging and can be applied to images from any region in the body. The overall effect is a registration algorithm that is easy to implement and can achieve accuracy on the order of one pixel

  17. Three-Dimensional Printed Thermal Regulation Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Yang, Zhi; Chen, Chaoji; Li, Yiju; Fu, Kun; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Emily M; Xie, Hua; Liu, Boyang; Song, Jianwei; Yang, Bao; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-11-28

    Space cooling is a predominant part of energy consumption in people's daily life. Although cooling the whole building is an effective way to provide personal comfort in hot weather, it is energy-consuming and high-cost. Personal cooling technology, being able to provide personal thermal comfort by directing local heat to the thermally regulated environment, has been regarded as one of the most promising technologies for cooling energy and cost savings. Here, we demonstrate a personal thermal regulated textile using thermally conductive and highly aligned boron nitride (BN)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite (denoted as a-BN/PVA) fibers to improve the thermal transport properties of textiles for personal cooling. The a-BN/PVA composite fibers are fabricated through a fast and scalable three-dimensional (3D) printing method. Uniform dispersion and high alignment of BN nanosheets (BNNSs) can be achieved during the processing of fiber fabrication, leading to a combination of high mechanical strength (355 MPa) and favorable heat dispersion. Due to the improved thermal transport property imparted by the thermally conductive and highly aligned BNNSs, better cooling effect (55% improvement over the commercial cotton fiber) can be realized in the a-BN/PVA textile. The wearable a-BN/PVA textiles containing the 3D-printed a-BN/PVA fibers offer a promising selection for meeting the personal cooling requirement, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption and cost for cooling the whole building.

  18. Three-dimensional printing for craniomaxillofacial regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria, Laura; Pearson, Joseph J; Montelongo, Sergio A; Guda, Teja; Ong, Joo L

    2017-10-01

    Craniomaxillofacial injuries produce complex wound environments involving various tissue types and treatment strategies. In a clinical setting, care is taken to properly irrigate and stabilize the injury, while grafts are molded in an attempt to maintain physiological functionality and cosmesis. This often requires multiple surgeries and grafts leading to added discomfort, pain and financial burden. Many of these injuries can lead to disfigurement and resultant loss of system function including mastication, respiration, and articulation, and these can lead to acute and long-term psychological impact on the patient. A main causality of these issues is the lack of an ability to spatially control pre-injury morphology while maintaining shape and function. With the advent of additive manufacturing (three-dimensional printing) and its use in conjunction with biomaterial regenerative strategies and stem cell research, there is an increased potential capacity to alleviate such limitations. This review focuses on the current capabilities of additive manufacturing platforms, completed research and potential for future uses in the treatment of craniomaxillofacial injuries, with an in-depth discussion of regeneration of the periodontal complex and teeth.

  19. Three-dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional supersonic vortex-breakdown problems in bound and unbound domains are solved. The solutions are obtained using the time-accurate integration of the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The computational scheme is an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. Two vortex-breakdown applications are considered in the present paper. The first is for a supersonic swirling jet which is issued from a nozzle into a supersonic uniform flow at a lower Mach number than that of the swirling jet. The second is for a supersonic swirling flow in a configured circular duct. In the first application, an extensive study of the effects of grid fineness, shape and grid-point distribution on the vortex breakdown is presented. Four grids are used in this study and they show a substantial dependence of the breakdown bubble and shock wave on the grid used. In the second application, the bubble-type and helix-type vortex breakdown have been captured.

  20. Three-dimensional laparoscopy: Principles and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Y Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest challenge for laparoscopic surgeons is the eye–hand coordination within a three-dimensional (3D scene observed on a 2D display. The 2D view on flat screen laparoscopy is cerebrally intensive. The loss of binocular vision on a 2D display causes visual misperceptions, mainly loss of depth perception and adds to the surgeon's fatigue. This compromises the safety of laparoscopy. The 3D high-definition view with great depth perception and tactile feedback makes laparoscopic surgery more acceptable, safe and cost-effective. It improves surgical precision and hand–eye coordination, conventional and all straight stick instruments can be used, capital expenditure is less and recurring cost and annual maintenance cost are less. In this article, we have discussed the physics of 3D laparoscopy, principles of depth perception, and the different kinds of 3D systems available for laparoscopy. We have also discussed our experience of using 3D laparoscopy in over 2000 surgeries in the last 4 years.

  1. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. The 3D-ICAS system robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surface to be inspected. The sensor position and orientation are monitored and controlled by Coherent laser radar (CLR) tracking. The ICAS fills the need for high speed automated organic analysis by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry sensors, and also by radionuclide sensors which combines alpha, beta, and gamma counting.

  2. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D and D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. The 3D-ICAS system robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surfaces to be inspected. The sensor position and orientation are monitored and controlled using coherent laser radar (CLR) tracking. The CLR also provides 3D facility maps which establish a 3D world view within which the robotic sensor system can operate

  3. Three-dimensional RAMA fluence methodology benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S. P.; Carter, R. G.; Watkins, K. E.; Jones, D. B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the benchmarking of the RAMA Fluence Methodology software, that has been performed in accordance with U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.190. The RAMA Fluence Methodology has been developed by TransWare Enterprises Inc. through funding provided by the Electric Power Research Inst., Inc. (EPRI) and the Boiling Water Reactor Vessel and Internals Project (BWRVIP). The purpose of the software is to provide an accurate method for calculating neutron fluence in BWR pressure vessels and internal components. The Methodology incorporates a three-dimensional deterministic transport solution with flexible arbitrary geometry representation of reactor system components, previously available only with Monte Carlo solution techniques. Benchmarking was performed on measurements obtained from three standard benchmark problems which include the Pool Criticality Assembly (PCA), VENUS-3, and H. B. Robinson Unit 2 benchmarks, and on flux wire measurements obtained from two BWR nuclear plants. The calculated to measured (C/M) ratios range from 0.93 to 1.04 demonstrating the accuracy of the RAMA Fluence Methodology in predicting neutron flux, fluence, and dosimetry activation. (authors)

  4. Three-Dimensional Printed Graphene Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Junwei; Li, Yilun; Villegas Salvatierra, Rodrigo; Wang, Tuo; Dong, Pei; Ji, Yongsung; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Zhang, Chenhao; Zhang, Jibo; Smith, Robert H; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun; Zhao, Naiqin; Tour, James M

    2017-07-25

    An automated metal powder three-dimensional (3D) printing method for in situ synthesis of free-standing 3D graphene foams (GFs) was successfully modeled by manually placing a mixture of Ni and sucrose onto a platform and then using a commercial CO 2 laser to convert the Ni/sucrose mixture into 3D GFs. The sucrose acted as the solid carbon source for graphene, and the sintered Ni metal acted as the catalyst and template for graphene growth. This simple and efficient method combines powder metallurgy templating with 3D printing techniques and enables direct in situ 3D printing of GFs with no high-temperature furnace or lengthy growth process required. The 3D printed GFs show high-porosity (∼99.3%), low-density (∼0.015g cm -3 ), high-quality, and multilayered graphene features. The GFs have an electrical conductivity of ∼8.7 S cm -1 , a remarkable storage modulus of ∼11 kPa, and a high damping capacity of ∼0.06. These excellent physical properties of 3D printed GFs indicate potential applications in fields requiring rapid design and manufacturing of 3D carbon materials, for example, energy storage devices, damping materials, and sound absorption.

  5. Oceanic conditions and their variations affecting behavior of radionuclides in marine environment off Aomori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    In order to elucidate the behavior of radioactive nuclides liberated from the Rokkasho reprocessing plant into the ocean, the characteristics of oceanic region around this plant were clarified by the measurements of oceanic circulation, flow rate and its seasonal variation. Further the computer simulation model for the reconstruction and prediction of oceanic conditions off Rokkasho was prepared. The whole image on this oceanic region was therefore reconstructed using this model. (M.H.)

  6. Application of Simulated Three Dimensional CT Image in Orthognathic Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Don; Park, Chang Seo [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Yensei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Sun Kook; Lee, Kyoung Sang [Dept. of Medical Engineering, College of Medicine, Yensei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-15

    In orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, cephalogram has been routine practice in diagnosis and treatment evaluation of craniofacial deformity. But its inherent distortion of actual length and angles during projecting three dimensional object to two dimensional plane might cause errors in quantitative analysis of shape and size. Therefore, it is desirable that three dimensional object is diagnosed and evaluated three dimensionally and three dimensional CT image is best for three dimensional analysis. Development of clinic necessitates evaluation of result of treatment and comparison before and after surgery. It is desirable that patient that was diagnosed and planned by three dimensional computed tomography before surgery is evaluated by three dimensional computed tomography after surgery, too. But Because there is no standardized normal values in three dimension now and three dimensional Computed Tomography needs expensive equipment and because of its expenses and amount of exposure to radiation, limitations still remain to be solved in its application to routine practice. If postoperative three dimensional image is constructed by pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms and preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram, pre and postoperative image will be compared and evaluated three dimensionally without three dimensional computed tomography after surgery and that will contribute to standardize normal values in three dimension. This study introduced new method that computer-simulated three dimensional image was constructed by preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram and pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms, and for validation of new method, in four cases of dry skull that position of mandible was displaced and four patients of orthognathic surgery, computer-simulated three dimensional image and actual postoperative three dimensional image were compared. The results were as follows. 1. In four cases of

  7. Application of Simulated Three Dimensional CT Image in Orthognathic Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Don; Park, Chang Seo; Yoo, Sun Kook; Lee, Kyoung Sang

    1998-01-01

    In orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, cephalogram has been routine practice in diagnosis and treatment evaluation of craniofacial deformity. But its inherent distortion of actual length and angles during projecting three dimensional object to two dimensional plane might cause errors in quantitative analysis of shape and size. Therefore, it is desirable that three dimensional object is diagnosed and evaluated three dimensionally and three dimensional CT image is best for three dimensional analysis. Development of clinic necessitates evaluation of result of treatment and comparison before and after surgery. It is desirable that patient that was diagnosed and planned by three dimensional computed tomography before surgery is evaluated by three dimensional computed tomography after surgery, too. But Because there is no standardized normal values in three dimension now and three dimensional Computed Tomography needs expensive equipment and because of its expenses and amount of exposure to radiation, limitations still remain to be solved in its application to routine practice. If postoperative three dimensional image is constructed by pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms and preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram, pre and postoperative image will be compared and evaluated three dimensionally without three dimensional computed tomography after surgery and that will contribute to standardize normal values in three dimension. This study introduced new method that computer-simulated three dimensional image was constructed by preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram and pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms, and for validation of new method, in four cases of dry skull that position of mandible was displaced and four patients of orthognathic surgery, computer-simulated three dimensional image and actual postoperative three dimensional image were compared. The results were as follows. 1. In four cases of

  8. Panoramic three-dimensional CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamata, Akitoshi; Fujishita, Masami

    1998-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is a unique projection technique for producing a single image of both maxillary and mandibular arches and many other anatomical structures. To obtain a similar panoramic image without panoramic radiography system, a modified three-dimensional (3D) CT imaging technique was designed. A set of CT slice image data extending from the chin to the orbit was used for 3D reconstruction. The CT machine used in this study was the X-Vision (TOSHIBA, Japan). The helical scan technique was used. The slice thickness of reconstructed image was one or 1.5 mm. The occlusal plane or Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane was used as the reference line. The resultant slice image data was stored on a magnetic optical disk and then used to create panoramic 3D-CT images on a Macintosh computer systems (Power Macintosh 8600/250, Apple Computer Inc., USA). To create the panoramic 3D-CT image, the following procedure was designed: Design a curved panoramic 3D-CT imaging layer using the imaging layer and the movement of the x-ray beam in panoramic radiography system as a template; Cut this imaging layer from each slice image, then the trimmed image was transformed to a rectangular layer using the ''still image warping'' special effect in the Elastic Reality special effects system (Elastic Reality Inc., USA); Create panoramic 3D-CT image using the Voxel View (Vital Images Inc., USA) rendering system and volume rendering technique. Although the image quality was primitive, a panoramic view of maxillofacial region was obtained by this technique. (author)

  9. Mapping three-dimensional temperature in microfluidic chip.

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2013-11-25

    Three-dimensional (3D) temperature mapping method with high spatial resolution and acquisition rate is of vital importance in evaluating thermal processes in micro-environment. We have synthesized a new temperature-sensitive functional material (Rhodamine B functionalized Polydimethylsiloxane). By performing optical sectioning of this material, we established an advanced method for visualizing the micro-scale 3D thermal distribution inside microfluidic chip with down to 10 ms temporal resolution and 2 ~ 6 °C temperature resolution depending the capture parameters. This method is successfully applied to monitor the local temperature variation throughout micro-droplet heat transfer process and further reveal exothermic nanoliter droplet reactions to be unique and milder than bench-top experiment.

  10. Three-Dimensional Structural Aspects of Protein–Polysaccharide Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Nagae

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear polysaccharides are typically composed of repeating mono- or disaccharide units and are ubiquitous among living organisms. Polysaccharide diversity arises from chain-length variation, branching, and additional modifications. Structural diversity is associated with various physiological functions, which are often regulated by cognate polysaccharide-binding proteins. Proteins that interact with linear polysaccharides have been identified or developed, such as galectins and polysaccharide-specific antibodies, respectively. Currently, data is accumulating on the three-dimensional structure of polysaccharide-binding proteins. These proteins are classified into two types: exo-type and endo-type. The former group specifically interacts with the terminal units of polysaccharides, whereas the latter with internal units. In this review, we describe the structural aspects of exo-type and endo-type protein-polysaccharide interactions. Further, we discuss the structural basis for affinity and specificity enhancement in the face of inherently weak binding interactions.

  11. Three-Dimensional Morphology of a Coronal Prominence Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S. E.; Kucera, T. A.; Rastawicki, D.; Dove, J.; deToma, G.; Hao, J.; Hill, S.; Hudson, H. S.; Marque, C.; McIntosh, P. S.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional density model of coronal prominence cavities, and a morphological fit that has been tightly constrained by a uniquely well-observed cavity. Observations were obtained as part of an International Heliophysical Year campaign by instruments from a variety of space- and ground-based observatories, spanning wavelengths from radio to soft-X-ray to integrated white light. From these data it is clear that the prominence cavity is the limb manifestation of a longitudinally-extended polar-crown filament channel, and that the cavity is a region of low density relative to the surrounding corona. As a first step towards quantifying density and temperature from campaign spectroscopic data, we establish the three-dimensional morphology of the cavity. This is critical for taking line-of-sight projection effects into account, since cavities are not localized in the plane of the sky and the corona is optically thin. We have augmented a global coronal streamer model to include a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel length. We have developed a semi-automated routine that fits ellipses to cross-sections of the cavity as it rotates past the solar limb, and have applied it to Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) observations from the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. This defines the morphological parameters of our model, from which we reproduce forward-modeled cavity observables. We find that cavity morphology and orientation, in combination with the viewpoints of the observing spacecraft, explains the observed variation in cavity visibility for the east vs. west limbs

  12. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  13. [Precision of three-dimensional printed brackets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Wang, L C; Zhou, Y H; Liu, X M; Li, J

    2017-08-18

    This study was based on digital orthodontic diagnosis work flow for indirect bonding transfer tray model design and three-dimensional (3D) printing, and the aim of this paper was to inspect the dimensional accuracyof 3D printed brackets, which is the foundation of the follow up work and hoped that will illuminate the clinical application of the digital orthodontics work flow. The samples which consisted of 14 cases of patients with malocclusion from Department of Orthodontics Peking University were selected, including 8 cases with tooth extraction and 6 cases without tooth extraction. All the 14 patients were taken intra-oral scan (Trios 3Shape, Denmark) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT, NewTom 3G volumetric scanner, Aperio Service,Italy)shooting after periodontal treatment. STL data and DICOM data were obtained from intraoral scans and CBCT images.Data segmentation, registration, fusion, automatic tooth arrangement, virtual positioning of orthodontic appliance and conversion the coordinates of malocclusion model were all done with self-programming software. The data of 3D printing model with brackets on it were output finally and printed out with EDEN260V (Objet Geometries, Israel) to make indirect bonding transfer tray. Digital vernier caliper was used to measure the length and width of upper and lower left brackets and buccal tubes on those 3D models after removal of surrounding supporting material by ultrasonic vibration and water-spray. Intra-examiner reliability was assessed by using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and one-sample T test was used to compare the measurements with the standard dimensional data of the brackets. There were significant differences which range in 0.04-0.17 mm between the 13 items out of the 19 measurement items. Except for the length of the lower left premolars'brackets, mean values of the other items were greater than the test value. Although the measurement results in the width of brackets and the width and

  14. The causes of alkalinity variations in the global surface ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Claudia Helen

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have caused the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) to increase by 120 ppmv from pre-industrial times to 2014. The ocean takes up approximately a quarter of the anthropogenic CO2, causing ocean acidification (OA). Therefore it is necessary to study the ocean carbonate system, including alkalinity, to quantify the flux of CO2 into the ocean and understand OA. Since the 1970s, carbonate system measurements have been undertaken which can be analyzed to quantify the...

  15. The Three-dimensional Digital Factory for Shipbuilding Technology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional digital factory technology research is the hotspot in shipbuilding recently. The three-dimensional digital factory technology not only focus on design the components of the product, but also discuss on the simulation and analyses of the production process.Based on the three-dimensional model, the basic data layer, application control layer and the presentation layer of hierarchical structure are established in the three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding in this paper. And the key technologies of three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding are analysed. Finally, a case study is applied and the results show that the three-dimensional digital factory will play an important role in the future.

  16. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of OMEGA implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igumenshchev, I. V.; Michel, D. T.; Shah, R. C.; Campbell, E. M.; Epstein, R.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S.

    2017-05-01

    The effects of large-scale (with Legendre modes ≲ 10) asymmetries in OMEGA direct-drive implosions caused by laser illumination nonuniformities (beam-power imbalance and beam mispointing and mistiming), target offset, and variation in target-layer thickness were investigated using the low-noise, three-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic code ASTER. Simulations indicate that these asymmetries can significantly degrade the implosion performance. The most important sources of the asymmetries are the target offsets ( ˜10 to 20 μm), beam-power imbalance ( σrms˜10 %), and variations ( ˜5 %) in target-layer thickness. Large-scale asymmetries distort implosion cores, resulting in a reduced hot-spot confinement and an increased residual kinetic energy of implosion targets. The ion temperature inferred from the width of simulated neutron spectra is influenced by bulk fuel motion in the distorted hot spot and can result in up to an ˜1 -keV increase in apparent temperature. Similar temperature variations along different lines of sight are observed. Demonstrating hydrodynamic equivalence to ignition designs on OMEGA requires a reduction in large-scale target and laser-imposed nonuniformities, minimizing target offset, and employing highly efficient mid-adiabat (α = 4) implosion designs, which mitigate cross-beam energy transfer and suppress short-wavelength Rayleigh-Taylor growth.

  17. TRANSMISSION SPECTRA OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL HOT JUPITER MODEL ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, J. J.; Shabram, M.; Showman, A. P.; Lian, Y.; Lewis, N. K.; Freedman, R. S.; Marley, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    We compute models of the transmission spectra of planets HD 209458b, HD 189733b, and generic hot Jupiters. We examine the effects of temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity for the generic planets as a guide to understanding transmission spectra in general. We find that carbon dioxide absorption at 4.4 and 15 μm is prominent at high metallicity, and is a clear metallicity indicator. For HD 209458b and HD 189733b, we compute spectra for both one-dimensional and three-dimensional model atmospheres and examine the differences between them. The differences are usually small, but can be large if atmospheric temperatures are near important chemical abundance boundaries. The calculations for the three-dimensional atmospheres, and their comparison with data, serve as constraints on these dynamical models that complement the secondary eclipse and light curve data sets. For HD 209458b, even if TiO and VO gases are abundant on the dayside, their abundances can be considerably reduced on the cooler planetary limb. However, given the predicted limb temperatures and TiO abundances, the model's optical opacity is too high. For HD 189733b we find a good match with some infrared data sets and constrain the altitude of a postulated haze layer. For this planet, substantial differences can exist between the transmission spectra of the leading and trailing hemispheres, which are an excellent probe of carbon chemistry. In thermochemical equilibrium, the cooler leading hemisphere is methane-dominated, and the hotter trailing hemisphere is CO-dominated, but these differences may be eliminated by non-equilibrium chemistry due to vertical mixing. It may be possible to constrain the carbon chemistry of this planet, and its spatial variation, with James Webb Space Telescope.

  18. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chenghai; Hsu, Andrew T

    2003-07-01

    A three-dimensional compressible lattice Boltzmann model is formulated on a cubic lattice. A very large particle-velocity set is incorporated in order to enable a greater variation in the mean velocity. Meanwhile, the support set of the equilibrium distribution has only six directions. Therefore, this model can efficiently handle flows over a wide range of Mach numbers and capture shock waves. Due to the simple form of the equilibrium distribution, the fourth-order velocity tensors are not involved in the formulation. Unlike the standard lattice Boltzmann model, no special treatment is required for the homogeneity of fourth-order velocity tensors on square lattices. The Navier-Stokes equations were recovered, using the Chapman-Enskog method from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) lattice Boltzmann equation. The second-order discretization error of the fluctuation velocity in the macroscopic conservation equation was eliminated by means of a modified collision invariant. The model is suitable for both viscous and inviscid compressible flows with or without shocks. Since the present scheme deals only with the equilibrium distribution that depends only on fluid density, velocity, and internal energy, boundary conditions on curved wall are easily implemented by an extrapolation of macroscopic variables. To verify the scheme for inviscid flows, we have successfully simulated a three-dimensional shock-wave propagation in a box and a normal shock of Mach number 10 over a wedge. As an application to viscous flows, we have simulated a flat plate boundary layer flow, flow over a cylinder, and a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil cascade.

  19. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the biliary tract using spiral computed tomography. Three-dimensional cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gon, Masanori; Ogura, Norihiro; Uetsuji, Shouji; Ueyama, Yasuo

    1995-01-01

    In this study, 310 patients with benign biliary diseases, 20 with gallbladder cancer, and 8 with biliary tract carcinoma underwent spiral CT (SCT) scanning at cholangiography. Depiction rate of the shape of the conjunction site of the gallbladder and biliary tract was 27.5% by conventional intravenous cholangiography (DIC), 92.5% by ERC, and 90.0% by DIC-SCT. Abnormal cystic duct course was admitted in 14.1%. Multiplanar reconstruction by DIC-SCT enabled identification of the common bile duct and intrahepatic bile duct stone. Three-dimensional reconstruction of DIC-SCT was effective in evaluating obstruction of the anastomosis or passing condition of after hepatico-jejunostomy. Two-dimensional SCT images through PTCD tube enabled degree of hepatic invasion in bile duct cancer, and three-dimensional images were useful in grasping the morphology of the bile duct branches near the obstruction site. DIC-SCT is therefore considered a useful procedure as non-invasive examination of bile duct lesions. (S.Y.)

  20. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Oblique Asteroid Impacts into Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, G. R.; Ferguson, J. M.; Heberling, T.; Plesko, C. S.; Weaver, R.

    2016-12-01

    Waves generated by impacts into oceans may represent the most significant danger from near-earth asteroids and comets. For impacts near populated shores, the crown splash and subsequent waves, accompanied by sediment lofting and high winds, could be more damaging than storm surges from the strongest hurricanes. For asteroids less than 500 m in diameter that impact into deep water far from shores, the waves produced will be detectable over large distances, but probably not significantly dangerous. We present new three-dimensional simulations of oblique impacts into deep water, with trajectory angles ranging from 20 degrees to 60 degrees (where 90 degrees is vertical). These simulations are performed with the Los Alamos Rage hydrocode, and include atmospheric effects including ablation and airbursts. These oblique impact simulations are specifically performed in order to help determine whether there are additional dangers from the obliquity of impact not covered by previous two-dimensional studies. Water surface elevation profiles, surface pressures, and depth-averaged mass fluxes within the water are prepared for use in propagation studies.

  1. Three-Dimensional Magnetotelluric Imaging of the Cascadia Subduction Zone with an Amphibious Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, G. D.; Yang, B.; Bedrosian, P.; Kelbert, A.; Key, K.; Livelybrooks, D.; Parris, B. A.; Schultz, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from three-dimensional inversion of an amphibious magnetotelluric (MT) array consisting of 71 offshore and 75 onshore sites in the central part of Cascadia, to image down-dip and along strike variations of electrical conductivity, and to constrain the 3D distribution of fluids and melt in the subduction zone. The array is augmented by EarthScope TA MT data and legacy 2D profiles providing sparser coverage of western WA, OR, and northern CA. The prior model for the inversion includes ocean bathymetry, conductive marine sediments, and a resistive subducting plate, with geometry derived from the model of McCrory et al. (2012) and seismic tomography. Highly conductive features appear just above the interface with the a priori resistive plate in three zones. (1) In the area with marine MT data a conductive layer, which we associate with fluid-rich decollement and subduction channel sediments, extends eastward from the trench to underthrust the seaward edge of Siletzia, which is clearly seen as a thick crustal resistor. The downdip extent of the underthrust conductive layer is a remarkably uniform 35 km. (2) High conductivities, consistent with metamorphic fluids associated with eclogitization, occur near the forearc mantle corner. Conductivity is highly variable along strike, organized in a series of E-W to diagonal elongated conductive/resistive structures, whose significance remains enigmatic. (3) High conductivities associated with fluids and melts are found in the backarc, again exhibiting substantial along strike variability.

  2. Three dimensional steady subsonic Euler flows in bounded nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Xie, Chunjing

    The existence and uniqueness of three dimensional steady subsonic Euler flows in rectangular nozzles were obtained when prescribing normal component of momentum at both the entrance and exit. If, in addition, the normal component of the voriticity and the variation of Bernoulli's function at the entrance are both zero, then there exists a unique subsonic potential flow when the magnitude of the normal component of the momentum is less than a critical number. As the magnitude of the normal component of the momentum approaches the critical number, the associated flows converge to a subsonic-sonic flow. Furthermore, when the normal component of vorticity and the variation of Bernoulli function are both small, the existence and uniqueness of subsonic Euler flows with non-zero vorticity are established. The proof of these results is based on a new formulation for the Euler system, a priori estimate for nonlinear elliptic equations with nonlinear boundary conditions, detailed study for a linear div-curl system, and delicate estimate for the transport equations.

  3. New method for solving three-dimensional Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melezhik, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    The method derived recently for solving a multidimensional scattering problem is applied to a three-dimensional Schroedinger equation. As compared with direct three-dimensional calculations of finite elements and finite differences, this approach gives sufficiently accurate upper and lower approximations to the helium-atom binding energy, which demonstrates its efficiency. 15 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  4. Three-dimensional low-energy topological invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalarska, M.; Broda, B.

    2000-01-01

    A description of the one-loop approximation formula for the partition function of a three-dimensional abelian version of the Donaldson-Witten theory is proposed. The one-loop expression is shown to contain such topological invariants of a three-dimensional manifold M like the Reidemeister-Ray-Singer torsion τ R and Betti numbers. (orig.)

  5. Collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lushnikov, P.M.; Saffman, M.

    2000-01-01

    We derive sufficient conditions for the occurrence of collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation without dissipation. Numerical studies continue the results to the case of finite dissipation.......We derive sufficient conditions for the occurrence of collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation without dissipation. Numerical studies continue the results to the case of finite dissipation....

  6. Three-dimensional plasma equilibrium near a separatrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.H.; Pomphrey, N.; Boozer, A.H.

    1988-08-01

    The limiting behavior of a general three-dimensional MHD equilibrium near a separatrix is calculated explicitly. No expansions in β or assumptions about island widths are made. Implications of the results for the numerical calculation of such equilibria, are discussed, as well as for issues concerning the existence of three-dimensional MHD equilibria. 16 refs., 2 figs

  7. Three-dimensional temperature history of a multipass, filled weldment. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, D.E.; Trinh, T.; Troiano, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    A conceptual model is developed for the three-dimensional temperature history of a multipass, filled weldment. Property variations with temperature and phase change are included. A mathematical model and finite difference equations are derived from the conceptual model and a solution procedure for the equations is presented

  8. Three dimensional periodic foundations for base seismic isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y; Mo, Y L; Cheng, Z; Shi, Z; Menq, F; Tang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Based on the concept of phononic crystals, periodic foundations made of periodic materials are investigated in this paper. The periodic foundations can provide low frequency band gaps, which cover the main frequency ranges of seismic waves. Therefore, the periodic foundations are able to protect the upper structures during earthquake events. In this paper, the basic theory of three dimensional periodic foundations is studied and the finite element method was used to conduct the sensitivity study. A simplified three-dimensional periodic foundation with a superstructure was tested in the field and the feasibility of three dimensional periodic foundations was proved. The test results showed that the response of the upper structure with the three dimensional periodic foundation was reduced under excitation waves with the main frequency falling in the attenuation zones. The finite element analysis results are consistent with the experimental data, indicating that three dimensional periodic foundations are a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations. (paper)

  9. On three-dimensional spherical acoustic cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munteanu, Ligia; Chiroiu, Veturia

    2011-01-01

    Transformation acoustics opens a new avenue towards the design of acoustic metamaterials, which are materials engineered at the subwavelength scale in order to mimic the parameters in wave equations. The design of the acoustic cloaking is based on the property of equations being invariant under a coordinate transformation, i.e. a specific spatial compression is equivalent to a variation of the material parameters in the original space. In this paper, the sound invisibility performance is discussed for spherical cloaks. The original domain consists of alternating concentric layers made from piezoelectric ceramics and epoxy resin, following a triadic Cantor sequence. The spatial compression, obtained by applying the concave-down transformation, leads to an equivalent domain with an inhomogeneous and anisotropic distribution of the material parameters.

  10. Calculation of three-dimensional groundwater transport using second-order moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Groundwater transport of contaminants from the F-Area seepage basin at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) was calculated using a three-dimensional, second-order moment technique. The numerical method calculates the zero, first, and second moment distributions of concentration within a cell volume. By summing the moments over the entire solution domain, and using a Lagrangian advection scheme, concentrations are transported without numerical dispersion errors. Velocities obtained from field tests are extrapolated and interpolated to all nodal points; a variational analysis is performed over the three-dimensional velocity field to ensure mass consistency. Transport predictions are calculated out to 12,000 days. 28 refs., 9 figs

  11. On a modified form of navier-stokes equations for three-dimensional flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetis, J

    2015-01-01

    A rephrased form of Navier-Stokes equations is performed for incompressible, three-dimensional, unsteady flows according to Eulerian formalism for the fluid motion. In particular, we propose a geometrical method for the elimination of the nonlinear terms of these fundamental equations, which are expressed in true vector form, and finally arrive at an equivalent system of three semilinear first order PDEs, which hold for a three-dimensional rectangular Cartesian coordinate system. Next, we present the related variational formulation of these modified equations as well as a general type of weak solutions which mainly concern Sobolev spaces.

  12. The three-dimensional compressible flow in a radial inflow turbine scroll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, A.; Tabakoff, W.; Malak, M.

    1984-01-01

    This work presents the results of an analytical study and an experimental investigation of the three-dimensional flow in a turbine scroll. The finite element method is used in the iterative numerical solution of the locally linearized governing equations for the three-dimensional velocity potential field. The results of the numerical computations are compared with the experimental measurements in the scroll cross sections, which were obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot wire techniques. The results of the computations show a variation in the flow conditions around the rotor periphery which was found to depend on the scroll geometry.

  13. Splitting turbulence algorithm for mixing parameterization embedded in the ocean climate model. Examples of data assimilation and Prandtl number variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonkin, Sergey; Gusev, Anatoly; Zalesny, Vladimir; Diansky, Nikolay

    2017-04-01

    Series of experiments were performed with a three-dimensional, free surface, sigma coordinate eddy-permitting ocean circulation model for Atlantic (from 30°S) - Arctic and Bering sea domain (0.25 degrees resolution, Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model or INMOM) using vertical grid refinement in the zone of fully developed turbulence (40 sigma-levels). The model variables are horizontal velocity components, potential temperature, and salinity as well as free surface height. For parameterization of viscosity and diffusivity, the original splitting turbulence algorithm (STA) is used when total evolutionary equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulence dissipation frequency (TDF) split into the stages of transport-diffusion and generation-dissipation. For the generation-dissipation stage the analytical solution was obtained for TKE and TDF as functions of the buoyancy and velocity shift frequencies (BF and VSF). The proposed model with STA is similar to the contemporary differential turbulence models, concerning the physical formulations. At the same time, its algorithm has high enough computational efficiency. For mixing simulation in the zone of turbulence decay, the two kind numerical experiments were carried out, as with assimilation of annual mean climatic buoyancy frequency, as with variation of Prandtl number function dependence upon the BF, VSF, TKE and TDF. The CORE-II data for 1948-2009 were used for experiments. Quality of temperature T and salinity S structure simulation is estimated by the comparison of model monthly profiles T and S averaged for 1980-2009, with T and S monthly data from the World Ocean Atlas 2013. Form of coefficients in equations for TKE and TDF on the generation-dissipation stage makes it possible to assimilate annual mean climatic buoyancy frequency in a varying degree that cardinally improves adequacy of model results to climatic data in all analyzed model domain. The numerical experiments with modified

  14. A three-dimensional model for solar prominences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, P.; Priest, E.R.; Anzer, U.

