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Sample records for three-dimensional thermoluminescence spectra

  1. Three-dimensional thermoluminescence spectra of different origin quartz from Altay Orogenic belt, Xinjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Kaixuan; Liu Zehua; Zeng Sheng; Liu Yan; Xie Yanshi; Rieser, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional thermoluminescence spectra are measured for different types of geological origin quartz from the Altay orogenic belt, northern Xinjiang, China. The results show striking differences which appear to be characteristic of their geological origin. Granitic quartz is dominated by emission bands at 420-430 nm, 550-560 nm, at a temperature of 170 deg. C. Pegmatite quartz is characterized by an intense 480 nm emission band at 170 deg. C. Volcanic quartz has exclusive UV (340-360 nm) and violet (410-430 nm) emission bands. Hydrothermal quartz exhibits very different TL spectral characteristics because of different hydrothermal activity and mineralization. Only one TL peaks at 485 nm/170 deg. C was observed in sedimentary quartz. An intense 730 nm emission band observed at 170 deg. C considered generally to be characteristics of feldspar was observed in quartz from granite and hydrothermal Au-bearing quartz. This TL peak is probably related to the centre of [FeO 4 ] 0 on an Si site. All samples show an intense 990-1000 nm emission band at 330 deg. C. Identical types of quartz formed in different regions or different geological and tectonic settings can also exhibit striking differences in TL spectra.

  2. Low temperature three-dimensional thermoluminescence spectra of undoped YVO{sub 4} single crystals grown by different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdei, S. [Materials Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Kovacs, L. [Research Laboratory for Crystal Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 132, H-1502 Budapest (Hungary)]|[School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Peto, A. [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 77, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)]|[School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Vandlik, J. [Research Institute of Materials Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, Budapest (Hungary); Townsend, P.D. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Ainger, F.W. [Materials Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Three dimensional (3D) thermoluminescence (TL) spectra of two yttrium orthovanadate (YVO{sub 4}) single crystals grown from YVO{sub 4} melt by the Czochralski (CZ) technique and one additional YVO{sub 4} crystal pulled from lithium-metavanadate (LiVO{sub 3}) flux by the top seeded solution growth (TSSG) method were investigated after x-ray irradiation. The TL spectra were recorded in the 200{endash}800 nm wavelength and 20{endash}300 K temperature ranges before and after annealing of the crystals in an oxygen atmosphere. In spite of the different growth conditions the measured 3D TL spectra of the CZ samples show similar TL characteristics. The main TL emission appears around 450 nm, and between 200 and 250 K. Further weak emissions were also detected at 570, 600, 650, and 710 nm wavelengths, which might be attributed to unwanted impurities. The TL spectrum of the TSSG crystal markedly differs from that of the CZ crystals. On one hand the major TL appears at lower temperatures whereas on the other hand the emission spectrum exhibits a broader band around 500 nm, while the weak bands between 500 and 700 nm could not be detected. Based on these observations the different defect structures in YVO{sub 4} crystals are discussed in the article emphasizing that 3D TL measurement is a useful practical tool for the characterization and identification of YVO{sub 4} crystals grown by different methods. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Thermoluminescence spectra of amethyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q. [Suzhou Railway Teachers College (China). Dept. of Physics; Yang, B. [Beijing Normal University (China). Dept. of Physics; Wood, R.A.; White, D.R.R.; Townsend, P.D.; Luff, B.J. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences

    1994-04-01

    Thermoluminescence and cathodoluminescence data from natural and synthetic amethyst and synthetic quartz samples are compared. The spectra include features from the quartz host lattice and from impurity-generated recombination sites. Emission features exist throughout the wavelength range studied, 250-800 nm. The near infrared emission at 740-750 nm appears to be characteristic of the amethyst and is proposed to be due to Fe ion impurity. (Author).

  4. Thermoluminescence spectra measured with a Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschberger, P.

    1991-01-01

    A Michelson interferometer was redesigned to prove its capabilities in the measurement of short-lived, low-intensity thermoluminescence spectra. Interferograms are collected during heating up the thermoluminescent probe in a heater plate. A personal computer controls the data acquisition and processes the Fourier transform. As the results show, even a comparatively simple and limited setup leads to relevant and reproducible spectra. (author)

  5. Combined inversion for the three-dimensional Q structure and source parameters using microearthquake spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Frank

    1990-08-01

    The estimation of Q values and/or source corner frequencies fc from single-station narrow-band recordings of microearthquake spectra is a strongly nonunique problem. This is due to the fact that the spectra can be equally well fitted with low-Q/high-fc or a high-Q/low-fc spectral models. Here, a method is proposed to constrain this ambiguity by inverting a set of microearthquake spectra for a three-dimensional Q model structure and model source parameters seismic moment (Mo ) and corner frequency (fc ) simultaneously. The inversion of whole path Q can be stated as a linear problem in the attenuation operator t* and solved using a tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional Q structure. This Q structure is then used as a "geometrical constraint" for a nonlinear Marquardt-Levenberg inversion of Mo and fc and a new Q value. The first step of the method consists of interactively fitting the observed microearthquake spectra by spectral models consisting of a source spectrum with an assumed high-frequency decay, a single-layer resonance filter to account for local site effects, and additional "whole path attenuation" along the ray path. From the obtained Q values, a three-dimensional Q model is calculated using a tomographic reconstruction technique (SIRT). The individual Q values along each ray path are then used as Q starting values for a nonlinear iterative Marquardt-Levenberg inversion of Mo and fc and a "new" Q value. Subsequently, the "new" Q values are used to reconstruct the next Q model which again provides starting values for the "next" nonlinear inversion of Mo, fc, and Q. This process is repeated until the "goodness of fit measure" indicates no further improvement of the results. The method has been tested on a set of approximately 2800 P wave spectra (0.9 effects close to the surface shows that site effects may cause a corruption of the resulting Q model at shallow depths. For the given data set and depths below 3-5 km, the method is believed to be

  6. Resonant spectra of malignant breast cancer tumors using the three-dimensional electromagnetic fast multipole model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shenawee, Magda

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an intensive numerical study of the resonance scattering of malignant breast cancer tumors. The three-dimensional electromagnetic model, based on the equivalence theorem, is used to obtain induced electric and magnetic currents on breast and tumor surfaces. The results show that the nonspherical malignant tumor can be characterized, based on its spectra, regardless of orientation, incident polarization, or incident or scattered directions. The spectra of the tumor depend solely upon its physical characteristics (i.e., shape and electrical properties); however, their locations are not functions of the depth of the tumor beneath the breast surface. This paper can be a guide in the selection of the frequency range at which the tumor resonates to produce the maximum signature at the receiver.

  7. [Study on the characteristics of three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission spectra of methanol and ethanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Gui-jun; He, Xiao-song; Zheng, Xiao-jiang; Ai, Xun-ru; Shi, You-xiang

    2012-02-01

    For the purpose of revealing the spectra characteristics of methyl and ethanol, and establishing a method for distinguishing each other, the fluorescence features of methyl and ethanol were studied by three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra. The results obtained showed that there were two peaks in the three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra of methyl, and the intensities of the two peaks were positively related to the concentration of methyl when it was less than 15%. On the other hand, a whole fluorescence peak was only observed in the three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra of ethanol, and the intensity of the peak was positively correlated to the content of ethanol when it was less than 50%. There was a higher fluorescence efficiency for the methanol as compared to the ethanol. When the methyl was used for organic solvents to study the fluorescent nature of the organic matter, the fluorescence emitted by the methyl should be deduced. The locations of the fluorescence peaks of the methyl and ethanol were different. The peaks of the methyl were located at 225/350 nm and 250/375 nm, while the peak of the ethanol was characterized by 240/310 nm. Therefore, the fluorescence peak locations of the two alcohols could be applied to discriminate each other.

  8. Three-dimensional simulations of turbulent spectra in the local interstellar medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shaikh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional time dependent numerical simulations of compressible magnetohydrodynamic fluids describing super-Alfvénic, supersonic and strongly magnetized space and laboratory plasmas show a nonlinear relaxation towards a state of near incompressibility. The latter is characterized essentially by a subsonic turbulent Mach number. This transition is mediated dynamically by disparate spectral energy dissipation rates in compressible magnetosonic and shear Alfvénic modes. Nonlinear cascades lead to super-Alfvénic turbulent motions decaying to a sub-Alfvénic regime that couples weakly with (magnetoacoustic cascades. Consequently, the supersonic plasma motion is transformed into highly subsonic motion and density fluctuations experience a passive convection. This model provides a self-consistent explaination of the ubiquitous nature of incompressible magnetoplasma fluctuations in the solar wind and the interstellar medium.

  9. Resonant Spectra of Malignant Breast Cancer Tumors Using the Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Fast Multipole Model. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shenawee, Magda

    2003-01-01

    An intensive numerical study for the resonance scattering of malignant breast cancer tumors is presented. The rigorous three-dimensional electromagnetic model, based on the equivalence theorem, is used to obtain the induced electric and magnetic currents on the breast and tumor surfaces. The results show that a non-spherical malignant tumor can be characterized based its spectra regardless of its orientation, the incident polarization, or the incident or scattered directions. The tumor's spectra depend solely on its physical characteristics (i.e., the shape and the electrical properties), however, their locations are not functions of its burial depth. This work provides a useful guidance to select the appropriate frequency range for the tumor's size.

  10. Forward Modeling of Reduced Power Spectra from Three-dimensional k-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Papen, Michael; Saur, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    We present results from a numerical forward model to evaluate one-dimensional reduced power spectral densities (PSDs) from arbitrary energy distributions in {\\boldsymbol{k}} -space. In this model, we can separately calculate the diagonal elements of the spectral tensor for incompressible axisymmetric turbulence with vanishing helicity. Given a critically balanced turbulent cascade with {{k}\\parallel }∼ k\\bot α and α \\lt 1, we explore the implications on the reduced PSD as a function of frequency. The spectra are obtained under the assumption of Taylor’s hypothesis. We further investigate the functional dependence of the spectral index κ on the field-to-flow angle θ between plasma flow and background magnetic field from MHD to electron kinetic scales. We show that critically balanced turbulence asymptotically develops toward θ-independent spectra with a slope corresponding to the perpendicular cascade. This occurs at a transition frequency {{f}2D}(L,α ,θ ), which is analytically estimated and depends on outer scale L, critical balance exponent α, and field-to-flow angle θ. We discuss anisotropic damping terms acting on the {\\boldsymbol{k}} -space distribution of energy and their effects on the PSD. Further, we show that the spectral anisotropies κ (θ ) as found by Horbury et al. and Chen et al. in the solar wind are in accordance with a damped critically balanced cascade of kinetic Alfvén waves. We also model power spectra obtained by Papen et al. in Saturn’s plasma sheet and find that the change of spectral indices inside 9 {{R}s} can be explained by damping on electron scales.

  11. Evaluation of Reduced Power Spectra from Three-Dimensional k-Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, J.; von Papen, M.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new tool to evaluate one dimensional reduced power spectral densities (PSD) from arbitrary energy distributions in kk-space. This enables us to calculate the power spectra as they are measured in spacecraft frame for any given measurement geometry assuming Taylor's frozen-in approximation. It is possible to seperately calculate the diagonal elements of the spectral tensor and also to insert additional, non-turbulent energy in kk-space (e.g. mirror mode waves). Given a critically balanced turbulent cascade with k∥˜kα⊥k_\\|sim k_perp^alpha, we explore the implications on the spectral form of the PSD and the functional dependence of the spectral index κkappa on the field-to-flow angle θtheta between plasma flow and background magnetic field. We show that critically balanced turbulence develops a θtheta-independent cascade with the spectral slope of the perpendicular cascade κ(θ=90∘)kappa(theta{=}90^circ). This happens at frequencies f>fmaxf>f_mathrm{max}, where fmax(L,α,θ)f_mathrm{max}(L,alpha,theta) is a function of outer scale LL, critical balance exponent αalpha and field-to-flow angle θtheta. We also discuss potential damping terms acting on the kk-space distribution of energy and their effect on the PSD. Further, we show that the functional dependence κ(θ)kappa(theta) as found by textit{Horbury et al.} (2008) and textit{Chen et al.} (2010) can be explained with a damped critically balanced turbulence model.

  12. Determination of rice syrup adulterant concentration in honey using three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and multivariate calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quansheng; Qi, Shuai; Li, Huanhuan; Han, Xiaoyan; Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen

    2014-10-01

    To rapidly and efficiently detect the presence of adulterants in honey, three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (3DFS) technique was employed with the help of multivariate calibration. The data of 3D fluorescence spectra were compressed using characteristic extraction and the principal component analysis (PCA). Then, partial least squares (PLS) and back propagation neural network (BP-ANN) algorithms were used for modeling. The model was optimized by cross validation, and its performance was evaluated according to root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R) in prediction set. The results showed that BP-ANN model was superior to PLS models, and the optimum prediction results of the mixed group (sunflower ± longan ± buckwheat ± rape) model were achieved as follow: RMSEP = 0.0235 and R = 0.9787 in the prediction set. The study demonstrated that the 3D fluorescence spectroscopy technique combined with multivariate calibration has high potential in rapid, nondestructive, and accurate quantitative analysis of honey adulteration.

  13. Thermoluminescence spectra of natural CaF2 irradiated by 10MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, J.; Angulo, S.; Pardo, M.P.; Gastesi, R.; De la Cruz, A.; Perez, A.

    2006-01-01

    The spectra of thermoluminescence from natural and electron-irradiated fluorite in the 350-800nm spectral range were studied between room temperature and 500 o C. The sample came from Asturias (Spain) and was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Glow peaks appeared at 115, 205 and 310 o C. Main emissions occurred at 475, 575, 650 and 745nm, attributed to the Dy +3 ion and, at 410nm, from electron-hole recombination. The fractional glow technique and the general order model were employed to study the emission at 575nm in detail. The results showed that the 115 and 205 o C glow peaks originate at traps with activation energies of 1.6 and 1.9eV, respectively, on the kinetic order of 1.5 and 1.3 and frequency factors of 1.7x10 19 and 2.7x10 19 s -1 , respectively. Spectrally resolved fading produced by storage was observed, and we concluded that the emission was due to large defect complexes. The dosimetric study showed that there was saturation at doses higher than 2kGy

  14. Analysis of spatial distribution characteristics of dissolved organic matter in typical greenhouse soil of northern China using three dimensional fluorescence spectra technique and parallel factor analysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-wei; Lei, Hong-jun; Han, Yu-ping; Xi, Bei-dou; He, Xiao-song; Xu, Qi-gong; Li, Dan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the soil DOM characteristics in the vegetable greenhouse with a long-term of cultivation. Results showed that the soil DOM mainly consisted of three components, fulvic acid-like (C1), humic acid-like (C2) and protein-like (C3), with C1 as the majority one. The distribution of DOM in space was also studied. In vertical direction, C1 and C2 decreased significantly with the increase in soil depth, while C3 component decreased after increased. The humification coefficient decreased fast from 0-20 to 30-40 cm, and then increased from 30-40 to 40-50 cm. In the horizontal direction, the level of C2 component varied greatly in space, while that of C1 component changed little, and that of C3 component fell in between the above two. The change in the humification degree of each soil layer significantly varied spatially. Humification process of soil organic matter mainly occurred in the surface soil layer. In addition, the humification degree in space also changed significantly. The new ideas of this study are: (1) Analyze the composition and spatial heterogeneity of soil DOM in the vegetable greenhouse; (2) Use three dimensional fluorescence spectra technology and parallel factor analysis model successfully to quantify the components of soil DOM, which provides a new method for the soil DOM analysis.

  15. An approach to the simultaneous quantitative analysis of metabolites in table wines by (1)H NMR self-constructed three-dimensional spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao Qiong; Xu, Min Li; Wang, Xue; Zhai, Hong Lin; Chen, Jing; Liu, Jin Jin

    2017-02-01

    Wine consists of several hundred components with different concentrations, including water, ethanol, glycerol, organic acids and sugars. Accurate quantification of target compounds in such complex samples is a difficult task based on conventional (1)H NMR spectra due to some challenges. In this paper, the three-dimensional spectrum was constructed firstly by simply repeating (1)H NMR spectrum itself so as to extract the features of target compounds by Tchebichef moment method. A proof-of-concept model system, the determination of five metabolites in wines was utilized to evaluate the performance of the proposed strategy. The results indicate that the proposed approach can provide accurate and reliable concentration predictions, probably the best results ever achieved using PLS and interval-PLS methods. Our novel strategy has not only good performance but also does not require laborious multi-step and subjective pretreatments. Therefore, it is expected that the proposed method could extend the application of conventional (1)H NMR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Three-dimensional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toga, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on new neuroimaging technologies that are revolutionizing the study of the brain be enabling investigators to visualize its structure and entire pattern of functional activity in three dimensions. The book provides a theoretical and practical explanation of the new science of creating three-dimensional computer images of the brain. The coverage includes a review of the technology and methodology of neuroimaging, the instrumentation and procedures, issues of quantification, analytic protocols, and descriptions of neuroimaging systems. Examples are given to illustrate the use of three-dimensional enuroimaging to quantitate spatial measurements, perform analysis of autoradiographic and histological studies, and study the relationship between brain structure and function

  17. Three dimensional system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Antonis; Radojcic, Riko

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuit (IC) stacking is the next big step in electronic system integration. It enables packing more functionality, as well as integration of heterogeneous materials, devices, and signals, in the same space (volume). This results in consumer electronics (e.g., mobile, handheld devices) which can run more powerful applications, such as full-length movies and 3D games, with longer battery life. This technology is so promising that it is expected to be a mainstream technology a few years from now, less than 10-15 years from its original conception. To achieve thi

  18. Three-dimensional metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckel, David Bruce [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-06-12

    A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.

  19. Three-Dimensional Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, Vitor; Viana, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors present the elements of a general theory for flows on three-dimensional compact boundaryless manifolds, encompassing flows with equilibria accumulated by regular orbits. The book aims to provide a global perspective of this theory and make it easier for the reader to digest the growing literature on this subject. This is not the first book on the subject of dynamical systems, but there are distinct aspects which together make this book unique. Firstly, this book treats mostly continuous time dynamical systems, instead of its discrete counterpart, exhaustively treated

  20. Three-dimensional chiral photonic superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, M; Fischer, H; von Freymann, G; Wegener, M

    2010-01-15

    We investigate three-dimensional photonic superlattices composed of polymeric helices in various spatial checkerboard-like arrangements. Depending on the relative phase shift and handedness of the chiral building blocks, different circular-dichroism resonances appear or are suppressed. Samples corresponding to four different configurations are fabricated by direct laser writing. The measured optical transmittance spectra are in good agreement with numerical calculations.

  1. Three dimensional energy profile:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowsari, Reza; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    The provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable energy has been considered as a cornerstone of development. More than one-third of the world's population has a very limited access to modern energy services and suffers from its various negative consequences. Researchers have been exploring various dimensions of household energy use in order to design strategies to provide secure access to modern energy services. However, despite more than three decades of effort, our understanding of household energy use patterns is very limited, particularly in the context of rural regions of the developing world. Through this paper, the past and the current trends in the field of energy analysis are investigated. The literature on rural energy and energy transition in developing world has been explored and the factors affecting households' decisions on energy use are listed. The and the factors affecting households' decisions on energy use are listed. The gaps identified in the literature on rural household energy analysis provide a basis for developing an alternative model that can create a more realistic view of household energy use. The three dimensional energy profile is presented as a new conceptual model for assessment of household energy use. This framework acts as a basis for building new theoretical and empirical models of rural household energy use. - Highlights: ► Reviews literature on household energy, energy transitions and decision-making in developing countries. ► Identifies gaps in rural household energy analysis and develops a new conceptual framework. ► The 3-d energy profile provides a holistic view of household energy system characteristics. ► Illustrates the use of the framework for understanding household energy transitions.

  2. Three-dimensional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Presents tips and tricks for beginners and experts Provides educational material for 3D training courses Features comprehensively illustrated cases Includes an accompanying DVD with video clips of all sample cases Three-dimensional echocardiography is the most recent fundamental advancement in echocardiography. Since real-time 3D echocardiography became commercially available in 2002, it has rapidly been accepted in echo labs worldwide. This book covers all clinically relevant aspects of this fascinating new technology, including a comprehensive explanation of its basic principles, practical aspects of clinical application, and detailed descriptions of specific uses in the broad spectrum of clinically important heart disease. The book was written by a group of well-recognized international experts in the field, who have not only been involved in the scientific and clinical evolution of 3D echocardiography since its inception but are also intensively involved in expert training courses. As a result, the clear focus of this book is on the practical application of 3D echocardiography in daily clinical routine with tips and tricks for both beginners and experts, accompanied by more than 150 case examples comprehensively illustrated in more than 800 images and more than 500 videos provided on a DVD. In addition to an in-depth review of the most recent literature on real-time 3D echocardiography, this book represents an invaluable reference work for beginners and expert users of 3D echocardiography. - Tips and tricks for beginners and experts - Educational material for 3D training courses - Comprehensively illustrated cases - DVD with video clips of all sample cases.

  3. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2005-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context, qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  4. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by order, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  5. Three dimensional moire pattern alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for determining three dimensional positioning relative to a predetermined point utilizing moire interference patterns such that the patterns are complementary when viewed on axis from the predetermined distance. Further, the invention includes means for determining rotational positioning in addition to three dimensional translational positioning.

  6. The Three-Dimensional Sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel R.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the three-dimensional sign proposed by Harris (1990) for general linguistic theory and the philosophy of language. The article places the principal characteristics of the three-dimensional sign (contextuality, cotemporality, communicational relevance, and experiential grounding) against those of the two-dimensional…

  7. Three-dimensional accelerating electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandres, Miguel A; Alonso, Miguel A; Kaminer, Ido; Segev, Mordechai

    2013-06-17

    We present a general theory of three-dimensional non-paraxial spatially-accelerating waves of the Maxwell equations. These waves constitute a two-dimensional structure exhibiting shape-invariant propagation along semicircular trajectories. We provide classification and characterization of possible shapes of such beams, expressed through the angular spectra of parabolic, oblate and prolate spheroidal fields. Our results facilitate the design of accelerating beams with novel structures, broadening scope and potential applications of accelerating beams.

  8. Computer-assisted structure elucidation from 13C-NMR-Spectra. I. The development of a three-dimensional structure code. II. The development of an isomer generating program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, V.

    1999-05-01

    The presented thesis consists of two separate programs which both aid the automated structure elucidation in the CSEARCH database system. A successful utilization of a large collection of NMR reference spectra for the prediction of chemical shift values is dependent on a strong correlation between the spectral data and the structural information via unique coding. By now, this was done using the two-dimensional HOSE code, which turned out to be insufficient whenever stereochemical effects other than cis/trans-isomerism contribute to the chemical shift values. Therefore, this new algorithm has been developed to derive the demanded three-dimensional descriptors. The calculation is performed by matching the query structures against pattern molecules taken from a carefully selected library of ring skeletons. No three-dimensional coordinates are necessary, since the algorithm elucidates the descriptors on base of two-dimensional structures having their stereocenters specified using 'up/down' bonds. The descriptors are defined as number of interactions over 3 to 5 bonds, number of cis-substituents over 1 to 2 ringbonds and markers for axial substituents. This approach of deriving descriptors for steric interactions has successfully extended the HOSE coding scheme and has been implemented into a neural network; both methods allow for high-quality prediction of 13 C-NMR chemical shift values. The second algorithm is an isomer generating program named GENERAL, which efficiently supports the structure elucidation process by calculating all mathematically possible structures to a given molecular formula. The resulting list of structures is exhaustive and free of redundancy. Besides the basic input information - like the molecular formula and the specification of structural fragments, constraints can be defined to restrict the number of resulting structures. The most valuable information is provided by state-of-the-art 2D-NMR experiments and can be easily incorporated into

  9. Thermoluminescent dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A dosimeter of the type in which two plates of plastics material are bonded together with a layer of thermoluminescent material trapped between is described. The device is made by sprinkling granular thermoluminescent material over areas of a plastics plate which has adhesive on it, removing excess material and then applying a second layer of plastics material over the first layer, and over the thermoluminescent material, and bonding it to complete the dosimeter. (author)

  10. Equilibrium: three-dimensional configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter considers toroidal MHD configurations that are inherently three-dimensional. The motivation for investigation such complicated equilibria is that they possess the potential for providing toroidal confinement without the need of a net toroidal current. This leads to a number of advantages with respect to fusion power generation. First, the attractive feature of steady-state operation becomes more feasible since such configurations no longer require a toroidal current transformer. Second, with zero net current, one potentially dangerous class of MHD instabilities, the current-driven kink modes, is eliminated. Finally, three-dimensional configurations possess nondegenerate flux surfaces even in the absence of plasma pressure and plasma current. Although there is an enormous range of possible three-dimensional equilibria, the configurations of interest are accurately described as axisymmetric tori with superimposed helical fields; furthermore, they possess no net toroidal current. Instead, two different and less obvious restoring forces are developed: the helical sideband force and the toroidal dipole current force. Each is discussed in detail in Chapter 7. A detailed discussion of the parallel current constraint, including its physical significance, is given in section 7.2. A general analysis of helical sideband equilibria, along with a detailed description of the Elmo bumpy torus, is presented in sections 7.3 and 7.4. A general description of toroidal dipole-current equilibria, including a detailed discussion of stellarators, heliotrons, and torsatrons, is given in sections 7.5 and 7.6

  11. Real three-dimensional biquadrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnov, Vyacheslav A [P.G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University, Yaroslavl (Russian Federation)

    2010-09-07

    We find the topological types of biquadrics (complete intersections of two real four-dimensional quadrics). The rigid isotopy classes of real three-dimensional biquadrics were described long ago: there are nine such classes. We find the correspondence between the topological types of real biquadrics and their rigid isotopy classes, and show that only two rigid isotopy classes have the same topological type. One of these classes consists of real GM-varieties and the other contains no GM-varieties. We also study the sets of real lines on real biquadrics.

  12. Unraveling thermoluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Sunta, C M

    2014-01-01

    The book is essentially about the theoretical aspects of thermoluminescence (TL). It is structured and written in a manner which will specially be of interest to the fresh undergraduate students and young researchers planning to take up work in the field of thermoluminescence. It is arranged into seven chapters, starting with the historical growth of the subject of TL and an overview of the luminescence phenomena. A Physical model involving thermally disconnected deep traps is specially described. Using this model expressions are derived for the TL intensity growth curve, the supralinearity fa

  13. and three-dimensional models for analysis of optical absorption

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Goldberg et al 1975; Kam and Parkinson 1982; Baglio et al 1982, 1983; Oritz 1995; Li et al 1996) has been carried out on WS2, there is no detailed analysis of the absorption spectra obtained from the single crystals of WS2 on the basis of two- and three-dimensional models. We have therefore carried out this study and the.

  14. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ShiLei; Zhang, JingYan; Baker, Alexander A; Wang, ShouGuo; Yu, GuangHua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2014-08-22

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered 'quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory.

  15. Three-Dimensional Laser Microvision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotahira, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Keigo; Chu, Sun-Chun; Wah, Christopher; Costen, Furnie; Yoshikuni, Yuzo

    2001-04-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) optical imaging system offering high resolution in all three dimensions, requiring minimum manipulation and capable of real-time operation, is presented. The system derives its capabilities from use of the superstructure grating laser source in the implementation of a laser step frequency radar for depth information acquisition. A synthetic aperture radar technique was also used to further enhance its lateral resolution as well as extend the depth of focus. High-speed operation was made possible by a dual computer system consisting of a host and a remote microcomputer supported by a dual-channel Small Computer System Interface parallel data transfer system. The system is capable of operating near real time. The 3-D display of a tunneling diode, a microwave integrated circuit, and a see-through image taken by the system operating near real time are included. The depth resolution is 40 m; lateral resolution with a synthetic aperture approach is a fraction of a micrometer and that without it is approximately 10 m.

  16. Three dimensional imaging of otoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.; David, B.

    2008-01-01

    Otoliths are small structures in fish ears made of calcium carbonate which carry a record of the environment in which the fish live. Traditionally, in order to study their microchemistry by a scanning technique such as PIXE the otoliths have been either ground down by hand or thin sectioned to expose the otolith core. However this technique is subject to human error in judging the core position. In this study we have scanned successive layers of otoliths 50 and 100 μm apart by removing the otolith material in a lapping machine which can be set to a few μm precision. In one study by comparing data from otoliths from the two ears of a freshwater species we found that polishing by hand could miss the core and thus give misleading results as to the life cycle of the fish. In another example we showed detail in a marine species which could be used to build a three dimensional picture of the Sr distribution. (author)

  17. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2015-03-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the individual data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme which envisages a classical abacus with the beads operated by electron spins. It is inspired by the idea of second quantization, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantized' Hall voltage, representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This concept of `second quantization of memory' realizes the 3D memory architecture with superior reading and operation efficiency, thus is a promising approach for future nonvolatile magnetic random access memory.

  18. Electron tomography, three-dimensional Fourier analysis and colour prediction of a three-dimensional amorphous biophotonic nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawkey, Matthew D.; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Pálsdóttir, Hildur; Crum, John; Ellisman, Mark H.; Auer, Manfred; Prum, Richard O.

    2009-01-01

    Organismal colour can be created by selective absorption of light by pigments or light scattering by photonic nanostructures. Photonic nanostructures may vary in refractive index over one, two or three dimensions and may be periodic over large spatial scales or amorphous with short-range order. Theoretical optical analysis of three-dimensional amorphous nanostructures has been challenging because these structures are difficult to describe accurately from conventional two-dimensional electron microscopy alone. Intermediate voltage electron microscopy (IVEM) with tomographic reconstruction adds three-dimensional data by using a high-power electron beam to penetrate and image sections of material sufficiently thick to contain a significant portion of the structure. Here, we use IVEM tomography to characterize a non-iridescent, three-dimensional biophotonic nanostructure: the spongy medullary layer from eastern bluebird Sialia sialis feather barbs. Tomography and three-dimensional Fourier analysis reveal that it is an amorphous, interconnected bicontinuous matrix that is appropriately ordered at local spatial scales in all three dimensions to coherently scatter light. The predicted reflectance spectra from the three-dimensional Fourier analysis are more precise than those predicted by previous two-dimensional Fourier analysis of transmission electron microscopy sections. These results highlight the usefulness, and obstacles, of tomography in the description and analysis of three-dimensional photonic structures. PMID:19158016

  19. Thermoluminescence and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The theory involved in the phenomenon of thermoluminescence emission, the characteristics of the main thermoluminescent phosphorus and some of their applications are presented. Some of the main thermoluminescent dosemeters used in dosimetry are described. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Thermoluminescence and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of thermoluminescent emission, the characteristics of main thermoluminescent phosphorus, and some applications are presented. The main thermoluminescent dosemeters used in dosimetry are related. (M.C.K.)

  1. Elastocapillary fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honschoten, J.W.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Ondarcuhu, T.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Sundaram, J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2010-01-01

    We describe the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures by means of capillary forces. Using an origami-like technique, planar silicon nitride structures of various geometries are folded to produce three-dimensional objects of 50–100 m. Capillarity is a particularly effective mechanism since

  2. Study on three dimensional seismic isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki; Kitamura, Seiji

    2003-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) launched joint research programs on structural design and three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, as part of the supporting R and D activities for the feasibility studies on commercialized fast breeder reactor cycle systems. A research project by JAPC under the auspices of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) with technical support by JNC is included in this joint study. This report contains the results of the research on the three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, and the results of this year's study are summarized in the following five aspects. (1) Study on Earthquake Condition for Developing 3-dimensional Base Isolation System. The case study S2 is one of the maximum ground motions, of which the records were investigated up to this time. But a few observed near the fault exceed the case study S2 in the long period domain, depending on the fault length and conditions. Generally it is appropriate that the response spectra ratio (vertical/horizontal) is 0.6. (2) Performance Requirement for 3-dimensional Base Isolation System and Devices. Although the integrity map of main equipment/piping dominate the design criteria for the 3-dimensional base isolation system, the combined integrity map is the same as those of FY 2000, which are under fv=1Hz and over hv=20%. (3) Developing Targets and Schedule for 3-dimensional Isolation Technology. The target items for 3-dimensional base isolation system were rearranged into a table, and developing items to be examined concerning the device were also adjusted. A development plan until FY 2009 was made from the viewpoint of realization and establishment of a design guideline on 3-dimensional base isolation system. (4) Study on 3-dimensional Entire Building Base Isolation System. Three ideas among six ideas that had been proposed in FY2001, i.e., '3-dimensional base isolation system incorporating hydraulic

  3. Microlaser-based three-dimensional display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Eric B.; Bergstedt, Robert; Hargis, David E.; Higley, Paul D.

    1999-08-01

    Three dimensional (3D) displays are critical for viewing complex multi-dimensional information and for viewing representations of the three dimensional real world. A teaming arrangement between Laser Power Corporation (LPC) and Specialty Devices, Inc. (SDI) has led to the feasibility demonstration of a directly-viewed three dimensional volumetric display. LPC has developed red, green, and blue (RGB) diode pumped solid state microlaser display technology for use as a high resolution, high brightness display engine for the three dimensional display. Concurrently, SDI has developed a unique technology for viewing high resolution three dimensional volumetric images without external viewing aids (eye wear). When coupled to LPC's display engine, the resultant all solid state three dimensional display presets a true, physical three dimensionality which is directly viewable from all angles by multiple viewers without additional viewing equipment (eye wear). The resultant volumetric display will further enable applications such as the 'virtual sandbox,' visualization of radar and sonar data, air traffic control, remote surgery and diagnostics, and CAD workstations.

  4. Tag gas burnup based on three-dimensional FTR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidman, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    Flux spectra from a three-dimensional diffusion theory analysis of the Fast Test Reactor (FTR) are used to predict gas tag ratio changes, as a function of exposure, for each FTR fuel and absorber subassembly plenum. These flux spectra are also used to predict Xe-125 equilibrium activities in absorber plena in order to assess the feasibility of using Xe-125 gamma rays to detect and distinguish control rod failures from fuel rod failures. Worst case tag burnup changes are used in conjunction with burnup and mass spectrometer uncertainties to establish the minimum spacing of tags which allows the tags to be unambiguously identified

  5. Parallelization method for three dimensional MOC calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhizhu; Li Qing; Wang Kan

    2013-01-01

    A parallelization method based on angular decomposition for the three dimensional MOC was designed. To improve the parallel efficiency, the directions were pre-grouped and the groups were assembled to minimize the communication. The improved parallelization method was applied to the three dimensional MOC code TCM. The numerical results show that the calculation results of parallelization method are agreed with serial calculation results. The parallel efficiency gets obvious increase after the communication optimized and load balance. (authors)

  6. Three-dimensional effects in fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    An overall view of the pioneering theories and works, which enlighten the three-dimensional nature of fracture mechanics during the last years is given. the main aim is not an exhaustive reviewing but the displaying of the last developments on this scientific field in a natural way. This work attempts to envisage the limits of disregarding the three-dimensional behaviour in theories, analyses and experiments. Moreover, it tries to draw attention on the scant fervour, although increasing, this three-dimensional nature of fracture has among the scientific community. Finally, a constructive discussion is presented on the use of two-dimensional solutions in the analysis of geometries which bear a three-dimensional configuration. the static two-dimensional solutions and its applications fields are reviewed. also, the static three-dimensional solutions, wherein a comparative analysis with elastoplastic and elastostatic solutions are presented. to end up, the dynamic three-dimensional solutions are compared to the asymptotic two-dimensional ones under the practical applications point of view. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional Modeling of Type Ia Supernova Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlov, Alexei

    2001-06-01

    A deflagration explosion of a Type Ia Supernova (SNIa) is studied using three-dimensional, high-resolution, adaptive mesh refinement fluid dynamic calculations. Deflagration speed in an exploding Chandrasekhar-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf (WD) grows exponentially, reaches approximately 30the speed of sound, and then declines due to a WD expansion. Outermost layers of the WD remain unburned. The explosion energy is comparable to that of a Type Ia supernova. The freezing of turbulent motions by expansion appears to be a crucial physical mechanism regulating the strength of a supernova explosion. In contrast to one-dimensional models, three-dimensional calculations predict the formation of Si-group elements and pockets of unburned CO in the middle and in central regions of a supernova ejecta. This, and the presence of unburned outer layer of carbon-oxygen may pose problems for SNIa spectra. Explosion sensitivity to initial conditions and its relation to a diversity of SNIa is discussed.

  8. Photoluminescence, trap states and thermoluminescence decay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... solid-state reaction. The Fourier transform infrared (FT–IR) spectra confirmed the proper preparation of the sample. The prepared phosphors were characterized using photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra. Prominent green colour emission was obtained under ultraviolet excitation. The thermoluminescence ...

  9. Thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments depends upon the acquisition and long term stable storage of TL energy by crystalline minerals contained within a sedimentary unit. This energy is stored in the form of trapped electrons and quartz sand is the most commonly used mineral employed in the dating process. Prior to the final depositional episode it is necessary that any previously acquired TL is removed by exposure to sunlight. After burial the TL begins to build up again at a rate dependent upon the radiation flux delivered by long-lived isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium. The presence of rubidium and cosmic radiation generally play a lesser but contributory roll, and the total radiation dose delivered to the TL phosphor is modified by the presence of water. The period since deposition is therefore measured by determining the total amount of stored TL energy, the palaeodose (P), and the rate at which this energy is acquired, the annual radiation dose (ARD). TL dating may be applied to eolian, fluvial, coastal and in some cases, marine sediments. the technique is also successfully applied to volcanic materials and to a certain extent to archeological specimens

  10. Towards three-dimensional optical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuo; Ishikawa, Atsushi

    2017-12-01

    Metamaterials have opened up the possibility of unprecedented and fascinating concepts and applications in optics and photonics. Examples include negative refraction, perfect lenses, cloaking, perfect absorbers, and so on. Since these metamaterials are man-made materials composed of sub-wavelength structures, their development strongly depends on the advancement of micro- and nano-fabrication technologies. In particular, the realization of three-dimensional metamaterials is one of the big challenges in this research field. In this review, we describe recent progress in the fabrication technologies for three-dimensional metamaterials, as well as proposed applications.

  11. Towards three-dimensional optical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuo; Ishikawa, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Metamaterials have opened up the possibility of unprecedented and fascinating concepts and applications in optics and photonics. Examples include negative refraction, perfect lenses, cloaking, perfect absorbers, and so on. Since these metamaterials are man-made materials composed of sub-wavelength structures, their development strongly depends on the advancement of micro- and nano-fabrication technologies. In particular, the realization of three-dimensional metamaterials is one of the big challenges in this research field. In this review, we describe recent progress in the fabrication technologies for three-dimensional metamaterials, as well as proposed applications.

  12. Development of three dimensional solid modeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, R.M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is aimed at developing a three dimensional solid modeler employing computer graphics techniques using C-Language. Primitives have been generated, by combination of plane surfaces, for various basic geometrical shapes including cylinder, cube and cone. Back face removal technique for hidden surface removal has also been incorporated. Various transformation techniques such as scaling, translation, and rotation have been included for the object animation. Three dimensional solid modeler has been created by the union of two primitives to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed program. (author)

  13. Three-dimensional imaging utilizing energy discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, D.L.; Hoffman, K.R.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for three-dimensional image reconstruction in nuclear medicine which uses scattered radiation rather than multiple projected images to determine the source depth within the body. Images taken from numerous energy windows are combined to construct the source distribution in the body. The gamma-ray camera is not moved during the imaging process. Experiments with both Tc-99m and Ga-67 demonstrate that two channels of depth information can be extracted from the low energy images produced by scattered radiation. By combining this technique with standard SPECT reconstruction using multiple projections the authors anticipate much improved spatial resolution in the overall three-dimensional reconstruction

  14. Thermoluminescence and Thermoluminescent Dosimetry, v. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    This work is a comprehensive review and guide to the fields of thermoluminescence and thermoluminescent dosimetry. Three up-to-date volumes contain useful tables, illustrations, formulas and references to aid researchers in radiation and nuclear science, dosimetry and solid state physics. Volume III focuses on clinical and archeological-geological applications of TLD. Detailed technical information on TL instrumentation is also included.

  15. Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... The image data can be jointly analysed with the physical laws governing transport and principles of image formation. Hence, with the experiment suitably carried out, three-dimensional physical domains with unsteady processes can be accommodated. Optical methods promise to breach the holy grail of ...

  16. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAli, Ahmad B; Griffin, Michelle F; Butler, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice.

  17. Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... physical domains with unsteady processes can be accommodated. Optical methods promise to breach the holy grail of measurements by extracting unsteady three-dimensional data in applications related to transport phenomena. Keywords. Optical measurement; fluid flow and transport; refractive index ...

  18. Three dimensional electrochemical system for neurobiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez, Patricia; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report a novel three dimensional electrode array for electrochemical measurements in neuronal studies. The main advantage of working with these out-of-plane structures is the enhanced sensitivity of the system in terms of measuring electrochemical changes in the environment...

  19. Electron crystallography of three dimensional protein crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Dilyana

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation of the potential of electron diffraction for studying three dimensional sub-micro-crystals of proteins and pharmaceuticals. A prerequisite for using electron diffraction for structural studies is the predictable availability of tiny crystals. A method for

  20. Three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of white chrysanthemum flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunchang; Li, Yang; Cai, Hongxin; Li, Jing; Miao, Juan; Fu, Dexue; Su, Kun

    2014-09-01

    White chrysanthemum flower is one of the most popular plants found everywhere in China and used as herbs. In the present work, three-dimensional fluorescence technique was used to discriminate species of white chrysanthemum flowers. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of three types of white chrysanthemum flowers were obtained. It was found that there were two main fluorescence peaks with remarkable difference in fluorescence intensity, one was corresponding to flavonoids and another was attributed to chlorophyll-like compounds. There were remarkable differences among the contours of the three white chrysanthemum flowers. Further studies showed that the fluorescence intensity ratios of chlorophyll-like compounds to flavonoids had a certain relationship with the species; those for Huai, Hang and Huangshan white chrysanthemum flowers were 6.9-7.4, 18.9-21.4 and 73.6-84.5, respectively. All of the results suggest that three-dimensional fluorescence spectra can be used for the discrimination of white chrysanthemum flowers with the advantages of low cost, ease for operation and intuition.

  1. Three-dimensional patterning methods and related devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putnam, Morgan C.; Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Turner-Evans, Daniel B.; Warren, Emily L.

    2016-12-27

    Three-dimensional patterning methods of a three-dimensional microstructure, such as a semiconductor wire array, are described, in conjunction with etching and/or deposition steps to pattern the three-dimensional microstructure.

  2. Thermoluminescence study of lithium fluorides

    CERN Document Server

    Abu-Alazm, S M

    2003-01-01

    The spectrum of the light emitted during thermoluminescence (TL) from irradiated lif sample with different doses of Xe, Kr and electrons have been studied. The results show a main peak for all samples irradiated and unirradiated at temperature about 200 degree C. Morcever when the reaches to the value 5x10 sup 1 1 ion/cm sup 2 a new two bands begin to appear in case of Xe and Kr ion irradiation. The TL spectra under Kr and Xe ion irradiation similar at the same dose. However, the spectra under electron irradiation were found to be rather different than under heavy ions irradiation.

  3. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome

  4. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  5. Arching in three-dimensional clogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Török János

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arching in dry granular material is a long established concept, however it remains still an open question how three-dimensional orifices clog. We investigate by means of numerical simulations and experimental data how the outflow creates a blocked configuration of particles. We define the concave surface of the clogged dome by two independent methods (geometric and density based. The average shape of the cupola for spheres is almost a hemisphere but individual samples have large holes in the structure indicating a blocked state composed of two-dimensional force chains rather than three-dimensional objects. The force chain structure justifies this assumption. For long particles the clogged configurations display large variations, and in certain cases the empty region reaches a height of 5 hole diameters. These structures involve vertical walls consisting of horizontally placed stable stacking of particles.

  6. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.L.; Eddy, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory has recently acquired the computer hardware (Silicon Graphics Personal Iris Workstations) and software (Dynamic Graphics, Interactive Surface and Volume Modeling) to perform three dimensional analysis of hydrogeologic data. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data is a powerful technique that can be used to incorporate field, analytical, and modeling results from geologic, hydrologic, ecologic, and chemical studies into a comprehensive model for visualization and interpretation. This report covers the contamination of four different sites of the Savannah River Plant. Each section of this report has a computer graphic display of the concentration of contamination in the groundwater and/or sediments of each site

  7. Arching in three-dimensional clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, János; Lévay, Sára; Szabó, Balázs; Somfai, Ellák; Wegner, Sandra; Stannarius, Ralf; Börzsönyi, Tamás

    2017-06-01

    Arching in dry granular material is a long established concept, however it remains still an open question how three-dimensional orifices clog. We investigate by means of numerical simulations and experimental data how the outflow creates a blocked configuration of particles. We define the concave surface of the clogged dome by two independent methods (geometric and density based). The average shape of the cupola for spheres is almost a hemisphere but individual samples have large holes in the structure indicating a blocked state composed of two-dimensional force chains rather than three-dimensional objects. The force chain structure justifies this assumption. For long particles the clogged configurations display large variations, and in certain cases the empty region reaches a height of 5 hole diameters. These structures involve vertical walls consisting of horizontally placed stable stacking of particles.

  8. Three dimensional contact/impact methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The simulation of three-dimensional interface mechanics between reactor components and structures during static contact or dynamic impact is necessary to realistically evaluate their structural integrity to off-normal loads. In our studies of postulated core energy release events, we have found that significant structure-structure interactions occur in some reactor vessel head closure designs and that fluid-structure interactions occur within the reactor vessel. Other examples in which three-dimensional interface mechanics play an important role are: (1) impact response of shipping casks containing spent fuel, (2) whipping pipe impact on reinforced concrete panels or pipe-to-pipe impact after a pipe break, (3) aircraft crash on secondary containment structures, (4) missiles generated by turbine failures or tornados, and (5) drops of heavy components due to lifting accidents. The above is a partial list of reactor safety problems that require adequate treatment of interface mechanics and are discussed in this paper

  9. THREE DIMENSIONAL GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V. Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality is an important aspect for every firm in modern era of competition. Every product has tough competition in terms of market reach. The factor, which actually makes any product long run in market, is quality and hence quality is the stepping-stone for success of any firm. For everyone meaning of quality is different. We have seen several economists who have defined quality by considering different factors, but what all of them have common in them is Customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is the ultimate result of quality. In three-dimensional graphical representation of quality, optimum quality is obtained by using three-dimensional graph by considering some important factors governing quality of any product, limiting factor, and customer satisfaction.

  10. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome.

  11. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337

  12. Geometric actions for three-dimensional gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnich, G.; González, H. A.; Salgado-Rebolledo, P.

    2018-01-01

    The solution space of three-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter or flat Einstein gravity is given by the coadjoint representation of two copies of the Virasoro group in the former and the centrally extended BMS3 group in the latter case. Dynamical actions that control these solution spaces are usually constructed by starting from the Chern–Simons formulation and imposing all boundary conditions. In this note, an alternative route is followed. We study in detail how to derive these actions from a group-theoretical viewpoint by constructing geometric actions for each of the coadjoint orbits, including the appropriate Hamiltonians. We briefly sketch relevant generalizations and potential applications beyond three-dimensional gravity.

