WorldWideScience

Sample records for three-dimensional neuronal reconstructions

  1. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2005-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context, qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  2. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by order, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  3. Important factors for the three-dimensional reconstruction of neuronal structures from serial ultrathin sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Kubota

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of anatomical synaptic connectivity in microcircuits depends upon accurate 3-dimentional reconstructions of synaptic ultrastructure using electron microscopy of serial ultrathin sections. Here we address two pitfalls in current methodology that lead to inaccurate reconstructions and compromise conclusions drawn from the data. The first pitfall is inaccurate determination of ultrathin section thickness, which negatively affects the three-dimensional shape of reconstructions and therefore impairs quantitative measurement of synaptic structures. Secondly, current methodology significantly underestimates the number of synaptic junctions, with only two-thirds or less of genuine synaptic contacts being identified in dendrites that radiate within the plane of section. Here we propose a new methodology utilizing precise optical measurements of section thickness and successive observations of synaptic elements across serial ultrathin sections that corrects for these limitations to allow accurate 3-dimentional reconstruction of synaptic ultrastructure. We use this methodology to reveal that parvalbumin-expressing cortical interneurons have a much higher synaptic density than previously shown. This result suggests that this technique will be useful for re-examining synaptic connectivity of other cell types.

  4. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Sandpile Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, G. T.

    2001-03-01

    The granular bed, or sandpile, has become one of the condensed matter physicist's favorite systems. In addition to conceptual appeal, the simplest sandpile of monodisperse hard spheres is a valuable model system for understanding powders, liquids, and metallic glasses. Any fundamental approach to the transport and mechanical properties of three-dimensional mesoscale disordered materials must follow from a thorough understanding of their structure. However, in the overwhelming majority of cases, structure measurements have been limited to the mean filling fraction and the structural autocorrelation function. This is particularly unfortunate in the ongoing sandpile renaissance, where some of the most interesting questions concern structure and the relationship between structure and dynamics. I will discuss the combination of synchrotron x-ray microtomography and computer vision algorithms to perform three-dimensional virtual reconstructions of real sandpiles. This technique is rapid and noninvasive, and is applicable to samples large enough to separate bulk and boundary properties. The resulting complete knowledge of structure can be used to calculate otherwise inaccessible correlation functions. I will present results for several measures of the bond-orientational order in three-dimensional sandpiles, including fabric tensors and nematic order parameters.

  5. Three-dimensional reconstruction of CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Toshiaki; Kattoh, Keiichi; Kawakami, Genichiroh; Igami, Isao; Mariya, Yasushi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Saitoh, Yohko; Tamura, Koreroku; Shinozaki, Tatsuyo

    1986-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has the ability to provide sensitive visualization of organs and lesions. Owing to the nature of CT to be transaxial images, a structure which is greater than a certain size appears as several serial CT images. Consequently each observer must reconstruct those images into a three-dimensional (3-D) form mentally. It has been supposed to be of great use if such a 3-D form can be described as a definite figure. A new computer program has been developed which can produce 3-D figures from the profiles of organs and lesions on CT images using spline curves. The figures obtained through this method are regarded to have practical applications.

  6. Three-dimensional reconstruction and visualization system for medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.F.; Batnitzky, S.; Kyo Rak Lee; Cook, P.N.; Cook, L.T.; Dwyer, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    A three-dimensional reconstruction and visualization system could be of significant advantage in medical application such as neurosurgery and radiation treatment planning. The reconstructed anatomic structures from CT head scans could be used in a head stereotactic system to help plan the surgical procedure and the radiation treatment for a brain lesion. Also, the use of three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm provides for quantitative measures such as volume and surface area estimation of the anatomic features. This aspect of the three-dimensional reconstruction system may be used to monitor the progress or staging of a disease and the effects of patient treatment. Two cases are presented to illustrate the three-dimensional surface reconstruction and visualization system

  7. Three-dimensional reconstructions in neuroanatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmann, H.J.; Vogt, H.; Schuetz, T.; Gerke, M.; Riedel, A.; Buhmann, C.; Wesemann, M.; Mueller, D.

    1991-01-01

    Computer-aided 3D reconstructions of neurofunctional systems and structures are generated as a reference for neuroimaging (CT, MRI, PET). The clinical application of these 3D reconstructions requires a coordinate system and conditions resembling the intravital neuroanatomy as far as possible. In this paper the neuroanatomical reference system (NeuRef) of the Department of Neuroanatomy of Hannover Medical School is presented. This consists of methods to record brain structures from serial sections with minimal error (less than 1 mm) and to display 3D brain models derived from such a data base. In addition, NeuRef is able to generate sections through, for instance, the visual and pyramidal system and to transfer these data onto a corresponcing CT image. Therefore, this method can serve as a diagnostic aid in neuroradiology, in operation planning, and radiotherapy. It can also be used in PACS. (orig.) [de

  8. Application of three-dimensional CT reconstruction cranioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shuli; Yun Yongxing; Wan Kunming; Qiu Jian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the application of three-dimensional CT reconstruction in cranioplasty. Methods: 46 patients with skull defect were divided into two group. One group underwent CT examination and three-dimensional reconstruction, and then the Titanium nets production company manufactured corresponding titanium meshes were shaped those data before the operation. The other group received traditional operation in which titanium meshes were shaped during operation. The average time of operation were compared. Results: The average time of operation of the first group is 86.6±13.6 mins, and that of the second group is 115±15.0 mins. The difference of average operation time between the two groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: Three-dimensional CT reconstruction techniques contribute to shorten the average operation time, reduce the intensity of neurosurgeon's work and the patien's risk. (authors)

  9. Eustachian tube three-dimensional reconstruction of secretory otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yafeng; Zhou Weirong; Bao Xueping; Li Min; Hu Zhenmin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study relationship between Eustachian tube and secretory otitis media and to explore the pathogeny of secretory otitis by three-dimensional reconstruction of Eustachian tube. Methods: Thirty cases of secretory otitis media (male 19, female 11) were selected randomly. Everyone was checked by otoscope and audiometry. Their bilateral Eustachian tubes were scanning by helix CT while making Valsalva's action. All images were passed on to work station to make three-dimensional reconstruction. Results: Four patients were found have Eustachian tube diseases, while most of patients' Eustachian tubes ventilated normally. Conclusions: Three-dimensional reconstruction of Eustachian tube can open out some pathogens of some secretory otitis medias. It will be helpful to diagnosis and therapy of secretory otitis media. (authors)

  10. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the pigeon inner ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.; Segenhout, J. M.; Wit, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional reconstructions of the inner ear of the pigeon (Columba livia domestica), from two-dimensional images, obtained with (conventional) light microscopy or orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning (OPFOS), are presented. The results are compared with available information on

  11. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the biliary tract using spiral computed tomography. Three-dimensional cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gon, Masanori; Ogura, Norihiro; Uetsuji, Shouji; Ueyama, Yasuo

    1995-01-01

    In this study, 310 patients with benign biliary diseases, 20 with gallbladder cancer, and 8 with biliary tract carcinoma underwent spiral CT (SCT) scanning at cholangiography. Depiction rate of the shape of the conjunction site of the gallbladder and biliary tract was 27.5% by conventional intravenous cholangiography (DIC), 92.5% by ERC, and 90.0% by DIC-SCT. Abnormal cystic duct course was admitted in 14.1%. Multiplanar reconstruction by DIC-SCT enabled identification of the common bile duct and intrahepatic bile duct stone. Three-dimensional reconstruction of DIC-SCT was effective in evaluating obstruction of the anastomosis or passing condition of after hepatico-jejunostomy. Two-dimensional SCT images through PTCD tube enabled degree of hepatic invasion in bile duct cancer, and three-dimensional images were useful in grasping the morphology of the bile duct branches near the obstruction site. DIC-SCT is therefore considered a useful procedure as non-invasive examination of bile duct lesions. (S.Y.)

  12. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao

    1999-01-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  13. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  14. Computational methods for three-dimensional microscopy reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to the recovery of three-dimensional information on a biological object, which are often formulated or implemented initially in an intuitive way, are concisely described here based on physical models of the object and the image-formation process. Both three-dimensional electron microscopy and X-ray tomography can be captured in the same mathematical framework, leading to closely-related computational approaches, but the methodologies differ in detail and hence pose different challenges. The editors of this volume, Gabor T. Herman and Joachim Frank, are experts in the respective methodologies and present research at the forefront of biological imaging and structural biology.   Computational Methods for Three-Dimensional Microscopy Reconstruction will serve as a useful resource for scholars interested in the development of computational methods for structural biology and cell biology, particularly in the area of 3D imaging and modeling.

  15. Two-and three-dimensional CT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, E.K.; Ney, D.R.; Magid, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the optimal imaging sequence for creating two- and three-dimensional (2D/3D) skeletal reconstructions from CT data. A cadaver femur, a bone phantom, and a surgically created fracture were scanned with varying protocols to determine the optimal protocol for creating 2D/3D images. The scanning protocols used varying section thickness (2, 4, and 8 mm) as well as scan spacing (2, 3, 4 and 8 mm). All images were reconstructed into 2D data sets with a bicubic interpolation and 3D datasets with volumetric rendering. The results were reviewed by two reviewers to determine the quality of images reconstruction

  16. Three-dimensional image reconstruction. I. Determination of pattern orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenbecler, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The problem of determining the Euler angles of a randomly oriented three-dimensional (3D) object from its 2D Fraunhofer diffraction patterns is discussed. This problem arises in the reconstruction of a positive semidefinite 3D object using oversampling techniques. In such a problem, the data consist of a measured set of magnitudes from 2D tomographic images of the object at several unknown orientations. After the orientation angles are determined, the object itself can then be reconstructed by a variety of methods using oversampling, the magnitude data from the 2D images, physical constraints on the image, and then iteration to determine the phases

  17. Three-dimensional image reconstruction from stereo DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kiyoshi; Kotoura, Noriko; Umehara, Takayoshi; Yamada, Eiji; Inaba, Tomohiro; Itou, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    The technique of interventional radiology has spread rapidly in recent years, and three-dimensional information from blood vessel images is being sought to enhance examinations. Stereo digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and rotational DSA were developed for that purpose. However, it is difficult with stereo DSA to observe the image pair during examination and to obtain positional information on blood vessels. Further, the exposure dose is increased in rotational DSA when many mask images need to be collected, and the patient is required to hold his or her breath for a long duration. We therefore devised a technique to construct three-dimensional blood vessel images by employing geometrical information extracted from stereo DSA images using the right and left images. We used a judgment method based on the correlation coefficient, although we had to extract an equal blood vessel from the right and left images to determine the three-dimensional coordinates of the blood vessel. The reconstructed three-dimensional blood vessels were projected from various angles, again by using a virtual focus, and new images were created. These image groups were displayed as rotational images by the animation display function incorporated in the DSA device. This system can observe blood vessel images of the same phase at a free angle, although the image quality is inferior to that of rotational DSA. In addition, because collection of the mask images is reduced, exposure dose can be decreased. Further, the system offers enhanced safety because no mechanical movement of the imaging system is involved. (author)

  18. Three dimensional image reconstruction in the Fourier domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, C.W.; Chesler, D.A.; Brownell, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithms are based upon the relationship between the Fourier transform of the imaged object and the Fourier transforms of its projections. A new reconstruction algorithm has been developed which performs the image assembly operation in Fourier space, rather than in image space by backprojection. This represents a significant decrease in the number of operations required to assemble the image. The new Fourier domain algorithm has resolution comparable to the filtered backprojection algorithm, and, after correction by a pointwise multiplication, demonstrates proper recovery throughout image space. Although originally intended for three-dimensional imaging applications, the Fourier domain algorithm can also be developed for two-dimensional imaging applications such as planar positron imaging systems

  19. Application of CT three-dimensional reconstruction in elbow injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Wenhua; Qian Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the application of multi-slice spiral CT in fracture of elbow, and to study the value of different methods of the reconstruction. Methods: Thin line cross-section spiral CT scan was carried out in 13 cases with elbow injury, three-dimensional reconstruction was completed later. Several reconstructed image quality to display f the elbow fracture and dislocation were analyzed and compared. Results: 13 cases (17) elbow trauma included humeral media epicondyle fracture, humeral external epicondyle fracture, intercondylar fracture, olecranal fracture and radial head fracture. Among them, X-ray film showed negative in three sites, showed suspect fractures in 2 cases, and only showed single fracture in 2 cases. MPR reconstruction image could not only identify the diagnosis of fracture, but also provide further multi-angle display on fracture line and the extent of articular surface involvement. Surface reconstruction technology could exclude the impact of passive elbow flexion and display elbow injury more intuitively. Conclusion The elbow fracture dislocation could be showed clearly in multi-slice spiral CT, especially for complex fractures, with unmatched advantages compared to X-ray for clinical diagnosis and treatment determination. (authors)

  20. Accuracy and reliability of three-dimensional surface reconstruction measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizukami, Chikashi; Yamamoto, Etsuo; Ohmura, Masaki; Oiki, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Jun; Muneta, Yuki; Tanabe, Makito; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Azemoto, Syougo.

    1993-01-01

    We are using a new three-dimensional (3-D) surface reconstruction system to measure the temporal bones. This system offers the advantage of observation of the external aperture of the vestibular aqueduct and the porus acusticus internus in living subjects. However, its accuracy has not been confirmed. To investigate the accuracy of this new system, we measured the length of an in situ ceramic ossicular replacement prosthesis (CORP) of known length of 6.0 mm using 3-D surface reconstruction, conventional plain X-ray and polytomography. The CORP was scanned in the axial, sagittal and oblique directions. The mean measured length obtained with the 3-D surface reconstruction images was 5.94±0.21 on vertical scans, 5.91±0.27 on horizontal scans, and 6.01±0.25 on oblique scans. There were no significant differences among the measured lengths obtained in the three directions. Therefore, this 3-D surface reconstruction measurement system is considered to be reliable. Conversely, the mean measured length obtained by plain X-ray was 7.98±0.20, and by polytomography it was 7.94±0.23. These conventional methods have the inherent disadvantage of magnification of size which consequently requires correction. (author)

  1. Pulmonary sequestration: diagnosis with three dimensional reconstruction using spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Yongkang; Zhao Shaohong; Cai Zulong; Yang Li; Zhao Hong; Zhang Ailian; Huang Hui

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of three dimensional (3D) reconstruction using spiral CT in the diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration. Methods: Ten patients with pulmonary sequestration were analyzed. The diagnoses were confirmed by angiography in 2 patients, by operation in 2 patients, and by CT angiography in 6 patients. All patients were examined with Philips SR 7000 or GE Lightspeed Plus scanner. CT images were transferred to a workstation and 3D reconstruction was performed. All images were reviewed and analyzed by two radiologists. Results: Among 10 patients, the pulmonary sequestration was in the right lower lobe in 1 patient and in the left lower lobe in 9 patients. Anomalous systemic arteries originated from thoracic aorta in 8 patients and from celiac artery in 2 patients. On plain CT scan, there were 4 patients with patchy opacities, 3 patients with hilar mass accompanying vascular engorgement and profusion in adjacent parenchyma, 2 patients with finger-like appendage surrounded by hyper-inflated lung, and 1 patient with lung mass-like lesion. Enhanced CT revealed anomalous systemic arteries in 9 patients and drainage vein in 7 patients. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) and curvilinear reconstruction could depict the abnormal systemic artery and drainage vein in sequestration. Surface shadow display (SSD) and volume rendering (VR) could delineate the anomalous systemic artery. Conclusion: 3D reconstruction with enhanced spiral CT can depict anomalous systemic artery and drainage vein and it is the first method of choice in diagnosing pulmonary sequestration

  2. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction Optical System Using Shadows Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, J. Leiner; Vargas, Q. Lorena; Torres, M. Cesar; Mattos, V. Lorenzo

    2008-04-01

    In this work is developed a three-dimensional reconstruction system using the Shades3D tool of the Matlab® Programming Language and materials of low cost, such as webcam camera, a stick, a weak structured lighting system composed by a desk lamp, and observation plane in which the object is located. The reconstruction is obtained through a triangulation process that is executed after acquiring a sequence of images of the scene with a shadow projected on the object; additionally an image filtering process is done for obtaining only the part of the scene that will be reconstructed. Previously, it is necessary to develop a calibration process for determining the internal camera geometric and optical characteristics (intrinsic parameters), and the 3D position and orientation of the camera frame relative to a certain world coordinate system (extrinsic parameters). The lamp and the stick are used to produce a shadow which scans the object; in this technique, it is not necessary to know the position of the light source, instead the triangulation is obtained using shadow plane produced by intersection between the stick and the illumination pattern. The webcam camera captures all images with the shadow scanning the object, and Shades3D tool processes all information taking into account captured images and calibration parameters. Likewise, this technique is evaluated in the reconstruction of parts of the human body and its application in the detection of external abnormalities and elaboration of prosthesis or implant.