    1989-01-01

    Prominences have been modelled largely as one-or two-dimensional structures, and yet observations show them to possess important variations in the third dimension along the prominence axis with great arches with feet reaching down towards the solar surface. As an initial attempt to understand this structure we consider a three-dimensional linear force-free field model for the global magnetic field around a quiescent prominence. It consists of a fundamental together with a harmonic that is periodic along the prominence. At the solar surface there is a series of flux concentrations spaced out periodically on both sides of the prominence. Between a pair of oppositely directed flux concentration, the magnetic field in the prominence is stronger and tends to be less highly sheared than elsewhere. This modulation of the field strength and shear angle along the prominence decreases with height and almost disappears above 10 Mm. Prominence fields that increase with height occur when the shear is large and the length-scale for field variations perpendicular to the prominence exceeds that along it. The variation of the prominence height along the prominence is calculated and it is suggested that feet occur where the prominence sags down to low heights. For prominences of Normal polarity this tends to occur near supergranule centres where the transverse field is least, whereas for those of Inverse polarity it usually takes place near the chromospheric network where the transverse field is greatest. The effect of concentrating the base flux by including extra harmonics is also included. For Normal polarity prominences it tends to make the foot wider, and for Inverse polarity configurations, it usually creates deeper and narrower feet

  15. Three dimensional time reversal optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binlin; Cai, W.; Alrubaiee, M.; Xu, M.; Gayen, S. K.

    2011-03-01

    Time reversal optical tomography (TROT) approach is used to detect and locate absorptive targets embedded in a highly scattering turbid medium to assess its potential in breast cancer detection. TROT experimental arrangement uses multi-source probing and multi-detector signal acquisition and Multiple-Signal-Classification (MUSIC) algorithm for target location retrieval. Light transport from multiple sources through the intervening medium with embedded targets to the detectors is represented by a response matrix constructed using experimental data. A TR matrix is formed by multiplying the response matrix by its transpose. The eigenvectors with leading non-zero eigenvalues of the TR matrix correspond to embedded objects. The approach was used to: (a) obtain the location and spatial resolution of an absorptive target as a function of its axial position between the source and detector planes; and (b) study variation in spatial resolution of two targets at the same axial position but different lateral positions. The target(s) were glass sphere(s) of diameter ~9 mm filled with ink (absorber) embedded in a 60 mm-thick slab of Intralipid-20% suspension in water with an absorption coefficient μa ~ 0.003 mm-1 and a transport mean free path lt ~ 1 mm at 790 nm, which emulate the average values of those parameters for human breast tissue. The spatial resolution and accuracy of target location depended on axial position, and target contrast relative to the background. Both the targets could be resolved and located even when they were only 4-mm apart. The TROT approach is fast, accurate, and has the potential to be useful in breast cancer detection and localization.

  16. Cylindrical Three-Dimensional Porous Anodic Alumina Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Resende

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a conformal three-dimensional nanostructure based on porous anodic alumina with transversal nanopores on wires is herein presented. The resulting three-dimensional network exhibits the same nanostructure as that obtained on planar geometries, but with a macroscopic cylindrical geometry. The morphological analysis of the nanostructure revealed the effects of the initial defects on the aluminum surface and the mechanical strains on the integrity of the three-dimensional network. The results evidence the feasibility of obtaining 3D porous anodic alumina on non-planar aluminum substrates.

  17. Diffraction limited focusing with controllable arbitrary three-dimensional polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weibin; Zhan, Qiwen

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new approach that enables full control over the three-dimensional state of polarization and the field distribution near the focus of a high numerical aperture objective lens. By combining the electric dipole radiation and a vectorial diffraction method, the input field at the pupil plane for generating arbitrary three-dimensionally oriented linear polarization at the focal point with a diffraction limited spot size is found analytically by solving the inverse problem. Arbitrary three-dimensional elliptical polarization can be obtained by introducing a second electric dipole oriented in the orthogonal plane with appropriate amplitude and phase differences

  18. Self-organization in three-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Ritoku; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1987-07-01

    A three-dimensional self-organization process of a compressible dissipative plasma with a velocity-magnetic field correlation is investigated in detail by means of a variational method and a magnetohydrodynamic simulation. There are two types of relaxation, i.e., fast relaxation in which the cross helicity is not conserved, and slow relaxation in which the cross helicity is approximately conserved. In the slow relaxation case the cross helicity consists of two components with opposite sign which have almost the same amplitude in the large wavenumber region. In both cases the system approaches a high correlation state, dependent on the initial condition. These results are consistent with an observational data of the solar wind. Selective dissipation of magnetic energy, normal cascade of magnetic energy spectrum and inverse cascade of magnetic helicity spectrum are observed for the sub-Alfvenic flow case as was previously observed for the zero flow case. When the flow velocity is super-Alfvenic, the relaxation process is significantly altered from the zero flow case. (author)

  19. Fusion of three-dimensional X-ray angiography and three-dimensional echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasche, Volker [University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm (Germany); Philips Medical Systems, Bothell, WA (United States); Mansour, Moussa; Reddy, Vivek; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Ruskin, Jeremy [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac Arrhythmia Service, Boston, MA (United States); Qureshi, Answer [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Echocardiography, Boston, MA (United States); Manzke, Robert; Sokka, Sham [Philips Research North America, Clinical Sites Research, Briacliff Manor, NY (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Cardiovascular intervention guidance requires knowledge of heart function relative to its blood supply or venous drainage. Functional and vascular anatomic data are usually generated on different imaging systems, so fusion of the data is necessary to simultaneously visualize the results for intervention planning and guidance. The objective of this work is to establish the feasibility of fusing volumetric ultrasound (U/S) data with three-dimensional (3D) X-ray imaging data for visualization of cardiac morphology, function and coronary venous drainage. Temporally resolved U/S volume data was registered with the 3D reconstruction of vascular structures derived from X-ray modeling and reconstruction. U/S image registration was obtained by optical tracking fiducial markers with simultaneous X-ray imaging. The proposed technique was applied to phantom data for accuracy assessment of the registration process and to biventricular pacemaker implantation as clinical example. Fusion of U/S data with 3D X-ray reconstruction data produced an RMS registration error below 2 mm. Preliminary clinical feasibility of U/S-derived data synchronously with X-ray derived 3D coronary venography was established. This technique can be applied for fusion of functional U/S data with 3D anatomic X-ray data of the coronary veins during a biventricular pacemaker implantation procedures. (orig.)

  20. Three-dimensional modelling and three-dimensional printing in pediatric and congenital cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraly, Laszlo

    2018-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling and printing methods greatly support advances in individualized medicine and surgery. In pediatric and congenital cardiac surgery, personalized imaging and 3D modelling presents with a range of advantages, e.g., better understanding of complex anatomy, interactivity and hands-on approach, possibility for preoperative surgical planning and virtual surgery, ability to assess expected results, and improved communication within the multidisciplinary team and with patients. 3D virtual and printed models often add important new anatomical findings and prompt alternative operative scenarios. For the lack of critical mass of evidence, controlled randomized trials, however, most of these general benefits remain anecdotal. For an individual surgical case-scenario, prior knowledge, preparedness and possibility of emulation are indispensable in raising patient-safety. It is advocated that added value of 3D printing in healthcare could be raised by establishment of a multidisciplinary centre of excellence (COE). Policymakers, research scientists, clinicians, as well as health care financers and local entrepreneurs should cooperate and communicate along a legal framework and established scientific guidelines for the clinical benefit of patients, and towards financial sustainability. It is expected that besides the proven utility of 3D printed patient-specific anatomical models, 3D printing will have a major role in pediatric and congenital cardiac surgery by providing individually customized implants and prostheses, especially in combination with evolving techniques of bioprinting.

  1. Fusion of three-dimensional X-ray angiography and three-dimensional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasche, Volker; Mansour, Moussa; Reddy, Vivek; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Ruskin, Jeremy; Qureshi, Answer; Manzke, Robert; Sokka, Sham

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular intervention guidance requires knowledge of heart function relative to its blood supply or venous drainage. Functional and vascular anatomic data are usually generated on different imaging systems, so fusion of the data is necessary to simultaneously visualize the results for intervention planning and guidance. The objective of this work is to establish the feasibility of fusing volumetric ultrasound (U/S) data with three-dimensional (3D) X-ray imaging data for visualization of cardiac morphology, function and coronary venous drainage. Temporally resolved U/S volume data was registered with the 3D reconstruction of vascular structures derived from X-ray modeling and reconstruction. U/S image registration was obtained by optical tracking fiducial markers with simultaneous X-ray imaging. The proposed technique was applied to phantom data for accuracy assessment of the registration process and to biventricular pacemaker implantation as clinical example. Fusion of U/S data with 3D X-ray reconstruction data produced an RMS registration error below 2 mm. Preliminary clinical feasibility of U/S-derived data synchronously with X-ray derived 3D coronary venography was established. This technique can be applied for fusion of functional U/S data with 3D anatomic X-ray data of the coronary veins during a biventricular pacemaker implantation procedures. (orig.)

  2. Fabrication of malleable three-dimensional-printed customized bolus using three-dimensional scanner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Park

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D-printed customized bolus (3D bolus can be used for radiotherapy application to irregular surfaces. However, bolus fabrication based on computed tomography (CT scans is complicated and also delivers unwanted irradiation. Consequently, we fabricated a bolus using a 3D scanner and evaluated its efficacy. The head of an Alderson Rando phantom was scanned with a 3D scanner. The 3D surface data were exported and reconstructed with Geomagic Design X software. A 3D bolus of 5-mm thickness designed to fit onto the nose was printed with the use of rubber-like printing material, and a radiotherapy plan was developed. We successfully fabricated the customized 3D bolus, and further, a CT simulation indicated an acceptable fit of the 3D bolus to the nose. There was no air gap between the bolus and the phantom surface. The percent depth dose (PDD curve of the phantom with the 3D bolus showed an enhanced surface dose when compared with that of the phantom without the bolus. The PDD of the 3D bolus was comparable with that of a commercial superflab bolus. The radiotherapy plan considering the 3D bolus showed improved target coverage when compared with that without the bolus. Thus, we successfully fabricated a customized 3D bolus for an irregular surface using a 3D scanner instead of a CT scanner.

  3. Variation in size, morphology and chemical composition of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Parthiban, G.

    Chemical composition of 613 polymetallic nodules from 150 stations in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) are determined and variations in Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn and moisture content are studied with respect to their size and surface texture...

  4. ALGE3D: A Three-Dimensional Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maze, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Of the top 10 most populated US cities from a 2015 US Census Bureau estimate, 7 of the cities are situated near the ocean, a bay, or on one of the Great Lakes. A contamination of the water ways in the United States could be devastating to the economy (through tourism and industries such as fishing), public health (from direct contact, or contaminated drinking water), and in some cases even infrastructure (water treatment plants). Current national response models employed by emergency response agencies have well developed models to simulate the effects of hazardous contaminants in riverine systems that are primarily driven by one-dimensional flows; however in more complex systems, such as tidal estuaries, bays, or lakes, a more complex model is needed. While many models exist, none are capable of quick deployment in emergency situations that could contain a variety of release situations including a mixture of both particulate and dissolved chemicals in a complex flow area. ALGE3D, developed at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), is a three-dimensional hydrodynamic code which solves the momentum, mass, and energy conservation equations to predict the movement and dissipation of thermal or dissolved chemical plumes discharged into cooling lakes, rivers, and estuaries. ALGE3D is capable of modeling very complex flows, including areas with tidal flows which include wetting and drying of land. Recent upgrades have increased the capabilities including the transport of particulate tracers, allowing for more complete modeling of the transport of pollutants. In addition the model is capable of coupling with a one-dimension riverine transport model or a two-dimension atmospheric deposition model in the event that a contamination event occurs upstream or upwind of the water body.

  5. Progress of radiotherapy by three-dimensional treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Hajime; Nomoto, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Nakata, Hajime

    1998-01-01

    The recent progress of three-dimensional radiation treatment planning was reviewed. And clinical cases such as lung cancer and breast cancer are introduced. In the University of Occupational and Development Health, the treatment system FOCUS which is made up of CT simulator and linac was used mainly. Three-dimensional treatment planning was carried for about 90% of 330 patients who underwent radiotherapy for one year. The target becomes to be accurate and dose distribution with all CT slices in radiation field can be confirmed by using three-dimensional radiation treatment planning apparatus. High dose irradiation localized to tumor part is possible. Relations between total dose and volume of normal tissue and/or tumor can be estimated numerically and easily by DVH. A prediction of indication and affection became possible by this procedure. In conclusion, generalization of three-dimensional radiation treatment planning will bring progress of more effective radiotherapy with less adverse reaction. (K.H.). 21 refs

  6. Feynman diagrams coupled to three-dimensional quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, John W

    2006-01-01

    A framework for quantum field theory coupled to three-dimensional quantum gravity is proposed. The coupling with quantum gravity regulates the Feynman diagrams. One recovers the usual Feynman amplitudes in the limit as the cosmological constant tends to zero

  7. Three-dimensional reconstruction and visualization system for medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.F.; Batnitzky, S.; Kyo Rak Lee; Cook, P.N.; Cook, L.T.; Dwyer, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    A three-dimensional reconstruction and visualization system could be of significant advantage in medical application such as neurosurgery and radiation treatment planning. The reconstructed anatomic structures from CT head scans could be used in a head stereotactic system to help plan the surgical procedure and the radiation treatment for a brain lesion. Also, the use of three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm provides for quantitative measures such as volume and surface area estimation of the anatomic features. This aspect of the three-dimensional reconstruction system may be used to monitor the progress or staging of a disease and the effects of patient treatment. Two cases are presented to illustrate the three-dimensional surface reconstruction and visualization system

  8. Three dimensional CT imaging of ossicular chain: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chunhong; Zhong Shenbin; Fu Yindi; Zhu Wei; Wang Xueyuan; Chen Jianhua; Ding Yi

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To analysis the features of normal and abnormal ossicular chain in three dimensional images and asses the best parameters and its usefulness in diagnosis and treatment of chronic otitis media (COM). Methods: All patients, including 43 patients with normal ears and 24 ears with COM, were examined using spiral CT with inner ear software, 1-mm slice width and 1 pitch. SSD method was used in three dimensional reconstruction and the threshold was 100-300 Hu. Results: In normal cases, Malleus, incus, stapes crura, incudomalleal joints and incudostapedial joints were displayed well, but stapes footplate unsatisfactorily. The disruption of the ossicular chain showed in three-dimensional images in cases of chronic otitis media was in accord with that seen in the operation. Conclusion: It is very important for imaging with high quality through selecting proper parameters, and three-dimensional image can provide valuable information for surgery

  9. Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lütteke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The article summarizes the information that is gained from and the errors that are found in carbohydrate structures in the Protein Data Bank. Validation tools that can locate these errors are described. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein–carbohydrate interactions. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein–carbohydrate complexes. Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures

  10. Utility of three-dimensional method for diagnosing meniscal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Suguru; Nomura, Kazutoshi; Hirano, Mako; Hashimoto, Noburo; Fukumoto, Tetsuya; Katahira, Kazuhiro

    1998-01-01

    MRI of the knee is a useful method for diagnosing meniscal tears. Although the spin echo method is usually used for diagnosing meniscal tears, we examined the utility of thin slice scan with the three-dimensional method. We reviewed 70 menisci in which arthroscopic findings were confirmed. In this series, sensitivity was 90.9% for medial meniscal injuries and 68.8% for lateral meniscal injuries. There were 3 meniscal tears in which we could not detect tears on preoperative MRI. We could find tears in two of these cases when re-evaluated using the same MRI. In conclusion, we can get the same diagnostic rate with the three-dimensional method compared with the spin echo method. Scan time of the three-dimensional method is 3 minutes, on the other hand that of spin echo method in 17 minutes. This slice scan with three-dimensional method is useful for screening meniscal injuries before arthroscopy. (author)

  11. Three-dimensional Simulation of Backward Raman Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, A.A.; Fraiman, G.M.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) simulations for the Backward Raman Amplification (BRA) are presented. The images illustrate the effects of pump depletion, pulse diffraction, non-homogeneous plasma density, and plasma ionization

  12. Magnetic structure of two- and three-dimensional supramolecular compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decurtins, S.; Schmalle, H.W.; Pellaux, R. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland); Fischer, P.; Fauth, F. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ouladdiaf, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-09-01

    Supramolecular chiral networks of oxalato-bridged transition metals show either two- or three-dimensional structural features. The magnetic structures of such compounds have been investigated by means of elastic neutron powder diffraction. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  13. Three-Dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy of biological specimens

    KAUST Repository

    De Jonge, Niels; Sougrat, Rachid; Northan, Brian M.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the cytoskeleton and a clathrin-coated pit in mammalian cells has been achieved from a focal-series of images recorded in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM

  14. [Bone drilling simulation by three-dimensional imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Y; Furuhata, K; Kojima, T; Kurokawa, T; Kobayashi, M

    1989-06-01

    The three-dimensional display technique has a wide range of medical applications. Pre-operative planning is one typical application: in orthopedic surgery, three-dimensional image processing has been used very successfully. We have employed this technique in pre-operative planning for orthopedic surgery, and have developed a simulation system for bone-drilling. Positive results were obtained by pre-operative rehearsal; when a region of interest is indicated by means of a mouse on the three-dimensional image displayed on the CRT, the corresponding region appears on the slice image which is displayed simultaneously. Consequently, the status of the bone-drilling is constantly monitored. In developing this system, we have placed emphasis on the quality of the reconstructed three-dimensional images, on fast processing, and on the easy operation of the surgical planning simulation.

  15. Standalone visualization tool for three-dimensional DRAGON geometrical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukomski, A.; McIntee, B.; Moule, D.; Nichita, E.

    2008-01-01

    DRAGON is a neutron transport and depletion code able to solve one-, two- and three-dimensional problems. To date DRAGON provides two visualization modules, able to represent respectively two- and three-dimensional geometries. The two-dimensional visualization module generates a postscript file, while the three dimensional visualization module generates a MATLAB M-file with instructions for drawing the tracks in the DRAGON TRACKING data structure, which implicitly provide a representation of the geometry. The current work introduces a new, standalone, tool based on the open-source Visualization Toolkit (VTK) software package which allows the visualization of three-dimensional geometrical models by reading the DRAGON GEOMETRY data structure and generating an axonometric image which can be manipulated interactively by the user. (author)

  16. Study of three-dimensional image display by systemic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, Tadao; Ebihara, Yoshiyuki; Unei, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masao; Shinohe, Tooru; Wada, Yuji; Sakai, Takatsugu; Kashima, Kenji; Fujita, Yoshihiro

    1989-01-01

    A head phantom for CT was scanned at 2 mm intervals from the cervix to the vertex in an attempt to obtain a three-dimensional image display of bones and facial epidermis from an ordinary axial image. Clinically, three-dimensional images were formed at eye sockets and hip joints. With the three-dimensional image using the head phantom, the entire head could be displayed at any angle. Clinically, images were obtained that could not be attained by ordinary CT scanning, such as broken bones in eye sockets and stereoscopic structure at the bottom of a cranium. The three-dimensional image display is considered to be useful in clinical diagnosis. (author)

  17. Three-Dimensional Structure Determination of Botulinum Toxin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Ray

    1997-01-01

    ...) Based on the structure of the neurotoxin, understand the toxins mechanism of action. We have accomplished the first goal of determining the three-dimensional structure of the 150 kD botulinum neurotoxin serotype...

  18. Three-Dimensional Structure Determination of Botulinum Toxin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Ray

    1998-01-01

    ...) Based on the structure of the neurotoxin, understand the toxins mechanism of action. We have accomplished the first goal of determining the three-dimensional structure of the 150 kD botulinum neurotoxin serotype...

  19. Direct Linear Transformation Method for Three-Dimensional Cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robert

    1978-01-01

    The ability of Direct Linear Transformation Method for three-dimensional cinematography to locate points in space was shown to meet the accuracy requirements associated with research on human movement. (JD)

  20. A simple remark on three dimensional gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemes, V.E.R.; Linhares de Jesus, C.; Sasaki, C.A.G.; Sorella, S.P.; Vilar, L.C.Q.; Ventura, O.S.

    1997-08-01

    Classical three dimensional Yang-Mills is seen to be related to the topological Chern-Simons term through a nonlinear but fully local and covariant gauge field redefinition. A classical recursive cohomological argument is proved. (author)

  1. Computational study of three-dimensional wake structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, R.; Shirayama, S.; Kamo, K.; Kuwahara, K.

    1986-01-01

    Three-dimensional wake structure is studied by numerically solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Results are visualized by a three-dimensional color graphic system. It was found that a pair of vortex tubes separated from a body plays the most important role in the wake. Near the body vortex tubes are rather stable, however, they gradually become unsteady as they flow down

  2. Three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals based on artificial opals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshev, A. V.; Kodama, T.; Nishimura, K.; Uchida, H.; Inoue, M.

    2004-06-01

    We fabricated and experimentally investigated three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals (3D MPCs) based on artificial opals. Opal samples with three-dimensional dielectric lattices were impregnated with different types of magnetic material. Magnetic and structural properties of 3D MPCs were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometer. We have shown that magnetic materials synthesized in voids of opal lattices and the composites obtained have typical magnetic properties.

  3. Three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals based on artificial opals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshev, A.V.; Kodama, T.; Nishimura, K.; Uchida, H.; Inoue, M.

    2004-01-01

    We fabricated and experimentally investigated three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals (3D MPCs) based on artificial opals. Opal samples with three-dimensional dielectric lattices were impregnated with different types of magnetic material. Magnetic and structural properties of 3D MPCs were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometer. We have shown that magnetic materials synthesized in voids of opal lattices and the composites obtained have typical magnetic properties

  4. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography of the atrial septal defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Cárdenas Ángel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transesophageal echocardiography has advantages over transthoracic technique in defining morphology of atrial structures. Even though real time three-dimensional echocardiographic imaging is a reality, the off-line reconstruction technique usually allows to obtain higher spatial resolution images. The purpose of this study was to explore the accuracy of off-line three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in a spectrum of atrial septal defects by comparing them with representative anatomic specimens.

  5. Comparison of two three-dimensional cephalometric analysis computer software

    OpenAIRE

    Sawchuk, Dena; Alhadlaq, Adel; Alkhadra, Thamer; Carlyle, Terry D; Kusnoto, Budi; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Three-dimensional cephalometric analyses are getting more attraction in orthodontics. The aim of this study was to compare two softwares to evaluate three-dimensional cephalometric analyses of orthodontic treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods: Twenty cone beam computed tomography images were obtained using i-CAT® imaging system from patient's records as part of their regular orthodontic records. The images were analyzed using InVivoDental5.0 (Anatomage Inc.) and 3DCeph™ (Unive...

  6. Simulation on three dimensional bubble formation using MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugi, Tomoaki

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical simulation on three-dimensional bubble formation by means of the MARS (Multi-interfaces Advection and Reconstruction Solver) developed by the author. The comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulation on an agglomeration of two bubbles is discussed. Moreover, some simulation results regarding a phase change phenomena such as a boiling and condensation in a two dimensional enclosure with heated and cooled walls are presented. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao

    1999-01-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  8. Three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium as an ohmic steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; Strauss, H.; Manickam, J.

    1985-07-01

    A stable three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium can be obtained numerically by a time-dependent relaxation method using small values of dissipation. The final state is an ohmic steady state which approaches an ohmic equilibrium in the limit of small dissipation coefficients. We describe a method to speed up the relaxation process and a method to implement the B vector . del p = 0 condition. These methods are applied to obtain three-dimensional heliac equilibria using the reduced heliac equations

  9. Discretization model for nonlinear dynamic analysis of three dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Y.

    1982-12-01

    A discretization model for nonlinear dynamic analysis of three dimensional structures is presented. The discretization is achieved through a three dimensional spring-mass system and the dynamic response obtained by direct integration of the equations of motion using central diferences. First the viability of the model is verified through the analysis of homogeneous linear structures and then its performance in the analysis of structures subjected to impulsive or impact loads, taking into account both geometrical and physical nonlinearities is evaluated. (Author) [pt

  10. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  11. Three-dimensional FDTD Modeling of Earth-ionosphere Cavity Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Pasko, V. P.

    2003-12-01

    Resonance properties of the earth-ionosphere cavity were first predicted by W. O. Schumann in 1952 [Schumann, Z. Naturforsch. A, 7, 149, 1952]. Since then observations of extremely low frequency (ELF) signals in the frequency range 1-500 Hz have become a powerful tool for monitoring of global lightning activity and planetary scale variability of the lower ionosphere, as well as, in recent years, for location and remote sensing of sprites, jets and elves and associated lightning discharges [e.g., Sato et al., JASTP, 65, 607, 2003; Su et al., Nature, 423, 974, 2003; and references cited therein]. The simplicity and flexibility of finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique for finding first principles solutions of electromagnetic problems in a medium with arbitrary inhomogeneities and ever-increasing computer power make FDTD an excellent candidate to be the technique of the future in development of realistic numerical models of VLF/ELF propagation in Earth-ionosphere waveguide [Cummer, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 48, 1420, 2000], and several reports about successful application of the FDTD technique for solution of related problems have recently appeared in the literature [e.g., Thevenot et al., Ann. Telecommun., 54, 297, 1999; Cummer, 2000; Berenger, Ann. Telecommun., 57, 1059, 2002, Simpson and Taflove, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett., 1, 53, 2002]. In this talk we will present results from a new three-dimensional spherical FDTD model, which is designed for studies of ELF electromagnetic signals under 100 Hz in the earth-ionosphere cavity. The model accounts for a realistic latitudinal and longitudinal variation of ground conductivity (i.e., for the boundaries between oceans and continents) by employing a broadband surface impedance technique proposed in [Breggs et al., IEEE Trans. Antenna Propagat., 41, 118, 1993]. The realistic distributions of atmospheric/lower ionospheric conductivity are derived from the international reference ionosphere model

  12. Advancing three-dimensional MEMS by complimentary laser micro manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Williams, John D.; Lemp, Tom; Lehecka, Tom M.; Medina, Francisco; Wicker, Ryan B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes improvements that enable engineers to create three-dimensional MEMS in a variety of materials. It also provides a means for selectively adding three-dimensional, high aspect ratio features to pre-existing PMMA micro molds for subsequent LIGA processing. This complimentary method involves in situ construction of three-dimensional micro molds in a stand-alone configuration or directly adjacent to features formed by x-ray lithography. Three-dimensional micro molds are created by micro stereolithography (MSL), an additive rapid prototyping technology. Alternatively, three-dimensional features may be added by direct femtosecond laser micro machining. Parameters for optimal femtosecond laser micro machining of PMMA at 800 nanometers are presented. The technical discussion also includes strategies for enhancements in the context of material selection and post-process surface finish. This approach may lead to practical, cost-effective 3-D MEMS with the surface finish and throughput advantages of x-ray lithography. Accurate three-dimensional metal microstructures are demonstrated. Challenges remain in process planning for micro stereolithography and development of buried features following femtosecond laser micro machining.

  13. Evidences of Seasonal Variation in Altimetry Derived Ocean Tides in the Subarctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hok Sum Fok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While the barotropic ocean tides in the deep ocean are well modeled to ~2 cm RMS, accurate tidal prediction in the ice-covered polar oceans and near coastal regions remain elusive. A notable reason is that the most accurate satellite altimeters (TOPEX/Jason-1/-2, whose orbits are optimized to minimize the tidal aliasing effect, have spatial coverage limited to largely outside of the polar ocean. Here, we update the assessment of tidal models using 7 contemporary global and regional models, and show that the altimetry sea surface height (SSH anomaly residual after tidal correction is 9 - 12 cm RMS in the Subarctic Ocean. We then address the hypothesis whether plausible evidence of variable tidal signals exist in the seasonally ice-covered Subarctic Ocean, where the sea ice cover is undergoing rapid thinning. We first found a difference in variance reduction for multi-mission altimeter SSH anomaly residuals during the summer and winter seasons, with the residual during winter season 15 - 30% larger than that during the summer season. Experimental seasonal ocean tide solutions derived from satellite altimetry reveals that the recovered winter and summer tidal constituents generally differ by a few cm in amplitude and tens of degrees in phase. Relatively larger seasonal tidal patterns, in particular for M2, S2 and K1 tides, have been identified in the Chukchi Sea study region near eastern Siberia, coincident with the seasonal presence and movement of sea ice.

  14. Visual Interpretation with Three-Dimensional Annotations (VITA): Three-Dimensional Image Interpretation Tool for Radiological Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Sharmili; Brown, Michael S.; Shih, George L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a software framework called Visual Interpretation with Three-Dimensional Annotations (VITA) that is able to automatically generate three-dimensional (3D) visual summaries based on radiological annotations made during routine exam reporting. VITA summaries are in the form of rotating 3D volumes where radiological annotations are highlighted to place important clinical observations into a 3D context. The rendered volume is produced as a Digital Imaging and Communications i...

  15. Electron tomography, three-dimensional Fourier analysis and colour prediction of a three-dimensional amorphous biophotonic nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawkey, Matthew D.; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Pálsdóttir, Hildur; Crum, John; Ellisman, Mark H.; Auer, Manfred; Prum, Richard O.