  13. SNAP - a three dimensional neutron diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallien, C.W.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes a one- two- three-dimensional multi-group diffusion code, SNAP, which is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations but can also carry out gamma calculations if the diffusion approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. SNAP can solve the multi-group neutron diffusion equations using finite difference methods. The one-dimensional slab, cylindrical and spherical geometries and the two-dimensional case are all treated as simple special cases of three-dimensional geometries. Numerous reflective and periodic symmetry options are available and may be used to reduce the number of mesh points necessary to represent the system. Extrapolation lengths can be specified at internal and external boundaries. (Author)

  14. Analysis of three-dimensional transonic compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeade, A.

    1984-01-01

    A method for computing the three-dimensional transonic flow around the blades of a compressor or of a propeller is given. The method is based on the use of the velocity potential, on the hypothesis that the flow is inviscid, irrotational and isentropic. The equation of the potential is solved in a transformed space such that the surface of the blade is mapped into a plane where the periodicity is implicit. This equation is in a nonconservative form and is solved with the help of a finite difference method using artificial time. A computer code is provided and some sample results are given in order to demonstrate the influence of three-dimensional effects and the blade's rotation.

  15. Three-dimensional display of document set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantrip, David B [Oxnard, CA; Pennock, Kelly A [Richland, WA; Pottier, Marc C [Richland, WA; Schur, Anne [Richland, WA; Thomas, James J [Richland, WA; Wise, James A [Richland, WA; York, Jeremy [Bothell, WA

    2009-06-30

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  16. Three-dimensional simulation of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvila, G.; Salas, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The integral form of the complete, unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the conservation form, cast in generalized coordinate system, are solved, numerically, to simulate the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The inviscid fluxes are discretized using Roe's upwind-biased flux-difference splitting scheme and the viscous fluxes are discretized using central differencing. Time integration is performed using a backward Euler ADI (alternating direction implicit) scheme. A full approximation multigrid is used to accelerate the convergence to steady state.

  17. Three-Dimensional Dynamic Loading of Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    oading conditions exist at the bulk scale, and exam ples include planetary impact and crater formation, tectonic plate movement , ballistic im pact and...found further way from an impact event, where the bulk material does not necessarily experience uniform loading in excess of the Hugoniot elastic li...either as a collection of quartz spheres in a three-dimensional rectilinear dom ain for t he mesoscale simulations or as a single representative material

  18. Three-dimensional broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Kebin; Strikwerda, Andrew; Zhang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    We present optically tunable magnetic three-dimensional (3D) metamaterials at terahertz (THz) frequencies which exhibit a tuning range of ~30% of the resonance frequency. This is accomplished by fabricating 3D array structures consisting of double-split-ring resonators (DSRRs) on silicon on sapph...... as verified through electromagnetic simulations and parameter retrieval. Our approach extends dynamic metamaterial tuning to magnetic control, and may find applications in switching and modulation, polarization control, or tunable perfect absorbers....

  19. Three-Dimensional Ocean Noise Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    realistic and complex three-dimensional bathymetry. This is achieved by using a parabolic equation [PE) propagation model and the reciprocity principle...explain the horizontal noise directionality observed in the Tonga Trench [Barclay, 2014], which was found not to be a 3D effect, but rather due to...modeled noise arriving on the axis of the canyon has significantly perturbed zero-crossings when compared to the equivalent Nx2D result. Theoretical

  20. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Sandpile Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, G. T.

    2001-03-01

    The granular bed, or sandpile, has become one of the condensed matter physicist's favorite systems. In addition to conceptual appeal, the simplest sandpile of monodisperse hard spheres is a valuable model system for understanding powders, liquids, and metallic glasses. Any fundamental approach to the transport and mechanical properties of three-dimensional mesoscale disordered materials must follow from a thorough understanding of their structure. However, in the overwhelming majority of cases, structure measurements have been limited to the mean filling fraction and the structural autocorrelation function. This is particularly unfortunate in the ongoing sandpile renaissance, where some of the most interesting questions concern structure and the relationship between structure and dynamics. I will discuss the combination of synchrotron x-ray microtomography and computer vision algorithms to perform three-dimensional virtual reconstructions of real sandpiles. This technique is rapid and noninvasive, and is applicable to samples large enough to separate bulk and boundary properties. The resulting complete knowledge of structure can be used to calculate otherwise inaccessible correlation functions. I will present results for several measures of the bond-orientational order in three-dimensional sandpiles, including fabric tensors and nematic order parameters.

  1. Multiparallel Three-Dimensional Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Kellner, Albert L.; Bravo-Zanoquera, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Multiparallel three-dimensional optical microscopy is a method of forming an approximate three-dimensional image of a microscope sample as a collection of images from different depths through the sample. The imaging apparatus includes a single microscope plus an assembly of beam splitters and mirrors that divide the output of the microscope into multiple channels. An imaging array of photodetectors in each channel is located at a different distance along the optical path from the microscope, corresponding to a focal plane at a different depth within the sample. The optical path leading to each photodetector array also includes lenses to compensate for the variation of magnification with distance so that the images ultimately formed on all the photodetector arrays are of the same magnification. The use of optical components common to multiple channels in a simple geometry makes it possible to obtain high light-transmission efficiency with an optically and mechanically simple assembly. In addition, because images can be read out simultaneously from all the photodetector arrays, the apparatus can support three-dimensional imaging at a high scanning rate.

  2. Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library (3DAudio library) is a group of software routines written to facilitate development of both stand-alone (audio only) and immersive virtual-reality application programs that utilize three-dimensional audio displays. The library is intended to enable the development of three-dimensional audio client application programs by use of a code base common to multiple audio server computers. The 3DAudio library calls vendor-specific audio client libraries and currently supports the AuSIM Gold-Server and Lake Huron audio servers. 3DAudio library routines contain common functions for (1) initiation and termination of a client/audio server session, (2) configuration-file input, (3) positioning functions, (4) coordinate transformations, (5) audio transport functions, (6) rendering functions, (7) debugging functions, and (8) event-list-sequencing functions. The 3DAudio software is written in the C++ programming language and currently operates under the Linux, IRIX, and Windows operating systems.

  3. Three dimensional illustrating - three-dimensional vision and deception of sensibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gánóczy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena of movement parallax, which can be used efficiently in making three-dimensional graphics, the Zöllner- and Corridor-illusion. There are present in this paper the visual elements, which contribute to define a plane two-dimensional image in three-dimension: coherent lines, the covering, the measurement changes, the relative altitude state, the abatement of detail profusion, the shadings and the perspective effects of colors.

  4. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.)

  5. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-08-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.).

  6. Handbook of thermoluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Furetta, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition of the Handbook of Thermoluminescence enlarges on all the subjects which were treated in the first edition and adds further arguments, including the theory of thermoluminescent dose measurement, several examples concerning the kinetics parameters determination using various methods such as peak shape, isothermal decay, and so on. A special section is devoted to food irradiation, an important subject at the present time, and to the thermoluminescent characterization of the minerals extracted from the irradiated food. Another new section is devoted to the thermoluminescent ph

  7. Three-dimensional positioning with optofluidic microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vig, Asger Laurberg; Marie, Rodolphe; Jensen, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on-chip based optical detection with three-dimensional spatial resolution by integration of an optofluidic microscope (OFM) in a microfluidic pinched flow fractionation (PFF) separation device. This setup also enables on-chip particle image velocimetry (PIV). The position...... a conventional fluorescence microscope as readout. The size separated microspheres are detected by OFM with an accuracy of ≤ 0.92 μm. The position in the height of the channel and the velocity of the separated microspheres are detected with an accuracy of 1.4 μm and 0.08 mm/s respectively. Throughout...

  8. Three Dimensional Double Layers in Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, D.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1982-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the formation of fully three dimensional double layers in a magnetized plasma. The measurements are performed in a magnetized stationary plasma column with radius 1.5 cm. Double layers are produced by introducing an electron beam with radius 0.......4 cm along the magnetic field from one end of the column. The voltage drop across the double layer is found to be determined by the energy of the incoming electron beam. In general we find that the width of the double layer along the external magnetic field is determined by plasma density and beam...

  9. Three-Dimensional Printing in Orthopedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Nguyen, Eric; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically promising technology for rapid prototyping of surgically implantable products. With this commercially available technology, computed tomography or magnetic resonance images can be used to create graspable objects from 3D reconstructed images. Models can enhance patients' understanding of their pathology and surgeon preoperative planning. Customized implants and casts can be made to match an individual's anatomy. This review outlines 3D printing, its current applications in orthopedics, and promising future directions. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Three-dimensional teletherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panthaleon van Eck, R.B. van.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with physical/mathematical backgrounds of computerized teletherapy treatment planning. The subjects discussed in this thesis can be subdivided into three main categories: a) Three-dimensional treatment planning. A method is evaluated which can be used for the purpose of simulation and optimization of dose distributions in three dimensions. b) The use of Computed Tomography. The use of patient information obtained from Computed Tomography for the purpose of dose computations is evaluated. c) Dose computational models for photon- and electron beams. Models are evaluated which provide information regarding the way in which the radiation dose is distributed in the patient (viz. is absorbed and/or dispersed). (Auth.)

  11. Creating three-dimensional thermal maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Price

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Price_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 30895 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Price_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Creating Three...-Dimensional Thermal Maps Mathew Price Cogency cc Cape Town Email: mathew@cogency.co.za Jeremy Green CSIR Centre for Mining Innovation Johannesburg Email: jgreen@csir.co.za John Dickens CSIR Centre for Mining Innovation Johannesburg Email: jdickens...

  12. Three-dimensional cooling of muons

    CERN Document Server

    Vsevolozhskaya, T A

    2000-01-01

    The simultaneous ionization cooling of muon beams in all three - the longitudinal and two transverse - directions is considered in a scheme, based on bent lithium lenses with dipole constituent of magnetic field in them, created by a special configuration of current-carrying rod. An analysis of three-dimensional cooling is performed with the use of kinetic equation method. Results of numerical calculation for a specific beam line configuration are presented together with results of computer simulation using the Moliere distribution to describe the Coulomb scattering and the Vavilov distribution used to describe the ionization loss of energy.

  13. Three-dimensional radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, R.

    1989-01-01

    A major aim of radiation therapy is to deliver sufficient dose to the tumour volume to kill the cancer cells while sparing the nearby health organs to prevent complications. With the introduction of devices such as CT and MR scanners, radiation therapy treatment planners have access to full three-dimensional anatomical information to define, simulate, and evaluate treatments. There are a limited number of prototype software systems that allow 3D treatment planning currently in use. In addition, there are more advanced tools under development or still in the planning stages. They require sophisticated graphics and computation equipment, complex physical and mathematical algorithms, and new radiation treatment machines that deliver dose very precisely under computer control. Components of these systems include programs for the identification and delineation of the anatomy and tumour, the definition of radiation beams, the calculation of dose distribution patterns, the display of dose on 2D images and as three dimensional surfaces, and the generation of computer images to verify proper patient positioning in treatment. Some of these functions can be performed more quickly and accurately if artificial intelligence or expert systems techniques are employed. 28 refs., figs

  14. Three dimensional animated images of anorectal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Shigeru; Yanagimachi, Noriharu; Muro, Isao; Komiya, Taizo; Yokoyama, Seishichi; Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Tajima, Tomoo; Mitomi, Toshio; Suto, Yasuzo.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the pelvic structures is a most important factor in obtaining a desirable result after anorectoplasty for a patient with anorectal malformation. Preoperative evaluation of the anatomy is indispensable for choosing an appropriate operative method in each case. To facilitate preoperative evaluation, three dimensional animated images of the pelvic structure of patients with anorectal malformations were constructed by computer graphics based upon tomographic images obtained from magnetic resonance imaging. Axial 1-mm thick images of the pelvic portion were generated with spoiling pulse gradient echo sequences using short repetition times (13 msec TR) and short echo times (6 msec TE) with a flip angle of 25 degrees with the patient in the jack-knife position. Graphic data from MR images were transferred to a graphic work station and processed on it. The skin surface, the ano-rectum, the lower urinary tract and the sphincter musculature were segmented by thresholding images by the signal intensity. Three dimensional images were displayed by surface rendering method using the segmented data of each organ and then animation images of these organs were obtained. The anatomy of each type of anomaly was easily recognized by 3-D visualization, and animation of the pelvic viscera and the sphincter musculature made the images more realistic. Animated images of the musculature were especially useful for simulating surgical procedures and could be helpful for reviewing surgical results. (author)

  15. The Three-Dimensional Universe with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turon, C.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Perryman, M. A. C.

    2005-01-01

    "The Three-Dimensional Universe with Gaia" symposium was hosted by the Observatoire de Paris (Meudon), France, from 4 to 7 October 2004. The date chosen for this symposium corresponded to the end of the definition phase of Gaia, a cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency. The purposes of this symposium were: (1) to present to the scientific community the design chosen for the mission, the final characteristics and performances, and to update the resulting scientific case; (2) to bring to the attention of the scientific community the extraordinary potential of Gaia and to share with the younger generation of scientists the expertise acquired during the preparation phases of the Gaia mission, and during all phases of the Hipparcos mission; (3) to organise the next phase of scientific preparation of the mission, in particular the data reduction which constitutes a major challenge with a petabyte of interconnected data which has to be treated in a global and iterative manner, and to prepare for the scientific exploitation of the data. The symposium was open to scientists working on the preparation of Gaia and to the large community interested in using the data from the mission. The proceedings of the symposium are published by the European Space Agency as ESA SP-576: "The Three-Dimensional Universe with Gaia". These proceedings contain invited and contributed papers for six sessions covering technical and scientific aspects of the mission.

  16. Three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherall, P.; Barber, D. C.; Smallwood, R. H.; Brown, B. H.

    1996-04-01

    THE electrical resistivity of mammalian tissues varies widely1-5 and is correlated with physiological function6-8. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can be used to probe such variations in vivo, and offers a non-invasive means of imaging the internal conductivity distribution of the human body9-11. But the computational complexity of EIT has severe practical limitations, and previous work has been restricted to considering image reconstruction as an essentially two-dimensional problem10,12. This simplification can limit significantly the imaging capabilities of EIT, as the electric currents used to determine the conductivity variations will not in general be confined to a two-dimensional plane13. A few studies have attempted three-dimensional EIT image reconstruction14,15, but have not yet succeeded in generating images of a quality suitable for clinical applications. Here we report the development of a three-dimensional EIT system with greatly improved imaging capabilities, which combines our 64-electrode data-collection apparatus16 with customized matrix inversion techniques. Our results demonstrate the practical potential of EIT for clinical applications, such as lung or brain imaging and diagnostic screening8.

  17. Three-dimensional turbopump flowfield analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, O. P.; Belford, K. A.; Ni, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop a flow prediction method applicable to rocket turbopumps. The complex nature of a flowfield in turbopumps is described and examples of flowfields are discussed to illustrate that physics based models and analytical calculation procedures based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are needed to develop reliable design procedures for turbopumps. A CFD code developed at NASA ARC was used as the base code. The turbulence model and boundary conditions in the base code were modified, respectively, to: (1) compute transitional flows and account for extra rates of strain, e.g., rotation; and (2) compute surface heat transfer coefficients and allow computation through multistage turbomachines. Benchmark quality data from two and three-dimensional cascades were used to verify the code. The predictive capabilities of the present CFD code were demonstrated by computing the flow through a radial impeller and a multistage axial flow turbine. Results of the program indicate that the present code operated in a two-dimensional mode is a cost effective alternative to full three-dimensional calculations, and that it permits realistic predictions of unsteady loadings and losses for multistage machines.

  18. Three-dimensional analysis of magnetometer array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, A. D.; Baumjohann, W.

    1984-01-01

    A technique is developed for mapping magnetic variation fields in three dimensions using data from an array of magnetometers, based on the theory of optimal linear estimation. The technique is applied to data from the Scandinavian Magnetometer Array. Estimates of the spatial power spectra for the internal and external magnetic variations are derived, which in turn provide estimates of the spatial autocorrelation functions of the three magnetic variation components. Statistical errors involved in mapping the external and internal fields are quantified and displayed over the mapping region. Examples of field mapping and of separation into external and internal components are presented. A comparison between the three-dimensional field separation and a two-dimensional separation from a single chain of stations shows that significant differences can arise in the inferred internal component.

  19. Exact solutions in three-dimensional gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Diaz, Alberto A

    2017-01-01

    A self-contained text, systematically presenting the determination and classification of exact solutions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity. This book explores the theoretical framework and general physical and geometrical characteristics of each class of solutions, and includes information on the researchers responsible for their discovery. Beginning with the physical character of the solutions, these are identified and ordered on the basis of their geometrical invariant properties, symmetries, and algebraic classifications, or from the standpoint of their physical nature, for example electrodynamic fields, fluid, scalar field, or dilaton. Consequently, this text serves as a thorough catalogue on 2+1 exact solutions to the Einstein equations coupled to matter and fields, and on vacuum solutions of topologically massive gravity with a cosmological constant. The solutions are also examined from different perspectives, enabling a conceptual bridge between exact solutions of three- and four-dimensional gravit...

  20. AAOGlimpse: Three-dimensional Data Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, Keith

    2011-10-01

    AAOGlimpse is an experimental display program that uses OpenGL to display FITS data (and even JPEG images) as 3D surfaces that can be rotated and viewed from different angles, all in real-time. It is WCS-compliant and designed to handle three-dimensional data. Each plane in a data cube is surfaced in the same way, and the program allows the user to travel through a cube by 'peeling off' successive planes, or to look into a cube by suppressing the display of data below a given cutoff value. It can blink images and can superimpose images and contour maps from different sources using their world coordinate data. A limited socket interface allows communication with other programs.

  1. THE THREE DIMENSIONAL THERMAL HYDRAULIC CODE BAGIRA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KALINICHENKO,S.D.; KOHUT,P.; KROSHILIN,A.E.; KROSHILIN,V.E.; SMIRNOV,A.V.

    2003-05-04

    BAGIRA - a thermal-hydraulic program complex was primarily developed for using it in nuclear power plant simulator models, but is also used as a best-estimate analytical tool for modeling two-phase mixture flows. The code models allow consideration of phase transients and the treatment of the hydrodynamic behavior of boiling and pressurized water reactor circuits. It provides the capability to explicitly model three-dimensional flow regimes in various regions of the primary and secondary circuits such as, the mixing regions, circular downcomer, pressurizer, reactor core, main primary loops, the steam generators, the separator-reheaters. In addition, it is coupled to a severe-accident module allowing the analysis of core degradation and fuel damage behavior. Section II will present the theoretical basis for development and selected results are presented in Section III. The primary use for the code complex is to realistically model reactor core behavior in power plant simulators providing enhanced training tools for plant operators.

  2. Entanglement entropy in three dimensional gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, Henry [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-07

    The Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) and covariant Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) proposals relate entanglement entropy in CFTs with holographic duals to the areas of minimal or extremal surfaces in the bulk geometry. We show how, in three dimensional pure gravity, the relevant regulated geodesic lengths can be obtained by writing a spacetime as a quotient of AdS{sub 3}, with the problem reduced to a simple purely algebraic calculation. We explain how this works in both Lorentzian and Euclidean formalisms, before illustrating its use to obtain novel results in a number of examples, including rotating BTZ, the ℝℙ{sup 2} geon, and several wormhole geometries. This includes spatial and temporal dependence of single-interval entanglement entropy, despite these symmetries being broken only behind an event horizon. We also discuss considerations allowing HRT to be derived from analytic continuation of Euclidean computations in certain contexts, and a related class of complexified extremal surfaces.

  3. Three-dimensional printing physiology laboratory technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkin, Matthew S; Widder, Emily; Shao, Connie; Holzem, Katherine M; Gloschat, Christopher; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Efimov, Igor R

    2013-12-01

    Since its inception in 19th-century Germany, the physiology laboratory has been a complex and expensive research enterprise involving experts in various fields of science and engineering. Physiology research has been critically dependent on cutting-edge technological support of mechanical, electrical, optical, and more recently computer engineers. Evolution of modern experimental equipment is constrained by lack of direct communication between the physiological community and industry producing this equipment. Fortunately, recent advances in open source technologies, including three-dimensional printing, open source hardware and software, present an exciting opportunity to bring the design and development of research instrumentation to the end user, i.e., life scientists. Here we provide an overview on how to develop customized, cost-effective experimental equipment for physiology laboratories.

  4. Electron in three-dimensional momentum space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, Alessandro; Mantovani, Luca; Pasquini, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    We study the electron as a system composed of an electron and a photon, using lowest-order perturbation theory. We derive the leading-twist transverse-momentum-dependent distribution functions for both the electron and photon in the dressed electron, thereby offering a three-dimensional description of the dressed electron in momentum space. To obtain the distribution functions, we apply both the formalism of the light-front wave function overlap representation and the diagrammatic approach. We perform the calculations both in light-cone gauge and Feynman gauge, and we present a detailed discussion of the role of the Wilson lines to obtain gauge-independent results. We provide numerical results and plots for many of the computed distributions.

  5. Towards microscale electrohydrodynamic three-dimensional printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jiankang; Xu, Fangyuan; Cao, Yi; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging for the existing three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques to fabricate high-resolution 3D microstructures with low costs and high efficiency. In this work we present a solvent-based electrohydrodynamic 3D printing technique that allows fabrication of microscale structures like single walls, crossed walls, lattice and concentric circles. Process parameters were optimized to deposit tiny 3D patterns with a wall width smaller than 10 μm and a high aspect ratio of about 60. Tight bonding among neighbour layers could be achieved with a smooth lateral surface. In comparison with the existing microscale 3D printing techniques, the presented method is low-cost, highly efficient and applicable to multiple polymers. It is envisioned that this simple microscale 3D printing strategy might provide an alternative and innovative way for application in MEMS, biosensor and flexible electronics. (paper)

  6. An Introduction of Three-dimensional Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces some key points of Three-dimensional Grammar. As for the structure, it can be distinguished into syntactic structure, semantic structure and pragmatic structure from the perspectives of syntax, semantics and pragmatics. And the same is true with the followings, such as grammatical constituents, grammatical functions, grammatical meanings, grammatical focuses. Sentence types which is called sentence pattern, sentence model and sentence types respectively, and analysis methods. This paper proposes that grammatical researches should be done in accordance with the four principles, that is form and meaning co-verified, static and dynamic co-referenced, structure and function co-testified and description and interpretation co-promoted.

  7. Three-dimensional echocardiography in valve disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Fiorentini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the role of three-dimensional (3D echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart valve disease. Several factors have contributed to the evolution of this technique, which is currently a simple and routine method: rapid evolution in probe and computer technologies, demonstration that 3D data sets allowed more complete and accurate evaluation of cardiac structures, emerging clinical experience indicating the strong potential particularly in valve diseases, volume and function of the two ventricle measurements and several other fields. This report will review current and future applications of 3D echocardiography in mitral, aortic and tricuspid valve diseases underlying both qualitative (morphologic and quantitative advantages of this technique. (Heart International 2007; 3: 35-41

  8. Three dimensional thrust chamber life prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, W. H.; Brogren, E. W.

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to analytically determine the cyclic thermomechanical behavior and fatigue life of three configurations of a Plug Nozzle Thrust Chamber. This thrust chamber is a test model which represents the current trend in nozzle design calling for high performance coupled with weight and volume limitations as well as extended life for reusability. The study involved the use of different materials and material combinations to evaluate their application to the problem of low-cycle fatigue in the thrust chamber. The thermal and structural analyses were carried out on a three-dimensional basis. Results are presented which show plots of continuous temperature histories and temperature distributions at selected times during the operating cycle of the thrust chamber. Computed structural data show critical regions for low-cycle fatigue and the histories of strain within the regions for each operation cycle.

  9. Three-dimensional detectors for neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendicino, R.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.

    2018-01-01

    Solid-state sensors fabricated with 3D technologies and coupled to different neutron converter materials have been developed by several groups as direct replacement of 3 He gas detectors, mainly for homeland security applications. Results so far achieved in terms of detection efficiency are quite good (up to ≃50%) and, combined with the intrinsic excellent position resolution of silicon sensors, could lead to high performance neutron imaging systems. In this paper, we review the state of the art in three-dimensional silicon sensors for thermal-neutron detection, addressing the most promising solutions for neutron imaging. Moreover, selected results from the developments at the University of Trento on 3D pixelated detectors having relatively low fabrication complexity and expected high neutron detection efficiency up to 30% will be reported.

  10. Method for Parametric Design of Three-Dimensional Shapes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dick, James L

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to computer-aided design of three-dimensional shapes and more particularly, relates to a system and method for parametric design of three-dimensional hydrodynamic shapes...

  11. Three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the temporomandibular joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitai, N.; Kreiborg, S.; Murakami, S.

    Symposium Orthodontics 2001: Where are We Now? Where are We Going?, three-dimensional analysis, temporomandibular joint......Symposium Orthodontics 2001: Where are We Now? Where are We Going?, three-dimensional analysis, temporomandibular joint...

  12. and three-dimensional models for analysis of optical absorption in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Goldberg et al 1975; Kam and Parkinson 1982; Baglio et al 1982, 1983; Oritz 1995; Li et al 1996) has been carried out on WS2, there is no detailed analysis of the absorption spectra obtained from the single crystals of WS2 on the basis of two- and three-dimensional models. We have therefore carried out this study and the.

  13. Primary and Secondary Three Dimensional Microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirigliano, Nicolas

    Today's MEMS devices are limited more so by the batteries that supply their power than the fabrication methods used to build them. Thick battery electrodes are capable of providing adequate energy, but long and tortuous diffusion pathways lead to low power capabilities. On the other hand, thin film batteries can operate at significant current densities but require large surface areas to supply practical energy. This dilemma can be solved by either developing new high capacity materials or by engineering new battery designs that decouple power and energy. Three dimensional batteries redesign traditional configurations to create nonplanar interfaces between battery components. This can be done by introducing hierarchical structures into the electrode shape. Designs such as these provide a maximum surface area over which chemical reactions can occur. Furthermore, by maintaining small feature sizes, ion diffusion and electronic transport distances can remain minimal. Manipulating these properties ensures fast kinetics that are required for high power situations. Energy density is maximized by layering material in the vertical direction, thus ensuring a minimal footprint area. Three dimensional carbon electrodes are fabricated using basic MEMS techniques. A silicon mold is anisotropically etched to produce channels of a predetermined diameter. The channels are then filled using an infiltration technique with electrode slurry. Once dried, the mold is attached to a current collector and etched using a XeF2 process. Electrodes of varying feature sizes have been fabricated using this method with aspect ratios ranging from 3.5:1 to 7:1. 3D carbon electrodes are shown to obtain capacities over 8 mAh/cm2 at 0.1 mA/cm2, or nearly 700% higher than planar carbon electrodes. When assembled with a planar cathode, the battery cell produced an average discharge capacity of 40 J/cm 2 at a current density of 0.2 mA/cm2. This places the energy density values slightly less than thick

  14. Multimodal three-dimensional dynamic signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury E. Kozlov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliable authentication in mobile applications is among the most important information security challenges. Today, we can hardly imagine a person who would not own a mobile device that connects to the Internet. Mobile devices are being used to store large amounts of confidential information, ranging from personal photos to electronic banking tools. In 2009, colleagues from Rice University together with their collaborators from Motorola, proposed an authentication through in-air gestures. This and subsequent work contributing to the development of the method are reviewed in our introduction. At the moment, there exists a version of the gesture-based authentication software available for Android mobile devices. This software has not become widespread yet. One of likely reasons for that is the insufficient reliability of the method, which involves similar to its earlier analogs the use of only one device. Here we discuss the authentication based on the multimodal three-dimensional dynamic signature (MTDS performed by two independent mobile devices. The MTDS-based authentication technique is an advanced version of in-air gesture authentication. We describe the operation of a prototype of MTDS-based authentication, including the main implemented algorithms, as well as some preliminary results of testing the software. We expect that our method can be used in any mobile application, provided a number of additional improvements discussed in the conclusion are made.

  15. Three-dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional supersonic vortex-breakdown problems in bound and unbound domains are solved. The solutions are obtained using the time-accurate integration of the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The computational scheme is an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. Two vortex-breakdown applications are considered in the present paper. The first is for a supersonic swirling jet which is issued from a nozzle into a supersonic uniform flow at a lower Mach number than that of the swirling jet. The second is for a supersonic swirling flow in a configured circular duct. In the first application, an extensive study of the effects of grid fineness, shape and grid-point distribution on the vortex breakdown is presented. Four grids are used in this study and they show a substantial dependence of the breakdown bubble and shock wave on the grid used. In the second application, the bubble-type and helix-type vortex breakdown have been captured.

  16. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D and D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. The 3D-ICAS system robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surfaces to be inspected. The sensor position and orientation are monitored and controlled using coherent laser radar (CLR) tracking. The CLR also provides 3D facility maps which establish a 3D world view within which the robotic sensor system can operate

  17. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D ampersand D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. Chemical analysis plays a vital role throughout the process of decontamination. Before clean-up operations can begin the site must be characterized with respect to the type and concentration of contaminants, and detailed site mapping must clarify areas of both high and low risk. During remediation activities chemical analysis provides a means to measure progress and to adjust clean-up strategy. Once the clean-up process has been completed the results of chemical analysis will verify that the site is in compliance with federal and local regulations

  18. Three-dimensional endoscopy in sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ameet; Saraiya, Rupali

    2013-02-01

    Surgical endoscopy revolutionized the management of disease in nearly every surgical field, including rhinology. Endoscopy offered several advantages for the surgical management of rhinologic disease. However, it had a distinct disadvantage compared to direct vision, namely loss of binocular vision. Two-dimensional (2D) endoscopy limited depth perception, widely regarded as an important parameter for accurate and efficient movements during surgery. Three-dimensional (3D) endoscopic visualization has been actively pursued for decades by endoscopic surgeons in multiple surgical specialties. However, its clinical role has been limited due to technical limitations as well as successful adaptation by endoscopic surgeons to monocular cues offered by 2D technology. Until recently, stereoscopic technology included variations of dual channel video, dual chip-on-the-tip, and shutter mechanism, as well as various 3D displays. Over the past decade a novel 3D endoscopic technology was introduced. This technology used a lenticular array of lenses in front of a single video chip at the distal end of an endoscope to generate a stereoscopic view of the surgical field. Also known as the 'insect eye' technology since it mimics the compound eye of arthropods, this endoscope has reinvigorated the field of 3D endoscopic surgery. Recent developments in 3D endoscopy hold much promise for all surgical subspecialties, particularly endoscopic sinus and skull-base surgery.

  19. Three-dimensional laparoscopy: Principles and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Y Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest challenge for laparoscopic surgeons is the eye–hand coordination within a three-dimensional (3D scene observed on a 2D display. The 2D view on flat screen laparoscopy is cerebrally intensive. The loss of binocular vision on a 2D display causes visual misperceptions, mainly loss of depth perception and adds to the surgeon's fatigue. This compromises the safety of laparoscopy. The 3D high-definition view with great depth perception and tactile feedback makes laparoscopic surgery more acceptable, safe and cost-effective. It improves surgical precision and hand–eye coordination, conventional and all straight stick instruments can be used, capital expenditure is less and recurring cost and annual maintenance cost are less. In this article, we have discussed the physics of 3D laparoscopy, principles of depth perception, and the different kinds of 3D systems available for laparoscopy. We have also discussed our experience of using 3D laparoscopy in over 2000 surgeries in the last 4 years.

  20. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. Chemical analysis plays a vital role throughout the process of decontamination. Before clean-up operations can begin the site must be characterized with respect to the type and concentration of contaminants, and detailed site mapping must clarify areas of both high and low risk. During remediation activities chemical analysis provides a means to measure progress and to adjust clean-up strategy. Once the clean-up process has been completed the results of chemical analysis will verify that the site is in compliance with federal and local regulations.

  1. Nanoscale three-dimensional single particle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Aurélie; Lamb, Don C

    2011-11-01

    Single particle tracking (SPT) in biological systems is a quickly growing field. Many new technologies are being developed providing new tracking capabilities, which also lead to higher demands and expectations for SPT. Following a single biomolecule as it performs its function provides quantitative mechanistic information that cannot be obtained in classical ensemble methods. From the 3D trajectory, information is available over the diffusional behavior of the particle and precise position information can also be used to elucidate interactions of the tracked particle with its surroundings. Thus, three-dimensional (3D) SPT is a very valuable tool for investigating cellular processes. This review presents recent progress in 3D SPT, from image-based techniques toward more sophisticated feedback approaches. We focus mainly on the feedback technique known as orbital tracking. We present here a modified version of the original orbital tracking in which the intensities from two z-planes are simultaneously measured allowing a concomitant wide-field imaging. The system can track single particles with a precision down to 5 nm in the x-y plane and 7 nm in the axial direction. The capabilities of the system are demonstrated using single virus tracing to follow the infection pathway of Prototype Foamy Virus in living cells.

  2. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ULTRASOUND IN GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Takač

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US imaging has been used for a decade, debate continues about its potential clinical aplications in gynecology. The same is true for the field of gynecologic oncology. Also, reports regarding usfulness of 3D US in gynecologic oncology are limited. A few potentially useful clinical applications have been described and some of these are now gaining general acceptance. In this paper, the usfulness of 3D US in the main areas of its application is demonstrated: diagnostics of cervical, endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer.Conclusions. An important advantage of 3D US over conventional two-dimensional imaging is the ability to reconstruct and display any arbitrarily chosen section within the volume dataset as well as ability to measure the volume of pelvic organs regardless of their shape. 3D US also allows the realtime analysis of the acquired image data to be conducted at a later time when the patient is off the examination table.

  3. Three-Dimensional Printed Thermal Regulation Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Yang, Zhi; Chen, Chaoji; Li, Yiju; Fu, Kun; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Emily M; Xie, Hua; Liu, Boyang; Song, Jianwei; Yang, Bao; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-11-28

    Space cooling is a predominant part of energy consumption in people's daily life. Although cooling the whole building is an effective way to provide personal comfort in hot weather, it is energy-consuming and high-cost. Personal cooling technology, being able to provide personal thermal comfort by directing local heat to the thermally regulated environment, has been regarded as one of the most promising technologies for cooling energy and cost savings. Here, we demonstrate a personal thermal regulated textile using thermally conductive and highly aligned boron nitride (BN)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite (denoted as a-BN/PVA) fibers to improve the thermal transport properties of textiles for personal cooling. The a-BN/PVA composite fibers are fabricated through a fast and scalable three-dimensional (3D) printing method. Uniform dispersion and high alignment of BN nanosheets (BNNSs) can be achieved during the processing of fiber fabrication, leading to a combination of high mechanical strength (355 MPa) and favorable heat dispersion. Due to the improved thermal transport property imparted by the thermally conductive and highly aligned BNNSs, better cooling effect (55% improvement over the commercial cotton fiber) can be realized in the a-BN/PVA textile. The wearable a-BN/PVA textiles containing the 3D-printed a-BN/PVA fibers offer a promising selection for meeting the personal cooling requirement, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption and cost for cooling the whole building.

  4. Three-Dimensional Printed Graphene Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Junwei; Li, Yilun; Villegas Salvatierra, Rodrigo; Wang, Tuo; Dong, Pei; Ji, Yongsung; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Zhang, Chenhao; Zhang, Jibo; Smith, Robert H; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun; Zhao, Naiqin; Tour, James M

    2017-07-25

    An automated metal powder three-dimensional (3D) printing method for in situ synthesis of free-standing 3D graphene foams (GFs) was successfully modeled by manually placing a mixture of Ni and sucrose onto a platform and then using a commercial CO 2 laser to convert the Ni/sucrose mixture into 3D GFs. The sucrose acted as the solid carbon source for graphene, and the sintered Ni metal acted as the catalyst and template for graphene growth. This simple and efficient method combines powder metallurgy templating with 3D printing techniques and enables direct in situ 3D printing of GFs with no high-temperature furnace or lengthy growth process required. The 3D printed GFs show high-porosity (∼99.3%), low-density (∼0.015g cm -3 ), high-quality, and multilayered graphene features. The GFs have an electrical conductivity of ∼8.7 S cm -1 , a remarkable storage modulus of ∼11 kPa, and a high damping capacity of ∼0.06. These excellent physical properties of 3D printed GFs indicate potential applications in fields requiring rapid design and manufacturing of 3D carbon materials, for example, energy storage devices, damping materials, and sound absorption.

  5. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional carbon structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A method for fabricating a three-dimensional carbon structure (4) is disclosed. A mould (1) defining a three-dimensional shape is provided, and natural protein containing fibres are packed in the mould (1) at a predetermined packing density. The packed natural protein containing fibre structure (3......) undergoes pyrolysis, either while still in the mould (1) or after having been removed from the mould (1). Thereby a three-dimensional porous and electrically conducting carbon structure (4) having a three-dimensional shape defined by the three-dimensional shape of the mould (1) and a porosity defined...

  6. Equipment for observing thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sette Camara, Alexandre; Cogneau, Michel; Ristori, Christian; Vargas, Jose Israel

    1971-06-01

    A detailed description is given of an apparatus for investigating thermoluminescence properties. Chopping of the emitted light and subsequent amplification of the electric signal derived led to high stability and sensitivity [fr

  7. Three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of fossils across taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mietchen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of life forms in the fossil record is largely determined by the extent to which they were mineralised at the time of their death. In addition to mineral structures, many fossils nonetheless contain detectable amounts of residual water or organic molecules, the analysis of which has become an integral part of current palaeontological research. The methods available for this sort of investigations, though, typically require dissolution or ionisation of the fossil sample or parts thereof, which is an issue with rare taxa and outstanding materials like pathological or type specimens. In such cases, non-destructive techniques could provide a valuable methodological alternative. While Computed Tomography has long been used to study palaeontological specimens, a number of complementary approaches have recently gained ground. These include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI which had previously been employed to obtain three-dimensional images of pathological belemnites non-invasively on the basis of intrinsic contrast. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether 1H MRI can likewise provide anatomical information about non-pathological belemnites and specimens of other fossil taxa. To this end, three-dimensional MR image series were acquired from intact non-pathological invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils. At routine voxel resolutions in the range of several dozens to some hundreds of micrometers, these images reveal a host of anatomical details and thus highlight the potential of MR techniques to effectively complement existing methodological approaches for palaeontological investigations in a wide range of taxa. As for the origin of the MR signal, relaxation and diffusion measurements as well as 1H and 13C MR spectra acquired from a belemnite suggest intracrystalline water or hydroxyl groups, rather than organic residues.

  8. Panoramic three-dimensional CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamata, Akitoshi; Fujishita, Masami

    1998-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is a unique projection technique for producing a single image of both maxillary and mandibular arches and many other anatomical structures. To obtain a similar panoramic image without panoramic radiography system, a modified three-dimensional (3D) CT imaging technique was designed. A set of CT slice image data extending from the chin to the orbit was used for 3D reconstruction. The CT machine used in this study was the X-Vision (TOSHIBA, Japan). The helical scan technique was used. The slice thickness of reconstructed image was one or 1.5 mm. The occlusal plane or Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane was used as the reference line. The resultant slice image data was stored on a magnetic optical disk and then used to create panoramic 3D-CT images on a Macintosh computer systems (Power Macintosh 8600/250, Apple Computer Inc., USA). To create the panoramic 3D-CT image, the following procedure was designed: Design a curved panoramic 3D-CT imaging layer using the imaging layer and the movement of the x-ray beam in panoramic radiography system as a template; Cut this imaging layer from each slice image, then the trimmed image was transformed to a rectangular layer using the ''still image warping'' special effect in the Elastic Reality special effects system (Elastic Reality Inc., USA); Create panoramic 3D-CT image using the Voxel View (Vital Images Inc., USA) rendering system and volume rendering technique. Although the image quality was primitive, a panoramic view of maxillofacial region was obtained by this technique. (author)

  9. Measurements using three-dimensional product imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sioma

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a method of creating a three-dimensional cast model using vision systems and how that model can be used in thequality assessment process carried out directly on the assembly line. The technology of active vision, consisting in illumination of theobject with a laser beam, was used to create the model. Appropriate configuration of camera position geometry and laser light allows thecollection of height profiles and construction of a 3D model of the product on their basis. The article discusses problems connected with the resolution of the vision system, resolution of the laser beam analysis, and resolution connected with the application of the successive height profiles on sample cast planes. On the basis of the model, measurements allowing assessment of dimension parameters and surface defects of a given cast are presented. On the basis of tests and analyses of such a threedimensional cast model, a range of checks which are possible to conduct using 3D vision systems is indicated.Testing casts using that technology allows rapid assessment of selected parameters. Construction of the product’s model and dimensional assessment take a few seconds, which significantly reduces the duration of checks in the technological process. Depending on the product, a few checks may be carried out simultaneously on the product’s model.The possibility of controlling all outgoing products, and creating and modifying the product parameter control program, makes the solutionhighly flexible, which is confirmed by pilot industrial implementations. The technology will be developed in terms of detection andidentification of surface defects. It is important due to the possibility of using such information for the purposes of selecting technologicalprocess parameters and observing the effect of changes in selected parameters on the cast parameter controlled in a vision system.

  10. [Precision of three-dimensional printed brackets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Wang, L C; Zhou, Y H; Liu, X M; Li, J

    2017-08-18

    This study was based on digital orthodontic diagnosis work flow for indirect bonding transfer tray model design and three-dimensional (3D) printing, and the aim of this paper was to inspect the dimensional accuracyof 3D printed brackets, which is the foundation of the follow up work and hoped that will illuminate the clinical application of the digital orthodontics work flow. The samples which consisted of 14 cases of patients with malocclusion from Department of Orthodontics Peking University were selected, including 8 cases with tooth extraction and 6 cases without tooth extraction. All the 14 patients were taken intra-oral scan (Trios 3Shape, Denmark) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT, NewTom 3G volumetric scanner, Aperio Service,Italy)shooting after periodontal treatment. STL data and DICOM data were obtained from intraoral scans and CBCT images.Data segmentation, registration, fusion, automatic tooth arrangement, virtual positioning of orthodontic appliance and conversion the coordinates of malocclusion model were all done with self-programming software. The data of 3D printing model with brackets on it were output finally and printed out with EDEN260V (Objet Geometries, Israel) to make indirect bonding transfer tray. Digital vernier caliper was used to measure the length and width of upper and lower left brackets and buccal tubes on those 3D models after removal of surrounding supporting material by ultrasonic vibration and water-spray. Intra-examiner reliability was assessed by using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and one-sample T test was used to compare the measurements with the standard dimensional data of the brackets. There were significant differences which range in 0.04-0.17 mm between the 13 items out of the 19 measurement items. Except for the length of the lower left premolars'brackets, mean values of the other items were greater than the test value. Although the measurement results in the width of brackets and the width and

  11. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  12. The Three-dimensional Digital Factory for Shipbuilding Technology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional digital factory technology research is the hotspot in shipbuilding recently. The three-dimensional digital factory technology not only focus on design the components of the product, but also discuss on the simulation and analyses of the production process.Based on the three-dimensional model, the basic data layer, application control layer and the presentation layer of hierarchical structure are established in the three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding in this paper. And the key technologies of three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding are analysed. Finally, a case study is applied and the results show that the three-dimensional digital factory will play an important role in the future.

  13. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the biliary tract using spiral computed tomography. Three-dimensional cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gon, Masanori; Ogura, Norihiro; Uetsuji, Shouji; Ueyama, Yasuo

    1995-01-01

    In this study, 310 patients with benign biliary diseases, 20 with gallbladder cancer, and 8 with biliary tract carcinoma underwent spiral CT (SCT) scanning at cholangiography. Depiction rate of the shape of the conjunction site of the gallbladder and biliary tract was 27.5% by conventional intravenous cholangiography (DIC), 92.5% by ERC, and 90.0% by DIC-SCT. Abnormal cystic duct course was admitted in 14.1%. Multiplanar reconstruction by DIC-SCT enabled identification of the common bile duct and intrahepatic bile duct stone. Three-dimensional reconstruction of DIC-SCT was effective in evaluating obstruction of the anastomosis or passing condition of after hepatico-jejunostomy. Two-dimensional SCT images through PTCD tube enabled degree of hepatic invasion in bile duct cancer, and three-dimensional images were useful in grasping the morphology of the bile duct branches near the obstruction site. DIC-SCT is therefore considered a useful procedure as non-invasive examination of bile duct lesions. (S.Y.)

  14. Thermoluminescence dating of pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashimura, Takenobu; Ichikawa, Yoneta.

    1978-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The first half describes on the history of thermoluminescence dating, and the latter half, the principle and measurement examples. It was in late 1955 that the measurement of radiation dose using thermoluminescence began. The method to thermoluminescence dating was developed when it was found that most natural stones emit the thermoluminescence. About Greek earthen wares, the study of which was presented in 1961 by G. Kennedy of University of California, the dating was able to be made within the standard deviation of 10%. Since then, this dating method progressed rapidly, and a number of laboratories are now forwarding the investigation. In the samples of natural materials, intensity of thermoluminescence I is proportional to natural radiation dose D which has been absorbed by the samples, i.e. I = kD, where k is the susceptibility of thermoluminescence of the samples. Since k is different in each sample, D can be determined by irradiating the sample with β or γ ray of known dose D 0 , measuring its luminescence I 0 , and eliminating k through these two equations, because i 0 = kD 0 . Next, if t is assumed to be the time passed since a pottery was made, D is expressed as Rt, where R is the natural radiation dose per year absorbed by the pottery. Thus t is determined if R is known. The report describes on the method of measuring R. As an example, the results of measurement of the potteries excavated at Iwakura remains, Yorikura, Taishaku-kyo, are listed. Results by 14 C dating are also described for reference. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Three-dimensional low-energy topological invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalarska, M.; Broda, B.

    2000-01-01

    A description of the one-loop approximation formula for the partition function of a three-dimensional abelian version of the Donaldson-Witten theory is proposed. The one-loop expression is shown to contain such topological invariants of a three-dimensional manifold M like the Reidemeister-Ray-Singer torsion τ R and Betti numbers. (orig.)

  16. Collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lushnikov, P.M.; Saffman, M.

    2000-01-01

    We derive sufficient conditions for the occurrence of collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation without dissipation. Numerical studies continue the results to the case of finite dissipation.......We derive sufficient conditions for the occurrence of collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation without dissipation. Numerical studies continue the results to the case of finite dissipation....

  17. Three dimensional reductions of four-dimensional quasilinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Maxim V.; Stoilov, Nikola M.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we show that four-dimensional quasilinear systems of first order integrable by the method of two-dimensional hydrodynamic reductions possess infinitely many three-dimensional hydrodynamic reductions, which are also integrable systems. These three-dimensional multi-component integrable systems are irreducible to two-dimensional hydrodynamic reductions in a generic case.

  18. Pathogen propagation in cultured three-dimensional tissue mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process for propagating a pathogen in a three-dimensional tissue mass cultured at microgravity conditions in a culture vessel containing culture media and a culture matrix is provided. The three-dimensional tissue mass is inoculated with a pathogen and pathogen replication in the cells of the tissue mass achieved.

  19. Three-dimensional plasma equilibrium near a separatrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.H.; Pomphrey, N.; Boozer, A.H.