  3. Three-dimensional digital reconstruction of skin epidermis and dermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Zhu, J-Y; Tang, B; Hu, Z-C

    2018-05-01

    This study describes how three-dimensional (3D) human skin tissue is reconstructed, and provides digital anatomical data for the physiological structure of human skin tissue based on large-scale thin serial sections. Human skin samples embedded in paraffin were cut serially into thin sections and then stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Images of serial sections obtained from lighting microscopy were scanned and aligned by the scale-invariant feature transform algorithm. 3D reconstruction of the skin tissue was generated using Mimics software. Fibre content, porosity, average pore diameter and specific surface area of dermis were analysed using the ImageJ analysis system. The root mean square error and mutual information based on the scale-invariant feature transform algorithm registration were significantly greater than those based on the manual registration. Fibre distribution gradually decreased from top to bottom; while porosity showed an opposite trend with irregular average pore diameter distribution. A specific surface area of the dermis showed a 'V' shape trend. Our data suggested that 3D reconstruction of human skin tissue based on large-scale serial sections could be a valuable tool for providing a highly accurate histological structure for analysis of skin tissue. Moreover, this technology could be utilized to produce tissue-engineered skin via a 3D bioprinter in the future. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Three-dimensional total variation norm for SPECT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Mikael; Bone, Dianna; Elmqvist, H.

    2001-01-01

    The total variation (TV) norm has been described in literature as a method for reducing noise in two-dimensional (2D) images. At the same time, the TV-norm is very good at recovering edges in images, without introducing ringing or edge artefacts. It has also been proposed as a 2D regularisation function in Bayesian reconstruction, implemented in an expectation maximisation (EM) algorithm, and called TV-EM. The TV-EM was developed for 2D SPECT imaging, and the algorithm is capable of smoothing noise while maintaining edges without introducing artefacts. We have extended the TV-norm to take into account the third spatial dimension, and developed an iterative EM algorithm based on the three-dimensional (3D) TV-norm, which we call TV3D-EM. This takes into account the correlation between transaxial sections in SPECT, due to system resolution. We have compared the 2D and 3D algorithms using reconstructed images from simulated projection data. Phantoms used were a homogeneous sphere, and a 3D head phantom based on the Shepp-Logan phantom. The TV3D-EM algorithm yielded somewhat lower noise levels than TV-EM. The noise in the TV3D-EM had similar correlation in transaxial and longitudinal sections, which was not the case for TV-EM, or any 2D reconstruction method. In particular, longitudinal sections from TV3D-EM were perceived as less noisy when compared to TV-EM. The use of 3D reconstruction should also be advantageous if compensation for distant dependent collimator blurring is incorporated in the iterative algorithm

  5. Three-dimensional reconstruction used in the diagnosis and treatment of depressed fracture of skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liang; Luo Zhikun; Lin Xiaohui; Liu Shuyi; Chen Xu; Liu Chenghui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate three-dimensional reconstruction used in the diagnosis and management of depressed fracture of skull. Methods: The images of CT scan and three-dimensional reconstruction in 23 patients with depressed fracture of skull were studied. The clinical treatment was guided by the images. Results: The fracture site and depth in all 23 cases were well demonstrated in the imaging of three-dimensional reconstruction, which successfully guided the clinical management in every case. Conclusion: Three-dimensional reconstruction is a valuable modality for the diagnosis and management of depressed fracture of skull. (authors)

  6. Technique and value of three dimensional reconstruction of stones in the renal pelvis using spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, B.K.; Fink, U.; Pentenrieder, M.; Kohz, P.; Englmeier, H.K.; Schmeller, N.

    1994-01-01

    5 patients with staghorn calculi in the renal pelvis were examined by spiral CT. From the raw data three dimensional reconstructions of the stones were obtained. In all patients it was possible to compare the three dimensional model with the stone following performance of percutaneous lithopaxy and endoscopic removal of the fragments. In all cases the three dimensional reconstruction provided a realistic image of the stones and was of practical value for the urologist for preoperative diagnosis and intraoperative control. (orig.) [de

  7. Three dimensional reconstruction of tomographic images of the retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glittenberg, C.; Zeiler, F.; Falkner, C.; Binder, S.; Povazay, B.; Hermann, B.; Drexler, W.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new display system for the three-dimensional visualization of tomographic images in ophthalmology. Specifically, a system that can use stacks of B-mode scans from an ultrahigh resolution optical tomography examination to vividly display retinal specimens as three-dimensional objects. Several subroutines were programmed in the rendering and raytracing program Cinema 4D XL 9.102 Studio Bundle (Maxon Computer Inc., Friedrichsburg, Germany), which could process stacks of tomographic scans into three-dimensional objects. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography examinations were performed on patients with various retinal pathologies and post processed with the subroutines that had been designed. All ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomographies were performed with a titanium: sapphire based ultra broad bandwidth (160 nm) femtosecond laser system (INTEGRAL, Femtolasers Productions GmbH. Vienna Austria) with an axial resolution of 3 μm. A new three dimensional display system for tomographic images in ophthalmology was developed, which allows a highly vivid display of physiological and pathological structures of the retina. The system also distinguishes itself through its high interactivity and adaptability. This new display system allows the visualization of physiological and pathological structures of the retina in a new way, which will give us new insight into their morphology and development. (author) [de

  8. Application status of three-dimensional CT reconstruction in hepatobiliary surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Chao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of imaging technology, three-dimensional CT reconstruction has been widely used in hepatobiliary surgery. Three-dimensional CT reconstruction can divide and reconstruct two-dimensional images into three-dimensional images and clearly show the location of lesion and its relationship with the intrahepatic bile duct system. It has an important value in the preoperative assessment of liver volume, diagnosis and treatment decision-making process, intraoperative precise operation, and postoperative individualized management, and promotes the constant development of hepatobiliary surgery and minimally invasive technology, and therefore, it holds promise for clinical application.

  9. A comparative study of three-dimensional reconstructive images of temporomandibular joint using computed tomogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Suk Young; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the spatial relationship of temporomandibular joint and to an aid in the diagnosis of temporomandibular disorder. For this study, three-dimensional images of normal temporomandibular joint were reconstructed by computer image analysis system and three-dimensional reconstructive program integrated in computed tomography. The obtained results were as follows : 1. Two-dimensional computed tomograms had the better resolution than three dimensional computed tomograms in the evaluation of bone structure and the disk of TMJ. 2. Direct sagittal computed tomograms and coronal computed tomograms had the better resolution in the evaluation of the disk of TMJ. 3. The positional relationship of the disk could be visualized, but the configuration of the disk could not be clearly visualized on three-dimensional reconstructive CT images. 4. Three-dimensional reconstructive CT images had the smoother margin than three-dimensional images reconstructed by computer image analysis system, but the images of the latter had the better perspective. 5. Three-dimensional reconstructive images had the better spatial relationship of the TMJ articulation, and the joint space were more clearly visualized on dissection images.

  10. System and method for three-dimensional image reconstruction using an absolute orientation sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Giancola, Silvio; Ghanem, Bernard; Schneider, Jens; Wonka, Peter

    2018-01-01

    A three-dimensional image reconstruction system includes an image capture device, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), and an image processor. The image capture device captures image data. The inertial measurement unit (IMU) is affixed to the image

  11. [Three dimensional CT reconstruction system on a personal computer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, E; Ide, T; Teramoto, A; Mayanagi, Y

    1991-03-01

    A new computer system to produce three dimensional surface image from CT scan has been invented. Although many similar systems have been already developed and reported, they are too expensive to be set up in routine clinical services because most of these systems are based on high power mini-computer systems. According to the opinion that a practical 3D-CT system should be used in daily clinical activities using only a personal computer, we have transplanted the 3D program into a personal computer working in MS-DOS (16-bit, 12 MHz). We added to the program a routine which simulates surgical dissection on the surface image. The time required to produce the surface image ranges from 40 to 90 seconds. To facilitate the simulation, we connected a 3D system with the neuronavigator. The navigator gives the position of the surgical simulation when the surgeon places the navigator tip on the patient's head thus simulating the surgical excision before the real dissection.

  12. Analyzing octopus movements using three-dimensional reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekutieli, Yoram; Mitelman, Rea; Hochner, Binyamin; Flash, Tamar

    2007-09-01

    Octopus arms, as well as other muscular hydrostats, are characterized by a very large number of degrees of freedom and a rich motion repertoire. Over the years, several attempts have been made to elucidate the interplay between the biomechanics of these organs and their control systems. Recent developments in electrophysiological recordings from both the arms and brains of behaving octopuses mark significant progress in this direction. The next stage is relating these recordings to the octopus arm movements, which requires an accurate and reliable method of movement description and analysis. Here we describe a semiautomatic computerized system for 3D reconstruction of an octopus arm during motion. It consists of two digital video cameras and a PC computer running custom-made software. The system overcomes the difficulty of extracting the motion of smooth, nonrigid objects in poor viewing conditions. Some of the trouble is explained by the problem of light refraction in recording underwater motion. Here we use both experiments and simulations to analyze the refraction problem and show that accurate reconstruction is possible. We have used this system successfully to reconstruct different types of octopus arm movements, such as reaching and bend initiation movements. Our system is noninvasive and does not require attaching any artificial markers to the octopus arm. It may therefore be of more general use in reconstructing other nonrigid, elongated objects in motion.

  13. Positron Emission Tomography with Three-Dimensional Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandsson, K.

    1996-10-01

    The development of two different low-cost scanners for positron emission tomography (PET) based on 3D acquisition are presented. The first scanner consists of two rotating scintillation cameras, and produces quantitative images, which have shown to be clinically useful. The second one is a system with two opposed sets of detectors, based on the limited angle tomography principle, dedicated for mammographic studies. The development of low-cost PET scanners can increase the clinical impact of PET, which is an expensive modality, only available at a few centres world-wide and mainly used as a research tool. A 3D reconstruction method was developed that utilizes all the available data. The size of the data-sets is considerably reduced, using the single-slice rebinning approximation. The 3D reconstruction is divided into 1D axial deconvolution and 2D transaxial reconstruction, which makes it relatively fast. This method was developed for the rotating scanner, but was also implemented for multi-ring scanners with and without inter plane septa. An iterative 3D reconstruction method was developed for the limited angle scanner, based on the new concept of `mobile pixels`, which reduces the finite pixel errors and leads to an improved signal to noise ratio. 100 refs.

  14. Positron Emission Tomography with Three-Dimensional Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandsson, K.

    1996-10-01

    The development of two different low-cost scanners for positron emission tomography (PET) based on 3D acquisition are presented. The first scanner consists of two rotating scintillation cameras, and produces quantitative images, which have shown to be clinically useful. The second one is a system with two opposed sets of detectors, based on the limited angle tomography principle, dedicated for mammographic studies. The development of low-cost PET scanners can increase the clinical impact of PET, which is an expensive modality, only available at a few centres world-wide and mainly used as a research tool. A 3D reconstruction method was developed that utilizes all the available data. The size of the data-sets is considerably reduced, using the single-slice rebinning approximation. The 3D reconstruction is divided into 1D axial deconvolution and 2D transaxial reconstruction, which makes it relatively fast. This method was developed for the rotating scanner, but was also implemented for multi-ring scanners with and without inter plane septa. An iterative 3D reconstruction method was developed for the limited angle scanner, based on the new concept of 'mobile pixels', which reduces the finite pixel errors and leads to an improved signal to noise ratio. 100 refs

  15. Usefulness of three dimensional reconstructive images for thoracic trauma induced fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyung Hun; Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Young Sook; Byun, Joo Nam [Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional reconstructive images using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for thoracic traumatic patients visiting emergency room. 76 patients with fractures of the 105 patients who visited our emergency room with complaints of thoracic trauma were analyzed retrospectively. All the patients had thoracic MDCT performed and the three-dimensional reconstructive images were taken. The fractures were confirmed by axial CT, the clinical information, whole body bone scanning and the multiplanar reformation images. Plain x-ray images were analyzed by the fractured sites in a blind comparison of two radiologists' readings, and then that finding was compared with the axial CT scans and the three-dimensional reconstructive images. The fracture sites were rib (n 68), sternum (n = 14), clavicle (n = 6), scapula (n = 3), spine (n = 5) and combined fractures (n = 14). Plain x-ray and axial CT scans had a correspondency of 0.555 for the rib fractures. Axial CT scans and the three-dimensional reconstructive images had a correspondency of .952. For sternal fractures, those values were 0.692 and 0.928, respectively. The axial CT scans and three-dimensional reconstructive images showed sensitivities of 94% and 91% for rib and other fractures, respectively, and 93% and 100% for sternal fracture, respectively. Three-dimensional reconstructive image had an especially high sensitivity for the diagnosis of sternal fracture. While evaluating thoracic trauma at the emergency room, the three-dimensional reconstructive image was useful to easily diagnose the extent of fracture and it was very sensitive for detecting sternal fracture.

  16. Usefulness of three dimensional reconstructive images for thoracic trauma induced fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kyung Hun; Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Young Sook; Byun, Joo Nam

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional reconstructive images using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for thoracic traumatic patients visiting emergency room. 76 patients with fractures of the 105 patients who visited our emergency room with complaints of thoracic trauma were analyzed retrospectively. All the patients had thoracic MDCT performed and the three-dimensional reconstructive images were taken. The fractures were confirmed by axial CT, the clinical information, whole body bone scanning and the multiplanar reformation images. Plain x-ray images were analyzed by the fractured sites in a blind comparison of two radiologists' readings, and then that finding was compared with the axial CT scans and the three-dimensional reconstructive images. The fracture sites were rib (n 68), sternum (n = 14), clavicle (n = 6), scapula (n = 3), spine (n = 5) and combined fractures (n = 14). Plain x-ray and axial CT scans had a correspondency of 0.555 for the rib fractures. Axial CT scans and the three-dimensional reconstructive images had a correspondency of .952. For sternal fractures, those values were 0.692 and 0.928, respectively. The axial CT scans and three-dimensional reconstructive images showed sensitivities of 94% and 91% for rib and other fractures, respectively, and 93% and 100% for sternal fracture, respectively. Three-dimensional reconstructive image had an especially high sensitivity for the diagnosis of sternal fracture. While evaluating thoracic trauma at the emergency room, the three-dimensional reconstructive image was useful to easily diagnose the extent of fracture and it was very sensitive for detecting sternal fracture

  17. Reconstruction of pseudo three-dimensional dental image from dental panoramic radiograph and tooth surface shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, Masataka; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Oshiro, Osamu; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kagiyama, Yoshiyuki; Yagi, Masakazu; Takada, Kenji; Azuma, Hiroko

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional volume data set is useful for diagnosis in dental treatments. However, to obtain three-dimensional images of a dental arch in general dental clinics is difficult. In this paper, we propose a method to reconstruct pseudo three-dimensional dental images from a dental panoramic radiograph and a tooth surface shape which can be obtained from three dimensional shape measurement of a dental impression. The proposed method finds an appropriate curved surface on which the dental panoramic radiograph is mapped by comparing a virtual panoramic image made from a tooth surface shape to a real panoramic radiograph. The developed pseudo three-dimensional dental images give clear impression of patient's dental condition. (author)

  18. Research and Realization of Medical Image Fusion Based on Three-Dimensional Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new medical image fusion technique is presented. The method is based on three-dimensional reconstruction. After reconstruction, the three-dimensional volume data is normalized by three-dimensional coordinate conversion in the same way and intercepted through setting up cutting plane including anatomical structure, as a result two images in entire registration on space and geometry are obtained and the images are fused at last.Compared with traditional two-dimensional fusion technique, three-dimensional fusion technique can not only resolve the different problems existed in the two kinds of images, but also avoid the registration error of the two kinds of images when they have different scan and imaging parameter. The research proves this fusion technique is more exact and has no registration, so it is more adapt to arbitrary medical image fusion with different equipments.