    2009-01-01

    Organismal colour can be created by selective absorption of light by pigments or light scattering by photonic nanostructures. Photonic nanostructures may vary in refractive index over one, two or three dimensions and may be periodic over large spatial scales or amorphous with short-range order. Theoretical optical analysis of three-dimensional amorphous nanostructures has been challenging because these structures are difficult to describe accurately from conventional two-dimensional electron microscopy alone. Intermediate voltage electron microscopy (IVEM) with tomographic reconstruction adds three-dimensional data by using a high-power electron beam to penetrate and image sections of material sufficiently thick to contain a significant portion of the structure. Here, we use IVEM tomography to characterize a non-iridescent, three-dimensional biophotonic nanostructure: the spongy medullary layer from eastern bluebird Sialia sialis feather barbs. Tomography and three-dimensional Fourier analysis reveal that it is an amorphous, interconnected bicontinuous matrix that is appropriately ordered at local spatial scales in all three dimensions to coherently scatter light. The predicted reflectance spectra from the three-dimensional Fourier analysis are more precise than those predicted by previous two-dimensional Fourier analysis of transmission electron microscopy sections. These results highlight the usefulness, and obstacles, of tomography in the description and analysis of three-dimensional photonic structures. PMID:19158016

  16. Three-dimensional simulation of flow, salinity, sediment, and radionuclide movements in the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1985-04-01

    The three-dimensional, finite difference model, FLESCOT simulates time-varying movements of flow, turbulent kinetic energy, salinity, water temperature, sediment, and contaminants in estuarine, coastal, and ocean waters. The model was applied to a 106-km (66-mi) reach of the Hudson River estuary in New York between Chelsea and the mouth of the river. It predicted the time-varying, three-dimensional distributions of tidal flow, salinity, three separate groups of sediments (i.e., sand, silt, and clay), and a radionuclide ( 137 Cs) in both dissolved and particulate (those sorbed by sediments) forms for over 40 days. The model also calculated riverbed elevation changes caused by sediment deposition and bed erosion, bed sediment size distribution and armoring, and distributions of the particulate 137 Cs sorbed by sand, silt, and clay in the bed

  17. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, Ahmad [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2017-08-11

    The objective of this is to develop a 3-D numerical model for simulating mode I, II, and III (tensile, shear, and out-of-plane) propagation of multiple fractures and fracture clusters to accurately predict geothermal reservoir stimulation using the virtual multi-dimensional internal bond (VMIB). Effective development of enhanced geothermal systems can significantly benefit from improved modeling of hydraulic fracturing. In geothermal reservoirs, where the temperature can reach or exceed 350oC, thermal and poro-mechanical processes play an important role in fracture initiation and propagation. In this project hydraulic fracturing of hot subsurface rock mass will be numerically modeled by extending the virtual multiple internal bond theory and implementing it in a finite element code, WARP3D, a three-dimensional finite element code for solid mechanics. The new constitutive model along with the poro-thermoelastic computational algorithms will allow modeling the initiation and propagation of clusters of fractures, and extension of pre-existing fractures. The work will enable the industry to realistically model stimulation of geothermal reservoirs. The project addresses the Geothermal Technologies Office objective of accurately predicting geothermal reservoir stimulation (GTO technology priority item). The project goal will be attained by: (i) development of the VMIB method for application to 3D analysis of fracture clusters; (ii) development of poro- and thermoelastic material sub-routines for use in 3D finite element code WARP3D; (iii) implementation of VMIB and the new material routines in WARP3D to enable simulation of clusters of fractures while accounting for the effects of the pore pressure, thermal stress and inelastic deformation; (iv) simulation of 3D fracture propagation and coalescence and formation of clusters, and comparison with laboratory compression tests; and (v) application of the model to interpretation of injection experiments (planned by our

  18. The three-dimensional distribution of minerals in potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Nithya K.; White, Philip J.; Broadley, Martin R.; Ramsay, Gavin

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The three-dimensional distributions of mineral elements in potato tubers provide insight into their mechanisms of transport and deposition. Many of these minerals are essential to a healthy human diet, and characterizing their distribution within the potato tuber will guide the effective utilization of this staple foodstuff. Methods The variation in mineral composition within the tuber was determined in three dimensions, after determining the orientation of the harvested tuber in the soil. The freeze-dried tuber samples were analysed for minerals using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Minerals measured included those of nutritional significance to the plant and to human consumers, such as iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur. Key Results The concentrations of most minerals were higher in the skin than in the flesh of tubers. The potato skin contained about 17 % of total tuber zinc, 34 % of calcium and 55 % of iron. On a fresh weight basis, most minerals were higher in tuber flesh at the stem end than the bud end of the tuber. Potassium, however, displayed a gradient in the opposite direction. The concentrations of phosphorus, copper and calcium decreased from the periphery towards the centre of the tuber. Conclusions The distribution of minerals varies greatly within the potato tuber. Low concentrations of some minerals relative to those in leaves may be due to their low mobility in phloem, whereas high concentrations in the skin may reflect direct uptake from the soil across the periderm. In tuber flesh, different minerals show distinct patterns of distribution in the tuber, several being consistent with phloem unloading in the tuber and limited onward movement. These findings have implications both for understanding directed transport of minerals in plants to stem-derived storage organs and for the dietary implications of different food preparation methods for potato tubers

  19. Three-dimensional geometric analysis of felid limb bone allometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Doube

    Full Text Available Studies of bone allometry typically use simple measurements taken in a small number of locations per bone; often the midshaft diameter or joint surface area is compared to body mass or bone length. However, bones must fulfil multiple roles simultaneously with minimum cost to the animal while meeting the structural requirements imposed by behaviour and locomotion, and not exceeding its capacity for adaptation and repair. We use entire bone volumes from the forelimbs and hindlimbs of Felidae (cats to investigate regional complexities in bone allometry.Computed tomographic (CT images (16435 slices in 116 stacks were made of 9 limb bones from each of 13 individuals of 9 feline species ranging in size from domestic cat (Felis catus to tiger (Panthera tigris. Eleven geometric parameters were calculated for every CT slice and scaling exponents calculated at 5% increments along the entire length of each bone. Three-dimensional moments of inertia were calculated for each bone volume, and spherical radii were measured in the glenoid cavity, humeral head and femoral head. Allometry of the midshaft, moments of inertia and joint radii were determined. Allometry was highly variable and related to local bone function, with joint surfaces and muscle attachment sites generally showing stronger positive allometry than the midshaft.Examining whole bones revealed that bone allometry is strongly affected by regional variations in bone function, presumably through mechanical effects on bone modelling. Bone's phenotypic plasticity may be an advantage during rapid evolutionary divergence by allowing exploitation of the full size range that a morphotype can occupy. Felids show bone allometry rather than postural change across their size range, unlike similar-sized animals.

  20. Assessment of the effect of three-dimensional mantle density heterogeneity on earth rotation in tidal frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chao, Benjamin F; Sun, Wenke; Kuang, Weijia

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we report the assessment of the effect of the three-dimensional (3D) density heterogeneity in the mantle on Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) (i.e., the polar motion, or PM, and the length of day, or LOD) in the tidal frequencies. The 3D mantle density model is estimated based upon a global S-wave velocity tomography model (S16U6L8) and the mineralogical knowledge derived from laboratory experiment. The lateral density variation is referenced against the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). Using this approach the effects of the heterogeneous mantle density variation in all three tidal frequencies (zonal long periods, tesseral diurnal, and sectorial semidiurnal) are estimated in both PM and LOD. When compared with mass or density perturbations originated on the earth's surface such as the oceanic and barometric changes, the heterogeneous mantle only contributes less than 10% of the total variation in PM and LOD in tidal frequencies. Nevertheless, including the 3D variation of the density in the mantle into account explained a substantial portion of the discrepancy between the observed signals in PM and LOD extracted from the lump-sum values based on continuous space geodetic measurement campaigns (e.g., CONT94) and the computed contribution from ocean tides as predicted by tide models derived from satellite altimetry observations (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon). In other word, the difference of the two, at all tidal frequencies (long-periods, diurnals, and semi-diurnals) contains contributions of the lateral density heterogeneity of the mantle. Study of the effect of mantle density heterogeneity effect on torque-free earth rotation may provide useful constraints to construct the Reference Earth Model (REM), which is the next major objective in global geophysics research beyond PREM.

  1. A plastic surgery application in evolution: three-dimensional printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Theodore L; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Kim, Peter S; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J

    2014-02-01

    Three-dimensional printing represents an evolving technology still in its infancy. Currently, individuals and small business entities have the ability to manufacture physical objects from digital renderings, computer-aided design, and open source files. Design modifications and improvements in extrusion methods have made this technology much more affordable. This article explores the potential uses of three-dimensional printing in plastic surgery. A review was performed detailing the known uses of three-dimensional printing in medicine. The potential applications of three-dimensional printing in plastic surgery are discussed. Various applications for three-dimensional printing technology have emerged in medicine, including printing organs, printing body parts, bio-printing, and computer-aided tissue engineering. In plastic surgery, these tools offer various prospective applications for surgical planning, resident education, and the development of custom prosthetics. Numerous applications exist in medicine, including the printing of devices, implants, tissue replacements, and even whole organs. Plastic surgeons may likely find this technology indispensable in surgical planning, education, and prosthetic device design and development in the near future.

  2. Three-dimensional printing and pediatric liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhouri, Naim; Zein, Nizar N

    2016-10-01

    Enthusiastic physicians and medical researchers are investigating the role of three-dimensional printing in medicine. The purpose of the current review is to provide a concise summary of the role of three-dimensional printing technology as it relates to the field of pediatric hepatology and liver transplantation. Our group and others have recently demonstrated the feasibility of printing three-dimensional livers with identical anatomical and geometrical landmarks to the native liver to facilitate presurgical planning of complex liver surgeries. Medical educators are exploring the use of three-dimensional printed organs in anatomy classes and surgical residencies. Moreover, mini-livers are being developed by regenerative medicine scientist as a way to test new drugs and, eventually, whole livers will be grown in the laboratory to replace organs with end-stage disease solving the organ shortage problem. From presurgical planning to medical education to ultimately the bioprinting of whole organs for transplantation, three-dimensional printing will change medicine as we know in the next few years.

  3. Three-dimensional magnetospheric equilibrium with isotropic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1995-05-01

    In the absence of the toroidal flux, two coupled quasi two-dimensional elliptic equilibrium equations have been derived to describe self-consistent three-dimensional static magnetospheric equilibria with isotropic pressure in an optimal (Ψ,α,χ) flux coordinate system, where Ψ is the magnetic flux function, χ is a generalized poloidal angle, α is the toroidal angle, α = φ - δ(Ψ,φ,χ) is the toroidal angle, δ(Ψ,φ,χ) is periodic in φ, and the magnetic field is represented as rvec B = ∇Ψ x ∇α. A three-dimensional magnetospheric equilibrium code, the MAG-3D code, has been developed by employing an iterative metric method. The main difference between the three-dimensional and the two-dimensional axisymmetric solutions is that the field-aligned current and the toroidal magnetic field are finite for the three-dimensional case, but vanish for the two-dimensional axisymmetric case. With the same boundary flux surface shape, the two-dimensional axisymmetric results are similar to the three-dimensional magnetosphere at each local time cross section

  4. Three-dimensional imagery by encoding sources of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, Isabelle

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the theoretical and practical study of X ray coded sources, and thus notably aims at exploring whether it would be possible to transform a standard digital radiography apparatus (as those operated in radiology hospital departments) into a low cost three-dimensional imagery system. The author first recalls the principle of conventional tomography and improvement attempts, and describes imagery techniques based on the use of encoding openings and source encoding. She reports the modelling of an imagery system based on encoded sources of X ray, and addresses the original notion of three-dimensional response for such a system. The author then addresses the reconstruction method by considering the reconstruction of a plane object, of a multi-plane object, and of real three-dimensional object. The frequency properties and the tomographic capacities of various types of source codes are analysed. She describes a prototype tomography apparatus, and presents and discusses three-dimensional actual phantom reconstructions. She finally introduces a new principle of dynamic three-dimensional radiography which implements an acquisition technique by 'gating code'. The acquisition principle should allow the reconstruction of volumes animated by periodic deformations, such as the heart for example [fr

  5. The Southern Ocean as a driver of centennial to millenial timescale radiocarbon variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, K. B.; Bianchi, D.; Galbraith, E.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Iudicone, D.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Slater, R. D.

    2009-04-01

    Paleo-proxy records reveal large delta-c14 variations for both the atmosphere and the ocean on centennial to millenial timescales. One of the most pronounced examples is the onset phase of the Younger Dryas, when atmospheric delta-c14 rose by 70 per mil in only 200 years. Another is the most recent deglaciation (and the associated "Mystery Interval"). Many of the significant centennial to millenial transients in atmospheric delta-c14 are reflected in ocean interior delta-c14 at intermediate depths in the Pacific over the last 50kyrs. An ocean model has been used to test the idea that only modest perturbations to Southern Ocean winds provides a means to link the oceanic and atmospheric delta-c14 variations. Perturbations to the winds over the Southern Ocean are able to drive sizable decoupling of the fluxes of 14CO2 and 12CO2 over the Southern Ocean, thus modifying atmospheric delta-c14. These same perturbations are able to perturb rapidly the depth of intermediate water horizons in the North Pacific through the passage of baroclinic planetary (Rossby) waves. This sensitivity is significantly stronger than what previous studies have found for perturbations to the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) in the North Atlantic. It is suggested that delta-c14 may provide a powerful tracer for understanding past variations in the climate system.

  6. Long-Term Evaluation of Ocean Tidal Variation Models of Polar Motion and UT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbon, Maria; Balidakis, Kyriakos; Belda, Santiago; Nilsson, Tobias; Hagedoorn, Jan; Schuh, Harald

    2018-04-01

    Recent improvements in the development of VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) and other space geodetic techniques such as the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) require very precise a-priori information of short-period (daily and sub-daily) Earth rotation variations. One significant contribution to Earth rotation is caused by the diurnal and semi-diurnal ocean tides. Within this work, we developed a new model for the short-period ocean tidal variations in Earth rotation, where the ocean tidal angular momentum model and the Earth rotation variation have been setup jointly. Besides the model of the short-period variation of the Earth's rotation parameters (ERP), based on the empirical ocean tide model EOT11a, we developed also ERP models, that are based on the hydrodynamic ocean tide models FES2012 and HAMTIDE. Furthermore, we have assessed the effect of uncertainties in the elastic Earth model on the resulting ERP models. Our proposed alternative ERP model to the IERS 2010 conventional model considers the elastic model PREM and 260 partial tides. The choice of the ocean tide model and the determination of the tidal velocities have been identified as the main uncertainties. However, in the VLBI analysis all models perform on the same level of accuracy. From these findings, we conclude that the models presented here, which are based on a re-examined theoretical description and long-term satellite altimetry observation only, are an alternative for the IERS conventional model but do not improve the geodetic results.

  7. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Seeley, C.H.; Henderson, J.A.; Schmidl, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental flow visualization tool, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), is being used to determine the velocity field in two-dimensional fluid flows. In the past few years, the technique has been improved to allow the capture of flow fields in three dimensions. This paper describes changes which were made to two existing two-dimensional tracking algorithms to enable them to track three-dimensional PIV data. Results of the tests performed on these three-dimensional routines with synthetic data are presented. Experimental data was also used to test the tracking algorithms. The test setup which was used to acquire the three-dimensional experimental data is described, along with the results from both of the tracking routines which were used to analyze the experimental data. (author)

  8. Three-dimensional simulations of resistance spot welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Zhang, Wenqi; Perret, William

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws from the fundamentals of electro-thermo-mechanical coupling to the main aspects of finite element implementation and three-dimensional modelling of resistance welding. A new simulation environment is proposed in order to perform three-dimensional simulations and optimization...... of resistance welding together with the simulations of conventional and special-purpose quasi-static mechanical tests. Three-dimensional simulations of resistance welding consider the electrical, thermal, mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of the material as well as the operating conditions...... of the welding machines. Simulations of the mechanical tests take into account material softening due to the accumulation of ductile damage and cover conventional tests, such as tensile–shear tests, cross-tension test and peel tests, as well as the possibility of special-purpose tests designed by the users...

  9. Application of three-dimensional CT reconstruction cranioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shuli; Yun Yongxing; Wan Kunming; Qiu Jian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the application of three-dimensional CT reconstruction in cranioplasty. Methods: 46 patients with skull defect were divided into two group. One group underwent CT examination and three-dimensional reconstruction, and then the Titanium nets production company manufactured corresponding titanium meshes were shaped those data before the operation. The other group received traditional operation in which titanium meshes were shaped during operation. The average time of operation were compared. Results: The average time of operation of the first group is 86.6±13.6 mins, and that of the second group is 115±15.0 mins. The difference of average operation time between the two groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: Three-dimensional CT reconstruction techniques contribute to shorten the average operation time, reduce the intensity of neurosurgeon's work and the patien's risk. (authors)

  10. Eustachian tube three-dimensional reconstruction of secretory otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yafeng; Zhou Weirong; Bao Xueping; Li Min; Hu Zhenmin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study relationship between Eustachian tube and secretory otitis media and to explore the pathogeny of secretory otitis by three-dimensional reconstruction of Eustachian tube. Methods: Thirty cases of secretory otitis media (male 19, female 11) were selected randomly. Everyone was checked by otoscope and audiometry. Their bilateral Eustachian tubes were scanning by helix CT while making Valsalva's action. All images were passed on to work station to make three-dimensional reconstruction. Results: Four patients were found have Eustachian tube diseases, while most of patients' Eustachian tubes ventilated normally. Conclusions: Three-dimensional reconstruction of Eustachian tube can open out some pathogens of some secretory otitis medias. It will be helpful to diagnosis and therapy of secretory otitis media. (authors)

  11. Three-dimensional CT of the pediatric spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starshak, R.J.; Crawford, C.R.; Waisman, R.C.; Sty, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    CT of the spine has been shown to be useful in evaluating congenital, neoplastic, inflammatory, and traumatic lesions. Any portion of the neural arch may be involved by these disease processes. However, the complex nature of the spinal column can make evaluation of these abnormalities difficult on axial CT. This is especially true if the spine is distorted by scoliosis, kyphosis, or lordosis. The principal advantage of three-dimensional CT is its ability to display the surface relationships of complicated objects. The complexity of the spinal axis makes it ideal for study with three-dimensional CT. This presentation illustrates the advantages and drawbacks of three-dimensional CT in spinal abnormalities in children

  12. Two- and three-dimensional CT analysis of ankle fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.; Ney, D.R.; Kuhlman, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    CT with coronal and sagittal reformatting (two-dimensional CT) and animated volumetric image rendering (three-dimensional CT) was used to assess ankle fractures. Partial volume limits transaxial CT in assessments of horizontally oriented structures. Two-dimensional CT, being orthogonal to the plafond, superior mortise, talar dome, and tibial epiphysis, often provides the most clinically useful images. Two-dimensional CT is most useful in characterizing potentially confusing fractures, such as Tillaux (anterior tubercle), triplane, osteochondral talar dome, or nondisplaced talar neck fractures, and it is the best study to confirm intraarticular fragments. Two-and three-dimensional CT best indicate the percentage of articular surface involvement and best demonstrate postoperative results or complications (hardware migration, residual step-off, delayed union, DJD, AVN, etc). Animated three-dimensional images are the preferred means of integrating the two-dimensional findings for surgical planning, as these images more closely simulate the clinical problem

  13. Prognostic value of three-dimensional ultrasound for fetal hydronephrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, JUNMEI; YING, WEIWEN; TANG, DAXING; YANG, LIMING; LIU, DONGSHENG; LIU, YUANHUI; PAN, JIAOE; XIE, XING

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the prognostic value of three-dimensional ultrasound for fetal hydronephrosis. Pregnant females with fetal hydronephrosis were enrolled and a novel three-dimensional ultrasound indicator, renal parenchymal volume/kidney volume, was introduced to predict the postnatal prognosis of fetal hydronephrosis in comparison with commonly used ultrasound indicators. All ultrasound indicators of fetal hydronephrosis could predict whether postnatal surgery was required for fetal hydronephrosis; however, the predictive performance of renal parenchymal volume/kidney volume measurements as an individual indicator was the highest. In conclusion, ultrasound is important in predicting whether postnatal surgery is required for fetal hydronephrosis, and the three-dimensional ultrasound indicator renal parenchymal volume/kidney volume has a high predictive performance. Furthermore, the majority of cases of fetal hydronephrosis spontaneously regress subsequent to birth, and the regression time is closely associated with ultrasound indicators. PMID:25667626

  14. A method of image improvement in three-dimensional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yasuzo; Huang, Tewen; Furuhata, Kentaro; Uchino, Masafumi.

    1988-01-01

    In general, image interpolation is required when the surface configurations of such structures as bones and organs are three-dimensionally constructed from the multi-sliced images obtained by CT. Image interpolation is a processing method whereby an artificial image is inserted between two adjacent slices to make spatial resolution equal to slice resolution in appearance. Such image interpolation makes it possible to increase the image quality of the constructed three-dimensional image. In our newly-developed algorithm, we have converted the presently and subsequently sliced images to distance images, and generated the interpolation images from these two distance images. As a result, compared with the previous method, three-dimensional images with better image quality have been constructed. (author)

  15. Three-dimensional, three-component wall-PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthe, André; Kondermann, Daniel; Christensen, Carolyn; Goubergrits, Leonid; Garbe, Christoph; Affeld, Klaus; Kertzscher, Ulrich

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a new time-resolved three-dimensional, three-component (3D-3C) measurement technique called wall-PIV. It was developed to assess near wall flow fields and shear rates near non-planar surfaces. The method is based on light absorption according to Beer-Lambert’s law. The fluid containing a molecular dye and seeded with buoyant particles is illuminated by a monochromatic, diffuse light. Due to the dye, the depth of view is limited to the near wall layer. The three-dimensional particle positions can be reconstructed by the intensities of the particle’s projection on an image sensor. The flow estimation is performed by a new algorithm, based on learned particle trajectories. Possible sources of measurement errors related to the wall-PIV technique are analyzed. The accuracy analysis was based on single particle experiments and a three-dimensional artificial data set simulating a rotating sphere.

  16. A three-dimensional field solutions of Halbach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jizhong; Xiao Jijun; Zhang Yiming; Xu Chunyan

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional field solutions are presented for Halback cylinder magnet. Based on Ampere equivalent current methods, the permanent magnets are taken as distributing of current density. For getting the three-dimensional field solution of ideal polarized permanent magnets, the solution method entails the use of the vector potential and involves the closed-form integration of the free-space Green's function. The programmed field solution are ideal for performing rapid parametric studies of the dipole Halback cylinder magnets made from rare earth materials. The field solutions are verified by both an analytical two-dimensional algorithm and three-dimensional finite element software. A rapid method is presented for extensive analyzing and optimizing Halbach cylinder magnet. (authors)

  17. Computational methods for three-dimensional microscopy reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to the recovery of three-dimensional information on a biological object, which are often formulated or implemented initially in an intuitive way, are concisely described here based on physical models of the object and the image-formation process. Both three-dimensional electron microscopy and X-ray tomography can be captured in the same mathematical framework, leading to closely-related computational approaches, but the methodologies differ in detail and hence pose different challenges. The editors of this volume, Gabor T. Herman and Joachim Frank, are experts in the respective methodologies and present research at the forefront of biological imaging and structural biology.   Computational Methods for Three-Dimensional Microscopy Reconstruction will serve as a useful resource for scholars interested in the development of computational methods for structural biology and cell biology, particularly in the area of 3D imaging and modeling.

  18. Three-dimensional CT imaging of soft-tissue anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, E.K.; Ney, D.R.; Magid, D.; Kuhlman, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional display of computed tomographic data has been limited to skeletal structures. This was in part related to the reconstruction algorithm used, which relied on a binary classification scheme. A new algorithm, volumetric rendering with percentage classification, provides the ability to display three-dimensional images of muscle and soft tissue. A review was conducted of images in 35 cases in which muscle and/or soft tissue were part of the clinical problem. In all cases, individual muscle groups could be clearly identified and discriminated. Branching vessels in the range of 2.3 mm could be identified. Similarly, lymph nodes could be clearly defined. High-resolution three-dimensional images were found to be useful both in providing an increased understanding of complex muscle and soft tissue anatomy and in surgical planning

  19. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of natural convection under the influence of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessner, R.

    1996-04-01

    This report deals with the influence of strong magnetic fields on three-dimensional natural convection. First the dimensionless basic equations are derived in cartesian coordinates. This equations are solved numerically in rectangular domains with a Finite-Difference-Method. The following calculations investigate the flow in an electrically insulated cube which is heated and cooled at side walls. It is possible to perform systematic computations for the variation of the direction of the magnetic field and thermal boundary conditions. (orig.)

  20. Development of three-dimensional transport code by the double finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Toichiro

    1985-01-01

    Development of a three-dimensional neutron transport code by the double finite element method is described. Both of the Galerkin and variational methods are adopted to solve the problem, and then the characteristics of them are compared. Computational results of the collocation method, developed as a technique for the vaviational one, are illustrated in comparison with those of an Ssub(n) code. (author)

  1. The three-dimensional distribution of atmospheric heating during the GWE

    OpenAIRE

    SCHAACK, TODD K.; JOHNSON, DONALD R.; WEI, MING-YING

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional global distributions of time-averaged atmospheric heating for January, April, July and October 1979 are estimated from the ECMWF GWE Level IIIb data set. Heating rates are calculated through a vertical integration of the isentropic equation of mass continuity. Estimates of the vertical variation of heating are presented in isobaric coordinates through interpolation of the vertical profiles of heating from isentropic to isobaric coordinates. The horizontal distributions o...

  2. Three-dimensional quadrupole lenses made with permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of accelerator systems with quadrupole magnets can be improved by using permanent magnets in quadrupole lenses. This requires better methods for treating the three-dimensional nature of the magnetic fields and the nonlinear characteristics of the magnets. A numerical method is described for simulating three-dimensional magnetic fields and used to analyze quadrupole lenses and doublets with permanent magnets. The results, which are confirmed experimentally, indicate that both the quadrupole magnetic gradient and the effective field length are changed in permanent-magnet quadrupole lenses when the pole lengths and the gap between the lenses are varied while the other characteristics of the magnets remain unchanged

  3. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shaoen; Zheng Zhijian; Liu Zhongli

    2001-01-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments

  4. Three-dimensional flow and turbulence structure in electrostatic precipitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Thorvald Uhrskov; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Özcan, Oktay

    2002-01-01

    Stereo PIV is employed to study the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a laboratory model of a negative corona, barbed-wire, smooth-plate, electrostatic precipitator (figure 1). The study is focused on determining the parametric effects of axial development, mean current density Jm...... and bulk velocity U0 on secondary flows and turbulence levels and structures due to the action of the three-dimensional electrostatic field on the charged gas. At constant bulk velocity (U0 = 1 m/s) and current density (Jm = 0.4 mA/m2), secondary flows in the form of rolls of axial vorticity with swirl...

  5. Three-dimensional wax patterning of paper fluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Christophe; Koehne, Jessica; Ricco, Antonio J; Crooks, Richard M

    2014-06-17

    In this paper we describe a method for three-dimensional wax patterning of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs). The method is rooted in the fundamental details of wax transport in paper and provides a simple way to fabricate complex channel architectures such as hemichannels and fully enclosed channels. We show that three-dimensional μPADs can be fabricated with half as much paper by using hemichannels rather than ordinary open channels. We also provide evidence that fully enclosed channels are efficiently isolated from the exterior environment, decreasing contamination risks, simplifying the handling of the device, and slowing evaporation of solvents.

  6. Implementation of three dimensional treatment planning system for external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, Tibor; Kurup, P.G.G.; Stumpf, Janos

    1997-01-01

    A three dimensional (3D) treatment planning system was installed at Apollo Cancer Hospital, Chennai, India in 1995. This paper gives a short description of the system including hardware components, calculation algorithm, measured data requirements and specific three dimensional features. The concept and the structure of the system are shortly described. The first impressions along with critical opinions and the experiences are gained during the data acquisition are mentioned. Some improvements in the user interface are suggested. It is emphasized that although a 3D system offers more detailed and accurate dose distributions compared to a 2D system, it also introduces a greatly increased workload for the planning staff. (author)

  7. Resonance fluorescence based two- and three-dimensional atom localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Abdul; Rahmatullah; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-06-01

    Two- and three-dimensional atom localization in a two-level atom-field system via resonance fluorescence is suggested. For the two-dimensional localization, the atom interacts with two orthogonal standing-wave fields, whereas for the three-dimensional atom localization, the atom interacts with three orthogonal standing-wave fields. The effect of the detuning and phase shifts associated with the corresponding standing-wave fields is investigated. A precision enhancement in position measurement of the single atom can be noticed via the control of the detuning and phase shifts.

  8. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaoen, Jiang; Zhijian, Zheng; Zhongli, Liu [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2001-04-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments.

  9. Three-dimensional Reciprocal Structures: Morphology, Concepts, Generative Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Pugnale, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    , causing every configuration to develop naturally out-of the plane. The structures presented here were developed and built by the students of the Master of Science in “Architectural Design” during a two week long workshop organized at Aalborg University in the fall semester 2011.......This paper present seven different three dimensional structures based on the principle of structural reciprocity with superimposition joint and standardized un-notched elements. Such typology could be regarded as being intrinsically three-dimensional because elements sit one of the top of the other...

  10. Latitudinal variation of phytoplankton communities in the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Joo, Hyoung; Lee, Sang H.; Won Jung, Seung; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Hwan Lee, Jin

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that photosynthetic eukaryotes are an active and often dominant component of Arctic phytoplankton assemblages. In order to explore this notion at a large scale, samples were collected to investigate the community structure and biovolume of phytoplankton along a transect in the western Arctic Ocean. The transect included 37 stations at the surface and subsurface chlorophyll a maximum (SCM) depths in the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Canadian Basin from July 19 to September 5, 2008. Phytoplankton (>2 μm) were identified and counted. A cluster analysis of abundance and biovolume data revealed different assemblages over the shelf, slope, and basin regions. Phytoplankton communities were composed of 71 taxa representing Dinophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Dictyochophyceae, Prasinophyceae, and Prymnesiophyceae. The most abundant species were of pico- to nano-size at the surface and SCM depths at most stations. Nano- and pico-sized phytoplankton appeared to be dominant in the Bering Sea, whereas diatoms and nano-sized plankton provided the majority of taxon diversity in the Bering Strait and in the Chukchi Sea. From the western Bering Sea to the Bering Strait, the abundance, biovolume, and species diversity of phytoplankton provided a marked latitudinal gradient towards the central Arctic. Although pico- and nano-sized phytoplankton contributed most to cell abundance, their chlorophyll a contents and biovolumes were less than those of the larger micro-sized taxa. Micro-sized phytoplankton contributed most to the biovolume in the largely ice-free waters of the western Arctic Ocean during summer 2008.

  11. Three-dimensional temperature fields of the North Patagonian Sea recorded by Magellanic penguins as biological sampling platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Juan E.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Quintana, Flavio

    2017-04-01

    Temperature is a primary determinant of biogeographic patterns and ecosystem processes. Standard techniques to study the ocean temperature in situ are, however, particularly limited by their time and spatial coverage, problems which might be partially mitigated by using marine top predators as biological platforms for oceanographic sampling. We used small archival tags deployed on 33 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), and obtained 21,070 geo-localized profiles of water temperature, during late spring of 2008, 2011, 2012 and 2013; in a region of the North Patagonian Sea with limited oceanographic records in situ. We compared our in situ data of sea surface temperature (SST) with those available from satellite remote sensing; to describe the three-dimensional temperature fields around the area of influence of two important tidal frontal systems; and to study the inter-annual variation in the three-dimensional temperature fields. There was a strong positive relationship between satellite- and animal-derived SST data although there was an overestimation by remote-sensing by a maximum difference of +2 °C. Little inter-annual variability in the 3-dimensional temperature fields was found, with the exception of 2012 (and to a lesser extent in 2013) where the SST was significantly higher. In 2013, we found weak stratification in a region which was unexpected. In addition, during the same year, a warm small-scale vortex is indicated by the animal-derived temperature data. This allowed us to describe and better understand the dynamics of the water masses, which, so far, have been mainly studied by remote sensors and numerical models. Our results highlight again the potential of using marine top predators as biological platforms to collect oceanographic data, which will enhance and accelerate studies on the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. In a changing world, threatened by climate change, it is urgent to fill information gaps on the coupled ocean-atmosphere system

  12. SU-E-T-752: Three-Dimensional Carcinogenic Maps Induced by Photons and Protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manem, V; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Evaluate the excess relative risk (ERR) induced by photons and protons in each voxel of the lung, and display it as a three-dimensional map, known as the ERRM (i.e. excess relative risk map) along with the dose distribution map. In addition, we also study the effect of variations in the linear energy transfer (LET) distribution on ERRM for a given proton plan. Methods: The excess relative risk due to radiation is estimated using the initiation-inactivation-proliferation formalism. This framework accounts for three biological phenomenon: mutation induction, cell kill and proliferation. Cell kill and mutation induction are taken as a function of LET using experimental data. LET distributions are calculated using a Monte Carlo algorithm. ERR is then estimated for each voxel in the organ, and displayed as a three dimensional carcinogenic map. Results: The differences in the ERR’s between photons and protons is seen from the three-dimensional ERR map. In addition, we also varied the LET of a proton plan and observed the differences in the corresponding ERR maps demonstrating variations in the ERR maps depend on features of a proton plan. Additionally, our results suggest that any two proton plans that have the same integral dose does not necessarily imply identical ERR maps, and these changes are due to the variations in the LET distribution map. Conclusion: Clinically, it is important to have a three dimensional display of biological end points. This study is an effort to introduce 3D ERR maps into the treatment planning workflow for certain sites such as pediatric head and neck tumors.

  13. Acid-base properties of complexes with three-dimensional polyligands. Complexes with three-dimensional polyphosphoric acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopylova, V.D.; Bojko, Eh.T.; Saldadze, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    By the method of potentiometric titration acid-base properties of uranyl (2) complexes with three-dimensional polyphosphoric acids, KRF-8p, KF-1, KF-7 prepared by phosphorylation of copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene or saponification of the copolymers of di-2,2'-chloroethyl ester of vinylphosphonic acid with divinyl benzene are studied. It is shown that in case of formation in the phase of three-dimensional polyphosphoric acids of UO 2 2+ complexes with the growth of bond covalence of metal ion-phosphonic group the acidjty of the second hydroxyl of the phosphonic group increases

  14. Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography of Magnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales, Morten; Strobl, Markus; Shinohara, Takenao

    2018-01-01

    Through the use of Time-of-Flight Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography (ToF 3DPNT) we have for the first time successfully demonstrated a technique capable of measuring and reconstructing three dimensional magnetic field strengths and directions unobtrusively and non-destructively wi......Through the use of Time-of-Flight Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography (ToF 3DPNT) we have for the first time successfully demonstrated a technique capable of measuring and reconstructing three dimensional magnetic field strengths and directions unobtrusively and non...... and reconstructed, thereby providing the proof-of-principle of a technique able to reveal hitherto unobtainable information on the magnetic fields in the bulk of materials and devices, due to a high degree of penetration into many materials, including metals, and the sensitivity of neutron polarisation to magnetic...... fields. The technique puts the potential of the ToF time structure of pulsed neutron sources to full use in order to optimise the recorded information quality and reduce measurement time....