    1988-08-01

    The limiting behavior of a general three-dimensional MHD equilibrium near a separatrix is calculated explicitly. No expansions in β or assumptions about island widths are made. Implications of the results for the numerical calculation of such equilibria, are discussed, as well as for issues concerning the existence of three-dimensional MHD equilibria. 16 refs., 2 figs

  20. Three dimensional periodic foundations for base seismic isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y; Mo, Y L; Cheng, Z; Shi, Z; Menq, F; Tang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Based on the concept of phononic crystals, periodic foundations made of periodic materials are investigated in this paper. The periodic foundations can provide low frequency band gaps, which cover the main frequency ranges of seismic waves. Therefore, the periodic foundations are able to protect the upper structures during earthquake events. In this paper, the basic theory of three dimensional periodic foundations is studied and the finite element method was used to conduct the sensitivity study. A simplified three-dimensional periodic foundation with a superstructure was tested in the field and the feasibility of three dimensional periodic foundations was proved. The test results showed that the response of the upper structure with the three dimensional periodic foundation was reduced under excitation waves with the main frequency falling in the attenuation zones. The finite element analysis results are consistent with the experimental data, indicating that three dimensional periodic foundations are a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations. (paper)

  1. Thermoluminescence of strontium tetraborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, M.; Caselli, E.; Lester, M.

    1999-01-01

    The thermoluminescent properties of crystalline strontium tetraborate are reported. Without activators it has an efficiency comparable to that of TLD-700 powder. Its fading after 40 days amount to less than 2%. The isometric plot shows that most of the emitted light is concentrated at wavelengths ranging from 350 to 450 nm, which accounts partially for the high efficiency. (author)

  2. Three-dimensional optical techniques using Dammann gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changhe; Yu, Junjie; Wang, Shaoqing; Wei, Shengbin

    2012-11-01

    This paper summarized our work on three-dimensional optical technologies using Dammann gratings, e.g., threedimnensional Dammann gratings, three dimensional imaging using a Dammann grating, etc.. We developed threedimensional Dammann grating which can produce three-dimensional array with equal distance and equal intensity with a high-numerical-aperture lens. As we know, a lens usually has a single focal point. Fresnel zone plate can generate several axial focal points, but the intensity between them is unequal. By introducing the concept of Dammann grating into the circular phase plate, we invented Dammann zone plate(DZP) which can produce a series of axial focal points with equal intensity. Combining DZP with a Dammann grating, three-dimensional Dammann array will be generated, which is highly interesting for various applications. We also built a three-dimensional measuring system using a Dammann grating, with two cameras as the right eye and right eye, respectively. We used a 64×64 Dammann grating for generation of a square array of light spots for parallel capturing the three-dimensional profile of an object. The two cameras and the illuminating part are packaged together. After scanning the object, its three-dimensional profile will be obtained. Experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of this technique.

  3. Cylindrical Three-Dimensional Porous Anodic Alumina Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Resende

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a conformal three-dimensional nanostructure based on porous anodic alumina with transversal nanopores on wires is herein presented. The resulting three-dimensional network exhibits the same nanostructure as that obtained on planar geometries, but with a macroscopic cylindrical geometry. The morphological analysis of the nanostructure revealed the effects of the initial defects on the aluminum surface and the mechanical strains on the integrity of the three-dimensional network. The results evidence the feasibility of obtaining 3D porous anodic alumina on non-planar aluminum substrates.

  4. Fusion of three-dimensional X-ray angiography and three-dimensional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasche, Volker; Mansour, Moussa; Reddy, Vivek; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Ruskin, Jeremy; Qureshi, Answer; Manzke, Robert; Sokka, Sham

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular intervention guidance requires knowledge of heart function relative to its blood supply or venous drainage. Functional and vascular anatomic data are usually generated on different imaging systems, so fusion of the data is necessary to simultaneously visualize the results for intervention planning and guidance. The objective of this work is to establish the feasibility of fusing volumetric ultrasound (U/S) data with three-dimensional (3D) X-ray imaging data for visualization of cardiac morphology, function and coronary venous drainage. Temporally resolved U/S volume data was registered with the 3D reconstruction of vascular structures derived from X-ray modeling and reconstruction. U/S image registration was obtained by optical tracking fiducial markers with simultaneous X-ray imaging. The proposed technique was applied to phantom data for accuracy assessment of the registration process and to biventricular pacemaker implantation as clinical example. Fusion of U/S data with 3D X-ray reconstruction data produced an RMS registration error below 2 mm. Preliminary clinical feasibility of U/S-derived data synchronously with X-ray derived 3D coronary venography was established. This technique can be applied for fusion of functional U/S data with 3D anatomic X-ray data of the coronary veins during a biventricular pacemaker implantation procedures. (orig.)

  5. Fabrication of malleable three-dimensional-printed customized bolus using three-dimensional scanner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Park

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D-printed customized bolus (3D bolus can be used for radiotherapy application to irregular surfaces. However, bolus fabrication based on computed tomography (CT scans is complicated and also delivers unwanted irradiation. Consequently, we fabricated a bolus using a 3D scanner and evaluated its efficacy. The head of an Alderson Rando phantom was scanned with a 3D scanner. The 3D surface data were exported and reconstructed with Geomagic Design X software. A 3D bolus of 5-mm thickness designed to fit onto the nose was printed with the use of rubber-like printing material, and a radiotherapy plan was developed. We successfully fabricated the customized 3D bolus, and further, a CT simulation indicated an acceptable fit of the 3D bolus to the nose. There was no air gap between the bolus and the phantom surface. The percent depth dose (PDD curve of the phantom with the 3D bolus showed an enhanced surface dose when compared with that of the phantom without the bolus. The PDD of the 3D bolus was comparable with that of a commercial superflab bolus. The radiotherapy plan considering the 3D bolus showed improved target coverage when compared with that without the bolus. Thus, we successfully fabricated a customized 3D bolus for an irregular surface using a 3D scanner instead of a CT scanner.

  6. In vivo near-infrared fluorescence three-dimensional positioning system with binocular stereovision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bofan; Jin, Wei; Wang, Ying; Jin, Qinhan; Mu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence is a powerful tool for in-vivo imaging in living animals. The traditional in-vivo fluorescence imaging equipment is based on single-view two-dimensional imaging systems. However, they cannot meet the needs for accurate positioning during modern scientific research. A near-infrared in-vivo fluorescence imaging system is demonstrated, which has the capability of deep source signal detecting and three-dimensional positioning. A three-dimensional coordinates computing (TDCP) method including a preprocess algorithm is presented based on binocular stereo vision theory, to figure out the solution for diffusive nature of light in tissue and the emission spectra overlap of fluorescent labels. This algorithm is validated to be efficient to extract targets from multispectral images and determine the spot center of biological interests. Further data analysis indicates that this TDCP method could be used in three-dimensional positioning of the fluorescent target in small animals. The study also suggests that the combination of a large power laser and deep cooling charge-coupled device will provide an attractive approach for fluorescent detection from deep sources. This work demonstrates the potential of binocular stereo vision theory for three-dimensional positioning for living animal in-vivo imaging.

  7. Path Planning in Three Dimensional Environment Using Feedback Linearization (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schumacher, Corey J; Kanchanavally, Shreecharan; Ordonez, Raul

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a control scheme via feedback linearization for three-dimensional cooperative path planning of a class of interconnected systems in general, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in particular...

  8. Magnetic structure of two- and three-dimensional supramolecular compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decurtins, S.; Schmalle, H.W.; Pellaux, R. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland); Fischer, P.; Fauth, F. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ouladdiaf, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-09-01

    Supramolecular chiral networks of oxalato-bridged transition metals show either two- or three-dimensional structural features. The magnetic structures of such compounds have been investigated by means of elastic neutron powder diffraction. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  9. Direct Linear Transformation Method for Three-Dimensional Cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robert

    1978-01-01

    The ability of Direct Linear Transformation Method for three-dimensional cinematography to locate points in space was shown to meet the accuracy requirements associated with research on human movement. (JD)

  10. Three dimensional QSAR: applications in pharmacology and toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doucet, Jean-Pierre; Panaye, Annick

    2010-01-01

    ... networks and support vector machines. Three-Dimensional QSAR addresses the scope and limitations of different modeling techniques using case studies from pharmacology, toxicology, and ecotoxicology to demonstrate the utility of each...

  11. Three-dimensional anthropometry of the adult face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    This study describes a new three-dimensional anatomical axis system based on four conventional anthropometrical face landmarks. Coincident as a coordinate (orthogonal) axis system, this reference system was developed to provide convenient orientation...

  12. Three-dimensional reconstructions of solid surfaces using conventional microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficker, Tomáš; Martišek, Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional digital replicas of solid surfaces are subject of interest of different branches of science and technology. The present paper in its introductory parts brings an overview of the various microscopic reconstructive techniques based on optical sectioning. The main attention is devoted to conventional reconstruction methods and especially to that one employing the Fourier transform. The three-dimensional replicas of this special reconstructive frequency method are compared graphically and numerically with the three-dimensional replicas of the confocal method. Based on the comparative study it has been concluded that the quality of the conventional replicas of surfaces possessing textures of intermediate height irregularities is acceptable and almost comparable with the quality of confocal replicas. This study is relevant both for identifying a convenient technique that provides good qualities of three-dimensional replicas and for selecting the hardware whose price is affordable even for small research groups studying rougher surface textures. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Utility of three-dimensional method for diagnosing meniscal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Suguru; Nomura, Kazutoshi; Hirano, Mako; Hashimoto, Noburo; Fukumoto, Tetsuya; Katahira, Kazuhiro

    1998-01-01

    MRI of the knee is a useful method for diagnosing meniscal tears. Although the spin echo method is usually used for diagnosing meniscal tears, we examined the utility of thin slice scan with the three-dimensional method. We reviewed 70 menisci in which arthroscopic findings were confirmed. In this series, sensitivity was 90.9% for medial meniscal injuries and 68.8% for lateral meniscal injuries. There were 3 meniscal tears in which we could not detect tears on preoperative MRI. We could find tears in two of these cases when re-evaluated using the same MRI. In conclusion, we can get the same diagnostic rate with the three-dimensional method compared with the spin echo method. Scan time of the three-dimensional method is 3 minutes, on the other hand that of spin echo method in 17 minutes. This slice scan with three-dimensional method is useful for screening meniscal injuries before arthroscopy. (author)

  14. Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lütteke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The article summarizes the information that is gained from and the errors that are found in carbohydrate structures in the Protein Data Bank. Validation tools that can locate these errors are described. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein–carbohydrate interactions. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein–carbohydrate complexes. Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures

  15. Analysis of three-dimensional transient seepage into ditch drains ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ratan Sarmah

    dimensional solutions to the problem are actually valid not for a field of finite size but for an infinite one only. Keywords. Analytical models; three-dimensional ponded ditch drainage; transient seepage; variable ponding; hydraulic conductivity ...

  16. Simulation on three dimensional bubble formation using MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugi, Tomoaki

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical simulation on three-dimensional bubble formation by means of the MARS (Multi-interfaces Advection and Reconstruction Solver) developed by the author. The comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulation on an agglomeration of two bubbles is discussed. Moreover, some simulation results regarding a phase change phenomena such as a boiling and condensation in a two dimensional enclosure with heated and cooled walls are presented. (author)

  17. Computational study of three-dimensional wake structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, R.; Shirayama, S.; Kamo, K.; Kuwahara, K.

    1986-01-01

    Three-dimensional wake structure is studied by numerically solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Results are visualized by a three-dimensional color graphic system. It was found that a pair of vortex tubes separated from a body plays the most important role in the wake. Near the body vortex tubes are rather stable, however, they gradually become unsteady as they flow down

  18. Alignment-free three-dimensional optical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Shi, Jinwei; Sun, Liuyang; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

    2014-03-05

    Three-dimensional optical metamaterials based on multilayers typically rely on critical vertical alignment to achieve the desired functionality. Here the conditions under which three-dimensional metamaterials with different functionalities may be realized without constraints on alignment are analyzed and demonstrated experimentally. This study demonstrates that the release of alignment constraints for multilayered metamaterials is allowed, while their anomalous interaction with light is preserved. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Comparison of two three-dimensional cephalometric analysis computer software

    OpenAIRE

    Sawchuk, Dena; Alhadlaq, Adel; Alkhadra, Thamer; Carlyle, Terry D; Kusnoto, Budi; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Three-dimensional cephalometric analyses are getting more attraction in orthodontics. The aim of this study was to compare two softwares to evaluate three-dimensional cephalometric analyses of orthodontic treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods: Twenty cone beam computed tomography images were obtained using i-CAT® imaging system from patient's records as part of their regular orthodontic records. The images were analyzed using InVivoDental5.0 (Anatomage Inc.) and 3DCeph™ (Unive...

  20. Three-dimensional study of the multi-cavity FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnagopal, S.; Kumar, V. [Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India)

    1995-12-31

    The Multi-Cavity Free-Electron Laser has been proposed earlier, as a new configuration to obtain short, intense pulses of radiation, the key idea being to pre-bunch the electron beam in a number of very short cavities. Those studies were one-dimensional. Here we use three-dimensional simulations to study the viability of this concept when three-dimensional effects are included, particularly with regard to the transverse modes of the optical beam.

  1. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao

    1999-01-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  2. Discretization model for nonlinear dynamic analysis of three dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Y.

    1982-12-01

    A discretization model for nonlinear dynamic analysis of three dimensional structures is presented. The discretization is achieved through a three dimensional spring-mass system and the dynamic response obtained by direct integration of the equations of motion using central diferences. First the viability of the model is verified through the analysis of homogeneous linear structures and then its performance in the analysis of structures subjected to impulsive or impact loads, taking into account both geometrical and physical nonlinearities is evaluated. (Author) [pt

  3. Three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium as an ohmic steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; Strauss, H.; Manickam, J.

    1985-07-01

    A stable three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium can be obtained numerically by a time-dependent relaxation method using small values of dissipation. The final state is an ohmic steady state which approaches an ohmic equilibrium in the limit of small dissipation coefficients. We describe a method to speed up the relaxation process and a method to implement the B vector . del p = 0 condition. These methods are applied to obtain three-dimensional heliac equilibria using the reduced heliac equations

  4. MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY STUDY FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTER MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY STUDY FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTER MATERIALS ECBC-TR-1459 James D. Wright Jr. Mary...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) XX-09-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Mar 2016 – Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Materials ...Compatibility Study for Three-Dimensional Printer Materials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Wright

  5. Some Remarks on the Three Dimensionality of Hydrofoil Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih KARAALİOĞLU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As it is well-known that cavitation is a very important physical phenomenon that affects significantly the performance of three-dimensional hydrofoils. Prediction of cavitation on three-dimensional hydrofoils is very important in the design stage. In this study, some approaches have been verified for hydrofoil cavitation. The main aim of this paper is to compare the mid-section pressure distribution of three-dimensional cavitating rectangular hydrofoil for increasing aspect ratios, with the pressure distribution of two-dimensional cavitating hydrofoil having the same section geometry as in the three-dimensional hydrofoil. In this study, a boundary element (panel method (BEM has been applied to investigate the hydrofoil cavitation for both two- and three-dimensional cases. Two-dimensional analytical solution in case of cavitating flat-plate has also been applied for comparison. It has been shown that the pressure distributions on the mid-section of three-dimensional cavitating and non-cavitating hydrofoil for increasing aspect ratios have converged to the solutions in two-dimensional case.

  6. Ordered three-dimensional interconnected nanoarchitectures in anodic porous alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Jaime; Martín-González, Marisol; Fernández, Jose Francisco; Caballero-Calero, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional nanostructures combine properties of nanoscale materials with the advantages of being macro-sized pieces when the time comes to manipulate, measure their properties, or make a device. However, the amount of compounds with the ability to self-organize in ordered three-dimensional nanostructures is limited. Therefore, template-based fabrication strategies become the key approach towards three-dimensional nanostructures. Here we report the simple fabrication of a template based on anodic aluminum oxide, having a well-defined, ordered, tunable, homogeneous 3D nanotubular network in the sub 100 nm range. The three-dimensional templates are then employed to achieve three-dimensional, ordered nanowire-networks in Bi2Te3 and polystyrene. Lastly, we demonstrate the photonic crystal behavior of both the template and the polystyrene three-dimensional nanostructure. Our approach may establish the foundations for future high-throughput, cheap, photonic materials and devices made of simple commodity plastics, metals, and semiconductors. PMID:25342247

  7. Thermoluminescence of magnesium aluminum spinel

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, T K; Woo, J J; Chung, K S; Choe, H S; Jang, H K; Whang, C N

    1999-01-01

    The three dimensional TL spectrum of MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 exposed to UV light for 600 seconds produces one glow curve at 474 K which is due to the second-kinetics. The activation energy and the escape-frequency factor are calculated to be 0.85 eV and 1.92 x 10 sup 6 sec sup - sup 1 , respectively. The full widths at half maximum of the spectra of the 520-nm and the 710-nm emission bands associated with the holed captured at the V sup 2 sup + and the Cr sup 2 sup + sites, respectively, depend on temperature. The broad width of the glow curve is caused by an overlap of glow curves with different emission wavelengths and the difference in their peak temperatures. The peak of the glow curve shifts toward lower temperature as the UV-light exposure time increases.

  8. Thermoluminescent dosimetry: theory, materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.A.R.da.

    1978-01-01

    A survey about the thermoluminescence theory, the properties of the main thermoluminescent phosphors and their applications is presented. Some of the most important thermoluminescent readers are also mentioned [pt

  9. Datation par thermoluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis 1953, de nombreux chercheurs se sont intéressés à la datation par thermoluminescence de minéraux anciennement brûlés ou cuits. Dans ce travail, après avoir rappelé quelques principes physiques de la thermoluminescence, on présente cette méthode de datation en mettant l'accent sur le mécanisme thermoluminescent dans une poterie. Ainsi la dose d'irradiation reçue par le matériau étant proportionnelle au temps écoulé depuis le 'zéro archéologique', il est possible de déterminer 'la dose archéologique' et d'en déduire l'âge de l'échantillon après avoir calculé la dose d'irradiation annuelle. La réalisation pratique d'un tel ensemble de mesure est cependant très ardue. Dans un prochain article, E. A. Decamps et A. Roman montreront des résultats relatifs à la thermoluminescence d'échantillons de quartz naturels, purs et dopés et la mise au point d'une nouvelle méthode de datation. Desde 1953, muchos investigadores se han interesado en la datación por termoluminiscencia de minerales antiguamente quemados o cocidos. Dentro de este trabajo, luego de haber recordado algunos principios físicos de la termoluminiscencia, se presenta este método de datación poniendo mayor atención en el mecanismo termoluminescente en una vasija de metal o de barro. Siendo proporcional la dosis de irradiación recibida al tiempo transcurrido desde el 'cero arqueológico', es posible determinar 'la dosis arqueológica', y deducir la edad de la muestra luego de haber calculado la dosis de irradiación anual. La realización práctica de un trabajo de tal dimensión es sin embargo muy ardua. En un próximo artículo, E. A. Decamps y A. Román presentarán los resultados relativos a la termoluminiscencia de muestras de cuarzo naturales, puras y dopadas y la elaboración de un nuevo método de datación. Since 1953, a number of scientists have been concerned with the use of thermoluminescence for the dating of burned or fired minerals

  10. TELDE thermoluminescent dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvarts, K.K.; Nemiro, E.A.; Bichev, V.R.; Gotlib, V.I.; Grant, Z.A.; Grube, M.M.; Gubatova, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The TELDE dosimetric set designed for measurement of x- and γ- rays doses with energy more than 10 keV is described. The set consists of thermoluminescent detectors from LiF (Ca, Mg, Ti). The detectors are polycrystalline pellets with diameter 3.5+-0.3 mm and thickness 2+-0.2 mm. In the thermoluminescence detectors both the peak and integral measurement methods are realized. Apart from this the TELDE set comprises the electron unit for the pre-irradiation thermal treatment of detectors, special bones for detectors storage and transportation, devices for their package in polyethelene film and containers to wear the detectors. The TELDE set allows to perform measurements on people or animals in radiobiological experiments as well as in water, solid or porous phantoms [ru

  11. Thermoluminescence of kaolinite

    OpenAIRE

    García-Guinea, Javier; Correcher, Virgilio; Valle Fuentes, Francisco José

    1998-01-01

    Natural kaolinite (size < 5 ¿m) shows strong thermoluminescence (TL) which could be linked with water loss (~ 120°C peak) and dehydroxylation changes (~ 300°C peak). After 100 min of dehydration at room temperature, kaolinite displays microcracks, isothermal luminescence emissions and the starting point of a desiccation plateau. These phenomena were tested through 34 X ray diffractograms measuring the area increase of the (001) peak each 3 min. The DTA-TG analyses of natural kaolinite and the...

  12. Thermoluminescence studies in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Sunta, C.M.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Bapat, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Even though the phenomenon of thermoluminescence is well studied, particularly over last 3 decades, its potentialities in the field of geology have not been adequately evaluated. In this report several useful applications of TL in mineralogy, petrogenesis, stratigraphy, tectonics, ore-prospecting and other branches have been identified with particular emphasis to the Indian scene. Important areas in the country that may provide the basic material for such studies are indicated at the end along with brief geological or mineralogical accounts. (auth.)

  13. Thermoluminescence - physics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunta, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The interaction of ionizing radiations with matter leads to various effects, some of which leave memory in the target material. These memory effects can be seen as the after-effects of the irradiation. Thermoluminescence is one such phenomenon in the insulating solids. This paper describes the sequence of the physical events beginning with the incidence of an ionizing particle, leading to a trail of atomic and electronic displacements which stabilize in the form of so called defect centres. These defects - interstitials, colour centres, etc., store energy in their configuration. Most of the damage effects are reversible. The return of the displaced entities to their original site leads to the release of the stored energy. Thermoluminescence is the result of the re-adjustment (relaxation) of the displaced electrons. The stimulation for the relaxation process is provided by heating of the irradiated sample. The kinetics of the thermoluminescence process has been explained phenomenologically. The correspondence between the defect centres and the TL glow peaks has remained vague or ambiguous even in the most widely studied TL materials. Notwithstanding this deficiency, the phenomenon has found many practical applications. The paper deals mainly with the physical processes involved in the TL emission and alludes briefly to its involvement in applied areas.(author). 6 refs., 2 figs

  14. Visual Interpretation with Three-Dimensional Annotations (VITA): Three-Dimensional Image Interpretation Tool for Radiological Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Sharmili; Brown, Michael S.; Shih, George L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a software framework called Visual Interpretation with Three-Dimensional Annotations (VITA) that is able to automatically generate three-dimensional (3D) visual summaries based on radiological annotations made during routine exam reporting. VITA summaries are in the form of rotating 3D volumes where radiological annotations are highlighted to place important clinical observations into a 3D context. The rendered volume is produced as a Digital Imaging and Communications i...

  15. Pd nanoparticles supported on three-dimensional graphene aerogels as highly efficient catalysts for methanol electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mingrui; Peng, Cheng; Yang, Wenke; Guo, Jiaojiao; Zheng, Yixiong; Chen, Peiqin; Huang, Tingting; Xu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Well-dispersed Pd nanoparticles supported on three-dimensional graphene aerogels (Pd/3DGA) were successfully prepared via a facile and efficient hydrothermal method without surfactant and template. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared Pd/3DGA nanocomposites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM showed that the Pd nanoparticles with a small average diameter and narrow size distribution were uniformly deposited on the surface of the self-assembled three-dimensional graphene aerogels. Raman spectra revealed the surface properties of 3DGA and its interaction with metallic nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) and chronoamperometric (CA) experiments further exhibited its superior catalytic activity and stability for the electro-oxidation of methanol in alkaline media, making it a promising anodic catalyst for direct alkaline alcohol fuel cells (DAAFCs).

  16. Three-dimensional simulations of resistance spot welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Zhang, Wenqi; Perret, William

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws from the fundamentals of electro-thermo-mechanical coupling to the main aspects of finite element implementation and three-dimensional modelling of resistance welding. A new simulation environment is proposed in order to perform three-dimensional simulations and optimization of r....... The overall presentation is supported by numerical simulations of electrode misalignment caused by the flexibility of the welding machine arms and electrical shunting due to consecutive welds in the resistance spot welding of two sheets.......This paper draws from the fundamentals of electro-thermo-mechanical coupling to the main aspects of finite element implementation and three-dimensional modelling of resistance welding. A new simulation environment is proposed in order to perform three-dimensional simulations and optimization...... of resistance welding together with the simulations of conventional and special-purpose quasi-static mechanical tests. Three-dimensional simulations of resistance welding consider the electrical, thermal, mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of the material as well as the operating conditions...

  17. Robot vision based on three-dimensional model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Yoshiaki

    1985-01-01

    In order that robots recognize objects, the models of the objects are required. If there is not any constraint about an object scene, it is desirable that robot vision has the three-dimensional models of the things composing the scene. Since the preparation of three-dimensional models takes much time, here, the utilization of the geometrical models made by CAD is proposed. Besides, when the description of a scene and three-dimensional models are compared, to attempt the comparison with all attitudes of respective models is not efficient, therefore, stratum-wise comparison was proposed. As concrete examples, when input information is only in the direction of a part of surfaces such as lustrous bodies, when information can be obtained in all the directions of the surfaces of a body visible by a photometric stereo, and when complete three dimensional information is obtained by a distance-measuring instrument, the techniques of object recognition are described. In all cases, by carrying out the stratum-wise comparison based on three-dimensional models, the efficient and generalized object recognition was able to be achieved. (Kako, I.)

  18. A plastic surgery application in evolution: three-dimensional printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Theodore L; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Kim, Peter S; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J

    2014-02-01

    Three-dimensional printing represents an evolving technology still in its infancy. Currently, individuals and small business entities have the ability to manufacture physical objects from digital renderings, computer-aided design, and open source files. Design modifications and improvements in extrusion methods have made this technology much more affordable. This article explores the potential uses of three-dimensional printing in plastic surgery. A review was performed detailing the known uses of three-dimensional printing in medicine. The potential applications of three-dimensional printing in plastic surgery are discussed. Various applications for three-dimensional printing technology have emerged in medicine, including printing organs, printing body parts, bio-printing, and computer-aided tissue engineering. In plastic surgery, these tools offer various prospective applications for surgical planning, resident education, and the development of custom prosthetics. Numerous applications exist in medicine, including the printing of devices, implants, tissue replacements, and even whole organs. Plastic surgeons may likely find this technology indispensable in surgical planning, education, and prosthetic device design and development in the near future.

  19. Three-dimensional magnetospheric equilibrium with isotropic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1995-05-01

    In the absence of the toroidal flux, two coupled quasi two-dimensional elliptic equilibrium equations have been derived to describe self-consistent three-dimensional static magnetospheric equilibria with isotropic pressure in an optimal (Ψ,α,χ) flux coordinate system, where Ψ is the magnetic flux function, χ is a generalized poloidal angle, α is the toroidal angle, α = φ - δ(Ψ,φ,χ) is the toroidal angle, δ(Ψ,φ,χ) is periodic in φ, and the magnetic field is represented as rvec B = ∇Ψ x ∇α. A three-dimensional magnetospheric equilibrium code, the MAG-3D code, has been developed by employing an iterative metric method. The main difference between the three-dimensional and the two-dimensional axisymmetric solutions is that the field-aligned current and the toroidal magnetic field are finite for the three-dimensional case, but vanish for the two-dimensional axisymmetric case. With the same boundary flux surface shape, the two-dimensional axisymmetric results are similar to the three-dimensional magnetosphere at each local time cross section

  20. Three-dimensional imaging of rheumatoid hands with MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.J.; Fischer, H.; Hollister, A.; Myers, L.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of soft-tissue proliferation associated with rheumatoid disease provided an objective measure of the activity and pattern of joint pathology. This paper propose a three-dimensional model for this purpose. With use of a 1.5-T Picker MR imager and a stellar GS 2000 computer graphics workstation, hands from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and age-matched controls were imaged to measure the quantity and location of inflammatory tissues. Three-dimensional Fourier transform gradient-echo sequences were used, with 0.8-1.6-mm section thickness. The definition of soft-tissue abnormalities and normal structures was facilitated by image smoothing and edge-detection computer algorithms. Separation of joint components permitted volume measurements and three-dimensional graphic displays

  1. On three-dimensional quiver gauge theories of type B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Anindya; Hanany, Amihay; Koroteev, Peter; Mekareeya, Noppadol

    2017-09-01

    We study three-dimensional supersymmetric quiver gauge theories with a nonsimply laced global symmetry primarily focusing on framed affine B N quiver theories. Using a supersymmetric partition function on a three sphere, and its transformation under S-duality, we study the three-dimensional ADHM quiver for SO(2 N + 1) instantons with a half-integer Chern-Simons coupling. The theory after S-duality has no Lagrangian, and can not be represented by a single quiver, however its partition function can be conveniently described by a collection of framed affine B N quivers. This correspondence can be conjectured to generalize three-dimensional mirror symmetry to theories with nontrivial Chern-Simons terms. In addition, we propose a formula for the superconformal index of a theory described by a framed affine B N quiver.

  2. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Seeley, C.H.; Henderson, J.A.; Schmidl, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental flow visualization tool, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), is being used to determine the velocity field in two-dimensional fluid flows. In the past few years, the technique has been improved to allow the capture of flow fields in three dimensions. This paper describes changes which were made to two existing two-dimensional tracking algorithms to enable them to track three-dimensional PIV data. Results of the tests performed on these three-dimensional routines with synthetic data are presented. Experimental data was also used to test the tracking algorithms. The test setup which was used to acquire the three-dimensional experimental data is described, along with the results from both of the tracking routines which were used to analyze the experimental data. (author)

  3. Eustachian tube three-dimensional reconstruction of secretory otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yafeng; Zhou Weirong; Bao Xueping; Li Min; Hu Zhenmin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study relationship between Eustachian tube and secretory otitis media and to explore the pathogeny of secretory otitis by three-dimensional reconstruction of Eustachian tube. Methods: Thirty cases of secretory otitis media (male 19, female 11) were selected randomly. Everyone was checked by otoscope and audiometry. Their bilateral Eustachian tubes were scanning by helix CT while making Valsalva's action. All images were passed on to work station to make three-dimensional reconstruction. Results: Four patients were found have Eustachian tube diseases, while most of patients' Eustachian tubes ventilated normally. Conclusions: Three-dimensional reconstruction of Eustachian tube can open out some pathogens of some secretory otitis medias. It will be helpful to diagnosis and therapy of secretory otitis media. (authors)

  4. Computational methods for three-dimensional microscopy reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to the recovery of three-dimensional information on a biological object, which are often formulated or implemented initially in an intuitive way, are concisely described here based on physical models of the object and the image-formation process. Both three-dimensional electron microscopy and X-ray tomography can be captured in the same mathematical framework, leading to closely-related computational approaches, but the methodologies differ in detail and hence pose different challenges. The editors of this volume, Gabor T. Herman and Joachim Frank, are experts in the respective methodologies and present research at the forefront of biological imaging and structural biology.   Computational Methods for Three-Dimensional Microscopy Reconstruction will serve as a useful resource for scholars interested in the development of computational methods for structural biology and cell biology, particularly in the area of 3D imaging and modeling.

  5. Three-dimensional, three-component wall-PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthe, André; Kondermann, Daniel; Christensen, Carolyn; Goubergrits, Leonid; Garbe, Christoph; Affeld, Klaus; Kertzscher, Ulrich

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a new time-resolved three-dimensional, three-component (3D-3C) measurement technique called wall-PIV. It was developed to assess near wall flow fields and shear rates near non-planar surfaces. The method is based on light absorption according to Beer-Lambert’s law. The fluid containing a molecular dye and seeded with buoyant particles is illuminated by a monochromatic, diffuse light. Due to the dye, the depth of view is limited to the near wall layer. The three-dimensional particle positions can be reconstructed by the intensities of the particle’s projection on an image sensor. The flow estimation is performed by a new algorithm, based on learned particle trajectories. Possible sources of measurement errors related to the wall-PIV technique are analyzed. The accuracy analysis was based on single particle experiments and a three-dimensional artificial data set simulating a rotating sphere.

  6. Shape memory polymers: three-dimensional isotropic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Olaniyi; Mo, Changki

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive three-dimensional isotropic numerical simulation for a thermo-mechanical constitutive model of shape memory polymers (SMPs). In order to predict the thermo-mechanical behavior of SMPs, a one-dimensional rheological thermo-mechanical constitutive model is adopted, translated into a three-dimensional form and a time discrete form of the three-dimensional model is then presented. Numerical simulation of this model was developed using the UMAT subroutine capabilities of the finite element software ABAQUS. Evolution of the analysis was conducted by making use of the backward difference scheme, which was applied to all quantities within the model, including the material properties. A comparison of the numerical simulation results was carried out with the available experimental data. Numerical simulation results clearly exhibit the thermo-mechanical properties of the material which include shape fixity, shape recovery, and recovery stress. Finally, a prediction for the transverse and shear directions of the material is presented.

  7. Thermoluminescence: its understanding and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.V.

    1977-01-01

    The phenomenon of thermoluminescence is treated exhaustively both mathematically and physically. All the possible applications of the phenomenon are briefly described and an optimistic picture of the future trends in this field is projected. A review of latest information on thermoluminescence instrumentation and phosphors is also included [pt

  8. Thermoluminescence characteristics of rare-earth-doped LiCaBO3 phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, L.H.; Zhang, Y.L.; Li, C.Y.; Pang, R.; Hao, J.Q.; Su, Q.

    2008-01-01

    LiCaBO 3 was synthesized by high-temperature solid-state reaction. The influence of different rare earth dopants, i.e. Dy 3+ , Tb 3+ , Tm 3+ and Ce 3+ , on thermoluminescence (TL) of LiCaBO 3 phosphor was discussed. We studied the TL properties and some dosimetric characteristics of Ce 3+ -activated LiCaBO 3 phosphor in detail. The effect of the concentration of Ce 3+ on TL was investigated, the result of which showed that the optimum Ce 3+ concentration was 1 mol%. The TL kinetic parameters of LiCaBO 3 :0.01Ce 3+ were studied by computer glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) method. The three-dimensional (3D) TL emission spectra were also studied, peaking at 431 and 474 nm due to the characteristic transition of Ce 3+ . We also studied the linearity, annealing condition, reproducibility, fading and different heating rate of the LiCaBO 3 :0.01Ce 3+ phosphor

  9. Thermoluminescence studies on plant seeds of different radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hikoyuki; Eguchi, Hoshio; Koizumi, Yoshinobu.

    1975-01-01

    The thermoluminescence was found when the pulverized powders from the whole seeds of six plant species or the hypocotyls from the seeds of five soybean varieties were irradiated at a liquid nitrogen temperature with gamma-rays. The spectra of luminescence emitted, the light peak temperature, the decaying after irradiation and the dose relationship of luminescence were determined. A high yield of the rapidly-decaying luminescence occurred in the more radiosensitive variety when irradiated with relatively lower doses. The very drastic decrease of the thermoluminescence was observed in the samples irradiated at room temperature prior to the exposure at 77 0 K. (auth.)

  10. Novel multipole Wien filter as three-dimensional spin manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasue, T.; Suzuki, M.; Tsuno, K.; Goto, S.; Arai, Y.; Koshikawa, T.

    2014-04-01

    Spin polarized electron beam is often used in material characterizations which relates to magnetism as well as in the high energy particle physics. The manipulation of the spin polarization toward the arbitrary direction is indispensable in such studies. In the present work, a novel multipole Wien filter is proposed as the three-dimensional spin manipulator, and a prototype 8-pole Wien filter is developed. It is applied to spin polarized low energy electron microscopy, and the variation of the magnetic contrast with managing the spin polarization is evaluated. It is confirmed that the novel multipole Wien filter can manipulate the spin polarization three-dimensionally.

  11. Novel multipole Wien filter as three-dimensional spin manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasue, T., E-mail: yasue@isc.osakac.ac.jp; Suzuki, M.; Koshikawa, T. [Fundamental Electronics Research Institute, Osaka Electro-Communication University, 18-8 Hatsu-cho, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8530 (Japan); Tsuno, K. [Electron Optics Solutions Tsuno, 10-11 Mihori, Akishima, Tokyo 196-0001 (Japan); Goto, S. [Sanyu Electron Co., Ltd., 1-22-6 Hyakunin-cho, Shinjyuku, Tokyo 169-0073 (Japan); Arai, Y. [Terabase Inc., Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787 (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Spin polarized electron beam is often used in material characterizations which relates to magnetism as well as in the high energy particle physics. The manipulation of the spin polarization toward the arbitrary direction is indispensable in such studies. In the present work, a novel multipole Wien filter is proposed as the three-dimensional spin manipulator, and a prototype 8-pole Wien filter is developed. It is applied to spin polarized low energy electron microscopy, and the variation of the magnetic contrast with managing the spin polarization is evaluated. It is confirmed that the novel multipole Wien filter can manipulate the spin polarization three-dimensionally.

  12. Three Dimensional Analysis of Elastic Rocket and Launcher at Launching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shinsuke

    In this paper, a three-dimensional analysis of launching dynamics of a sounding rocket is investigated. In the analysis, the elastic vibration of the vehicle and launcher is considered. To estimate a trajectory dispersion including the effect of elasticity of the vehicle and launcher, a three-dimensional numerical simulation of a launch is performed. The accuracy of the numerical simulation is discussed and it is concluded that the simulation can estimate the maximum value of the trajectory dispersion properly. After that, the maximum value is estimated for the actual sounding rocket and the value is shown to be within the safty margin for this particular case.

  13. Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Graff, Robert T.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Reinhardt, Catherine; Voss, Lars F.; Cheung, Chin Li; Heineck, Daniel

    2014-09-09

    Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detectors utilize neutron sensitive conversion materials in the form of nano-powders and micro-sized particles, as opposed to thin films, suspensions, paraffin, etc. More specifically, methods to infiltrate, intersperse and embed the neutron nano-powders to form two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional charge sensitive platforms are specified. The use of nano-powders enables conformal contact with the entire charge-collecting structure regardless of its shape or configuration.

  14. Weyl and Dirac semimetals in three-dimensional solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, N. P.; Mele, E. J.; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2018-01-01

    Weyl and Dirac semimetals are three-dimensional phases of matter with gapless electronic excitations that are protected by topology and symmetry. As three-dimensional analogs of graphene, they have generated much recent interest. Deep connections exist with particle physics models of relativistic chiral fermions, and, despite their gaplessness, to solid-state topological and Chern insulators. Their characteristic electronic properties lead to protected surface states and novel responses to applied electric and magnetic fields. The theoretical foundations of these phases, their proposed realizations in solid-state systems, and recent experiments on candidate materials as well as their relation to other states of matter are reviewed.

  15. Three-dimensional Reciprocal Structures: Morphology, Concepts, Generative Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Pugnale, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper present seven different three dimensional structures based on the principle of structural reciprocity with superimposition joint and standardized un-notched elements. Such typology could be regarded as being intrinsically three-dimensional because elements sit one of the top of the oth......, causing every configuration to develop naturally out-of the plane. The structures presented here were developed and built by the students of the Master of Science in “Architectural Design” during a two week long workshop organized at Aalborg University in the fall semester 2011....

  16. Investigation of light scattering characteristics of individual leukocytes using three-dimensional refractive index maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kung-Bin; Lin, Yang-Hsien; Lin, Fong-jheng; Hsieh, Chao-Mao; Wu, Shang-Ju

    2017-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) refractive-index (RI) microscopy is an emerging technique suitable for live-cell imaging due to its label-free and fast 3D imaging capabilities. We have developed a common-path system to acquire 3D RI microscopic images of cells with excellent speed and stability. After obtaining 3D RI distributions of individual leukocytes, we used a 3D finite-difference time-domain tool to study light scattering properties. Backscattering spectra of lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils are different from each other. Backscattering spectra of lymphocytes matched well with those of homogeneous spheres as predicted by Mie theory while backscattering spectra of neutrophils are significantly more intense than those of the other two types. This suggests the possibility of classifying the three types of leukocytes based on backscattering.

  17. Data Visualization in Physics II: VRML and Java for three-dimensional imaging and fully three-dimensional movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Flavio H.; Evans, Steven J.; Hastings, Harold M.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.

    2006-03-01

    Presentation and analysis of large three-dimensional data sets is in general hard to do using only two-dimensional figures and plots. In this talk, we will demonstrate techniques for illustrating static and dynamic three-dimensional objects and data using Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) as well as Java. The advantage of these two languages is that they are platform-independent, which allows for easy sharing of data and visualizations. In addition, manipulation of data is relatively easy as rotation, translation and zooming can be done in real- time for static objects as well as for data and objects that vary and deform in time. Examples of fully three-dimensional movies will be shown, including dendritic growth and propagation of electrical waves in cardiac tissue. In addition, we will show how to include VRML and Java viewers in PowerPoint for easy presentation of results in classes and seminars.

  18. A custom made phantom for dosimetric audit and quality assurance of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radaideh, K.M.; Matalqah, L.M.; Matalqah, L.M.; Tajuddin, A.A.; Luen, F.W.L.; Bauk, S.; Abdel Munem, E.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate check of the actual dose delivered to a patient in radiotherapy can be achieved by using dosimetric measurements. The aims of this study were to develop and evaluate a custom handmade head and neck phantom for evaluation of Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT) dose planning and delivery. A phantom of head and neck region of a medium built male patient with nasopharyngeal cancer was constructed from Perspex material. Primary and secondary Planning Target Volume (PTV) and twelve Organs at Risk (OAR) were delineated using Treatment Planning System (TPS) guided by computed tomography printout transverse images. One hundred and seven (107) holes distributed among the organs were loaded with Rod-shaped Thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF:Mg, Ti TLDs) after common and individual calibration. Head and neck phantom was imaged, planned and irradiated conformally (3D-CRT) by linear accelerator (LINAC Siemens Artiste). The planned predicted doses by TPS at PTV and OAR regions were obtained and compared with the TLD measured doses using the phantom. Repeated TLD measurements were reproducible with a percent standard deviation of < 3.5 %. Moreover, the average of dose discrepancies between TLDs reading and TPS predicted doses were found to be < 5.3 %. The phantom's preliminary results have proved to be a valuable tool for 3D-CRT treatment dose verification. (author)

  19. Acid-base properties of complexes with three-dimensional polyligands. Complexes with three-dimensional polyphosphoric acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopylova, V.D.; Bojko, Eh.T.; Saldadze, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    By the method of potentiometric titration acid-base properties of uranyl (2) complexes with three-dimensional polyphosphoric acids, KRF-8p, KF-1, KF-7 prepared by phosphorylation of copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene or saponification of the copolymers of di-2,2'-chloroethyl ester of vinylphosphonic acid with divinyl benzene are studied. It is shown that in case of formation in the phase of three-dimensional polyphosphoric acids of UO 2 2+ complexes with the growth of bond covalence of metal ion-phosphonic group the acidjty of the second hydroxyl of the phosphonic group increases

  20. Signal processing of eddy current three-dimensional maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birac, C.; David, D.; Lamant, D.

    1987-01-01

    Digital processing of eddy current three-dimensional maps improves accuracy of detection: flattening, filtering, computing deconvolution, mapping new variables,.., give new possibilities for difficult test problems. With simulation of defects, probes, probe travels, it is now possible to compute new eddy current processes, without machining defects or building probes

  1. Three-dimensional flow and turbulence structure in electrostatic precipitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Thorvald Uhrskov; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Özcan, Oktay

    2002-01-01

    and bulk velocity U0 on secondary flows and turbulence levels and structures due to the action of the three-dimensional electrostatic field on the charged gas. At constant bulk velocity (U0 = 1 m/s) and current density (Jm = 0.4 mA/m2), secondary flows in the form of rolls of axial vorticity with swirl...

  2. Two-and three-dimensional gravity modeling along western ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The western continental margin and the intraplate Narmada-Tapti rifts are primarily covered by Deccan flood basalts. Three-dimensional gravity modeling of +70 mgal Bouguer gravity highs extending in the north-south direction along the western continental margin rift indicates the presence of a subsurface high density, ...

  3. Kondo effect in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, Andrew K.; Fritz, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic impurities in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl systems are shown to exhibit a fascinatingly diverse range of Kondo physics, with distinctive experimental spectroscopic signatures. When the Fermi level is precisely at the Dirac point, Dirac semimetals are in fact unlikely candidates for a

  4. Rigid isotopy classification of real three-dimensional cubics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnov, Vyacheslav A [Yaroslavl Demidov State University (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-31

    We prove that the space of non-singular real three-dimensional cubics has precisely nine connected components. We also study the space of real canonical curves of genus 4 and prove, in particular, that it consists of eight connected components.

  5. Three-dimensional fractal geometry for gas permeation in microchannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malankowska, Magdalena; Schlautmann, Stefan; Berenschot, Erwin J.W.; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Pina, Maria Pilar; Mallada, Reyes; Tas, Niels R.; Gardeniers, Han

    2018-01-01

    The novel concept of a microfluidic chip with an integrated three-dimensional fractal geometry with nanopores, acting as a gas transport membrane, is presented. The method of engineering the 3D fractal structure is based on a combination of anisotropic etching of silicon and corner lithography. The

  6. Monitoring the three-dimensional ionospheric electron density ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 116; Issue 3. Monitoring the three-dimensional ionospheric ... A numerical experiment is used to validate the reliability of the method and its advantages to the classical algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). This is then used to reconstruct the IED images using ...

  7. A Three-Dimensional Haptic Matrix Test of Nonverbal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph C.; Skillman, Gemma D.; Benedetto, Joanne M.; Holtz, Ann M.; Nassif, Carrie L.; Weber, Anh D.

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional haptic matrices were pilot-tested as a nonvisual measure of cognitive ability. The results indicated that they correlated with convergent measures, with emphasis on spatial processing and that the participants who described items "visually" completed them more quickly and accurately and tended to have become visually…

  8. Freehand three-dimensional ultrasound to assess semitendinosus muscle morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haberfehlner, H.; Maas, H.; Harlaar, J.; Becher, J.G.; Buizer, A.I.; Jaspers, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    In several neurological disorders and muscle injuries, morphological changes of the m. semitendinosus (ST) are presumed to contribute to movement limitations around the knee. Freehand three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US), using position tracking of two-dimensional US images to reconstruct a 3D

  9. Quantum field between moving mirrors: A three dimensional example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacyan, S.; Jauregui, Roco; Villarreal, Carlos

    1995-01-01

    The scalar quantum field uniformly moving plates in three dimensional space is studied. Field equations for Dirichlet boundary conditions are solved exactly. Comparison of the resulting wavefunctions with their instantaneous static counterpart is performed via Bogolubov coefficients. Unlike the one dimensional problem, 'particle' creation as well as squeezing may occur. The time dependent Casimir energy is also evaluated.

  10. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the pigeon inner ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.; Segenhout, J. M.; Wit, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional reconstructions of the inner ear of the pigeon (Columba livia domestica), from two-dimensional images, obtained with (conventional) light microscopy or orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning (OPFOS), are presented. The results are compared with available information on

  11. Three-dimensional structure of heat shock protein 90 from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Sudhan

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... Using inhibitors specific to the nucleotide binding domain of Hsp90, we have shown potent growth inhibitory ... role played by PfHsp90 in parasite growth, we have modeled its three dimensional structure using recently described full length .... PfHsp90 and for the development of small-molecule targets.