  19. Fully three-dimensional image reconstruction in radiology and nuclear medicine. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The proceedings of the meeting on ''fully three-dimensional image reconstruction in radiology and nuclear medicine'' covers contributions on the following topics: CT imaging, PET imaging, fidelity; iterative and few-view CT, CT-analytical; PET/SPECT Compton analytical; doses - spectral methods; phase contrast; compressed sensing- sparse reconstruction; special issues; motion - cardiac.

  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction of sound fields based on the acousto-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Torras Rosell, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    -optic tomography via scanning the field with a laser Doppler vibrometer. Consequently, the spatial characteristics of the sound field are captured in the measurement, implicitly bearing the potential for a full holographic reconstruction in a three-dimensional space. Recent studies have examined the reconstruction......, and compares the results to the ones obtained from conventional microphone array measurements....

  1. [Research progress of three-dimensional digital model for repair and reconstruction of knee joint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lu; Li, Yanlin; Hu, Meng

    2013-01-01

    To review recent advance in the application and research of three-dimensional digital knee model. The recent original articles about three-dimensional digital knee model were extensively reviewed and analyzed. The digital three-dimensional knee model can simulate the knee complex anatomical structure very well. Based on this, there are some developments of new software and techniques, and good clinical results are achieved. With the development of computer techniques and software, the knee repair and reconstruction procedure has been improved, the operation will be more simple and its accuracy will be further improved.

  2. Three-diemensional materials science: An intersection of three-dimensional reconstructions and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Katsuyo; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2008-01-01

    The recent development of experimental techniques that rapidly reconstruct the three-dimensional microstructures of solids has given rise to new possibilities for developing a deeper understanding of the evolution of microstructures and the effects of microstructures on materials properties. Comb...... an overview of this emerging field of materials science, as well as brief descriptions of selected methods and their applicability.......The recent development of experimental techniques that rapidly reconstruct the three-dimensional microstructures of solids has given rise to new possibilities for developing a deeper understanding of the evolution of microstructures and the effects of microstructures on materials properties....... Combined with three-dimensional (3D) simulations and analyses that are capable of handling the complexity of these microstructures, 3D reconstruction, or tomography, has become a powerful tool that provides clear insights into materials processing and properties. This introductory article provides...

  3. Three-dimensional reconstruction of a radionuclide distribution within a medium of uniform coefficient of attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The non-invasive, fully three-dimensional reconstruction of a radionuclide distribution is studied. The problem is considered in ideal form. Several solutions, ranging from the completely analytical to the completely graphical, are presented for both the non-attenuated and uniformly attenuated cases. A function is defined which, if enacted as a response to each detected photon, will yield, upon superposition, a faithful reconstruction of the radionuclide density. Two and three-dimensional forms of this functions are defined for both the non-attenuated and uniformly attenuated case

  4. Computational hemodynamics of an implanted coronary stent based on three-dimensional cine angiography reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mounter C Y; Lu, Po-Chien; Chen, James S Y; Hwang, Ned H C

    2005-01-01

    Coronary stents are supportive wire meshes that keep narrow coronary arteries patent, reducing the risk of restenosis. Despite the common use of coronary stents, approximately 20-35% of them fail due to restenosis. Flow phenomena adjacent to the stent may contribute to restenosis. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and reconstruction based on biplane cine angiography were used to assess coronary geometry and volumetric blood flows. A patient-specific left anterior descending (LAD) artery was reconstructed from single-plane x-ray imaging. With corresponding electrocardiographic signals, images from the same time phase were selected from the angiograms for dynamic three-dimensional reconstruction. The resultant three-dimensional LAD artery at end-diastole was adopted for detailed analysis. Both the geometries and flow fields, based on a computational model from CAE software (ANSYS and CATIA) and full three-dimensional Navier-Stroke equations in the CFD-ACE+ software, respectively, changed dramatically after stent placement. Flow fields showed a complex three-dimensional spiral motion due to arterial tortuosity. The corresponding wall shear stresses, pressure gradient, and flow field all varied significantly after stent placement. Combined angiography and CFD techniques allow more detailed investigation of flow patterns in various segments. The implanted stent(s) may be quantitatively studied from the proposed hemodynamic modeling approach.

  5. The value of MRI three-dimensional reconstruction in diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Feiyu; Wang Xiaoying; Xu Yufeng; Xiao Jiangxi; Jiang Xuexiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate three-dimensional reconstruction of MRI images in diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with proven prostate cancers were recruited in this study. Seventeen of them were diagnosed as having prostate cancer according to the ultrasound guided systemic biopsy. Their MR examinations showed fourteen lesions in the peripheral zone and three in the central gland of the prostate. The other eleven patients underwent MR examination after a period of treatment, including endocrinetherapy and brachytherapy. Using endorectal coil, a series of T 2 -weighted images were acquired on the axial plane. These source images were processed by 3D-Doctor software to reconstruct into three-dimensional images. Results: In the fourteen patients with peripheral zone cancer, reconstruction images could display the 3D regions of cancer and the involvement of capsular. The outspread of central gland and the compression of peripheral zone in patients with central gland cancer could be revealed in the same way. The volumetric changes of the lesion and the prostate after endocrinetherapy could also be perceived through these 3 D images. Similarly, radioactive seeds were revealed in a spatial manner that could be easily evaluated. Conclusion: Three-dimensional reconstruction images were obtained in all patients. They were able to provide stereotyped information about the lesions and their surrounding tissues. MRI three-dimensional reconstruction can be an adjunctive tool in the evaluation of prostate lesions. (authors)

  6. Vascular fluorscene casting and imaging cryomicrotomy for computerized three-dimensional renal arterial reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, B.W.; Wee, ter R.; Rosette, de la J.J.M.C.H.; Spaan, J.A.; Wijkstra, H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the combined use of a casting technique, cryomicrotomy imaging, and three-dimensional (3D) computer analysis as a method for visualizing and reconstructing the arterial vascular tree in a porcine renal model. MATERIAL AND METHODS The arterial branches of two porcine kidneys were

  7. Vascular fluorescence casting and imaging cryomicrotomy for computerized three-dimensional renal arterial reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, Brunolf W.; ter Wee, Rene D.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Spaan, Jos A. E.; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the combined use of a casting technique, cryomicrotomy imaging, and three-dimensional (3D) computer analysis as a method for visualizing and reconstructing the arterial vascular tree in a porcine renal model. MATERIAL AND METHODS The arterial branches of two porcine kidneys were

  8. Three-dimensional reconstruction of port wine stain vascular anatomy from serial histological sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smithies, D. J.; van Gemert, M. J.; Hansen, M. K.; Milner, T. E.; Nelson, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    Port wine stains (PWSs) treated with a flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser show a variability in clinical response that is incompletely understood. To identify any vascular structure that might adversely affect treatment response, we obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction of the vascular anatomy

  9. Homogenization of steady-state creep of porous metals using three-dimensional microstructural reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Boccaccini, Dino; Persson, Åsa Helen

    2016-01-01

    The effective steady-state creep response of porous metals is studied by numerical homogenization and analytical modeling in this paper. The numerical homogenization is based on finite element models of three-dimensional microstructures directly reconstructed from tomographic images. The effects ...... model, and closely matched by the Gibson-Ashby compression and the Ramakrishnan-Arunchalam creep models. [All rights reserved Elsevier]....

  10. Development of a technique for three-dimensional image reconstruction from emission computed tomograms (ECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerischer, R.

    1987-01-01

    The described technique for three-dimensional image reconstruction from ECT sections is based on a simple procedure, which can be carried out with the aid of any standard-type computer used in nuclear medicine and requires no sophisticated arithmetic approach. (TRV) [de

  11. A memory efficient method for fully three-dimensional object reconstruction with HAADF STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, W.; Rosenauer, A.; Van Aert, S.; Sijbers, J.; Van Dyck, D.

    2014-01-01

    The conventional approach to object reconstruction through electron tomography is to reduce the three-dimensional problem to a series of independent two-dimensional slice-by-slice reconstructions. However, at atomic resolution the image of a single atom extends over many such slices and incorporating this image as prior knowledge in tomography or depth sectioning therefore requires a fully three-dimensional treatment. Unfortunately, the size of the three-dimensional projection operator scales highly unfavorably with object size and readily exceeds the available computer memory. In this paper, it is shown that for incoherent image formation the memory requirement can be reduced to the fundamental lower limit of the object size, both for tomography and depth sectioning. Furthermore, it is shown through multislice calculations that high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy can be sufficiently incoherent for the reconstruction of single element nanocrystals, but that dynamical diffraction effects can cause classification problems if more than one element is present. - Highlights: • The full 3D approach to atomic resolution object retrieval has high memory load. • For incoherent imaging the projection process is a matrix–vector product. • Carrying out this product implicitly as Fourier transforms reduces memory load. • Reconstructions are demonstrated from HAADF STEM and depth sectioning simulations

  12. Three-Dimensional Anatomic Evaluation of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament for Planning Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Hoshino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomic study related to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction surgery has been developed in accordance with the progress of imaging technology. Advances in imaging techniques, especially the move from two-dimensional (2D to three-dimensional (3D image analysis, substantially contribute to anatomic understanding and its application to advanced ACL reconstruction surgery. This paper introduces previous research about image analysis of the ACL anatomy and its application to ACL reconstruction surgery. Crucial bony landmarks for the accurate placement of the ACL graft can be identified by 3D imaging technique. Additionally, 3D-CT analysis of the ACL insertion site anatomy provides better and more consistent evaluation than conventional “clock-face” reference and roentgenologic quadrant method. Since the human anatomy has a complex three-dimensional structure, further anatomic research using three-dimensional imaging analysis and its clinical application by navigation system or other technologies is warranted for the improvement of the ACL reconstruction.

  13. Research on the development of space target detecting system and three-dimensional reconstruction technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Wei, Zhen; Song, Dawei; Sun, Wenfeng; Fan, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-01

    With the development of space technology, the number of spacecrafts and debris are increasing year by year. The demand for detecting and identification of spacecraft is growing strongly, which provides support to the cataloguing, crash warning and protection of aerospace vehicles. The majority of existing approaches for three-dimensional reconstruction is scattering centres correlation, which is based on the radar high resolution range profile (HRRP). This paper proposes a novel method to reconstruct the threedimensional scattering centre structure of target from a sequence of radar ISAR images, which mainly consists of three steps. First is the azimuth scaling of consecutive ISAR images based on fractional Fourier transform (FrFT). The later is the extraction of scattering centres and matching between adjacent ISAR images using grid method. Finally, according to the coordinate matrix of scattering centres, the three-dimensional scattering centre structure is reconstructed using improved factorization method. The three-dimensional structure is featured with stable and intuitive characteristic, which provides a new way to improve the identification probability and reduce the complexity of the model matching library. A satellite model is reconstructed using the proposed method from four consecutive ISAR images. The simulation results prove that the method has gotten a satisfied consistency and accuracy.

  14. Development of a system for acquiring, reconstructing, and visualizing three-dimensional ultrasonic angiograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Warren S.; Ritchie, Cameron J.; Kim, Yongmin; Mack, Laurence A.

    1995-04-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) imaging system using power Doppler (PD) ultrasound (US). This system can be used for visualizing and analyzing the vascular anatomy of parenchymal organs. To create the 3D PD images, we acquired a series of two-dimensional PD images from a commercial US scanner and recorded the position and orientation of each image using a 3D magnetic position sensor. Three-dimensional volumes were reconstructed using specially designed software and then volume rendered for display. We assessed the feasibility and geometric accuracy of our system with various flow phantoms. The system was then tested on a volunteer by scanning a transplanted kidney. The reconstructed volumes of the flow phantom contained less than 1 mm of geometric distortion and the 3D images of the transplanted kidney depicted the segmental, arcuate, and interlobar vessels.

  15. A reconstruction algorithm for three-dimensional object-space data using spatial-spectral multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhejun; Kudenov, Michael W.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a reconstruction algorithm for the Spatial-Spectral Multiplexing (SSM) optical system. The goal of this algorithm is to recover the three-dimensional spatial and spectral information of a scene, given that a one-dimensional spectrometer array is used to sample the pupil of the spatial-spectral modulator. The challenge of the reconstruction is that the non-parametric representation of the three-dimensional spatial and spectral object requires a large number of variables, thus leading to an underdetermined linear system that is hard to uniquely recover. We propose to reparameterize the spectrum using B-spline functions to reduce the number of unknown variables. Our reconstruction algorithm then solves the improved linear system via a least- square optimization of such B-spline coefficients with additional spatial smoothness regularization. The ground truth object and the optical model for the measurement matrix are simulated with both spatial and spectral assumptions according to a realistic field of view. In order to test the robustness of the algorithm, we add Poisson noise to the measurement and test on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional spatial and spectral scenes. Our analysis shows that the root mean square error of the recovered results can be achieved within 5.15%.

  16. Three-dimensional dictionary-learning reconstruction of (23)Na MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Nicolas G R; Gnahm, Christine; Bachert, Peter; Ladd, Mark E; Nagel, Armin M

    2016-04-01

    To reduce noise and artifacts in (23)Na MRI with a Compressed Sensing reconstruction and a learned dictionary as sparsifying transform. A three-dimensional dictionary-learning compressed sensing reconstruction algorithm (3D-DLCS) for the reconstruction of undersampled 3D radial (23)Na data is presented. The dictionary used as the sparsifying transform is learned with a K-singular-value-decomposition (K-SVD) algorithm. The reconstruction parameters are optimized on simulated data, and the quality of the reconstructions is assessed with peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity (SSIM). The performance of the algorithm is evaluated in phantom and in vivo (23)Na MRI data of seven volunteers and compared with nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) and other Compressed Sensing reconstructions. The reconstructions of simulated data have maximal PSNR and SSIM for an undersampling factor (USF) of 10 with numbers of averages equal to the USF. For 10-fold undersampling, the PSNR is increased by 5.1 dB compared with the NUFFT reconstruction, and the SSIM by 24%. These results are confirmed by phantom and in vivo (23)Na measurements in the volunteers that show markedly reduced noise and undersampling artifacts in the case of 3D-DLCS reconstructions. The 3D-DLCS algorithm enables precise reconstruction of undersampled (23)Na MRI data with markedly reduced noise and artifact levels compared with NUFFT reconstruction. Small structures are well preserved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Systematic Three-Dimensional Coculture Rapidly Recapitulates Interactions between Human Neurons and Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krencik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Human astrocytes network with neurons in dynamic ways that are still poorly defined. Our ability to model this relationship is hampered by the lack of relevant and convenient tools to recapitulate this complex interaction. To address this barrier, we have devised efficient coculture systems utilizing 3D organoid-like spheres, termed asteroids, containing pre-differentiated human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC-derived astrocytes (hAstros combined with neurons generated from hPSC-derived neural stem cells (hNeurons or directly induced via Neurogenin 2 overexpression (iNeurons. Our systematic methods rapidly produce structurally complex hAstros and synapses in high-density coculture with iNeurons in precise numbers, allowing for improved studies of neural circuit function, disease modeling, and drug screening. We conclude that these bioengineered neural circuit model systems are reliable and scalable tools to accurately study aspects of human astrocyte-neuron functional properties while being easily accessible for cell-type-specific manipulations and observations. : In this article, Krencik and colleagues show that high-density cocultures of pre-differentiated human astrocytes with induced neurons, from pluripotent stem cells, elicit mature characteristics by 3–5 weeks. This provides a faster and more defined alternative method to organoid cultures for investigating human neural circuit function. Keywords: human pluripotent stem cells, neurons, astrocytes, synapses, coculture, three-dimensional spheres, organoids, disease modeling

  18. Image reconstruction using three-dimensional compound Gauss-Markov random field in emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shuichi; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Saito, Tsuneo

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new reconstruction algorithm based on MAP (maximum a posteriori probability) estimation principle for emission tomography. To improve noise suppression properties of the conventional ML-EM (maximum likelihood expectation maximization) algorithm, direct three-dimensional reconstruction that utilizes intensity correlations between adjacent transaxial slices is introduced. Moreover, to avoid oversmoothing of edges, a priori knowledge of RI (radioisotope) distribution is represented by using a doubly-stochastic image model called the compound Gauss-Markov random field. The a posteriori probability is maximized by using the iterative GEM (generalized EM) algorithm. Computer simulation results are shown to demonstrate validity of the proposed algorithm. (author)

  19. Three-dimensional Reconstruction Method Study Based on Interferometric Circular SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Liying

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Circular Synthetic Aperture Radar (CSAR can acquire targets’ scattering information in all directions by a 360° observation, but a single-track CSAR cannot efficiently obtain height scattering information for a strong directive scatter. In this study, we examine the typical target of the three-dimensional circular SAR interferometry theoryand validate the theory in a darkroom experiment. We present a 3D reconstruction of the actual tank metal model of interferometric CSAR for the first time, verify the validity of the method, and demonstrate the important potential applications of combining 3D reconstruction with omnidirectional observation.