  15. Three-Dimensional Extension of a Digital Library Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Long

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overall methodology and case study for the innovation and extension of a digital library, especially the service system. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the three-dimensional structure theory of the information service industry, this paper combines a comprehensive analysis with the practical experiences…

  16. Quantum field between moving mirrors: A three dimensional example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacyan, S.; Jauregui, Roco; Villarreal, Carlos

    1995-01-01

    The scalar quantum field uniformly moving plates in three dimensional space is studied. Field equations for Dirichlet boundary conditions are solved exactly. Comparison of the resulting wavefunctions with their instantaneous static counterpart is performed via Bogolubov coefficients. Unlike the one dimensional problem, 'particle' creation as well as squeezing may occur. The time dependent Casimir energy is also evaluated.

  17. Three-dimensional fractal geometry for gas permeation in microchannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malankowska, Magdalena; Schlautmann, Stefan; Berenschot, Erwin J.W.; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Pina, Maria Pilar; Mallada, Reyes; Tas, Niels R.; Gardeniers, Han

    2018-01-01

    The novel concept of a microfluidic chip with an integrated three-dimensional fractal geometry with nanopores, acting as a gas transport membrane, is presented. The method of engineering the 3D fractal structure is based on a combination of anisotropic etching of silicon and corner lithography. The

  18. A DETERMINISTIC METHOD FOR TRANSIENT, THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUETRON TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. GOLUOGLU, C. BENTLEY, R. DEMEGLIO, M. DUNN, K. NORTON, R. PEVEY I.SUSLOV AND H.L. DODDS

    1998-01-01

    A deterministic method for solving the time-dependent, three-dimensional Boltzmam transport equation with explicit representation of delayed neutrons has been developed and evaluated. The methodology used in this study for the time variable of the neutron flux is known as the improved quasi-static (IQS) method. The position, energy, and angle-dependent neutron flux is computed deterministically by using the three-dimensional discrete ordinates code TORT. This paper briefly describes the methodology and selected results. The code developed at the University of Tennessee based on this methodology is called TDTORT. TDTORT can be used to model transients involving voided and/or strongly absorbing regions that require transport theory for accuracy. This code can also be used to model either small high-leakage systems, such as space reactors, or asymmetric control rod movements. TDTORT can model step, ramp, step followed by another step, and step followed by ramp type perturbations. It can also model columnwise rod movement can also be modeled. A special case of columnwise rod movement in a three-dimensional model of a boiling water reactor (BWR) with simple adiabatic feedback is also included. TDTORT is verified through several transient one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional benchmark problems. The results show that the transport methodology and corresponding code developed in this work have sufficient accuracy and speed for computing the dynamic behavior of complex multidimensional neutronic systems

  19. Scattering and conductance quantization in three-dimensional metal nanocontacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1997-01-01

    The transmission through three-dimensional nanocontacts is calculated in the presence of localized scattering centers and boundary scattering using a coupled-channel recursion method. Simple confining potentials are used to investigate how robust the observation of quantized conductance is with r...

  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the pigeon inner ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.; Segenhout, J. M.; Wit, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional reconstructions of the inner ear of the pigeon (Columba livia domestica), from two-dimensional images, obtained with (conventional) light microscopy or orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning (OPFOS), are presented. The results are compared with available information on

  1. A note on the three dimensional sine--Gordon equation

    OpenAIRE

    Shariati, Ahmad

    1996-01-01

    Using a simple ansatz for the solutions of the three dimensional generalization of the sine--Gordon and Toda model introduced by Konopelchenko and Rogers, a class of solutions is found by elementary methods. It is also shown that these equations are not evolution equations in the sense that solution to the initial value problem is not unique.

  2. Three-dimensional reacting shock–bubble interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diegelmann, Felix; Hickel, S.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate a reacting shock–bubble interaction through three-dimensional numerical simulations with detailed chemistry. The convex shape of the bubble focuses the shock and generates regions of high pressure and temperature, which are sufficient to ignite the diluted stoichiometric

  3. Polycrystalline diamond detectors with three-dimensional electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, S., E-mail: lagomarsino@fi.infn.it [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bellini, M. [INO-CNR Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carzino, R. [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Cindro, V. [Joseph Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Corsi, C. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); LENS Firenze, Via N. Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Sciortino, S. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Servoli, L. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The three-dimensional concept in diamond detectors has been applied, so far, to high quality single-crystal material, in order to test this technology in the best available conditions. However, its application to polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond could be desirable for two reasons: first, the short inter-electrode distance of three-dimensional detectors should improve the intrinsically lower collection efficiency of polycrystalline diamond, and second, at high levels of radiation damage the performances of the poly-crystal material are not expected to be much lower than those of the single crystal one. We report on the fabrication and test of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors with several inter-electrode distances, and we demonstrate that their collection efficiency is equal or higher than that obtained with conventional planar detectors fabricated with the same material. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser fabrication of polycristalline diamond detectors with 3D electrodes. • Measurement of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) under beta irradiation. • Comparation between the CCE of 3D and conventional planar diamond sensors. • A rationale for the behavior of three-dimensional and planar sensors is given.

  4. Loop expansion in massless three-dimensional QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, E.I.; Radulovic, Z.M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown how the loop expansion in massless three-dimensional QED can be made finite, up to three loops, by absorbing the infrared divergences in a gauge-fixing term. The same method removes leading and first subleading singularities to all orders of perturbation theory, and all singularities of the fermion self-energy to four loops

  5. Three-dimensional models of the tracheostoma using stereolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grolman, W.; Schouwenburg, P. F.; Verbeeten, B.; de Boer, M. F.; Meeuwis, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    The availability of an accurate three-dimensional (3-D) model of the tracheostoma and trachea of the laryngectomy patient would be of great help in prototyping of endotracheal prostheses. Stereolithography has been described for skull and jaw models but never for soft-tissue reconstructions of the

  6. Three-dimensional ultrasound strain imaging of skeletal muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbertse, Kaj; Sprengers, Andre M.; Nillesen, Maartje; Hansen, Hendrik H.G.; Verdonschot, Nico; De Korte, Chris L.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contraction is characterized by large deformation and translation, which requires a multi-dimensional imaging modality to reveal its behavior. Previous work on ultrasound strain imaging of the muscle contraction was limited to 2D and bi-plane techniques. In this study, a three-dimensional

  7. Kondo effect in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, Andrew K.; Fritz, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic impurities in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl systems are shown to exhibit a fascinatingly diverse range of Kondo physics, with distinctive experimental spectroscopic signatures. When the Fermi level is precisely at the Dirac point, Dirac semimetals are in fact unlikely candidates for a

  8. Generation of a Desired Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed three-dimensional electromagnetic field based on generalized phase contrast imaging. Such a method and apparatus may be utilized in advanced optical micro and nano-manipulation, such as by provision of a multiple...

  9. Three-dimensional coupled double-distribution-function lattice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ruo-Fan Qiu

    2017-11-14

    Nov 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Two three-dimensional (3D) lattice Boltzmann models in the framework of coupled double-distribution- function approach for compressible flows, in which specific-heat ratio and Prandtl number can be adjustable, are developed in this paper. The main differences between the two models are ...

  10. Three-dimensional face shape in Fabry disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox-Brinkman, Josanne; Vedder, Anouk; Hollak, Carla; Richfield, Linda; Mehta, Atul; Orteu, Kate; Wijburg, Frits; Hammond, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Facial dysmorphology is an important feature in several lysosomal storage disorders. Although in Fabry disease facial dysmorphism is not a prominent sign, minor facial abnormalities have been previously reported. By analysing three-dimensional images of faces, we quantified facial dysmorphology in a

  11. Three dimensional reconstruction of tomographic images of the retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glittenberg, C.; Zeiler, F.; Falkner, C.; Binder, S.; Povazay, B.; Hermann, B.; Drexler, W.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new display system for the three-dimensional visualization of tomographic images in ophthalmology. Specifically, a system that can use stacks of B-mode scans from an ultrahigh resolution optical tomography examination to vividly display retinal specimens as three-dimensional objects. Several subroutines were programmed in the rendering and raytracing program Cinema 4D XL 9.102 Studio Bundle (Maxon Computer Inc., Friedrichsburg, Germany), which could process stacks of tomographic scans into three-dimensional objects. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography examinations were performed on patients with various retinal pathologies and post processed with the subroutines that had been designed. All ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomographies were performed with a titanium: sapphire based ultra broad bandwidth (160 nm) femtosecond laser system (INTEGRAL, Femtolasers Productions GmbH. Vienna Austria) with an axial resolution of 3 μm. A new three dimensional display system for tomographic images in ophthalmology was developed, which allows a highly vivid display of physiological and pathological structures of the retina. The system also distinguishes itself through its high interactivity and adaptability. This new display system allows the visualization of physiological and pathological structures of the retina in a new way, which will give us new insight into their morphology and development. (author) [de

  12. Numerical Investigation of Three-dimensional Instability of Standing Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2002-11-01

    We study the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing waves under the influence of gravity using the transition matrix method. For accurate calculation of the transition matrices, we apply an efficient high-order spectral element method for nonlinear wave dynamics in complex domain. We consider two types of standing waves: (a) plane standing waves; and (b) standing waves in a circular tank. For the former, in addition to the confirmation of the side-band-like instability, we find a new three-dimensional instability for arbitrary base standing waves. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique standing wave, with an arbitrary angle relative to the base flow, whose frequency is approximately equal to that of the base standing wave. Based on direct simulations, we confirm such a three-dimensional instability and show the occurrence of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence phenomenon during nonlinear evolution. For the latter, we find that beyond a threshold wave steepness, the standing wave with frequency Ω becomes unstable to a small three-dimensional disturbance, which contains two dominant standing-wave components with frequencies ω1 and ω_2, provided that 2Ω ω1 + ω_2. The threshold wave steepness is found to decrease/increase as the radial/azimuthal wavenumber of the base standing wave increases. We show that the instability of standing waves in rectangular and circular tanks is caused by third-order quartet resonances between base flow and disturbance.

  13. Wave packet construction in three-dimensional quantum billiards ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: mannu_711@yahoo.co.in. MS received 14 ... The motivation to extend the study to a three-dimensional (3D) system is .... with a GWP centred around the central value of the principle quantum number n0 instead of a GWP ...... Cubical and parallelepiped billiards are the potential candidates for the creation of arti-.

  14. Green function of a three-dimensional Wick problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    An exact solution of a three-dimensional Coulomb Wick-Cutkovsky problem has been obtained which possesses the hidden 0(4)-symmetry. Here we shell give the derivation of the corresponding Green function and consider its connection with the asymptoric behaviour of the scattering amplitude. 9 refs

  15. Effects of forcing in three-dimensional turbulent flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biferale, L.; Lanotte, A.; Toschi, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a numerical investigation of three-dimensional homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, stirred by a random forcing with a power-law spectrum, Ef(k)~k3-y. Numerical simulations are performed at different resolutions up to 5123. We show that at varying the spectrum slope y,

  16. Three-Dimensional Gauge Theories and ADE Monopoles

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, David

    1998-01-01

    We study three-dimensional N=4 gauge theories with product gauge groups constructed from ADE Dynkin diagrams. One-loop corrections to the metric on the Coulomb branch are shown to coincide with the metric on the moduli space of well-seperated ADE monopoles. We propose that this correspondence is exact.

  17. Three-dimensional simulations of free-electron laser physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, B.D.

    1985-09-01

    A computer code has been developed to simulate three-dimensional free-electron laser physics. A mathematical formulation of the FEL equations is presented, and the numerical solution of the problem is described. Sample results from the computer code are discussed. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Three-dimensional organization of the human interphase nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); C. Münkel (Christian); W. Waldeck (Waldemar); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractDespite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its three-dimensional structure is widely unknown, although it is important for gene regulation and replication. For a long time the interphase nucleus has been viewed as a 'spaghetti soup' of DNA without much internal

  19. Birkhoff's Theorem for Three-Dimensional AdS Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Martínez, Cristián; Zanelli, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    All three-dimensional matter-free spacetimes with negative cosmological constant, compatible with cyclic symmetry are identified. The only cyclic solutions are the 2+1 (BTZ) black hole with SO(2) x R isometry, and the self-dual Coussaert-Henneaux spacetimes, with isometry groups SO(2) x SO(2,1) or SO(2) x SO(2).

  20. Fabrication of three-dimensional carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith

    Carbon microelectrodes have a wide range of applications because of their unique material properties and biocompatibility. The aim of the research work carried out in this thesis was to develop three-dimensional (3D) carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical applications. Three different fabrica...

  1. Three-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of the repaired mitral valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew; Mahmood, Feroze; Poppas, Athena; Singh, Arun

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the geometric changes of the mitral valve (MV) after repair using conventional and three-dimensional echocardiography. Prospective evaluation of consecutive patients undergoing mitral valve repair. Tertiary care university hospital. Fifty consecutive patients scheduled for elective repair of the mitral valve for regurgitant disease. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Assessments of valve area (MVA) were performed using two-dimensional planimetry (2D-Plan), pressure half-time (PHT), and three-dimensional planimetry (3D-Plan). In addition, the direction of ventricular inflow was assessed from the three-dimensional imaging. Good correlations (r = 0.83) and agreement (-0.08 +/- 0.43 cm(2)) were seen between the MVA measured with 3D-Plan and PHT, and were better than either compared to 2D-Plan. MVAs were smaller after repair of functional disease repaired with an annuloplasty ring. After repair, ventricular inflow was directed toward the lateral ventricular wall. Subgroup analysis showed that the change in inflow angle was not different after repair of functional disease (168 to 171 degrees) as compared to those presenting with degenerative disease (168 to 148 degrees; p<0.0001). Three-dimensional imaging provides caregivers with a unique ability to assess changes in valve function after mitral valve repair. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mathematical modeling of three-dimensional images in emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koblik, Yu.N.; Khugaev, A. V.; Mktchyan, G.A.; Ioannou, P.; Dimovasili, E.

    2002-01-01

    The model of processing results of three-dimensional measurements in positron-emissive tomograph is proposed in this work. The algorithm of construction and visualization of phantom objects of arbitrary shape was developed and its concrete realization in view of program packet for PC was carried out

  3. Three-dimensional image reconstruction from stereo DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kiyoshi; Kotoura, Noriko; Umehara, Takayoshi; Yamada, Eiji; Inaba, Tomohiro; Itou, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    The technique of interventional radiology has spread rapidly in recent years, and three-dimensional information from blood vessel images is being sought to enhance examinations. Stereo digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and rotational DSA were developed for that purpose. However, it is difficult with stereo DSA to observe the image pair during examination and to obtain positional information on blood vessels. Further, the exposure dose is increased in rotational DSA when many mask images need to be collected, and the patient is required to hold his or her breath for a long duration. We therefore devised a technique to construct three-dimensional blood vessel images by employing geometrical information extracted from stereo DSA images using the right and left images. We used a judgment method based on the correlation coefficient, although we had to extract an equal blood vessel from the right and left images to determine the three-dimensional coordinates of the blood vessel. The reconstructed three-dimensional blood vessels were projected from various angles, again by using a virtual focus, and new images were created. These image groups were displayed as rotational images by the animation display function incorporated in the DSA device. This system can observe blood vessel images of the same phase at a free angle, although the image quality is inferior to that of rotational DSA. In addition, because collection of the mask images is reduced, exposure dose can be decreased. Further, the system offers enhanced safety because no mechanical movement of the imaging system is involved. (author)

  4. Three-dimensional computer models of electrospinning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smółka Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning is a very interesting method that allows the fabrication of continuous fibers with diameters down to a few nanometers. This paper presents an overview of electrospinning systems as well as their comparison using proposed three-dimensional parameterized numerical models. The presented solutions allow an analysis of the electric field distribution.

  5. Three-Dimensional Structure of CeO2 Nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Joyce Pei Ying; Tan, Hui Ru; Boothroyd, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Visualization of three-dimensional (3D) structures of materials at the nanometer scale can shed important information on the performance of their applications and provide insight into the growth mechanism of shape-controlled nanomaterials. In this paper, the 3D structures and growth pathway of Ce...

  6. Three dimensional simulated modelling of diffusion capacitance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three dimensional (3-D) simulated modelling was developed to analyse the excess minority carrier density in the base of a polycrystalline bifacial silicon solar cell. The concept of junction recombination velocity was ado-pted to quantify carrier flow through the junction, and to examine the solar cell diffusion capacitance for ...

  7. Signal processing of eddy current three-dimensional maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birac, C.; David, D.; Lamant, D.

    1987-01-01

    Digital processing of eddy current three-dimensional maps improves accuracy of detection: flattening, filtering, computing deconvolution, mapping new variables,.., give new possibilities for difficult test problems. With simulation of defects, probes, probe travels, it is now possible to compute new eddy current processes, without machining defects or building probes

  8. Backlund transformations and three-dimensional lattice equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhoff, F.W.; Capel, H.W.; Wiersma, G.L.; Quispel, G.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    A (nonlocal) linear integral equation is studied, which allows for Bäcklund transformations in the measure. The compatibility of three of these transformations leads to an integrable nonlinear three-dimensional lattice equation. In appropriate continuum limits the two-dimensional Toda-lattice

  9. A Novel Three-Dimensional Tool for Teaching Human Neuroanatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Maureen E.; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Bergethon, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of neuroanatomy can be challenging for medical students. This knowledge is essential in order for students to correlate cross-sectional neuroanatomy and whole brain specimens within neuroscience curricula and to interpret clinical and radiological information as clinicians or researchers. This study implemented…

  10. Oblique water entry of a three dimensional body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scolan Yves-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the oblique water entry of a three dimensional body is considered. Wagner theory is the theoretical framework. Applications are discussed for an elliptic paraboloid entering an initially flat free surface. A dedicated experimental campaign yields a data base for comparisons. In the present analysis, pressure, force and dynamics of the wetted surface expansion are assessed.

  11. Splines under tension for gridding three-dimensional data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, H.R.; Frazer, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    By use of the splines-under-tension concept, a simple algorithm has been developed for the three-dimensional representation of nonuniformly spaced data. The representations provide useful information to the experimentalist when he is attempting to understand the results obtained in a self-adaptive experiment. The shortcomings of the algorithm are discussed as well as the advantages

  12. Approaching the Sequential and Three-Dimensional Organization of Genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractGenomes are one of the major foundations of life due to their role in information storage, process regulation and evolution. To achieve a deeper unterstanding of the human genome the three-dimensional organization of the human cell nucleus, the structural-, scaling- and dynamic

  13. Evaluation of three-dimensional virtual perception of garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, G.; Yeşilpinar, S.; Erdem, D.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, three-dimensional design, dressing and simulation programs came into prominence in the textile industry. By these programs, the need to produce clothing samples for every design in design process has been eliminated. Clothing fit, design, pattern, fabric and accessory details and fabric drape features can be evaluated easily. Also, body size of virtual mannequin can be adjusted so more realistic simulations can be created. Moreover, three-dimensional virtual garment images created by these programs can be used while presenting the product to end-user instead of two-dimensional photograph images. In this study, a survey was carried out to investigate the visual perception of consumers. The survey was conducted for three different garment types, separately. Questions about gender, profession etc. was asked to the participants and expected them to compare real samples and artworks or three-dimensional virtual images of garments. When survey results were analyzed statistically, it is seen that demographic situation of participants does not affect visual perception and three-dimensional virtual garment images reflect the real sample characteristics better than artworks for each garment type. Also, it is reported that there is no perception difference depending on garment type between t-shirt, sweatshirt and tracksuit bottom.

  14. Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; Mc; Durand, F.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    version: Geophys. Res. Lett., vol.40(21); 2013; 5740-5744 Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide I. Suresh1, J. Vialard2, M. Lengaigne2, W. Han3, J. McCreary4, F. Durand5, P.M. Muraleedharan1... reversing winds. These wind variations drive seasonal equatorial Kelvin and Rossby wave responses. The seasonal equatorial Kelvin waves propagate into the North Indian Ocean (hereafter NIO) as coastal Kelvin waves [McCreary et al., 1993]. As a result...

  15. Preliminary three-dimensional model of mantle convection with deformable, mobile continental lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2010-06-01

    Characteristic tectonic structures such as young orogenic belts and suture zones in a continent are expected to be mechanically weaker than the stable part of the continental lithosphere with the cratonic root (or cratonic lithosphere) and yield lateral viscosity variations in the continental lithosphere. In the present-day Earth's lithosphere, the pre-existing, mechanically weak zones emerge as a diffuse plate boundary. However, the dynamic role of a weak (low-viscosity) continental margin (WCM) in the stability of continental lithosphere has not been understood in terms of geophysics. Here, a new numerical simulation model of mantle convection with a compositionally and rheologically heterogeneous, deformable, mobile continental lithosphere is presented for the first time by using three-dimensional regional spherical-shell geometry. A compositionally buoyant and highly viscous continental assemblage with pre-existing WCMs, analogous to the past supercontinent, is modeled and imposed on well-developed mantle convection whose vigor of convection, internal heating rate, and rheological parameters are appropriate for the Earth's mantle. The visco-plastic oceanic lithosphere and the associated subduction of oceanic plates are incorporated. The time integration of the advection of continental materials with zero chemical diffusion is performed by a tracer particle method. The time evolution of mantle convection after setting the model supercontinent is followed over 800 Myr. Earth-like continental drift is successfully reproduced, and the characteristic thermal interaction between the mantle and the continent/supercontinent is observed in my new numerical model. Results reveal that the WCM protects the cratonic lithosphere from being stretched by the convecting mantle and may play a significant role in the stability of the cratonic lithosphere during the geological timescale because it acts as a buffer that prevents the cratonic lithosphere from undergoing global

  16. AMOC variations in 1979-2008 simulated by NCEP operational ocean data assimilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Boyin [Climate Prediction Center, NOAA, Camp Springs, MD (United States); National Climate Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States); Xue, Yan; Kumar, Arun [Climate Prediction Center, NOAA, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Behringer, David W. [Environmental Modeling Center, NOAA, Camp Springs, MD (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) between 1979 and 2008 are documented using the operational ocean analysis, the Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS), at the National Centers for Climate Prediction (NCEP). The maximum AMOC at 40 N is about 16 Sv in average with peak-to-peak variability of 3-4 Sv. The AMOC variations are dominated by an upward trend from 1980 to 1995, and a downward trend from 1995 to 2008. The maximum AMOC at 26.5 N is slightly weaker than hydrographic estimates and observations from mooring array. The dominant variability of the AMOC in 20 -65 N (the first EOF, 51% variance) is highly correlated with that in the subsurface temperature (the first EOF, 33% variance), and therefore, with density (the first EOF, 25% variance) in the North Atlantic, and is consistent with the observational estimates based on the World Ocean Database 2005. The dominant variabilities of AMOC and subsurface temperature are also analyzed in the context of possible links with the net surface heat flux, deep convection, western boundary current, and subpolar gyre. Variation in the net surface heat flux is further linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index which is found to lead AMOC variations by about 5 years. Our results indicate that AMOC variations can be documented based on an ocean analysis system such as GODAS. (orig.)

  17. Three-dimensional detonation cellular structures in rectangular ducts using an improved CESE scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Yang

    2016-11-01

    The three-dimensional premixed H2-O2 detonation propagation in rectangular ducts is simulated using an in-house parallel detonation code based on the second-order space–time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme. The simulation reproduces three typical cellular structures by setting appropriate cross-sectional size and initial perturbation in square tubes. As the cross-sectional size decreases, critical cellular structures transforming the rectangular or diagonal mode into the spinning mode are obtained and discussed in the perspective of phase variation as well as decreasing of triple point lines. Furthermore, multiple cellular structures are observed through examples with typical aspect ratios. Utilizing the visualization of detailed three-dimensional structures, their formation mechanism is further analyzed.

  18. Three-dimensional detonation cellular structures in rectangular ducts using an improved CESE scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yang; Liu Kai-Xin; Chen Pu; Shen Hua; Zhang De-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional premixed H 2 -O 2 detonation propagation in rectangular ducts is simulated using an in-house parallel detonation code based on the second-order space–time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme. The simulation reproduces three typical cellular structures by setting appropriate cross-sectional size and initial perturbation in square tubes. As the cross-sectional size decreases, critical cellular structures transforming the rectangular or diagonal mode into the spinning mode are obtained and discussed in the perspective of phase variation as well as decreasing of triple point lines. Furthermore, multiple cellular structures are observed through examples with typical aspect ratios. Utilizing the visualization of detailed three-dimensional structures, their formation mechanism is further analyzed. (paper)

  19. Three-dimensional CT and MR imaging in congenital dislocation of the hip: Technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.; Steiger, P.; Lindquist, T.; Skinner, S.; Moore, S.; Chafetz, N.I.; Genant, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) software techniques were developed to generate diagnostic-quality three-dimensional (3D) MR studies in two patients with congenital dislocation of the hip. Comparable 3D CT studies were obtained in two other patients. Unsharp masks were divided into the original MR images to correct for local variations in signal intensity. Combinations of first- and second-echo images improved the object contrast. Pixels with insufficient homogeneity relative to their neighboring data were excluded. CT did not require 2D preprocessing. Three-dimensional CT and MR images demonstrated subluxation and dislocation. 3D MR, in contrast to CT, demonstrated the cartilaginous femoral head. The described 2D MR preprocessing provides diagnostic-quality 3D MR studies. It will be useful for generating 3D MR images of other anatomic structures

  20. Three-dimensional detonation cellular structures in rectangular ducts using an improved CESE scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Yang; Shen, Hua; Liu, Kai Xin; Chen, Pu; Zhang, De Liang

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional premixed H2-O2 detonation propagation in rectangular ducts is simulated using an in-house parallel detonation code based on the second-order space–time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme. The simulation reproduces three typical cellular structures by setting appropriate cross-sectional size and initial perturbation in square tubes. As the cross-sectional size decreases, critical cellular structures transforming the rectangular or diagonal mode into the spinning mode are obtained and discussed in the perspective of phase variation as well as decreasing of triple point lines. Furthermore, multiple cellular structures are observed through examples with typical aspect ratios. Utilizing the visualization of detailed three-dimensional structures, their formation mechanism is further analyzed.

  1. A Three-Dimensional Kinematic and Kinetic Study of the College-Level Female Softball Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovich, Monica; Nesbit, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies and discusses the three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the female softball swing as performed by fourteen female collegiate amateur subjects. The analyses were performed using a three-dimensional computer model. The model was driven kinematically from subject swings data that were recorded with a multi-camera motion analysis system. Each subject used two distinct bats with significantly different inertial properties. Model output included bat trajectories, subject/bat interaction forces and torques, work, and power. These data formed the basis for a detailed analysis and description of fundamental swing kinematic and kinetic quantities. The analyses revealed that the softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. In addition, the potential effects of bat properties on swing mechanics are discussed. The paths of the hands and the centre-of-curvature of the bat relative to the horizontal plane appear to be important trajectory characteristics of the swing. Descriptions of the swing mechanics and practical implications are offered based upon these findings. Key Points The female softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. The paths of the grip point, bat centre-of-curvature, CG, and COP are complex yet reveal consistent patterns among subjects indicating that these patterns are fundamental components of the swing. The most important mechanical quantity relative to generating bat speed is the total work applied to the bat from the batter. Computer modeling of the softball swing is a viable means for study of the fundamental mechanics of the swing motion, the interactions between the batter and the bat, and the energy transfers between the two. PMID:24570623

  2. A Energy Balance Analysis of the Climate Sensitivity to Variations in the Rate of Upwelling in the World Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morantine, Michael Creighton

    -scale to be the source of the dynamic interaction responsible for this abrupt climatic event. The process employed in the dimension reduction used in the formulation of lower-order EBM's will be illustrated through the development of the equations, pointing out the inherent assumptions which must be made when developing one- and two-dimensional models as they are required. One -, two- and three-dimensional energy balance models will be analyzed and the results of climate sensitivity to upwelling variations will be presented graphically for each case.

  3. Atmospheric and oceanic excitation of decadal-scale Earth orientation variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Richard S.; Fukumori, Ichiro; Menemenlis, Dimitris

    2005-09-01

    The contribution of atmospheric wind and surface pressure and oceanic current and bottom pressure variations during 1949-2002 to exciting changes in the Earth's orientation on decadal timescales is investigated using an atmospheric angular momentum series computed from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis project and an oceanic angular momentum series computed from a near-global ocean model that was forced by surface fluxes from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis project. Not surprisingly, since decadal-scale variations in the length of day are caused mainly by interactions between the mantle and core, the effect of the atmosphere and oceans is found to be only about 14% of that observed. More surprisingly, it is found that the effect of atmospheric and oceanic processes on decadal-scale changes in polar motion is also only about 20% (x component) and 38% (y component) of that observed. Therefore redistribution of mass within the atmosphere and oceans does not appear to be the main cause of the Markowitz wobble. It is also found that on timescales between 10 days and 4 years the atmospheric and oceanic angular momentum series used here have very little skill in explaining Earth orientation variations before the mid to late 1970s. This is attributed to errors in both the Earth orientation observations prior to 1976 when measurements from the accurate space-geodetic techniques became available and to errors in the modeled atmospheric fields prior to 1979 when the satellite era of global weather observing systems began.

  4. The Response of the Ocean Thermal Skin Layer to Variations in Incident Infrared Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elizabeth W.; Minnett, Peter J.

    2018-04-01

    Ocean warming trends are observed and coincide with the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere resulting from human activities. At the ocean surface, most of the incoming infrared (IR) radiation is absorbed within the top micrometers of the ocean's surface where the thermal skin layer (TSL) exists. Thus, the incident IR radiation does not directly heat the upper few meters of the ocean. This paper investigates the physical mechanism between the absorption of IR radiation and its effect on heat transfer at the air-sea boundary. The hypothesis is that given the heat lost through the air-sea interface is controlled by the TSL, the TSL adjusts in response to variations in incident IR radiation to maintain the surface heat loss. This modulates the flow of heat from below and hence controls upper ocean heat content. This hypothesis is tested using the increase in incoming longwave radiation from clouds and analyzing vertical temperature profiles in the TSL retrieved from sea-surface emission spectra. The additional energy from the absorption of increasing IR radiation adjusts the curvature of the TSL such that the upward conduction of heat from the bulk of the ocean into the TSL is reduced. The additional energy absorbed within the TSL supports more of the surface heat loss. Thus, more heat beneath the TSL is retained leading to the observed increase in upper ocean heat content.

  5. Informatics solutions for Three-dimensional visualization in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Montoto, Jose Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    The advances reached in the development of the hardware and in the methods of acquisition of data like tomographic scanners and systems of analysis of images, have allowed obtaining geometric models of biomedical elements with the property of being manipulated through the three-dimensional visualization (3D). Nowadays, this visualization embraces from biological applications, including analysis of structures and its functional relationships, until medical applications that include anatomical accuracies and the planning or the training for complex surgical operations. This work proposes computer solutions to satisfy visualization requirements in real time. The developed algorithms are contained in a graphic library that will facilitate the development of future works. The obtained results allow facing current problems of three-dimensional representation of complex surfaces, realism is reached in the images and they have possible application in bioinformatics and medicine

  6. Visualization of traumatic tricuspid insufficiency by three-dimensional echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kazuhisa; Okayama, Hideki; Inoue, Katsuji; Saito, Makoto; Nagai, Takayuki; Suzuki, Jun; Ogimoto, Akiyoshi; Ohtsuka, Tomoaki; Higaki, Jitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A 19-year-old male was admitted to the emergency room of our hospital after a motor vehicle accident. During his first physical examination, a holosystolic murmur was heard at the fourth left parasternal border. Transthoracic echocardiography showed severe tricuspid insufficiency, but the cause of tricuspid insufficiency was unclear. Therefore, three-dimensional echocardiography was performed and demonstrated flail anterior, posterior and septal leaflets of the tricuspid valve. The diagnosis was tricuspid insufficiency due to papillary muscle rupture secondary to chest blunt trauma. Surgical repair of the tricuspid valve was performed in this patient. After surgery, the signs and symptoms of right ventricular heart failure were relieved. In this case, three-dimensional echocardiography was very useful for the evaluation of spatial destruction of the tricuspid valve and papillary muscle. 2009 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Three-dimensional simulations of Nova capsule implosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinak, M.M.; Tipton, R.E.; Landen, O.L.