  12. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the rat nephron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Grann, Birgitte; Kristoffersen, Inger B.

    2014-01-01

    This study gives a three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis of rat nephrons and their connections to collecting ducts. Approximately 4,500 2.5-μm-thick serial sections from the renal surface to the papillary tip were obtained from each of 3 kidneys of Wistar rats. Digital images were recorded...

  13. Three dimensional reconstruction of tomographic images of the retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glittenberg, C.; Zeiler, F.; Falkner, C.; Binder, S.; Povazay, B.; Hermann, B.; Drexler, W.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new display system for the three-dimensional visualization of tomographic images in ophthalmology. Specifically, a system that can use stacks of B-mode scans from an ultrahigh resolution optical tomography examination to vividly display retinal specimens as three-dimensional objects. Several subroutines were programmed in the rendering and raytracing program Cinema 4D XL 9.102 Studio Bundle (Maxon Computer Inc., Friedrichsburg, Germany), which could process stacks of tomographic scans into three-dimensional objects. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography examinations were performed on patients with various retinal pathologies and post processed with the subroutines that had been designed. All ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomographies were performed with a titanium: sapphire based ultra broad bandwidth (160 nm) femtosecond laser system (INTEGRAL, Femtolasers Productions GmbH. Vienna Austria) with an axial resolution of 3 μm. A new three dimensional display system for tomographic images in ophthalmology was developed, which allows a highly vivid display of physiological and pathological structures of the retina. The system also distinguishes itself through its high interactivity and adaptability. This new display system allows the visualization of physiological and pathological structures of the retina in a new way, which will give us new insight into their morphology and development. (author) [de

  14. hp Spectral element methods for three dimensional elliptic problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    125, No. 3, August 2015, pp. 413–447. c Indian Academy of Sciences h-p Spectral element methods for three dimensional elliptic problems on non-smooth domains, Part-II: Proof of stability theorem. P DUTT1, AKHLAQ HUSAIN2,∗, A S VASUDEVA MURTHY3 and C S UPADHYAY4. 1Department of Mathematics & Statistics ...

  15. Three-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of the repaired mitral valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew; Mahmood, Feroze; Poppas, Athena; Singh, Arun

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the geometric changes of the mitral valve (MV) after repair using conventional and three-dimensional echocardiography. Prospective evaluation of consecutive patients undergoing mitral valve repair. Tertiary care university hospital. Fifty consecutive patients scheduled for elective repair of the mitral valve for regurgitant disease. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Assessments of valve area (MVA) were performed using two-dimensional planimetry (2D-Plan), pressure half-time (PHT), and three-dimensional planimetry (3D-Plan). In addition, the direction of ventricular inflow was assessed from the three-dimensional imaging. Good correlations (r = 0.83) and agreement (-0.08 +/- 0.43 cm(2)) were seen between the MVA measured with 3D-Plan and PHT, and were better than either compared to 2D-Plan. MVAs were smaller after repair of functional disease repaired with an annuloplasty ring. After repair, ventricular inflow was directed toward the lateral ventricular wall. Subgroup analysis showed that the change in inflow angle was not different after repair of functional disease (168 to 171 degrees) as compared to those presenting with degenerative disease (168 to 148 degrees; p<0.0001). Three-dimensional imaging provides caregivers with a unique ability to assess changes in valve function after mitral valve repair. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mathematical modeling of three-dimensional images in emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koblik, Yu.N.; Khugaev, A. V.; Mktchyan, G.A.; Ioannou, P.; Dimovasili, E.

    2002-01-01

    The model of processing results of three-dimensional measurements in positron-emissive tomograph is proposed in this work. The algorithm of construction and visualization of phantom objects of arbitrary shape was developed and its concrete realization in view of program packet for PC was carried out

  17. Analysis of three-dimensional transient seepage into ditch drains ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ratan Sarmah

    Abstract. An analytical solution in the form of infinite series is developed for predicting time-dependent three-dimensional seepage into ditch drains from a flat, homogeneous and anisotropic ponded field of finite size, the field being assumed to be surrounded on all its vertical faces by ditch drains with unequal water level ...

  18. Singularities at rims in three-dimensional fluid flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driesen, C.H.; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Asymptotic solutions are presented for Stokes flow near circular rims in three-dimensional geometries. Using nonstandard toroidal coordinates, asymptotic analytical expressions are derived for different corner angles. In comparison to the two-dimensional case, an extra critical corner angle value is

  19. and three-dimensional gravity modeling along western continental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Three-dimensional gravity modeling of +70 mgal Bouguer gravity highs extending in the north-south direction along the western continental margin rift indicates the presence of a subsurface high density, mafic-ultramafic type, elongated, roughly ellipsoidal body. It is approximately 12.0 ± 1.2 km thick with its upper surface at ...

  20. Wave packet construction in three-dimensional quantum billiards ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 1. Wave packet construction in three-dimensional quantum billiards: Visualizing the closed orbit, collapse and revival of wave packets in the cubical billiard. Maninder Kaur Bindiya Arora Mahmood Mian. Volume 86 Issue 1 January 2016 pp 31-48 ...

  1. Three-dimensional simulation of laser–plasma-based electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A sequential three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell simulation code PICPSI-3D with a user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed and used to study the interaction of plasma with ultrahigh intensity laser radiation. A case study of laser–plasma-based electron acceleration has been carried out ...

  2. Generation of a Desired Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed three-dimensional electromagnetic field based on generalized phase contrast imaging. Such a method and apparatus may be utilized in advanced optical micro and nano-manipulation, such as by provision of a multiple...

  3. Three-dimensional group manifold reductions of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Román

    2005-04-01

    We review the three-dimensional group manifold reductions of pure Einstein gravity and we exhibit a new consistent group manifold reduction of gravity when the compactification group manifold is S3. The new reduction leads to a lower dimensional theory whose gauge group is SU(2).

  4. Robust cylinder fitting in three-dimensional point cloud data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nurunnabi, Abdul; Sadahiro, Yukio; Lindenbergh, R.C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the problems of cylinder fitting in laser scanning three-dimensional Point Cloud Data (PCD). Most existing methods require full cylinder data, do not study the presence of outliers, and are not statistically robust. But especially mobile laser scanning often has incomplete

  5. The Importance of Three-Dimensionality in Children's Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmeyer, Karen

    1978-01-01

    Investigated young children's ability to represent three-dimensionality in their drawings. Preschool, kindergarten and first grade children and adults were asked to draw a cube, a house, and a ball presented in a plain form, a form differentially decorated on each side, and in both 2- and 3-dimensional forms. (JMB)

  6. Three-Dimensional Extension of a Digital Library Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Long

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overall methodology and case study for the innovation and extension of a digital library, especially the service system. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the three-dimensional structure theory of the information service industry, this paper combines a comprehensive analysis with the practical experiences…

  7. Three dimensional simulated modelling of diffusion capacitance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three dimensional (3-D) simulated modelling was developed to analyse the excess minority carrier density in the base of a polycrystalline bifacial silicon solar cell. The concept of junction recombination velocity was ado-pted to quantify carrier flow through the junction, and to examine the solar cell diffusion capacitance for ...

  8. Three-Dimensional Utah: 100 Years of Sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Eccles Harrison Museum of Art

    1996-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Utah: 100 Years of Sculpture began as a series of conversations about sculptors and sculpture nearly six years ago. Specific development of the exhibition began three years ago during the process of creating a national inventory of outdoor sculpture for a program called Save Outdoor Sculpture (SOS)! Utah is home to more than 200 pieces of outdoor sculpture.

  9. Three-dimensional computer models of electrospinning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smółka Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning is a very interesting method that allows the fabrication of continuous fibers with diameters down to a few nanometers. This paper presents an overview of electrospinning systems as well as their comparison using proposed three-dimensional parameterized numerical models. The presented solutions allow an analysis of the electric field distribution.

  10. Molecular dynamics study of two- and three-dimensional classical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have carried out a molecular dynamics simulation of two- and three- dimensional double Yukawa fluids near the triple point. We have compared some of the static and dynamic correlation functions with those of Lennard–Jones, when parameters occurring in double Yukawa potential are chosen to fit ...

  11. Resistive drift wave turbulence in a three-dimensional geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Naulin, V.

    1999-01-01

    The Hasegawa-Wakatani model describing resistive drift waves is investigated analytically and numerically in a three-dimensional periodic geometry. After an initial growth of the energy the drift waves couple nonlinearly to convective cells, which eventually dominate the system completely...

  12. Optical and thermal performance of a three-dimensional compound ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator (3D CPC) was found to be more efficient than 2D CPC because of the higher concentration ratio. In the present work a 3D CPC was fabricated with a half acceptance angle of 4° for a spherical absorber of radius 100 mm. UV stabilized aluminized polyester foil having ...

  13. Wave packet construction in three-dimensional quantum billiards ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Three-dimensional bound systems; revivals and collapses; quantum mechanics. PACS Nos 03.65.Ge; 03.65.Yz; 42.50.Md. 1. Introduction. The study of time evolution of the unbound and bound-state wave packet illuminates many features of the wave mechanics. These include both semiclassical features as well.

  14. KP Equation in a Three-Dimensional Unmagnetized Warm Dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kh. H. El-Shorbagy

    yahoo.com. MS received 24 May 2017; accepted 26 September 2017; published online 27 November 2017. Abstract. In this work, we investigate the propagation of three-dimensional nonlinear dust-acoustic and dust-. Coulomb waves in an ...

  15. Three-dimensional free vibration analysis of thick laminated circular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three-dimensional free vibration analysis of thick laminated circular plates. Sumit Khare, N.D. Mittal. Abstract. In this communication, a numerical analysis regarding free vibration of thick laminated circular plates, having free, clamped as well as simply-supported boundary conditions at outer edges of plates is presented.

  16. and three-dimensional gravity modeling along western continental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    western continental margin and the intraplate Narmada-Tapti rifts suggests that the migration and concentration of high density magma in the upper lithosphere was much more dominant along the western continental margin rift. Based on the three-dimensional gravity modeling, it is conjectured that the emplacement of ...

  17. Three dimensional rigorous model for optical scattering problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, X.

    2006-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional model based on the finite element method for solving the time-harmonic Maxwell equation in optics. It applies to isotropic or anisotropic dielectrics and metals, and to many configurations such as an isolated scatterer in a multilayer, bi-gratings and crystals. We

  18. Stability analysis of non-axisymmetric three-dimensional finite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In three-dimensional formulation one prefers a spinning frame for derivation of the govern- ing equations (Nandi & Neogy 2001). In this spinning frame, the orthotropic bearing stiffness becomes periodic. The governing equations thus become parametric in nature. A rotor cross- section is symmetric when the rotor has same ...

  19. Three-dimensional simulations of viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    The three-dimensional Langrangian integral method is used to simulate the elastic end-plate instability that occurs in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is demonstrated that the upper convected Maxwell model describes the essential features of the instabi...

  20. Three-dimensional computer models of electrospinning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smółka, Krzysztof; Firych-Nowacka, Anna; Lefik, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Electrospinning is a very interesting method that allows the fabrication of continuous fibers with diameters down to a few nanometers. This paper presents an overview of electrospinning systems as well as their comparison using proposed three-dimensional parameterized numerical models. The presented solutions allow an analysis of the electric field distribution.

  1. Three dimensional internal electromagnetic pulse calculated by particle source method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuzhi; Wang Taichun

    1986-01-01

    The numerical results of the primary electric current and the internal electromagnetic pulse were obtained by particle method in the rectanglar cavity. The results obtained from this method is compared with three dimensional Euler-method. It is shown that two methods are in good agreement if the conditions are the same

  2. MOMCON: A spectral code for obtaining three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshman, S.P.; Lee, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    A new code, MOMCON (spectral moments code with constraints), is described that computes three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria in a fixed toroidal domain using a Fourier expansion for the inverse coordinates (R, Z) representing nested magnetic surfaces. A set of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations for the spectral coefficients of (R, Z) is solved using an accelerated steepest descent method. A stream function, lambda, is introduced to improve the mode convergence properties of the Fourier series for R and Z. The convergence rate of the R-Z spectra is optimized on each flux surface by solving nonlinear constraint equations relating the m>=2 spectral coefficients of R and Z. (orig.)

  3. On the roles of the dopants in LiF: Mg,Cu,Na,Si thermoluminescent material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Chang, S. Y.; Chung, K. S.; Choe, H. S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, some results of the study on the roles of the dopants in the LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si thermoluminescent (TL) material that was developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. for radiation protection are presented. Although there have been many studies to investigate the roles of the dopants in LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL material in the TL process, there are some discrepancies in the understanding of the roles of Cu and P between various researchers. In case of LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL material, there are a few studies on the roles of the dopants. Three kinds of samples in each of which one dopant is excluded, and the optimised sample, were prepared for this study. The measurements and analysis of the three-dimensional TL spectra, based on the temperature, wavelength and intensity, and the glow curves for those samples are used in this study. The results show that Mg plays a role in the trapping of the charge carriers and Cu plays a role in the luminescence recombination process; however, the effect of Na and Si on the glow curve structure and the TL emission spectra is much less than that of Mg and Cu. It is considered that Na and Si each plays a role in the improvement of the luminescence efficiency. (authors)

  4. Thermoluminescent system for low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.A.R. da; Caldas, L.V.E.; Leite, N.G.

    1988-09-01

    A system for measurements of the thermoluminescent glow curve, the thermoluminescent emission spectrum and the optical absorption spectrum of solid samples, from liquid nitrogen temperature up to 473 K, is reported. A specially designed temperature programmer provides a linear heating of the sample at a wide range of selectable heating rates, as also long term steady-state temperatures for annealing and isothermal decay studies. The system operates at a pressure of 1.33 x 10 -3 Pa. Presently it is being used for lithium fluoride low temperature thermoluminescent studies. (author) [pt

  5. Thermoluminescence in medical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, T.

    2011-10-01

    The dosimetry by thermoluminescence (Tl) is applied in the entire world for the dosimetry of ionizing radiations specially to personal and medical dosimetry. This dosimetry method has been very interesting for measures in vivo because the Tl dosimeters have the advantage of being very sensitive in a very small volume and they are also equivalent to tissue and they do not need additional accessories (for example, cable, electrometer, etc.) The main characteristics of the diverse Tl materials to be used in the radiation measures and practical applications are: the Tl curve, the share homogeneity, the signal stability after the irradiation, precision and exactitude, the response in function with the dose and the energy influence. In this work a brief summary of the advances of the radiations dosimetry is presented by means of the thermally stimulated luminescence and its application to the dosimetry in radiotherapy. (Author)

  6. Informatics solutions for Three-dimensional visualization in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Montoto, Jose Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    The advances reached in the development of the hardware and in the methods of acquisition of data like tomographic scanners and systems of analysis of images, have allowed obtaining geometric models of biomedical elements with the property of being manipulated through the three-dimensional visualization (3D). Nowadays, this visualization embraces from biological applications, including analysis of structures and its functional relationships, until medical applications that include anatomical accuracies and the planning or the training for complex surgical operations. This work proposes computer solutions to satisfy visualization requirements in real time. The developed algorithms are contained in a graphic library that will facilitate the development of future works. The obtained results allow facing current problems of three-dimensional representation of complex surfaces, realism is reached in the images and they have possible application in bioinformatics and medicine

  7. Three-dimensional MR imaging of congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laschinger, J.C.; Vannier, M.W.; Knapp, R.H.; Gutierrez, F.R.; Cox, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Contiguous 5-mm thick ECG-gated MR images of the thorax were edited using surface reconstruction techniques to produce three-dimensional (3D) images of the heart and great vessels in four healthy individuals and 25 patients with congenital heart disease (aged 3 months-30 years). Anomalies studied include atrial and ventricular septal defects, aortic coarctation, AV canal defects, double outlet ventricles, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and a wide spectrum of patients with tetralogy of Fallot. The results were correlated with echocardiographic and cineradiographic studies, and with surgical findings or pathologic specimens. Three-dimensional reconstructions accurately localized the dimensions and locations of all cardiac and great vessel anomalies and often displayed anatomic findings not diagnosed or visualized with other forms of diagnostic imaging

  8. Polarization singularity anarchy in three dimensional ellipse fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Isaac

    2004-11-01

    Lines of circular polarization, C lines, and lines of linear polarization, L lines, are studied in a computer simulated random three-dimensional ellipse field. Although we verify existing predictions for the location of particular points on these lines at which the sign of the topological index of the line inverts, we show that from the point of view of foliations of the field such points are better described as points of pair production. We find a new set of true sign inversion points, and show that when all possible foliations are considered this set includes all points on the line. We also find three new families of polarization singularities whose members include all polarization ellipses. The recently described polarization singularity democracy in two-dimensional fields evidently explodes into polarization singularity anarchy in three-dimensional fields.

  9. Three-dimensional data visualization using DSP meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liow, Yuh-Tay; Civanlar, Mehmet R.; Dzik, Steven C.

    1990-08-01

    This paper presents a parallel scheme for three dimensional data visualization at interactive rates. The scheme is particularly suitable for multiprocessor systems with distributed frame buffers and is currently implemented on an AT&T Pixel Machine, a parallel computer based on mesh connected digital signal processors with a distributed frame buffer. Nearly linear performance increase with the number of processors in the mesh is obtained by partitioning the original three dimensional data into sub-blocks and processing each sub-block in parallel. The approach is very flexible in implementing a variety of visualization techniques, such as volume compositing (translucent models), binary-class and percentage mixtures and surface based volume rendering.

  10. Three-dimensional P velocity structure in Beijing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Wei; Chen, Yun-Tai; Wang, Pei-De

    2003-01-01

    A detail three-dimensional P wave velocity structure of Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan area (BTT area) was determined by inverting local earthquake data. In total 16 048 P wave first arrival times from 16048 shallow and mid-depth crustal earthquakes, which occurred in and around the BTT area from 1992 to 1999 were used. The first arrival times are recorded by Northern China United Telemetry Seismic Network and Yanqing-Huailai Digital Seismic Network. Hypocentral parameters of 1 132 earthquakes with magnitude M L=1.7 6.2 and the three-dimensional P wave velocity structure were obtained simultaneously. The inversion result reveals the complicated lateral heterogeneity of P wave velocity structure around BTT area. The tomographic images obtained are also found to explain other seismological observations well.

  11. Ultrafast three-dimensional x-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieberle, Martina; Barthel, Frank; Hampel, Uwe; Menz, Hans-Juergen; Mayer, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a well established visualization technique in medicine and nondestructive testing. However, since CT scanning requires sampling of radiographic projections from different viewing angles, common CT systems with mechanically moving parts are too slow for dynamic imaging, for instance of multiphase flows or live animals. Here, we introduce an ultrafast three-dimensional x-ray CT method based on electron beam scanning, which achieves volume rates of 500 s -1 . Primary experiments revealed the capability of this method to recover the structure of phase boundaries in gas-solid and gas-liquid two-phase flows, which undergo three-dimensional structural changes in the millisecond scale.

  12. SNAP-3D: a three-dimensional neutron diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallien, C.W.J.

    1975-10-01

    A preliminary report is presented describing the data requirements of a one- two- or three-dimensional multi-group diffusion code, SNAP-3D. This code is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations but it can also carry out gamma calculations if the diffuse approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. It is assumed the reader is familiar with the older, two-dimensional code SNAP and can refer to the report [TRG-Report-1990], describing it. The present report concentrates on the enhancements to SNAP that have been made to produce the three-dimensional version, SNAP-3D, and is intended to act a a guide on data preparation until a single, comprehensive report can be published. (author)

  13. Three-dimensional computerized tomography in mandibular condyle fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermeo, Fausto; Salazar, Abad

    2003-01-01

    Now, car accidents are so commons, this associated to the high technology in produce automobiles make this type of accidents so serious and the consequences of mandibular condyle fractures are more commons and with more gravity, some of these patients, generally need a traqueostomy to be operated, that is why every second that we can save during the surgery is important. The normal exams as X rays and simple TAC give as an important idea but no complete, on the contrary the three-dimensional TAC permits to observe every damages and its exact location, this contribute to make a better surgery organization, the number and type of plates that we have to put and the better way to treat each case, that contribute to reduce time in operating theatre which is in benefit of the patient, diminishing risks in serious patients as they are, that is why we recommend the utilization of the three-dimensional TAC. (The author)

  14. Canonical and symplectic analysis for three dimensional gravity without dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalante, Alberto; Osmart Ochoa-Gutiérrez, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a detailed Hamiltonian analysis of three-dimensional gravity without dynamics proposed by V. Hussain is performed. We report the complete structure of the constraints and the Dirac brackets are explicitly computed. In addition, the Faddeev–Jackiw symplectic approach is developed; we report the complete set of Faddeev–Jackiw constraints and the generalized brackets, then we show that the Dirac and the generalized Faddeev–Jackiw brackets coincide to each other. Finally, the similarities and advantages between Faddeev–Jackiw and Dirac’s formalism are briefly discussed. - Highlights: • We report the symplectic analysis for three dimensional gravity without dynamics. • We report the Faddeev–Jackiw constraints. • A pure Dirac’s analysis is performed. • The complete structure of Dirac’s constraints is reported. • We show that symplectic and Dirac’s brackets coincide to each other.

  15. Canonical and symplectic analysis for three dimensional gravity without dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalante, Alberto, E-mail: aescalan@ifuap.buap.mx [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48 72570, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Osmart Ochoa-Gutiérrez, H. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado postal 1152, 72001 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2017-03-15

    In this paper a detailed Hamiltonian analysis of three-dimensional gravity without dynamics proposed by V. Hussain is performed. We report the complete structure of the constraints and the Dirac brackets are explicitly computed. In addition, the Faddeev–Jackiw symplectic approach is developed; we report the complete set of Faddeev–Jackiw constraints and the generalized brackets, then we show that the Dirac and the generalized Faddeev–Jackiw brackets coincide to each other. Finally, the similarities and advantages between Faddeev–Jackiw and Dirac’s formalism are briefly discussed. - Highlights: • We report the symplectic analysis for three dimensional gravity without dynamics. • We report the Faddeev–Jackiw constraints. • A pure Dirac’s analysis is performed. • The complete structure of Dirac’s constraints is reported. • We show that symplectic and Dirac’s brackets coincide to each other.

  16. Handwriting: three-dimensional kinetic synergies in circle drawing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Alexander W; Karol, Sohit; Park, Jaebum; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Shim, Jae Kun

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate central nervous system (CNS) strategies for controlling multifinger forces during a circle-drawing task. Subjects drew 30 concentric, discontinuous clockwise and counter clockwise circles, at self and experimenter-set paces. The three-dimensional trajectory of the pen's center of mass and the three-dimensional forces and moments of force at each contact between the hand and the pen were recorded. Uncontrolled Manifold Analysis was used to quantify the synergies between pen-hand contact forces in radial, tangential and vertical directions. Results showed that synergies in the radial and tangential components were significantly stronger than in the vertical component. Synergies in the clockwise direction were significantly stronger than the counterclockwise direction in the radial and vertical components. Pace was found to be insignificant under any condition.

  17. Secondary instability and transition in three-dimensional boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolte, A.; Bertolotti, F.P.; Koch, W. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Goettingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik)

    1999-01-01

    Stationary and traveling crossflow modes are the most prominent disturbances in the highly accelerated three-dimensional flow near the leading edge of a swept wing. Near transition onset, secondary three-dimensional instabilities of high frequency can be observed in such flows. A model flow on the basis of a DLR swept plate experiment allows a detailed study of transition scenarios triggered by crossflow instabilities, since the favorable pressure gradient over the whole plate inhibits instabilities of Tollmien-Schlichting type. In order to shed some light upon the role of the high-frequency secondary instabilities, the saturation characteristics of crossflow vortices in this model flow are investigated using the parabolized stability equations. In contrast to nonlinear equilibrium solutions of steady crossflow vortices, the nonlinear Polarized Stability Equations (PSE) results yield different maximal disturbance amplitudes for different initial amplitudes. (orig./AKF)

  18. Secondary instability and transition in three-dimensional boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolte, A.; Bertolotti, F.P.; Koch, W. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Goettingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik

    1999-12-01

    Stationary and traveling crossflow modes are the most prominent disturbances in the highly accelerated three-dimensional flow near the leading edge of a swept wing. Near transition onset, secondary three-dimensional instabilities of high frequency can be observed in such flows. A model flow on the basis of a DLR swept plate experiment allows a detailed study of transition scenarios triggered by crossflow instabilities, since the favorable pressure gradient over the whole plate inhibits instabilities of Tollmien-Schlichting type. In order to shed some light upon the role of the high-frequency secondary instabilities, the saturation characteristics of crossflow vortices in this model flow are investigated using the parabolized stability equations. In contrast to nonlinear equilibrium solutions of steady crossflow vortices, the nonlinear Polarized Stability Equations (PSE) results yield different maximal disturbance amplitudes for different initial amplitudes. (orig./AKF)

  19. Two-dimensional turbulence in three-dimensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H.; Francois, N.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a review of experiments performed in three-dimensional flows that show behaviour associated with two-dimensional turbulence. Experiments reveal the presence of the inverse energy cascade in two different systems, namely, flows in thick fluid layers driven electromagnetically and the Faraday wave driven flows. In thick fluid layers, large-scale coherent structures can shear off the vertical eddies and reinforce the planarity of the flow. Such structures are either self-generated or externally imposed. In the Faraday wave driven flows, a seemingly three-dimensional flow is shown to be actually two-dimensional when it is averaged over several Faraday wave periods. In this system, a coupling between the wave motion and 2D hydrodynamic turbulence is uncovered.

  20. The thermoelectric performance of bulk three-dimensional graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhi, E-mail: yangzhi@tyut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Lan, Guoqiang; Ouyang, Bin [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 0C5 (Canada); Xu, Li-Chun; Liu, Ruiping [College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liu, Xuguang, E-mail: liuxuguang@tyut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Song, Jun [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 0C5 (Canada)

    2016-11-01

    The electronic and thermoelectric properties of a new carbon bulk material, three-dimensional (3D) graphene, are investigated in this study. Our results show that 3D graphene has unique electronic structure, i.e., near the Fermi level there exist Dirac cones. More importantly, the thermoelectric performance of 3D graphene is excellent, at room temperature the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) is 0.21, an order of magnitude higher than that of graphene. By introducing line defects, the ZT of 3D graphene could be enhanced to 1.52, indicating 3D graphene is a powerful candidate for constructing novel thermoelectric materials. - Highlights: • There exist Dirac cones in three-dimensional (3D) graphene. • The thermoelectric performance of 3D graphene is excellent. • The defective 3D graphene has better thermoelectric performance.

  1. Three-dimensional potential energy surface of Ar–CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumiyoshi, Yoshihiro, E-mail: y-sumiyoshi@gunma-u.ac.jp [Division of Pure and Applied Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 4-2 Aramaki, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8510 (Japan); Endo, Yasuki [Department of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2015-01-14

    A three-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface of the Ar–CO complex has been determined by fitting most of the previously reported spectroscopic data, where observed transition frequencies by microwave, millimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave, and infrared spectroscopy were reproduced simultaneously within their experimental accuracies. A free rotor model Hamiltonian considering all the freedom of motions for an atom-diatom system was applied to calculate vibration-rotation energies. A three-dimensional potential energy surface obtained by ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pV5Z level of theory was parameterized by a model function consisting of 46 parameters. They were used as initial values for the least-squares analysis of the experimental data. A total of 20 parameters were optimized to reproduce all the spectroscopic data.

  2. Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography of Magnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales, Morten; Strobl, Markus; Shinohara, Takenao

    2018-01-01

    -destructively with the potential to probe the interior of bulk samples which is not amenable otherwise. Using a pioneering polarimetric set-up for ToF neutron instrumentation in combination with a newly developed tailored reconstruction algorithm, the magnetic field generated by a current carrying solenoid has been measured......Through the use of Time-of-Flight Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography (ToF 3DPNT) we have for the first time successfully demonstrated a technique capable of measuring and reconstructing three dimensional magnetic field strengths and directions unobtrusively and non...... and reconstructed, thereby providing the proof-of-principle of a technique able to reveal hitherto unobtainable information on the magnetic fields in the bulk of materials and devices, due to a high degree of penetration into many materials, including metals, and the sensitivity of neutron polarisation to magnetic...

  3. Three Dimensional Energy Transmitting Boundary in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro eNakamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the energy transmitting boundary is accurate and efficient for the FEM earthquake response analysis, it could be applied in the frequency domain only. In the previous papers, the author proposed an earthquake response analysis method using the time domain energy transmitting boundary for two dimensional problems. In this paper, this technique is expanded for three dimensional problems. The inner field is supposed to be a hexahedron shape and the approximate time domain boundary is explained, first. Next, two dimensional anti-plane time domain boundary is studied for a part of the approximate three dimensional boundary method. Then, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are confirmed by example problems.

  4. Scattering and conductance quantization in three-dimensional metal nanocontacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1997-01-01

    The transmission through three-dimensional nanocontacts is calculated in the presence of localized scattering centers and boundary scattering using a coupled-channel recursion method. Simple confining potentials are used to investigate how robust the observation of quantized conductance is with r......The transmission through three-dimensional nanocontacts is calculated in the presence of localized scattering centers and boundary scattering using a coupled-channel recursion method. Simple confining potentials are used to investigate how robust the observation of quantized conductance...... is with respect to the scattering. We find that the quantum features are quite stable: the scattering by a localized scatterer will selectively smear and downshift certain quantum steps depending on the position of the scatterer, but the remaining steps will. still be at integer positions. The effect...

  5. Three-dimensional metamaterials fabricated using Proton Beam Writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A.A., E-mail: a.bettiol@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Dr. 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Turaga, S.P.; Yan, Y.; Vanga, S.K. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Dr. 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Chiam, S.Y. [NUS High School for Maths and Science, 20 Clementi Avenue 1, Singapore 129957 (Singapore)

    2013-07-01

    Proton Beam Writing (PBW) is a direct write lithographic technique that has recently been applied to the fabrication of three dimensional metamaterials. In this work, we show that the unique capabilities of PBW, namely the ability to fabricate arrays of high resolution, high aspect ratio microstructures in polymer or replicated into metal, is well suited to metamaterials research. We have also developed a novel method for selectively electroless plating silver directly onto polymer structures that were fabricated using PBW. This method opens up new avenues for utilizing PBW for making metamaterials and other sub-wavelength metallic structures. Several potential applications of three dimensional metamaterials fabricated using PBW are discussed, including sensing and negative refractive index materials.

  6. Single florescent nanodiamond in a three dimensional ABEL trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayci, Metin; Radenovic, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional single particle trapping and manipulation is an outstanding challenge in various fields ranging from basic physics to life sciences. By monitoring the response of a trapped particle to a designed environment one can extract its characteristics. In addition, quantum dynamics of a spatially scanned well-known particle can provide environmental information. Precise tracking and positioning of such a particle in aqueous environment is crucial task for achieving nano-scale resolution. Here we experimentally demonstrate three dimensional ABEL trap operating at high frequency by employing a hybrid approach in particle tracking. The particle location in the transverse plane is detected via a scanning laser beam while the axial position is determined by defocused imaging. The scanning of the trapped particle is accomplished through a nano positioning stage integrated to the trap platform. PMID:26559890

  7. Three-dimensional Microarchitecture of Adolescent Cancellous Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Hvid, I; Overgaard, Søren

    regarding three-dimensional (3-D) microarchitecture of normal adolescent cancellous bone. The objective of this study was to investigate 3-D microarchitecture of normal adolescent cancellous bone, and compared them with adult cancellous bone, thus seeking more insight into the subchondral bone adaptations...... during development and growth. We hypothesized that adolescent cancellous bone differed significantly from adult cancellous bone in their microarchitecture and mechanical properties. METHODS: Twenty-three human proximal tibiae were harvested and divided into 3 groups according to their ages: adolescence...... of Orthopaedics & Traumatology and Institute of Forensic Medicine, Odense and Aarhus University Hospitals, Denmark. RESULTS: Three-dimensional reconstructions of cancellous bone from micro-CT imaging are shown in Figure 1. Our data showed that trabecular separation was significantly greater in the adolescence...

  8. Mexican gems as thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin N, J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of using naturally ocurring mexican gems as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) was investigated. Twelve types of gems were irradiated with X and gamma rays in order to determinate their dosimetric properties. Three of these gems showed favorable thermoluminescent characteristics compared with commercial thermoluminescent dosimeters. The plots of their thermoluminescent response as a function of gamma dose are straight lines on full log paper in the dose range 10 -2 to 10 2 Gy. The energy dependence is very strong to low energies of the radiation. Their fading was found to be about 5%/yr. and they may be annealed as reused without loss in sensitivity. Therefore, these gems can be used as X and gamma radiation dosimeters. (author)

  9. Study of three-dimensional effects on vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, M. D.; Kuruvila, G.

    1988-01-01

    The incompressible axisymmetric steady Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables are used to simulate vortex breakdown. The equations, discretized using a second-order, central-difference scheme, are linearized and then solved using an exact LU decomposition, Gaussian elimination, and Newton iteration. Solutions are presented for Reynolds numbers, based on vortex-core radius, as high as 1500. An attempt to study the stability of the axisymmetric solutions against three-dimensional perturbations is discussed.

  10. A three-dimensional model of women's empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Huis, Marloes A.; Hansen, Nina; Otten, Sabine; Lensink, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Women's empowerment is an important goal in achieving sustainable development worldwide. Offering access to microfinance services to women is one way to increase women's empowerment. However, empirical evidence provides mixed results with respect to its effectiveness. We reviewed previous research on the impact of microfinance services on different aspects of women's empowerment. We propose a Three-Dimensional Model of Women's Empowerment to integrate previous findings and to gain a deeper un...

  11. Isotropic three-dimensional left-handed meta-materials

    OpenAIRE

    Koschny, Th.; Zhang, L.; Soukoulis, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate three-dimensional left-handed and related meta-materials based on a fully symmetric multi-gap single-ring SRR design and crossing continuous wires. We demonstrate isotropic transmission properties of a SRR-only meta-material and the corresponding left-handed material which possesses a negative effective index of refraction due to simultaneously negative effective permeability and permittivity. Minor deviations from complete isotropy are due to the finite thickness of the meta-m...

  12. Three Dimensional Unstructured Multigrid for the Euler Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    represents an algorithmic issue. While much work has been performed in two dimensions on direct [21, iterative implicit [3,4,51, and multigrid methods [6,7,8...methods, and many of the iterative implicit methods incur too large memory overheads to be practical for three-dimensional problems. Multigrid methods , on...the Third Copper Mountain Confer- ence on Multigrid Methods , Lecture Notes in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Ed S. F. McCormick, Marcel Dckker Inc

  13. Three-dimensional discrete ordinates reactor assembly calculations on GPUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Thomas M [ORNL; Joubert, Wayne [ORNL; Hamilton, Steven P [ORNL; Johnson, Seth R [ORNL; Turner, John A [ORNL; Davidson, Gregory G [ORNL; Pandya, Tara M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe and demonstrate a discrete ordinates sweep algorithm on GPUs. This sweep algorithm is nested within a multilevel comunication-based decomposition based on energy. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this algorithm on detailed three-dimensional critical experiments and PWR lattice problems. For these problems we show improvement factors of 4 6 over conventional communication-based, CPU-only sweeps. These sweep kernel speedups resulted in a factor of 2 total time-to-solution improvement.

  14. Three-dimensional transparent parabolic concentrator for photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Huichuan Lin; Peng Xie; Yong Liu; Xiang Zhou; Baojun Li

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional transparent parabolic concentrator made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was designed and fabricated for photovoltaic applications. The measured maximum concentration ratio of the concentrator is 8.31, which means that for normal incident light, optical energy can be concentrated as high as 8.31 times by the concentrator. Even for oblique incident lights with an incident angle of between 5° and 15°, the concentrator maintains a concentration ratio of between 6.81 and 3.72....

  15. Aerodynamics of Airfoils Subject to Three-Dimensional Periodic Gusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-31

    and computational procedures to calculate the unsteady forces acting upon airfoils of arbitrary shape subject to three-dimensional gust disturbances...However the mathenatical formulation which has evolved from our analytical work can also be applied under certain conditions to study the changes in...check the validity of our computation scheme two sets of comparisons were carried out. First we considered a two-dimensional gust with transverse and

  16. Environmental, Transient, Three-Dimensional, Hydrothermal, Mass Transport Code - FLESCOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glass, Kevin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eyler, L. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Okumura, Masahiko [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-28

    The purpose of the project was to modify and apply the transient, three-dimensional FLESCOT code to be able to effectively simulate cesium behavior in Fukushima lakes/dam reservoirs, river mouths, and coastal areas. The ultimate objective of the FLESCOT simulation is to predict future changes of cesium accumulation in Fukushima area reservoirs and costal water. These evaluation results will assist ongoing and future environmental remediation activities and policies in a systematic and comprehensive manner.

  17. Heat engine in the three-dimensional spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Jie-Xiong; Liang, Feng; Li, Gu-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    We define a kind of heat engine via three-dimensional charged BTZ black holes. This case is quite subtle and needs to be more careful. The heat flow along the isochores does not equal to zero since the specific heat C V ≠0 and this point completely differs from the cases discussed before whose isochores and adiabats are identical. So one cannot simply apply the paradigm in the former literatures. However, if one introduces a new thermodynamic parameter associated with the renormalization length scale, the above problem can be solved. We obtain the analytical efficiency expression of the three-dimensional charged BTZ black hole heat engine for two different schemes. Moreover, we double check with the exact formula. Our result presents the first specific example for the sound correctness of the exact efficiency formula. We argue that the three-dimensional charged BTZ black hole can be viewed as a toy model for further investigation of holographic heat engine. Furthermore, we compare our result with that of the Carnot cycle and extend the former result to three-dimensional spacetime. In this sense, the result in this paper would be complementary to those obtained in four-dimensional spacetime or ever higher. Last but not the least, the heat engine efficiency discussed in this paper may serve as a criterion to discriminate the two thermodynamic approaches introduced in ref. https://www.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.92.124069 and our result seems to support the approach which introduces a new thermodynamic parameter R=r 0 .

  18. Three dimensional Green's function for ship motion at forward speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiur Rahman

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The Green's function formulation for ship motion at forward speed contains double integrals with singularities in the path of integrations with respect to the wave number. In this study, the double integrals have been replaced by single integrals with the use of complex exponential integrals. It has been found that this analysis provides an efficient way of computing the wave resistance for three dimensional potential problem of ship motion with forward speed.

  19. Functional renormalization group for three-dimensional quantum magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Yasir; Thomale, Ronny; Parisen Toldin, Francesco; Rachel, Stephan; Reuther, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    We formulate a pseudofermion functional renormalization group (PFFRG) scheme to address frustrated quantum magnetism in three dimensions. In a scenario where many numerical approaches fail due to sign problem or small system size, three-dimensional (3D) PFFRG allows for a quantitative investigation of the quantum spin problem and its observables. We illustrate 3D PFFRG for the simple cubic J1-J2-J3 quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet, and benchmark it against other approaches, if available.

  20. Three dimensional refractive index imaging with differential interference contrast microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Htet; Buckley, Jared; Kostyk, Piotr; Rodriguez, Braulio; Phelan, Shelley; Xu, M.

    2012-03-01

    We report here a new approach based on an extension of the transport of the intensity equation for three dimensional refractive index imaging of a weak phase object from a series of images recorded by a differential interference contrast microscope at different focus (z-stack). Our method is first validated by imaging polystyrene spheres. We then apply this method to monitor in vivo apoptosis of human breast MCF7 epithelial cells. The potential applications are discussed at the end.

  1. Three-dimensional friction measurement during hip simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sonntag

    Full Text Available Wear of total hip replacements has been the focus of many studies. However, frictional effects, such as high loading on intramodular connections or the interface to the bone, as well as friction associated squeaking have recently increased interest about the amount of friction that is generated during daily activities. The aim of this study was thus to establish and validate a three-dimensional friction setup under standardized conditions.A standard hip simulator was modified to allow for high precision measurements of small frictional effects in the hip during three-dimensional hip articulation. The setup was verified by an ideal hydrostatic bearing and validated with a static-load physical pendulum and an extension-flexion rotation with a dynamic load profile. Additionally, a pendulum model was proposed for screening measurement of frictional effects based on the damping behavior of the angular oscillation without the need for any force/moment transducer. Finally, three-dimensional friction measurements have been realized for ceramic-on-polyethylene bearings of three different sizes (28, 36 and 40 mm.A precision of less than 0.2 Nm during three-dimensional friction measurements was reported, while increased frictional torque (resultant as well as taper torque was measured for larger head diameters. These effects have been confirmed by simple pendulum tests and the theoretical model. A comparison with current literature about friction measurements is presented.This investigation of friction is able to provide more information about a field that has been dominated by the reduction of wear. It should be considered in future pre-clinical testing protocols given by international organizations of standardization.

  2. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the otosclerotic focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sune Land; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2010-01-01

    The location and three-dimensional (3D) shapes of the otosclerotic foci suggest a general centripetal distribution of otosclerotic bone remodeling around the inner ear space, whereas the normal bone remodeling is distributed centrifugally. The existence of an inverse spatial relation between norm...... and otosclerotic bone remodeling suggests that inner ear mechanisms in control of bone remodeling may have a pathogenetic role in otosclerosis....

  3. Heat engine in the three-dimensional spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Jie-Xiong [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lingnan Normal University,Zhanjiang, 524048, Guangdong (China); Department of Physics, Lingnan Normal University,Zhanjiang, 524048, Guangdong (China); Liang, Feng [Department of Physics, Lingnan Normal University,Zhanjiang, 524048, Guangdong (China); Li, Gu-Qiang [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lingnan Normal University,Zhanjiang, 524048, Guangdong (China); Department of Physics, Lingnan Normal University,Zhanjiang, 524048, Guangdong (China)

    2017-03-02

    We define a kind of heat engine via three-dimensional charged BTZ black holes. This case is quite subtle and needs to be more careful. The heat flow along the isochores does not equal to zero since the specific heat C{sub V}≠0 and this point completely differs from the cases discussed before whose isochores and adiabats are identical. So one cannot simply apply the paradigm in the former literatures. However, if one introduces a new thermodynamic parameter associated with the renormalization length scale, the above problem can be solved. We obtain the analytical efficiency expression of the three-dimensional charged BTZ black hole heat engine for two different schemes. Moreover, we double check with the exact formula. Our result presents the first specific example for the sound correctness of the exact efficiency formula. We argue that the three-dimensional charged BTZ black hole can be viewed as a toy model for further investigation of holographic heat engine. Furthermore, we compare our result with that of the Carnot cycle and extend the former result to three-dimensional spacetime. In this sense, the result in this paper would be complementary to those obtained in four-dimensional spacetime or ever higher. Last but not the least, the heat engine efficiency discussed in this paper may serve as a criterion to discriminate the two thermodynamic approaches introduced in ref. https://www.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.92.124069 and our result seems to support the approach which introduces a new thermodynamic parameter R=r{sub 0}.

  4. Three-dimensional, computer simulated navigation in endoscopic neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta K. Sefcik, BHA

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Three-dimensional, frameless neuronavigation systems are useful in endoscopic neurosurgery to assist in the pre-operative planning of potential trajectories and to help localize the pathology of interest. Neuronavigation appears to be accurate to <1–2 mm without issues related to brain shift. Further work is necessary in the investigation of the effect of neuronavigation on operative time, cost, and patient-centered outcomes.

  5. Accuracy of three-dimensional printing for manufacturing replica teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Keun-Young; Cho, Jin-Woo; Chang, Na-Young; Chae, Jong-Moon; Kang, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Cho, Jin-Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    Objective Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a recent technological development that may play a significant role in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment. It can be used to fabricate skull models or study models, as well as to make replica teeth in autotransplantation or tooth impaction cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of fabrication of replica teeth made by two types of 3D printing technologies. Methods Fifty extracted molar teeth were selected as samples. They were sc...

  6. Is a three-dimensional-printed tooth filling possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet Kerim Ayar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Three-dimensional (3-D) printing is seen as an innovative production process in many fields of dentistry and medicine. But implantation of this novel production process into the treatment of decayed teeth in dentistry remains lacking. Destruction of dental tissues as a result of dental caries is generally treated with dental resin composite fillings. However, a 3-D-printed tooth filling approach, which could be an alternative to traditional approaches, has a potential to reduce ...

  7. Surface image of herniated disc on three-dimensional CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyung Il; Jeon, Chang Hoon; Kim, Sun Yong; Kim, Ok Hwa; Suh, Jung Ho [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Suwon(Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    To evaluate surface configuration of herniated disc on three-dimensional CT. Three dimensional surface images reconstructed from CT scans(1 mm thick) of 24 surgically confirmed herniated discs in 23 patients were reviewed. Disc surface was classified into peripheral and central zones in contact with consecutive peripheral ring and central endplate. Surface irregularity was categorized into two types(local and general). The incidence, size, and extent of local irregularity were observed. General irregularity incidence and severity ranges in 4 grades, and peripheral width were evaluated. The findings were correlated with discography. Local irregularity compatible with anulus tear in discography was shown in all. It was large(13/24) and mainly peripheral tract extending to disc margin in protrusion(3/5) and sequestration(5/7), and cleft encompassing central zone to disc margin in extrusion(9/12). General irregularity was predominantly grade 3(15/22) and was shown in all except in 2 protrusions. Peripheral width was 0.56 of central radius. Extrusion in herniated disc shows characteristic cleft encompassing central zone to disc margin whereas sequestration or protrusion displays tract extending from peripheral zone to disc margin. Thus, three dimensional surface imaging may aid the diagnosis, follow-up, prediction, and treatment of herniated disc.

  8. Comparison of two three-dimensional cephalometric analysis computer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Dena; Alhadlaq, Adel; Alkhadra, Thamer; Carlyle, Terry D; Kusnoto, Budi; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2014-10-01

    Three-dimensional cephalometric analyses are getting more attraction in orthodontics. The aim of this study was to compare two softwares to evaluate three-dimensional cephalometric analyses of orthodontic treatment outcomes. Twenty cone beam computed tomography images were obtained using i-CAT(®) imaging system from patient's records as part of their regular orthodontic records. The images were analyzed using InVivoDental5.0 (Anatomage Inc.) and 3DCeph™ (University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA) software. Before and after orthodontic treatments data were analyzed using t-test. Reliability test using interclass correlation coefficient was stronger for InVivoDental5.0 (0.83-0.98) compared with 3DCeph™ (0.51-0.90). Paired t-test comparison of the two softwares shows no statistical significant difference in the measurements made in the two softwares. InVivoDental5.0 measurements are more reproducible and user friendly when compared to 3DCeph™. No statistical difference between the two softwares in linear or angular measurements. 3DCeph™ is more time-consuming in performing three-dimensional analysis compared with InVivoDental5.0.