  20. New possibilities of three-dimensional reconstruction of computed tomography scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.; Tarjan, Z.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) scan reconstructions provide impressive and illustrative images of various parts of the human body. Such images are reconstructed from a series of basic CT scans by dedicated software. The state of the art in 3D computed tomography is demonstrated with emphasis on the imaging of soft tissues. Examples are presented of imaging the craniofacial and maxillofacial complex, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal and urogenital systems, and respiratory system, and their potential in clinical practice is discussed. Although contributing no new essential diagnostic information against conventional CT scans, 3D scans can help in spatial orientation. 11 figs., 25 refs

  1. Three dimensional reconstruction of computed tomographic images by computer graphics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Toru; Kimura, Kazufumi.

    1986-01-01

    A three dimensional computer reconstruction system for CT images has been developed in a commonly used radionuclide data processing system using a computer graphics technique. The three dimensional model was constructed from organ surface information of CT images (slice thickness: 5 or 10 mm). Surface contours of the organs were extracted manually from a set of parallel transverse CT slices in serial order and stored in the computer memory. Interpolation was made between a set of the extracted contours by cubic spline functions, then three dimensional models were reconstructed. The three dimensional images were displayed as a wire-frame and/or solid models on the color CRT. Solid model images were obtained as follows. The organ surface constructed from contours was divided into many triangular patches. The intensity of light to each patch was calculated from the direction of incident light, eye position and the normal to the triangular patch. Firstly, this system was applied to the liver phantom. Reconstructed images of the liver phantom were coincident with the actual object. This system also has been applied to human various organs such as brain, lung, liver, etc. The anatomical organ surface was realistically viewed from any direction. The images made us more easily understand the location and configuration of organs in vivo than original CT images. Furthermore, spacial relationship among organs and/or lesions was clearly obtained by superimposition of wire-frame and/or different colored solid models. Therefore, it is expected that this system is clinically useful for evaluating the patho-morphological changes in broad perspective. (author)

  2. Three-dimensional atomic-image reconstruction from a single-energy Si(100) photoelectron hologram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, T.; Agui, A.; Yoshigoe, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: J. J. Barton proposed a basic algorithm for three-dimensional atomic-image reconstruction from photoelectron hologram, which is based on the Fourier transform(FT). In the use of a single-energy hologram, the twin-image appears in principle. The twin image disappears in the use of multi-energy hologram, which requires longer measuring time and variable-energy light source. But the reconstruction in the use of a simple FT is difficult because the scattered electron wave is not s-symmetric wave. Many theoretical and experimental approaches based on the FT have been researched. We propose a new algorithm so-called 'scattering pattern matrix', which is not based on the FT. The algorithm utilizes the 'scattering pattern', and iterative gradient method. Real space image can be reconstructed from a single-energy hologram without initial model. In addition, the twin image disappears. We reconstructed the three-dimensional atomic image of Si bulk structure from an experimental single-energy hologram of Si(100) 2s emission, which is shown The experiment was performed with using a Al-K α light source. The experimental setup is shown in. Then we calculated a vertical slice image of the reconstructed Si bulk structure, which is shown. The atomic images appear around the expected positions

  3. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction and Solar Energy Potential Estimation of Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Li, M.; Cheng, L.; Xu, H.; Li, S.; Liu, X.

    2017-12-01

    In the context of the construction of low-carbon cities, green cities and eco-cities, the ability of the airborne and mobile LiDAR should be explored in urban renewable energy research. As the main landscape in urban environment, buildings have large regular envelopes could receive a huge amount of solar radiation. In this study, a relatively complete calculation scheme about building roof and façade solar utilization potential is proposed, using building three-dimensional geometric feature information. For measuring the city-level building solar irradiance, the precise three-dimensional building roof and façade models should be first reconstructed from the airborne and mobile LiDAR, respectively. In order to obtaining the precise geometric structure of building facades from the mobile LiDAR data, a new method for structure detection and the three-dimensional reconstruction of building façades from mobile LiDAR data is proposed. The method consists of three steps: the preprocessing of façade points, the detection of façade structure, the restoration and reconstruction of building façade. As a result, the reconstruction method can effectively deal with missing areas caused by occlusion, viewpoint limitation, and uneven point density, as well as realizing the highly complete 3D reconstruction of a building façade. Furthermore, the window areas can be excluded for more accurate estimation of solar utilization potential. After then, the solar energy utilization potential of global building roofs and facades is estimate by using the solar irradiance model, which combine the analysis of the building shade and sky diffuse, based on the analysis of the geometrical structure of buildings.

  4. Color-coded volume rendering for three-dimensional reconstructions of CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieker, O.; Mildenberger, P.; Thelen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a technique of colored three-dimensional reconstructions without segmentation. Material and methods: Color-coded volume rendered images were reconstructed from the volume data of 25 thoracic, abdominal, musculoskeletal, and vascular helical CT scans using commercial software. The CT volume rendered voxels were encoded with color in the following manner. Opacity, hue, lightness, and chroma were assigned to each of four classes defined by CT number. Color-coded reconstructions were compared to the corresponding grey-scale coded reconstructions. Results: Color-coded volume rendering enabled realistic visualization of pathologic findings when there was sufficient difference in CT density. Segmentation was necessary in some cases to demonstrate small details in a complex volume. Conclusion: Color-coded volume rendering allowed lifelike visualisation of CT volumes without the need of segmentation in most cases. (orig.) [de

  5. Three-dimensional Reconstruction and Homogenization of Heterogeneous Materials Using Statistical Correlation Functions and FEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baniassadi, Majid; Mortazavi, Behzad; Hamedani, Amani; Garmestani, Hamid; Ahzi, Said; Fathi-Torbaghan, Madjid; Ruch, David; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-01-31

    In this study, a previously developed reconstruction methodology is extended to three-dimensional reconstruction of a three-phase microstructure, based on two-point correlation functions and two-point cluster functions. The reconstruction process has been implemented based on hybrid stochastic methodology for simulating the virtual microstructure. While different phases of the heterogeneous medium are represented by different cells, growth of these cells is controlled by optimizing parameters such as rotation, shrinkage, translation, distribution and growth rates of the cells. Based on the reconstructed microstructure, finite element method (FEM) was used to compute the effective elastic modulus and effective thermal conductivity. A statistical approach, based on two-point correlation functions, was also used to directly estimate the effective properties of the developed microstructures. Good agreement between the predicted results from FEM analysis and statistical methods was found confirming the efficiency of the statistical methods for prediction of thermo-mechanical properties of three-phase composites.

  6. Accelerating image reconstruction in three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography on graphics processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Huang, Chao; Kao, Yu-Jiun; Chou, Cheng-Ying; Oraevsky, Alexander A; Anastasio, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Optoacoustic tomography (OAT) is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) inverse problem. However, most studies of OAT image reconstruction still employ two-dimensional imaging models. One important reason is because 3D image reconstruction is computationally burdensome. The aim of this work is to accelerate existing image reconstruction algorithms for 3D OAT by use of parallel programming techniques. Parallelization strategies are proposed to accelerate a filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm and two different pairs of projection/backprojection operations that correspond to two different numerical imaging models. The algorithms are designed to fully exploit the parallel computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs). In order to evaluate the parallelization strategies for the projection/backprojection pairs, an iterative image reconstruction algorithm is implemented. Computer simulation and experimental studies are conducted to investigate the computational efficiency and numerical accuracy of the developed algorithms. The GPU implementations improve the computational efficiency by factors of 1000, 125, and 250 for the FBP algorithm and the two pairs of projection/backprojection operators, respectively. Accurate images are reconstructed by use of the FBP and iterative image reconstruction algorithms from both computer-simulated and experimental data. Parallelization strategies for 3D OAT image reconstruction are proposed for the first time. These GPU-based implementations significantly reduce the computational time for 3D image reconstruction, complementing our earlier work on 3D OAT iterative image reconstruction.

  7. Three-dimensional reconstruction of statistically optimal unit cells of polydisperse particulate composites from microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.; Brandyberry, M.; Tudor, A.; Matous, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic approach for characterization and reconstruction of statistically optimal representative unit cells of polydisperse particulate composites. Microtomography is used to gather rich three-dimensional data of a packed glass bead system. First-, second-, and third-order probability functions are used to characterize the morphology of the material, and the parallel augmented simulated annealing algorithm is employed for reconstruction of the statistically equivalent medium. Both the fully resolved probability spectrum and the geometrically exact particle shapes are considered in this study, rendering the optimization problem multidimensional with a highly complex objective function. A ten-phase particulate composite composed of packed glass beads in a cylindrical specimen is investigated, and a unit cell is reconstructed on massively parallel computers. Further, rigorous error analysis of the statistical descriptors (probability functions) is presented and a detailed comparison between statistics of the voxel-derived pack and the representative cell is made.

  8. Detection and three-dimensional reconstruction of a vascular network from serial sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ip, H H.S.

    1983-07-01

    The process of three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections includes aligning adjacent sections, segmenting the desired objects and constructing a computer internal model of the reconstructed object. Computational methodologies taking advantage of the parallel processing facilities of CLIP4 are presented for automating these tasks. The author is interested in the detailed structure of the carotid body which is a highly vascularized organ with the largest blood flow rate of any tissue in the body (Biscoe (1971), Seidl (1975), Lubbers et al. (1977), Clarke and Daly (1982)). It plays an important role in monitoring the chemical composition of arterial blood (p(o/sub 2/), p(co/sub 2/), ph). The aim of the investigation in the paper is to reconstruct the total vasculature of the organ and to make an analytical study of the geometrical configuration of its vessels. 15 references.

  9. Fast multiview three-dimensional reconstruction method using cost volume filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Joo; Park, Min Ki; Jang, In Yeop; Lee, Kwan H.

    2014-03-01

    As the number of customers who want to record three-dimensional (3-D) information using a mobile electronic device increases, it becomes more and more important to develop a method which quickly reconstructs a 3-D model from multiview images. A fast multiview-based 3-D reconstruction method is presented, which is suitable for the mobile environment by constructing a cost volume of the 3-D height field. This method consists of two steps: the construction of a reliable base surface and the recovery of shape details. In each step, the cost volume is constructed using photoconsistency and then it is filtered according to the multiscale. The multiscale-based cost volume filtering allows the 3-D reconstruction to maintain the overall shape and to preserve the shape details. We demonstrate the strength of the proposed method in terms of computation time, accuracy, and unconstrained acquisition environment.

  10. Reconstruction of three-dimensional porous media using generative adversarial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, Lukas; Dubrule, Olivier; Blunt, Martin J.

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the variability of multiphase flow properties of porous media at the pore scale, it is necessary to acquire a number of representative samples of the void-solid structure. While modern x-ray computer tomography has made it possible to extract three-dimensional images of the pore space, assessment of the variability in the inherent material properties is often experimentally not feasible. We present a method to reconstruct the solid-void structure of porous media by applying a generative neural network that allows an implicit description of the probability distribution represented by three-dimensional image data sets. We show, by using an adversarial learning approach for neural networks, that this method of unsupervised learning is able to generate representative samples of porous media that honor their statistics. We successfully compare measures of pore morphology, such as the Euler characteristic, two-point statistics, and directional single-phase permeability of synthetic realizations with the calculated properties of a bead pack, Berea sandstone, and Ketton limestone. Results show that generative adversarial networks can be used to reconstruct high-resolution three-dimensional images of porous media at different scales that are representative of the morphology of the images used to train the neural network. The fully convolutional nature of the trained neural network allows the generation of large samples while maintaining computational efficiency. Compared to classical stochastic methods of image reconstruction, the implicit representation of the learned data distribution can be stored and reused to generate multiple realizations of the pore structure very rapidly.

  11. Three Dimensional Sheaf of Ultrasound Planes Reconstruction (SOUPR) of Ablated Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Atul; Varghese, Tomy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for three dimensional reconstruction of tumor ablations using ultrasound shear wave imaging with electrode vibration elastography. Radiofrequency ultrasound data frames are acquired over imaging planes that form a subset of a sheaf of planes sharing a common axis of intersection. Shear wave velocity is estimated separately on each imaging plane using a piecewise linear function fitting technique with a fast optimization routine. An interpolation algorithm then computes velocity maps on a fine grid over a set of C-planes that are perpendicular to the axis of the sheaf. A full three dimensional rendering of the ablation can then be created from this stack of C-planes; hence the name “Sheaf Of Ultrasound Planes Reconstruction” or SOUPR. The algorithm is evaluated through numerical simulations and also using data acquired from a tissue mimicking phantom. Reconstruction quality is gauged using contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio measurements and changes in quality from using increasing number of planes in the sheaf are quantified. The highest contrast of 5 dB is seen between the stiffest and softest regions of the phantom. Under certain idealizing assumptions on the true shape of the ablation, good reconstruction quality while maintaining fast processing rate can be obtained with as few as 6 imaging planes suggesting that the method is suited for parsimonious data acquisitions with very few sparsely chosen imaging planes. PMID:24808405

  12. SERS investigations and electrical recording of neuronal networks with three-dimensional plasmonic nanoantennas (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    SERS investigations and electrical recording of neuronal networks with three-dimensional plasmonic nanoantennas Michele Dipalo, Valeria Caprettini, Anbrea Barbaglia, Laura Lovato, Francesco De Angelis e-mail: francesco.deangelis@iit.it Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163, Genova Biological systems are analysed mainly by optical, chemical or electrical methods. Normally each of these techniques provides only partial information about the environment, while combined investigations could reveal new phenomena occurring in complex systems such as in-vitro neuronal networks. Aiming at the merging of optical and electrical investigations of biological samples, we introduced three-dimensional plasmonic nanoantennas on CMOS-based electrical sensors [1]. The overall device is then capable of enhanced Raman Analysis of cultured cells combined with electrical recording of neuronal activity. The Raman measurements show a much higher sensitivity when performed on the tip of the nanoantenna in respect to the flat substrate [2]; this effect is a combination of the high plasmonic field enhancement and of the tight adhesion of cells on the nanoantenna tip. Furthermore, when plasmonic opto-poration is exploited [3] the 3D nanoelectrodes are able to penetrate through the cell membrane thus accessing the intracellular environment. Our latest results (unpublished) show that the technique is completely non-invasive and solves many problems related to state-of-the-art intracellular recording approaches on large neuronal networks. This research received funding from ERC-IDEAS Program: "Neuro-Plasmonics" [Grant n. 616213]. References: [1] M. Dipalo, G. C. Messina, H. Amin, R. La Rocca, V. Shalabaeva, A. Simi, A. Maccione, P. Zilio, L. Berdondini, F. De Angelis, Nanoscale 2015, 7, 3703. [2] R. La Rocca, G. C. Messina, M. Dipalo, V. Shalabaeva, F. De Angelis, Small 2015, 11, 4632. [3] G. C. Messina et al., Spatially, Temporally, and Quantitatively Controlled Delivery of

  13. Study of system for segmentation of images and elaboration of algorithms for three dimensional scene reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufacchi, A.; Tripi, A.

    1995-09-01

    The aim of this paper is the presentation of a series of methodologies to recognize and to obtain a three-dimensional reconstruction of an inner architectural scene, using a gray level image obtained using a TV camera. In the first part of the work, a series of methods used to find the edges in an effective way are critically compared, obtaining a binary image, and then the application of the Hough transform to such binary image to find the straight lines in the original image are discussed. In the second part, an algorithm is shown in order to find the vanishing points in such image

  14. Electromagnetic three-dimensional reconstruction of targets from free space experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffrin, J.-M.; Chaumet, P. C.; Eyraud, C.; Belkebir, K.; Sabouroux, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of reconstructing the relative permittivity of three-dimensional targets using experimental scattered fields. The fields concerned were measured in an anechoic chamber on the surface of a sphere surrounding the target. The inverse scattering problem is reformulated as an optimization problem that is iteratively solved thanks to a conjugate gradient method and by using the coupled dipoles method as a forward problem solver. The measurement technique and the inversion procedure are briefly described with the inversion results. This work demonstrates the reliability of the experiments and the efficiency of the proposed inverse scattering scheme

  15. Micromechanical Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Supports based on Three-dimensional Reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2014-01-01

    Ni-3YSZ in the operating temperature through numerical micromechanical modeling. Three-dimensional microstructures of Ni-3YSZ anode supports are reconstructed from a two-dimensional image stack obtained via focused ion beam tomography. Time-dependent stress distributions in the microscopic scale...... are computed by the finite element method. The macroscopic creep response of the porous anode support is determined based on homogenization theory. It is shown that micromechanical modeling provides an effective tool to study the effect of microstructures on the macroscopic properties....