    1995-01-01

    Capsule implosion experiments carried out on the Nova laser are simulated with the three-dimensional HYDRA radiation hydrodynamics code. Simulations of ordered near single mode perturbations indicate that structures which evolve into round spikes can penetrate farthest into the hot spot. Bubble-shaped perturbations can burn through the capsule shell fastest, however, causing even more damage. Simulations of a capsule with multimode perturbations shows spike amplitudes evolving in good agreement with a saturation model during the deceleration phase. The presence of sizable low mode asymmetry, caused either by drive asymmetry or perturbations in the capsule shell, can dramatically affect the manner in which spikes approach the center of the hot spot. Three-dimensional coupling between the low mode shell perturbations intrinsic to Nova capsules and the drive asymmetry brings the simulated yields into closer agreement with the experimental values

  8. Three-dimensional MR imaging of congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laschinger, J.C.; Vannier, M.W.; Knapp, R.H.; Gutierrez, F.R.; Cox, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Contiguous 5-mm thick ECG-gated MR images of the thorax were edited using surface reconstruction techniques to produce three-dimensional (3D) images of the heart and great vessels in four healthy individuals and 25 patients with congenital heart disease (aged 3 months-30 years). Anomalies studied include atrial and ventricular septal defects, aortic coarctation, AV canal defects, double outlet ventricles, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and a wide spectrum of patients with tetralogy of Fallot. The results were correlated with echocardiographic and cineradiographic studies, and with surgical findings or pathologic specimens. Three-dimensional reconstructions accurately localized the dimensions and locations of all cardiac and great vessel anomalies and often displayed anatomic findings not diagnosed or visualized with other forms of diagnostic imaging

  9. Secondary instability and transition in three-dimensional boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolte, A.; Bertolotti, F.P.; Koch, W. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Goettingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik)

    1999-01-01

    Stationary and traveling crossflow modes are the most prominent disturbances in the highly accelerated three-dimensional flow near the leading edge of a swept wing. Near transition onset, secondary three-dimensional instabilities of high frequency can be observed in such flows. A model flow on the basis of a DLR swept plate experiment allows a detailed study of transition scenarios triggered by crossflow instabilities, since the favorable pressure gradient over the whole plate inhibits instabilities of Tollmien-Schlichting type. In order to shed some light upon the role of the high-frequency secondary instabilities, the saturation characteristics of crossflow vortices in this model flow are investigated using the parabolized stability equations. In contrast to nonlinear equilibrium solutions of steady crossflow vortices, the nonlinear Polarized Stability Equations (PSE) results yield different maximal disturbance amplitudes for different initial amplitudes. (orig./AKF)

  10. Secondary instability and transition in three-dimensional boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolte, A.; Bertolotti, F.P.; Koch, W. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Goettingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik

    1999-12-01

    Stationary and traveling crossflow modes are the most prominent disturbances in the highly accelerated three-dimensional flow near the leading edge of a swept wing. Near transition onset, secondary three-dimensional instabilities of high frequency can be observed in such flows. A model flow on the basis of a DLR swept plate experiment allows a detailed study of transition scenarios triggered by crossflow instabilities, since the favorable pressure gradient over the whole plate inhibits instabilities of Tollmien-Schlichting type. In order to shed some light upon the role of the high-frequency secondary instabilities, the saturation characteristics of crossflow vortices in this model flow are investigated using the parabolized stability equations. In contrast to nonlinear equilibrium solutions of steady crossflow vortices, the nonlinear Polarized Stability Equations (PSE) results yield different maximal disturbance amplitudes for different initial amplitudes. (orig./AKF)

  11. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric axial anisotropic forward modeling and inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Wang, Kunpeng; Wang, Tao; Hua, Boguang

    2018-06-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data has been widely used to image underground electrical structural. However, when the significant axial resistivity anisotropy presents, how this influences three-dimensional MT data has not been resolved clearly yet. We here propose a scheme for three-dimensional modeling of MT data in presence of axial anisotropic resistivity, where the electromagnetic fields are decomposed into primary and secondary components. A 3D staggered-grid finite difference method is then used to resolve the resulting 3D governing equations. Numerical tests have completed to validate the correctness and accuracy of the present algorithm. A limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno method is then utilized to realize the 3D MT axial anisotropic inversion. The testing results show that, compared to the results of isotropic resistivity inversion, taking account the axial anisotropy can much improve the inverted results.

  12. Three-dimensional metallic opals fabricated by double templating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Qingfeng; Nukala, Pavan; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Wong, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We report a simple and cost-effective double templating method for fabricating large-area three-dimensional metallic photonic crystals of controlled thickness. A self-assembled polystyrene opal was used as the first template to fabricate a silica inverse opal on a gold-coated glass substrate via sol-gel processing. Gold was subsequently infiltrated to the pores of the silica inverse opal using electrochemical deposition. A high-quality three-dimensional gold photonic crystal was obtained after removal of the secondary template (silica inverse opal). The effects of template sphere size and deposition current density on the gold growth rate, and the resulting morphology and growth mechanism of the gold opal, were investigated.

  13. Three-dimensional P velocity structure in Beijing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Wei; Chen, Yun-Tai; Wang, Pei-De

    2003-01-01

    A detail three-dimensional P wave velocity structure of Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan area (BTT area) was determined by inverting local earthquake data. In total 16 048 P wave first arrival times from 16048 shallow and mid-depth crustal earthquakes, which occurred in and around the BTT area from 1992 to 1999 were used. The first arrival times are recorded by Northern China United Telemetry Seismic Network and Yanqing-Huailai Digital Seismic Network. Hypocentral parameters of 1 132 earthquakes with magnitude M L=1.7 6.2 and the three-dimensional P wave velocity structure were obtained simultaneously. The inversion result reveals the complicated lateral heterogeneity of P wave velocity structure around BTT area. The tomographic images obtained are also found to explain other seismological observations well.

  14. Quasi-three-dimensional particle imaging with digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppinen, Osku; Heinson, Yuli; Berg, Matthew

    2017-05-01

    In this work, approximate three-dimensional structures of microparticles are generated with digital holography using an automated focus method. This is done by stacking a collection of silhouette-like images of a particle reconstructed from a single in-line hologram. The method enables estimation of the particle size in the longitudinal and transverse dimensions. Using the discrete dipole approximation, the method is tested computationally by simulating holograms for a variety of particles and attempting to reconstruct the known three-dimensional structure. It is found that poor longitudinal resolution strongly perturbs the reconstructed structure, yet the method does provide an approximate sense for the structure's longitudinal dimension. The method is then applied to laboratory measurements of holograms of single microparticles and their scattering patterns.

  15. Three-Dimensional Flow Behavior Inside the Submerged Entry Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-Ramirez, Cesar Augusto; Carvajal-Mariscal, Ignacio; Sanchez-Silva, Florencio; Cervantes-de-la-Torre, Francisco; Diaz-Montes, Jesus; Gonzalez-Trejo, Jesus

    2018-05-01

    According to various authors, the surface quality of steel depends on the dynamic conditions that occur within the continuous casting mold's upper region. The meniscus, found in that upper region, is where the solidification process begins. The liquid steel is distributed into the mold through a submerged entry nozzle (SEN). In this paper, the dynamic behavior inside the SEN is analyzed by means of physical experiments and numerical simulations. The particle imaging velocimetry technique was used to obtain the vector field in different planes and three-dimensional flow patterns inside the SEN volume. Moreover, large eddy simulation was performed, and the turbulence model results were used to understand the nonlinear flow pattern inside the SEN. Using scaled physical and numerical models, quasi-periodic behavior was observed due to the interaction of two three-dimensional vortices that move inside the SEN lower region located between the exit ports of the nozzle.

  16. Three-dimensional computerized tomography in mandibular condyle fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermeo, Fausto; Salazar, Abad

    2003-01-01

    Now, car accidents are so commons, this associated to the high technology in produce automobiles make this type of accidents so serious and the consequences of mandibular condyle fractures are more commons and with more gravity, some of these patients, generally need a traqueostomy to be operated, that is why every second that we can save during the surgery is important. The normal exams as X rays and simple TAC give as an important idea but no complete, on the contrary the three-dimensional TAC permits to observe every damages and its exact location, this contribute to make a better surgery organization, the number and type of plates that we have to put and the better way to treat each case, that contribute to reduce time in operating theatre which is in benefit of the patient, diminishing risks in serious patients as they are, that is why we recommend the utilization of the three-dimensional TAC. (The author)

  17. Handwriting: three-dimensional kinetic synergies in circle drawing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Alexander W; Karol, Sohit; Park, Jaebum; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Shim, Jae Kun

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate central nervous system (CNS) strategies for controlling multifinger forces during a circle-drawing task. Subjects drew 30 concentric, discontinuous clockwise and counter clockwise circles, at self and experimenter-set paces. The three-dimensional trajectory of the pen's center of mass and the three-dimensional forces and moments of force at each contact between the hand and the pen were recorded. Uncontrolled Manifold Analysis was used to quantify the synergies between pen-hand contact forces in radial, tangential and vertical directions. Results showed that synergies in the radial and tangential components were significantly stronger than in the vertical component. Synergies in the clockwise direction were significantly stronger than the counterclockwise direction in the radial and vertical components. Pace was found to be insignificant under any condition.

  18. Three Dimensional Energy Transmitting Boundary in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro eNakamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the energy transmitting boundary is accurate and efficient for the FEM earthquake response analysis, it could be applied in the frequency domain only. In the previous papers, the author proposed an earthquake response analysis method using the time domain energy transmitting boundary for two dimensional problems. In this paper, this technique is expanded for three dimensional problems. The inner field is supposed to be a hexahedron shape and the approximate time domain boundary is explained, first. Next, two dimensional anti-plane time domain boundary is studied for a part of the approximate three dimensional boundary method. Then, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are confirmed by example problems.

  19. Canonical and symplectic analysis for three dimensional gravity without dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalante, Alberto, E-mail: aescalan@ifuap.buap.mx [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48 72570, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Osmart Ochoa-Gutiérrez, H. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado postal 1152, 72001 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2017-03-15

    In this paper a detailed Hamiltonian analysis of three-dimensional gravity without dynamics proposed by V. Hussain is performed. We report the complete structure of the constraints and the Dirac brackets are explicitly computed. In addition, the Faddeev–Jackiw symplectic approach is developed; we report the complete set of Faddeev–Jackiw constraints and the generalized brackets, then we show that the Dirac and the generalized Faddeev–Jackiw brackets coincide to each other. Finally, the similarities and advantages between Faddeev–Jackiw and Dirac’s formalism are briefly discussed. - Highlights: • We report the symplectic analysis for three dimensional gravity without dynamics. • We report the Faddeev–Jackiw constraints. • A pure Dirac’s analysis is performed. • The complete structure of Dirac’s constraints is reported. • We show that symplectic and Dirac’s brackets coincide to each other.

  20. The thermoelectric performance of bulk three-dimensional graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhi, E-mail: yangzhi@tyut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Lan, Guoqiang; Ouyang, Bin [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 0C5 (Canada); Xu, Li-Chun; Liu, Ruiping [College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liu, Xuguang, E-mail: liuxuguang@tyut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Song, Jun [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 0C5 (Canada)

    2016-11-01

    The electronic and thermoelectric properties of a new carbon bulk material, three-dimensional (3D) graphene, are investigated in this study. Our results show that 3D graphene has unique electronic structure, i.e., near the Fermi level there exist Dirac cones. More importantly, the thermoelectric performance of 3D graphene is excellent, at room temperature the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) is 0.21, an order of magnitude higher than that of graphene. By introducing line defects, the ZT of 3D graphene could be enhanced to 1.52, indicating 3D graphene is a powerful candidate for constructing novel thermoelectric materials. - Highlights: • There exist Dirac cones in three-dimensional (3D) graphene. • The thermoelectric performance of 3D graphene is excellent. • The defective 3D graphene has better thermoelectric performance.

  1. Three-dimensional Modeling of Type Ia Supernova Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlov, Alexei

    2001-06-01

    A deflagration explosion of a Type Ia Supernova (SNIa) is studied using three-dimensional, high-resolution, adaptive mesh refinement fluid dynamic calculations. Deflagration speed in an exploding Chandrasekhar-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf (WD) grows exponentially, reaches approximately 30the speed of sound, and then declines due to a WD expansion. Outermost layers of the WD remain unburned. The explosion energy is comparable to that of a Type Ia supernova. The freezing of turbulent motions by expansion appears to be a crucial physical mechanism regulating the strength of a supernova explosion. In contrast to one-dimensional models, three-dimensional calculations predict the formation of Si-group elements and pockets of unburned CO in the middle and in central regions of a supernova ejecta. This, and the presence of unburned outer layer of carbon-oxygen may pose problems for SNIa spectra. Explosion sensitivity to initial conditions and its relation to a diversity of SNIa is discussed.

  2. SNAP-3D: a three-dimensional neutron diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallien, C.W.J.

    1975-10-01

    A preliminary report is presented describing the data requirements of a one- two- or three-dimensional multi-group diffusion code, SNAP-3D. This code is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations but it can also carry out gamma calculations if the diffuse approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. It is assumed the reader is familiar with the older, two-dimensional code SNAP and can refer to the report [TRG-Report-1990], describing it. The present report concentrates on the enhancements to SNAP that have been made to produce the three-dimensional version, SNAP-3D, and is intended to act a a guide on data preparation until a single, comprehensive report can be published. (author)

  3. Analytical Prediction of Three Dimensional Chatter Stability in Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Yusuf

    The chip regeneration mechanism during chatter is influenced by vibrations in three directions when milling cutters with ball end, bull nose, or inclined cutting edges are used. A three dimensional chatter stability is modeled analytically in this article. The dynamic milling system is formulated as a function of cutter geometry, the frequency response of the machine tool structure at the cutting zone in three Cartesian directions, cutter engagement conditions and material property. The dynamic milling system with nonlinearities and periodic delayed differential equations is reduced to a three dimensional linear stability problem by approximations based on the physics of milling. The chatter stability lobes are predicted in the frequency domain using the proposed analytical solution, and verified experimentally in milling a Titanium alloy with a face milling cutter having circular inserts.

  4. Pattern formation and three-dimensional instability in rotating flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Erik A.; Aubry, Nadine; Sorensen, Jens N.

    1997-03-01

    A fluid flow enclosed in a cylindrical container where fluid motion is created by the rotation of one end wall as a centrifugal fan is studied. Direct numerical simulations and spatio-temporal analysis have been performed in the early transition scenario, which includes a steady-unsteady transition and a breakdown of axisymmetric to three-dimensional flow behavior. In the early unsteady regime of the flow, the central vortex undergoes a vertical beating motion, accompanied by axisymmetric spikes formation on the edge of the breakdown bubble. As traveling waves, the spikes move along the central vortex core toward the rotating end-wall. As the Reynolds number is increased further, the flow undergoes a three-dimensional instability. The influence of the latter on the previous patterns is studied.

  5. Three-dimensional theory for light-matter interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martin Westring; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2008-01-01

    We present a full quantum mechanical three dimensional theory describing an electromagnetic field interacting with an ensemble of identical atoms. The theory is constructed such that it describes recent experiments on light-matter quantum interfaces, where the quantum fluctuations of light...... to a dressed state picture, where the light modes are solutions to the diffraction problem, and develop a perturbative expansion in the fluctuations. The fluctuations are due to quantum fluctuations as well as the random positions of the atoms. In this perturbative expansion we show how the quantum...... fluctuations are mapped between atoms and light while the random positioning of the atoms give rise to decay due to spontaneous emission. Furthermore we identify limits, where the full three dimensional theory reduce to the one dimensional theory typically used to describe the interaction....

  6. Three-dimensional imaging technology offers promise in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karako, Kenji; Wu, Qiong; Gao, Jianjun

    2014-04-01

    Medical imaging plays an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Currently, medical equipment mainly has two-dimensional (2D) imaging systems. Although this conventional imaging largely satisfies clinical requirements, it cannot depict pathologic changes in 3 dimensions. The development of three-dimensional (3D) imaging technology has encouraged advances in medical imaging. Three-dimensional imaging technology offers doctors much more information on a pathology than 2D imaging, thus significantly improving diagnostic capability and the quality of treatment. Moreover, the combination of 3D imaging with augmented reality significantly improves surgical navigation process. The advantages of 3D imaging technology have made it an important component of technological progress in the field of medical imaging.

  7. Design of three-dimensional nonimaging concentrators with inhomogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minano, J. C.

    1986-09-01

    A three-dimensional nonimaging concentrator is an optical system that transforms a given four-parametric manifold of rays reaching a surface (entry aperture) into another four-parametric manifold of rays reaching the receiver. A procedure of design of such concentrators is developed. In general, the concentrators use mirrors and inhomogeneous media (i.e., gradient-index media). The concentrator has the maximum concentration allowed by the theorem of conservation of phase-space volume. This is the first known concentrator with such properties. The Welford-Winston edge-ray principle in three-dimensional geometry is proven under several assumptions. The linear compound parabolic concentrator is derived as a particular case of the procedure of design.

  8. Single florescent nanodiamond in a three dimensional ABEL trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayci, Metin; Radenovic, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional single particle trapping and manipulation is an outstanding challenge in various fields ranging from basic physics to life sciences. By monitoring the response of a trapped particle to a designed environment one can extract its characteristics. In addition, quantum dynamics of a spatially scanned well-known particle can provide environmental information. Precise tracking and positioning of such a particle in aqueous environment is crucial task for achieving nano-scale resolution. Here we experimentally demonstrate three dimensional ABEL trap operating at high frequency by employing a hybrid approach in particle tracking. The particle location in the transverse plane is detected via a scanning laser beam while the axial position is determined by defocused imaging. The scanning of the trapped particle is accomplished through a nano positioning stage integrated to the trap platform. PMID:26559890

  9. Three-dimensional metamaterials fabricated using Proton Beam Writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A.A., E-mail: a.bettiol@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Dr. 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Turaga, S.P.; Yan, Y.; Vanga, S.K. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Dr. 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Chiam, S.Y. [NUS High School for Maths and Science, 20 Clementi Avenue 1, Singapore 129957 (Singapore)

    2013-07-01

    Proton Beam Writing (PBW) is a direct write lithographic technique that has recently been applied to the fabrication of three dimensional metamaterials. In this work, we show that the unique capabilities of PBW, namely the ability to fabricate arrays of high resolution, high aspect ratio microstructures in polymer or replicated into metal, is well suited to metamaterials research. We have also developed a novel method for selectively electroless plating silver directly onto polymer structures that were fabricated using PBW. This method opens up new avenues for utilizing PBW for making metamaterials and other sub-wavelength metallic structures. Several potential applications of three dimensional metamaterials fabricated using PBW are discussed, including sensing and negative refractive index materials.

  10. Three-dimensional passive sensing photon counting for object classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Seokwon; Javidi, Bahram; Watson, Edward

    2007-04-01

    In this keynote address, we address three-dimensional (3D) distortion-tolerant object recognition using photon-counting integral imaging (II). A photon-counting linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is discussed for classification of photon-limited images. We develop a compact distortion-tolerant recognition system based on the multiple-perspective imaging of II. Experimental and simulation results have shown that a low level of photons is sufficient to classify out-of-plane rotated objects.

  11. Three-dimensional discrete ordinates reactor assembly calculations on GPUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Thomas M [ORNL; Joubert, Wayne [ORNL; Hamilton, Steven P [ORNL; Johnson, Seth R [ORNL; Turner, John A [ORNL; Davidson, Gregory G [ORNL; Pandya, Tara M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe and demonstrate a discrete ordinates sweep algorithm on GPUs. This sweep algorithm is nested within a multilevel comunication-based decomposition based on energy. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this algorithm on detailed three-dimensional critical experiments and PWR lattice problems. For these problems we show improvement factors of 4 6 over conventional communication-based, CPU-only sweeps. These sweep kernel speedups resulted in a factor of 2 total time-to-solution improvement.

  12. Three-dimensional, computer simulated navigation in endoscopic neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta K. Sefcik, BHA

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Three-dimensional, frameless neuronavigation systems are useful in endoscopic neurosurgery to assist in the pre-operative planning of potential trajectories and to help localize the pathology of interest. Neuronavigation appears to be accurate to <1–2 mm without issues related to brain shift. Further work is necessary in the investigation of the effect of neuronavigation on operative time, cost, and patient-centered outcomes.

  13. Existence of a new three-dimensional chaotic attractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiezhi; Chen Zengqiang; Yuan Zhuzhi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, one heteroclinic orbit of a new three-dimensional continuous autonomous chaotic system, whose chaotic attractor belongs to the conjugate Lue attractor, is found. The series expression of the heteroclinic orbit of Shil'nikov type is derived by using the undetermined coefficient method. The uniform convergence of the precise series expansions of this heteroclinic orbits is proved. According to the Shil'nikov theorem, this system clearly has Smale horseshoes and the horseshoe chaos.

  14. Heat engine in the three-dimensional spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Jie-Xiong [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lingnan Normal University,Zhanjiang, 524048, Guangdong (China); Department of Physics, Lingnan Normal University,Zhanjiang, 524048, Guangdong (China); Liang, Feng [Department of Physics, Lingnan Normal University,Zhanjiang, 524048, Guangdong (China); Li, Gu-Qiang [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lingnan Normal University,Zhanjiang, 524048, Guangdong (China); Department of Physics, Lingnan Normal University,Zhanjiang, 524048, Guangdong (China)

    2017-03-02

    We define a kind of heat engine via three-dimensional charged BTZ black holes. This case is quite subtle and needs to be more careful. The heat flow along the isochores does not equal to zero since the specific heat C{sub V}≠0 and this point completely differs from the cases discussed before whose isochores and adiabats are identical. So one cannot simply apply the paradigm in the former literatures. However, if one introduces a new thermodynamic parameter associated with the renormalization length scale, the above problem can be solved. We obtain the analytical efficiency expression of the three-dimensional charged BTZ black hole heat engine for two different schemes. Moreover, we double check with the exact formula. Our result presents the first specific example for the sound correctness of the exact efficiency formula. We argue that the three-dimensional charged BTZ black hole can be viewed as a toy model for further investigation of holographic heat engine. Furthermore, we compare our result with that of the Carnot cycle and extend the former result to three-dimensional spacetime. In this sense, the result in this paper would be complementary to those obtained in four-dimensional spacetime or ever higher. Last but not the least, the heat engine efficiency discussed in this paper may serve as a criterion to discriminate the two thermodynamic approaches introduced in ref. https://www.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.92.124069 and our result seems to support the approach which introduces a new thermodynamic parameter R=r{sub 0}.

  15. Three-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of atrial septal defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles German

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiography provides a useful tool in the diagnosis of many congenital heart diseases, including atrial septal defects, and aids in further delineating treatment options. Although two-dimensional echocardiography has been the standard of care in this regard, technological advancements have made three-dimensional echocardiography possible, and the images obtained in this new imaging modality are able to accurately portray the morphology, location, dimensions, and dynamic changes of defects and many other heart structures during the cardiac cycle.

  16. Birkhoff's theorem for three-dimensional AdS gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayon-Beato, Eloy; Martinez, Cristian; Zanelli, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    All three-dimensional matter-free space-times with negative cosmological constant, compatible with cyclic symmetry, are identified. The only cyclic solutions are the 2+1 (BTZ) black hole with SO(2)xR isometry, and the self-dual Coussaert-Henneaux space-times, with isometry groups SO(2)xSO(2,1) or SO(2)xSO(2)

  17. Three-dimensional CT of the pediatric spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starshak, R.J.; Crawford, C.R.; Waisman, R.C.; Sty, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    CT of the spine has been shown to be useful in evaluating congenital, neoplastic, inflammatory, and traumatic lesions. Any portion of the neural arch may be involved by these disease processes. The complex nature of the spinal column can make evaluation of these abnormalities difficult on axial CT. This is especially true if the spine is distorted by scoliosis, kyphosis, or lordosis. This exhibit illustrates the advantages and drawbacks of three-dimensional CT reconstructed images of spinal abnormalities in children

  18. Environmental, Transient, Three-Dimensional, Hydrothermal, Mass Transport Code - FLESCOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glass, Kevin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eyler, L. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Okumura, Masahiko [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-28

    The purpose of the project was to modify and apply the transient, three-dimensional FLESCOT code to be able to effectively simulate cesium behavior in Fukushima lakes/dam reservoirs, river mouths, and coastal areas. The ultimate objective of the FLESCOT simulation is to predict future changes of cesium accumulation in Fukushima area reservoirs and costal water. These evaluation results will assist ongoing and future environmental remediation activities and policies in a systematic and comprehensive manner.

  19. Study of three-dimensional effects on vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, M. D.; Kuruvila, G.

    1988-01-01

    The incompressible axisymmetric steady Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables are used to simulate vortex breakdown. The equations, discretized using a second-order, central-difference scheme, are linearized and then solved using an exact LU decomposition, Gaussian elimination, and Newton iteration. Solutions are presented for Reynolds numbers, based on vortex-core radius, as high as 1500. An attempt to study the stability of the axisymmetric solutions against three-dimensional perturbations is discussed.

  20. Three-dimensional massive gravity and the bigravity black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banados, Maximo; Theisen, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We study three-dimensional massive gravity formulated as a theory with two dynamical metrics, like the f-g theories of Isham-Salam and Strathdee. The action is parity preserving and has no higher derivative terms. The spectrum contains a single massive graviton. This theory has several features discussed recently in TMG and NMG. We find warped black holes, a critical point, and generalized Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions.

  1. Spinorial characterizations of surfaces into three-dimensional homogeneous manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Julien

    2010-06-01

    We give spinorial characterizations of isometrically immersed surfaces into three-dimensional homogeneous manifolds with four-dimensional isometry group in terms of the existence of a particular spinor field. This generalizes works by Friedrich for R3 and Morel for S3 and H3. The main argument is the interpretation of the energy-momentum tensor of such a spinor field as the second fundamental form up to a tensor depending on the structure of the ambient space.

  2. Three-dimensional harmonic control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapenko, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithms for neutron flux control based on harmonic three-dimensional core are considered. The essence of the considered approach includes determination of harmonics amplitudes by signals self-powered detectors placed in reactor channels and reconstruction of neutron field distribution over the reactor core volume using the data obtained. Neutron field harmonic control is shown to be reduced to independent measurement and calculation of height harmonics in channels using techniques developed for channel power control

  3. Three-dimensional wound measurements for monitoring wound healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard Jørgensen, Line; Møller Jeppesen, Sune; Halekoh, Ulrich

    Telemedicine is increasingly used for monitoring wound healing. Three-dimensional (3D) measurement methods enable clinicians to assess wound healing with respect to all dimensions. However, the currently available methods are inaccurate, costly or complicated to use. To address these issues, a 3D......-WAM camera was developed. This camera is able to measure wound size (2D area, 3D area, perimeter and volume) and to assess wound characteristics....

  4. Three-dimensional charge transport in organic semiconductor single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Zhang, Xiying; Jia, Jiong; Li, Yexin; Tao, Xutang

    2012-04-24

    Three-dimensional charge transport anisotropy in organic semiconductor single crystals - both plates and rods (above and below, respectively, in the figure) - is measured in well-performing organic field-effect transistors for the first time. The results provide an excellent model for molecular design and device preparation that leads to good performance. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Simulating Photons and Plasmons in a Three-dimensional Lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletzer, A.; Shvets, G.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional metallic photonic structures are studied using a newly developed mixed finite element-finite difference (FE-FD) code, Curly3d. The code solves the vector Helmholtz equation as an eigenvalue problem in the unit cell of a triply periodic lattice composed of conductors and/or dielectrics. The mixed FE-FD discretization scheme ensures rapid numerical convergence of the eigenvalue and allows the code to run at low resolution. Plasmon and photonic band structure calculations are presented

  6. A three-dimensional nodal neutron kinetics capability for relaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, J.L.; Weaver, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    The incorporation of a three-dimensional neutron kinetics capability into the DOE version of the RELAP5/MOD3.2 reactor safety code is discussed. A brief discussion of the kinetics method is given along with a discussion of the cross section parameterization models available in RELAP5/MOD3.2. The RELAP5/MOD3.2 code is then used to perform calculations of the NEACRP rod ejection and rod withdrawal benchmarks, and results are presented

  7. Three-dimensional friction measurement during hip simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sonntag

    Full Text Available Wear of total hip replacements has been the focus of many studies. However, frictional effects, such as high loading on intramodular connections or the interface to the bone, as well as friction associated squeaking have recently increased interest about the amount of friction that is generated during daily activities. The aim of this study was thus to establish and validate a three-dimensional friction setup under standardized conditions.A standard hip simulator was modified to allow for high precision measurements of small frictional effects in the hip during three-dimensional hip articulation. The setup was verified by an ideal hydrostatic bearing and validated with a static-load physical pendulum and an extension-flexion rotation with a dynamic load profile. Additionally, a pendulum model was proposed for screening measurement of frictional effects based on the damping behavior of the angular oscillation without the need for any force/moment transducer. Finally, three-dimensional friction measurements have been realized for ceramic-on-polyethylene bearings of three different sizes (28, 36 and 40 mm.A precision of less than 0.2 Nm during three-dimensional friction measurements was reported, while increased frictional torque (resultant as well as taper torque was measured for larger head diameters. These effects have been confirmed by simple pendulum tests and the theoretical model. A comparison with current literature about friction measurements is presented.This investigation of friction is able to provide more information about a field that has been dominated by the reduction of wear. It should be considered in future pre-clinical testing protocols given by international organizations of standardization.

  8. Three-Dimensional Computer Graphics Brain-Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-24

    1975-76, one of these brains was hand digitized. It was then reconstructed three dimensionally, using an Evans and Sutherland Picture System 2. This...Yakovlev Collection, we use the Evans and Sutherland Picture System 2 which we have been employing for this purpose for a dozen years. Its virtue is...careful, experimentally designed new protocol (See Figure 20). Most of these heads were imaged with Computed Tomography, thanks to Clint Stiles of Picker

  9. Three-dimensional TDHF calculation for reactions of unstable nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ka-Hae; Otsuka, Takaharu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Bonche, P.

    1998-07-01

    The fusion is studied for reactions between a stable and an unstable nuclei with neutron skin. The reactions {sup 16,28}O+{sup 40}Ca and {sup 16}O+{sup 16,28}O are taken as examples, and the three-dimensional time-dependent Hartree-Fock method with the full Skyrme interaction is used. It is confirmed that the fusion cross section in low-energy region is sensitive to the interaction used in the calculation. (author)

  10. Analysis of the three dimensional flow in a turbine scroll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, A.; Baskharone, E.

    1979-01-01

    The present analysis describes the three-dimensional compressible inviscid flow in the scroll and the vaneless nozzle of a radial inflow turbine. The solution to this flow field, which is further complicated by the geometrical shape of the boundaries, is obtained using the finite element method. Symmetric and nonsymmetric scroll cross sectional geometries are investigated to determine their effect on the general flow field and on the exit flow conditions.

  11. Accuracy of three-dimensional printing for manufacturing replica teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Keun-Young; Cho, Jin-Woo; Chang, Na-Young; Chae, Jong-Moon; Kang, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Cho, Jin-Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    Objective Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a recent technological development that may play a significant role in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment. It can be used to fabricate skull models or study models, as well as to make replica teeth in autotransplantation or tooth impaction cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of fabrication of replica teeth made by two types of 3D printing technologies. Methods Fifty extracted molar teeth were selected as samples. They were sc...

  12. Is a three-dimensional-printed tooth filling possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet Kerim Ayar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Three-dimensional (3-D) printing is seen as an innovative production process in many fields of dentistry and medicine. But implantation of this novel production process into the treatment of decayed teeth in dentistry remains lacking. Destruction of dental tissues as a result of dental caries is generally treated with dental resin composite fillings. However, a 3-D-printed tooth filling approach, which could be an alternative to traditional approaches, has a potential to reduce ...