  9. Space charge cartography by FLIMM: a three-dimensional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty-Dessus, D; Berquez, L; Petre, A; Franceschi, J L

    2002-01-01

    A technique for three-dimensional cartography of space charges profiles inside polymer insulating samples is proposed. Called focused laser intensity modulation method (FLIMM), it is derived from the well-known LIMM method, with an additional possibility of being able to focus the laser spot on the surface of the sample to be studied. The processed data is a short-circuited pyrolectric current collected between the electrodes and induced by the interaction of the charges with the periodic variations of temperature produced by the laser source. The focused aspect of our method requires a good three-dimensional modelling of the spatial evolution of this thermal gradient. Under these conditions, the treatment of the equation of heat propagation is carried out using simultaneously a double Fourier transform and Green functions. In association with the numerical simulations of this solution, a two-dimensional scanning of the beam on polyethylene test sample surfaces shows that one can get three-dimensional representations of space charge shapes with a lateral resolution lower than 10 μm and for a depth of analysis typically included in the range 1-100 μm

  10. Nonlinear three-dimensional trajectory following: simulation and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, George H.

    In light of recent military requirements for unmanned and autonomous vehicles, research into methods of designing arbitrary three-dimensional trajectories and controlling aircraft along them has become vital. In this report, we explore two methods of nonlinear control for the purpose of following three-dimensional trajectories and paths. First, prior work on a dynamic feedback linearization exploiting the differential flatness of the ideal airplane is adapted with the intent of implementing it on a physical testbed in MIT's Realtime indoor Autonomous Vehicle test ENvironment (RAVEN), but poor behavior—both in simulation and in hardware—under moderate levels of joint parameter uncertainty thwarted attempts at implementation. Additionally, the differential flatness technique in its pure form follows trajectories, which are sometimes inferior intuitively and practically to paths. In the context of unmanned air vehicle (UAV) flight in gusty environments, this motivated the extension of prior work on two-dimensional path following to three-dimensions, and simulations are presented in which the fully nonlinear controller derived from differential flatness follows a trajectory that is generated dynamically from a path. The three-dimensional path-following logic is actually implemented in RAVEN, and results are presented that demonstrate good vertical rise time in response to a step input and centimeter accuracy in vertical and lateral tracking. Future directions are proposed.

  11. Rayleigh-Taylor growth measurements of three-dimensional modulations in a nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalyuk, V.A.; Sadot, O.; Betti, R.; Goncharov, V.N.; Delettrez, J.A.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Regan, S.P.; Sangster, T.C.; Shvarts, D.

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of the nonlinear evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is essential in inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. The nonlinear RT growth of three-dimensional (3-D) broadband nonuniformities was measured near saturation levels using x-ray radiography in planar foils accelerated by laser light. The initial 3-D target modulations were seeded by laser nonuniformities and subsequently amplified by the RT instability. The measured modulation Fourier spectra and nonlinear growth velocities are in excellent agreement with those predicted by Haan's model [S. Haan, Phys. Rev. A 39, 5812 (1989)]. These spectra and growth velocities are insensitive to initial conditions. In a real-space analysis, the bubble merger was quantified by a self-similar evolution of bubble size distributions, in agreement with the Alon-Oron-Shvarts theoretical predictions [D. Oron et al. Phys. Plasmas 8, 2883 (2001)

  12. Three-dimensional appearance of the lips muscles with three-dimensional isotropic MRI: in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Raphael; Liu, Y; Duprez, T; Xu, T M; Reychler, H

    2009-06-01

    Our knowledge of facial muscles is based primarily on atlases and cadaveric studies. This study describes a non-invasive in vivo method (3D MRI) for segmenting and reconstructing facial muscles in a three-dimensional fashion. Three-dimensional (3D), T1-weighted, 3 Tesla, isotropic MRI was applied to a subject. One observer performed semi-automatic segmentation using the Editor module from the 3D Slicer software (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA), version 3.2. We were able to successfully outline and three-dimensionally reconstruct the following facial muscles: pars labialis orbicularis oris, m. levatro labii superioris alaeque nasi, m. levator labii superioris, m. zygomaticus major and minor, m. depressor anguli oris, m. depressor labii inferioris, m. mentalis, m. buccinator, and m. orbicularis oculi. 3D reconstruction of the lip muscles should be taken into consideration in order to improve the accuracy and individualization of existing 3D facial soft tissue models. More studies are needed to further develop efficient methods for segmentation in this field.

  13. Reproducibility of three-dimensional cephalometric landmarks in cone-beam and low-dose computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, R; Frison, L; Wisniewski, M; Denis, J M; Vynckier, S; Cosnard, G; Zech, F; Reychler, H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the reproducibility of three-dimensional cephalometric landmarks on three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) surface rendering using clinical protocols based on low-dose (35-mAs) spiral CT and cone-beam CT (I-CAT). The absorbed dose levels for radiosensitive organs in the maxillofacial region during exposure in both 3D-CT protocols were also assessed. The study population consisted of ten human dry skulls examined with low-dose CT and cone-beam CT. Two independent observers identified 24 cephalometric anatomic landmarks at 13 sites on the 3D-CT surface renderings using both protocols, with each observer repeating the identification 1 month later. A total of 1,920 imaging measurements were performed. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed at six sites around the thyroid gland, the submandibular glands, and the eyes in an Alderson phantom to measure the absorbed dose levels. When comparing low-dose CT and cone-beam CT protocols, the cone-beam CT protocol proved to be significantly more reproducible for four of the 13 anatomical sites. There was no significant difference between the protocols for the other nine anatomical sites. Both low-dose and cone-beam CT protocols were equivalent in dose absorption to the eyes and submandibular glands. However, thyroid glands were more irradiated with low-dose CT. Cone-beam CT was more reproducible and procured less irradiation to the thyroid gland than low-dose CT. Cone-beam CT should be preferred over low-dose CT for developing three-dimensional bony cephalometric analyses.

  14. Asymmetric three-dimensional topography over mantle plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Evgueni; Gerya, Taras

    2014-09-04

    The role of mantle-lithosphere interactions in shaping surface topography has long been debated. In general, it is supposed that mantle plumes and vertical mantle flows result in axisymmetric, long-wavelength topography, which strongly differs from the generally asymmetric short-wavelength topography created by intraplate tectonic forces. However, identification of mantle-induced topography is difficult, especially in the continents. It can be argued therefore that complex brittle-ductile rheology and stratification of the continental lithosphere result in short-wavelength modulation and localization of deformation induced by mantle flow. This deformation should also be affected by far-field stresses and, hence, interplay with the 'tectonic' topography (for example, in the 'active/passive' rifting scenario). Testing these ideas requires fully coupled three-dimensional numerical modelling of mantle-lithosphere interactions, which so far has not been possible owing to the conceptual and technical limitations of earlier approaches. Here we present new, ultra-high-resolution, three-dimensional numerical experiments on topography over mantle plumes, incorporating a weakly pre-stressed (ultra-slow spreading), rheologically realistic lithosphere. The results show complex surface evolution, which is very different from the smooth, radially symmetric patterns usually assumed as the canonical surface signature of mantle upwellings. In particular, the topography exhibits strongly asymmetric, small-scale, three-dimensional features, which include narrow and wide rifts, flexural flank uplifts and fault structures. This suggests a dominant role for continental rheological structure and intra-plate stresses in controlling dynamic topography, mantle-lithosphere interactions, and continental break-up processes above mantle plumes.

  15. Three-dimensional trajectory optimization in constrained airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ran

    This dissertation deals with the generation of three-dimensional optimized trajectory in constrained airspace. It expands the previously used two-dimensional aircraft model to a three-dimensional model and includes the consideration of complex airspace constraints not included in previous trajectory optimization studies. Two major branches of optimization methods, indirect and direct methods, are introduced and compared. Both of the methods are applied to solve a two-dimensional minimum-time-to-climb (MTTC) problem. The solution procedure is described in detail. Two traditional problems, the Brachistochrone problem and Zermelo's problem, are solved using the direct collocation and nonlinear programming method. Because analytical solutions to these problems are known. These solutions provide verification of the numerical methods. Three discretization methods, trapezoidal, Hermite-Simpson and Chebyshev Pseudospectral (CP) are introduced and applied to solve the Brachistochrone problem. The solutions obtained using these discretization methods are compared with the analytical results. An 3-D aircraft model with six state variables and two control variables are presented. Two primary trajectory optimization problems are considered using this model in the dissertation. One is to assume that the aircraft climbs up from sea level to a desired altitude in a square cross section cylinder of arbitrary height. Another is to intercept a constant velocity, constant altitude target in minimum time starting from sea level. Results of the optimal trajectories are compared with the results from the proportional navigation guidance law. Field of View constraint is finally considered in this interception problem. The CP discretization and nonlinear programming method is shown to have advantages over indirect methods in solving three-dimensional (3-D) trajectory optimization problems with multiple controls and complex constraints. Conclusions from both problems are presented and

  16. Lyapunov Schmidt reduction algorithm for three-dimensional discrete vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Mike; Pelinovsky, Dmitry; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2008-03-01

    We address the persistence and stability of three-dimensional vortex configurations in the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation and develop a symbolic package based on Wolfram’s MATHEMATICA for computations of the Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction method. The Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction method is a theoretical tool which enables us to study continuations and terminations of the discrete vortices for small coupling between lattice nodes as well as the spectral stability of the persistent configurations. The method was developed earlier in the context of the two-dimensional lattice and applied to the onsite and offsite configurations (called the vortex cross and the vortex cell) by using semianalytical computations [D.E. Pelinovsky, P.G. Kevrekidis, D. Frantzeskakis, Physica D 212 (2005) 20-53; P.G. Kevrekidis, D.E. Pelinovsky, Proc. R. Soc. A 462 (2006) 2671-2694]. The present treatment develops a full symbolic computational package which takes a desired waveform at the anticontinuum limit of uncoupled sites, performs a required number of Lyapunov-Schmidt reductions and outputs the predictions on whether the configuration persists, for finite coupling, in the three-dimensional lattice and whether it is stable or unstable. It also provides approximations for the eigenvalues of the linearized stability problem. We report a number of applications of the algorithm to important multisite three-dimensional configurations, such as the simple cube, the double cross and the diamond. For each configuration, we identify exactly one solution, which is stable for small coupling between lattice nodes.

  17. Photogrammetry: applications of a three-dimensional remote measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, K.

    1988-01-01

    Photogrammetry is defined as the precise art of abstracting measurements from photographic images. Used for many years as a means to produce the world's maps, it has, in recent years, been applied in many engineering environments. The nuclear industry has, in particular, benefitted from the close range applications of photogrammetry. This paper sets out to describe the techniques involved, from the site photography through to the analytical data extraction. It will include a number of examples of where photogrammetry has been used in the nuclear industry as a remote measurement technique, from simple monitoring exercises to the compilation of complex three-dimensional as-built computer models. (author)

  18. Observation of three dimensional optical rogue waves through obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonetti, Marco, E-mail: marco.leonetti@roma1.infn.it [Center for Life Nano Science@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Viale Regina Elena, 291 00161 Roma (RM) (Italy); Conti, Claudio [ISC-CNR and Department of Physics, University Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy)

    2015-06-22

    We observe three-dimensional rogue waves in the speckle distribution of a spatially modulated optical beam. Light is transmitted beyond a partially reflecting obstacle generating optical rogue waves at a controlled position in the shadow of the barrier. When the barrier transmits only 0.07% of the input laser power, we observe the mostly localized event. These results demonstrate that an optimum amount of spatial non-homogeneity maximizes the probability of a gigantic event while the technique we exploit enables to control light behind a fully reflective wall.

  19. Surgical accuracy of three-dimensional virtual planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kasper; Aagaard, Esben; Torkov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the precision and positional accuracy of different orthognathic procedures following virtual surgical planning in 30 patients. To date, no studies of three-dimensional virtual surgical planning have evaluated the influence of segmentation on positional accuracy...... and transverse expansion. Furthermore, only a few have evaluated the precision and accuracy of genioplasty in placement of the chin segment. The virtual surgical plan was compared with the postsurgical outcome by using three linear and three rotational measurements. The influence of maxillary segmentation...

  20. Quantum tunneling from three-dimensional black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, Asiya; Gohar, H.; Lin, Hai; Saifullah, K.; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2013-01-01

    We study Hawking radiation from three-dimensional black holes. For this purpose the emission of charged scalar and charged fermionic particles is investigated from charged BTZ black holes, with and without rotation. We use the quantum tunneling approach incorporating WKB approximation and spacetime symmetries. Another class of black holes which is asymptotic to a Sol three-manifold has also been investigated. This procedure gives us the tunneling probability of outgoing particles, and we compute the temperature of the radiation for these black holes. We also consider the quantum tunneling of particles from black hole asymptotic to Sol geometry

  1. Modified Three-Dimensional Multicarrier Optical Prime Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mathematical model for novel three-dimensional multicarrier optical codes in terms of wavelength/time/space based on the prime sequence algorithm. The proposed model has been extensively simulated on MATLAB for prime numbers (P to analyze the performance of code in terms of autocorrelation and cross-correlation. The simulated outcome resembles the mathematical model and gives better results over other methods available in the literature as far as autocorrelation and cross-correlation are concerned. The proposed 3D optical codes are more efficient in terms of cardinality, improved security, and providing quality of services.

  2. Three-dimensional display techniques: description and critique of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    The recent advances in non invasive medical imaging of 3 dimensional spatial distribution of radionuclides, X-ray attenuation coefficients, and nuclear magnetic resonance parameters necessitate development of a general method for displaying these data. The objective of this paper is to give a systematic description and comparison of known methods for displaying three dimensional data. The discussion of display methods is divided into two major categories: 1) computer-graphics methods which use a two dimensional display screen; and 2) optical methods (such as holography, stereopsis and vari-focal systems)

  3. Impurity states in two and three dimensional disordered system S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.F. da; Fabbri, M.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the microscopic structure of the impurity states in two-and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) disordered system. A cluster model is outlined for the donor impurity density of states (DIDS) of doped semiconductors. It is shown that the impurity states are very sensitive to a change in the dimensionality of the system, i.e., from 3D to 2D system. It is found that all eigenstates become localized in 2D disordered system for a large range of concentration. (author) [pt

  4. Evaluation of solar energy over three dimensional objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serposhan, S.; Yaghoubi, M.

    2002-01-01

    The knowledge of solar irradiation is important in heating and cooling of buildings architectural engineering, various solar energy utilizations, and for any system design exposed to sun radiation. In the present article, simulation is made to predict solar irradiation over any three-dimensional objects. Special consideration is made to evaluate solar radiation intensity distribution over semi-circular roof and domed roofs. For practical applications, hourly and average daily solar radiation distribution for a series of three Heller type huge cooling towers of Fars Power Plant is also determined

  5. Three-dimensional analysis of two-pile caps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.E.T. Buttignol

    Full Text Available This paper compares the results between a non-linear three-dimensional numerical analysis of pile caps with two piles and the experimental study conducted by Delalibera. It is verified the load-carrying capacity, the crack pattern distribution, the principal stress in concrete and steel, the deflection and the fracture of the pile cap. The numerical analysis is executed with the finite-element software ATENA 3D, considering a perfect bond between concrete and steel. The numerical and experimental results are presented and have demonstrated a good approximation, reasserting the results of the experimental model and corroborating the theory.

  6. Three-dimensional fractional topological insulators in coupled Rashba layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpez, Yanick; Loss, Daniel; Klinovaja, Jelena

    2017-08-01

    We propose a model of three-dimensional topological insulators consisting of weakly coupled electron- and hole-gas layers with Rashba spin-orbit interaction stacked along a given axis. We show that in the presence of strong electron-electron interactions the system realizes a fractional strong topological insulator, where the rotational symmetry and condensation energy arguments still allow us to treat the problem as quasi-one-dimensional with bosonization techniques. We also show that if Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction terms are equally strong, by doping the system with magnetic impurities, one can bring it into the Weyl semimetal phase.

  7. Single-camera, three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, K.; Regaard, B.; Heinemann, S.; Sick, V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces single-camera, three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (SC3D-PTV), an image-based, single-camera technique for measuring 3-component, volumetric velocity fields in environments with limited optical access, in particular, optically accessible internal combustion engines. The optical components used for SC3D-PTV are similar to those used for two-camera stereoscopic-PIV, but are adapted to project two simultaneous images onto a single image sensor. A novel PTV algor...

  8. Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Po; Williams, John D.

    2012-01-01

    This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL) applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared transparent polymer film, which can be applied to almost any surface. The tilted woodpile photonic crystals are designed with a specific pass band detectable at nearly all incident angles of light. When painted onto a surface, these crystals provide a unique reflective infra-red optical signature that can be easily observed and recorded to verify the location or contents of a package.

  9. CATIA Core Tools Computer Aided Three-Dimensional Interactive Application

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Michel

    2012-01-01

    CATIA Core Tools: Computer-Aided Three-Dimensional Interactive Application explains how to use the essential features of this cutting-edge solution for product design and innovation. The book begins with the basics, such as launching the software, configuring the settings, and managing files. Next, you'll learn about sketching, modeling, drafting, and visualization tools and techniques. Easy-to-follow instructions along with detailed illustrations and screenshots help you get started using several CATIA workbenches right away. Reverse engineering--a valuable product development skill--is also covered in this practical resource.

  10. Fracture of three-dimensional fuse networks with quenched disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Räisänen, V. I.; Alava, M. J.; Nieminen, Risto M.

    1998-01-01

    We study a fracture on a quasistatic time scale in a three-dimensional (3D) fuse network model with “strong” and “weak” disorder. These two cases differ noticeably in the development of the fracture. For strong disorder the damage scaling is very close to volumelike [number of broken bonds Nb∼L3/(lnL)0.3] unlike for weak disorder [Nb∼L2.4/(lnL)0.3]. With strong disorder global load sharing is only approximately valid. The size distribution of “avalanches” of broken fuses in the failure follow...

  11. Three-dimensional characterization of stress corrosion cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Perez, S.; Rodrigo, P.; Gontard, Lionel Cervera

    2011-01-01

    the best spatial resolution. To illustrate the power of these techniques, different parts of dominant stress corrosion cracks in Ni-alloys and stainless steels have been reconstructed in 3D. All relevant microstructural features can now be studied in detail and its relative orientation respect......Understanding crack propagation and initiation is fundamental if stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms are to be understood. However, cracking is a three-dimensional (3D) phenomenon and most characterization techniques are restricted to two-dimensional (2D) observations. In order to overcome...

  12. Three-dimensional laser pulse intensity diagnostic for photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the electron-beam emittance of photoinjectors is an important task for maximizing the brightness of the next-generation x-ray facilities, such as free-electron lasers and energy recovery linacs. Optimally shaped laser pulses can significantly reduce emittance. A reliable diagnostic for the laser pulse intensity is required for this purpose. We demonstrate measurement of three-dimensional spatiotemporal intensity profiles, with spatial resolution of 20  μm and temporal resolution of 130 fs. The capability is illustrated by measurements of stacked soliton pulses and pulses from a dissipative-soliton laser.

  13. Teaching veterinary obstetrics using three-dimensional animation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Jakob; Buchanan, M Flint; Moore, James N; White, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    In this three-year study, test scores for students taught veterinary obstetrics in a classroom setting with either traditional media (photographs, text, and two-dimensional graphical presentations) were compared with those for students taught by incorporating three-dimensional (3D) media (linear animations and interactive QuickTime Virtual Reality models) into the classroom lectures. Incorporation of the 3D animations and interactive models significantly increased students' scores on essay questions designed to assess their comprehension of the subject matter. This approach to education may help to better prepare students for dealing with obstetrical cases during their final clinical year and after graduation.

  14. Coherent states on horospheric three-dimensional Lobachevsky space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurochkin, Yu., E-mail: y.kurochkin@ifanbel.bas-net.by; Shoukavy, Dz., E-mail: shoukavy@ifanbel.bas-net.by [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezalezhnasci Ave., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Rybak, I., E-mail: Ivan.Rybak@astro.up.pt [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezalezhnasci Ave., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2016-08-15

    In the paper it is shown that due to separation of variables in the Laplace-Beltrami operator (Hamiltonian of a free quantum particle) in horospheric and quasi-Cartesian coordinates of three dimensional Lobachevsky space, it is possible to introduce standard (“conventional” according to Perelomov [Generalized Coherent States and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, 1986), p. 320]) coherent states. Some problems (oscillator on horosphere, charged particle in analogy of constant uniform magnetic field) where coherent states are suitable for treating were considered.

  15. Three-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of Slapper Initiation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, J S; Hrousis, C A

    2010-03-09

    Although useful information can be gleaned from 2D and even 1D simulations of slapper type initiation systems, these systems are inherently three-dimensional and therefore require full 3D representation to model all relevant details. Further, such representation provides additional insight into optimizing the design of such devices from a first-principles perspective and can thereby reduce experimental costs. We discuss in this paper several ongoing efforts in modeling these systems, our pursuit of validation, and extension of these methods to other systems. Our results show the substantial dependence upon highly accurate global equations of state and resistivity models in these analyses.

  16. Field approach to three-dimensional gene expression pattern characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L. da F.; Travençolo, B. A. N.; Azeredo, A.; Beletti, M. E.; Müller, G. B.; Rasskin-Gutman, D.; Sternik, G.; Ibañes, M.; Izpisúa-Belmonte, J. C.

    2005-04-01

    We present a vector field method for obtaining the spatial organization of three-dimensional patterns of gene expression based on gradients and lines of force obtained by numerical integration. The convergence of these lines of force in local maxima are centers of gene expression, providing a natural and powerful framework to characterize the organization and dynamics of biological structures. We apply this methodology to analyze the expression pattern of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) driven by the promoter of light chain myosin II during zebrafish heart formation.

  17. Self-assembled three-dimensional chiral colloidal architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Zion, Matan Yah; He, Xiaojin; Maass, Corinna C.; Sha, Ruojie; Seeman, Nadrian C.; Chaikin, Paul M.

    2017-11-01

    Although stereochemistry has been a central focus of the molecular sciences since Pasteur, its province has previously been restricted to the nanometric scale. We have programmed the self-assembly of micron-sized colloidal clusters with structural information stemming from a nanometric arrangement. This was done by combining DNA nanotechnology with colloidal science. Using the functional flexibility of DNA origami in conjunction with the structural rigidity of colloidal particles, we demonstrate the parallel self-assembly of three-dimensional microconstructs, evincing highly specific geometry that includes control over position, dihedral angles, and cluster chirality.

  18. Wave field restoration using three-dimensional Fourier filtering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, T; Takai, Y; Ikuta, T; Shimizu, R

    2001-11-01

    A wave field restoration method in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was mathematically derived based on a three-dimensional (3D) image formation theory. Wave field restoration using this method together with spherical aberration correction was experimentally confirmed in through-focus images of amorphous tungsten thin film, and the resolution of the reconstructed phase image was successfully improved from the Scherzer resolution limit to the information limit. In an application of this method to a crystalline sample, the surface structure of Au(110) was observed in a profile-imaging mode. The processed phase image showed quantitatively the atomic relaxation of the topmost layer.

  19. Conoscopic holography: toward three-dimensional reconstructions of opaque objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnier, L M

    1995-03-10

    Conoscopic holography is an interferometric technique that permits the recording of three-dimensional objects. A two-step scheme is presented to recover an opaque object's shape from its conoscopic hologram, consisting of a reconstruction algorithm to give a first estimate of the shape and an iterative restoration procedure that uses the object's support information to make the reconstruction more robust. The existence, uniqueness, and stability of the solution, as well as the convergence of the restoration algorithm, are studied. A preliminary experimental result is presented.

  20. Three Dimensional Digital Image Processing using Edge Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schmeelk

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to three dimensional image edge detection and its relationship to partial derivatives, convolutions and wavelets. We are especially addressing the notion of edge detection because it has far reaching applications in all areas of research to include medical research. A patient can be diagnosed as having an aneurysm by studying an angiogram. An angiogram is the visual view of the blood vessels whereby the edges are highlighted through the implementation of edge detectors. This process is completed through convolution, wavelets and matrix techniques. Some illustrations included will be vertical, horizontal, Sobel and wavelet edge detectors.

  1. Proton beam writing of three-dimensional microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanga, S.K.; Bettiol, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Optical micro cavities exhibit high quality factors due to the circulation of resonant optical fields within the cavity. Polymers are good materials for the fabrication of micro cavities for practical applications due to the availability of various refractive indices and their low cost. Polymer micro cavities generally yield low Q-factors compared to semiconductor materials because of inherent material absorption losses, and their Q-factors are limited by the low index contrast between the polymer and the substrate material. In the present work, three dimensional micro cavities were fabricated in SU-8 using proton beam writing to enhance the index contrast by isolating the cavities from the substrate

  2. Three-dimensional imaging techniques: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Orhan Hakki; Toy, Ebubekir

    2014-01-01

    Imaging is one of the most important tools for orthodontists to evaluate and record size and form of craniofacial structures. Orthodontists routinely use 2-dimensional (2D) static imaging techniques, but deepness of structures cannot be obtained and localized with 2D imaging. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging has been developed in the early of 1990's and has gained a precious place in dentistry, especially in orthodontics. The aims of this literature review are to summarize the current state of the 3D imaging techniques and to evaluate the applications in orthodontics. PMID:24966761

  3. Three-dimensional temporal reconstruction and analysis of plume images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Atam P.; Disimile, Peter J.; Peck, Charles, III

    1992-01-01

    An experiment with two subsonic jets generating a cross-flow was conducted as part of a study of the structural features of temporal reconstruction of plume images. The flow field structure was made visible using a direct injection flow visualization technique. It is shown that image analysis and temporal three-dimensional visualization can provide new information on the vortical structural dynamics of multiple jets in a cross-flow. It is expected that future developments in image analysis, quantification and interpretation, and flow visualization of rocket engine plume images may provide a tool for correlating the engine diagnostic features by interpreting the evolution of the structures in the plume.

  4. The Electron in Three-Dimensional Momentum Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, L.; Bacchetta, A.; Pasquini, B.

    2016-07-01

    We study the electron as a system composed of an electron and a photon and derive the leading-twist transverse-momentum-dependent distribution functions for both the electron and photon in the dressed electron, thereby offering a three-dimensional description of the dressed electron in momentum space. To obtain the distribution functions, we apply both the formalism of light-front wave function overlap representation and the diagrammatic approach; we discuss the comparison of our results between light-cone gauge and Feynman gauge, discussing the role of the Wilson lines to obtain gauge-independent results. We provide examples of plots of the computed distributions.

  5. Turbulence in Three Dimensional Simulations of Magnetopause Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, J. F.; Price, L.; Swisdak, M.; Burch, J. L.; Cassak, P.; Dahlin, J. T.; Ergun, R.

    2017-12-01

    We present two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the 16 October 2015 MMS magnetopause reconnection event. While the two-dimensional simulation is laminar, turbulence develops at both the x-line and along the magnetic separatrices in the three-dimensional simulation. This turbulence is electromagnetic in nature, is characterized by a wavevector k given by kρ e ˜(m_e/m_i)0.25 with ρ e the electron Larmor radius, and appears to have the ion pressure gradient as its source of free energy. Taken together, these results suggest the instability is a variant of the lower-hybrid drift instability. The turbulence produces electric field fluctuations in the out-of-plane direction (the direction of the reconnection electric field) with an amplitude of around ± 10 mV/m, which is much greater than the reconnection electric field of around 0.1 mV/m. Such large values of the out-of-plane electric field have been identified in the MMS data. The turbulence in the simulation controls the scale lengths of the density profile and current layers in asymmetric reconnection, driving them closer to √ {ρ eρ_i } than the ρ e or de scalings seen in 2D reconnection simulations, where de is the electron inertial length. The turbulence is strong enough to make the magnetic field around the reconnection island chaotic and produces both anomalous resistivity and anomalous viscosity. Each contribute significantly to breaking the frozen-in condition in the electron diffusion region. The crescent-shaped features in velocity space seen both in MMS observations and in two-dimensional simulations survive, even in the turbulent environment of the three-dimensional system. We compare and contrast these results to a three-dimensional simulation of the 8 December 2015 MMS magnetopause reconnection event in which the reconnecting and out-of-plane guide fields are comparable. LHDI is still present in this event, although its appearance is modified by the presence of the guide

  6. Three-Dimensional Bone Adaptation of the Proximal Femur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Mette

    1998-01-01

    The bone remodeling of a three-dimensional model of the proximal femur is considered. The bone adaptation is numerically described as an evolution in time formulated such that the structural change goes in an optimal direction within each time step for the optimal boundary conditions. In the bone...... remodeling scheme is included the memory of past loadings to account for the delay in the bone response to the load changes. In order to get a realistic bone adaptation process, the bone structure at the onset of the remodeling needs to be realistic too. A start design is obtained by structural optimization...

  7. Plenoptic Imaging of a Three Dimensional Cold Atom Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Gordon

    2017-04-01

    A plenoptic imaging system is capable of sampling the rays of light in a volume, both spatially and angularly, providing information about the three dimensional (3D) volume being imaged. The extraction of the 3D structure of a cold atom cloud is demonstrated, using a single plenoptic camera and a single image. The reconstruction is tested against a reference image and the results discussed along with the capabilities and limitations of the imaging system. This capability is useful when the 3D distribution of the atoms is desired, such as determining the shape of an atom trap, particularly when there is limited optical access. Gratefully acknowledge support from AFRL.

  8. Three-dimensional, subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussally, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this applied research and devolpment project is to develop a system known as 3-D SISAR. This sytem consists of a gound penetrating radar with software algorithms designed for detection, location, and identification of buried objects in the underground hazardous waste environments found at US DOE storage sites. Three-dimensional maps can assist the development of remdiation strategies and characterization of the digface during remediation. The system should also be useful for monitoring hydrocarbon-based contaminant migration after remediation. 5 figs

  9. Digital Simulation of Thunder from Three-Dimensional Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkin, James; Fleisch, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    The physics of lightning and its resultant thunder have been investigated by many people, but we still don't have a full understanding of the governing processes. In this study, we have constructed a three-dimensional model of lightning using MATLAB^ software, and used N-waves as postulated by Ribner and Roy to synthesize the resultant thunder signature. In addition, we have taken an FFT of the thunder signature, and compared the time-domain waveform and frequency spectrum to recordings of thunder taken over the summer of 2009. This analysis is done with the goal of further understanding the processes of thunder production.

  10. Three dimensional magnetic solutions in massive gravity with (nonlinear field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Hendi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Noble Prize in physics 2016 motivates one to study different aspects of topological properties and topological defects as their related objects. Considering the significant role of the topological defects (especially magnetic strings in cosmology, here, we will investigate three dimensional horizonless magnetic solutions in the presence of two generalizations: massive gravity and nonlinear electromagnetic field. The effects of these two generalizations on properties of the solutions and their geometrical structure are investigated. The differences between de Sitter and anti de Sitter solutions are highlighted and conditions regarding the existence of phase transition in geometrical structure of the solutions are studied.

  11. Life is three-dimensional, and it begins with molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip E Bourne

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The iconic image of the DNA double helix embodies the central role that three-dimensional structures play in understanding biological processes, which, in turn, impact health and well-being. Here, that role is explored through the eyes of one scientist, who has been lucky enough to have over 150 talented people pass through his laboratory. Each contributed to that understanding. What follows is a small fraction of their story, with an emphasis on basic research outcomes of importance to society at large.

  12. Three-dimensional illumination procedure for photodynamic therapy of dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Feng-juan; Dong, Fei; Zhou, Ya

    2014-09-01

    Light dosimetry is an important parameter that affects the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the irregular morphologies of lesions complicate lesion segmentation and light irradiance adjustment. Therefore, this study developed an illumination demo system comprising a camera, a digital projector, and a computing unit to solve these problems. A three-dimensional model of a lesion was reconstructed using the developed system. Hierarchical segmentation was achieved with the superpixel algorithm. The expected light dosimetry on the targeted lesion was achieved with the proposed illumination procedure. Accurate control and optimization of light delivery can improve the efficacy of PDT.

  13. The three-dimensional crystal structure of cholera toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L.; Nance, S.; Spangler, B.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Scott, D.L. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry; Westbrook, E.M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The clinical manifestations of cholera are largely attributable to the actions of a secreted hexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin (choleragen). We have solved the three-dimensional structure of choleragen at 2.5 {Angstrom} resolution and compared the refined coordinates with those of choleragenoid (isolated B pentamer) and the heat-labile enterotoxin from Escherichia coli (LT). The crystalline coordinates provide a detailed view of the stereochemistry implicated in binding to GM1 gangliosides and in carrying out ADP-ribosylation. The A2 chain of choleragen, in contrast to that of LT, is a nearly continuous {alpha}-helix with an interpretable carboxyl tail.

  14. A Three-dimensional Topological Model of Ternary Phase Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yingxue; Bao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain a visualization of the complex internal structure of ternary phase diagram, the paper realized a three-dimensional topology model of ternary phase diagram with the designed data structure and improved algorithm, under the guidance of relevant theories of computer graphics. The purpose of the model is mainly to analyze the relationship between each phase region of a ternary phase diagram. The model not only obtain isothermal section graph at any temperature, but also extract a particular phase region in which users are interested. (paper)

  15. Strongly interacting atom lasers in three-dimensional optical lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Itay; Rigol, Marcos

    2010-10-29

    We show that the dynamical melting of a Mott insulator in a three-dimensional lattice leads to condensation at nonzero momenta, a phenomenon that can be used to generate strongly interacting atom lasers in optical lattices. For infinite on-site repulsion, the case considered here, the momenta at which bosons condense are determined analytically and found to have a simple dependence on the hopping amplitudes. The occupation of the condensates is shown to scale linearly with the total number of atoms in the initial Mott insulator. Our results are obtained by using a Gutzwiller-type mean-field approach, gauged against exact-diagonalization solutions of small systems.

  16. On a Three Dimensional Vision Based Collision Avoidance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzani, Céline; Filbet, Francis

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a three dimensional collision avoidance approach for aerial vehicles inspired by coordinated behaviors in biological groups. The proposed strategy aims to enable a group of vehicles to converge to a common destination point avoiding collisions with each other and with moving obstacles in their environment. The interaction rules lead the agents to adapt their velocity vectors through a modification of the relative bearing angle and the relative elevation. Moreover the model satisfies the limited field of view constraints resulting from individual perception sensitivity. From the proposed individual based model, a mean-field kinetic model is derived. Simulations are performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  17. Analysis and visualization of complex unsteady three-dimensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dalsem, William R.; Buning, Pieter G.; Dougherty, F. Carroll; Smith, Merritt H.

    1989-01-01

    Flow field animation is the natural choice as a tool in the analysis of the numerical simulations of complex unsteady three-dimensional flows. The PLOT4D extension of the widely used PLOT3D code to allow the interactive animation of a broad range of flow variables was developed and is presented. To allow direct comparison with unsteady experimental smoke and dye flow visualization, the code STREAKER was developed to produce time accurate streaklines. Considerations regarding the development of PLOT4D and STREAKER, and example results are presented.

  18. Three-dimensional nonlinear waves under spatial confinement

    OpenAIRE

    Azhand, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The aim of my thesis is to study the evolution of scroll waves under spatial confinement both experimentally as well as numerically. Scroll waves represent three-dimensional (3D) analogs of spiral waves. In the simplest case, the central axis around which a scroll wave rotates is a straight line. The line is named the filament of the scroll wave, and each infinitesimal cross-section represents the core of a spiral wave. Two specific types of scroll waves are considered: (1) Straight scroll wa...

  19. Three-dimensional integrated CAE system applying computer graphic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshisada; Tanaka, Kazuo; Akitomo, Norio; Obata, Tokayasu.

    1991-01-01

    A three-dimensional CAE system for nuclear power plant design is presented. This system utilizes high-speed computer graphic techniques for the plant design review, and an integrated engineering database for handling the large amount of nuclear power plant engineering data in a unified data format. Applying this system makes it possible to construct a nuclear power plant using only computer data from the basic design phase to the manufacturing phase, and it increases the productivity and reliability of the nuclear power plants. (author)

  20. Three dimensional dosimetry of radiation sensitive gels using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.; Murry, P.; Kron, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: It is generally believed that clinical radiation therapy treatment can be optimised by obtaining a closer conformation of the administered radiation dose distribution to the tumour volume. This is difficult with traditional radiation therapy techniques since they do not produce dose distributions which adequately cover tumour volumes of complex shapes and sizes while sparing normal healthy tissue. The situation is further complicated if the normal tissues are critical organs or are particularly sensitive to radiation. Radiation therapy techniques employed to obtain a closer conformation of the dose distribution to the tumour volume are referred to as conformal radiotherapy techniques. Since tumours being treated extend throughout some volume, conformal therapy is inherently three-dimensional (3-D) in nature. In conformal radiation therapy it is necessary to be able to accurately measure 3-D radiation dose distributions to verify that the administered dose is the same as that prescribed by the radiation oncologist. Conventional dosimetry techniques such as ion chambers, thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiographic and radiochromic film are not suitable for verification of such 3-D dose distributions. Work has been undertaken to investigate clinical applications of ferrous sulphate or Fricke gel systems in 3-D radiotherapy dosimetry using both magnetic resonance and optical imaging as the techniques of measurement (Harris 1996). This form of dosimeter is very limited in its application due to diffusion of the resultant radiation dose distribution in the gel over the period of time from irradiation to measurement. Newly developed polyacrylamide gels (PAG) do not exhibit similar diffusion problems and are therefore more suitable for radiation dosimetry applications (Baldock 1998). This work demonstrates the application in radiation dosimetry of PAG using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

  1. High-resolution coherent three-dimensional spectroscopy of Br2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C; Wells, Thresa A; Strangfeld, Benjamin R

    2013-07-25

    In the past, high-resolution spectroscopy has been limited to small, simple molecules that yield relatively uncongested spectra. Larger and more complex molecules have a higher density of peaks and are susceptible to complications (e.g., effects from conical intersections) that can obscure the patterns needed to resolve and assign peaks. Recently, high-resolution coherent two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopy has been used to resolve and sort peaks into easily identifiable patterns for molecules where pattern-recognition has been difficult. For very highly congested spectra, however, the ability to resolve peaks using coherent 2D spectroscopy is limited by the bandwidth of instrumentation. In this article, we introduce and investigate high-resolution coherent three-dimensional spectroscopy (HRC3D) as a method for dealing with heavily congested systems. The resulting patterns are unlike those in high-resolution coherent 2D spectra. Analysis of HRC3D spectra could provide a means for exploring the spectroscopy of large and complex molecules that have previously been considered too difficult to study.

  2. Magnetic properties of three-dimensional Hubbard-sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hisashi; Ichinose, Ikuo; Tatara, Gen; Matsui, Tetsuo.

    1989-11-01

    It is broadly viewed that the magnetism may play an important role in the high-T c superconductivity in the lamellar CuO 2 materials. In this paper, based on a Hubbard-inspired CP 1 or S 2 nonlinear σ model, we give a quantitative study of some magnetic properties in and around the Neel ordered state of three-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets such as La 2 CuO 4 with and without small hole doping. Our model is a (3+1) dimensional effective field theory describing the low energy spin dynamics of a three-dimensional Hubbard model with a very weak interlayer coupling. The effect of hole dynamics is taken into account in the leading approximation by substituting the CP 1 coupling with an 'effective' one determined by the concentration and the one-loop correction of hole fermions. A stationary-phase equation for the one-loop effective potential of S 2 model is analyzed numerically. The behavior of Neel temperature, magnetization (long range Neel order), spin correlation length, etc as functions of anisotropic parameter, temperature, hole concentrations, etc are investigated in detail. A phase diagram is also supported by the renormlization group analysis. The results show that our anisotropic field theory model with certain values of parameters could give a reasonably well description of the magnetic properties indicated by some experiments on pure and doped La 2 CuO 4 . (author)

  3. Three-dimensional structure of the γ-secretase complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Toshihiko; Mio, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Ikuo; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Rie; Kopan, Raphael; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Hamakubo, Takao; Iwastubo, Takeshi; Tomita, Taisuke; Sato, Chikara

    2006-01-01

    γ-Secretase belongs to an atypical class of aspartic proteases that hydrolyzes peptide bonds within the transmembrane domain of substrates, including amyloid-β precursor protein and Notch. γ-Secretase is comprised of presenilin, nicastrin, APH-1, and PEN-2 which form a large multimeric membrane protein complex, the three-dimensional structure of which is unknown. To gain insight into the structure of this complex enzyme, we purified functional γ-secretase complex reconstituted in Sf9 cells and analyzed it using negative stain electron microscopy and 3D reconstruction techniques. Analysis of 2341 negatively stained particle images resulted in the three-dimensional representation of γ-secretase at a resolution of 48 A. The structure occupies a volume of 560 x 320 x 240 A and resembles a flat heart comprised of two oppositely faced, dimpled domains. A low density space containing multiple pores resides between the domains. Some of the dimples in the putative transmembrane region may house the catalytic site. The large dimensions are consistent with the observation that γ-secretase activity resides within a high molecular weight complex

  4. Three-dimensional flows in a transonic compressor rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lonnie; Celestina, Mark L.; Dewitt, Kenneth; Keith, Theo

    1991-01-01

    This study involves an experimental and numerical investigation of the three-dimensional flows in a transonic compressor rotor. A variety of data which could be used, in a complementary fashion, to validate/calibrate the computational fluid dynamics turbomachinery code and improve understanding of the flow physics, were acquired. Detailed radial survey data which consisted of total pressure, total temperature, static pressure and flow angle were obtained at stations upstream and downstream of the rotor blade. Detailed velocity and turbulence profiles were obtained upstream of the rotor and used as the upstream boundary conditions for the numerical analysis. Calibrated flush-mounted hot film probes were used to measure wall shear stress on the hub and casing walls upstream of the rotor. The blade-to-blade shear-stress angle distributions were obtained at two axial locations on the rotor casing, using flush-mounted hot film probes. A numerical analysis conducted using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code was compared with the experimental results.

  5. Three-dimensional volumetric display by inclined-plane scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Eto, Takuma; Nishimura, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kenji

    2003-05-01

    A volumetric display system based on three-dimensional (3-D) scanning that uses an inclined two-dimensional (2-D) image is described. In the volumetric display system a 2-D display unit is placed obliquely in an imaging system into which a rotating mirror is inserted. When the mirror is rotated, the inclined 2-D image is moved laterally. A locus of the moving image can be observed by persistence of vision as a result of the high-speed rotation of the mirror. Inclined cross-sectional images of an object are displayed on the display unit in accordance with the position of the image plane to observe a 3-D image of the object by persistence of vision. Three-dimensional images formed by this display system satisfy all the criteria for stereoscopic vision. We constructed the volumetric display systems using a galvanometer mirror and a vector-scan display unit. In addition, we constructed a real-time 3-D measurement system based on a light section method. Measured 3-D images can be reconstructed in the 3-D display system in real time.

  6. Three-dimensional MRI with independent slab excitation and encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Amir; Wilman, Alan H

    2012-02-01

    Three-dimensional MRI is typically performed with the same orientation for radiofrequency slab excitation and slab select phase encoding. We introduce independent slab excitation and encoding to create a new degree of freedom in three-dimensional MRI, which is the angular relationship between the prescribed excitation volume and the voxel encoding grid. By separating the directions of slab excitation and slab phase encoding, the independent slab excitation and encoding method allows choice of optimal voxel orientation, while maintaining volume excitation based on anatomic landmarks. The method requires simple pulse sequence modifications and uses standard image reconstruction followed by removal of aliasing and image reformatting. The independent slab excitation and encoding method enables arbitrary oblique angle imaging using fixed voxel encoding gradients to maintain similar eddy current, concomitant field, or magnetic dipole effects independent of the oblique angle of excitation. We apply independent slab excitation and encoding to phase and susceptibility-weighted imaging using fixed voxel encoding aligned with the main magnetic field to demonstrate its value in both standardizing and improving image contrast, when using arbitrary oblique imaging volumes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Tailoring thermal conductivity via three-dimensional porous alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Begoña; Maiz, Jon; Ruiz-Clavijo, Alejandra; Caballero-Calero, Olga; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2016-12-09

    Three-dimensional anodic alumina templates (3D-AAO) are an astonishing framework with open highly ordered three-dimensional skeleton structures. Since these templates are architecturally different from conventional solids or porous templates, they teem with opportunities for engineering thermal properties. By establishing the mechanisms of heat transfer in these frameworks, we aim to create materials with tailored thermal properties. The effective thermal conductivity of an empty 3D-AAO membrane was measured. As the effective medium theory was not valid to extract the skeletal thermal conductivity of 3D-AAO, a simple 3D thermal conduction model was developed, based on a mixed series and parallel thermal resistor circuit, giving a skeletal thermal conductivity value of approximately 1.25 W·m -1 ·K -1 , which matches the value of the ordinary AAO membranes prepared from the same acid solution. The effect of different filler materials as well as the variation of the number of transversal nanochannels and the length of the 3D-AAO membrane in the effective thermal conductivity of the composite was studied. Finally, the thermal conductivity of two 3D-AAO membranes filled with cobalt and bismuth telluride was also measured, which was in good agreement with the thermal model predictions. Therefore, this work proved this structure as a powerful approach to tailor thermal properties.

  8. CFD three dimensional wake analysis in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, F.; Astolfi, D.; Terzi, L.

    2017-11-01

    Even if wind energy technology is nowadays fully developed, the use of wind energy in very complex terrain is still challenging. In particular, it is challenging to characterize the combination effects of wind ow over complex terrain and wake interactions between nearby turbines and this has a practical relevance too, for the perspective of mitigating anomalous vibrations and loads as well improving the farm efficiency. In this work, a very complex terrain site has been analyzed through a Reynolds-averaged CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) numerical wind field model; in the simulation the inuence of wakes has been included through the Actuator Disk (AD) approach. In particular, the upstream turbine of a cluster of 4 wind turbines having 2.3 MW of rated power is studied. The objective of this study is investigating the full three-dimensional wind field and the impact of three-dimensionality on the evolution of the waked area between nearby turbines. A post-processing method of the output of the CFD simulation is developed and this allows to estimate the wake lateral deviation and the wake width. The reliability of the numerical approach is inspired by and crosschecked through the analysis of the operational SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) data of the cluster of interest.

  9. Three-dimensional nanoscale imaging by plasmonic Brownian microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labno, Anna; Gladden, Christopher; Kim, Jeongmin; Lu, Dylan; Yin, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Zhaowei; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging at the nanoscale is a key to understanding of nanomaterials and complex systems. While scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has been the workhorse of nanoscale metrology, its slow scanning speed by a single probe tip can limit the application of SPM to wide-field imaging of 3D complex nanostructures. Both electron microscopy and optical tomography allow 3D imaging, but are limited to the use in vacuum environment due to electron scattering and to optical resolution in micron scales, respectively. Here we demonstrate plasmonic Brownian microscopy (PBM) as a way to improve the imaging speed of SPM. Unlike photonic force microscopy where a single trapped particle is used for a serial scanning, PBM utilizes a massive number of plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) under Brownian diffusion in solution to scan in parallel around the unlabeled sample object. The motion of NPs under an evanescent field is three-dimensionally localized to reconstruct the super-resolution topology of 3D dielectric objects. Our method allows high throughput imaging of complex 3D structures over a large field of view, even with internal structures such as cavities that cannot be accessed by conventional mechanical tips in SPM.