  16. Three-dimensional reconstructions of intrahepatic bile duct tubulogenesis in human liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestentoft, Peter S; Jelnes, Peter; Hopkinson, Branden M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During liver development, intrahepatic bile ducts are thought to arise by a unique asymmetric mode of cholangiocyte tubulogenesis characterized by a series of remodeling stages. Moreover, in liver diseases, cells lining the Canals of Hering can proliferate and generate new hepatic...... in normal liver and in the extensive ductular reactions originating from intrahepatic bile ducts and branching into the parenchyma of the acetaminophen intoxicated liver. In the developing human liver, three-dimensional reconstructions using multiple marker proteins confirmed that the human intrahepatic...

  17. A new method for three-dimensional laparoscopic ultrasound model reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, C W; Pless, T; Durup, J

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic ultrasound is an important modality in the staging of gastrointestinal tumors. Correct staging depends on good spatial understanding of the regional tumor infiltration. Three-dimensional (3D) models may facilitate the evaluation of tumor infiltration. The aim of the study...... accuracy of the new method was tested ex vivo, and the clinical feasibility was tested on a small series of patients. RESULTS: Both electromagnetic tracked reconstructions and the new 3D method gave good volumetric information with no significant difference. Clinical use of the new 3D method showed...

  18. Probabilistic Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Reconstructions from X-Ray Images Spanning a Limited Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Ostermann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An important part of computed tomography is the calculation of a three-dimensional reconstruction of an object from series of X-ray images. Unfortunately, some applications do not provide sufficient X-ray images. Then, the reconstructed objects no longer truly represent the original. Inside of the volumes, the accuracy seems to vary unpredictably. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to evaluate any reconstruction, voxel by voxel. The evaluation is based on a sophisticated probabilistic handling of the measured X-rays, as well as the inclusion of a priori knowledge about the materials that the object receiving the X-ray examination consists of. For each voxel, the proposed method outputs a numerical value that represents the probability of existence of a predefined material at the position of the voxel while doing X-ray. Such a probabilistic quality measure was lacking so far. In our experiment, false reconstructed areas get detected by their low probability. In exact reconstructed areas, a high probability predominates. Receiver Operating Characteristics not only confirm the reliability of our quality measure but also demonstrate that existing methods are less suitable for evaluating a reconstruction.

  19. Application of Symmetry Adapted Function Method for Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Octahedral Biological Macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songjun Zeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for three-dimensional (3D reconstruction of macromolecule assembles, that is, octahedral symmetrical adapted functions (OSAFs method, was introduced in this paper and a series of formulations for reconstruction by OSAF method were derived. To verify the feasibility and advantages of the method, two octahedral symmetrical macromolecules, that is, heat shock protein Degp24 and the Red-cell L Ferritin, were utilized as examples to implement reconstruction by the OSAF method. The schedule for simulation was designed as follows: 2000 random orientated projections of single particles with predefined Euler angles and centers of origins were generated, then different levels of noises that is signal-to-noise ratio (S/N =0.1,0.5, and 0.8 were added. The structures reconstructed by the OSAF method were in good agreement with the standard models and the relative errors of the structures reconstructed by the OSAF method to standard structures were very little even for high level noise. The facts mentioned above account for that the OSAF method is feasible and efficient approach to reconstruct structures of macromolecules and have ability to suppress the influence of noise.

  20. Analysis of fracture surface of CFRP material by three-dimensional reconstruction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Fracture surfaces of CFRP (carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) materials, used in the nuclear fuel cycle, presents an elevated roughness, mainly due to the fracture mode known as pulling out, that displays pieces of carbon fibers after debonding between fiber and matrix. The fractographic analysis, by bi-dimensional images is deficient for not considering the so important vertical resolution as much as the horizontal resolution. In this case, the knowledge of this heights distribution that occurs during the breaking, can lead to the calculation of the involved energies in the process that would allows a better agreement on the fracture mechanisms of the composite material. An important solution for the material characterization, whose surface presents a high roughness due to the variation in height, is to reconstruct three-dimensionally these fracture surfaces. In this work, the 3D reconstruction was done by two different methods: the variable focus reconstruction, through a stack of images obtained by optical microscopy (OM) and the parallax reconstruction, carried through with images acquired by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of both methods present an elevation map of the reconstructed image that determine the height of the surface pixel by pixel,. The results obtained by the methods of reconstruction for the CFRP surfaces, have been compared with others materials such as aluminum and copper that present a ductile type fracture surface, with lower roughness. (author)

  1. A modified sparse reconstruction method for three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziqiang; Ji, Kefeng; Song, Haibo; Zou, Huanxin

    2018-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in three-dimensional Synthetic Aperture Radar (3-D SAR) imaging from observed sparse scattering data. However, the existing 3-D sparse imaging method requires large computing times and storage capacity. In this paper, we propose a modified method for the sparse 3-D SAR imaging. The method processes the collection of noisy SAR measurements, usually collected over nonlinear flight paths, and outputs 3-D SAR imagery. Firstly, the 3-D sparse reconstruction problem is transformed into a series of 2-D slices reconstruction problem by range compression. Then the slices are reconstructed by the modified SL0 (smoothed l0 norm) reconstruction algorithm. The improved algorithm uses hyperbolic tangent function instead of the Gaussian function to approximate the l0 norm and uses the Newton direction instead of the steepest descent direction, which can speed up the convergence rate of the SL0 algorithm. Finally, numerical simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. It is shown that our method, compared with existing 3-D sparse imaging method, performs better in reconstruction quality and the reconstruction time.

  2. The comparison of aneurysmal necks measured on three dimensional reconstruction images of rotational DSA and those of traditional DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chunhong; Chen Zuoquan; Gu Binxian; Zhang Guiyun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of three dimensional reconstruction images of rotational DSA on measuring aneurysmal necks and make a comparison with traditional DSA so as to provide more abundant and accurate information for the embolization of aneurysm. Methods: A comparison was made between the measurement of aneurismal necks from 14 cases with traditional DSA examination and a measurement made on three dimensional reconstruction images of the same patients. Results: There was a difference shown in the measurement of the aneurysmal necks between three dimensional reconstruction images of rotational DSA and those of traditional DSA, outcoming with more angles and data on three dimensional reconstruction images. Conclusions: There are more angles of aneurysmal neck can be shown on rotational 3D DSA especially for the demonstration of the largest aneurysmal neck with a directional value for the intervention. (authors)

  3. Image-guided stereotactic surgery using ultrasonography and reconstructive three-dimensional CT-imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hirotsune; Iseki, Hiroshi; Umezawa, Yoshihiro

    1991-01-01

    A new simulation and navigation system utilizing three-dimensional CT images has been developed for image-guided stereotactic surgery. Preoperative CT images are not always useful in predicting the intraoperative location of lesions, for cerebral lesions are easily displaced or distorted by gravity, brain retraction, and/or CSF aspiration during operative procedure. This new system, however, has the advantage that the intraoperative locations of intracranial lesions or the anatomical structures of the brain can be precisely confirmed during stereotactic surgery. Serial CT images were obtained from a patient whose head had been fixed to the ISEKI CT-guided stereotactic frame. The data of serial CT images were saved on a floppy disc and then transferred to the work station (IRIS) using the off line. In order to find the best approach angle for ultrasound-guided stereotactic surgery, three-dimenstional CT images were reconstructed using the work station. The site of the craniotomy or the angle of the trajectory of the ultrasound probe was measured preoperatively based on the three-dimensional CT images. Then, in the operating room, the patient's head was fixed to the ISEKI frame with the subframe at the same position as before according to the measurement of the CT images. In a case of cystic glioma, the predicable ultrasonograms from three-dimensional reconstructive CT images were ascertained to correspond well to the actual ultrasound images during ultrasound-guided stereotactic surgery. Therefore, the new simulation and navigation system can be judged to be a powerful operative supporting modality for correcting the locations of cerebral lesions; it allows one to perform stereotactic surgery more accurately and less invasively. (author)

  4. Comparison of different reconstruction algorithms for three-dimensional ultrasound imaging in a neurosurgical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D; Lippert, C; Vollmer, F; Bozinov, O; Benes, L; Schulte, D M; Sure, U

    2012-09-01

    Freehand three-dimensional ultrasound imaging (3D-US) is increasingly used in image-guided surgery. During image acquisition, a set of B-scans is acquired that is distributed in a non-parallel manner over the area of interest. Reconstructing these images into a regular array allows 3D visualization. However, the reconstruction process may introduce artefacts and may therefore reduce image quality. The aim of the study is to compare different algorithms with respect to image quality and diagnostic value for image guidance in neurosurgery. 3D-US data sets were acquired during surgery of various intracerebral lesions using an integrated ultrasound-navigation device. They were stored for post-hoc evaluation. Five different reconstruction algorithms, a standard multiplanar reconstruction with interpolation (MPR), a pixel nearest neighbour method (PNN), a voxel nearest neighbour method (VNN) and two voxel based distance-weighted algorithms (VNN2 and DW) were tested with respect to image quality and artefact formation. The capability of the algorithm to fill gaps within the sample volume was investigated and a clinical evaluation with respect to the diagnostic value of the reconstructed images was performed. MPR was significantly worse than the other algorithms in filling gaps. In an image subtraction test, VNN2 and DW reliably reconstructed images even if large amounts of data were missing. However, the quality of the reconstruction improved, if data acquisition was performed in a structured manner. When evaluating the diagnostic value of reconstructed axial, sagittal and coronal views, VNN2 and DW were judged to be significantly better than MPR and VNN. VNN2 and DW could be identified as robust algorithms that generate reconstructed US images with a high diagnostic value. These algorithms improve the utility and reliability of 3D-US imaging during intraoperative navigation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Histomorphology of canine urethral sphincter systems, including three-dimensional reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Neuhaus, Jochen; Liatsikos, Evangelos N; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Ludewig, Eberhard; Ganzer, Roman

    2006-03-01

    To present a detailed anatomic description and comparison of the smooth and striated urethral sphincter in male and female dogs. We performed a thorough histologic evaluation, three-dimensional reconstruction, and magnetic resonance imaging of the lower urinary tract of male and female dogs. The lower urinary tract anatomy was investigated in 16 male and 18 female dogs by serial sectioning, including immunohistochemical staining and three-dimensional reconstruction. Magnetic resonance imaging performed in 5 male and 5 female dogs before histologic investigation helped to demonstrate the anatomy in vivo. A urethral sphincter muscle in both sexes existed without muscular connection to the pelvic floor. It ran circularly and consisted of an inner smooth and outer striated muscular part. In the female dog, the striated muscle encircled the urethra and vagina in the caudal third of the membranous urethra (musculus urethrovaginalis). A urinary diaphragm (diaphragma urogenitale) could not be found histologically or by magnetic resonance imaging. The dog is a suitable animal model for investigations of the urethral sphincter. In the female dog, attention should be given to the special topography of the musculus urethrovaginalis.

  6. Three-dimensional slum urban reconstruction in Envisat and Google Earth Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghany, M.; Genderen, J. v.

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to aim to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed country such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slam. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data.

  7. An application framework of three-dimensional reconstruction and measurement for endodontic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Peters, Ove A; Wu, Hongkun; Zhou, Xuedong

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to customize an application framework by using the MeVisLab image processing and visualization platform for three-dimensional reconstruction and assessment of tooth and root canal morphology. One maxillary first molar was scanned before and after preparation with ProTaper by using micro-computed tomography. With a customized application framework based on MeVisLab, internal and external anatomy was reconstructed. Furthermore, the dimensions of root canal and radicular dentin were quantified, and effects of canal preparation were assessed. Finally, a virtual preparation with risk analysis was performed to simulate the removal of a broken instrument. This application framework provided an economical platform and met current requirements of endodontic research. The broad-based use of high-quality free software and the resulting exchange of experience might help to improve the quality of endodontic research with micro-computed tomography.

  8. Three dimensional reconstruction of fossils with X-ray CT and computer graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Takashi; Tateno, Satoko (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Arts and Sciences); Suzuki, Naoki

    1991-12-01

    We have developed a method for three dimensional (3D) visualization of fossils such as trilobites and ammonites by non-destructive measurement and computer graphics. The imaging techniques in the medical sciences are applied for fossils by us to have quantitative data analyses on the structural and functional features of some extinct creatures. These methods are composed of a high resolutional X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) and computer graphics. We are able to observe not only outer shape but also inner structure of fossils as a 3D image by this method. Consequently, the shape and volume are measurable on these 3D image quantitatively. In addition to that, it is able to reconstruct an ideal figure from the deformed fossils by graphical treatments of the data. Such a 3D reconstruction method is useful to obtain a new information from the paleontological standpoint. (author).

  9. Three-dimensional slum urban reconstruction in Envisat and Google Earth Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marghany, M; Genderen, J v

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to aim to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed country such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slam. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data

  10. Three dimensional reconstruction of fossils with X-ray CT and computer graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Takashi; Tateno, Satoko; Suzuki, Naoki.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a method for three dimensional (3D) visualization of fossils such as trilobites and ammonites by non-destructive measurement and computer graphics. The imaging techniques in the medical sciences are applied for fossils by us to have quantitative data analyses on the structural and functional features of some extinct creatures. These methods are composed of a high resolutional X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) and computer graphics. We are able to observe not only outer shape but also inner structure of fossils as a 3D image by this method. Consequently, the shape and volume are measurable on these 3D image quantitatively. In addition to that, it is able to reconstruct an ideal figure from the deformed fossils by graphical treatments of the data. Such a 3D reconstruction method is useful to obtain a new information from the paleontological standpoint. (author)

  11. Verifying three-dimensional skull model reconstruction using cranial index of symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Woon-Man; Chen, Shuo-Tsung; Lin, Chung-Hsiang; Lu, Yu-Mei; Chen, Tzu-Hsuan; Lin, Muh-Shi

    2013-01-01

    Difficulty exists in scalp adaptation for cranioplasty with customized computer-assisted design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) implant in situations of excessive wound tension and sub-cranioplasty dead space. To solve this clinical problem, the CAD/CAM technique should include algorithms to reconstruct a depressed contour to cover the skull defect. Satisfactory CAM-derived alloplastic implants are based on highly accurate three-dimensional (3-D) CAD modeling. Thus, it is quite important to establish a symmetrically regular CAD/CAM reconstruction prior to depressing the contour. The purpose of this study is to verify the aesthetic outcomes of CAD models with regular contours using cranial index of symmetry (CIS). From January 2011 to June 2012, decompressive craniectomy (DC) was performed for 15 consecutive patients in our institute. 3-D CAD models of skull defects were reconstructed using commercial software. These models were checked in terms of symmetry by CIS scores. CIS scores of CAD reconstructions were 99.24±0.004% (range 98.47-99.84). CIS scores of these CAD models were statistically significantly greater than 95%, identical to 99.5%, but lower than 99.6% (ppairs signed rank test). These data evidenced the highly accurate symmetry of these CAD models with regular contours. CIS calculation is beneficial to assess aesthetic outcomes of CAD-reconstructed skulls in terms of cranial symmetry. This enables further accurate CAD models and CAM cranial implants with depressed contours, which are essential in patients with difficult scalp adaptation.