  13. Accurate landmarking of three-dimensional facial data in the presence of facial expressions and occlusions using a three-dimensional statistical facial feature model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi; Dellandréa, Emmanuel; Chen, Liming; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A

    2011-10-01

    Three-dimensional face landmarking aims at automatically localizing facial landmarks and has a wide range of applications (e.g., face recognition, face tracking, and facial expression analysis). Existing methods assume neutral facial expressions and unoccluded faces. In this paper, we propose a general learning-based framework for reliable landmark localization on 3-D facial data under challenging conditions (i.e., facial expressions and occlusions). Our approach relies on a statistical model, called 3-D statistical facial feature model, which learns both the global variations in configurational relationships between landmarks and the local variations of texture and geometry around each landmark. Based on this model, we further propose an occlusion classifier and a fitting algorithm. Results from experiments on three publicly available 3-D face databases (FRGC, BU-3-DFE, and Bosphorus) demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, in terms of landmarking accuracy and robustness, in the presence of expressions and occlusions.

  14. Seasonal variations in the aragonite saturation state in the upper open-ocean waters of the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Geun-Ha; Kim, Dongseon; Lee, Kitack; Feely, Richard A.; Millero, Frank J.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal variability of the aragonite saturation state (ΩAR) in the upper (50 m and 100 m depths) North Pacific Ocean (NPO) was investigated using multiple linear regression (MLR). The MLR algorithm derived from a high-quality carbon data set accurately predicted the ΩAR of evaluation data sets (three time series stations and P02 section) with acceptable uncertainty (<0.1 ΩAR). The algorithm was combined with seasonal climatology data, and the estimated ΩAR varied in the range of 0.4-0.6 in the midlatitude western NPO, with the largest variation found for the tropical eastern NPO. These marked variations were largely controlled by seasonal changes in vertical mixing and thermocline depth, both of which determine the degree of entrainment of CO2-rich corrosive waters from deeper depths. Our MLR-based subsurface ΩAR climatology is complementary to surface climatology based on pCO2 measurements.

  15. Predicting transition in two- and three-dimensional separated flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutrone, L.; De Palma, P.; Pascazio, G.; Napolitano, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the numerical prediction of two- and three-dimensional transitional separated flows of turbomachinery interest. The recently proposed single-point transition model based on the use of a laminar kinetic energy transport equation is considered, insofar as it does not require to evaluate any integral parameter, such as boundary-layer thickness, and is thus directly applicable to three-dimensional flows. A well established model, combining a transition-onset correlation with an intermittency transport equation, is also used for comparison. Both models are implemented within a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver employing a low-Reynolds-number k-ω turbulence model. The performance of the transition models have been evaluated and tested versus well-documented incompressible flows past a flat plate with semi-circular leading edge, namely: tests T3L2, T3L3, T3L5, and T3LA1 of ERCOFTAC, with different Reynolds numbers and free-stream conditions, the last one being characterized by a non-zero pressure gradient. In all computations, the first model has proven as adequate as or superior to the second one and has been then applied with success to two more complex test cases, for which detailed experimental data are available in the literature, namely: the two- and three-dimensional flows through the T106 linear turbine cascade

  16. Three-dimensional features on oscillating microbubbles streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Marin, Alvaro G.; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Kähler, Christian J.

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasound-driven oscillating micro-bubbles have been used as active actuators in microfluidic devices to perform manifold tasks such as mixing, sorting and manipulation of microparticles. A common configuration consists in side-bubbles, created by trapping air pockets in blind channels perpendicular to the main channel direction. This configuration results in bubbles with a semi-cylindrical shape that creates a streaming flow generally considered quasi two-dimensional. However, recent experiments performed with three-dimensional velocimetry methods have shown how microparticles can present significant three-dimensional trajectories, especially in regions close to the bubble interface. Several reasons will be discussed such as boundary effects of the bottom/top wall, deformation of the bubble interface leading to more complex vibrational modes, or bubble-particle interactions. In the present investigation, precise measurements of particle trajectories close to the bubble interface will be performed by means of 3D Astigmatic Particle Tracking Velocimetry. The results will allow us to characterize quantitatively the three-dimensional features of the streaming flow and to estimate its implications in practical applications as particle trapping, sorting or mixing.

  17. Comparison of two three-dimensional cephalometric analysis computer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Dena; Alhadlaq, Adel; Alkhadra, Thamer; Carlyle, Terry D; Kusnoto, Budi; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2014-10-01

    Three-dimensional cephalometric analyses are getting more attraction in orthodontics. The aim of this study was to compare two softwares to evaluate three-dimensional cephalometric analyses of orthodontic treatment outcomes. Twenty cone beam computed tomography images were obtained using i-CAT(®) imaging system from patient's records as part of their regular orthodontic records. The images were analyzed using InVivoDental5.0 (Anatomage Inc.) and 3DCeph™ (University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA) software. Before and after orthodontic treatments data were analyzed using t-test. Reliability test using interclass correlation coefficient was stronger for InVivoDental5.0 (0.83-0.98) compared with 3DCeph™ (0.51-0.90). Paired t-test comparison of the two softwares shows no statistical significant difference in the measurements made in the two softwares. InVivoDental5.0 measurements are more reproducible and user friendly when compared to 3DCeph™. No statistical difference between the two softwares in linear or angular measurements. 3DCeph™ is more time-consuming in performing three-dimensional analysis compared with InVivoDental5.0.

  18. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics in three-dimensional space, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ui, Haruo

    1984-01-01

    As a direct generalization of the model of supersymmetric quantum mechanics by Witten, which describes the motion of a spin one-half particle in the one-dimensional space, we construct a model of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics in the three-dimensional space, which describes the motion of a spin one-half particle in central and spin-orbit potentials in the context of the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. With the simplest choice of the (super) potential, this model is shown to reduce to the model of the harmonic oscillator plus constant spin-orbit potential of unit strength of both positive and negative signs, which was studied in detail in our recent paper in connection with ''accidental degeneracy'' as well as the ''graded groups''. This simplest model is discussed in some detail as an example of the three-dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanical system, where the supersymmetry is an exact symmetry of the system. More general choice of a polynomial superpotential is also discussed. It is shown that the supersymmetry cannot be spontaneously broken for any polynomial superpotential in our three-dimensional model; this result is contrasted to the corresponding one in the one-dimensional model. (author)

  19. Resonance phenomena in a time-dependent, three-dimensional model of an idealized eddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rypina, I. I.; Pratt, L. J.; Wang, P.; Äe; -zgökmen, T. M.; Mezic, I.

    2015-08-01

    We analyze the geometry of Lagrangian motion and material barriers in a time-dependent, three-dimensional, Ekman-driven, rotating cylinder flow, which serves as an idealization for an isolated oceanic eddy and other overturning cells with cylindrical geometry in the ocean and atmosphere. The flow is forced at the top through an oscillating upper lid, and the response depends on the frequency and amplitude of lid oscillations. In particular, the Lagrangian geometry changes near the resonant tori of the unforced flow, whose frequencies are rationally related to the forcing frequencies. Multi-scale analytical expansions are used to simplify the flow in the vicinity of resonant trajectories and to investigate the resonant flow geometries. The resonance condition and scaling can be motivated by simple physical argument. The theoretically predicted flow geometries near resonant trajectories have then been confirmed through numerical simulations in a phenomenological model and in a full solution of the Navier-Stokes equations.

  20. Intraspecific variations in responses to ocean acidification in two branching coral species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Ayami; Uechi, Hikaru; Iguchi, Akira; Nakamura, Takashi; Kumagai, Naoki H; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    2017-09-15

    Ocean acidification is widely recognised to have a negative impact on marine calcifying organisms by reducing calcifications, but controversy remains over whether such organisms could cope with ocean acidification within a range of phenotypic plasticity and/or adapt to future acidifying ocean. We performed a laboratory rearing experiment using clonal fragments of the common branching corals Montipora digitata and Porites cylindrica under control and acidified seawater (lower pH) conditions (approximately 400 and 900μatm pCO 2 , respectively) and evaluated the intraspecific variations in their responses to ocean acidification. Intra- and interspecific variations in calcification and photosynthetic efficiency were evident according to both pCO 2 conditions and colony, indicating that responses to acidification may be individually variable at the colony level. Our results suggest that some corals may cope with ocean acidification within their present genotypic composition by adaptation through phenotypic plasticity, while others may be placed under selective pressures resulting in population alteration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Three-dimensional flow measurements induced from serpentine plasma actuators in quiescent air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durscher, R J; Roy, S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents three-dimensional flow measurements performed on a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator with the electrodes in a serpentine design. Such a configuration induces a local pinching and a local spreading of the fluid as one follows along the span of the actuator. In this work two different variations on the serpentine configuration are evaluated: one constructed from patterned circular arcs and one from patterned rectangles. The influence of applied voltage is studied for the former case. To quantify these effects stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to generate time averaged, spatially resolved measurements of the detailed flow structure. The three components of the velocity vector are measured along spanwise and streamwise cuts. These slices are then reconstructed to provide a three-dimensional view of the induced flow field. The results for the induced flow fields are also compared with stereo-PIV measurements made on a standard linear DBD actuator. A truly three-dimensional induced flow field was observed as a result of the serpentine configuration. These designs could be beneficial for rapid mixing of the local fluid. (paper)

  2. Parallelization of a three-dimensional whole core transport code DeCART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Young, Cho; Han Gyu, Joo; Ha Yong, Kim; Moon-Hee, Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Parallelization of the DeCART (deterministic core analysis based on ray tracing) code is presented that reduces the computational burden of the tremendous computing time and memory required in three-dimensional whole core transport calculations. The parallelization employs the concept of MPI grouping and the MPI/OpenMP mixed scheme as well. Since most of the computing time and memory are used in MOC (method of characteristics) and the multi-group CMFD (coarse mesh finite difference) calculation in DeCART, variables and subroutines related to these two modules are the primary targets for parallelization. Specifically, the ray tracing module was parallelized using a planar domain decomposition scheme and an angular domain decomposition scheme. The parallel performance of the DeCART code is evaluated by solving a rodded variation of the C5G7MOX three dimensional benchmark problem and a simplified three-dimensional SMART PWR core problem. In C5G7MOX problem with 24 CPUs, a speedup of maximum 21 is obtained on an IBM Regatta machine and 22 on a LINUX Cluster in the MOC kernel, which indicates good parallel performance of the DeCART code. In the simplified SMART problem, the memory requirement of about 11 GBytes in the single processor cases reduces to 940 Mbytes with 24 processors, which means that the DeCART code can now solve large core problems with affordable LINUX clusters. (authors)

  3. Effect of measurement conditions on three-dimensional roughness values, and development of measurement standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, A; Brenier, B; Raynaud, S

    2011-01-01

    Friction or corrosion behaviour, fatigue lifetime for mechanical components are influenced by their boundary and subsurface properties. The surface integrity is studied on mechanical component in order to improve the service behaviour of them. Roughness is one of the main geometrical properties, which is to be qualified and quantified. Components can be obtained using a complex process: forming, machining and treatment can be combined to realize parts with complex shape. Then, three-dimensional roughness is needed to characterize these parts with complex shape and textured surface. With contact or non-contact measurements (contact stylus, confocal microprobe, interferometer), three-dimensional roughness is quantified using the calculation of pertinent parameters defined by the international standard PR EN ISO 25178-2:2008. An analysis will identify the influence of measurement conditions on three-dimensional parameters. The purpose of this study is to analyse the variation of roughness results using contact stylus or optical apparatus. The second aim of this work is to develop a measurement standard well adapted to qualify the contact and non-contact apparatus.

  4. A Three-Dimensional Kinematic and Kinetic Study of the College-Level Female Softball Swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Milanovich, Steven M. Nesbit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper quantifies and discusses the three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the female softball swing as performed by fourteen female collegiate amateur subjects. The analyses were performed using a three-dimensional computer model. The model was driven kinematically from subject swings data that were recorded with a multi-camera motion analysis system. Each subject used two distinct bats with significantly different inertial properties. Model output included bat trajectories, subject/bat interaction forces and torques, work, and power. These data formed the basis for a detailed analysis and description of fundamental swing kinematic and kinetic quantities. The analyses revealed that the softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. In addition, the potential effects of bat properties on swing mechanics are discussed. The paths of the hands and the centre-of-curvature of the bat relative to the horizontal plane appear to be important trajectory characteristics of the swing. Descriptions of the swing mechanics and practical implications are offered based upon these findings.

  5. Three-dimensional unsteady natural convection and entropy generation in an inclined cubical trapezoidal cavity with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kadhim Hussein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical computation of unsteady laminar three-dimensional natural convection and entropy generation in an inclined cubical trapezoidal air-filled cavity is performed for the first time in this work. The vertical right and left sidewalls of the cavity are maintained at constant cold temperatures. The lower wall is subjected to a constant hot temperature, while the upper one is considered insulated. Computations are performed for Rayleigh numbers varied as 103 ⩽ Ra ⩽ 105, while the trapezoidal cavity inclination angle is varied as 0° ⩽ Φ ⩽ 180°. Prandtl number is considered constant at Pr = 0.71. Second law of thermodynamics is applied to obtain thermodynamic losses inside the cavity due to both heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibilities. The variation of local and average Nusselt numbers is presented and discussed, while, streamlines, isotherms and entropy contours are presented in both two and three-dimensional pattern. The results show that when the Rayleigh number increases, the flow patterns are changed especially in three-dimensional results and the flow circulation increases. Also, the inclination angle effect on the total entropy generation becomes insignificant when the Rayleigh number is low. Moreover, when the Rayleigh number increases the average Nusselt number increases.

  6. Revealing skill of the MiKlip decadal prediction system by three-dimensional probabilistic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Stolzenberger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Decadal climate predictions and their verification are part of ongoing research. This article studies different methods applied to decadal hindcasts of three-dimensional atmospheric variables to evaluate the MiKlip (Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen prediction system. Variables such as upper air temperature are tight to the core of the prediction system and hence help to reveal its power and deficiencies. The verification uses both, necessary and sufficient probabilistic measures. We analyze annual and multi-year averages of air temperature and geopotential height and the parametrized quantity net water flux at the ocean surface, the so-called freshwater flux, also known as E‑P (evaporation minus precipitation, as an important variable for atmosphere-ocean coupling. The model data stem from various versions of the MiKlip prediction system and constitute different sets of ensemble hindcasts covering 1979–2012. The results reveal that the freshwater flux is far more sensitive to model deficiencies than the basic dynamical variables and the predictability decays much earlier with prediction lead time. Initializing the atmospheric component is more important for the predictability than the difference in resolution between two model versions. The combined initialization of atmosphere and ocean has the effect of increasing the predictability in the inner tropics from 1 to 2 years compared to the ocean only initialization. For prediction year 7–10, the hindcasts are still closer to each other than to the uninitialized historical runs indicating that the prediction system is still influenced by the initial conditions. The skill for prediction year 7–10 is, however, only marginally larger than the skill of the uninitialized ensemble. The three-dimensional skill analysis reveals a clear indication of a mid-tropospheric temperature error developing in the tropical Pacific area.

  7. Meridional distribution and seasonal variation of stable oxygen isotope ratio of precipitation in the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Nakamura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The stable oxygen isotope ratio(δ^O in precipitation is known to have important meridional and seasonal variations, but there are almost no measurements of δ^O in precipitation over polar oceans. The present research took advantage of 4 opportunities for in situ observations in summer and winter at high latitudes in the Southern Ocean. In addition, we analyzed samples of precipitation at Syowa Station in 2008 to obtain year-round data. Based on these data, we consider the meridional and seasonal variations of δ^O in precipitation over the Southern Ocean. In general, δ^O decreases with increasing latitude, and is lower in winter than in summer. The latitude gradient is stronger in winter. At 60°S, δ^O is -5.4‰ and -11.3‰ in summer and winter, respectively, while the corresponding figures at 66°S are -10.5‰ and -20.8‰. These results will help us understand the mechanisms of the salinity distribution and its variation in the Antarctic Ocean.

  8. Integration of Computed Tomography and Three-Dimensional Echocardiography for Hybrid Three-Dimensional Printing in Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnell, Jordan; Pietila, Todd; Samuel, Bennett P; Kurup, Harikrishnan K N; Haw, Marcus P; Vettukattil, Joseph J

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology aiding diagnostics, education, and interventional, and surgical planning in congenital heart disease (CHD). Three-dimensional printing has been derived from computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance, and 3D echocardiography. However, individually the imaging modalities may not provide adequate visualization of complex CHD. The integration of the strengths of two or more imaging modalities has the potential to enhance visualization of cardiac pathomorphology. We describe the feasibility of hybrid 3D printing from two imaging modalities in a patient with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (L-TGA). Hybrid 3D printing may be useful as an additional tool for cardiologists and cardiothoracic surgeons in planning interventions in children and adults with CHD.

  9. Phase Diagrams of Three-Dimensional Anderson and Quantum Percolation Models Using Deep Three-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Tomohiro; Ohtsuki, Tomi

    2017-11-01

    The three-dimensional Anderson model is a well-studied model of disordered electron systems that shows the delocalization-localization transition. As in our previous papers on two- and three-dimensional (2D, 3D) quantum phase transitions [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 85, 123706 (2016), 86, 044708 (2017)], we used an image recognition algorithm based on a multilayered convolutional neural network. However, in contrast to previous papers in which 2D image recognition was used, we applied 3D image recognition to analyze entire 3D wave functions. We show that a full phase diagram of the disorder-energy plane is obtained once the 3D convolutional neural network has been trained at the band center. We further demonstrate that the full phase diagram for 3D quantum bond and site percolations can be drawn by training the 3D Anderson model at the band center.

  10. Three dimensional computation of turbulent flow in meandering channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Thinh Nguyen

    2000-07-01

    In this study a finite element calculation procedure together with two-equation turbulent model k-{epsilon} and mixing length are applied to the problem of simulating 3D turbulent flow in closed and open meandering channels. Near the wall a special approach is applied in order to overcome the weakness of the standard k-{epsilon} in the viscous sub-layer. A specialized shape function is used in the special near wall elements to capture accurately the strong variations of the mean flow variables in the viscosity-affected near wall region. Based on the analogy of water and air flows, a few characteristics of hydraulic problems can be examined in aerodynamic models, respectively. To study the relationships between an aerodynamic and a hydraulic model many experiments have been carried out by Federal Waterway Engineering and Research Institute of Karlsruhe, Germany. In order to test and examine the results of these physical models, an appropriated numerical model is necessary. The numerical mean will capture the limitations of the experimental setup. The similarity and the difference between an aerodynamic and a hydraulic model will be found out by the results of numerical computations and will be depicted in this study. Despite the presence of similarities between the flow in closed channels and the flow in open channels, it should be stated that the presence of a free surface in the open channel introduces serious complications to three dimensional computation. A new unknown, which represents the position of nodes on this free surface, is introduced. A special approach is required for solving this unknown. A procedure surface tracking is applied to the free surface boundary like a moving boundary. Grid nodes on the free surface are free to move in such a way that they belong to the spines, which are the generator lines to define the allowed motion of the nodes on the free surface. (orig.) [German] Die numerische Simulation ist heute ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel fuer die

  11. Three-dimensional appearance of the lips muscles with three-dimensional isotropic MRI: in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Raphael; Reychler, H. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Liu, Y.; Xu, T.M. [Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Department of Orthodontics, Beijing (China); Duprez, T. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    Our knowledge of facial muscles is based primarily on atlases and cadaveric studies. This study describes a non-invasive in vivo method (3D MRI) for segmenting and reconstructing facial muscles in a three-dimensional fashion. Three-dimensional (3D), T1-weighted, 3 Tesla, isotropic MRI was applied to a subject. One observer performed semi-automatic segmentation using the Editor module from the 3D Slicer software (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA), version 3.2. We were able to successfully outline and three-dimensionally reconstruct the following facial muscles: pars labialis orbicularis oris, m. levatro labii superioris alaeque nasi, m. levator labii superioris, m. zygomaticus major and minor, m. depressor anguli oris, m. depressor labii inferioris, m. mentalis, m. buccinator, and m. orbicularis oculi. 3D reconstruction of the lip muscles should be taken into consideration in order to improve the accuracy and individualization of existing 3D facial soft tissue models. More studies are needed to further develop efficient methods for segmentation in this field. (orig.)

  12. Three-dimensional labeling program for elucidation of the geometric properties of biological particles in three-dimensional space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, A; Yamazaki, Y; Tsuji, T; Kawasaki, Y; Tanaka, S

    1996-09-15

    For all biological particles such as cells or cellular organelles, there are three-dimensional coordinates representing the centroid or center of gravity. These coordinates and other numerical parameters such as volume, fluorescence intensity, surface area, and shape are referred to in this paper as geometric properties, which may provide critical information for the clarification of in situ mechanisms of molecular and cellular functions in living organisms. We have established a method for the elucidation of these properties, designated the three-dimensional labeling program (3DLP). Algorithms of 3DLP are so simple that this method can be carried out through the use of software combinations in image analysis on a personal computer. To evaluate 3DLP, it was applied to a 32-cell-stage sea urchin embryo, double stained with FITC for cellular protein of blastomeres and propidium iodide for nuclear DNA. A stack of optical serial section images was obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The method was found effective for determining geometric properties and should prove applicable to the study of many different kinds of biological particles in three-dimensional space.

  13. Three-dimensional appearance of the lips muscles with three-dimensional isotropic MRI: in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Raphael; Liu, Y; Duprez, T; Xu, T M; Reychler, H

    2009-06-01

    Our knowledge of facial muscles is based primarily on atlases and cadaveric studies. This study describes a non-invasive in vivo method (3D MRI) for segmenting and reconstructing facial muscles in a three-dimensional fashion. Three-dimensional (3D), T1-weighted, 3 Tesla, isotropic MRI was applied to a subject. One observer performed semi-automatic segmentation using the Editor module from the 3D Slicer software (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA), version 3.2. We were able to successfully outline and three-dimensionally reconstruct the following facial muscles: pars labialis orbicularis oris, m. levatro labii superioris alaeque nasi, m. levator labii superioris, m. zygomaticus major and minor, m. depressor anguli oris, m. depressor labii inferioris, m. mentalis, m. buccinator, and m. orbicularis oculi. 3D reconstruction of the lip muscles should be taken into consideration in order to improve the accuracy and individualization of existing 3D facial soft tissue models. More studies are needed to further develop efficient methods for segmentation in this field.

  14. Assessment of the effect of three-dimensional mantle density heterogeneity on Earth rotation in tidal frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanbo Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report the assessment of the effect of the three-dimensional (3D density heterogeneity in the mantle on Earth orientation parameters (EOP (i.e., the polar motion, or PM, and the length of day, or LOD in the tidal frequencies. The 3D mantle density model is estimated based upon a global S-wave velocity tomography model (S16U6L8 and the mineralogical knowledge derived from laboratory experiment. The lateral density variation is referenced against the preliminary reference earth model (PREM. Using this approach the effects of the heterogeneous mantle density variation in all three tidal frequencies (zonal long periods, tesseral diurnal, and sectorial semidiurnal are estimated in both PM and LOD. When compared with mass or density perturbations originated on the Earth's surface such as the oceanic and barometric changes, the heterogeneous mantle contributes less than 10% of the total variation in PM and LOD in tidal frequencies. However, this is the gap that has not been explained to close the gap of the observation and modeling in PM and LOD. By computing the PM and LOD caused by 3D heterogeneity of the mantle during the period of continuous space geodetic measurement campaigns (e.g., CONT94 and the contribution from ocean tides as predicted by tide models derived from satellite altimetry observations (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon in the same period, we got the lump-sum values of PM and LOD. The computed total effects and the observed PM and LOD are generally agree with each other. In another word, the difference of the observed PM and LOD and the model only considering ocean tides, at all tidal frequencies (long periods, diurnals, and semidiurnals contains the contributions of the lateral density heterogeneity of the mantle. Study of the effect of mantle density heterogeneity effect on torque-free Earth rotation may provide useful constraints to construct the reference earth model (REM, which is the next major objective in global

  15. Variation pattern of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen in oceans and inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changchun; Jiang, Quanliang; Yao, Ling; Yang, Hao; Lin, Chen; Huang, Tao; Zhu, A.-Xing; Zhang, Yimin

    2018-03-01

    We examined the relationship between, and variations in, particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate organic nitrogen (PON) based on previously acquired ocean and inland water data. The latitudinal dependency of POC / PON is significant between 20 and 90° N but weak in low-latitude areas and in the Southern Hemisphere. The mean values of POC / PON in the Southern Hemisphere and Northern Hemisphere were 7.40 ± 3.83 and 7.80 ± 3.92, respectively. High values of POC / PON appeared between 80-90 (12.2 ± 7.5) and 70-80° N (9.4 ± 6.4), while relatively low POC / PON was found from 20 (6.6 ± 2.8) to 40° N (6.7 ± 2.7). The latitudinal variation of POC / PON in the Northern Hemisphere is much stronger than in the Southern Hemisphere due to the influence of more terrestrial organic matter. Higher POC and PON could be expected in coastal waters. POC / PON growth ranged from 6.89 ± 2.38 to 7.59 ± 4.22 in the Northern Hemisphere, with an increasing rate of 0.0024 km from the coastal to open ocean. Variations of POC / PON in lake water also showed a similar latitude-variation tendency of POC / PON with ocean water but were significantly regulated by the lakes' morphology, trophic state and climate. Small lakes and high-latitude lakes prefer relatively high POC / PON, and large lakes and low-latitude lakes tend to prefer low POC / PON. The coupling relationship between POC and PON in oceans is much stronger than in inland waters. Variations in POC, PON and POC / PON in inland waters should receive more attention due to the implications of these values for the global carbon and nitrogen cycles and the indeterminacy of the relationship between POC and PON.

  16. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric imaging of Cascadia subduction zone from an amphibious array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Egbert, G. D.; Key, K.; Bedrosian, P.; Livelybrooks, D.; Schultz, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present results from three-dimensional inversion of an amphibious magnetotelluric (MT) array consisting of 71 offshore and 75 onshore sites in the central part of Cascadia, to image down-dip and along strike variations of electrical conductivity, and constrain the 3D distribution of fluids and melt in the subduction zone. A larger scale array consisting of EarthScope transportable-array data and several 2D legacy profiles (e.g. EMSLAB, CAFE-MT, SWORMT) which covers WA, OR, northern CA and northern NV has been inverted separately, to provide a broader view of the subduction zone. Inverting these datasets including seafloor data, and involving strong coast effects presents many challenges, especially for the nominal TE mode impedances which have very anomalous phases in both land and seafloor sites. We find that including realistic bathymetry and conductive seafloor sediments significantly stabilizes the inversion, and that a two stage inversion strategy, first emphasizing fit to the more challenging TE data, improved overall data fits. We have also constrained the geometry of the (assumed resistive) subducting plates by extracting morphological parameters (e.g. upper boundary and thickness) from seismological models (McCrory et al 2012, Schmandt and Humphreys 2010). These constraints improve recovery and resolution of subduction related conductivity features. With the strategies mentioned above, we improved overall data fits, resulting in a model which reveals (for the first time) a conductive oceanic asthenosphere, extending under the North America plate. The most striking model features are conductive zones along the plate interface, including a continuous stripe of high conductivity just inboard of the coast, extending from the northern limits of our model in Washington state, to north-central Oregon. High conductivities also occur in patches near the tip of the mantle wedge, at depths appropriate for eclogitization, and at greater depth beneath the arc, in

  17. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Crustal Growth at Active Continental Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G.; Gerya, T.; Tackley, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Active margins are important sites of new continental crust formation by magmatic processes related to the subduction of oceanic plates. We investigate these phenomena using a three-dimensional coupled petrological-geochemical-thermomechanical numerical model, which combines a finite-difference flow solver with a non-diffusive marker-in-cell technique for advection (I3ELVIS code, Gerya and Yuen, PEPI,2007). The model includes mantle flow associated with the subducting plate, water release from the slab, fluid propagation that triggers partial melting at the slab surface, melt extraction and the resulting volcanic crustal growth at the surface. The model also accounts for variations in physical properties (mainly density and viscosity) of both fluids and rocks as a function of local conditions in temperature, pressure, deformation, nature of the rocks, and chemical exchanges. Our results show different patterns of crustal growth and surface topography, which are comparable to nature, during subduction at active continental margins. Often, two trench-parallel lines of magmatic activity, which reflect two maxima of melt production atop the slab, are formed on the surface. The melt extraction rate controls the patterns of new crust at different ages. Moving free water reflects the path of fluids, and the velocity of free water shows the trend of two parallel lines of magmatic activity. The formation of new crust in particular time intervals is distributed in finger-like shapes, corresponding to finger-like and ridge-like cold plumes developed atop the subducting slabs (Zhu et al., G-cubed,2009; PEPI,2011). Most of the new crust is basaltic, formed from peridotitic mantle. Granitic crust extracted from melted sediment and upper crust forms in a line closer to the trench, and its distribution reflects the finger-like cold plumes. Dacitic crust extracted from the melted lower crust forms in a line farther away from the trench, and its distribution is anticorrelated with

  18. Asymmetric three-dimensional topography over mantle plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Evgueni; Gerya, Taras

    2014-09-04

    The role of mantle-lithosphere interactions in shaping surface topography has long been debated. In general, it is supposed that mantle plumes and vertical mantle flows result in axisymmetric, long-wavelength topography, which strongly differs from the generally asymmetric short-wavelength topography created by intraplate tectonic forces. However, identification of mantle-induced topography is difficult, especially in the continents. It can be argued therefore that complex brittle-ductile rheology and stratification of the continental lithosphere result in short-wavelength modulation and localization of deformation induced by mantle flow. This deformation should also be affected by far-field stresses and, hence, interplay with the 'tectonic' topography (for example, in the 'active/passive' rifting scenario). Testing these ideas requires fully coupled three-dimensional numerical modelling of mantle-lithosphere interactions, which so far has not been possible owing to the conceptual and technical limitations of earlier approaches. Here we present new, ultra-high-resolution, three-dimensional numerical experiments on topography over mantle plumes, incorporating a weakly pre-stressed (ultra-slow spreading), rheologically realistic lithosphere. The results show complex surface evolution, which is very different from the smooth, radially symmetric patterns usually assumed as the canonical surface signature of mantle upwellings. In particular, the topography exhibits strongly asymmetric, small-scale, three-dimensional features, which include narrow and wide rifts, flexural flank uplifts and fault structures. This suggests a dominant role for continental rheological structure and intra-plate stresses in controlling dynamic topography, mantle-lithosphere interactions, and continental break-up processes above mantle plumes.

  19. Three-Dimensional Numerical Evaluation of Thermal Performance of Uninsulated Wall Assemblies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridouane, E. H.; Bianchi, M.

    2011-11-01

    This study describes a detailed three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the thermal performance of uninsulated wall assemblies accounting for conduction through framing, convection, and radiation. The model allows for material properties variations with temperature. Parameters that were varied in the study include ambient outdoor temperature and cavity surface emissivity. Understanding the thermal performance of uninsulated wall cavities is essential for accurate prediction of energy use in residential buildings. The results can serve as input for building energy simulation tools for modeling the temperature dependent energy performance of homes with uninsulated walls.

  20. Modification of equivalent charge method for the Roben three-dimensional problem in electrostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsukov, A.B.; Surenskij, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    The approach of the Roben problem solution for the calculation of the potential of intermediate electrode of accelerating structure with HFQ focusing is considered. The solution is constructed on the basis of variational formulation of the equivalent charge method, where electrostatic problem is reduced to equations of root-mean-square residuals on the system conductors. The technique presented permits to solve efficiently the three-dimensional problems of electrostatics for rather complicated from geometrical viewpoint systems of electrodes. Processing time is comparable with methods of integral equations. 5 refs.; 2 figs

  1. Three-dimensional illumination procedure for photodynamic therapy of dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Feng-juan; Dong, Fei; Zhou, Ya

    2014-09-01

    Light dosimetry is an important parameter that affects the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the irregular morphologies of lesions complicate lesion segmentation and light irradiance adjustment. Therefore, this study developed an illumination demo system comprising a camera, a digital projector, and a computing unit to solve these problems. A three-dimensional model of a lesion was reconstructed using the developed system. Hierarchical segmentation was achieved with the superpixel algorithm. The expected light dosimetry on the targeted lesion was achieved with the proposed illumination procedure. Accurate control and optimization of light delivery can improve the efficacy of PDT.