  10. Vocal Fold Pathologies and Three-Dimensional Flow Separation Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, Adam G.; Weiland, Kelley S.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Polyps and nodules are two different pathologies, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, and have been shown to significantly disrupt a person's ability to communicate. Although the mechanism by which the vocal folds self-oscillate and the three-dimensional nature of the glottal jet has been studied, the effect of irregularities caused by pathologies is not fully understood. Examining the formation and evolution of vortical structures created by a geometric protuberance is important, not only for understanding the aerodynamic forces exerted by these structures on the vocal folds, but also in the treatment of the above-mentioned pathological conditions. Using a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, the present investigation considers three-dimensional flow separation induced by a model vocal fold polyp. Building on previous work using skin friction line visualization, both the velocity flow field and wall pressure measurements around the model polyp are presented and compared. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-1236351 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  11. Three-dimensional computer aided design system for plant layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Kiguchi, Takashi; Tokumasu, Shinji; Kumamoto, Kenjiro.

    1986-01-01

    The CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning, with which the layout of pipings, cable trays, air conditioning ducts and so on in nuclear power plants can be planned and designed effectively in a short period is reported. This system comprises the automatic routing system by storing the rich experience and know-how of designers in a computer as the knowledge, and deciding the layout automatically following the predetermined sequence by using these, the interactive layout system for reviewing the routing results from higher level and modifying to the optimum layout, the layout evaluation system for synthetically evaluating the layout from the viewpoint of the operability such as checkup and maintenance, and the data base system which enables these effective planning and design. In this report, the total constitution of this system and the technical features and effects of the individual subsystems are outlined. In this CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning, knowledge engineering, CAD/CAM, computer graphics and other latest technology were introduced, accordingly by applying this system to plant design, the design can be performed quickly, various case studies can be carried out at planning stage, and systematic and optimum layout planning becomes possible. (Kako, I.)

  12. Dynamic masquerade with morphing three-dimensional skin in cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Deanna; Buresch, Kendra; Hanlon, Roger T

    2017-03-01

    Masquerade is a defence tactic in which a prey resembles an inedible or inanimate object thus causing predators to misclassify it. Most masquerade colour patterns are static although some species adopt postures or behaviours to enhance the effect. Dynamic masquerade in which the colour pattern can be changed is rare. Here we report a two-step sensory process that enables an additional novel capability known only in cuttlefish and octopus: morphing three-dimensional physical skin texture that further enhances the optical illusions created by coloured skin patterns. Our experimental design incorporated sequential sensory processes: addition of a three-dimensional rock to the testing arena, which attracted the cuttlefish to settle next to it; then visual processing by the cuttlefish of physical textures on the rock to guide expression of the skin papillae, which can range from fully relaxed (smooth skin) to fully expressed (bumpy skin). When a uniformly white smooth rock was presented, cuttlefish moved to the rock and deployed a uniform body pattern with mostly smooth skin. When a rock with small-scale fragments of contrasting shells was presented, the cuttlefish deployed mottled body patterns with strong papillae expression. These robust and reversible responses indicate a sophisticated visual sensorimotor system for dynamic masquerade. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. The Bio Bay Game: Three-Dimensional Learning of Biomagnification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Chandana; Lauren, Hillary; Wallon, Robert C; Hug, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Pressing concerns about sustainability and the state of the environment amplify the need to teach students about the connections between ecosystem health, toxicology, and human health. Additionally, the Next Generation Science Standards call for three-dimensional science learning, which integrates disciplinary core ideas, scientific practices, and crosscutting concepts. The Bio Bay Game is a way to teach students about the biomagnification of toxicants across trophic levels while engaging them in three-dimensional learning. In the game, the class models the biomagnification of mercury in a simple aquatic food chain as they play the roles of anchovies, tuna, and humans. While playing, the class generates data, which they analyze after the game to graphically visualize the buildup of toxicants. Students also read and discuss two articles that draw connections to a real-world case. The activity ends with students applying their understanding to evaluate the game as a model of biomagnification. Throughout the activity, students practice modeling and data analysis and engage with the crosscutting concepts of patterns and cause and effect to develop an understanding of core ideas about the connections between humans and the environment.

  14. Microfluidic tactile sensors for three-dimensional contact force measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Baoqing; Li, Ruya; Brandt, James D; Pan, Tingrui

    2014-11-21

    A microfluidic tactile sensing device has been first reported for three-dimensional contact force measurement utilizing the microfluidic interfacial capacitive sensing (MICS) principle. Consisting of common and differential microfluidic sensing elements and topologically micro-textured surfaces, the microfluidic sensing devices are intended not only to resolve normal mechanical loads but also to measure forces tangent to the surface upon contact. In response to normal or shear loads, the membrane surface deforms the underlying sensing elements uniformly or differentially. The corresponding variation in interfacial capacitance can be detected from each sensing unit, from which the direction and magnitude of the original load can be determined. Benefiting from the highly sensitive and adaptive MICS principle, the microfluidic sensor is capable of detecting normal forces with a device sensitivity of 29.8 nF N(-1) in a 7 mm × 7 mm × 0.52 mm package, which is at least a thousand times higher than its solid-state counterparts to our best knowledge. In addition, the microfluidic sensing elements enable facilitated relaxation response/time in the millisecond range (up to 12 ms). To demonstrate the utility and flexibility of the three-dimensional microfluidic sensor, it has been successfully configured into a fingertip-amounted setting for continuous tracing of the fingertip movement and contact force measurement.

  15. THREE-DIMENSIONAL GENUS TOPOLOGY OF LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gott, J. Richard; Choi, Yun-Young; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2009-01-01

    We measure the three-dimensional genus topology of large-scale structure using luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and find it consistent with the Gaussian random phase initial conditions expected from the simplest scenarios of inflation. This studies three-dimensional topology on the largest scales ever obtained. The topology is spongelike. We measure topology in two volume-limited samples: a dense shallow sample studied with smoothing length of 21 h -1 Mpc, and a sparse deep sample studied with a smoothing length of 34 h -1 Mpc. The amplitude of the genus curve is measured with 4% uncertainty. Small distortions in the genus curve expected from nonlinear biasing and gravitational effects are well explained (to about 1σ accuracy) by N-body simulations using a subhalo-finding technique to locate LRGs. This suggests that the formation of LRGs is a clean problem that can be modeled well without any free-fitting parameters. This bodes well for using LRGs to measure the characteristic scales such as the baryon oscillation scale in future deep redshift surveys.

  16. Three-dimensional wave patterns in falling films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Benoit; Ruyer-Quil, Christian; Manneville, Paul

    2005-11-01

    A large number of studies have been devoted to the modeling of film flows down inclined planes since the pioneering work of Kapitza & Kapitza (1949). Ruyer-Quil & Manneville (2000,2002) have extended the Shkadov formulation (1967) applying weighting residual techniques and expanding the flow field over a complete basis of polynomial functions. Inspired from a Pad'e-like approximant technique initially proposed by Ooshida (1999), a refined model is now formulated which also includes second-order inertia effects arising from the deviation of the streamwise velocity profile from its parabolic shape. The stability of two- dimensional traveling waves against three-dimensional perturbations is investigated using this model. The secondary instability is found to be not really selective which explains the widespread presence of the synchronous instability observed in the experiments by Liu et al. (1995), though theory predicts in most cases a subharmonic scenario. Three-dimensional wave patterns are next computed assuming periodic boundary conditions. Transition from 2D to 3D flows is shown to be strongly dependent on initial conditions. The herringbone patterns, the synchronously deformed fronts, the oblique and the V-shape solitary waves observed in various experimental data (Liu et al. 1995; Park & Nosoko 2003; Alekseenko et al. 1994) are reliably recovered.

  17. Tailoring thermal conductivity via three-dimensional porous alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Begoña; Maiz, Jon; Ruiz-Clavijo, Alejandra; Caballero-Calero, Olga; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional anodic alumina templates (3D-AAO) are an astonishing framework with open highly ordered three-dimensional skeleton structures. Since these templates are architecturally different from conventional solids or porous templates, they teem with opportunities for engineering thermal properties. By establishing the mechanisms of heat transfer in these frameworks, we aim to create materials with tailored thermal properties. The effective thermal conductivity of an empty 3D-AAO membrane was measured. As the effective medium theory was not valid to extract the skeletal thermal conductivity of 3D-AAO, a simple 3D thermal conduction model was developed, based on a mixed series and parallel thermal resistor circuit, giving a skeletal thermal conductivity value of approximately 1.25 W·m−1·K−1, which matches the value of the ordinary AAO membranes prepared from the same acid solution. The effect of different filler materials as well as the variation of the number of transversal nanochannels and the length of the 3D-AAO membrane in the effective thermal conductivity of the composite was studied. Finally, the thermal conductivity of two 3D-AAO membranes filled with cobalt and bismuth telluride was also measured, which was in good agreement with the thermal model predictions. Therefore, this work proved this structure as a powerful approach to tailor thermal properties. PMID:27934930

  18. Creation of three-dimensional craniofacial standards from CBCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyan, Krishna; Palomo, Martin; Hans, Mark

    2006-03-01

    Low-dose three-dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is becoming increasingly popular in the clinical practice of dental medicine. Two-dimensional Bolton Standards of dentofacial development are routinely used to identify deviations from normal craniofacial anatomy. With the advent of CBCT three dimensional imaging, we propose a set of methods to extend these 2D Bolton Standards to anatomically correct surface based 3D standards to allow analysis of morphometric changes seen in craniofacial complex. To create 3D surface standards, we have implemented series of steps. 1) Converting bi-plane 2D tracings into set of splines 2) Converting the 2D splines curves from bi-plane projection into 3D space curves 3) Creating labeled template of facial and skeletal shapes and 4) Creating 3D average surface Bolton standards. We have used datasets from patients scanned with Hitachi MercuRay CBCT scanner providing high resolution and isotropic CT volume images, digitized Bolton Standards from age 3 to 18 years of lateral and frontal male, female and average tracings and converted them into facial and skeletal 3D space curves. This new 3D standard will help in assessing shape variations due to aging in young population and provide reference to correct facial anomalies in dental medicine.

  19. A vein display system based on three-dimensional reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danting; Zhou, Ya; Hu, Xiaoming; Wu, Zhaoguo; Dai, Xiaobin

    2014-10-01

    Venipuncture is the most common way of all invasive medical procedures. A vein display system can make vein access easier by capturing the vein information and projecting a visible vein image onto the skin, which is correctly aligned with the subject's vein. The existing systems achieve correct alignment by the design of coaxial structure. Such a structure causes complex optical and mechanical design and big physical dimensions inevitably. In this paper, we design a stereovision- based vein display system, which consists of a pair of cameras, a DLP projector and a near-infrared light source. We recover the three-dimensional venous structure from image pair acquired from two near-infrared cameras. Then the vein image from the viewpoint of projector is generated from the three-dimensional venous structure and projected exactly onto skin by the DLP projector. Since the stereo cameras get the depth information of vessels, the system can make sure the alignment of projected veins and the real veins without a coaxial structure. The experiment results prove that we propose a feasible solution for a portable and low-cost vein display device.

  20. Three dimensional dynamics of a flexible Motorised Momentum Exchange Tether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, N. A.; Cartmell, M. P.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a new flexural model for the three dimensional dynamics of the Motorised Momentum Exchange Tether (MMET) concept. This study has uncovered the relationships between planar and nonplanar motions, and the effect of the coupling between these two parameters on pragmatic circular and elliptical orbits. The tether sub-spans are modelled as stiffened strings governed by partial differential equations of motion, with specific boundary conditions. The tether sub-spans are flexible and elastic, thereby allowing three dimensional displacements. The boundary conditions lead to a specific frequency equation and the eigenvalues from this provide the natural frequencies of the orbiting flexible motorised tether when static, accelerating in monotonic spin, and at terminal angular velocity. A rotation transformation matrix has been utilised to get the position vectors of the system's components in an assumed inertial frame. Spatio-temporal coordinates are transformed to modal coordinates before applying Lagrange's equations, and pre-selected linear modes are included to generate the equations of motion. The equations of motion contain inertial nonlinearities which are essentially of cubic order, and these show the potential for intricate intermodal coupling effects. A simulation of planar and non-planar motions has been undertaken and the differences in the modal responses, for both motions, and between the rigid body and flexible models are highlighted and discussed.

  1. Horizontal biases in rats’ use of three-dimensional space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovalekic, Aleksandar; Hayman, Robin; Becares, Natalia; Reid, Harry; Thomas, George; Wilson, Jonathan; Jeffery, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Rodent spatial cognition studies allow links to be made between neural and behavioural phenomena, and much is now known about the encoding and use of horizontal space. However, the real world is three dimensional, providing cognitive challenges that have yet to be explored. Motivated by neural findings suggesting weaker encoding of vertical than horizontal space, we examined whether rats show a similar behavioural anisotropy when distributing their time freely between vertical and horizontal movements. We found that in two- or three-dimensional environments with a vertical dimension, rats showed a prioritization of horizontal over vertical movements in both foraging and detour tasks. In the foraging tasks, the animals executed more horizontal than vertical movements and adopted a “layer strategy” in which food was collected from one horizontal level before moving to the next. In the detour tasks, rats preferred the routes that allowed them to execute the horizontal leg first. We suggest three possible reasons for this behavioural bias. First, as suggested by Grobety and Schenk [5], it allows minimisation of energy expenditure, inasmuch as costly vertical movements are minimised. Second, it may be a manifestation of the temporal discounting of effort, in which animals value delayed effort as less costly than immediate effort. Finally, it may be that at the neural level rats encode the vertical dimension less precisely, and thus prefer to bias their movements in the more accurately encoded horizontal dimension. We suggest that all three factors are related, and all play a part. PMID:21419172

  2. Three-dimensional modeler for animated images display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubekeur, Rania

    1987-01-01

    The mv3d software allows the modeling and display of three dimensional objects in interpretative mode with animation possibility in real time. This system is intended for a graphical extension of a FORTH interpreter (implemented by CEA/IRDI/D.LETI/DEIN) in order to control a specific hardware (3.D card designed and implemented by DEIN) allowing the generation of three dimensional objects. The object description is carried out with a specific graphical language integrated in the FORTH interpreter. Objects are modeled using elementary solids called basic forms (cube, cone, cylinder...) assembled with classical geometric transformations (rotation, translation and scaling). These basic forms are approximated by plane polygonal facets further divided in triangles. Coordinates of the summits of triangles constitute the geometrical data. These are sent to the 3.D. card for processing and display. Performed processing are: geometrical transformations on display, hidden surface elimination, shading and clipping. The mv3d software is not an entire modeler but a simple, modular and extensible tool, to which other specific functions may be easily added such as: robots motion, collisions... (author) [fr

  3. Characterization of an Actively Controlled Three-Dimensional Turret Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Patrick; Glauser, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Three-dimensional turrets are commonly used for housing optical systems on airborne platforms. As bluff bodies, these geometries generate highly turbulent wakes that decrease the performance of the optical systems and the aircraft. The current experimental study looked to use dynamic suction in both open and closed-loop control configurations to actively control the turret wake. The flow field was characterized using dynamic pressure and stereoscopic PIV measurements in the wake of the turret. Results showed that the suction system was able to manipulate the wake region of the turret and could alter not only the spatial structure of the wake, but also the temporal behavior of the wake flow field. Closed-loop, feedback control techniques were used to determine a more optimal control input for the flow control. Similar control effects were seen for both the steady open-loop control case and the closed-loop feedback control configuration with a 45% reduction in the suction levels when comparing the closed-loop to the open-loop case. These results provide unique information regarding the development of the baseline three-dimensional wake and the wake with three different active flow control configurations.

  4. Three dimensional birefringence control using nanoparticles for uniaxially oriented films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatoh, Kohki; Goda, Kazuya; Akimoto, Mitsuhiro; Abo, Tomohiro

    2017-07-01

    In uniaxially stretched films, the refractive indices perpendicular to the stretching direction have the same value, and so, the out-of-plane birefringence is half that of the in-plane birefringence. This means that these values cannot be controlled independently in uniaxially stretched films. The same relationship was previously observed when needle-shaped nanoparticles were added to uniaxially stretched films. This paper presents a method to achieve the three-dimensional birefringence control of uniaxially stretched films. When we added plate-shaped smectite nanoparticles to uniaxially stretched films, different relationships were observed for the in- and out-of-plane birefringence. The magnitude of the out-of-plane birefringence increased more than would be expected according to the usual relationship. According to our results, uniaxially stretched films with no out-of-plane birefringence and negative in-plane birefringence can be formed by adding smectite nanoparticles to polymer films with negative in-plane birefringence. Using our method, the three-dimensional birefringence of uniaxial polymers can be controlled, and the possibility of the uniaxial films could be drastically extended.

  5. Modular transportation system with a three dimensional routeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löffler Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In intra-enterprise logistics and automation of manufacturing processes general a rising productivity by high flexibility is required. Existing transportation systems exclusively use two-dimensional track sections, because they can be served with standard drives. Because of these simple structures the transport speed is limited and thereby also the throughput. In this paper now a modular transportation system is presented which could reach higher speeds with a direct drive and the use of centrifugal force compensating curves. Simultaneously the system also can change the altitude. All this succeeds with the integration of three-dimensional track sections. Therefore a two piped guiding system with a long stator linear motor was designed. To combine the linear motor with the three dimensional track special stator elements were developed which allow a bending of the stator to follow the route course. The current work deals with the implementation of a mechanical passive switch, which is operated by the electromagnetic forces of the linear motor. So no additional mechanical actors or a separate electromagnetic system are necessary.

  6. Three-dimensional S-wave tomography under Axial Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillard, C.; Wilcock, W. S. D.; Arnulf, A. F.; Tolstoy, M.; Waldhauser, F.

    2017-12-01

    Axial Seamount is a submarine volcano located at the intersection of the Juande Fuca Ridge and the Cobb-Eickelberg hotspot 500 km off the coast of thenorthwestern United States. The seamount, which rises 1 km above the seafloor, ischaracterized by a shallow caldera that is elongated in the N-S direction, measure 8km by 3 km and sits on top of a 14 km by 3 km magma reservoir. Two eruptive eventsin 1998 and 2011 motivated the deployment in 2014 of a real time cabled observatorywithin the Axial caldera, as part of the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI).Theobservatory includes a network of seven seismometers that span the southern half ofthe caldera. Five months after the observatory came on-line in November 2014, thevolcano erupted on April 24, 2015. Well over 100,000 events were located in thevicinity of the caldera, delineating an outward dipping ring fault that extends fromnear the surface to the magma body at 2 km depth and which accommodatesinflation and deflation of the volcano.The initial earthquake locations have beenobtained with a one-dimensional velocity model but the travel time residuals suggeststrong heterogeneities. A three-dimensional P-wave velocity model, obtained bycombining multichannel and ocean bottom seismometer refraction data, is being usedto refine locations but the three-dimensional S-wave structure is presently unknown.In most mid-ocean ridge settings, the distribution of earthquakes is not conducive forjoint inversions for S-wave velocity and hypocentral parameters because there are fewcrossing ray paths but at Axial the presence of a ring fault that is seismically active atall depths on both the east and west side of the caldera, provides a reasonablegeometry for such efforts. We will present the results of joint inversions that assumethe existing three-dimensional P wave velocity model and solve for VP/VS structure andhypocentral parameters using LOTOS, an algorithm that solves the forward problemusing ray bending.The resulting model

  7. Visual Interpretation with Three-Dimensional Annotations (VITA): three-dimensional image interpretation tool for radiological reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sharmili; Brown, Michael S; Shih, George L

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces a software framework called Visual Interpretation with Three-Dimensional Annotations (VITA) that is able to automatically generate three-dimensional (3D) visual summaries based on radiological annotations made during routine exam reporting. VITA summaries are in the form of rotating 3D volumes where radiological annotations are highlighted to place important clinical observations into a 3D context. The rendered volume is produced as a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) object and is automatically added to the study for archival in Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). In addition, a video summary (e.g., MPEG4) can be generated for sharing with patients and for situations where DICOM viewers are not readily available to referring physicians. The current version of VITA is compatible with ClearCanvas; however, VITA can work with any PACS workstation that has a structured annotation implementation (e.g., Extendible Markup Language, Health Level 7, Annotation and Image Markup) and is able to seamlessly integrate into the existing reporting workflow. In a survey with referring physicians, the vast majority strongly agreed that 3D visual summaries improve the communication of the radiologists' reports and aid communication with patients.

  8. Phase Diagrams of Three-Dimensional Anderson and Quantum Percolation Models Using Deep Three-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Tomohiro; Ohtsuki, Tomi

    2017-11-01

    The three-dimensional Anderson model is a well-studied model of disordered electron systems that shows the delocalization-localization transition. As in our previous papers on two- and three-dimensional (2D, 3D) quantum phase transitions [https://doi.org/10.7566/JPSJ.85.123706" xlink:type="simple">J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 85, 123706 (2016), https://doi.org/10.7566/JPSJ.86.044708" xlink:type="simple">86, 044708 (2017)], we used an image recognition algorithm based on a multilayered convolutional neural network. However, in contrast to previous papers in which 2D image recognition was used, we applied 3D image recognition to analyze entire 3D wave functions. We show that a full phase diagram of the disorder-energy plane is obtained once the 3D convolutional neural network has been trained at the band center. We further demonstrate that the full phase diagram for 3D quantum bond and site percolations can be drawn by training the 3D Anderson model at the band center.

  9. Reaction mechanisms of methylene-blue degradation in three-dimensionally integrated micro-solution plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirafuji, Tatsuru; Ishida, Yodai; Nomura, Ayano; Hayashi, Yui; Goto, Motonobu

    2017-06-01

    We have performed matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) on methylene-blue aqueous solutions treated with three-dimensionally integrated micro-solution plasma, in which we have acquired the time evolution of mass spectra as a function of treatment time. The time evolution of mass spectral peak intensities for major detected species has clearly indicated that the parent methylene-blue molecules are degraded through consecutive reactions. The primary reaction is the oxidation of the parent molecules. The oxidized species still have two benzene rings in the parent molecules. The secondary reactions are the separation of the oxidized species and the formation of compounds with one benzene ring. We have also performed the numerical fitting of the time evolution of the mass spectral peak intensities, the results of which have indicated that we must assume additional primary reactions before the primary oxidation for better agreement with experimental results.

  10. Dynamic composite elastic medium theory. Part II. Three-dimensional media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaelin, B.; Johnson, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    Non-self-consistent and self-consistent methods of estimating velocity and attenuation of P waves and S waves at all frequencies for heterogeneous media with three-dimensional inclusions are formulated using the scattering functions of the individual inclusions. The methods are the generalization of methods for one-dimensional media presented in the first paper of this series. The specific case of spherical inclusions is calculated with the exact scattering function and compared with several low frequency approximations. The self-consistent estimates are consistent with Berryman close-quote s low frequency approximation. We present spectra and wave forms of materials with solid and liquid inclusions in a solid matrix. The results show that the exact scattering functions are required to adequately describe wave propagation at all frequencies. The analysis of liquid inclusions demonstrates that viscous damping may become important only if scattering attenuation due to spherical pores is small

  11. Three dimensional simulation for bayou choctaw strategic petroleum reserve (SPR).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Lee, Moo Yul

    2006-12-01

    Three dimensional finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of the caverns located at the Bayou Choctaw (BC) site which is considered a candidate for expansion. Fifteen active and nine abandoned caverns exist at BC, with a total cavern volume of some 164 MMB. A 3D model allowing control of each cavern individually was constructed because the location and depth of caverns and the date of excavation are irregular. The total cavern volume has practical interest, as this void space affects total creep closure in the BC salt mass. Operations including both cavern workover, where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric, and cavern enlargement due to leaching during oil drawdowns that use water to displace the oil from the caverns, were modeled to account for as many as the five future oil drawdowns in the six SPR caverns. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified.

  12. Three-dimensional mechanical metamaterials with a twist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Tobias; Kadic, Muamer; Wegener, Martin

    2017-11-24

    Rationally designed artificial materials enable mechanical properties that are inaccessible with ordinary materials. Pushing on an ordinary linearly elastic bar can cause it to be deformed in many ways. However, a twist, the counterpart of optical activity in the static case, is strictly zero. The unavailability of this degree of freedom hinders applications in terms of mode conversion and the realization of advanced mechanical designs using coordinate transformations. Here, we aim at realizing microstructured three-dimensional elastic chiral mechanical metamaterials that overcome this limitation. On overall millimeter-sized samples, we measure twists per axial strain exceeding 2°/%. Scaling up the number of unit cells for fixed sample dimensions, the twist is robust due to metamaterial stiffening, indicating a characteristic length scale and bringing the aforementioned applications into reach. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Experimental three dimensional strain estimation from ultrasonic sectorial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, G; Basset, O; Mari, J M; Cachard, C; Brusseau, E; Vray, D

    2006-12-22

    Most of the studies devoted to elastography are focused on the estimation of the axial component of the strain. However when subjected to any load, whatever the direction, soft biological media deform in the three spatial dimensions. The aim of our work is to build a three dimensional strain mapping from data acquired with a 3D clinical sectorial probe. The estimation of radial strain is based on the estimation of local scaling factors. A method of cross-correlation of interpolated signals between adjacent radiofrequency lines was used to estimate the angular displacement and strain. For the sectorial strain estimation, the same displacement estimation technique has been implemented. The method has been tested on experimental data acquired on calibrated phantoms and compared to simulation.

  14. Automated three-dimensional reconstruction of the Caenorhabditis elegans germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Sandeep; Boag, Peter; Pocock, Roger

    2017-12-15

    The Caenorhabditis elegans germline is widely used as a model to study stem cell development, chromosome dynamics and apoptosis. Major readouts of germline phenotypes such as cell counting and protein expression profiling are routinely analyzed manually and in a two-dimensional manner. The major disadvantages of the existing approaches are 1) they are time-consuming and laborious and 2) there is an inability to study the effects of genetic mutations in three dimensions. Here, we demonstrate a rapid, automated method for analyzing the three-dimensional distribution of proteins, germline nuclei and cytoskeletal structures in the C. elegans germline. Using this method, we have revealed previously unappreciated germline organization and cytoskeletal structures that will have a major impact on the characterization of germline phenotypes. To conclude, our new method dramatically enhances the efficiency and resolution of C. elegans germline analysis and may be applied to other cellular structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Three-dimensional morphology of the human embryonic brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shiraishi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphogenesis of the cerebral vesicles and ventricles was visualized in 3D movies using images derived from human embryo specimens between Carnegie stage 13 and 23 from the Kyoto Collection. These images were acquired with a magnetic resonance microscope equipped with a 2.35-T superconducting magnet. Three-dimensional images using the same scale demonstrated brain development and growth effectively. The non-uniform thickness of the brain tissue, which may indicate brain differentiation, was visualized with thickness-based surface color mapping. A closer view was obtained of the unique and complicated differentiation of the rhombencephalon, especially with regard to the internal view and thickening of the brain tissue. The present data contribute to a better understanding of brain and cerebral ventricle development.

  16. Quantum Secure Direct Communication by Using Three-Dimensional Hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jin; Gong Yanxiao; Xu Ping; Zhu Shining; Zhan Youbang

    2011-01-01

    We propose two schemes for realizing quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) by using a set of ordered two-photon three-dimensional hyperentangled states entangled in two degrees of freedom (DOFs) as quantum information channels. In the first scheme, the photons from Bob to Alice are transmitted only once. After insuring the security of the quantum channels, Bob encodes the secret message on his photons. Then Alice performs single-photon two-DOF Bell bases measurements on her photons. This scheme has better security than former QSDC protocols. In the second scheme, Bob transmits photons to Alice twice. After insuring the security of the quantum channels, Bob encodes the secret message on his photons. Then Alice performs two-photon Bell bases measurements on each DOF. The scheme has more information capacity than former QSDC protocols. (general)

  17. Three-dimensional MR imaging of the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, Mamoru

    1991-01-01

    The value of a three-dimensional (3D) imaging system was evaluated using a newly developed workstation. Fifteen knee joints with meniscal tears confirmed by arthroscopic examinations underwent 3D magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. These 3D data sets were processed into 3D display by multiplanar reformation (MPR) and the volume rendering technique, and the features of the meniscal tears were compared with those on conventional two-dimensional (2D) MR images. The 3D images with MPR provided higher detectability and more descriptive delineation of the meniscal tears than the 2D images. With its powerful image processing capacity, the workstation facilitated high-speed, high-quality 3D display and provided precise views of meniscal cleavages for the planning of surgical treatment. The independent processing system permitted efficient throughput of the MR data and eliminated wasteful filming processes. (author)

  18. Micro-Mirrors for Nanoscale Three-Dimensional Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Kevin; Janetopoulos, Chris; Wikswo, John

    2013-01-01

    A research-grade optical microscope is capable of resolving fine structures in two-dimensional images. However, three-dimensional resolution, or the ability of the microscope to distinguish between objects lying above or below the focal plane from in-focus objects, is not nearly as good as in-plane resolution. In this issue of ACS Nano, McMahon et al. report the use of mirrored pyramidal wells with a conventional microscope for rapid, 3D localization and tracking of nanoparticles. Mirrors have been used in microscopy before, but recent work with MPWs is unique because it enables the rapid determination of the x-, y-, and z-position of freely diffusing nanoparticles and cellular nanostructures with unprecedented speed and spatial accuracy. As inexpensive tools for 3D visualization, mirrored pyramidal wells may prove to be invaluable aids in nanotechnology and engineering of nanomaterials. PMID:19309167

  19. Single-camera, three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kevin; Regaard, Boris; Heinemann, Stefan; Sick, Volker

    2012-04-09

    This paper introduces single-camera, three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (SC3D-PTV), an image-based, single-camera technique for measuring 3-component, volumetric velocity fields in environments with limited optical access, in particular, optically accessible internal combustion engines. The optical components used for SC3D-PTV are similar to those used for two-camera stereoscopic-µPIV, but are adapted to project two simultaneous images onto a single image sensor. A novel PTV algorithm relying on the similarity of the particle images corresponding to a single, physical particle produces 3-component, volumetric velocity fields, rather than the 3-component, planar results obtained with stereoscopic PIV, and without the reconstruction of an instantaneous 3D particle field. The hardware and software used for SC3D-PTV are described, and experimental results are presented.

  20. Three-dimensional solution structure of Acanthamoeba profilin-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    We have determined a medium resolution three-dimensional solution structure of Acanthamoeba profilin-I by multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This 13-kD actin binding protein consists of a five stranded antiparallel beta sheet flanked by NH2- and COOH-terminal helices on one face and by a third helix and a two stranded beta sheet on the other face. Data from actin-profilin cross- linking experiments and the localization of conserved residues between profilins in different phyla indicate that actin binding occurs on the molecular face occupied by the terminal helices. The other face of the molecule contains the residues that differ between Acanthamoeba profilins-I and II and may be important in determining the difference in polyphosphoinositide binding between these isoforms. This suggests that lipids and actin bind to different faces of the molecule. PMID:8397216

  1. Controlling Random Lasing with Three-Dimensional Plasmonic Nanorod Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuoxian; Meng, Xiangeng; Choi, Seung Ho; Knitter, Sebastian; Kim, Young L; Cao, Hui; Shalaev, Vladimir M; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2016-04-13

    Plasmonics has brought revolutionary advances to laser science by enabling deeply subwavelength nanolasers through surface plasmon amplification. However, the impact of plasmonics on other promising laser systems has so far remained elusive. Here, we present a class of random lasers enabled by three-dimensional plasmonic nanorod metamaterials. While dense metallic nanostructures are usually detrimental to laser performance due to absorption losses, here the lasing threshold keeps decreasing as the volume fraction of metal is increased up to ∼0.07. This is ∼460 times higher than the optimal volume fraction reported thus far. The laser supports spatially confined lasing modes and allows for efficient modulation of spectral profiles by simply tuning the polarization of the pump light. Full-field speckle-free imaging at micron-scales has been achieved by using plasmonic random lasers as the illumination sources. Our findings show that plasmonic metamaterials hold potential to enable intriguing coherent optical sources.

  2. Three-dimensional structure of brain tissue at submicrometer resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiga, Rino; Mizutani, Ryuta, E-mail: ryuta@tokai-u.jp [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Inomoto, Chie; Takekoshi, Susumu; Nakamura, Naoya; Tsuboi, Akio; Osawa, Motoki [Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Arai, Makoto; Oshima, Kenichi; Itokawa, Masanari [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Setagaya, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Terada, Yasuko; Suzuki, Yoshio [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    Biological objects are composed of submicrometer structures such as cells and organelles that are essential for their functions. Here, we report on three-dimensional X-ray visualization of cells and organelles at resolutions up to 100 nm by imaging microtomography (micro-CT) equipped with Fresnel zone plate optics. Human cerebral tissue, fruit fly cephalic ganglia, and Escherichia coli bacteria labeled with high atomic-number elements were embedded in epoxy resin and subjected to X-ray microtomography at the BL37XU and BL47XU beamlines of the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. The obtained results indicated that soft tissue structures can be visualized with the imaging microtomography.

  3. Three-dimensional spatial grouping affects estimates of the illuminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth R; Schirillo, James A

    2003-12-01

    The brightnesses (i.e., perceived luminance) of surfaces within a three-dimensional scene are contingent on both the luminances and the spatial arrangement of the surfaces. Observers viewed a CRT through a haploscope that presented simulated achromatic surfaces in three dimensions. They set a test patch to be approximately 33% more intense than a comparison patch to match the comparison patch in brightness, which is consistent with viewing a real scene with a simple lightning interpretation from which to estimate a different level of illumination in each depth plane. Randomly positioning each surface in either depth plane minimized any simple lighting interpretation, concomitantly reducing brightness differences to approximately 8.5%, although the immediate surrounds of the test and comparison patches continued to differ by a 5:1 luminance ratio.

  4. Three-dimensional theory for light-matter interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martin Westring; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2008-01-01

    We present a full quantum mechanical three dimensional theory describing an electromagnetic field interacting with an ensemble of identical atoms. The theory is constructed such that it describes recent experiments on light-matter quantum interfaces, where the quantum fluctuations of light...... are mapped onto the atoms and back onto light. We show that the interaction of the light with the atoms may be separated into a mean effect of the ensemble and a deviation from the mean. The mean effect of the interaction effectively give rise to an index of refraction of the gas. We formally change...... to a dressed state picture, where the light modes are solutions to the diffraction problem, and develop a perturbative expansion in the fluctuations. The fluctuations are due to quantum fluctuations as well as the random positions of the atoms. In this perturbative expansion we show how the quantum...

  5. Visualising very large phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberles David A

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common existing phylogenetic tree visualisation tools are not able to display readable trees with more than a few thousand nodes. These existing methodologies are based in two dimensional space. Results We introduce the idea of visualising phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space with the Walrus graph visualisation tool and have developed a conversion tool that enables the conversion of standard phylogenetic tree formats to Walrus' format. With Walrus, it becomes possible to visualise and navigate phylogenetic trees with more than 100,000 nodes. Conclusion Walrus enables desktop visualisation of very large phylogenetic trees in 3 dimensional hyperbolic space. This application is potentially useful for visualisation of the tree of life and for functional genomics derivatives, like The Adaptive Evolution Database (TAED.

  6. Inner mechanics of three-dimensional black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detournay, Stéphane

    2012-07-20

    We investigate properties of the inner horizons of certain black holes in higher-derivative three-dimensional gravity theories. We focus on Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli and spacelike warped anti-de Sitter black holes, as well as on asymptotically warped de Sitter solutions exhibiting both a cosmological and a black hole horizon. We verify that a first law is satisfied at the inner horizon, in agreement with the proposal of Castro and Rodriguez [arXiv:1204.1284]. We then show that, in topologically massive gravity, the product of the areas of the inner and outer horizons fails to be independent on the mass, and we trace this to the diffeomorphism anomaly of the theory.

  7. Three Dimensional Quantized Vortex Dynamics in Superfluid Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichle, David; Megson, Peter; Lathrop, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Vorticity is constrained to line-like topological defects in quantum superfluids, such as liquid Helium below the Lambda transition temperature of 2.17 Kelvin. A tangle of vortices exists in a dissipative dynamical state called quantum turbulence, which has quantitative features distinct from classical turbulence. To study the vortex dynamics, we have invented a novel method to disperse fluorescent nanoparticles directly into the superfluid which become trapped on the vortex cores. Using a newly constructed multi-camera stereographic microscope, we present new data showing vortex reconnections and Kelvin waves with fully three-dimensional particle trajectories. These events are of scientific interest as they play a key role in the dissipation of quantum turbulence.

  8. A Three-Dimensional Cooperative Guidance Law of Multimissile System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to conduct saturation attacks on a static target, the cooperative guidance problem of multimissile system is researched. A three-dimensional guidance model is built using vector calculation and the classic proportional navigation guidance (PNG law is extended to three dimensions. Based on this guidance law, a distributed cooperative guidance strategy is proposed and a consensus protocol is designed to coordinate the time-to-go commands of all missiles. Then an expert system, which contains two extreme learning machines (ELM, is developed to regulate the local proportional coefficient of each missile according to the command. All missiles can arrive at the target simultaneously under the assumption that the multimissile network is connected. A simulation scenario is given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  9. Three-dimensional information encryption and anticounterfeiting using digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Min-Tzung; Chew, Yang-Kun; Chan, Huang-Tian; Wong, Xin-Yu; Chang, Chi-Ching

    2015-01-01

    In this work, arbitrary micro phase-step digital holography with optical interferometry and digital image processing is utilized to obtain information about an image of a three-dimensional object and encrypting keys. Then, a computer-generated hologram is used for the purpose of holographic encryption. All information about the keys is required to perform the decryption, comprising the amplitude and phase distribution of the encrypting key, the distance of image reconstruction, zero-order term elimination, and twin-image term suppression. In addition to using identifiable information on different image planes and linear superposition processing hidden within the encrypted information, not only can we convey an important message, but we can also achieve anticounterfeiting. This approach retains the strictness of traditional holographic encryption and the convenience of digital holographic processing without image distortion. Therefore, this method provides better solutions to earlier methods for the security of the transmission of holographic information.

  10. Three-dimensional numerical simulation during laser processing of CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Tomomasa; Sato, Yuji; Matsunaga, Ei-ichi; Tsukamoto, Masahiro

    2017-09-01

    We performed three-dimensional numerical simulation about laser processing of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) using OpenFOAM as libraries of finite volume method (FVM). Although a little theoretical or numerical studies about heat affected zone (HAZ) formation were performed, there is no research discussing how HAZ is generated considering time development about removal of each material. It is important to understand difference of removal speed of carbon fiber and resin in order to improve quality of cut surface of CFRP. We demonstrated how the carbon fiber and resin are removed by heat of ablation plume by our simulation. We found that carbon fiber is removed faster than resin at first stage because of the difference of thermal conductivity, and after that, the resin is removed faster because of its low combustion temperature. This result suggests the existence of optimal contacting time of the laser ablation and kerf of the target.

  11. Three-dimensional transparent parabolic concentrator for photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huichuan Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional transparent parabolic concentrator made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA was designed and fabricated for photovoltaic applications. The measured maximum concentration ratio of the concentrator is 8.31, which means that for normal incident light, optical energy can be concentrated as high as 8.31 times by the concentrator. Even for oblique incident lights with an incident angle of between 5° and 15°, the concentrator maintains a concentration ratio of between 6.81 and 3.72. The concentrator was connected to Si cell, which increased the maximum output power of the Si cell by 12 times, compared with that of the bare cell. This indicates that the concentrator can increase the energy generated by Si cell by 12 times.

  12. Three-Dimensional Printing of Drug-Eluting Implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Water, Jorrit Jeroen; Bohr, Adam; Bøtker, Johan Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the potential of three-dimensional (3D) printing as a manufacturing method for products intended for personalized treatments by exploring the production of novel polylactide-based feedstock materials for 3D printing purposes. Nitrofurantoin (NF......) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were successfully mixed and extruded with up to 30% drug load with and without addition of 5% HA in polylactide strands, which were subsequently 3D-printed into model disc geometries (10 × 2 mm). X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed that NF maintained its anhydrate solid form during...... of custom-made, drug-loaded feedstock materials for 3D printing of pharmaceutical products for controlled release....

  13. Applications of three-dimensional printing technology in urological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ramy F; Spradling, Kyle; Yoon, Renai; Dolan, Benjamin; Chamberlin, Joshua; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Clayman, Ralph; Landman, Jaime

    2015-11-01

    A rapid expansion in the medical applications of three-dimensional (3D)-printing technology has been seen in recent years. This technology is capable of manufacturing low-cost and customisable surgical devices, 3D models for use in preoperative planning and surgical education, and fabricated biomaterials. While several studies have suggested 3D printers may be a useful and cost-effective tool in urological practice, few studies are available that clearly demonstrate the clinical benefit of 3D-printed materials. Nevertheless, 3D-printing technology continues to advance rapidly and promises to play an increasingly larger role in the field of urology. Herein, we review the current urological applications of 3D printing and discuss the potential impact of 3D-printing technology on the future of urological practice. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Three-dimensional flow measurements in a tesla turbine rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas; Schosser, Constantin; Hain, Rainer; Kaehler, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Tesla turbines are fluid mechanical devices converting flow energy into rotation energy by two physical effects: friction and adhesion. The advantages of the tesla turbine are its simple and robust design, as well as its scalability, which makes it suitable for custom power supply solutions, and renewable energy applications. To this day, there is a lack of experimental data to validate theoretical studies, and CFD simulations of these turbines. This work presents a comprehensive analysis of the flow through a tesla turbine rotor gap, with a gap height of only 0.5 mm, by means of three-dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3D-PTV). For laminar flows, the experimental results match the theory very well, since the measured flow profiles show the predicted second order parabolic shape in radial direction and a fourth order behavior in circumferential direction. In addition to these laminar measurements, turbulent flows at higher mass flow rates were investigated.

  15. Three-dimensional periodic dielectric structures having photonic Dirac points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-06-02

    The dielectric, three-dimensional photonic materials disclosed herein feature Dirac-like dispersion in quasi-two-dimensional systems. Embodiments include a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure formed by alternating layers of dielectric rods and dielectric slabs patterned with holes on respective triangular lattices. This fcc structure also includes a defect layer, which may comprise either dielectric rods or a dielectric slab with patterned with holes. This defect layer introduces Dirac cone dispersion into the fcc structure's photonic band structure. Examples of these fcc structures enable enhancement of the spontaneous emission coupling efficiency (the .beta.-factor) over large areas, contrary to the conventional wisdom that the .beta.-factor degrades as the system's size increases. These results enable large-area, low-threshold lasers; single-photon sources; quantum information processing devices; and energy harvesting systems.

  16. Validation of three-dimensional micro injection molding simulation accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Costa, F.S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    the simulation accuracy (i.e. decrease deviations from experimental values): injection speed profile, cavity injection pressure, melt and mold temperatures, three-dimensional mesh parameters, and material rheological characterization. Quality factors investigated for the quantitative comparisons were: short shot...... length, injection pressure profile, molding mass and flow pattern. The importance of calibrated micro molding process monitoring for an accurate implementation strategy of the simulation and its validation has been demonstrated. In fact, inconsistencies and uncertainties in the experimental data must......Data analysis and simulations on micro-molding experiments have been conducted. Micro molding simulations have been executed taking into account actual processing conditions implementation in the software. Various aspects of the simulation set-up have been considered in order to improve...

  17. Phonon band structures of the three dimensional latticed pentamode metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The artificially designed three-dimensional (3D pentamode metamaterials have such an extraordinary characteristic that the solid materials behave like liquids. Meanwhile, the ideal structure of the pentamode metamaterials arranges in the same way as that of the diamond crystals. In the present research, we regard three types of pentamode metamaterials derived from the 3D crystal lattices as research objects. The phonon band structures of the candidate pentamode structures are calculated by using the finite element method (FEM. We illustrate the relation between the ratio of the bulk modulus B and the shear modulus G of different combinations of D and d. Finally, we find out the relationship between the phonon band structure and the structure parameters. It is useful for generating the phonon band structure and controlling elastic wave propagation.

  18. Spin wave steering in three-dimensional magnonic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginin, E. N.; Sadovnikov, A. V.; Sharaevskaya, A. Yu.; Stognij, A. I.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    We report the concept of three-dimensional (3D) magnonic structures which are especially promising for controlling and manipulating magnon currents. The approach for fabrication of 3D magnonic crystals (MCs) and 3D magnonic networks is presented. A meander type ferromagnetic film grown at the top of the initially structured substrate can be a candidate for such 3D crystals. Using the finite element method, transfer matrix method, and micromagnetic simulations, we study spin-wave propagation in both isolated and coupled 3D MCs and reconstruct spin-wave dispersion and transmission response to elucidate the mechanism of magnonic bandgap formation. Our results show the possibility of the utilization of proposed structures for fabrication of a 3D magnonic network.

  19. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    KAUST Repository

    Kallepitis, Charalambos

    2017-03-22

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell–material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  20. An exactly solvable three-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Halberg, A. [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Indiana 46408 (United States); Morris, J. R. [Department of Physics, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Indiana 46408 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Exact analytical, closed-form solutions, expressed in terms of special functions, are presented for the case of a three-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator with a position dependent mass. This system is the generalization of the corresponding one-dimensional system, which has been the focus of recent attention. In contrast to other approaches, we are able to obtain solutions in terms of special functions, without a reliance upon a Rodrigues-type of formula. The wave functions of the quantum oscillator have the familiar spherical harmonic solutions for the angular part. For the s-states of the system, the radial equation accepts solutions that have been recently found for the one-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator, given in terms of associated Legendre functions, along with a constant shift in the energy eigenvalues. Radial solutions are obtained for all angular momentum states, along with the complete energy spectrum of the bound states.

  1. Is a three-dimensional-printed tooth filling possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kerim Ayar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Three-dimensional (3-D printing is seen as an innovative production process in many fields of dentistry and medicine. But implantation of this novel production process into the treatment of decayed teeth in dentistry remains lacking. Destruction of dental tissues as a result of dental caries is generally treated with dental resin composite fillings. However, a 3-D-printed tooth filling approach, which could be an alternative to traditional approaches, has a potential to reduce treatment costs and technique-sensitivity of the placement of restorative material. The Hypothesis: Here, the hypothesis that a 3-D-printed tooth filling approach could be an alternative to traditional approaches to treatment of decayed teeth is proposed. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The actual implementation of the 3-D-printed tooth filling technique in the practice of restorative dentistry was discussed in this manuscript.

  2. Brain lesion analysis using three-dimensional SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Iekado; Onagi, Atsuo; Kuroki, Takao

    1995-01-01

    A three-headed gamma camera (PRISM 3000) is capable to scan the protocol of early dynamic SPECT and to analyze two radioisotopes at the same time. We have framed three-dimensional brain SPECT images for several brain diseases by using the Application Visualization System (AVS). We carried out volume measurements in brain tumors and/or AVMs by applying this methodology. Thallium-201 and/or 123I-IMP were used for brain SPECT imaging. The dynamic scan protocol was changed in accordance with the given disease. The protocol for brain tumors was derived from a preliminary comparative study with thallium-201 and 123I-IMP that had suggested a disparity in the detection of brain tumors and the differentiation between tumor tissue and normal brain. The three-dimension SPECT image represented the brain tumor or AVM in a striking fashion, and the changes with respect to tumor or AVM after radiosurgery or embolization were understood readily. (author)

  3. Voro++: a three-dimensional Voronoi cell library in C++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris

    2009-01-15

    Voro++ is a free software library for the computation of three dimensional Voronoi cells. It is primarily designed for applications in physics and materials science, where the Voronoi tessellation can be a useful tool in the analysis of densely-packed particle systems, such as granular materials or glasses. The software comprises of several C++ classes that can be modified and incorporated into other programs. A command-line utility is also provided that can use most features of the code. Voro++ makes use of a direct cell-by-cell construction, which is particularly suited to handling special boundary conditions and walls. It employs algorithms which are tolerant for numerical precision errors, and it has been successfully employed on very large particle systems.