  12. Three-dimensional focus of attention for iterative cone-beam micro-CT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, T M; Gregor, J

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional iterative reconstruction of high-resolution, circular orbit cone-beam x-ray CT data is often considered impractical due to the demand for vast amounts of computer cycles and associated memory. In this paper, we show that the computational burden can be reduced by limiting the reconstruction to a small, well-defined portion of the image volume. We first discuss using the support region defined by the set of voxels covered by all of the projection views. We then present a data-driven preprocessing technique called focus of attention that heuristically separates both image and projection data into object and background before reconstruction, thereby further reducing the reconstruction region of interest. We present experimental results for both methods based on mouse data and a parallelized implementation of the SIRT algorithm. The computational savings associated with the support region are substantial. However, the results for focus of attention are even more impressive in that only about one quarter of the computer cycles and memory are needed compared with reconstruction of the entire image volume. The image quality is not compromised by either method

  13. Uncemented three-dimensional-printed prosthetic reconstruction for massive bone defects of the proximal tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Minxun; Li, Yongjiang; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Wenli; Zhou, Yong; Tu, Chongqi

    2018-03-06

    Currently, it is challenging to treat massive bone defects of proximal tibia. Although numerous methods are available for reconstruction with epiphysis preservation, limitations in knee function and complications are noted with these methods. Our paper describes our attempt to reconstruct a marked defect in the proximal tibia with an uncemented three-dimensional (3D)-printed prosthesis and to evaluate the prosthesis design and short-term outcomes. A 15-year-old boy with metaphyseal osteosarcoma of the tibia underwent intercalary allograft reconstruction following wide tumour resection with epiphysis preservation. However, chronic allograft rejection and/or infection occurred after the surgery and a sinus tract was formed. The rejection and/or infection process was successfully stopped by the removal of the graft and implantation of an antibiotic-loaded cement spacer; however, the limb function was poor. Because of the irregular shape of the defect and the excessively short length of the residual proximal tibia, we used the 3D printing technology to design and fabricate a personalised prosthesis to reconstruct the defect, with the preservation of the knee joint. At the last follow-up at 26 months, the patient had satisfactory limb function. The 3D-printed prosthesis may be a feasible option in the reconstruction of tibial metaphyseal defects with the preservation of the knee joint. Moreover, it can result in good postoperative function and low complication rates. However, a long-term follow-up is required to clarify its long-term outcomes.

  14. Three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction for operative planning in robotic segmentectomy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moal, Julien; Peillon, Christophe; Dacher, Jean-Nicolas; Baste, Jean-Marc

    2018-01-01

    The objective of our pilot study was to assess if three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction performed by Visible Patient™ could be helpful for the operative planning, efficiency and safety of robot-assisted segmentectomy. Between 2014 and 2015, 3D reconstructions were provided by the Visible Patient™ online service and used for the operative planning of robotic segmentectomy. To obtain 3D reconstruction, the surgeon uploaded the anonymized computed tomography (CT) image of the patient to the secured Visible Patient™ server and then downloaded the model after completion. Nine segmentectomies were performed between 2014 and 2015 using a pre-operative 3D model. All 3D reconstructions met our expectations: anatomical accuracy (bronchi, arteries, veins, tumor, and the thoracic wall with intercostal spaces), accurate delimitation of each segment in the lobe of interest, margin resection, free space rotation, portability (smartphone, tablet) and time saving technique. We have shown that operative planning by 3D CT using Visible Patient™ reconstruction is useful in our practice of robot-assisted segmentectomy. The main disadvantage is the high cost. Its impact on reducing complications and improving surgical efficiency is the object of an ongoing study.

  15. [Significance of three-dimensional reconstruction as a method of preoperative planning of laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W W; Wang, H G; Shi, X J; Chen, M Y; Lu, S C

    2016-09-01

    To discuss the significance of three-dimensional reconstruction as a method of preoperative planning of laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation(LRFA). Thirty-two cases of LRFA admitted from January 2014 to December 2015 in Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital were analyzed(3D-LRFA group). Three-dimensional(3D) reconstruction were taken as a method of preoperative planning in 3D-LRFA group.Other 64 LRFA cases were paired over the same period without three-dimensional reconstruction before the operation (LRFA group). Hepatobiliary system contrast enhanced CT scan of 3D-RFA patients were taken by multi-slice spiral computed tomography(MSCT), and the DICOM data were processed by IQQA(®)-Liver and IQQA(®)-guide to make 3D reconstruction.Using 3D reconstruction model, diameter and scope of tumor were measured, suitable size (length and radiofrequency length) and number of RFA electrode were chosen, scope and effect of radiofrequency were simulated, reasonable needle track(s) was planed, position and angle of laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS) probe was designed and LUS image was simulated.Data of operation and recovery were collected and analyzed. Data between two sets of measurement data were compared with t test or rank sum test, and count data with χ(2) test or Fisher exact probability test.Tumor recurrence rate was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test. Compared with LRFA group ((216.8±66.2) minutes, (389.1±183.4) s), 3D-LRFA group ((173.3±59.4) minutes, (242.2±90.8) s) has shorter operation time(t=-3.138, P=0.002) and shorter mean puncture time(t=-2.340, P=0.021). There was no significant difference of blood loss(P=0.170), ablation rate (P=0.871) and incidence of complications(P=1.000). Compared with LRFA group ((6.3±3.9)days, (330±102)U/L, (167±64)ng/L), 3D-LRFA group ((4.3±3.1) days, (285±102) U/L, (139±43) ng/L) had shorter post-operative stay(t=-2.527, P=0.016), less

  16. Three-dimensional chimera patterns in networks of spiking neuron oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimatis, T.; Hizanidis, J.; Provata, A.

    2018-05-01

    We study the stable spatiotemporal patterns that arise in a three-dimensional (3D) network of neuron oscillators, whose dynamics is described by the leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model. More specifically, we investigate the form of the chimera states induced by a 3D coupling matrix with nonlocal topology. The observed patterns are in many cases direct generalizations of the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) patterns, e.g., spheres, layers, and cylinder grids. We also find cylindrical and "cross-layered" chimeras that do not have an equivalent in 2D systems. Quantitative measures are calculated, such as the ratio of synchronized and unsynchronized neurons as a function of the coupling range, the mean phase velocities, and the distribution of neurons in mean phase velocities. Based on these measures, the chimeras are categorized in two families. The first family of patterns is observed for weaker coupling and exhibits higher mean phase velocities for the unsynchronized areas of the network. The opposite holds for the second family, where the unsynchronized areas have lower mean phase velocities. The various measures demonstrate discontinuities, indicating criticality as the parameters cross from the first family of patterns to the second.

  17. Dynamic evaluation of pelvic floor reconstructive surgery using radiopaque meshes and three-dimensional helical CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Palma

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This prospective study was performed to achieve visualization of the reestablishment of anatomy after reconstructive surgery in the different pelvic compartments with non-absorbable radiopaque meshes, providing valuable anatomic information for surgeons implanting meshes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 female patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI, anterior and posterior vaginal wall prolapse, or both underwent surgical repair using radiopaque meshes after written informed consent. Patients with SUI underwent five different surgeries. Patients with anterior vaginal prolapse underwent a procedure using a combined pre-pubic and transobturator mesh, and those with posterior vaginal prolapse underwent posterior slingplasty. Three-dimensional reconstruction using helical CT was performed four weeks postoperatively. RESULTS: In all cases, the mesh was clearly visualized. Transobturator slings were shown at the midurethra, and the anchoring tails perforated the obturator foramen at the safety region. Mini-slings were in the proper place, and computed angiography revealed that the anchoring system was away from the obturator vessels. In patients undergoing procedure for anterior vaginal prolapse, both pre-pubic armpit and obturator slings were clearly seen and the mesh was in the proper position, supporting the bladder base and occluding the distal part of the urogenital hiatus. Transcoccygeal sacropexy revealed indirectly a well-supported "neo rectovaginal fascia" and the anchoring tails at the level of ischial spines. CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional helical tomography images of the female pelvis using radiopaque meshes have a potential role in improving our understanding of pelvic floor reconstructive surgeries. These radiopaque meshes might be the basis of a new investigative methodology.

  18. Rotational Angiography Based Three-Dimensional Left Atrial Reconstruction: A New Approach for Transseptal Puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koektuerk, Buelent; Yorgun, Hikmet; Koektuerk, Oezlem; Turan, Cem H; Gorr, Eduard; Horlitz, Marc; Turan, Ramazan G

    2016-02-01

    Rotational angiography is a well-known method for the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of left atrium and pulmonary veins during left-sided atrial arrhythmia ablation procedures. In our study, we aimed to review our experience in transseptal puncture (TSP) using 3-D rotational angiography. We included a total of 271 patients who underwent atrial fibrillation ablation using cryoballoon. Rotational angiography was performed to get the three-dimensional left atrial and pulmonary vein reconstructions using cardiac C-arm computed tomography. The image reconstruction was made using the DynaCT Cardiac software (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The mean age of the study population was 61 ± 10 years. The indications for left atrial arrhythmia ablation were paroxysmal AF in 140 patients (52%) and persistent AF patients in 131 (48%) patients. The success rate of TSP using only rotational guidance was (264/271 patients, 97.4%). In the remaining seven patients, transesophageal guidance was used after the initial attempt due to thick interatrial septum in five patients and difficult TSP due to abnormal anatomy and mild pericardial effusion in the remaining two patients. Mean fluoroscopy dosage of the rotational angiography was 4896.4 ± 825.3 μGym(2). The mean time beginning from femoral vein puncture to TSP was 12.3 ± 5.5 min. TSP guided by rotational angiography is a safe and effective method. Our results indicate that integration of rotational angiographic images into the real-time fluoroscopy can guide the TSP during the procedure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Three-dimensional image acquisition and reconstruction system on a mobile device based on computer-generated integral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenebat, Munkh-Uchral; Kim, Byeong-Jun; Piao, Yan-Ling; Park, Seo-Yeon; Kwon, Ki-Chul; Piao, Mei-Lan; Yoo, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Nam

    2017-10-01

    A mobile three-dimensional image acquisition and reconstruction system using a computer-generated integral imaging technique is proposed. A depth camera connected to the mobile device acquires the color and depth data of a real object simultaneously, and an elemental image array is generated based on the original three-dimensional information for the object, with lens array specifications input into the mobile device. The three-dimensional visualization of the real object is reconstructed on the mobile display through optical or digital reconstruction methods. The proposed system is implemented successfully and the experimental results certify that the system is an effective and interesting method of displaying real three-dimensional content on a mobile device.

  20. Clinical application of EBCT angiography and three-dimensional reconstruction in the diagnosis of aortic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin, Lu; Ruping, Dai; Shaoxiong, Zhang; Hua, Bai; Sha, He; Baolian, Jing; Cheng, Cao; Li, Ren [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Institute of Fuwei Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    1998-02-01

    Purpose: To work out the routine and three dimensional reconstruction (3D) methods of electron beam computed tomography angiography (EBCTA) and evaluate its clinical application. Materials and methods: In this group, 189 cases with aortic diseases (152 male, 37 female) were studied retrospectively. The EBCT scan methods were enhanced single slice mode (SSM) and continuous volume scan (CVS); The 3D reconstruction methods were shaded surface display (SSD), maximum intensity projection (MIP) and multiple/curved planar reconstruction (MPR/CPR). Results: In 189 cases, including 97 cases with aortic dissection, 26 cases with aortic aneurysm and 8 cases with pseudo aneurysm, others including Marfan`s syndrome in 37 cases, Takayasu`s arteritis in 5 cases and congenital aortic malformations in 14 cases; 68 cases received operation and the EBCT diagnosis coincided well with the operative findings in 97% of cases. Conclusion: EBCT angiographic images have very high temporal resolution and most artifacts are eliminated. The 3D images are in helpful accurate diagnosis and direct surgical operation. In the management of aortic diseases, EBCT angiography and 3D reconstruction may supplant conventional angiography in the near future

  1. Clinical application of EBCT angiography and three-dimensional reconstruction in the diagnosis of aortic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Bin; Dai Ruping; Zhang Shaoxiong; Bai Hua; He Sha; Jing Baolian; Cao Cheng; Ren Li

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To work out the routine and three dimensional reconstruction (3D) methods of electron beam computed tomography angiography (EBCTA) and evaluate its clinical application. Materials and methods: In this group, 189 cases with aortic diseases (152 male, 37 female) were studied retrospectively. The EBCT scan methods were enhanced single slice mode (SSM) and continuous volume scan (CVS); The 3D reconstruction methods were shaded surface display (SSD), maximum intensity projection (MIP) and multiple/curved planar reconstruction (MPR/CPR). Results: In 189 cases, including 97 cases with aortic dissection, 26 cases with aortic aneurysm and 8 cases with pseudo aneurysm, others including Marfan's syndrome in 37 cases, Takayasu's arteritis in 5 cases and congenital aortic malformations in 14 cases; 68 cases received operation and the EBCT diagnosis coincided well with the operative findings in 97% of cases. Conclusion: EBCT angiographic images have very high temporal resolution and most artifacts are eliminated. The 3D images are in helpful accurate diagnosis and direct surgical operation. In the management of aortic diseases, EBCT angiography and 3D reconstruction may supplant conventional angiography in the near future

  2. Cochlear implant-related three-dimensional characteristics determined by micro-computed tomography reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yusu; Dai, Peidong; Dai, Chunfu; Li, Huawei

    2017-01-01

    To explore the structural characteristics of the cochlea in three-dimensional (3D) detail using 3D micro-computed tomography (mCT) image reconstruction of the osseous labyrinth, with the aim of improving the structural design of electrodes, the selection of stimulation sites, and the effectiveness of cochlear implantation. Three temporal bones were selected from among adult donors' temporal bone specimens. A micro-CT apparatus (GE eXplore) was used to scan three specimens with a voxel resolution of 45 μm. We obtained about 460 slices/specimen, which produced abundant data. The osseous labyrinth images of three specimens were reconstructed from mCT. The cochlea and its spiral characteristics were measured precisely using Able Software 3D-DOCTOR. The 3D images of the osseous labyrinth, including the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals, were reconstructed. The 3D models of the cochlea showed the spatial relationships and surface structural characteristics. Quantitative data concerning the cochlea and its spiral structural characteristics were analyzed with regard to cochlear implantation. The 3D reconstruction of mCT images clearly displayed the detailed spiral structural characteristics of the osseous labyrinth. Quantitative data regarding the cochlea and its spiral structural characteristics could help to improve electrode structural design, signal processing, and the effectiveness of cochlear implantation. Clin. Anat. 30:39-43, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. An intelligent three dimensional reconstruction system for cerebral arteries from biplane cineangiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Susumu; Guan, Yang; Tsukamoto, Yasuo; Kumamoto, Etsuko; Asada, Katsunobu; Matsuo, Michimasa; Yamasaki, Katsuhito.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, an intelligent system is developed for the three dimensional reconstruction of cerebral arteries from biplane cineangiograms. The system is composed of two blocks, i.e., an inferencing-control-block and a processing-block. The inferencing-control block controls the flow of the image-processing by inferencing with the knowledge stored in the block and is a production system based on 'IF, THEN' rule. The processing-block is a collection of image processing procedures activated by a call from the inferencing-control-block. On the other hand, the flow of the image-processing is outlined as follows: After the extraction of vessel center lines from the angiograms, the blood flow directions and connectivity states of vessels are determined and the vessel graph is translated to a vessel connectivity tree. Then, by utilizing the knowledge about anatomic structure of cerebral arteries and characteristics of angiograms, important arteries are distinguished and vessel groups classified. Finally, by using a shape-oriented matching method, the vessels on the two projected planes are matched and the three dimensional structure of vessels constructed. An example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of the knowledge which enables the system to improve the efficiency and precision of the processing, such as vessel analysis and matching. (author)

  4. Three Dimensional Dynamic Model Based Wind Field Reconstruction from Lidar Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-01-01

    Using the inflowing horizontal and vertical wind shears for individual pitch controller is a promising method if blade bending measurements are not available. Due to the limited information provided by a lidar system the reconstruction of shears in real-time is a challenging task especially for the horizontal shear in the presence of changing wind direction. The internal model principle has shown to be a promising approach to estimate the shears and directions in 10 minutes averages with real measurement data. The static model based wind vector field reconstruction is extended in this work taking into account a dynamic reconstruction model based on Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis. The presented method provides time series over several seconds of the wind speed, shears and direction, which can be directly used in advanced optimal preview control. Therefore, this work is an important step towards the application of preview individual blade pitch control under realistic wind conditions. The method is tested using a turbulent wind field and a detailed lidar simulator. For the simulation, the turbulent wind field structure is flowing towards the lidar system and is continuously misaligned with respect to the horizontal axis of the wind turbine. Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis is taken into account to model the wind evolution. For the reconstruction, the structure is discretized into several stages where each stage is reduced to an effective wind speed, superposed with a linear horizontal and vertical wind shear. Previous lidar measurements are shifted using again Taylor's Hypothesis. The wind field reconstruction problem is then formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem, which minimizes the residual between the assumed wind model and the lidar measurements to obtain the misalignment angle and the effective wind speed and the wind shears for each stage. This method shows good results in reconstructing the wind characteristics of a three

  5. Regional fibrocartilage variations in human anterior cruciate ligament tibial insertion: a histological three-dimensional reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Can; Guo, Lin; Yang, Liu; Wu, Yi; Gou, Jingyue; Li, Bangchun

    2015-02-01

    We studied anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial insertion architecture in humans and investigated regional differences that could suggest unequal force transmission from ligament to bone. ACL tibial insertions were processed histologically. With Photoshop software, digital images taken from the histological slides were collaged, contour lines were drawn, and different gray values were filled based on the structure. The data were exported to Amira software for three-dimensional reconstruction. The uncalcified fibrocartilage (UF) layer was divided into three regions: lateral, medial and posterior according to the architecture. The UF zone was significantly thicker laterally than medially or posteriorly (p fibrocartilage (CF) thickness was significantly greater in the lateral part of the enthesis compared to the medial and posterior parts (p < 0.05). The UF quantity (more UF laterally) corresponding to the CF quantity (more CF laterally) at the ACL tibial insertion provides further evidence suggesting that the load transferred from the ACL to the tibia was greater laterally than medially and posteriorly.