  2. Optical Forging of Graphene into Three-Dimensional Shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Andreas; Myllyperkiö, Pasi; Koskinen, Pekka; Aumanen, Jukka; Koivistoinen, Juha; Tsai, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Chia-Hao; Chang, Lo-Yueh; Hiltunen, Vesa-Matti; Manninen, Jyrki J; Woon, Wei Yen; Pettersson, Mika

    2017-10-11

    Atomically thin materials, such as graphene, are the ultimate building blocks for nanoscale devices. But although their synthesis and handling today are routine, all efforts thus far have been restricted to flat natural geometries, since the means to control their three-dimensional (3D) morphology has remained elusive. Here we show that, just as a blacksmith uses a hammer to forge a metal sheet into 3D shapes, a pulsed laser beam can forge a graphene sheet into controlled 3D shapes in the nanoscale. The forging mechanism is based on laser-induced local expansion of graphene, as confirmed by computer simulations using thin sheet elasticity theory.

  3. Three-dimensional fractional topological insulators in coupled Rashba layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpez, Yanick; Loss, Daniel; Klinovaja, Jelena

    2017-08-01

    We propose a model of three-dimensional topological insulators consisting of weakly coupled electron- and hole-gas layers with Rashba spin-orbit interaction stacked along a given axis. We show that in the presence of strong electron-electron interactions the system realizes a fractional strong topological insulator, where the rotational symmetry and condensation energy arguments still allow us to treat the problem as quasi-one-dimensional with bosonization techniques. We also show that if Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction terms are equally strong, by doping the system with magnetic impurities, one can bring it into the Weyl semimetal phase.

  4. Three-dimensional problems in the theory of cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasyuk, V.V.; Andrejkiv, A.E.; Stadnik, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    Review of the main mechanical conceptions and mathematic methods, used in solving of spatial problems of the theory of cracks is given. At that, cases of effects upon a body of force static and cyclic and geometrically variable temperature fields are considered. The main calculation models of the theory of cracks are characterized in detail. Other models, derived from these ones and used in solving the above problems are also mentioned. Analysis and synthesis of the most general mathematic methods of solving three-dimensional problems of the theory of cracks are made. Besides precise methods, approximate ones are also presented, being efficient enough in engineering practice

  5. Impurity states in two - and three-dimensional disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.F. da; Fabbri, M.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the microscopic structure of the impurity states in two-and three-dimensional (2D and 3d) disordered systems. A cluster model is outlined for the donor impurity density of states (DIDS) of doped semiconductors. It is shown that the impurity states are very sensitive to a change in the dimensionality of the system, i.e from 3D to 2D system. It is found that all eigenstates become localized in 2D disordered system for a large range of concentration. (Author) [pt

  6. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation to Mud Turbine for LWD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaojiang; Dong, Jingxin; Shang, Jie; Zhang, Guanqi

    Hydraulic performance analysis was discussed for a type of turbine on generator used for LWD. The simulation models were built by CFD analysis software FINE/Turbo, and full three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out for impeller group. The hydraulic parameter such as power, speed and pressure drop, were calculated in two kinds of medium water and mud. Experiment was built in water environment. The error of numerical simulation was less than 6%, verified by experiment. Based on this rationalization proposals would be given to choice appropriate impellers, and the rationalization of methods would be explored.

  7. Surgical accuracy of three-dimensional virtual planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kasper; Aagaard, Esben; Torkov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the precision and positional accuracy of different orthognathic procedures following virtual surgical planning in 30 patients. To date, no studies of three-dimensional virtual surgical planning have evaluated the influence of segmentation on positional accuracy...... and transverse expansion. Furthermore, only a few have evaluated the precision and accuracy of genioplasty in placement of the chin segment. The virtual surgical plan was compared with the postsurgical outcome by using three linear and three rotational measurements. The influence of maxillary segmentation...

  8. Recurrence relations in the three-dimensional Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukhnovskij, I.R.; Kozlovskij, M.P.

    1977-01-01

    Recurrence relations between the coefficients asub(2)sup((i)), asub(4)sup((i)) and Psub(2)sup((i)), Psub(4)sup((i)) which characterize the probabilities of distribution for the three-dimensional Ising model are studied. It is shown that for large arguments z of the Makdonald functions Ksub(ν)(z) the recurrence relations correspond to the known Wilson relations. But near the critical point for small values of the transfer momentum k this limit case does not take place. In the pointed region the argument z tends to zero, and new recurrence relations take place

  9. Evaluation of solar energy over three dimensional objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serposhan, S.; Yaghoubi, M.

    2002-01-01

    The knowledge of solar irradiation is important in heating and cooling of buildings architectural engineering, various solar energy utilizations, and for any system design exposed to sun radiation. In the present article, simulation is made to predict solar irradiation over any three-dimensional objects. Special consideration is made to evaluate solar radiation intensity distribution over semi-circular roof and domed roofs. For practical applications, hourly and average daily solar radiation distribution for a series of three Heller type huge cooling towers of Fars Power Plant is also determined

  10. Three-dimensional cranio-facial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi Muccelli, R.; Stagul, F.; Pozzi Muccelli, F.; Zuiani, C.; Smathers, R.

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography allows today to reconstruct three-dimensional (eD) images fram axial scans. The authors report their experience in cranio-facial pathology achived in two Departments of Radiology (University of Trieste, Italy and University of Standford, California). 3D images have been realized using two different softwares, one of which allows to reconstruct both soft tissue and bone structures. The application in maxillo-facial traumas, cranio-facial malformations and head tumours are disscussed. 3D images turned out to be very useful for the optimal visualization and for the spatial demostration of the lesion and have potential applications in cranio-facial surgery and radiotherapy

  11. Turbulence in Three Dimensional Simulations of Magnetopause Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, J. F.; Price, L.; Swisdak, M.; Burch, J. L.; Cassak, P.; Dahlin, J. T.; Ergun, R.

    2017-12-01

    We present two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the 16 October 2015 MMS magnetopause reconnection event. While the two-dimensional simulation is laminar, turbulence develops at both the x-line and along the magnetic separatrices in the three-dimensional simulation. This turbulence is electromagnetic in nature, is characterized by a wavevector k given by kρ e ˜(m_e/m_i)0.25 with ρ e the electron Larmor radius, and appears to have the ion pressure gradient as its source of free energy. Taken together, these results suggest the instability is a variant of the lower-hybrid drift instability. The turbulence produces electric field fluctuations in the out-of-plane direction (the direction of the reconnection electric field) with an amplitude of around ± 10 mV/m, which is much greater than the reconnection electric field of around 0.1 mV/m. Such large values of the out-of-plane electric field have been identified in the MMS data. The turbulence in the simulation controls the scale lengths of the density profile and current layers in asymmetric reconnection, driving them closer to √ {ρ eρ_i } than the ρ e or de scalings seen in 2D reconnection simulations, where de is the electron inertial length. The turbulence is strong enough to make the magnetic field around the reconnection island chaotic and produces both anomalous resistivity and anomalous viscosity. Each contribute significantly to breaking the frozen-in condition in the electron diffusion region. The crescent-shaped features in velocity space seen both in MMS observations and in two-dimensional simulations survive, even in the turbulent environment of the three-dimensional system. We compare and contrast these results to a three-dimensional simulation of the 8 December 2015 MMS magnetopause reconnection event in which the reconnecting and out-of-plane guide fields are comparable. LHDI is still present in this event, although its appearance is modified by the presence of the guide

  12. Kaon-nucleon scattering in three-dimensional technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, Agus; Fachruddin, Imam

    2016-01-01

    Kaon-nucleon (KN) scattering is formulated in the three-dimensional (3D) momentum space, in which the basis state is not expanded into partial waves. Based on this basis the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the T-matrix is evaluated. We obtain as final equation for the T-matrix elements a set of two coupled integral equations in two variables, which are the momentum’s magnitude and the scattering angle. Calculations for the differential cross section and some spin observables are shown, for which we employ a hadrons exchange model with the second order contributions only.

  13. Three-dimensional measurement of a tightly focused laser beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangsheng Xie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of a tightly focused light field is measured with a double knife-edge scanning method. The measurement method is based on the use of a high-quality double knife-edge fabricated from a right-angled silicon fragment mounted on a photodetector. The reconstruction of the three-dimensional structures of tightly focused spots is carried out with both uniform and partially obstructed linearly polarized incident light beams. The optical field distribution is found to deviate substantially from the input beam profile in the tightly focused region, which is in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations.

  14. Photogrammetry: applications of a three-dimensional remote measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, K.

    1988-01-01

    Photogrammetry is defined as the precise art of abstracting measurements from photographic images. Used for many years as a means to produce the world's maps, it has, in recent years, been applied in many engineering environments. The nuclear industry has, in particular, benefitted from the close range applications of photogrammetry. This paper sets out to describe the techniques involved, from the site photography through to the analytical data extraction. It will include a number of examples of where photogrammetry has been used in the nuclear industry as a remote measurement technique, from simple monitoring exercises to the compilation of complex three-dimensional as-built computer models. (author)

  15. Three-dimensional, subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussally, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this applied research and devolpment project is to develop a system known as 3-D SISAR. This sytem consists of a gound penetrating radar with software algorithms designed for detection, location, and identification of buried objects in the underground hazardous waste environments found at US DOE storage sites. Three-dimensional maps can assist the development of remdiation strategies and characterization of the digface during remediation. The system should also be useful for monitoring hydrocarbon-based contaminant migration after remediation. 5 figs

  16. 3D radiation sensors with three dimensional electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Da Via, Cinzia; Parker, Sherwood

    2018-01-01

    This book covers the technical properties, fabrication details, measurement results and applications of three-dimensional silicon radiation sensors. Such devices are currently used in the ATLAS experiment at the European Centre for Particle Physics (CERN) for particle tracking in high energy physics. They are the radiation hardest devices ever fabricated. They have applications in neutron detection, medical dosimetry and space. Written by the leading names in this field, the book explains to non-experts the essential features of silicon particle detectors, interactions of radiation with matter, radiation damage effects, and micro-fabrication. It also provides an historical view of the above.

  17. Integrating three-dimensional printing and nanotechnology for musculoskeletal regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Margaret; Castro, Nathan J.; Rao, Raj; Plesniak, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2017-09-01

    The field of tissue engineering is advancing steadily, partly due to advancements in rapid prototyping technology. Even with increasing focus, successful complex tissue regeneration of vascularized bone, cartilage and the osteochondral interface remains largely illusive. This review examines current three-dimensional printing techniques and their application towards bone, cartilage and osteochondral regeneration. The importance of, and benefit to, nanomaterial integration is also highlighted with recent published examples. Early-stage successes and challenges of recent studies are discussed, with an outlook to future research in the related areas.

  18. Self-assembled three-dimensional chiral colloidal architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Zion, Matan Yah; He, Xiaojin; Maass, Corinna C.; Sha, Ruojie; Seeman, Nadrian C.; Chaikin, Paul M.

    2017-11-01

    Although stereochemistry has been a central focus of the molecular sciences since Pasteur, its province has previously been restricted to the nanometric scale. We have programmed the self-assembly of micron-sized colloidal clusters with structural information stemming from a nanometric arrangement. This was done by combining DNA nanotechnology with colloidal science. Using the functional flexibility of DNA origami in conjunction with the structural rigidity of colloidal particles, we demonstrate the parallel self-assembly of three-dimensional microconstructs, evincing highly specific geometry that includes control over position, dihedral angles, and cluster chirality.

  19. Modified Three-Dimensional Multicarrier Optical Prime Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mathematical model for novel three-dimensional multicarrier optical codes in terms of wavelength/time/space based on the prime sequence algorithm. The proposed model has been extensively simulated on MATLAB for prime numbers (P to analyze the performance of code in terms of autocorrelation and cross-correlation. The simulated outcome resembles the mathematical model and gives better results over other methods available in the literature as far as autocorrelation and cross-correlation are concerned. The proposed 3D optical codes are more efficient in terms of cardinality, improved security, and providing quality of services.

  20. A Three-dimensional Topological Model of Ternary Phase Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yingxue; Bao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain a visualization of the complex internal structure of ternary phase diagram, the paper realized a three-dimensional topology model of ternary phase diagram with the designed data structure and improved algorithm, under the guidance of relevant theories of computer graphics. The purpose of the model is mainly to analyze the relationship between each phase region of a ternary phase diagram. The model not only obtain isothermal section graph at any temperature, but also extract a particular phase region in which users are interested. (paper)

  1. Wave field restoration using three-dimensional Fourier filtering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, T; Takai, Y; Ikuta, T; Shimizu, R

    2001-11-01

    A wave field restoration method in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was mathematically derived based on a three-dimensional (3D) image formation theory. Wave field restoration using this method together with spherical aberration correction was experimentally confirmed in through-focus images of amorphous tungsten thin film, and the resolution of the reconstructed phase image was successfully improved from the Scherzer resolution limit to the information limit. In an application of this method to a crystalline sample, the surface structure of Au(110) was observed in a profile-imaging mode. The processed phase image showed quantitatively the atomic relaxation of the topmost layer.

  2. Monopole gas in three dimensional SU(2) gluodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernodub, M.N.; Ishiguro, Katsuya; Suzuki, Tsuneo

    2004-01-01

    We study properties of the Abelian monopoles in the Maximal Abelian projection of the three dimensional pure SU(2) gauge model. We match the lattice monopole dynamics with the continuum Coulomb gas model using a method of blocking from continuum. We obtain the Debye screening length and the monopole density in continuum using numerical results for the density to the (squared) monopole charges and for the monopole action. The monopoles treated within our blocking method provide about 75% contribution to the non-Abelian Debye screening length. We also find that monopoles form a Coulomb plasma which is not dilute. (author)

  3. Quantum tunneling from three-dimensional black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, Asiya; Gohar, H.; Lin, Hai; Saifullah, K.; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2013-01-01

    We study Hawking radiation from three-dimensional black holes. For this purpose the emission of charged scalar and charged fermionic particles is investigated from charged BTZ black holes, with and without rotation. We use the quantum tunneling approach incorporating WKB approximation and spacetime symmetries. Another class of black holes which is asymptotic to a Sol three-manifold has also been investigated. This procedure gives us the tunneling probability of outgoing particles, and we compute the temperature of the radiation for these black holes. We also consider the quantum tunneling of particles from black hole asymptotic to Sol geometry

  4. Three-Dimensional Bone Adaptation of the Proximal Femur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Mette

    1998-01-01

    The bone remodeling of a three-dimensional model of the proximal femur is considered. The bone adaptation is numerically described as an evolution in time formulated such that the structural change goes in an optimal direction within each time step for the optimal boundary conditions. In the bone...... remodeling scheme is included the memory of past loadings to account for the delay in the bone response to the load changes. In order to get a realistic bone adaptation process, the bone structure at the onset of the remodeling needs to be realistic too. A start design is obtained by structural optimization...

  5. Fate of superconductivity in three-dimensional disordered Luttinger semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Ipsita

    2018-05-01

    Superconducting instability can occur in three-dimensional quadratic band crossing semimetals only at a finite coupling strength due to the vanishing of density of states at the quadratic band touching point. Since realistic materials are always disordered to some extent, we study the effect of short-ranged-correlated disorder on this superconducting quantum critical point using a controlled loop-expansion applying dimensional regularization. The renormalization group (RG) scheme allows us to determine the RG flows of the various interaction strengths and shows that disorder destroys the superconducting quantum critical point. In fact, the system exhibits a runaway flow to strong disorder.

  6. Teaching veterinary obstetrics using three-dimensional animation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Jakob; Buchanan, M Flint; Moore, James N; White, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    In this three-year study, test scores for students taught veterinary obstetrics in a classroom setting with either traditional media (photographs, text, and two-dimensional graphical presentations) were compared with those for students taught by incorporating three-dimensional (3D) media (linear animations and interactive QuickTime Virtual Reality models) into the classroom lectures. Incorporation of the 3D animations and interactive models significantly increased students' scores on essay questions designed to assess their comprehension of the subject matter. This approach to education may help to better prepare students for dealing with obstetrical cases during their final clinical year and after graduation.

  7. Nanofluidic structures with complex three-dimensional surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavis, Samuel M; Gaitan, Michael; Strychalski, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Nanofluidic devices have typically explored a design space of patterns limited by a single nanoscale structure depth. A method is presented here for fabricating nanofluidic structures with complex three-dimensional (3D) surfaces, utilizing a single layer of grayscale photolithography and standard integrated circuit manufacturing tools. This method is applied to construct nanofluidic devices with numerous (30) structure depths controlled from ∼10 to ∼620 nm with an average standard deviation of 1 cm. A prototype 3D nanofluidic device is demonstrated that implements size exclusion of rigid nanoparticles and variable nanoscale confinement and deformation of biomolecules.

  8. Coherent states on horospheric three-dimensional Lobachevsky space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurochkin, Yu., E-mail: y.kurochkin@ifanbel.bas-net.by; Shoukavy, Dz., E-mail: shoukavy@ifanbel.bas-net.by [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezalezhnasci Ave., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Rybak, I., E-mail: Ivan.Rybak@astro.up.pt [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezalezhnasci Ave., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2016-08-15

    In the paper it is shown that due to separation of variables in the Laplace-Beltrami operator (Hamiltonian of a free quantum particle) in horospheric and quasi-Cartesian coordinates of three dimensional Lobachevsky space, it is possible to introduce standard (“conventional” according to Perelomov [Generalized Coherent States and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, 1986), p. 320]) coherent states. Some problems (oscillator on horosphere, charged particle in analogy of constant uniform magnetic field) where coherent states are suitable for treating were considered.

  9. Methods for preparation of three-dimensional bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Artz, Gregory J.; Gafner, Felix H.; Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji

    2004-09-28

    Processes for mechanically fabricating two and three-dimensional fibrous monolith composites include preparing a fibrous monolith filament from a core composition of a first powder material and a boundary material of a second powder material. The filament includes a first portion of the core composition surrounded by a second portion of the boundary composition. One or more filaments are extruded through a mechanically-controlled deposition nozzle onto a working surface to create a fibrous monolith composite object. The objects may be formed directly from computer models and have complex geometries.

  10. Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Po; Williams, John D.

    2012-01-01

    This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL) applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared transparent polymer film, which can be applied to almost any surface. The tilted woodpile photonic crystals are designed with a specific pass band detectable at nearly all incident angles of light. When painted onto a surface, these crystals provide a unique reflective infra-red optical signature that can be easily observed and recorded to verify the location or contents of a package.

  11. Two-and three-dimensional CT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, E.K.; Ney, D.R.; Magid, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the optimal imaging sequence for creating two- and three-dimensional (2D/3D) skeletal reconstructions from CT data. A cadaver femur, a bone phantom, and a surgically created fracture were scanned with varying protocols to determine the optimal protocol for creating 2D/3D images. The scanning protocols used varying section thickness (2, 4, and 8 mm) as well as scan spacing (2, 3, 4 and 8 mm). All images were reconstructed into 2D data sets with a bicubic interpolation and 3D datasets with volumetric rendering. The results were reviewed by two reviewers to determine the quality of images reconstruction

  12. Fuel assembly inspection by three-dimensional neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapinski, N.P.; Reimann, K.J.; Berger, H.

    1979-01-01

    Radiographic inspection of complex objects such as fuel subassemblies often presents problems because superimposition of images at different depths in the object complicates interpretation. One method for obtaining and displaying three-dimensional neutron radiographic images in multiple-film laminagraphy; a series of radiographs generated at different angular orientations are superimposed to provide focussed images of any object plane. In the present work multiple-film neutron laminagraphs were generated using direct and indirect exposure techniques, with neutrons in thermal, epithermal, and fast energy ranges

  13. Three-dimensional laser pulse intensity diagnostic for photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the electron-beam emittance of photoinjectors is an important task for maximizing the brightness of the next-generation x-ray facilities, such as free-electron lasers and energy recovery linacs. Optimally shaped laser pulses can significantly reduce emittance. A reliable diagnostic for the laser pulse intensity is required for this purpose. We demonstrate measurement of three-dimensional spatiotemporal intensity profiles, with spatial resolution of 20  μm and temporal resolution of 130 fs. The capability is illustrated by measurements of stacked soliton pulses and pulses from a dissipative-soliton laser.

  14. Three-dimensional display techniques: description and critique of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    The recent advances in non invasive medical imaging of 3 dimensional spatial distribution of radionuclides, X-ray attenuation coefficients, and nuclear magnetic resonance parameters necessitate development of a general method for displaying these data. The objective of this paper is to give a systematic description and comparison of known methods for displaying three dimensional data. The discussion of display methods is divided into two major categories: 1) computer-graphics methods which use a two dimensional display screen; and 2) optical methods (such as holography, stereopsis and vari-focal systems)

  15. Three-dimensional spatial imaging in multiphoton ionization rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredy, Richard; Camp, Howard A.; Nguyen, Hai; Awata, Takaaki; Shan Bing; Chang Zhenghu; DePaola, B.D.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment is described in which an apparatus is used to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring multiphoton photoionization rates in the interaction of short pulsed lasers with atoms or molecules. With this methodology, the ionization rate is measured as a function of the spatial position in the beam-waist region of the laser through the direct three-dimensional spatial imaging of the ionization events. Thus, if the spatial dependence of the laser beam intensity were known, a series of experiments could yield the intensity dependence of multiphoton ionization without the assumptions or errors that are generally inherent in the integration over one or more dimensions in the laser focal volume

  16. Three-dimensional cranio-facial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi Muccelli, R; Stagul, F; Pozzi Muccelli, F; Zuiani, C; Smathers, R

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography allows today to reconstruct three-dimensional (eD) images fram axial scans. The authors report their experience in cranio-facial pathology achived in two Departments of Radiology (University of Trieste, Italy and University of Standford, California). 3D images have been realized using two different softwares, one of which allows to reconstruct both soft tissue and bone structures. The application in maxillo-facial traumas, cranio-facial malformations and head tumours are disscussed. 3D images turned out to be very useful for the optimal visualization and for the spatial demostration of the lesion and have potential applications in cranio-facial surgery and radiotherapy.

  17. Three-dimensional multifunctional optical coherence tomography for skin imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, En; Makita, Shuichi; Hong, Young-Joo; Kasaragod, Deepa; Sasaoka, Tomoko; Yamanari, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) visualizes cross-sectional microstructures of biological tissues. Recent developments of multifunctional OCT (MF-OCT) provides multiple optical contrasts which can reveal currently unknown tissue properties. In this contribution we demonstrate multifunctional OCT specially designed for dermatological investigation. And by utilizing it to measure four different body parts of in vivo human skin, three-dimensional scattering OCT, OCT angiography, polarization uniformity tomography, and local birefringence tomography images were obtained by a single scan. They respectively contrast the structure and morphology, vasculature, melanin content and collagen traits of the tissue.

  18. Three-dimensional graphene networks: synthesis,properties and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfeng Ma; Yongsheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, three-dimensional graphene/graphene oxide(GO) networks(3DGNs) in the form of foams,sponges and aerogels have atracted much atention. 3D structures provide graphene materials with high speciic surface areas, large pore volumes, strong mechanical strengths and fast mass and electron transport,owing to the combination of the 3D porous structures and the excellent intrinsic properties of graphene.his review focuses on the latest advances in the preparation, properties and potential applications of 3D micro-/nano-architectures made of graphene/GO-based networks, with emphasis on graphene foams and sponges.

  19. Kaon-nucleon scattering in three-dimensional technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, Agus, E-mail: agus.salam@sci.ui.ac.id; Fachruddin, Imam [Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Kaon-nucleon (KN) scattering is formulated in the three-dimensional (3D) momentum space, in which the basis state is not expanded into partial waves. Based on this basis the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the T-matrix is evaluated. We obtain as final equation for the T-matrix elements a set of two coupled integral equations in two variables, which are the momentum’s magnitude and the scattering angle. Calculations for the differential cross section and some spin observables are shown, for which we employ a hadrons exchange model with the second order contributions only.

  20. Three-dimensional image reconstruction. I. Determination of pattern orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenbecler, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The problem of determining the Euler angles of a randomly oriented three-dimensional (3D) object from its 2D Fraunhofer diffraction patterns is discussed. This problem arises in the reconstruction of a positive semidefinite 3D object using oversampling techniques. In such a problem, the data consist of a measured set of magnitudes from 2D tomographic images of the object at several unknown orientations. After the orientation angles are determined, the object itself can then be reconstructed by a variety of methods using oversampling, the magnitude data from the 2D images, physical constraints on the image, and then iteration to determine the phases

  1. Three-dimensional assessment of facial asymmetry: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhil, Gopi; Senthil Kumar, Kullampalayam Palanisamy; Raja, Subramani; Janardhanan, Kumaresan

    2015-08-01

    For patients with facial asymmetry, complete and precise diagnosis, and surgical treatments to correct the underlying cause of the asymmetry are significant. Conventional diagnostic radiographs (submento-vertex projections, posteroanterior radiography) have limitations in asymmetry diagnosis due to two-dimensional assessments of three-dimensional (3D) images. The advent of 3D images has greatly reduced the magnification and projection errors that are common in conventional radiographs making it as a precise diagnostic aid for assessment of facial asymmetry. Thus, this article attempts to review the newly introduced 3D tools in the diagnosis of more complex facial asymmetries.

  2. Tag gas burnup based on three-dimensional FTR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidman, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    Flux spectra from a three-dimensional diffusion theory analysis of the Fast Test Reactor (FTR) are used to predict gas tag ratio changes, as a function of exposure, for each FTR fuel and absorber subassembly plenum. These flux spectra are also used to predict Xe-125 equilibrium activities in absorber plena in order to assess the feasibility of using Xe-125 gamma rays to detect and distinguish control rod failures from fuel rod failures. Worst case tag burnup changes are used in conjunction with burnup and mass spectrometer uncertainties to establish the minimum spacing of tags which allows the tags to be unambiguously identified

  3. Observation of three dimensional optical rogue waves through obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonetti, Marco; Conti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We observe three-dimensional rogue waves in the speckle distribution of a spatially modulated optical beam. Light is transmitted beyond a partially reflecting obstacle generating optical rogue waves at a controlled position in the shadow of the barrier. When the barrier transmits only 0.07% of the input laser power, we observe the mostly localized event. These results demonstrate that an optimum amount of spatial non-homogeneity maximizes the probability of a gigantic event while the technique we exploit enables to control light behind a fully reflective wall

  4. Three-dimensional phase-field simulations of directional solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plapp, Mathis

    2007-05-01

    The phase-field method has become the method of choice for simulating microstructural pattern formation during solidification. One of its main advantages is that time-dependent three-dimensional simulations become feasible, which makes it possible to address long-standing questions of pattern stability and pattern selection. Here, a brief introduction to the phase-field model and its implementation is given, and its capabilities are illustrated by examples taken from the directional solidification of binary alloys. In particular, the morphological stability of hexagonal cellular arrays and of eutectic lamellar patterns is investigated.

  5. Problems of high temperature superconductivity in three-dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geilikman, B T

    1973-01-01

    A review is given of more recent papers on this subject. These papers have dealt mainly with two-dimensional systems. The present paper extends the treatment to three-dimensional systems, under the following headings: systems with collective electrons of one group and localized electrons of another group (compounds of metals with non-metals-dielectrics, organic substances, undoped semiconductors, molecular crystals); experimental investigations of superconducting compounds of metals with organic compounds, dielectrics, semiconductors, and semi-metals; and systems with two or more groups of collective electrons. Mechanics are considered and models are derived. 86 references.

  6. Three-dimensional characterization of stress corrosion cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Perez, S.; Rodrigo, P.; Gontard, Lionel Cervera

    2011-01-01

    the best spatial resolution. To illustrate the power of these techniques, different parts of dominant stress corrosion cracks in Ni-alloys and stainless steels have been reconstructed in 3D. All relevant microstructural features can now be studied in detail and its relative orientation respect......Understanding crack propagation and initiation is fundamental if stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms are to be understood. However, cracking is a three-dimensional (3D) phenomenon and most characterization techniques are restricted to two-dimensional (2D) observations. In order to overcome...

  7. Three-dimensional dilatonic gravity's rainbow: Exact solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossein Hendi, Seyed; Eslam Panah, Behzad; Panahiyan, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Deep relations of dark energy scenario and string theory results into dilaton gravity, on the one hand, and the connection between quantum gravity and gravity's rainbow, on the other hand, motivate us to consider three-dimensional dilatonic black hole solutions in gravity's rainbow. We obtain two classes of the solutions, which are polynomial and logarithmic forms. We also calculate conserved and thermodynamic quantities, and examine the first law of thermodynamics for both classes. In addition, we study thermal stability and show that one of the classes is thermally stable while the other one is unstable.

  8. The three-dimensional crystal structure of cholera toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L.; Nance, S.; Spangler, B.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Scott, D.L. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry; Westbrook, E.M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The clinical manifestations of cholera are largely attributable to the actions of a secreted hexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin (choleragen). We have solved the three-dimensional structure of choleragen at 2.5 {Angstrom} resolution and compared the refined coordinates with those of choleragenoid (isolated B pentamer) and the heat-labile enterotoxin from Escherichia coli (LT). The crystalline coordinates provide a detailed view of the stereochemistry implicated in binding to GM1 gangliosides and in carrying out ADP-ribosylation. The A2 chain of choleragen, in contrast to that of LT, is a nearly continuous {alpha}-helix with an interpretable carboxyl tail.

  9. Three-dimensional micro electromechanical system piezoelectric ultrasound transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajati, Arman; Latev, Dimitre; Gardner, Deane; Hajati, Azadeh; Imai, Darren; Torrey, Marc; Schoeppler, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Here we present the design and experimental acoustic test data for an ultrasound transducer technology based on a combination of micromachined dome-shaped piezoelectric resonators arranged in a flexible architecture. Our high performance niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate film is implemented in three-dimensional dome-shaped structures, which form the basic resonating cells. Adjustable frequency response is realized by mixing these basic cells and modifying their dimensions by lithography. Improved characteristics such as high sensitivity, adjustable wide-bandwidth frequency response, low transmit voltage compatible with ordinary integrated circuitry, low electrical impedance well matched to coaxial cabling, and intrinsic acoustic impedance match to water are demonstrated.

  10. Three-dimensional integrated CAE system applying computer graphic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshisada; Tanaka, Kazuo; Akitomo, Norio; Obata, Tokayasu.

    1991-01-01

    A three-dimensional CAE system for nuclear power plant design is presented. This system utilizes high-speed computer graphic techniques for the plant design review, and an integrated engineering database for handling the large amount of nuclear power plant engineering data in a unified data format. Applying this system makes it possible to construct a nuclear power plant using only computer data from the basic design phase to the manufacturing phase, and it increases the productivity and reliability of the nuclear power plants. (author)

  11. A simple three dimensional wide-angle beam propagation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changbao; van Keuren, Edward

    2006-05-01

    The development of three dimensional (3-D) waveguide structures for chip scale planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) is hampered by the lack of effective 3-D wide-angle (WA) beam propagation methods (BPMs). We present a simple 3-D wide-angle beam propagation method (WA-BPM) using Hoekstra’s scheme along with a new 3-D wave equation splitting method. The applicability, accuracy and effectiveness of our method are demonstrated by applying it to simulations of wide-angle beam propagation and comparing them with analytical solutions.

  12. Three-dimensional linear fracture mechanics analysis by a displacement-hybrid finite-element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atluri, S.N.; Kathiresan, K.; Kobayashi, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals with a finite-element procedures for the calculation of modes I, II and III stress intensity factors, which vary, along an arbitrarily curved three-dimensional crack front in a structural component. The finite-element model is based on a modified variational principle of potential energy with relaxed continuity requirements for displacements at the inter-element boundary. The variational principle is a three-field principle, with the arbitrary interior displacements for the element, interelement boundary displacements, and element boundary tractions as variables. The unknowns in the final algebraic system of equations, in the present displacement hybrid finite element model, are the nodal displacements and the three elastic stress intensity factors. Special elements, which contain proper square root and inverse square root crack front variations in displacements and stresses, respectively, are used in a fixed region near the crack front. Interelement displacement compatibility is satisfied by assuming an independent interelement boundary displacement field, and using a Lagrange multiplier technique to enforce such interelement compatibility. These Lagrangean multipliers, which are physically the boundary tractions, are assumed from an equilibrated stress field derived from three-dimensional Beltrami (or Maxwell-Morera) stress functions that are complete. However, considerable care should be exercised in the use of these stress functions such that the stresses produced by any of these stress function components are not linearly dependent

  13. Thermosteric contribution of warming oceans to the global sea level variations

    OpenAIRE

    Bâki Iz H.