  4. The three-dimensional origin of the classifying algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Juergen; Schweigert, Christoph; Stigner, Carl

    2010-01-01

    It is known that reflection coefficients for bulk fields of a rational conformal field theory in the presence of an elementary boundary condition can be obtained as representation matrices of irreducible representations of the classifying algebra, a semisimple commutative associative complex algebra. We show how this algebra arises naturally from the three-dimensional geometry of factorization of correlators of bulk fields on the disk. This allows us to derive explicit expressions for the structure constants of the classifying algebra as invariants of ribbon graphs in the three-manifold S 2 xS 1 . Our result unravels a precise relation between intertwiners of the action of the mapping class group on spaces of conformal blocks and boundary conditions in rational conformal field theories.

  5. An exactly solvable three-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, A.; Morris, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Exact analytical, closed-form solutions, expressed in terms of special functions, are presented for the case of a three-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator with a position dependent mass. This system is the generalization of the corresponding one-dimensional system, which has been the focus of recent attention. In contrast to other approaches, we are able to obtain solutions in terms of special functions, without a reliance upon a Rodrigues-type of formula. The wave functions of the quantum oscillator have the familiar spherical harmonic solutions for the angular part. For the s-states of the system, the radial equation accepts solutions that have been recently found for the one-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator, given in terms of associated Legendre functions, along with a constant shift in the energy eigenvalues. Radial solutions are obtained for all angular momentum states, along with the complete energy spectrum of the bound states

  6. Three-dimensional super Yang-Mills with unquenched flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Tarrío, Javier

    2015-07-01

    We construct analytically the gravity duals of three-dimensional, super Yang-Mills-type theories with supersymmetry coupled to N f quark flavors. The backreaction of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of N f D6-branes on the background of N D2-branes. The D6-branes are smeared over the compact part of the geometry, which must be a six-dimensional nearly Kähler manifold in order to preserve supersymmetry. For massless quarks, the solutions flow in the IR to an AdS 4 fixed point dual to a Chern-Simons-matter theory. For light quarks the theories exhibit quasi-conformal dynamics (walking) at energy scales m q ≪ E ≪ λN f / N, with λ = g YM 2 N the 't Hooft coupling.

  7. Diffusion equation three-dimensional solution in rectangular subcritical assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, Dalton E.G.; Carvalho Vital, Helio de; Oliveira Vellozo, Sergio de; Paixao, Sergio Barros

    1997-01-01

    This work describes a three-dimensional diffusion code developed for neutron flux and current calculations in rectangular subcritical assemblies (loaded with fuel or not) with arbitrary point source distributions in their bases. The two-group analytical solution, expressed as Fourier's double series expansion, is calculated for each source. A summation is then performed over all sources to evaluate the total flux distributions. The input includes positions and activities of the external neutron sources, besides the effective two-group macroscopic cross sections. The code can also provide the individual contributions of the harmonics to the thermal and fast neutron flux and current. Calculation-to-Experiment comparisons for the thermal flux in a exponential pile have shown agreement within experimental errors. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. On the secondary instability of three-dimensional boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, E. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Goettingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik; Balakumar, P. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States)

    2000-09-01

    One of the possible transition scenarios in three-dimensional boundary layers, the saturation of stationary crossflow vortices and their secondary instability to high-frequency disturbances, is studied using the parabolized stability equations (PSE) and Floquet theory. Starting from nonlinear PSE solutions, we investigate the region where a purely stationary crossflow disturbance saturates for its secondary instability characteristics utilizing global and local eigenvalue solvers that are based on the implicitly restarted Arnoldi method and a Newton-Raphson technique, respectively. Results are presented for swept Hiemenz flow and the DLR swept flat plate experiment. The main focuses of this study are on the existence of multiple roots in the eigenvalue spectrum that could explain experimental observations of time-dependent occurrences of an explosive growth of traveling disturbances, on the origin of high-frequency disturbances, as well as on gaining more information about threshold amplitudes of primary disturbances necessary for the growth of secondary disturbances. (orig.)

  9. Three-dimensional adult echocardiography: where the hidden dimension helps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor-Avi, Victor; Sugeng, Lissa; Lang, Roberto M

    2008-05-01

    The introduction of three-dimensional (3D) imaging and its evolution from slow and labor-intense off-line reconstruction to real-time volumetric imaging is one of the most significant developments in ultrasound imaging of the heart of the past decade. This imaging modality currently provides valuable clinical information that empowers echocardiography with new levels of confidence in diagnosing heart disease. One major advantage of seeing the additional dimension is the improvement in the accuracy of the evaluation of cardiac chamber volumes by eliminating geometric modeling and the errors caused by foreshortened views. Another benefit of 3D imaging is the realistic views of cardiac valves capable of demonstrating numerous pathologies in a unique, noninvasive manner. This article reviews the major technological developments in 3D echocardiography and some of the recent literature that has provided the scientific basis for its clinical use.

  10. Three dimensional density cavities in guide field collisionless magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markidis, S.; Lapenta, G.; Divin, A.; Goldman, M.; Newman, D.; Andersson, L.

    2012-03-01

    Particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection with a guide field reveal for the first time the three dimensional features of the low density regions along the magnetic reconnection separatrices, the so-called cavities. It is found that structures with further lower density develop within the cavities. Because their appearance is similar to the rib shape, these formations are here called low density ribs. Their location remains approximately fixed in time and their density progressively decreases, as electron currents along the cavities evacuate them. They develop along the magnetic field lines and are supported by a strong perpendicular electric field that oscillates in space. In addition, bipolar parallel electric field structures form as isolated spheres between the cavities and the outflow plasma, along the direction of the low density ribs and of magnetic field lines.

  11. Three-dimensional imaging of atomic four-body processes

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, M; Fischer, D; Kollmus, H; Madison, D H; Jones, S; Ullrich, J

    2003-01-01

    To understand the physical processes that occur in nature we need to obtain a solid concept about the 'fundamental' forces acting between pairs of elementary particles. it is also necessary to describe the temporal and spatial evolution of many mutually interacting particles under the influence of these forces. This latter step, known as the few-body problem, remains an important unsolved problem in physics. Experiments involving atomic collisions represent a useful testing ground for studying the few-body problem. For the single ionization of a helium atom by charged particle impact, kinematically complete experiments have been performed since 1969. The theoretical analysis of such experiments was thought to yield a complete picture of the basic features of the collision process, at least for large collision energies. These conclusions are, however, almost exclusively based on studies of restricted electron-emission geometries. We report three- dimensional images of the complete electron emission pattern for...

  12. Manufacturing of Three-dimensional Micro Structure Using Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Suonggyu; Kwon, Wontae [Seoul University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The diameter of a proton beam emanating from the MC-50 cyclotron is about 2?3 mm with Gaussian distribution. This widely irradiated proton beam is not suitable for semiconductor etching, precise positioning, and micromachining, which require a small spot. In this study, a beam cutting method using a microhole is proposed as an economical alternative. We produced a microhole with aspect ratio, average diameter, and thickness of 428, 21 μm, and 9 mm, respectively, for cutting the proton beam. By using this high-aspect-ratio microhole, we conducted machinability tests on microstructures with sizes of tens of μm. Additionally, the results of simulation using GEANT4 and those of the actual experiment were compared and analyzed. The outcome confirmed the possibility of implementing a micro process technology for the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures of 20 micron units using the MC-50 cyclotron with the microhole.

  13. Engineering three-dimensional cell mechanical microenvironment with hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyou; Wang, Lin; Wang, Shuqi; Han, Yulong; Wu, Jinhui; Zhang, Qiancheng; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian

    2012-12-01

    Cell mechanical microenvironment (CMM) significantly affects cell behaviors such as spreading, migration, proliferation and differentiation. However, most studies on cell response to mechanical stimulation are based on two-dimensional (2D) planar substrates, which cannot mimic native three-dimensional (3D) CMM. Accumulating evidence has shown that there is a significant difference in cell behavior in 2D and 3D microenvironments. Among the materials used for engineering 3D CMM, hydrogels have gained increasing attention due to their tunable properties (e.g. chemical and mechanical properties). In this paper, we provide an overview of recent advances in engineering hydrogel-based 3D CMM. Effects of mechanical cues (e.g. hydrogel stiffness and externally induced stress/strain in hydrogels) on cell behaviors are described. A variety of approaches to load mechanical stimuli in 3D hydrogel-based constructs are also discussed.

  14. Black holes in three dimensional higher spin gravity: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, Martin; Gutperle, Michael; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric

    2013-05-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of black holes in three dimensional higher spin gravity theories. Starting from spin-3 gravity and working our way toward the theory of an infinite tower of higher spins coupled to matter, we show how to harness higher spin gauge invariance to consistently generalize familiar notions of black holes. We review the construction of black holes with conserved higher spin charges and the computation of their partition functions to leading asymptotic order. In view of the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (CFT) correspondence as applied to certain vector-like conformal field theories with extended conformal symmetry, we successfully compare to CFT calculations in a generalized Cardy regime. A brief recollection of pertinent aspects of ordinary gravity is also given. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

  15. Engineering Three-dimensional Epithelial Tissues Embedded within Extracellular Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski-Daspit, Alexandra S; Nelson, Celeste M

    2016-07-10

    The architecture of branched organs such as the lungs, kidneys, and mammary glands arises through the developmental process of branching morphogenesis, which is regulated by a variety of soluble and physical signals in the microenvironment. Described here is a method created to study the process of branching morphogenesis by forming engineered three-dimensional (3D) epithelial tissues of defined shape and size that are completely embedded within an extracellular matrix (ECM). This method enables the formation of arrays of identical tissues and enables the control of a variety of environmental factors, including tissue geometry, spacing, and ECM composition. This method can also be combined with widely used techniques such as traction force microscopy (TFM) to gain more information about the interactions between cells and their surrounding ECM. The protocol can be used to investigate a variety of cell and tissue processes beyond branching morphogenesis, including cancer invasion.

  16. Shape synchronization control for three-dimensional chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yinhe; Chen, Haoguang; Zhang, Siying

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to the three-dimensional continuous chaotic system and shape of the chaotic attractor by utilizing the basic theory of plane curves in classical differential geometry, the continuous controller is synthesized for the master–slave synchronization in shape. This means that the slave system can possess the same shape of state trajectory with the master system via the continuous controller. The continuous controller is composed of three sub-controllers, which respectively correspond to the master–slave synchronization in shape for the three projective curves of the chaotic attractor onto the three coordinate planes. Moreover, the proposed shape synchronization technique as well as application of control scheme to secure communication is also demonstrated in this paper, where numerical simulation results show the proposed control method works well.

  17. Micro-fabrication of three dimensional pyrolysed carbon microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    ; soft baking the photoresist layer; performing a full depth exposure with UV light through a first mask; performing a partial depth exposure with UV light through a second mask; wherein the full depth exposure and the partial depth exposure are aligned to ensure that the first and second latent images...... are connected to each other; post-exposure baking the photoresist layer; and developing the microscale patterned resist template as a free-standing structure of cross-linked resist with lateral hanging structures that are supported by vertical support structures at a free height above the substrate. The method...... is characterized by a soft baking temperature below 70 °C. Repetitive coating and partial depth exposure allows for the fabrication of multiple level laterally interconnected structures. Carbonization of the resist template provides truly three-dimensional carbon microelectrode structures....

  18. Three-dimensional protein structure prediction: Methods and computational strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Márcio; E Silva, Mariel Barbachan; Buriol, Luciana S; Lamb, Luis C

    2014-10-12

    A long standing problem in structural bioinformatics is to determine the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of a protein when only a sequence of amino acid residues is given. Many computational methodologies and algorithms have been proposed as a solution to the 3-D Protein Structure Prediction (3-D-PSP) problem. These methods can be divided in four main classes: (a) first principle methods without database information; (b) first principle methods with database information; (c) fold recognition and threading methods; and (d) comparative modeling methods and sequence alignment strategies. Deterministic computational techniques, optimization techniques, data mining and machine learning approaches are typically used in the construction of computational solutions for the PSP problem. Our main goal with this work is to review the methods and computational strategies that are currently used in 3-D protein prediction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A free boundary problem on three-dimensional cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark

    2017-12-01

    We consider a free boundary problem on cones depending on a parameter c and study when the free boundary is allowed to pass through the vertex of the cone. We show that when the cone is three-dimensional and c is large enough, the free boundary avoids the vertex. We also show that when c is small enough but still positive, the free boundary is allowed to pass through the vertex. This establishes 3 as the critical dimension for which the free boundary may pass through the vertex of a right circular cone. In view of the well-known connection between area-minimizing surfaces and the free boundary problem under consideration, our result is analogous to a result of Morgan that classifies when an area-minimizing surface on a cone passes through the vertex.

  20. Multifractal analysis of three-dimensional histogram from color images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, Julien; Rousseau, David; Richard, Paul; Chapeau-Blondeau, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Natural images, especially color or multicomponent images, are complex information-carrying signals. To contribute to the characterization of this complexity, we investigate the possibility of multiscale organization in the colorimetric structure of natural images. This is realized by means of a multifractal analysis applied to the three-dimensional histogram from natural color images. The observed behaviors are confronted to those of reference models with known multifractal properties. We use for this purpose synthetic random images with trivial monofractal behavior, and multidimensional multiplicative cascades known for their actual multifractal behavior. The behaviors observed on natural images exhibit similarities with those of the multifractal multiplicative cascades and display the signature of elaborate multiscale organizations stemming from the histograms of natural color images. This type of characterization of colorimetric properties can be helpful to various tasks of digital image processing, as for instance modeling, classification, indexing.

  1. A New Three-Dimensional Cephalometric Analysis for Orthognathic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateno, Jaime; Xia, James J.; Teichgraeber, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Two basic problems are associated with traditional 2-dimensional ((2D) cephalometry First, many important parameters cannot be measured on plain cephalograms; and second, most 2D cephalometric measurements are distorted in the presence of facial asymmetry. Three-dimensional (3D) cephalometry, which has been facilitated by the introduction of cone beam computed tomography scans, can be solved these problems. However, before this can be realized, fundamental problems must be solved. They are the unreliability of internal reference systems and some 3D measurements, and the lack of tools to assess and measure symmetry. In this manuscript, the authors present a new 3D cephalometric analysis that uses different geometric approaches to solve the fundamental problems previously mentioned. This analysis allows the accurate measurement of the size, shape, position and orientation of the different facial units and incorporates a novel method to measure asymmetry. PMID:21257250

  2. Mapping three-dimensional temperature in microfluidic chip.

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2013-11-25

    Three-dimensional (3D) temperature mapping method with high spatial resolution and acquisition rate is of vital importance in evaluating thermal processes in micro-environment. We have synthesized a new temperature-sensitive functional material (Rhodamine B functionalized Polydimethylsiloxane). By performing optical sectioning of this material, we established an advanced method for visualizing the micro-scale 3D thermal distribution inside microfluidic chip with down to 10 ms temporal resolution and 2 ~ 6 °C temperature resolution depending the capture parameters. This method is successfully applied to monitor the local temperature variation throughout micro-droplet heat transfer process and further reveal exothermic nanoliter droplet reactions to be unique and milder than bench-top experiment.

  3. Three-dimensional computed tomography of the acetabulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi Mucelli, R.S.; Muner, G.; Pozzi Mucelli, F.; Pozzi Mucelli, M.; Marotti, F.; Dalla Palma, L.

    1986-08-01

    Acetabular fractures represent a complex variety that are classified in different types. Conventional radiology is often inadequate to demonstrate and classify the fractures. Computed tomography (CT) has already been shown to be superior in this field. A further advantage of CT is represented by the recent availability of three-dimensional (3D) images that are realized from axial CT scans by means of a new software. The Authors report the applications of this new software to the study of the normal acetabulum and in patients with fractures. 3D images allows an effective demonstration of the fracture, its irradiation and the dislocation of bone fragments. The information is contained in one or few images rather than many axial images. Therefore the role of 3D images may be considered complementary to axial CT scans.

  4. Orthodontics and Dental Anatomy: Three-dimensional Scanner Contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabbout, Fidele; Baron, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this article is to focus on the dental anatomy, its influence on therapeutic choices, and decision in orthodontics. A sample of 80 subjects was selected and analyzed. Through the usage of the three-dimensional scanner with the C2000-Cepha and Cepha3DT software, it is now possible to calculate the volume and the dimensions of both crown and root of each tooth and compare them to the literature. Data were collected and statistically evaluated with the StatView software (version 5.0). These references values were compared with those known in the literature redefining our approaches to treatment in orthodontics. The individual anatomical data either unique or in a group of teeth give new insights on the orthodontic therapeutic options.

  5. Architecture and Applications of Functional Three-Dimensional Graphene Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dey, Ramendra Sundar; Chi, Qijin

    2015-01-01

    building blocksfor the bottom-up architecture of various graphene based nanomaterials. Th eassembly of functionalized GNS into three-dimensional (3D) porous graphenenetworks represents a novel approach. Resulting 3D porous graphene materialsposses unique physicochemical properties such as large surface......As the fi rst atomic-thick two-dimensional crystalline material, graphene has continuouslycreated a wonder land in materials science within the past decade. Anumber of methods have been developed for preparation and functionalizationof single-layered graphene nanosheets (GNS), which are essential...... areas, goodconductivity and mechanical strength, high thermal stability and desirable fl exibility,which altogether makes this new type of porous materials be highly attractivefor a wide range of applications. In this chapter, we will cover some crucialaspects of porous graphene networked materials...

  6. Anomalous dimension in three-dimensional semiclassical gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesci, Emanuele; Arzano, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The description of the phase space of relativistic particles coupled to three-dimensional Einstein gravity requires momenta which are coordinates on a group manifold rather than on ordinary Minkowski space. The corresponding field theory turns out to be a non-commutative field theory on configuration space and a group field theory on momentum space. Using basic non-commutative Fourier transform tools we introduce the notion of non-commutative heat-kernel associated with the Laplacian on the non-commutative configuration space. We show that the spectral dimension associated to the non-commutative heat kernel varies with the scale reaching a non-integer value smaller than three for Planckian diffusion scales.

  7. Strain effects in freestanding three-dimensional nitride nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povolotskyi, Michael; Auf der Maur, Matthias; Di Carlo, Aldo [MINAS Lab., Department of Electronic Engeneering, University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , via del Politecnico, 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2005-11-01

    Nitride based heterostructures of nanometer size have been studied. A theoretical model is presented that allows to study strain in lattice mismatched three-dimensional freestanding heterostructures. The model has been applied to an AlGaN/GaN quantum well structure. We computed a strain pattern that is found to be highly nonhomogeneous. Effect of strain on the band structure has been studied considering piezoelectric field and deformation potential. We calculated energy and oscillator strength of the fundamental optical transition in different regions of the structure in order to estimate the intrinsic broadening of a spectral line. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Three-dimensional imaging of lumbar spinal fusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chafetz, N.; Hunter, J.C.; Cann, C.E.; Morris, J.M.; Ax, L.; Catterling, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    Using a Cemax 1000 three-dimensional (3D) imaging computer/workstation, the author evaluated 15 patients with lumbar spinal fusions (four with pseudarthrosis). Both axial images with sagittal and coronal reformations and 3D images were obtained. The diagnoses (spinal stenosis and psuedarthrosis) were changed in four patients, confirmed in six patients, and unchanged in five patients with the addition of the 3D images. The ''cut-away'' 3D images proved particularly helpful for evaluation of central and lateral spinal stenosis, whereas the ''external'' 3D images were most useful for evaluation of the integrity of the fusion. Additionally, orthopedic surgeons found 3D images superior for both surgical planning and explaining pathology to patients

  9. Fabrication of three-dimensional carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith

    microelectrodes four different model systems (Glucose sensing, Yeast analysis, Dopamine detection in human stem cell and bone cell monitoring) were tested. In all the model systems 3D carbon microelectrodes showed a 2-3 folds higher sensing signal when compared to 2D carbon electrodes.......Carbon microelectrodes have a wide range of applications because of their unique material properties and biocompatibility. The aim of the research work carried out in this thesis was to develop three-dimensional (3D) carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical applications. Three different...... fabrication processes were established for fabrication of 3D carbon microelectrodes using UV photolithography followed by pyrolysis. UV exposure at three different wavelengths 365 nm, 313 nm and 405 nm was optimized to fabricate suspended 3D epoxy polymer templates. The polymer template was pyrolysed at high...

  10. Turbulent mixing in three-dimensional droplet arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoby, M.R.G.; Navarro-Martinez, S.; Kronenburg, A.; Marquis, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The atomisation, evaporation and subsequent mixing of fuel from a liquid spray determines the effectiveness of the combustion processes in gas turbines and internal combustion engines. In the present paper, three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the evaporation of methanol droplets in hot environments are presented. The gas phase mixing is assessed by examining the scalar dissipation and the mixture fraction probability density function (PDF). Novel multi-conditional models are proposed that use mixture fraction and structural parameters as the conditioning variables for the scalar dissipation which is found to be well predicted in terms of magnitude and distribution. The β-PDF description of the mixture fraction seems to capture well the global behaviour for a laminar environment and for time-averaged results in turbulent cases. A novel model for the mixture fraction PDF is also proposed based on the multi-conditional model for scalar dissipation and an accurate representation of the PDF is achieved.

  11. Three-dimensional live microscopy beyond the diffraction limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiolka, Reto

    2013-01-01

    In fluorescence microscopy it has become possible to fundamentally overcome the diffraction limited resolution in all three spatial dimensions. However, to have the most impact in biological sciences, new optical microscopy techniques need to be compatible with live cell imaging: image acquisition has to be fast enough to capture cellular dynamics at the new resolution limit while light exposure needs to be minimized to prevent photo-toxic effects. With increasing spatial resolution, these requirements become more difficult to meet, even more so when volumetric imaging is performed. In this review, techniques that have been successfully applied to three-dimensional, super-resolution live microscopy are presented and their relative strengths and weaknesses are discussed. (special issue article)

  12. Hydrogel microfabrication technology toward three dimensional tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiki Yanagawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D tissue constructs is essential for the alternative methods of organ transplantation in regenerative medicine, as well as the development of improved drug discovery assays. Recent technological advances in hydrogel microfabrication, such as micromolding, 3D bioprinting, photolithography, and stereolithography, have led to the production of 3D tissue constructs that exhibit biological functions with precise 3D microstructures. Furthermore, microfluidics technology has enabled the development of the perfusion culture of 3D tissue constructs with vascular networks. In this review, we present these hydrogel microfabrication technologies for the in vitro reconstruction and cultivation of 3D tissues. Additionally, we discuss current challenges and future perspectives of 3D tissue engineering.

  13. Three-dimensional stress analysis of plain weave composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, John D.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques were developed and described for performing three-dimensional finite element analysis of plain weave composites. Emphasized here are aspects of the analysis which are different from analysis of traditional laminated composites, such as the mesh generation and representative unit cells. The analysis was used to study several different variations of plain weaves which illustrate the effects of tow waviness on composite moduli, Poisson's ratios, and internal strain distributions. In-plane moduli decreased almost linearly with increasing tow waviness. The tow waviness was shown to cause large normal and shear strain concentrations in composites subjected to uniaxial load. These strain concentrations may lead to earlier damage initiation than occurs in traditional cross-ply laminates.

  14. Three dimensional vortices and interfaces in Hele-Shaw cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumir, A.

    1987-06-01

    A model of nonviscous flow, based on the Biot-Savart equations is used to examine the existence of singularities in three dimensional, incompressible, hydrodynamic equations. The results suggest a fairly simple physical mechanism, which could lead to the formation of singularities in the nonviscous case: two vortex tubes with opposite circulations pair up and stretch each other, until the radii of the vortex cores become extremely small, causing a divergence of the vorticity. The cases of a perfect and a slightly viscous fluid are considered. The results are unclear as to whether the vorticity of a slightly viscous fluid can become infinite or not, and whether singularities exist. The dynamics of hydrodynamic interfaces are also investigated. The propagation of bubbles in a slightly viscous fluid, in a Hele-Shaw cell are described [fr

  15. Chern-Simons theory and three-dimensional surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guven, Jemal

    2007-01-01

    There are two natural Chern-Simons theories associated with the embedding of a three-dimensional surface in Euclidean space: one is constructed using the induced metric connection and involves only the intrinsic geometry? the other is extrinsic and uses the connection associated with the gauging of normal rotations. As such, the two theories appear to describe very different aspects of the surface geometry. Remarkably, at a classical level, they are equivalent. In particular, it will be shown that their stress tensors differ only by a null contribution. Their Euler-Lagrange equations provide identical constraints on the normal curvature. A new identity for the Cotton tensor is associated with the triviality of the Chern-Simons theory for embedded hypersurfaces implied by this equivalence

  16. Three-dimensional photonic band gaps in woven structures

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai Ya Chih; Pendry, J B

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the photonic properties of dielectric fibres woven into three-dimensional (3D) structures. Such fibres can be fabricated on the micrometre scale, and hence the gaps are in the far-infrared to the infrared regime. The vector-wave transfer matrix method is applied to evaluate the photonic band structures. We have also employed the constant-frequency dispersion surface scheme to investigate the development of a full band gap. Such a 3D absolute gap is observed in a rectangular lattice, but at a fairly large dielectric constant for the fibres. Ways to improve on this have been suggested. Our study indicates that woven structures are promising materials for realizing the 3D photonic insulator in the infrared regime. (author)

  17. Logistics of Three-dimensional Printing: Primer for Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgdon, Taryn; Danrad, Raman; Patel, Midhir J; Smith, Stacy E; Richardson, Michael L; Ballard, David H; Ali, Sayed; Trace, Anthony Paul; DeBenedectis, Carolynn M; Zygmont, Matthew E; Lenchik, Leon; Decker, Summer J

    2018-01-01

    The Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Task Force on three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a review of the logistic considerations for establishing a clinical service using this new technology, specifically focused on implications for radiology. Specific topics include printer selection for 3D printing, software selection, creating a 3D model for printing, providing a 3D printing service, research directions, and opportunities for radiologists to be involved in 3D printing. A thorough understanding of the technology and its capabilities is necessary as the field of 3D printing continues to grow. Radiologists are in the unique position to guide this emerging technology and its use in the clinical arena. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DNA Origami with Complex Curvatures in Three-Dimensional Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dongran; Pal, Suchetan; Nangreave, Jeanette; Deng, Zhengtao; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2011-04-14

    We present a strategy to design and construct self-assembling DNA nanostructures that define intricate curved surfaces in three-dimensional (3D) space using the DNA origami folding technique. Double-helical DNA is bent to follow the rounded contours of the target object, and potential strand crossovers are subsequently identified. Concentric rings of DNA are used to generate in-plane curvature, constrained to 2D by rationally designed geometries and crossover networks. Out-of-plane curvature is introduced by adjusting the particular position and pattern of crossovers between adjacent DNA double helices, whose conformation often deviates from the natural, B-form twist density. A series of DNA nanostructures with high curvature—such as 2D arrangements of concentric rings and 3D spherical shells, ellipsoidal shells, and a nanoflask—were assembled.

  19. Three-dimensional structural characterization of nonwoven fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Lalith B Suragani; Shim, Eunkyoung; Anantharamaiah, Nagendra; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam

    2012-12-01

    Nonwoven materials are found in a gamut of critical applications. This is partly due to the fact that these structures can be produced at high speed and engineered to deliver unique functionality at low cost. The behavior of these materials is highly dependent on alignment of fibers within the structure. The ability to characterize and also to control the structure is important, but very challenging due to the complex nature of the structures. Thus, to date, focus has been placed mainly on two-dimensional analysis techniques for describing the behavior of nonwovens. This article demonstrates the utility of three-dimensional (3D) digital volumetric imaging technique for visualizing and characterizing a complex 3D class of nonwoven structures produced by hydroentanglement.

  20. Three-dimensional force-free looplike magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, John M.; Guzdar, Parvez N.; Usikov, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Computations of three-dimensional force-free magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria, del x B = lambdaB with lambda = lambda(sub 0), a constant are presented. These equilibria are determined by boundary conditions on a surface corresponding to the solar photosphere. The specific boundary conditions used correspond to looplike magnetic fields in the corona. It is found that as lambda(sub 0) is increased, the loops of flux become kinked, and for sufficiently large lambda(sub 0), develop knots. The relationship between the kinking and knotting properties of these equilibria and the presence of a kink instability and related loss of equilibrium is explored. Clearly, magnetic reconnection must be involved for an unknotted loop equilibrium to become knotted, and speculations are made about the creation of a closed hyperbolic field line (X-line) about which this reconnection creating knotted field lines is centered.

  1. Visualization of Three-Dimensional Nephron Structure With Microcomputed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, M.; Jorgensen, S.; Lerman, L.; Ritman, E.; Romero, J.

    2007-01-01

    The three-dimensional architecture of nephrons in situ and their interrelationship with other nephrons are difficult to visualize by microscopic methods. The present study uses microcomputed X-ray tomography (micro-CT) to visualize intact nephrons in situ. Rat kidneys were perfusion-fixed with buffered formalin and their vasculature was subsequently perfused with radiopaque silicone. Cortical tissue was stained en bloc with osmium tetroxide, embedded in plastic, scanned, and reconstructed at voxel resolutions of 6, 2, and 1 μm. At 6 μm resolution, large blood vessels and glomeruli could be visualized but nephrons and their lumens were small and difficult to visualize. Optimal images were obtained using a synchrotron radiation source at 2 μm resolution where nephron components could be identified, correlated with histological sections, and traced. Proximal tubules had large diameters and opaque walls, whereas distal tubules, connecting tubules, and collecting ducts had smaller diameters and less opaque walls. Blood vessels could be distinguished from nephrons by the luminal presence of radiopaque silicone. Proximal tubules were three times longer than distal tubules. Proximal and distal tubules were tightly coiled in the outer cortex but were loosely coiled in the middle and inner cortex. The connecting tubules had the narrowest diameters of the tubules and converged to form arcades that paralleled the radial vessels as they extended to the outer cortex. These results illustrate a potential use of micro-CT to obtain three-dimensional information about nephron architecture and nephron interrelationships, which could be useful in evaluating experimental tubular hypertrophy, atrophy, and necrosis

  2. In vitro measurement accuracy of three-dimensional ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotz, R J; Trabold, T; Bock, A; Kollmann, C

    2001-02-01

    We sought to validate distance and volume measurements in three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound images. Even with the latest equipment, it is not known how accurate 3-D echocardiographic measurements are. Six models were imaged in ethanol solution and two within a tissue phantom using a mechanical rotation device rotating in 1 degrees intervals and a real-time 3-D scanner. Distance and volume measurements (n = 60) were performed in two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D images using TomTec and InViVo software. Distance measurements had a mean total error between 1.12% and 2.31% for Acuson (2.5 MHZ, 3 MHZ, and 4 MHZ) and Hewlett Parkard (HP) fusion frequencies h and m, HP fusion harmonic B in the axial, and between 3.5% and 4.9% in the lateral dimension. HP Harmonic A and B, Volumetrics (2.5 MHZ), and HP fusion Harmonic A exhibited significantly higher differences to reality with a mean difference between 5.1% and 8.9% in the axial and between 6.2% and 7.9% in the lateral direction. Axial 2-D measurements were not different from real dimensions except Volumetrics model 1. In the lateral axis, all imaging modalities were different from reality except the fusion harmonic modus B. Using the HP fusion frequency h and HP fusion Harmonic B-mode, volume measurements in 3-D images significantly underestimated reality, while Acuson's fundamental frequency 3.5 MHZ was not different from real volumes. Three-dimensional visualization using different ultrasound settings results in different accuracy.

  3. Three-dimensional MRI of the glenoid labrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, S.P.; Pope, T.L. Jr.; Martin, D.F.; Link, K.M.; Monu, J.U.V.; Hunter, M.; Reboussin, D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reformation in the evaluation of tears of the glenoid labrum complex (GLC). Fifty-five shoulders were evaluated by MRI using standard spin-echo sequences. Gradient-refocused-echo axial projections were used to assess the GLC on the two-dimensional (2D) studies. Three-dimensional Fourier transform multiplanar gradient-recalled imaging with a resolution of 0.7 mm was also performed in all patients. Independent analyses of the anterior and posterior labra were performed in a blinded manner for both the 2D and 3D studies by three experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Observations of the imaging studies were compared with the videoarthroscopic findings. The appearance of the GLC was rated on a scale of 0 to 4 (0-2=normal, 3, 4=abnormal or torn). The diagnostic confidence was averaged from the three reader's scores. Anterior labral tears were effectively detected with sensitivities of 89% and 96% and specificities of 96% and 100% (P<0.0001) for the 2D and 3D studies, respectively. For posterior labral tears, the sensitivity and specificity of the 2D method were 47% and 98%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the 3D volume sequence were 53% and 98%, respectively. The lower sensitivity of both imaging methods for detecting posterior labral tears may be influenced by the smaller number (n=5) of arthroscopically confirmed cases in our study and reflects the difficulty of visualizing the posteroinferior borders of the GLC with present MRI techniques. (orig.)

  4. [Fetal brain fissures development a three-dimensional ultrasonography study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cynthia Maria Soares; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Oliveira, Patrícia Soares de; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2011-03-01

    to assess the distance of the fetal cerebral fissures from the inner edge of the skull by three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS). this cross-sectional study included 80 women with normal pregnancies between 21st and 34th weeks. The distances between the Sylvian, parieto-occiptal, hippocampus and calcarine fissures and the internal surface of the fetal skull were measured. For the evaluation of the distance of the first three fissures, an axial three-dimensional scan was obtained (at the level of the lateral ventricles). To obtain the calcarine fissure measurement, a coronal scan was used (at the level of the occipital lobes). First degree regressions were performed to assess the correlation between fissure measurements and gestational age, using the determination coefficient (R²) for adjustment. The 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles were calculated for each fissure measurement. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to assess the correlation between fissure measurements and the biparietal diameter (BPD) and head circumference (HC). all fissure measurements were linearly correlated with gestational age (Sylvian: R²=0.5; parieto-occiptal: R²= 0.7; hippocampus: R²= 0.3 and calcarine: R²= 0.3). Mean fissure measurement ranged from 7.0 to 14.0 mm, 15.9 to 28.7 mm, 15.4 to 25.4 mm and 15.7 to 24.8 mm for the Sylvian, parieto-occiptal, hippocampus and calcarine fissures, respectively. The Sylvian and parieto-occiptal fissure measurements had the highest correlations with the BPD (r=0.8 and 0.7, respectively) and HC (r=0.7 and 0.8, respectively). the distance from the fetal cerebral fissures to the inner edge of the skull measured by 3DUS was positively correlated with gestational age.

  5. Three-Dimensional Morphology of a Coronal Prominence Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S. E.; Kucera, T. A.; Rastawicki, D.; Dove, J.; deToma, G.; Hao, J.; Hill, S.; Hudson, H. S.; Marque, C.; McIntosh, P. S.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional density model of coronal prominence cavities, and a morphological fit that has been tightly constrained by a uniquely well-observed cavity. Observations were obtained as part of an International Heliophysical Year campaign by instruments from a variety of space- and ground-based observatories, spanning wavelengths from radio to soft-X-ray to integrated white light. From these data it is clear that the prominence cavity is the limb manifestation of a longitudinally-extended polar-crown filament channel, and that the cavity is a region of low density relative to the surrounding corona. As a first step towards quantifying density and temperature from campaign spectroscopic data, we establish the three-dimensional morphology of the cavity. This is critical for taking line-of-sight projection effects into account, since cavities are not localized in the plane of the sky and the corona is optically thin. We have augmented a global coronal streamer model to include a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel length. We have developed a semi-automated routine that fits ellipses to cross-sections of the cavity as it rotates past the solar limb, and have applied it to Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) observations from the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. This defines the morphological parameters of our model, from which we reproduce forward-modeled cavity observables. We find that cavity morphology and orientation, in combination with the viewpoints of the observing spacecraft, explains the observed variation in cavity visibility for the east vs. west limbs

  6. THREE DIMENSIONAL PRINTING IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dimitrov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The current development of the rapid prototyping industry in South Africa is characterised by the strong dominance and fast growth in sales of three dimensional printers. Although it reflects the international trend, it seems that the industrial community lacks a clear appreciation of the real strength of this technology, especially with respect to the large variety of devices available today on the market. This paper surveys the current state and capabilities of three dimensional printing (3DP. Based on its technical background – the ink-jet printing known from the printer and plotter industry – a classification structure is developed and proposed. Different printing techniques and process concepts, together with their advantages and limitations, are described and analysed. Typical examples from three completely different application areas – manufacturing, medicine, and architecture – are presented and discussed. Some basic considerations for an informed selection of the right technology for a particular application are then presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Sterk groei in die verkope van drie dimensionele drukkers (3DP kenmerk die onlangse groei in die snelle prototipe industrie in Suid-Afrika. Ten spyte daarvan dat hierdie ‘n internasionale tendens reflekteer, blyk dit dat die werklike waarde van die tegnologie nog nie ten volle waardeer word in die industriële gemeenskap nie, veral aangesien daar so ‘n groot verskeidenheid masjiene in die mark beskikbaar is. ‘n Oorsig oor die huidige stand en vermoë van drie dimensionele drukkers word hier gegee. ‘n Klassifikasiestruktuur – gebaseer op die inkspuitdrukkertegnologie – word ontwikkel en voorgestel. Verskillende druktegnieke en konsepprosesse word ontleed. Daar word ook gekyk na die voor- en nadele hiervan. Tipiese voorbeelde van drie verskillende toepassings (vervaardiging, medies, en argitektuur word aangebied en bespreek. Basiese riglyne vir

  7. Three-dimensional measurement system for crime scene documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Marcin; Hołowko, Elwira; Lech, Krzysztof; Michoński, Jakub; MÄ czkowski, Grzegorz; Bolewicki, Paweł; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Sitnik, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Three dimensional measurements (such as photogrammetry, Time of Flight, Structure from Motion or Structured Light techniques) are becoming a standard in the crime scene documentation process. The usage of 3D measurement techniques provide an opportunity to prepare more insightful investigation and helps to show every trace in the context of the entire crime scene. In this paper we would like to present a hierarchical, three-dimensional measurement system that is designed for crime scenes documentation process. Our system reflects the actual standards in crime scene documentation process - it is designed to perform measurement in two stages. First stage of documentation, the most general, is prepared with a scanner with relatively low spatial resolution but also big measuring volume - it is used for the whole scene documentation. Second stage is much more detailed: high resolution but smaller size of measuring volume for areas that required more detailed approach. The documentation process is supervised by a specialised application CrimeView3D, that is a software platform for measurements management (connecting with scanners and carrying out measurements, automatic or semi-automatic data registration in the real time) and data visualisation (3D visualisation of documented scenes). It also provides a series of useful tools for forensic technicians: virtual measuring tape, searching for sources of blood spatter, virtual walk on the crime scene and many others. In this paper we present our measuring system and the developed software. We also provide an outcome from research on metrological validation of scanners that was performed according to VDI/VDE standard. We present a CrimeView3D - a software-platform that was developed to manage the crime scene documentation process. We also present an outcome from measurement sessions that were conducted on real crime scenes with cooperation with Technicians from Central Forensic Laboratory of Police.

  8. Three-dimensional optofluidic device for isolating microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keloth, A.; Paterson, L.; Markx, G. H.; Kar, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    Development of efficient methods for isolation and manipulation of microorganisms is essential to study unidentified and yet-to-be cultured microbes originating from a variety of environments. The discovery of novel microbes and their products have the potential to contribute to the development of new medicines and other industrially important bioactive compounds. In this paper we describe the design, fabrication and validation of an optofluidic device capable of redirecting microbes within a flow using optical forces. The device holds promise to enable the high throughput isolation of single microbes for downstream culture and analysis. Optofluidic devices are widely used in clinical research, cell biology and biomedical engineering as they are capable of performing analytical functions such as controlled transportation, compact and rapid processing of nanolitres to millilitres of clinical or biological samples. We have designed and fabricated a three dimensional optofluidic device to control and manipulate microorganisms within a microfluidic channel. The device was fabricated in fused silica by ultrafast laser inscription (ULI) followed by selective chemical etching. The unique three-dimensional capability of ULI is utilized to integrate microfluidic channels and waveguides within the same substrate. The main microfluidic channel in the device constitutes the path of the sample. Optical waveguides are fabricated at right angles to the main microfluidic channel. The potential of the optical scattering force to control and manipulate microorganisms is discussed in this paper. A 980 nm continuous wave (CW) laser source, coupled to the waveguide, is used to exert radiation pressure on the particle and particle migrations at different flow velocities are recorded. As a first demonstration, device functionality is validated using fluorescent microbeads and initial trials with microalgae are presented.

  9. Three-dimensional imaging using computer-generated holograms synthesized from 3-D Fourier spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatagai, Toyohiko; Miura, Ken-ichi; Sando, Yusuke; Itoh, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    Computer-generated holograms(CGHs) synthesized from projection images of real existing objects are considered. A series of projection images are recorded both vertically and horizontally with an incoherent light source and a color CCD. According to the principles of computer tomography(CT), the 3-D Fourier spectrum is calculated from several projection images of objects and the Fresnel CGH is synthesized using a part of the 3-D Fourier spectrum. This method has following advantages. At first, no-blur reconstructed images in any direction are obtained owing to two-dimensionally scanning in recording. Secondarily, since not interference fringes but simple projection images of objects are recorded, a coherent light source is not necessary. Moreover, when a color CCD is used in recording, it is easily possible to record and reconstruct colorful objects. Finally, we demonstrate reconstruction of biological objects.

  10. On the purported "backbone fluorescence" in protein three-dimensional fluorescence spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolotti, Annalisa; Wong, Yin How; Korsholm, Stine S.

    2016-01-01

    claiming that this fluorescence originates from the protein backbone, contrary to the established knowledge that UV protein emission is due to aromatic amino acids only. Overall, our data clearly demonstrate that the observed emission upon excitation at 220-230 nm is due to the excitation of Tyr and/or Trp......, with subsequent emission from the lowest excited state (i.e. the same as obtained with 280 nm excitation) in agreement with Kasha's rule. Therefore, this fluorescence peak does not provide any information on backbone conformation, but simply reports on the local environment around the aromatic side chains, just...

  11. Classification of three-dimensional exceptional log canonical hypersurface singularities. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, S A

    2004-01-01

    We study three-dimensional exceptional canonical hypersurface singularities which do not satisfy the condition of well-formedness. The result obtained completes the classification of three-dimensional exceptional log canonical hypersurface singularities begun in [4

  12. Classification of three-dimensional exceptional log canonical hypersurface singularities. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, S A

    2002-01-01

    We describe three-dimensional exceptional strictly log canonical hypersurface singularities and give a detailed classification of three-dimensional exceptional canonical hypersurface singularities under the condition of well-formedness

  13. Classification of three-dimensional exceptional log canonical hypersurface singularities. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, S. A.

    2002-10-01

    We describe three-dimensional exceptional strictly log canonical hypersurface singularities and give a detailed classification of three-dimensional exceptional canonical hypersurface singularities under the condition of well-formedness.

  14. Classification of three-dimensional exceptional log canonical hypersurface singularities. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, S. A.

    2004-04-01

    We study three-dimensional exceptional canonical hypersurface singularities which do not satisfy the condition of well-formedness. The result obtained completes the classification of three-dimensional exceptional log canonical hypersurface singularities begun in [4].

  15. Thermoluminescence dating of dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkoe, L.; Koszorus, L.

    1980-01-01

    Thermoluminescent response of the synthetic hydroxylapatite was studied, this material being the fundamental inorganic constituent of dental enamel. In order to make an attempt at archaeological TL dating of teeth, a chemical deproteination procedure of enamel was established, and the pre-dose effects of separated mineral grains extracted from 100 to 6000 years old human teeth were investigated. (orig.)

  16. Thermoluminescence dosimetry environmental monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoluzzi, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this report, characteristics and performances of an environmental monitoring system with thermoluminescence dosimetry are presented. Most of the work deals with the main physical parameters necessary for measurements of ambiental dose. At the end of this report some of level doses in the environment around the site of the ENEA Center of Energy Research Salluggia (Italy) are illustrated

  17. Photoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Kanazawa T 1989 Inorganic phosphate materials, in Materials science monographs (Amsterdam: Elsevier) 52. Kottaiswamy M, Mohan Rao M and Jayakumar D 1997 Proc. nat. conf. on luminescence and its applications (New Delhi: Allied Publishers) p. 153. Mckeever S W S 1985 Thermoluminescence of solids (Cam-.

  18. Photoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. The suitability of calcium phosphate crystals for thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) applica- tions is investigated, owing to their equivalence to bone mineral. The α and β phases of tricalcium phosphate. (TCP) were synthesized through wet precipitation and high temperature solid state routes and doped with Dy.

  19. Thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnioja, S

    1998-12-31

    A method of thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was developed for the detection of irradiated foods. The TL method is based on the determination of thermoluminescence of adhering or contaminating minerals separated from foods by wet sieving and treatment with high density liquid. Carbon tetrachloride provided a suitable alternative for foods that form gels with water. Thermoluminescence response of minerals in a first TL measurement is normalised with a second TL measurement of the same mineral sample after calibration irradiation to a dose of 5 kGy. The decision about irradiation is made on the basis of a comparison of the two TL spectra: if the two TL glow curves match in shape and intensity the sample has been irradiated, and if they are clearly different it has not been irradiated. An attractive feature of TL analysis is that the mineral material itself is used for calibration; no reference material is required. Foods of interest in the investigation were herbs, spices, berries and seafood. The presence of minerals in samples is a criterion for application of the method, and appropriate minerals were found in all herbs, spices and berries. The most common minerals in terrestrial food were tecto-silicates - quartz and feldspars - which with their intense and stable thermoluminescence were well suited for the analysis. Mica proved to be useless for detection purposes, whereas carbonate in the form of calcite separated from intestines of seafood was acceptable. Fading of the TL signal is considerable in the low temperature part of the glow curve during a storage of several months after irradiation. However, spices and herbs could easily be identified as irradiated even after two years storage. Conditions for seafood, which is stored in a freezer, are different, and only slight fading was observed after one year. The effect of mineral composition and structure on TL was studied for feldspars. Feldspars originating from subtropical and tropical regions exhibit lower TL

  20. Thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnioja, S.

    1998-01-01

    A method of thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was developed for the detection of irradiated foods. The TL method is based on the determination of thermoluminescence of adhering or contaminating minerals separated from foods by wet sieving and treatment with high density liquid. Carbon tetrachloride provided a suitable alternative for foods that form gels with water. Thermoluminescence response of minerals in a first TL measurement is normalised with a second TL measurement of the same mineral sample after calibration irradiation to a dose of 5 kGy. The decision about irradiation is made on the basis of a comparison of the two TL spectra: if the two TL glow curves match in shape and intensity the sample has been irradiated, and if they are clearly different it has not been irradiated. An attractive feature of TL analysis is that the mineral material itself is used for calibration; no reference material is required. Foods of interest in the investigation were herbs, spices, berries and seafood. The presence of minerals in samples is a criterion for application of the method, and appropriate minerals were found in all herbs, spices and berries. The most common minerals in terrestrial food were tecto-silicates - quartz and feldspars - which with their intense and stable thermoluminescence were well suited for the analysis. Mica proved to be useless for detection purposes, whereas carbonate in the form of calcite separated from intestines of seafood was acceptable. Fading of the TL signal is considerable in the low temperature part of the glow curve during a storage of several months after irradiation. However, spices and herbs could easily be identified as irradiated even after two years storage. Conditions for seafood, which is stored in a freezer, are different, and only slight fading was observed after one year. The effect of mineral composition and structure on TL was studied for feldspars. Feldspars originating from subtropical and tropical regions exhibit lower TL

  1. Making three-dimensional echocardiography more tangible: a workflow for three-dimensional printing with echocardiographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Mashari MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing is a rapidly evolving technology with several potential applications in the diagnosis and management of cardiac disease. Recently, 3D printing (i.e. rapid prototyping derived from 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE has become possible. Due to the multiple steps involved and the specific equipment required for each step, it might be difficult to start implementing echocardiography-derived 3D printing in a clinical setting. In this review, we provide an overview of this process, including its logistics and organization of tools and materials, 3D TEE image acquisition strategies, data export, format conversion, segmentation, and printing. Generation of patient-specific models of cardiac anatomy from echocardiographic data is a feasible, practical application of 3D printing technology.