  6. System and method for three-dimensional image reconstruction using an absolute orientation sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Giancola, Silvio

    2018-01-18

    A three-dimensional image reconstruction system includes an image capture device, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), and an image processor. The image capture device captures image data. The inertial measurement unit (IMU) is affixed to the image capture device and records IMU data associated with the image data. The image processor includes one or more processing units and memory for storing instructions that are executed by the one or more processing units, wherein the image processor receives the image data and the IMU data as inputs and utilizes the IMU data to pre-align the first image and the second image, and wherein the image processor utilizes a registration algorithm to register the pre-aligned first and second images.

  7. A new method of three-dimensional computer assisted reconstruction of the developing biliary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudhomme, M; Gaubert-Cristol, R; Jaeger, M; De Reffye, P; Godlewski, G

    1999-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) computer assisted reconstruction of the biliary tract was performed in human and rat embryos at Carnegie stage 23 to describe and compare the biliary structures and to point out the anatomic relations between the structures of the hepatic pedicle. Light micrograph images from consecutive serial sagittal sections (diameter 7 mm) of one human and 16 rat embryos were directly digitalized with a CCD camera. The serial views were aligned automatically by software. The data were analysed following segmentation and thresholding, allowing automatic reconstruction. The main bile ducts ascended in the mesoderm of the hepatoduodenal ligament. The extrahepatic bile ducts: common bile duct (CD), cystic duct and gallbladder in the human, formed a compound system which could not be shown so clearly in histologic sections. The hepato-pancreatic ampulla was studied as visualised through the duodenum. The course of the CD was like a chicane. The gallbladder diameter and length were similar to those of the CD. Computer-assisted reconstruction permitted easy acquisition of the data by direct examination of the sections through the microscope. This method showed the relationships between the different structures of the hepatic pedicle and allowed estimation of the volume of the bile duct. These findings were not obvious in two-dimensional (2-D) views from histologic sections. Each embryonic stage could be rebuilt in 3-D, which could introduce the time as a fourth dimension, fundamental for the study of organogenesis.

  8. Torso geometry reconstruction and body surface electrode localization using three-dimensional photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Alday, Erick A; Thomas, Jason A; Kabir, Muammar; Sedaghat, Golriz; Rogovoy, Nichole; van Dam, Eelco; van Dam, Peter; Woodward, William; Fuss, Cristina; Ferencik, Maros; Tereshchenko, Larisa G

    We conducted a prospective clinical study (n=14; 29% female) to assess the accuracy of a three-dimensional (3D) photography-based method of torso geometry reconstruction and body surface electrodes localization. The position of 74 body surface electrocardiographic (ECG) electrodes (diameter 5mm) was defined by two methods: 3D photography, and CT (marker diameter 2mm) or MRI (marker size 10×20mm) imaging. Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreement in X (bias -2.5 [95% limits of agreement (LoA) -19.5 to 14.3] mm), Y (bias -0.1 [95% LoA -14.1 to 13.9] mm), and Z coordinates (bias -0.8 [95% LoA -15.6 to 14.2] mm), as defined by the CT/MRI imaging, and 3D photography. The average Hausdorff distance between the two torso geometry reconstructions was 11.17±3.05mm. Thus, accurate torso geometry reconstruction using 3D photography is feasible. Body surface ECG electrodes coordinates as defined by the CT/MRI imaging, and 3D photography, are in good agreement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Application of Three-Dimensional Surface Imaging System in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Yang, Xin; Li, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging system has gained popularity worldwide in clinical application. Unlike computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, it has the ability to capture 3D images with both shape and texture information. This feature has made it quite useful for plastic surgeons. This review article is mainly focusing on demonstrating the current status and analyzing the future of the application of 3D surface imaging systems in plastic and reconstructive surgery.Currently, 3D surface imaging system is mainly used in plastic and reconstructive surgery to help improve the reliability of surgical planning and assessing surgical outcome objectively. There have already been reports of its using on plastic and reconstructive surgery from head to toe. Studies on facial aging process, online applications development, and so on, have also been done through the use of 3D surface imaging system.Because different types of 3D surface imaging devices have their own advantages and disadvantages, a basic knowledge of their features is required and careful thought should be taken to choose the one that best fits a surgeon's demand.In the future, by integrating with other imaging tools and the 3D printing technology, 3D surface imaging system will play an important role in individualized surgical planning, implants production, meticulous surgical simulation, operative techniques training, and patient education.

  10. Structured light optical microscopy for three-dimensional reconstruction of technical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettel, Johannes; Reinecke, Holger; Müller, Claas

    2016-04-01

    In microsystems technology quality control of micro structured surfaces with different surface properties is playing an ever more important role. The process of quality control incorporates three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of specularand diffusive reflecting technical surfaces. Due to the demand on high measurement accuracy and data acquisition rates, structured light optical microscopy has become a valuable solution to solve this problem providing high vertical and lateral resolution. However, 3D reconstruction of specular reflecting technical surfaces still remains a challenge to optical measurement principles. In this paper we present a measurement principle based on structured light optical microscopy which enables 3D reconstruction of specular- and diffusive reflecting technical surfaces. It is realized using two light paths of a stereo microscope equipped with different magnification levels. The right optical path of the stereo microscope is used to project structured light onto the object surface. The left optical path is used to capture the structured illuminated object surface with a camera. Structured light patterns are generated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) device in combination with a high power Light Emitting Diode (LED). Structured light patterns are realized as a matrix of discrete light spots to illuminate defined areas on the object surface. The introduced measurement principle is based on multiple and parallel processed point measurements. Analysis of the measured Point Spread Function (PSF) by pattern recognition and model fitting algorithms enables the precise calculation of 3D coordinates. Using exemplary technical surfaces we demonstrate the successful application of our measurement principle.

  11. Three-dimensional breast image reconstruction from a limited number of views

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Thomas G.; Stewart, Alexander X.; Stanton, Martin J.; Wu, Tao; Phillips, Walter C.

    2000-04-01

    Typically in three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) imaging, hundreds or thousands of x-ray projection images are recorded. The image-collection time and patient dose required rule out conventional CT as a tool for screening mammography. We have developed a CT method that overcomes these limitations by using (1) a novel image collection geometry, (2) new digital electronic x-ray detector technology, and (3) modern image reconstruction procedures. The method, which we call Computed Planar Mammography (CPM), is made possible by the full-field, low-noise, high-resolution CCD-based detector design that we have previously developed. With this method, we need to record only a limited number (10 - 50) of low-dose x- ray images of the breast. The resulting 3D full breast image has a resolution in two orientations equal to the full detector resolution (47 microns), and a lower, variable resolution (0.5 - 10 mm) in the third orientation. This 3D reconstructed image can then be viewed as a series of cross- sectional layers, or planes, each at the full detector resolution. Features due to overlapping tissue, which could not be differentiated in a conventional mammogram, are separated into layers at different depths. We demonstrate the features and capabilities of this method by presenting reconstructed images of phantoms and mastectomy specimens. Finally, we discuss outstanding issues related to the further development of this procedure, as well as considerations for its clinical implementation.

  12. The assessment of orthodontic bonding defects: optical coherence tomography followed by three-dimensional reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominu, R.; Sinescu, C.; Rominu, M.; Negrutiu, M.; Petrescu, E.; Pop, D.; Podoleanu, A. Gh.

    2011-10-01

    Orthodontic bonding is a simple yet important procedure that can influence the outcome of treatment in case it is performed incorrectly. An orthodontic treatment shadowed by repeated bonding failures can become unduly long and will decrease patient trust and compliance. Optical coherence tomography has been widely used in ophtalmology but is relatively new to dentistry. Using OCT one can detect aerial inclusions within the orthodontic adhesive or even identify incongruence between the bracket base and the tooth surface. The aim of our study was to identify bonding defects and reconstruct them three-dimensionally in order to be able to characterize them more accurately. We bonded 30 sound human permanent teeth with ceramic orthodontic brackets using a no-mix self-curing orthodontic adhesive. Prior to bonding all teeth were stored in tap water at 4°C and then professionally cleaned with rotary brushes and pumice. The samples were processed by the same person and the rotary brushes were changed after every fifth tooth. All interfaces were investigated by means of OCT and 4 defects were found. Subsequently, the defects were reconstructed threedimensionally using an open-source program. By identifying and reconstructing bonding defects we could assess the quality of the bonding procedure. Since bonding tends to be more accurate in vitro where the environmental conditions are close to ideal, it is probable that defects found in vivo be even greater in number, which leads to the conclusion that this type of investigation is potentially valuable.

  13. The use of a neuronavigator in combination with three-dimensional CT reconstruction and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Eiju; Mayanagi, Yoshiaki (Tokyo Metropolitan Police Hospital (Japan)); Ishii, Shigeo; Yoshimoto, Satonobu; Takakura, Kintomo

    1989-08-01

    A new CT-stereotactic device (navigator) has been developed which translates the operating site into preoperative CT coordination. We applied this system in combination with three-dimensional CT reconstruction and with angiogram. Method: The system consists of a 6-joint robotic arm and a personal computer. It projects the location of the arm tip onto a correlating CT slice with a cursor, which guides a surgeon toward his intracranial target during open surgery. The system translates the tip location into a 3D-CT reconstructed image and an angiogram. The system worked as the core of a multimodality navigation system during surgery. The detection error was less than 5 mm, which proved sufficient for open microsurgery. The system was combined with a 3D-CT reconstruction system. It produces 3D images and cuts off the surface image at the point of the cursor, simulating surgical excision. The navigator controlled the location of the cutting cursor, thus establishing a real-time surgical simulation. When the angiogram was referred to, it became easy to identify bridging veins within a small operating field. Conclusion: The neuronavigator combines various diagnostic images into one data base and effectively guides the surgeon during surgery. (author).

  14. The use of a neuronavigator in combination with three-dimensional CT reconstruction and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Eiju; Mayanagi, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Shigeo; Yoshimoto, Satonobu; Takakura, Kintomo.

    1989-01-01

    A new CT-stereotactic device (navigator) has been developed which translates the operating site into preoperative CT coordination. We applied this system in combination with three-dimensional CT reconstruction and with angiogram. Method: The system consists of a 6-joint robotic arm and a personal computer. It projects the location of the arm tip onto a correlating CT slice with a cursor, which guides a surgeon toward his intracranial target during open surgery. The system translates the tip location into a 3D-CT reconstructed image and an angiogram. The system worked as the core of a multimodality navigation system during surgery. The detection error was less than 5 mm, which proved sufficient for open microsurgery. The system was combined with a 3D-CT reconstruction system. It produces 3D images and cuts off the surface image at the point of the cursor, simulating surgical excision. The navigator controlled the location of the cutting cursor, thus establishing a real-time surgical simulation. When the angiogram was referred to, it became easy to identify bridging veins within a small operating field. Conclusion: The neuronavigator combines various diagnostic images into one data base and effectively guides the surgeon during surgery. (author)

  15. Verifying three-dimensional skull model reconstruction using cranial index of symmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon-Man Kung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Difficulty exists in scalp adaptation for cranioplasty with customized computer-assisted design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM implant in situations of excessive wound tension and sub-cranioplasty dead space. To solve this clinical problem, the CAD/CAM technique should include algorithms to reconstruct a depressed contour to cover the skull defect. Satisfactory CAM-derived alloplastic implants are based on highly accurate three-dimensional (3-D CAD modeling. Thus, it is quite important to establish a symmetrically regular CAD/CAM reconstruction prior to depressing the contour. The purpose of this study is to verify the aesthetic outcomes of CAD models with regular contours using cranial index of symmetry (CIS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2011 to June 2012, decompressive craniectomy (DC was performed for 15 consecutive patients in our institute. 3-D CAD models of skull defects were reconstructed using commercial software. These models were checked in terms of symmetry by CIS scores. RESULTS: CIS scores of CAD reconstructions were 99.24±0.004% (range 98.47-99.84. CIS scores of these CAD models were statistically significantly greater than 95%, identical to 99.5%, but lower than 99.6% (p<0.001, p = 0.064, p = 0.021 respectively, Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test. These data evidenced the highly accurate symmetry of these CAD models with regular contours. CONCLUSIONS: CIS calculation is beneficial to assess aesthetic outcomes of CAD-reconstructed skulls in terms of cranial symmetry. This enables further accurate CAD models and CAM cranial implants with depressed contours, which are essential in patients with difficult scalp adaptation.

  16. Three-dimensional reconstruction of fracture surfaces of CFRP type composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Raquel de Moraes

    2009-01-01

    The three-dimensional reconstruction of fracture surfaces of CFRP type composite materials is presented in this work as a possible method for the fractographic analysis of this material, whose rupture surface can present an accentuated roughness, with great variation in height. Two methods are presented for this purpose: the reconstruction for variable focus, carried through with images of optic microscopy and the reconstruction for parallax, carried through with pair of stereo images, obtained by means of scanning electronic microscopy. An evaluation is carried through for each one of the two methods, having argued its limits and the efficiency of each one of them, before the difficulties of analysis of unidirectional and multidirectional composite materials. The method of variable focus presented an excellent reconstruction result, but it has the need of a great number of images, spent time of the instrument and magnifying limit of the images as factors to be considered in the choice of better method. The tilting of the specimen, during the parallax method, discloses alterations in the histograms of the images acquired in the clockwise direction that limit the use of the method for materials with high roughness. The acquiring of images in only one direction and the construction of a region of interest, located in the center of the image are suggestions to turn the method most including. The linearity of the projections of features in the inclined image also suggests the possibility to carry through the reconstruction using, instead of only two, multiple images gotten in the counter-clockwise direction. The alterations proposals to modify the routine, are suggested so that the program can be applied in a more comprehensive form, independent of the quality of the observed fracture surface. (author)

  17. Clinical application of the three-dimensional reconstruction of spiral CT pneumocolon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shenping; Li Ziping; Xu Dasheng; Lin Erjian; Lin Peizhang; Xu Qiaolan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical role of the 3 types of reconstruction of the spiral CT pneumocolon in the diagnosis of colon lesions. Methods: Three types of reconstruction with spiral CT pneumocolon including air cast imaging (ACI), CT virtual endoscopy (CTVE), and multiple planner reconstruction (MPR) in 34 patients with colorectal cancer or polyps were correlated with surgical pathology respectively. Results: Among the 34 patients, 30 was colorectal cancer and 6 was polyps (2 of which in the proximal lumen of 2 colon cancer). (1) Comparison between the 3 types of the spiral CT pneumocolon reconstruction and pathology in colorectal cancer. 1) ACI: tumor patterns: coincide (n =22), anti-coincide (n = 8); tumor extension: coincide (n = 24), anti-coincide (n = 6); tumor size: coincide (n = 28), anti-coincide (n = 2). 2) CTVE: tumor patterns: coincide (n = 26), anti-coincide (n = 4); tumor extension: coincide (n = 25), anti-coincide ( n 5); tumor size: coincide (n = 23), anti-coincide (n = 7). 3) MPR: tumor patterns: coincide (n = 24), anti-coincide (n = 6); tumor extension: coincide (n = 30), anti-coincide (n = 0); tumor size: coincide (n = 26), anti-coincide (n = 4). (2) Comparison between the 3 types of the spiral CT pneumocolon reconstruction and pathology in colorectal polyps: the lesions were displayed in 4 (ACI) and in 6 (CTVE and MPR). Conclusion: (1) For the diagnosis of colorectal cancers: CTVE was the best means to display the tumor patterns, MPR most correct to judge the tumor extension, and ACI most suitable to measure the tumor size. (2) For the diagnosis of colorectal polyps, ACI can be used for oriented diagnosis, CTVE can well display the intra-luminal three-dimensional structure and can be used for characteristic diagnosis, MPR can be used for differential diagnosis

  18. Colour-coded three-dimensional reconstruction from spiral CT data sets: Improvement from the physical point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, A.P.; Lenz, M.; Kirsten, R.; Gerhardt, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the possibility of improving the spatial depth impression of colour-coded three-dimensional reconstructions by modulation of colour saturation. Patients were observed with spiral computed tomography (slice thickness 10 mm, table feed 10 mm/s, reconstruction of overlapping axial images at 2 mm increment). Interesting anatomical and pathological objects (vessels, organs, tumours, metastases) were segmented, colour-coded, and reconstructed three-dimensionally. Spatial depth impression of the coloured objects could be improved by modulating not only the brightness, but also the colour saturation. (orig.) [de

  19. [Differential diagnosis of papillary carcinomas of the thyroid, using image analysis and three dimensional reconstruction from serial sections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschbach, A; Kriete, A; Schäffer, R

    1990-01-01

    Papillae with fibrovascular cores are characteristic of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Papillae may be found in diffuse hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, Hashimoto's disease and follicular adenoma. Tissues from ten benign hyperplasias and ten papillary carcinomas were reconstructed from serial sections with three dimensional reconstruction programs. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences were found between the hyperplasia and the carcinoma. The principal differences between papillae of papillary carcinoma and hyperplasia were more clearly seen in the three dimensional reconstruction, than by means of morphometric methods. Certain criteria, e.g. the volume of papillae, were useful only with regard to the third dimension. Nevertheless, three dimensional reconstruction of biological tissue is a time consuming procedure which is not yet suitable for routine examination.