    2016-01-01

    Thermosteric contribution of warming oceans to the global sea level variations during the last century was evaluated at globally distributed 27 tide gauge stations with records over 80 years. The assessment was made using a recently proposed lagged model inclusive of a sea level trend, long and decadal periodicities, and lagged sea surface temperature measurements. The new model solutions revealed that almost all the long period periodic sea level changes experienced a...

  14. Magnetic properties of three-dimensional Hubbard-sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hisashi; Ichinose, Ikuo; Tatara, Gen; Matsui, Tetsuo.

    1989-11-01

    It is broadly viewed that the magnetism may play an important role in the high-T c superconductivity in the lamellar CuO 2 materials. In this paper, based on a Hubbard-inspired CP 1 or S 2 nonlinear σ model, we give a quantitative study of some magnetic properties in and around the Neel ordered state of three-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets such as La 2 CuO 4 with and without small hole doping. Our model is a (3+1) dimensional effective field theory describing the low energy spin dynamics of a three-dimensional Hubbard model with a very weak interlayer coupling. The effect of hole dynamics is taken into account in the leading approximation by substituting the CP 1 coupling with an 'effective' one determined by the concentration and the one-loop correction of hole fermions. A stationary-phase equation for the one-loop effective potential of S 2 model is analyzed numerically. The behavior of Neel temperature, magnetization (long range Neel order), spin correlation length, etc as functions of anisotropic parameter, temperature, hole concentrations, etc are investigated in detail. A phase diagram is also supported by the renormlization group analysis. The results show that our anisotropic field theory model with certain values of parameters could give a reasonably well description of the magnetic properties indicated by some experiments on pure and doped La 2 CuO 4 . (author)

  15. Three-dimensional modeler for animated images display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubekeur, Rania

    1987-01-01

    The mv3d software allows the modeling and display of three dimensional objects in interpretative mode with animation possibility in real time. This system is intended for a graphical extension of a FORTH interpreter (implemented by CEA/IRDI/D.LETI/DEIN) in order to control a specific hardware (3.D card designed and implemented by DEIN) allowing the generation of three dimensional objects. The object description is carried out with a specific graphical language integrated in the FORTH interpreter. Objects are modeled using elementary solids called basic forms (cube, cone, cylinder...) assembled with classical geometric transformations (rotation, translation and scaling). These basic forms are approximated by plane polygonal facets further divided in triangles. Coordinates of the summits of triangles constitute the geometrical data. These are sent to the 3.D. card for processing and display. Performed processing are: geometrical transformations on display, hidden surface elimination, shading and clipping. The mv3d software is not an entire modeler but a simple, modular and extensible tool, to which other specific functions may be easily added such as: robots motion, collisions... (author) [fr

  16. Three-dimensional computer aided design system for plant layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Kiguchi, Takashi; Tokumasu, Shinji; Kumamoto, Kenjiro.

    1986-01-01

    The CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning, with which the layout of pipings, cable trays, air conditioning ducts and so on in nuclear power plants can be planned and designed effectively in a short period is reported. This system comprises the automatic routing system by storing the rich experience and know-how of designers in a computer as the knowledge, and deciding the layout automatically following the predetermined sequence by using these, the interactive layout system for reviewing the routing results from higher level and modifying to the optimum layout, the layout evaluation system for synthetically evaluating the layout from the viewpoint of the operability such as checkup and maintenance, and the data base system which enables these effective planning and design. In this report, the total constitution of this system and the technical features and effects of the individual subsystems are outlined. In this CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning, knowledge engineering, CAD/CAM, computer graphics and other latest technology were introduced, accordingly by applying this system to plant design, the design can be performed quickly, various case studies can be carried out at planning stage, and systematic and optimum layout planning becomes possible. (Kako, I.)

  17. Topology of Flow Separation on Three-Dimensional Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Gary T.; Yates, Leslie A.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years there has been extensive research on three-dimensional flow separation. There are two different approaches: the phenomenological approach and a mathematical approach using topology. These two approaches are reviewed briefly and the shortcomings of some of the past works are discussed. A comprehensive approach applicable to incompressible and compressible steady-state flows as well as incompressible unsteady flow is then presented. The approach is similar to earlier topological approaches to separation but is more complete and in some cases adds more emphasis to certain points than in the past. To assist in the classification of various types of flow, nomenclature is introduced to describe the skin-friction portraits on the surface. This method of classification is then demonstrated on several categories of flow to illustrate particular points as well as the diversity of flow separation. The categories include attached, two-dimensional separation and three different types of simple, three-dimensional primary separation, secondary separation, and compound separation. Hypothetical experiments are utilized to illustrate the topological terminology and its role in characterizing these flows. These hypothetical experiments use colored oil injected onto the surface at singular points in the skin-friction portrait. Actual flow-visualization information, if available, is used to corroborate the hypothetical examples.

  18. The Bio Bay Game: Three-Dimensional Learning of Biomagnification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Chandana; Lauren, Hillary; Wallon, Robert C; Hug, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Pressing concerns about sustainability and the state of the environment amplify the need to teach students about the connections between ecosystem health, toxicology, and human health. Additionally, the Next Generation Science Standards call for three-dimensional science learning, which integrates disciplinary core ideas, scientific practices, and crosscutting concepts. The Bio Bay Game is a way to teach students about the biomagnification of toxicants across trophic levels while engaging them in three-dimensional learning. In the game, the class models the biomagnification of mercury in a simple aquatic food chain as they play the roles of anchovies, tuna, and humans. While playing, the class generates data, which they analyze after the game to graphically visualize the buildup of toxicants. Students also read and discuss two articles that draw connections to a real-world case. The activity ends with students applying their understanding to evaluate the game as a model of biomagnification. Throughout the activity, students practice modeling and data analysis and engage with the crosscutting concepts of patterns and cause and effect to develop an understanding of core ideas about the connections between humans and the environment.

  19. Three-dimensional Majorana fermions in chiral superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozii, Vladyslav; Venderbos, Jörn W F; Fu, Liang

    2016-12-01

    Using a systematic symmetry and topology analysis, we establish that three-dimensional chiral superconductors with strong spin-orbit coupling and odd-parity pairing generically host low-energy nodal quasiparticles that are spin-nondegenerate and realize Majorana fermions in three dimensions. By examining all types of chiral Cooper pairs with total angular momentum J formed by Bloch electrons with angular momentum j in crystals, we obtain a comprehensive classification of gapless Majorana quasiparticles in terms of energy-momentum relation and location on the Fermi surface. We show that the existence of bulk Majorana fermions in the vicinity of spin-selective point nodes is rooted in the nonunitary nature of chiral pairing in spin-orbit-coupled superconductors. We address experimental signatures of Majorana fermions and find that the nuclear magnetic resonance spin relaxation rate is significantly suppressed for nuclear spins polarized along the nodal direction as a consequence of the spin-selective Majorana nature of nodal quasiparticles. Furthermore, Majorana nodes in the bulk have nontrivial topology and imply the presence of Majorana bound states on the surface, which form arcs in momentum space. We conclude by proposing the heavy fermion superconductor PrOs 4 Sb 12 and related materials as promising candidates for nonunitary chiral superconductors hosting three-dimensional Majorana fermions.

  20. Terahertz Imaging of Three-Dimensional Dehydrated Breast Cancer Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Tyler; Wu, Yuhao; Gauch, John; Campbell, Lucas K.; El-Shenawee, Magda

    2017-06-01

    This work presents the application of terahertz imaging to three-dimensional formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human breast cancer tumors. The results demonstrate the capability of terahertz for in-depth scanning to produce cross section images without the need to slice the tumor. Samples of tumors excised from women diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma are investigated using a pulsed terahertz time domain imaging system. A time of flight estimation is used to obtain vertical and horizontal cross section images of tumor tissues embedded in paraffin block. Strong agreement is shown comparing the terahertz images obtained by electronically scanning the tumor in-depth in comparison with histopathology images. The detection of cancer tissue inside the block is found to be accurate to depths over 1 mm. Image processing techniques are applied to provide improved contrast and automation of the obtained terahertz images. In particular, unsharp masking and edge detection methods are found to be most effective for three-dimensional block imaging.

  1. Horizontal biases in rats’ use of three-dimensional space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovalekic, Aleksandar; Hayman, Robin; Becares, Natalia; Reid, Harry; Thomas, George; Wilson, Jonathan; Jeffery, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Rodent spatial cognition studies allow links to be made between neural and behavioural phenomena, and much is now known about the encoding and use of horizontal space. However, the real world is three dimensional, providing cognitive challenges that have yet to be explored. Motivated by neural findings suggesting weaker encoding of vertical than horizontal space, we examined whether rats show a similar behavioural anisotropy when distributing their time freely between vertical and horizontal movements. We found that in two- or three-dimensional environments with a vertical dimension, rats showed a prioritization of horizontal over vertical movements in both foraging and detour tasks. In the foraging tasks, the animals executed more horizontal than vertical movements and adopted a “layer strategy” in which food was collected from one horizontal level before moving to the next. In the detour tasks, rats preferred the routes that allowed them to execute the horizontal leg first. We suggest three possible reasons for this behavioural bias. First, as suggested by Grobety and Schenk [5], it allows minimisation of energy expenditure, inasmuch as costly vertical movements are minimised. Second, it may be a manifestation of the temporal discounting of effort, in which animals value delayed effort as less costly than immediate effort. Finally, it may be that at the neural level rats encode the vertical dimension less precisely, and thus prefer to bias their movements in the more accurately encoded horizontal dimension. We suggest that all three factors are related, and all play a part. PMID:21419172

  2. Three-dimensional plasmonic chiral tetramers assembled by DNA origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xibo; Asenjo-Garcia, Ana; Liu, Qing; Jiang, Qiao; García de Abajo, F Javier; Liu, Na; Ding, Baoquan

    2013-05-08

    Molecular chemistry offers a unique toolkit to draw inspiration for the design of artificial metamolecules. For a long time, optical circular dichroism has been exclusively the terrain of natural chiral molecules, which exhibit optical activity mainly in the UV spectral range, thus greatly hindering their significance for a broad range of applications. Here we demonstrate that circular dichroism can be generated with artificial plasmonic chiral nanostructures composed of the minimum number of spherical gold nanoparticles required for three-dimensional (3D) chirality. We utilize a rigid addressable DNA origami template to precisely organize four nominally identical gold nanoparticles into a three-dimensional asymmetric tetramer. Because of the chiral structural symmetry and the strong plasmonic resonant coupling between the gold nanoparticles, the 3D plasmonic assemblies undergo different interactions with left and right circularly polarized light, leading to pronounced circular dichroism. Our experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions. The simplicity of our structure geometry and, most importantly, the concept of resorting on biology to produce artificial photonic functionalities open a new pathway to designing smart artificial plasmonic nanostructures for large-scale production of optically active metamaterials.

  3. Nitrogen-Doped Three Dimensional Graphene for Electrochemical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Chen, Ruwen; Liang, Qionglin; Li, Jinghong

    2015-07-01

    The rational assembly and doping of graphene play an crucial role in the improvement of electrochemical performance for analytical applications. Covalent assembly of graphene into ordered hierarchical structure provides an interconnected three dimensional conductive network and large specific area beneficial to electrolyte transfer on the electrode surface. Chemical doping with heteroatom is a powerful tool to intrinsically modify the electronic properties of graphene due to the increased free charge-carrier densities. By incorporating covalent assembly and nitrogen doping strategy, a novel nitrogen doped three dimensional reduced graphene oxide nanostructure (3D-N-RGO) was developed with synergetic enhancement in electrochemical behaviors. The as prepared 3D-N-RGO was further applied for catechol detection by differential pulse voltammetry. It exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity towards catechol with increased peak current and decreased potential difference between the oxidation and reduction peaks. Owing to the improved electro-chemical properties, the response of the electrochemical sensor varies linearly with the catechol concentrations ranging from 5 µM to 100 µM with a detection limit of 2 µM (S/N = 3). This work is promising to open new possibilities in the study of novel graphene nanostructure and promote its potential electrochemical applications.

  4. Three-dimensional bioprinting in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guifang; Cui, Xiaofeng

    2016-02-01

    With the advances of stem cell research, development of intelligent biomaterials and three-dimensional biofabrication strategies, highly mimicked tissue or organs can be engineered. Among all the biofabrication approaches, bioprinting based on inkjet printing technology has the promises to deliver and create biomimicked tissue with high throughput, digital control, and the capacity of single cell manipulation. Therefore, this enabling technology has great potential in regenerative medicine and translational applications. The most current advances in organ and tissue bioprinting based on the thermal inkjet printing technology are described in this review, including vasculature, muscle, cartilage, and bone. In addition, the benign side effect of bioprinting to the printed mammalian cells can be utilized for gene or drug delivery, which can be achieved conveniently during precise cell placement for tissue construction. With layer-by-layer assembly, three-dimensional tissues with complex structures can be printed using converted medical images. Therefore, bioprinting based on thermal inkjet is so far the most optimal solution to engineer vascular system to the thick and complex tissues. Collectively, bioprinting has great potential and broad applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The future advances of bioprinting include the integration of different printing mechanisms to engineer biphasic or triphasic tissues with optimized scaffolds and further understanding of stem cell biology.

  5. Three-dimensional volumetric display by inclined-plane scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Eto, Takuma; Nishimura, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kenji

    2003-05-01

    A volumetric display system based on three-dimensional (3-D) scanning that uses an inclined two-dimensional (2-D) image is described. In the volumetric display system a 2-D display unit is placed obliquely in an imaging system into which a rotating mirror is inserted. When the mirror is rotated, the inclined 2-D image is moved laterally. A locus of the moving image can be observed by persistence of vision as a result of the high-speed rotation of the mirror. Inclined cross-sectional images of an object are displayed on the display unit in accordance with the position of the image plane to observe a 3-D image of the object by persistence of vision. Three-dimensional images formed by this display system satisfy all the criteria for stereoscopic vision. We constructed the volumetric display systems using a galvanometer mirror and a vector-scan display unit. In addition, we constructed a real-time 3-D measurement system based on a light section method. Measured 3-D images can be reconstructed in the 3-D display system in real time.

  6. Interface fracture in laminates at three-dimensional corners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre Jensen, H.; Veluri, B. [Aarhus Univ.. Aarhus School of Engineering, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2012-07-01

    Interface failure close to corners has been observed in laminated layered structures. A fracture mechanics based approach focused on modelling the shape of such interface cracks and calculating the critical stress for steady-state propagation has been developed. The crack propagation is investigated by estimating the fracture mechanics parameters including the energy release rate and the three-dimensional mode-mixity along the crack front allowing determining the shape of the crack front profiles. A numerical approach is applied for coupling the far field solutions utilizing the capability of the Finite Element Method to the near field solutions at the crack front based on the J-integral. The developed two-dimensional numerical approach for the calculation of fracture mechanical properties has been validated with three-dimensional models for varying crack front shapes. In this study, a quantitative approach was formulated based on the finite element method with iterative adjustment of the crack front to estimate the critical delamination stress as a function of the fracture criterion and corner angles. The implication of the results on the delamination is discussed in terms of crack front profiles and the critical stresses. (Author)

  7. Three-dimensional structure of the γ-secretase complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Toshihiko; Mio, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Ikuo; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Rie; Kopan, Raphael; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Hamakubo, Takao; Iwastubo, Takeshi; Tomita, Taisuke; Sato, Chikara

    2006-01-01

    γ-Secretase belongs to an atypical class of aspartic proteases that hydrolyzes peptide bonds within the transmembrane domain of substrates, including amyloid-β precursor protein and Notch. γ-Secretase is comprised of presenilin, nicastrin, APH-1, and PEN-2 which form a large multimeric membrane protein complex, the three-dimensional structure of which is unknown. To gain insight into the structure of this complex enzyme, we purified functional γ-secretase complex reconstituted in Sf9 cells and analyzed it using negative stain electron microscopy and 3D reconstruction techniques. Analysis of 2341 negatively stained particle images resulted in the three-dimensional representation of γ-secretase at a resolution of 48 A. The structure occupies a volume of 560 x 320 x 240 A and resembles a flat heart comprised of two oppositely faced, dimpled domains. A low density space containing multiple pores resides between the domains. Some of the dimples in the putative transmembrane region may house the catalytic site. The large dimensions are consistent with the observation that γ-secretase activity resides within a high molecular weight complex

  8. A three-dimensional constitutive model for shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Bo; Yoon, Sung-Ho; Leng, Jin-Song

    2009-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) has a wide variety of practical applications due to its unique super-elasticity and shape memory effect. It is of practical interest to establish a constitutive model which predicts its phase transformation and mechanical behaviors. In this paper, a new three-dimensional phase transformation equation, which predicts the phase transformation behaviors of SMA, is developed based on the results of a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) test. It overcomes both limitations: that Zhou's phase transformation equations fail to describe the phase transformation from twinned martensite to detwinned martensite of SMA and Brinson's phase transformation equation fails to express the influences of phase transformation peak temperatures on the phase transformation behaviors of SMA. A new three-dimensional constitutive equation, which predicts the mechanical behaviors associated with the super-elasticity and shape memory effect of SMA, is developed on the basis of thermodynamics and solid mechanics. Results of numerical simulations show that the new constitutive model, which includes the new phase transformation equation and constitutive equation, can predict the phase transformation and mechanical behaviors associated with the super-elasticity and shape memory effect of SMA precisely and comprehensively. It is proved that Brinson's constitutive model of SMA can be considered as one special case of the new constitutive model

  9. Three-dimensional recurring patterns in excitable media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biton, Y.; Rabinovitch, A.; Braunstein, D.; Friedman, M.; Aviram, I.

    2011-01-01

    A new method to create three-dimensional periodic patterns in excitable media is presented. The method is demonstrated and the patterns are obtained with the help of two types of 3D 'spiral pairs' generators, which are respectively based on a 'corner effect' and a 'unidirectional propagation' processes. The results portray time-repeating patterns resembling fruits or potteries. The method is easy to implement and can be used to form other types of 3D patterns in excitable media. The question of periodicity of the patterns thus obtained is resolved by calculating the singular lines (filaments) around which they evolve and showing their unique reattachment property. Actual realizations could be conceived e.g. in chemical reactions such as Belousov-Zhabotinsky. Possible severe cardiac arrhythmias following the appearance of such patterns in the action potential of the heart are considered. -- Highlights: → New method to create three-dimensional periodic patterns in excitable media. → Singular lines (filaments) for the corner effect are presented. → Filaments are shown to exhibit periodic behavior.

  10. Dynamic masquerade with morphing three-dimensional skin in cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Deanna; Buresch, Kendra; Hanlon, Roger T

    2017-03-01

    Masquerade is a defence tactic in which a prey resembles an inedible or inanimate object thus causing predators to misclassify it. Most masquerade colour patterns are static although some species adopt postures or behaviours to enhance the effect. Dynamic masquerade in which the colour pattern can be changed is rare. Here we report a two-step sensory process that enables an additional novel capability known only in cuttlefish and octopus: morphing three-dimensional physical skin texture that further enhances the optical illusions created by coloured skin patterns. Our experimental design incorporated sequential sensory processes: addition of a three-dimensional rock to the testing arena, which attracted the cuttlefish to settle next to it; then visual processing by the cuttlefish of physical textures on the rock to guide expression of the skin papillae, which can range from fully relaxed (smooth skin) to fully expressed (bumpy skin). When a uniformly white smooth rock was presented, cuttlefish moved to the rock and deployed a uniform body pattern with mostly smooth skin. When a rock with small-scale fragments of contrasting shells was presented, the cuttlefish deployed mottled body patterns with strong papillae expression. These robust and reversible responses indicate a sophisticated visual sensorimotor system for dynamic masquerade. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Advantages of three-dimensional treatment planning in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attalla, E.M.; ELSAyed, A.A.; ElGantiry, M.; ElTahher, Z.

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning in-patients maxilla, breast, bladder, and lung tumors to explore its potential therapeutic advantage over the traditional dimensional (2-D) approach in these diseases. Conventional two-dimensional (2-D) treatment planning was compared to three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning. In five selected disease sites, plans calculated with both types of treatment planning were compared. The (3-D) treatment planning system used in this work TMS version 5.1 B from helax AB is based on a monte Carlo-based pencil beam model. The other treatment planning system (2-D 0, introduced in this study was the multi data treatment planning system version 2.35. For the volumes of interest; quality of dose distribution concerning homogeneity in the target volume and the isodose distribution in organs at risk, was discussed. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons between the two planning systems were made using dose volume histograms (DVH's) . For comparisons of dose distributions in real-patient cases, differences ranged from 0.8% to 6.4% for 6 MV, while in case of 18 MV photon, it ranged from 1,8% to 6.5% and was within -+3 standard deviations for the dose between the two planning systems.Dose volume histogram (DVH) shows volume reduction of the radiation-related organs at risk 3-D planning

  12. Three dimensional finite element linear analysis of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inbasakaran, M.; Pandarinathan, V.G.; Krishnamoorthy, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    A twenty noded isoparametric reinforced concrete solid element for the three dimensional linear elastic stress analysis of reinforced concrete structures is presented. The reinforcement is directly included as an integral part of the element thus facilitating discretization of the structure independent of the orientation of reinforcement. Concrete stiffness is evaluated by taking 3 x 3 x 3 Gauss integration rule and steel stiffness is evaluated numerically by considering three Gaussian points along the length of reinforcement. The numerical integration for steel stiffness necessiates the conversion of global coordiantes of the Gaussian points to nondimensional local coordinates and this is done by Newton Raphson iterative method. Subroutines for the above formulation have been developed and added to SAP and STAP routines for solving the examples. The validity of the reinforced concrete element is verified by comparison of results from finite element analysis and analytical results. It is concluded that this finite element model provides a valuable analytical tool for the three dimensional elastic stress analysis of concrete structures like beams curved in plan and nuclear containment vessels. (orig.)

  13. CFD three dimensional wake analysis in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, F.; Astolfi, D.; Terzi, L.

    2017-11-01

    Even if wind energy technology is nowadays fully developed, the use of wind energy in very complex terrain is still challenging. In particular, it is challenging to characterize the combination effects of wind ow over complex terrain and wake interactions between nearby turbines and this has a practical relevance too, for the perspective of mitigating anomalous vibrations and loads as well improving the farm efficiency. In this work, a very complex terrain site has been analyzed through a Reynolds-averaged CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) numerical wind field model; in the simulation the inuence of wakes has been included through the Actuator Disk (AD) approach. In particular, the upstream turbine of a cluster of 4 wind turbines having 2.3 MW of rated power is studied. The objective of this study is investigating the full three-dimensional wind field and the impact of three-dimensionality on the evolution of the waked area between nearby turbines. A post-processing method of the output of the CFD simulation is developed and this allows to estimate the wake lateral deviation and the wake width. The reliability of the numerical approach is inspired by and crosschecked through the analysis of the operational SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) data of the cluster of interest.

  14. Three dimensional multi perspective imaging with randomly distributed sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DaneshPanah, Mehdi; Javidi, Bahrain

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review a three dimensional (3D) passive imaging system that exploits the visual information captured from the scene from multiple perspectives to reconstruct the scene voxel by voxel in 3D space. The primary contribution of this work is to provide a computational reconstruction scheme based on randomly distributed sensor locations in space. In virtually all of multi perspective techniques (e.g. integral imaging, synthetic aperture integral imaging, etc), there is an implicit assumption that the sensors lie on a simple, regular pickup grid. Here, we relax this assumption and suggest a computational reconstruction framework that unifies the available methods as its special cases. The importance of this work is that it enables three dimensional imaging technology to be implemented in a multitude of novel application domains such as 3D aerial imaging, collaborative imaging, long range 3D imaging and etc, where sustaining a regular pickup grid is not possible and/or the parallax requirements call for a irregular or sparse synthetic aperture mode. Although the sensors can be distributed in any random arrangement, we assume that the pickup position is measured at the time of capture of each elemental image. We demonstrate the feasibility of the methods proposed here by experimental results.

  15. Characterization of an Actively Controlled Three-Dimensional Turret Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Patrick; Glauser, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Three-dimensional turrets are commonly used for housing optical systems on airborne platforms. As bluff bodies, these geometries generate highly turbulent wakes that decrease the performance of the optical systems and the aircraft. The current experimental study looked to use dynamic suction in both open and closed-loop control configurations to actively control the turret wake. The flow field was characterized using dynamic pressure and stereoscopic PIV measurements in the wake of the turret. Results showed that the suction system was able to manipulate the wake region of the turret and could alter not only the spatial structure of the wake, but also the temporal behavior of the wake flow field. Closed-loop, feedback control techniques were used to determine a more optimal control input for the flow control. Similar control effects were seen for both the steady open-loop control case and the closed-loop feedback control configuration with a 45% reduction in the suction levels when comparing the closed-loop to the open-loop case. These results provide unique information regarding the development of the baseline three-dimensional wake and the wake with three different active flow control configurations.

  16. The effects of environmental variability and spatial sampling on the three-dimensional inversion problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Christopher M; Ballard, Megan S; Wilson, Preston S

    2014-06-01

    The overall goal of this work is to quantify the effects of environmental variability and spatial sampling on the accuracy and uncertainty of estimates of the three-dimensional ocean sound-speed field. In this work, ocean sound speed estimates are obtained with acoustic data measured by a sparse autonomous observing system using a perturbative inversion scheme [Rajan, Lynch, and Frisk, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 82, 998-1017 (1987)]. The vertical and horizontal resolution of the solution depends on the bandwidth of acoustic data and on the quantity of sources and receivers, respectively. Thus, for a simple, range-independent ocean sound speed profile, a single source-receiver pair is sufficient to estimate the water-column sound-speed field. On the other hand, an environment with significant variability may not be fully characterized by a large number of sources and receivers, resulting in uncertainty in the solution. This work explores the interrelated effects of environmental variability and spatial sampling on the accuracy and uncertainty of the inversion solution though a set of case studies. Synthetic data representative of the ocean variability on the New Jersey shelf are used.

  17. Do Three-dimensional Visualization and Three-dimensional Printing Improve Hepatic Segment Anatomy Teaching? A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangxue; Nie, Lanying; Zhang, Huijian; Wang, Zhanglin; Ye, Qiang; Tang, Lei; Li, Jianyi; Huang, Wenhua

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic segment anatomy is difficult for medical students to learn. Three-dimensional visualization (3DV) is a useful tool in anatomy teaching, but current models do not capture haptic qualities. However, three-dimensional printing (3DP) can produce highly accurate complex physical models. Therefore, in this study we aimed to develop a novel 3DP hepatic segment model and compare the teaching effectiveness of a 3DV model, a 3DP model, and a traditional anatomical atlas. A healthy candidate (female, 50-years old) was recruited and scanned with computed tomography. After three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, the computed 3D images of the hepatic structures were obtained. The parenchyma model was divided into 8 hepatic segments to produce the 3DV hepatic segment model. The computed 3DP model was designed by removing the surrounding parenchyma and leaving the segmental partitions. Then, 6 experts evaluated the 3DV and 3DP models using a 5-point Likert scale. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the educational effectiveness of these models compared with that of the traditional anatomical atlas. The 3DP model successfully displayed the hepatic segment structures with partitions. All experts agreed or strongly agreed that the 3D models provided good realism for anatomical instruction, with no significant differences between the 3DV and 3DP models in each index (p > 0.05). Additionally, the teaching effects show that the 3DV and 3DP models were significantly better than traditional anatomical atlas in the first and second examinations (p < 0.05). Between the first and second examinations, only the traditional method group had significant declines (p < 0.05). A novel 3DP hepatic segment model was successfully developed. Both the 3DV and 3DP models could improve anatomy teaching significantly. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A three-dimensional thermal and electromagnetic model of whole limb heating with a MAPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charny, C K; Levin, R L

    1991-10-01

    Previous studies by the authors have shown that if properly implemented, the Pennes assumptions can be applied to quantify bioheat transfer during extremity heating. Given its relative numerical simplicity and its ability to predict temperatures in thermoregulated tissue, the Pennes model of bioheat transfer was utilized in a three-dimensional thermal model of limb heating. While the arterial blood temperature was assumed to be radially uniform within a cross section of the limb, axial gradients in the arterial and venous blood temperatures were computed with this three-dimensional model. A realistically shaped, three-dimensional finite element model of a tumor-bearing human lower leg was constructed and was "attached" mathematically to the whole body thermal model of man described in previous studies by the authors. The central as well as local thermoregulatory feedback control mechanisms which determine blood perfusion to the various tissues and rate of evaporation by sweating were input into the limb model. In addition, the temperature of the arterial blood which feeds into the most proximal section of the lower leg was computed by the whole body thermal model. The variations in the shape of the tissues which comprise the limb were obtained from computerized tomography scans. Axial variations in the energy deposition patterns along the length of the limb exposed to a miniannular phased array (MAPA) applicator were also input into this model of limb heating. Results indicate that proper positioning of the limb relative to the MAPA is a significant factor in determining the effectiveness of the treatment. A patient-specific hyperthermia protocol can be designed using this coupled electromagnetic and thermal model.

  19. Air-sea interaction over the Indian Ocean due to variations in the Indonesian throughflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajsowicz, R. C.

    The effects of the Indonesian throughflow on the upper thermocline circulation and surface heat flux over the Indian Ocean are presented for a 3-D ocean model forced by two different monthly wind-stress climatologies, as they show interesting differences, which could have implications for long-term variability in the Indian and Australasian monsoons. The effects are determined by contrasting a control run with a run in which the throughflow is blocked by an artificial land-bridge across the exit channels into the Indian Ocean. In the model forced by ECMWF wind stresses, there is little impact on the annual mean surface heat flux in the region surrounding the throughflow exit straits, whereas in the model forced by SSM/I-based wind stresses, a modest throughflow of less than 5 ×106 m3s-1 over the upper 300 m induces an extra 10-50 Wm-2 output. In the SSM/I-forced model, there is insignificant penetration of the throughflow into the northern Indian Ocean. However, in the ECMWF-forced model, the throughflow induces a 5-10 Wm-2 reduction in heat input into the ocean, i.e., an effective output, over the Somali Current in the annual mean. These differences are attributed to differences in the strength and direction of the Ekman transport of the ambient flow, and the vertical structure of the transport and temperature anomalies associated with the throughflow. In both models, the throughflow induces a 5-30 Wm-2 increase in net output over a broad swathe of the southern Indian Ocean, and a reduction in heat output of 10-60 Wm-2 in a large L-shaped band around Tasmania. Effective increases in throughflow-induced net output reach up to 40 (60) Wm-2 over the Agulhas Current retroflection in the ECMWF (SSM/I)-forced model. Seasonal variations in the throughflow's effect on the net surface heat flux are attributed to seasonal variations in the ambient circulation of the Indian Ocean, specifically in coastal upwelling along the south Javan, west Australian, and Somalian coasts

  20. Three-Dimensional Liver Surgery Simulation: Computer-Assisted Surgical Planning with Three-Dimensional Simulation Software and Three-Dimensional Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Yukio; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2017-06-01

    To perform accurate hepatectomy without injury, it is necessary to understand the anatomical relationship among the branches of Glisson's sheath, hepatic veins, and tumor. In Japan, three-dimensional (3D) preoperative simulation for liver surgery is becoming increasingly common, and liver 3D modeling and 3D hepatectomy simulation by 3D analysis software for liver surgery have been covered by universal healthcare insurance since 2012. Herein, we review the history of virtual hepatectomy using computer-assisted surgery (CAS) and our research to date, and we discuss the future prospects of CAS. We have used the SYNAPSE VINCENT medical imaging system (Fujifilm Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for 3D visualization and virtual resection of the liver since 2010. We developed a novel fusion imaging technique combining 3D computed tomography (CT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The fusion image enables us to easily visualize anatomic relationships among the hepatic arteries, portal veins, bile duct, and tumor in the hepatic hilum. In 2013, we developed an original software, called Liversim, which enables real-time deformation of the liver using physical simulation, and a randomized control trial has recently been conducted to evaluate the use of Liversim and SYNAPSE VINCENT for preoperative simulation and planning. Furthermore, we developed a novel hollow 3D-printed liver model whose surface is covered with frames. This model is useful for safe liver resection, has better visibility, and the production cost is reduced to one-third of a previous model. Preoperative simulation and navigation with CAS in liver resection are expected to help planning and conducting a surgery and surgical education. Thus, a novel CAS system will contribute to not only the performance of reliable hepatectomy but also to surgical education.