  2. Making three-dimensional echocardiography more tangible: a workflow for three-dimensional printing with echocardiographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashari, Azad; Montealegre-Gallegos, Mario; Knio, Ziyad; Yeh, Lu; Jeganathan, Jelliffe; Matyal, Robina; Khabbaz, Kamal R; Mahmood, Feroze

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a rapidly evolving technology with several potential applications in the diagnosis and management of cardiac disease. Recently, 3D printing (i.e. rapid prototyping) derived from 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has become possible. Due to the multiple steps involved and the specific equipment required for each step, it might be difficult to start implementing echocardiography-derived 3D printing in a clinical setting. In this review, we provide an overview of this process, including its logistics and organization of tools and materials, 3D TEE image acquisition strategies, data export, format conversion, segmentation, and printing. Generation of patient-specific models of cardiac anatomy from echocardiographic data is a feasible, practical application of 3D printing technology. © 2016 The authors.

  3. Leadership and organizational ethics: the three dimensional African perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathooko, Jude Mutuku

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the past, present and future aspects of African leadership and organizational ethics that have, are and will be key for any organization to sustain its systems and structures. Organizational ethics revolves around written and/or unwritten guidelines, ethical values, principles, rules and standards, that are drawn from the harmonious coexistence with the biosphere and it is how these elements are applied that dictates the style of leadership and the ethical thinking of the leaders. Africa has a wide range of complexities which are compounded by, inter alia, tribal divisiveness, selfish leadership, wealth inequality, and massive unemployment. Africans tend to draw their leadership and ethical practices and reflections from the events in the environment with which they have interacted for many years. However, in order to fully address and understand the African perspective in leadership and organizational ethics, a broad comprehension of the African diverse and complex landscape is needed through unravelling of the three dimensional existence of the people. African ethics, developed over time, unifies organizations and leadership since it is part of life and is practised, sub-consciously or unconsciously, by the people as they transform from one practice to the other, and during intergenerational transitions. Globalization, liberalization, technological changes and advancement, and market changes are rapidly transforming the environment in which organizations operate. In such a situation, an effective and true leader cannot be rigid but should be flexible, with the ability to use different leadership styles whenever the situation calls for it. Only those leaders with a three-dimensional perspective live inspiring lives, live with a cause and adopt organizational ethics and leadership styles that will stand the test of time. Despite Africa being the cradle of humankind, leadership and organizational ethics is still in its infancy and wanting, even

  4. Two- and Three-Dimensional Simulations of Asteroid Ocean Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, G.; Weaver, R. P.; Mader, C. L.; Gittings, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    We have performed a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations of asteroid impacts into an ocean using the SAGE code from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The SAGE code is a compressible Eulerian hydrodynamics code using continuous adaptive mesh refinement for following discontinuities with a fine grid while treating the bulk of the simulation more coarsely. We have used tabular equations of state for the atmosphere, water, the oceanic crust, and the mantle. In two dimensions, we simulated asteroid impactors moving at 20 km/s vertically through an exponential atmosphere into a 5 km deep ocean. The impactors were composed of mantle material (3.32 g/cc) or iron (7.8 g/cc) with diameters from 250m to 10 km. In our three-dimensional runs we simulated asteroids of 1 km diameter composed of iron moving at 20 km/s at angles of 45 and 60 degrees from the vertical. All impacts, including the oblique ones, produce large underwater cavities with nearly vertical walls followed by a collapse starting from the bottom and subsequent vertical jetting. Substantial amounts of water are vaporized and lofted high into the atmosphere. In the larger impacts, significant amounts of crustal and even mantle material are lofted as well. Tsunamis up to a kilometer in initial height are generated by the collapse of the vertical jet. These waves are initially complex in form, and interact strongly with shocks propagating through the water and the crust. The tsunami waves are followed out to 100 km from the point of impact. Their periods and wavelengths show them to be intermediate type waves, and not (in general) shallow-water waves. At great distances, the waves decay faster than the inverse of the distance from the impact point, ignoring sea-floor topography. For all impactors smaller than about 2 km diameter, the impacting body is highly fragmented and its remains lofted into the stratosphere with the water vapor and crustal

  5. TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF ASTEROID OCEAN IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gittings

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations of asteroid impacts into an ocean using the SAGE code from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The SAGE code is a compressible Eulerian hydrodynamics code using continuous adaptive mesh refinement for following discontinuities with a fine grid while treating the bulk of the simulation more coarsely. We have used realistic equations of state for the atmosphere, sea water, the oceanic crust, and the mantle. In two dimensions, we simulated asteroid impactors moving at 20 km/s vertically through an exponential atmosphere into a 5 km deep ocean. The impactors were composed of mantle material (3.32 g/cc or iron (7.8 g/cc with diameters from 250m to 10 km. In our three-dimensional runs we simulated asteroids of 1 km diameter composed of iron moving at 20 km/s at angles of 45 and 60 degrees from the vertical. All impacts, including the oblique ones, produce a large underwater cavities with nearly vertical walls followed by a collapse starting from the bottom and subsequent vertical jetting. Substantial amounts of water are vaporized and lofted high into the atmosphere. In the larger impacts, significant amounts of crustal and even mantle material are lofted as well. Tsunamis up to a kilometer in initial height are generated by the collapse of the vertical jet. These waves are initially complex in form, and interact strongly with shocks propagating through the water and the crust. The tsunami waves are followed out to 100 km from the point of impact. Their periods and wavelengths show them to be intermediate type waves, and not (in general shallow-water waves. At great distances, the waves decay as the inverse of the distance from the impact point, ignoring sea-floor topography. For all impactors smaller than about 2 km diameter, the impacting body is highly fragmented and its remains lofted into the stratosphere with the water

  6. Three-dimensional metal scaffold supported bicontinuous silicon battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huigang; Braun, Paul V

    2012-06-13

    Silicon-based lithium ion battery anodes are attracting significant attention because of silicon's exceptionally high lithium capacity. However, silicon's large volume change during cycling generally leads to anode pulverization unless the silicon is dispersed throughout a matrix in nanoparticulate form. Because pulverization results in a loss of electric connectivity, the reversible capacity of most silicon anodes dramatically decays within a few cycles. Here we report a three-dimensional (3D) bicontinuous silicon anode formed by depositing a layer of silicon on the surface of a colloidal crystal templated porous nickel metal scaffold, which maintains electrical connectivity during cycling due to the scaffold. The porous metal framework serves to both impart electrical conductivity to the anode and accommodate the large volume change of silicon upon lithiation and delithiation. The initial capacity of the bicontinuous silicon anode is 3568 (silicon basis) and 1450 mAh g(-1) (including the metal framework) at 0.05C. After 100 cycles at 0.3C, 85% of the capacity remains. Compared to a foil-supported silicon film, the 3D bicontinuous silicon anode exhibits significantly improved mechanical stability and cycleability.

  7. The three-dimensional matrix -- An evolution in project management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glidewell, D.

    1996-09-01

    In the Functional Department Dimension, functional departments such as project management, design, and construction would be maintained to maximize consistency among project teams, evenly allocate training opportunities, and facilitate the crossfeeding of lessons learned and innovative ideas. Functional departments were also determined to be the surest way of complying uniformly with all project control systems required by the Department of Energy (Sandia`s primary external customer). The Technical Discipline dimension was maintained to enhance communication within the technical disciplines, such as electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, etc., and to evenly allocate technical training opportunities, reduce technical obsolescence, and enhance design standards. The third dimension, the Project Dimension, represents the next step in the project management evolution at Sandia, and together with Functional Department and Technical Discipline Dimensions constitutes the three-dimensional matrix. It is this Project Dimension that will be explored thoroughly in this paper, including a discussion of the specific roles and responsibilities of both management and the project team.

  8. Turbulent Flows Over Three-Dimensional Shark Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Aaron; Wen, Li; Lauder, George; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2012-11-01

    Shark skin is covered with thousands of small tooth-like structures called denticles. It has long been hypothesized that denticles act as riblets do in a turbulent boundary layer and help reduce friction drag and enhance shark swimming efficiency. We employ the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (CURVIB) method (Ge and Sotiropoulos, J. Comp. Physics, 2008) to carry out high-resolution large eddy simulations of turbulent flow past a series of anatomically realistic shark denticles mounted on a flat plate. The denticle shapes used in our simulations were obtained by scanning Mako Short Fin shark skin with micro-CT. The computed results are analyzed to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of the flow past the denticles and identify possible drag reduction mechanics. Drag measurements obtained in a laboratory flume for various denticle spacings and arrangements are also reported and analyzed in tandem with the LES results to explore similarities between shark skin and engineered riblets. Computational Resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  9. Micromagnetic studies of three-dimensional pyramidal shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knittel, A; Franchin, M; Fischbacher, T; Fangohr, H; Nasirpouri, F; Bending, S J

    2010-01-01

    We present a systematic numerical analysis of the magnetic properties of pyramidal-shaped core-shell structures in a size range below 400 nm. These are three-dimensional structures consisting of a ferromagnetic shell which is grown on top of a non-magnetic core. The standard micromagnetic model without the magnetocrystalline anisotropy term is used to describe the properties of the shell. We vary the thickness of the shell between the limiting cases of an ultra-thin shell and a conventional pyramid and delineate different stable magnetic configurations. We find different kinds of single-domain states, which predominantly occur at smaller system sizes. In analogy to equivalent states in thin square films we term these onion, flower, C and S states. At larger system sizes, we also observe two types of vortex states, which we refer to as symmetric and asymmetric vortex states. For a classification of the observed states, we derive a phase diagram that specifies the magnetic ground state as a function of structure size and shell thickness. The transitions between different ground states can be understood qualitatively. We address the issue of metastability by investigating the stability of all occurring configurations for different shell thicknesses. For selected geometries and directions hysteresis measurements are analysed and discussed. We observe that the magnetic behaviour changes distinctively in the limit of ultra-thin shells. The study has been motivated by the recent progress made in the growth of faceted core-shell structures.

  10. Three-dimensional cinematography with control object of unknown shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapena, J; Harman, E A; Miller, J A

    1982-01-01

    A technique for reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) motion which involves a simple filming procedure but allows the deduction of coordinates in large object volumes was developed. Internal camera parameters are calculated from measurements of the film images of two calibrated crosses while external camera parameters are calculated from the film images of points in a control object of unknown shape but at least one known length. The control object, which includes the volume in which the activity is to take place, is formed by a series of poles placed at unknown locations, each carrying two targets. From the internal and external camera parameters, and from locations of the images of point in the films of the two cameras, 3D coordinates of the point can be calculated. Root mean square errors of the three coordinates of points in a large object volume (5m x 5m x 1.5m) were 15 mm, 13 mm, 13 mm and 6 mm, and relative errors in lengths averaged 0.5%, 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively.

  11. [Intraoperative three-dimensional navigation for pedicle screw placement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützner, P A; Beutler, T; Wendl, K; von Recum, J; Wentzensen, A; Nolte, L-P

    2004-10-01

    The mobile SIREMOBIL Iso-C(3D) C-arm (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) is the first device permitting intraoperative, three-dimensional representation of bone structures. A high-resolution, isotropic 3D data cube in the isocenter with sides of approximately 12 cm is calculated simultaneously. The SIREMOBIL Iso-C(3D) is linked to the navigation system. This makes it possible to transfer the generated 3D data directly to the linked navigation system without the need for surgeon-dependent registration. In this prospective clinical trial, we evaluated the accuracy of pedicle screw placement using this device. In 61 patients, a total of 302 pedicle screws were placed. Only in five cases (1.7%) were misplacements of > or =2 mm shown in postoperative control CT. The average fluoroscopy time was 1.28+/-0.56 min, and the average operative duration was 103.26+/-23.3 min. There were no postoperative neurological complications in any of the 30 patients. From these data, we conclude that Iso-C(3D) navigation is a very accurate method for the placement of pedicle screws.

  12. Three dimensional simulation study of spheromak injection into magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Watanabe, T.H.; Sato, T.; Hayashi, T.

    2000-01-01

    The three dimensional dynamics of a spheromak-like compact toroid (SCT) plasmoid, which is injected into a magnetized target plasma region, is investigated by using MHD numerical simulations. It is found that the process of SCT penetration into this region is much more complicated than that which has been analysed so far by using a conducting sphere (CS) model. The injected SCT suffers from a tilting instability, which grows with a similar timescale to that of the SCT penetration. The instability is accompanied by magnetic reconnection between the SCT magnetic field and the target magnetic field, which disrupts the magnetic configuration of the SCT. Magnetic reconnection plays a role in supplying the high density plasma, initially confined in the SCT magnetic field, to the target region. The penetration depth of the SCT high density plasma is also examined. It is shown to be shorter than that estimated from the CS model. The SCT high density plasma is decelerated mainly by the Lorentz force of the target magnetic field, which includes not only the magnetic pressure force but also the magnetic tension force. Furthermore, by comparing the SCT plasmoid injection with the bare plasmoid injection, magnetic reconnection is considered to relax the magnetic tension force, i.e. the deceleration of the SCT plasmoid. (author)

  13. Analysis of Human Fibroadenomas Using Three-Dimensional Impedance Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapore, Alexander J.; King, Michael R.; Harter, Josephine; Sarwate, Sandhya; Oelze, Michael L.; Zagzebski, James A.; Do, Minh N.; Hall, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional impedance maps (3DZMs) are virtual volumes of acoustic impedance values constructed from histology to represent tissue microstructure acoustically. From the 3DZM, the ultrasonic backscattered power spectrum can be predicted and model based scatterer properties, such as effective scatterer diameter (ESD), can be estimated. Additionally, the 3DZM can be exploited to visualize and identify possible scattering sites, which may aid in the development of more effective scattering models to better represent the ultrasonic interaction with underlying tissue microstructure. In this study, 3DZMs were created from a set of human fibroadenoma samples. ESD estimates were made assuming a fluid-filled sphere form factor model from 3DZMs of volume 300 × 300 × 300 µm. For a collection of 33 independent human fibroadenoma tissue samples, the ESD was estimated to be 111 ± 40.7 µm. The 3DZMs were then investigated visually to identify possible scattering sources which conformed to the estimated model scatterer dimensions. This estimation technique allowed a better understanding of the spatial distribution and variability of the estimates throughout the volume. PMID:21278015

  14. Self-organization in three-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Ritoku; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1987-07-01

    A three-dimensional self-organization process of a compressible dissipative plasma with a velocity-magnetic field correlation is investigated in detail by means of a variational method and a magnetohydrodynamic simulation. There are two types of relaxation, i.e., fast relaxation in which the cross helicity is not conserved, and slow relaxation in which the cross helicity is approximately conserved. In the slow relaxation case the cross helicity consists of two components with opposite sign which have almost the same amplitude in the large wavenumber region. In both cases the system approaches a high correlation state, dependent on the initial condition. These results are consistent with an observational data of the solar wind. Selective dissipation of magnetic energy, normal cascade of magnetic energy spectrum and inverse cascade of magnetic helicity spectrum are observed for the sub-Alfvenic flow case as was previously observed for the zero flow case. When the flow velocity is super-Alfvenic, the relaxation process is significantly altered from the zero flow case. (author)

  15. Three-dimensional dental imaging by spiral CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Michael W.; Hildebolt, Charles F.; Conover, Gary; Knapp, Robert H.; Yokoyama-Crothers, Naoko; Wang, Ge

    1995-05-01

    Three-dimensional image acquisition, display, and analysis of dental structures was performed and validated using spiral computed tomography (SCT) with metal artifact suppression. Isolated extracted teeth, a dry mandible, cadaver mandible, and cadaver head were scanned and reconstructed using a spiral CT scanner (Siemens Somatom PLUS-S) with 1 mm detector collimation, 1-mm table feed, and 0.1 - 1 mm reconstruction interval using specially developed software. Algorithms for metal artifact reduction including extended attenuation range and interpolation of missing projections were applied. Volumetric rendering of voxel sum images was performed to synthesize images comparable to conventional intraoral dental radiographs. Direct comparison of voxel-based synthetic and digitized film images was made. Several isolated, extracted teeth were sectioned with a diamond saw and submitted for histomorphometric analysis to aid in direct comparison with CT slice images obtained by multiplanar reconstruction. Metal artifact reduction was successful in markedly reducing the streaks and star patterns that usually accompany metallic restorations and intraoral appliances. Individual teeth were comparable to CT slice images. Voxel sum images were comparable to dental radiographs; however, for the SCT images, the spatial resolution was higher within the plane of section than it was orthogonal to the plane of section. Serial examinations were obtained by SCT, registered by surface matching, and interval change measured by 3D subtraction. Simulated lesions and restorations were introduced and quantitatively evaluated pre- and post-interventionally to assess imaging method performance.

  16. Study of Three-Dimensional Image Brightness Loss in Stereoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Cheng Yu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When viewing three-dimensional (3D images, whether in cinemas or on stereoscopic televisions, viewers experience the same problem of image brightness loss. This study aims to investigate image brightness loss in 3D displays, with the primary aim being to quantify the image brightness degradation in the 3D mode. A further aim is to determine the image brightness relationship to the corresponding two-dimensional (2D images in order to adjust the 3D-image brightness values. In addition, the photographic principle is used in this study to measure metering values by capturing 2D and 3D images on television screens. By analyzing these images with statistical product and service solutions (SPSS software, the image brightness values can be estimated using the statistical regression model, which can also indicate the impact of various environmental factors or hardware on the image brightness. In analysis of the experimental results, comparison of the image brightness between 2D and 3D images indicates 60.8% degradation in the 3D image brightness amplitude. The experimental values, from 52.4% to 69.2%, are within the 95% confidence interval

  17. Three-dimensional facial morphometry of attractive Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Chiarella; Laino, Alberto; D'Alessio, Raoul; Grandi, Gaia; Dellavia, Claudia; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Ferrario, Virgilio Ferruccio

    2007-01-01

    To identify reference standards and possible esthetic features in facial proportion and form of Italian adult women. A three-dimensional electromagnetic digitizer was used to collect the coordinates of 50 facial landmarks (forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, mouth, jaw, ears) in 71 healthy, reference women (18-30 years old) and in 48 "attractive" women selected during a beauty competition; soft tissue facial angles, distances and volumes were computed. Attractive women had wider faces with a relatively larger upper facial third (forehead); a larger facial width relative to facial height. The mouth was larger, and lips were more prominent; the interlabial angle was reduced. Overall, the soft-tissue profile was more prominent, with a larger maxillary prominence relative to the mandible. Faces in the attractive women were more flat in the horizontal plane. For several of the analyzed measurements, similar patterns were observed for the 36 women participants to the semi-final stage of the beauty competition, the 12 finalists, and the winner. The winner of the beauty competition deviated from the reference women more than the other two groups of attractive women. Esthetic reference values were determined for a population of 18-30 year olds that reflect contemporary society.

  18. Analysis of secondary coxarthrosis by three dimensional computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmi, Osamu [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-11-01

    The majority of coxarthrosis in Japan is due to congenital dislocation of the hip and acetabular dysplasia. Until now coxarthrosis has been chiefly analyzed on the basis of anterior-posterior radiographs. By using three-dimensional (3D) CT, it was possible to analyze the morphological features of secondary coxarthrosis more accurately, and by using new computer graphics software, it was possible to display the contact area in the hip joint and observe changes associated with progression of the stages of the disease. There were 34 subjects (68 joints), and all of who were women. The CT data were read into a work station, and 3D reconstruction was achieved with hip surgery simulation software (SurgiPlan). Pelvic inclination, acetabular anteversion, seven parameters indicating the investment of the femoral head and two indicating the position of the hip joint in the pelvis were measured. The results showed that secondary coxarthrosis is characterized not only by lateral malposition of the hip joint according to the pelvic coordinates, but by anterior malposition as well. Many other measurements provided 3D information on the acetabular dysplasia. Many of them were correlated with the CE angle on plain radiographs. Furthermore, a strong correlation was not found between anterior and posterior acetabular coverage of the femoral head. In addition, SurgiPlan`s distance mapping function enabled 3D observation of the pattern of progression of arthrosis based on the pattern of progression of joint space narrowing. (author)

  19. Analysis of secondary coxarthrosis by three dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmi, Osamu

    1997-01-01

    The majority of coxarthrosis in Japan is due to congenital dislocation of the hip and acetabular dysplasia. Until now coxarthrosis has been chiefly analyzed on the basis of anterior-posterior radiographs. By using three-dimensional (3D) CT, it was possible to analyze the morphological features of secondary coxarthrosis more accurately, and by using new computer graphics software, it was possible to display the contact area in the hip joint and observe changes associated with progression of the stages of the disease. There were 34 subjects (68 joints), and all of who were women. The CT data were read into a work station, and 3D reconstruction was achieved with hip surgery simulation software (SurgiPlan). Pelvic inclination, acetabular anteversion, seven parameters indicating the investment of the femoral head and two indicating the position of the hip joint in the pelvis were measured. The results showed that secondary coxarthrosis is characterized not only by lateral malposition of the hip joint according to the pelvic coordinates, but by anterior malposition as well. Many other measurements provided 3D information on the acetabular dysplasia. Many of them were correlated with the CE angle on plain radiographs. Furthermore, a strong correlation was not found between anterior and posterior acetabular coverage of the femoral head. In addition, SurgiPlan's distance mapping function enabled 3D observation of the pattern of progression of arthrosis based on the pattern of progression of joint space narrowing. (author)

  20. Three-dimensional ultrasound palmprint recognition using curvature methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iula, Antonio; Nardiello, Donatella

    2016-05-01

    Palmprint recognition systems that use three-dimensional (3-D) information of the palm surface are the most recently explored techniques to overcome some two-dimensional palmprint difficulties. These techniques are based on light structural imaging. In this work, a 3-D ultrasound palmprint recognition system is proposed and evaluated. Volumetric images of a region of the human hand are obtained by moving an ultrasound linear array along its elevation direction and one by one acquiring a number of B-mode images, which are then grouped in a 3-D matrix. The acquisition time was contained in about 5 s. Much information that can be exploited for 3-D palmprint recognition is extracted from the ultrasound volumetric images, including palm curvature and other under-skin information as the depth of the various traits. The recognition procedure developed in this work is based on the analysis of the principal curvatures of palm surface, i.e., mean curvature image, Gaussian curvature image, and surface type. The proposed method is evaluated by performing verification and identification experiments. Preliminary results have shown that the proposed system exhibits an acceptable recognition rate. Further possible improvements of the proposed technique are finally highlighted and discussed.

  1. Three-dimensional transient electromagnetic modeling in the Laplace Domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizunaga, H.; Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    In modeling electromagnetic responses, Maxwell's equations in the frequency domain are popular and have been widely used (Nabighian, 1994; Newman and Alumbaugh, 1995; Smith, 1996, to list a few). Recently, electromagnetic modeling in the time domain using the finite difference (FDTD) method (Wang and Hohmann, 1993) has also been used to study transient electromagnetic interactions in the conductive medium. This paper presents a new technique to compute the electromagnetic response of three-dimensional (3-D) structures. The proposed new method is based on transforming Maxwell's equations to the Laplace domain. For each discrete Laplace variable, Maxwell's equations are discretized in 3-D using the staggered grid and the finite difference method (FDM). The resulting system of equations is then solved for the fields using the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient (ICCG) method. The new method is particularly effective in saving computer memory since all the operations are carried out in real numbers. For the same reason, the computing speed is faster than frequency domain modeling. The proposed approach can be an extremely useful tool in developing an inversion algorithm using the time domain data

  2. Three-Dimensional Neurophenotyping of Adult Zebrafish Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachat, Jonathan; Stewart, Adam; Utterback, Eli; Hart, Peter; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Wong, Keith; Kyzar, Evan; Wu, Nadine; Kalueff, Allan V.

    2011-01-01

    The use of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) in neurobehavioral research is rapidly expanding. The present large-scale study applied the newest video-tracking and data-mining technologies to further examine zebrafish anxiety-like phenotypes. Here, we generated temporal and spatial three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of zebrafish locomotion, globally assessed behavioral profiles evoked by several anxiogenic and anxiolytic manipulations, mapped individual endpoints to 3D reconstructions, and performed cluster analysis to reconfirm behavioral correlates of high- and low-anxiety states. The application of 3D swim path reconstructions consolidates behavioral data (while increasing data density) and provides a novel way to examine and represent zebrafish behavior. It also enables rapid optimization of video tracking settings to improve quantification of automated parameters, and suggests that spatiotemporal organization of zebrafish swimming activity can be affected by various experimental manipulations in a manner predicted by their anxiolytic or anxiogenic nature. Our approach markedly enhances the power of zebrafish behavioral analyses, providing innovative framework for high-throughput 3D phenotyping of adult zebrafish behavior. PMID:21408171

  3. MR study of intracranial disease with three-dimensional FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, V.M.; Wood, M.L.; Kaufman, D.M.; Nelson, K.L.; Traill, M.R.; Wolpert, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    A three-dimensional FLASH technique was used to study 36 patients with intracranial disease at 1 T (Siemens Magnetom). This included 15 cases of intracranial neoplastic disease, four with the application of intravenous Gd-DTPA. Contiguous thin sections (1-2 mm thick) were acquired of the entire intracranial contents using one acquisition (scan time of 5-15 minutes). A MIPRON (KONTRON Instruments) image processing work station was used for rapid image display and 3D reconstruction. 3D FLASH was found to be superior to spin-echo imaging at 1 T for the detection of hemorrhage. 3D acquisition also provided superior localization of neoplastic disease. The T1 contrast achieved was comparable to spin-echo technique with a repetition time/echo time of .6/17. The advantages in terms of lesion localization and thin-section imaging with high spatial resolution of the entire brain may lead to use of 3D FLASH in place of conventional spin-echo imaging

  4. Three-dimensional neurophenotyping of adult zebrafish behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Cachat

    Full Text Available The use of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio in neurobehavioral research is rapidly expanding. The present large-scale study applied the newest video-tracking and data-mining technologies to further examine zebrafish anxiety-like phenotypes. Here, we generated temporal and spatial three-dimensional (3D reconstructions of zebrafish locomotion, globally assessed behavioral profiles evoked by several anxiogenic and anxiolytic manipulations, mapped individual endpoints to 3D reconstructions, and performed cluster analysis to reconfirm behavioral correlates of high- and low-anxiety states. The application of 3D swim path reconstructions consolidates behavioral data (while increasing data density and provides a novel way to examine and represent zebrafish behavior. It also enables rapid optimization of video tracking settings to improve quantification of automated parameters, and suggests that spatiotemporal organization of zebrafish swimming activity can be affected by various experimental manipulations in a manner predicted by their anxiolytic or anxiogenic nature. Our approach markedly enhances the power of zebrafish behavioral analyses, providing innovative framework for high-throughput 3D phenotyping of adult zebrafish behavior.

  5. Three-dimensional brain mapping using fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Chuzo; Umeda, Masahiro; Ebisu, Toshihiko; Aoki, Ichio; Higuchi, Toshihiro; Naruse, Shoji.

    1997-01-01

    Functional mapping of the activated brain, the location and extent of the activated area were determined, during motor tasks and sensory stimulation using fMRI superimposed on 3D anatomical MRI. Twelve volunteers were studied. The fMR images were acquired using a 2D gradient echo echo planar imaging sequence. The 3D anatomical MR images of the whole brain were acquired using a conventional 3D gradient echo sequence. Motor tasks were sequential opposition of fingers, clenching a hand and elbow flexion. Somatosensory stimulation were administered by scrubbing the palm and sole with a washing sponge. Visual stimulation consisted of full visual field stimulation. Data were analyzed by the cross-correlation method. Transversal fMR images and anatomical images were reconstructed using both volume-, surface-rendering methods, and reconstructed for coronal and sagittal sections. Activated areas were expressed using the three primary colors. Motor tasks activated the contralateral primary motor area (M1), the primary somatosensory area (S1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA). Somatosensory tasks activated the contralateral S1, M1 and secondary sensory area (S2). Activated areas during full visual field stimulation was observed in the bilateral occipital lobe, including both the primary cortex. Three-dimensional brain mapping allowed visualization of the anatomical location and extent of the activated brain during both motor task and sensory stimulation. Using this method we could obtain a functional map similar to the Penfield's schema. (author)

  6. Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Kevin S; Salha, Sara; Sandberg, Richard L; Jiang, Huaidong; Rodríguez, Jose A; Fahimian, Benjamin P; Kapteyn, Henry C; Du, Jincheng; Miao, Jianwei

    2010-01-14

    The ability to determine the structure of matter in three dimensions has profoundly advanced our understanding of nature. Traditionally, the most widely used schemes for three-dimensional (3D) structure determination of an object are implemented by acquiring multiple measurements over various sample orientations, as in the case of crystallography and tomography, or by scanning a series of thin sections through the sample, as in confocal microscopy. Here we present a 3D imaging modality, termed ankylography (derived from the Greek words ankylos meaning 'curved' and graphein meaning 'writing'), which under certain circumstances enables complete 3D structure determination from a single exposure using a monochromatic incident beam. We demonstrate that when the diffraction pattern of a finite object is sampled at a sufficiently fine scale on the Ewald sphere, the 3D structure of the object is in principle determined by the 2D spherical pattern. We confirm the theoretical analysis by performing 3D numerical reconstructions of a sodium silicate glass structure at 2 A resolution, and a single poliovirus at 2-3 nm resolution, from 2D spherical diffraction patterns alone. Using diffraction data from a soft X-ray laser, we also provide a preliminary demonstration that ankylography is experimentally feasible by obtaining a 3D image of a test object from a single 2D diffraction pattern. With further development, this approach of obtaining complete 3D structure information from a single view could find broad applications in the physical and life sciences.

  7. Three-dimensional facial digitization using advanced digital image correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu; Kieu, Hien; Wang, Zhaoyang; Le, Hanh N D

    2018-03-20

    Presented in this paper is an effective technique to acquire the three-dimensional (3D) digital images of the human face without the use of active lighting and artificial patterns. The technique is based on binocular stereo imaging and digital image correlation, and it includes two key steps: camera calibration and image matching. The camera calibration involves a pinhole model and a bundle-adjustment approach, and the governing equations of the 3D digitization process are described. For reliable pixel-to-pixel image matching, the skin pores and freckles or lentigines on the human face serve as the required pattern features to facilitate the process. It employs feature-matching-based initial guess, multiple subsets, iterative optimization algorithm, and reliability-guided computation path to achieve fast and accurate image matching. Experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed technique. The simplicity of the approach and the affordable cost of the implementation show its practicability in scientific and engineering applications.

  8. Three-dimensional brain mapping using fMRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukunaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Chuzo; Umeda, Masahiro; Ebisu, Toshihiko; Aoki, Ichio [Meiji Univ. of Oriental Medicine, Hiyoshi, Kyoto (Japan); Higuchi, Toshihiro; Naruse, Shoji

    1997-10-01

    Functional mapping of the activated brain, the location and extent of the activated area were determined, during motor tasks and sensory stimulation using fMRI superimposed on 3D anatomical MRI. Twelve volunteers were studied. The fMR images were acquired using a 2D gradient echo echo planar imaging sequence. The 3D anatomical MR images of the whole brain were acquired using a conventional 3D gradient echo sequence. Motor tasks were sequential opposition of fingers, clenching a hand and elbow flexion. Somatosensory stimulation were administered by scrubbing the palm and sole with a washing sponge. Visual stimulation consisted of full visual field stimulation. Data were analyzed by the cross-correlation method. Transversal fMR images and anatomical images were reconstructed using both volume-, surface-rendering methods, and reconstructed for coronal and sagittal sections. Activated areas were expressed using the three primary colors. Motor tasks activated the contralateral primary motor area (M1), the primary somatosensory area (S1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA). Somatosensory tasks activated the contralateral S1, M1 and secondary sensory area (S2). Activated areas during full visual field stimulation was observed in the bilateral occipital lobe, including both the primary cortex. Three-dimensional brain mapping allowed visualization of the anatomical location and extent of the activated brain during both motor task and sensory stimulation. Using this method we could obtain a functional map similar to the Penfield`s schema. (author)

  9. Three-dimensional display of magnetic source imaging (MSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, Takato; Yamamoto, Tomoya; Nishio, Shunji; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Fukui, Masashi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Nitta, Koichi

    1995-03-01

    Magnetic source imaging (MSI) is a relatively new, noninvasive technique for defining the relationship between brain structure and function of individual patients, and to establish comparisons from one patient to another. This is achieved by combining detailed neurophysiological data derived via magnetoencephalography (MEG) with neuroimaging data such as computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The noninvasive presurgical mapping of cortical functional somatosensory activity and the direct mapping of epilepsy-associated activity are among the neurosurgical uses that are emerging for MSI. Although the procedure provides clinically useful data, there are still limitations to two-dimensional MSI. We employ three-dimensional (3-D) MSI, superimposing MSI localizations on 3-D volumetric reconstruction of MRI. 3-D MSI enhances the visualization of the entire sensory homunculus and clearly demonstrates the spatial relationship with structural lesions. The functional localization of the epileptic focus in spatial relation to the lesion provides important clues for preoperative planning and on the epileptogenicity of the lesion. 3-D MSI improves localization of the sensory cortex and generator areas of epileptic activity. (author).

  10. Three-dimensional volumetric assessment of response to treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, C.G.; Stracher, M.A.; Linggood, R.M.; Leong, J.C.; Skates, S.J.; Miketic, L.M.; Kushner, D.C.; Jacobson, J.O.

    1988-01-01

    From 1981 to 1986, 12 patients with Stage I and II diffuse large cell lymphoma of the mediastinum were treated with 4 or more cycles of multiagent chemotherapy and for nine patients this was followed by mediastinal irradiation. The response to treatment was assessed by three-dimensional volumetric analysis utilizing thoracic CT scans. The initial mean tumor volume of the five patients relapsing was 540 ml in contrast to an initial mean tumor volume of 360 ml for the seven patients remaining in remission. Of the eight patients in whom mediastinal lymphoma volumes could be assessed 1-2 months after chemotherapy prior to mediastinal irradiation, the three patients who have relapsed had volumes of 292, 92 and 50 ml (mean volume 145 ml) in contrast to five patients who have remained in remission with residual volume abnormalities of 4-87 ml (mean volume 32 ml). Four patients in prolonged remission with CT scans taken one year after treatment have been noted to have mediastinal tumor volumes of 0-28 ml with a mean value of 10 ml. This volumetric technique to assess the extent of mediastinal large cell lymphoma from thoracic CT scans appears to be a useful method to quantitate the amount of disease at presentation as well as objectively monitor response to treatment. 13 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 table

  11. Technical Development of Slurry Three-Dimensional Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cho-Pei; Hsu, Huang-Jan; Lee, Shyh-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the technical development of slurry three-dimensional printer (3DP) which based on photo-polymerization and constrained surface method. Basically, slurry consists of ceramic powder, resin and photo-initiator. The light engines for solidifying the photo-curable slurry can be classified as laser, liquid crystal panel (LCD), digital light processing (DLP). The slurry can be reacted and solidified by selective ray according to the reaction spectrum of photo-initiator. Ceramic powder used in this study is zirconia oxide. Experimental results show that ceramic particle size affects the viscosity of slurry severely resulting in low accuracy and the occurrence of micro crack in the layer casting procedure. Therefore, the effect of particle size on the curability and accuracy of built green part is discussed. A single dental crown is proposed to be fabricated by these three light engines as a benchmark for comparison. In addition, the cost and the limitation are compared in the aspect of dental crown fabrication. Consequently, the lowest cost is LCD-type slurry 3DP system. DLP-type slurry 3DP can produce green body with the fastest fabrication time. The volumetric error of sintered part that made by these three fabrication methods is similar because the composition of slurry is the same.

  12. Three dimensional multilayer solenoid microcoils inside silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangwei; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Shan, Chao; Liu, Keyin; Li, Yanyang; Bian, Hao; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) solenoid microcoils could generate uniform magnetic field. Multilayer solenoid microcoils are highly pursued for strong magnetic field and high inductance in advanced magnetic microsystems. However, the fabrication of the 3D multilayer solenoid microcoils is still a challenging task. In this paper, 3D multilayer solenoid microcoils with uniform diameters and high aspect ratio were fabricated in silica glass. An alloy (Bi/In/Sn/Pb) with high melting point was chosen as the conductive metal to overcome the limitation of working temperature and improve the electrical property. The inductance of the three layers microcoils was measured, and the value is 77.71 nH at 100 kHz and 17.39 nH at 120 MHz. The quality factor was calculated, and it has a value of 5.02 at 120 MHz. This approach shows an improvement method to achieve complex 3D metal microstructures and electronic components, which could be widely integrated in advanced magnetic microsystems.

  13. Simplified two and three dimensional HTTR benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhan; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang Dingkang; Pounders, Justin M.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of diffusion or transport methods for reactor calculations, it is desirable to create heterogeneous benchmark problems that are typical of whole core configurations. In this paper we have created two and three dimensional numerical benchmark problems typical of high temperature gas cooled prismatic cores. Additionally, a single cell and single block benchmark problems are also included. These problems were derived from the HTTR start-up experiment. Since the primary utility of the benchmark problems is in code-to-code verification, minor details regarding geometry and material specification of the original experiment have been simplified while retaining the heterogeneity and the major physics properties of the core from a neutronics viewpoint. A six-group material (macroscopic) cross section library has been generated for the benchmark problems using the lattice depletion code HELIOS. Using this library, Monte Carlo solutions are presented for three configurations (all-rods-in, partially-controlled and all-rods-out) for both the 2D and 3D problems. These solutions include the core eigenvalues, the block (assembly) averaged fission densities, local peaking factors, the absorption densities in the burnable poison and control rods, and pin fission density distribution for selected blocks. Also included are the solutions for the single cell and single block problems.

  14. Applicability of three-dimensional imaging techniques in fetal medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner Junior, Heron; Daltro, Pedro; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro, E-mail: heronwerner@hotmail.com [Clinica de Diagnostico Por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Jorge Lopes dos; Belmonte, Simone; Ribeiro, Gerson [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To generate physical models of fetuses from images obtained with three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and, occasionally, computed tomography (CT), in order to guide additive manufacturing technology. Materials and Methods: We used 3D-US images of 31 pregnant women, including 5 who were carrying twins. If abnormalities were detected by 3D-US, both MRI and in some cases CT scans were then immediately performed. The images were then exported to a workstation in DICOM format. A single observer performed slice-by-slice manual segmentation using a digital high resolution screen. Virtual 3D models were obtained from software that converts medical images into numerical models. Those models were then generated in physical form through the use of additive manufacturing techniques. Results: Physical models based upon 3D-US, MRI, and CT images were successfully generated. The postnatal appearance of either the aborted fetus or the neonate closely resembled the physical models, particularly in cases of malformations. Conclusion: The combined use of 3D-US, MRI, and CT could help improve our understanding of fetal anatomy. These three screening modalities can be used for educational purposes and as tools to enable parents to visualize their unborn baby. The images can be segmented and then applied, separately or jointly, in order to construct virtual and physical 3D models. (author)

  15. [Construction of Three-Dimensional Isobologram for Ternary Pollutant Mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China) Isobolographic analysis was widely used in the interaction assessment of binary mixtures. However, how to construct a three-dimensional (3D) isobologram for the assessment of toxicity interaction within ternary mixtures is still not reported up to date. The main purpose of this paper is to develop a 3D isobologram where the relative concentrations of three components are acted as three coordinate axes in 3D space to examine the toxicity interaction within ternary mixtures. Taking six commonly used pesticides in China, including three herbicides (2, 4-D, desmetryne and simetryn) and three insecticides ( dimethoate, imidacloprid and propoxur) as the mixture components, the uniform design ray procedure (UD-Ray) was used to rationally design the concentration composition of various components in the ternary mixtures so that effectively and comprehensively reflected the variety of actual environmental concentrations. The luminescent inhibition toxicities of single pesticides and their ternary mixtures to Vibrio fischeri at various concentration levels were determined by the microplate toxicity analysis. Selecting concentration addition (CA) as the addition reference, 3D isobolograms were constructed to study the toxicity interactions of various ternary mixtures. The results showed that the 3D isobologram could clearly and directly exhibit the toxicity interactions of ternary mixtures, and extend the use of isobolographic analysis into the ternary mixtures.

  16. Three-dimensional simulations of void collapse in energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nirmal Kumar; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2018-03-01

    The collapse of voids in porous energetic materials leads to hot-spot formation and reaction initiation. This work advances the current knowledge of the dynamics of void collapse and hot-spot formation using 3D reactive void collapse simulations in HMX. Four different void shapes, i.e., sphere, cylinder, plate, and ellipsoid, are studied. For all four shapes, collapse generates complex three-dimensional (3D) baroclinic vortical structures. The hot spots are collocated with regions of intense vorticity. The differences in the vortical structures for the different void shapes are shown to significantly impact the relative sensitivity of the voids. Voids of high surface area generate hot spots of greater intensity; intricate, highly contorted vortical structures lead to hot spots of corresponding tortuosity and therefore enhanced growth rates of reaction fronts. In addition, all 3D voids are shown to be more sensitive than their two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. The results provide physical insights into hot-spot formation and growth and point to the limitations of 2D analyses of hot-spot formation.

  17. A microfluidically perfused three dimensional human liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennert, Knut; Steinborn, Sandra; Gröger, Marko; Ungerböck, Birgit; Jank, Anne-Marie; Ehgartner, Josef; Nietzsche, Sandor; Dinger, Julia; Kiehntopf, Michael; Funke, Harald; Peters, Frank T; Lupp, Amelie; Gärtner, Claudia; Mayr, Torsten; Bauer, Michael; Huber, Otmar; Mosig, Alexander S

    2015-12-01

    Within the liver, non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) are critically involved in the regulation of hepatocyte polarization and maintenance of metabolic function. We here report the establishment of a liver organoid that integrates NPCs in a vascular layer composed of endothelial cells and tissue macrophages and a hepatic layer comprising stellate cells co-cultured with hepatocytes. The three-dimensional liver organoid is embedded in a microfluidically perfused biochip that enables sufficient nutrition supply and resembles morphological aspects of the human liver sinusoid. It utilizes a suspended membrane as a cell substrate mimicking the space of Disse. Luminescence-based sensor spots were integrated into the chip to allow online measurement of cellular oxygen consumption. Application of microfluidic flow induces defined expression of ZO-1, transferrin, ASGPR-1 along with an increased expression of MRP-2 transporter protein within the liver organoids. Moreover, perfusion was accompanied by an increased hepatobiliary secretion of 5(6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein and an enhanced formation of hepatocyte microvilli. From this we conclude that the perfused liver organoid shares relevant morphological and functional characteristics with the human liver and represents a new in vitro research tool to study human hepatocellular physiology at the cellular level under conditions close to the physiological situation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lagrangian chaos in three- dimensional steady buoyancy-driven flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Sebastian; Speetjens, Michel; Clercx, Herman

    2016-11-01

    Natural convection plays a key role in fluid dynamics owing to its ubiquitous presence in nature and industry. Buoyancy-driven flows are prototypical systems in the study of thermal instabilities and pattern formation. The differentially heated cavity problem has been widely studied for the investigation of buoyancy-induced oscillatory flow. However, far less attention has been devoted to the three-dimensional Lagrangian transport properties in such flows. This study seeks to address this by investigating Lagrangian transport in the steady flow inside a cubic cavity differentially-heated from the side. The theoretical and numerical analysis expands on previously reported similarities between the current flow and lid-driven flows. The Lagrangian dynamics are controlled by the Péclet number (Pe) and the Prandtl number (Pr). Pe controls the behaviour qualitatively in that growing Pe progressively perturbs the integable state (Pe =0), thus paving the way to chaotic dynamics. Pr plays an entirely quantitative role in that Pr1 amplifies and diminishes, respectively, the perturbative effect of non-zero Pe. S.C. acknowledges financial support from Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT).

  19. NMR experiments on a three-dimensional vibrofluidized granular medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Chao; Yang, Xiaoyu; Candela, D.; Mair, R. W.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2004-04-01

    A three-dimensional granular system fluidized by vertical container vibrations was studied using pulsed field gradient NMR coupled with one-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. The system consisted of mustard seeds vibrated vertically at 50 Hz, and the number of layers Nl⩽4 was sufficiently low to achieve a nearly time-independent granular fluid. Using NMR, the vertical profiles of density and granular temperature were directly measured, along with the distributions of vertical and horizontal grain velocities. The velocity distributions showed modest deviations from Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, except for the vertical velocity distribution near the sample bottom, which was highly skewed and non-Gaussian. Data taken for three values of Nl and two dimensionless accelerations Γ=15,18 were fitted to a hydrodynamic theory, which successfully models the density and temperature profiles away from the vibrating container bottom. A temperature inversion near the free upper surface is observed, in agreement with predictions based on the hydrodynamic parameter μ which is nonzero only in inelastic systems.

  20. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL BABCOCK-LEIGHTON SOLAR DYNAMO MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miesch, Mark S.; Dikpati, Mausumi

    2014-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) kinematic solar dynamo model in which poloidal field is generated by the emergence and dispersal of tilted sunspot pairs (more generally bipolar magnetic regions, or BMRs). The axisymmetric component of this model functions similarly to previous 2.5 dimensional (2.5D, axisymmetric) Babcock-Leighton (BL) dynamo models that employ a double-ring prescription for poloidal field generation but we generalize this prescription into a 3D flux emergence algorithm that places BMRs on the surface in response to the dynamo-generated toroidal field. In this way, the model can be regarded as a unification of BL dynamo models (2.5D in radius/latitude) and surface flux transport models (2.5D in latitude/longitude) into a more self-consistent framework that builds on the successes of each while capturing the full 3D structure of the evolving magnetic field. The model reproduces some basic features of the solar cycle including an 11 yr periodicity, equatorward migration of toroidal flux in the deep convection zone, and poleward propagation of poloidal flux at the surface. The poleward-propagating surface flux originates as trailing flux in BMRs, migrates poleward in multiple non-axisymmetric streams (made axisymmetric by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion), and eventually reverses the polar field, thus sustaining the dynamo. In this Letter we briefly describe the model, initial results, and future plans