  20. Clinical applications for multiplanar- and three-dimensional-reconstructions by helical-CT for the diagnosis of acetabular fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroszczynski, C.; Schedel, H.; Stoeckle, U.; Wellmann, A.; Beier, J.; Wicht, L.; Hoffmann, R.; Felix, R.

    1996-01-01

    This review describes recent visualizations of computed tomography for the diagnosis of acetabular fractures. The techniques of conventional and helical-CT for the imaging of the acetabulum are compared. Furthermore, the different methods of multiplaner and three-dimensional reconstructions e.g. shaded surface display, maximum intensity projection, and volume rendering are presented. Figures of multiplanar and three-dimensional imaging for fractures of the pelvis is discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. Scapular flap for maxillectomy defect reconstruction and preliminary results using three-dimensional modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modest, Mara C; Moore, Eric J; Abel, Kathryn M Van; Janus, Jeffrey R; Sims, John R; Price, Daniel L; Olsen, Kerry D

    2017-01-01

    Discuss current techniques utilizing the scapular tip and subscapular system for free tissue reconstruction of maxillary defects and highlight the impact of medical modeling on these techniques with a case series. Case review series at an academic hospital of patients undergoing maxillectomy + thoracodorsal scapula composite free flap (TSCF) reconstruction. Three-dimensional (3D) models were used in the last five cases. 3D modeling, surgical, functional, and aesthetic outcomes were reviewed. Nine patients underwent TSCF reconstruction for maxillectomy defects (median age = 43 years; range, 19-66 years). Five patients (55%) had a total maxillectomy (TM) ± orbital exenteration, whereas four patients (44%) underwent subtotal palatal maxillectomy. For TM, the contralateral scapula tip was positioned with its natural concavity recreating facial contour. The laterally based vascular pedicle was ideally positioned for facial vessel anastomosis. For subtotal-palatal defect, an ipsilateral flap was harvested, but inset with the convex surface facing superiorly. Once 3D models were available from our anatomic modeling lab, they were used for intraoperative planning of the last five patients. Use of the model intraoperatively improved efficiency and allowed for better contouring/plating of the TSCF. At last follow-up, all patients had good functional outcomes. Aesthetic outcomes were more successful in patients where 3D-modeling was used (100% vs. 50%). There were no flap failures. Median follow-up >1 month was 5.2 months (range, 1-32.7 months). Reconstruction of maxillectomy defects is complex. Successful aesthetic and functional outcomes are critical to patient satisfaction. The TSCF is a versatile flap. Based on defect type, choosing laterality is crucial for proper vessel orientation and outcomes. The use of internally produced 3D models has helped refine intraoperative contouring and flap inset, leading to more successful outcomes. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:E8-E14

  2. Cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstructions of hepatitis C virus particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xuekui; Qiao Ming; Atanasov, Ivo; Hu Zongyi; Kato, Takanobu; Liang, T. Jake; Zhou, Z. Hong

    2007-01-01

    The structural details of hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been elusive because of the lack of a robust tissue culture system for producing an adequate amount of virions from infectious sources for in-depth three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis. Using both negative-stain and cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM), we show that HCV virions isolated from cell culture have a rather uniform size of 500 A in diameter and that recombinantly expressed HCV-like particles (HCV-LPs) have similar morphologic, biophysical and antigenic features in spite of the varying sizes of the particles. 3D reconstructions were obtained from HCV-LPs with the same size as the HCV virions in the presence and absence of monoclonal antibodies bound to the E1 glycoprotein. The 3D reconstruction of HCV-LP reveals a multilayered architecture, with smooth outer-layer densities arranged in a 'fishbone' configuration. Reconstruction of the particles in complex with anti-E1 antibodies shows that sites of the E1 epitope are exposed and surround the 5-, 3- and 2-fold axes. The binding pattern of the anti-E1 antibody and the fitting of the structure of the dengue virus E glycoprotein into our 3D reconstructions further suggest that the HCV-LP E1 and E2 proteins form a tetramer (or dimer of heterodimers) that corresponds morphologically and functionally to the flavivirus E homodimer. This first 3D structural analysis of HCV particles offers important insights into the elusive mechanisms of HCV assembly and maturation

  3. Determination of optimal parameters for three-dimensional reconstruction images of central airways using helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Takahumi; Akata, Soichi; Matsuno, Naoto; Nagao, Takeshi; Abe, Kimihiko

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction of central airways using helical CT requires several user-defined parameters that exceed the requirements of conventional CT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the optimal parameters for 3D images of central airways using helical CT. In our experimental study using a piglet immediately after sacrifice, 3D images of the central airway were evaluated with changes of 3D imaging parameters, such as detector collimation (1, 2, 3 and 6 mm), table speed (1, 2, 3 and 5 mm/sec), tube electric current (50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mA), reconstruction interval (0.3, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mm), algorithm (mediastinum and lung) and interpolation method (180 deg and 360 deg). To minimize detector collimation, table speed, and reconstruction interval could provide the best 3D images of the central airway. Stair-step artifacts could also be reduced with a slow table speed. However, decreasing the collimation and table speed decreases not only the effective section thickness but also the scan coverage that can be achieved with a helical CT. For routine diagnosis, we conclude that optimal parameters for 3D images of the central airway are to minimize the table speed necessary to cover the volume of interest and to set detector collimation to 1/2 of the table speed. The reconstruction intervals should also be selected at up to 1/2 of the detector collimation, but with trade-offs of increased image processing time, data storage requirements, and physician time for image review. Regarding to tube electric current, 200 mA or more was necessary. Pixel noise increased with the algorithm for the lung. The 180 deg interpolation is better than 360 deg interpolation due to thin effective section thickness. (author)

  4. Three-dimensional reconstruction volume: a novel method for volume measurement in kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Timothy A; Carnell, Jonathan; Turk, Thomas T; Gupta, Gopal N

    2014-06-01

    The role of volumetric estimation is becoming increasingly important in the staging, management, and prognostication of benign and cancerous conditions of the kidney. We evaluated the use of three-dimensional reconstruction volume (3DV) in determining renal parenchymal volumes (RPV) and renal tumor volumes (RTV). We compared 3DV with the currently available methods of volume assessment and determined its interuser reliability. RPV and RTV were assessed in 28 patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for kidney cancer. Patients with a preoperative creatinine level of kidney pre- and postsurgery overestimated 3D reconstruction volumes by 15% to 102% and 12% to 101%, respectively. In addition, volumes obtained from 3DV displayed high interuser reliability regardless of experience. 3DV provides a highly reliable way of assessing kidney volumes. Given that 3DV takes into account visible anatomy, the differences observed using previously published methods can be attributed to the failure of geometry to accurately approximate kidney or tumor shape. 3DV provides a more accurate, reproducible, and clinically useful tool for urologists looking to improve patient care using analysis related to volume.

  5. Registration and three-dimensional reconstruction of autoradiographic images by the disparity analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Weizhao; Ginsberg, M.; Young, T.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography is a powerful radio-isotopic-imaging method for neuroscientists to study local cerebral blood flow and glucose-metabolic rate at rest, in response to physiologic activation of the visual, auditory, somatosensory, and motor systems, and in pathologic conditions. Most autoradiographic studies analyze glucose utilization and blood flow in two-dimensional (2-D) coronal sections. With modern digital computer and image-processing techniques, a large number of closely spaced coronal sections can be stacked appropriately to form a three-dimensional (3-d) image. 3-D autoradiography allows investigators to observe cerebral sections and surfaces from any viewing angle. A fundamental problem in 3-D reconstruction is the alignment (registration) of the coronal sections. A new alignment method based on disparity analysis is presented which can overcome many of the difficulties encountered by previous methods. The disparity analysis method can deal with asymmetric, damaged, or tilted coronal sections under the same general framework, and it can be used to match coronal sections of different sizes and shapes. Experimental results on alignment and 3-D reconstruction are presented

  6. Fuzzy B-spline optimization for urban slum three-dimensional reconstruction using ENVISAT satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marghany, Maged

    2014-01-01

    A critical challenges in urban aeras is slums. In fact, they are considered a source of crime and disease due to poor-quality housing, unsanitary conditions, poor infrastructures and occupancy security. The poor in the dense urban slums are the most vulnerable to infection due to (i) inadequate and restricted access to safety, drinking water and sufficient quantities of water for personal hygiene; (ii) the lack of removal and treatment of excreta; and (iii) the lack of removal of solid waste. This study aims to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed countries such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize some 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that the fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate between them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slum. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that the fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data

  7. Integration of Trace Images in Three-dimensional Crime Scene Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Milliet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic image analysis has greatly developed with the proliferation of photography and video recording devices. Trace images of serious incidents are increasingly captured by first responders, witnesses, bystanders, or surveillance systems. Image perception is exposed with a special emphasis on the influence of the field of view on observation. In response to the pitfalls of the mental eye, a way to systematize the integration of images as traces in three-dimensional crime scene reconstruction is proposed. The systematic approach is based on the application of photogrammetric principles to slightly modify the usual photographic documentation as well as on the early collection and review of available trace images. The integration of images as traces provides valuable contributions to contextualize what happened at a crime scene based on the information that can be obtained from images. In a wider perspective, the systematic analysis of images fosters the use and interpretation of forensic evidence to complement witness statements in the criminal justice system. This article outlines the benefits of integrating trace images into a coherent reconstruction framework in order to improve interpretation of their content. A solution is proposed to integrate perception differences between the field of view of cameras and the human eye.

  8. Fuzzy B-spline optimization for urban slum three-dimensional reconstruction using ENVISAT satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghany, Maged

    2014-06-01

    A critical challenges in urban aeras is slums. In fact, they are considered a source of crime and disease due to poor-quality housing, unsanitary conditions, poor infrastructures and occupancy security. The poor in the dense urban slums are the most vulnerable to infection due to (i) inadequate and restricted access to safety, drinking water and sufficient quantities of water for personal hygiene; (ii) the lack of removal and treatment of excreta; and (iii) the lack of removal of solid waste. This study aims to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed countries such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize some 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that the fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate between them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slum. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that the fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data.

  9. Volumetric three-dimensional reconstruction and segmentation of spectral-domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaker, Grant D; Gracia, Luis; Myung, Jane S; Borcherding, Vanessa; Banfelder, Jason R; D'Amico, Donald J; Kiss, Szilárd

    2011-07-01

    Despite advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT), three-dimensional (3D) renderings of OCT images remain limited to scanning consecutive two-dimensional (2D) OCT slices. The authors describe a method of reconstructing 2D OCT data for 3D retinal analysis and visualization in a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment (CAVE). Using customized signal processing software, raw data from 2D slice-based spectral-domain OCT images were rendered into high-resolution 3D images for segmentation and quantification analysis. Reconstructed OCT images were projected onto a four-walled space and viewed through stereoscopic glasses, resulting in a virtual reality perception of the retina. These 3D retinal renderings offer a novel method for segmentation and isolation of volumetric images. The ability to manipulate the images in a virtual reality environment allows visualization of complex spatial relationships that may aid our understanding of retinal pathology. More importantly, these 3D retinal renderings can be viewed, manipulated, and analyzed on traditional 2D monitors independent of the CAVE. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Three dimensional image reconstruction of computed tomograms of the head and neck in the pediatric age group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, E.A.; Smith, T.H.; Salyer, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Between August 1983, and April 1984, we have clinically evaluated an experimental computed tomography (CT) software package capable of producing three dimensional (3-D) reconstructed images from axial CT scans. Three dimensional reconstructions have been performed in 115 patient CT examinations for congenital or acquired craniofacial abnormalities, 103 patients; intracranial neoplasms, 6 patients: and the cervical spine and craniocervical junction, 6 patients. Several patients have had studies pre- and postoperatively to plan craniofacial surgery and later evaluate its results on both the bone and soft tissue structures. The results indicate that three dimensional reconstruction using a low dose technique yields information valuable to conceptualize and demonstrate to clinicians the spatial relationships of often complex anatomical relationships in the craniofacial and craniocervical areas [fr

  11. Measuring stone volume - three-dimensional software reconstruction or an ellipsoid algebra formula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, William; Johnston, Richard; Shaida, Nadeem; Winterbottom, Andrew; Wiseman, Oliver

    2014-04-01

    To determine the optimal method for assessing stone volume, and thus stone burden, by comparing the accuracy of scalene, oblate, and prolate ellipsoid volume equations with three-dimensional (3D)-reconstructed stone volume. Kidney stone volume may be helpful in predicting treatment outcome for renal stones. While the precise measurement of stone volume by 3D reconstruction can be accomplished using modern computer tomography (CT) scanning software, this technique is not available in all hospitals or with routine acute colic scanning protocols. Therefore, maximum diameters as measured by either X-ray or CT are used in the calculation of stone volume based on a scalene ellipsoid formula, as recommended by the European Association of Urology. In all, 100 stones with both X-ray and CT (1-2-mm slices) were reviewed. Complete and partial staghorn stones were excluded. Stone volume was calculated using software designed to measure tissue density of a certain range within a specified region of interest. Correlation coefficients among all measured outcomes were compared. Stone volumes were analysed to determine the average 'shape' of the stones. The maximum stone diameter on X-ray was 3-25 mm and on CT was 3-36 mm, with a reasonable correlation (r = 0.77). Smaller stones (15 mm towards scalene ellipsoids. There was no difference in stone shape by location within the kidney. As the average shape of renal stones changes with diameter, no single equation for estimating stone volume can be recommended. As the maximum diameter increases, calculated stone volume becomes less accurate, suggesting that larger stones have more asymmetric shapes. We recommend that research looking at stone clearance rates should use 3D-reconstructed stone volumes when available, followed by prolate, oblate, or scalene ellipsoid formulas depending on the maximum stone diameter. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  12. Three-dimensional computed tomography of the reconstructed lower urinary tract: technique and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, R.; Frede, T.; Eder, R.; Recheis, W.; Knapp, R.; zur Nedden, D.; Stenzl, A.; Bartsch, G.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study in 54 patients was to improve the visualization of the anatomy and postoperative changes in the pelvic topography after bilateral ureteroileal urethrostomy, using surface rendering of electron beam CT (EBCT) data for the 3D display. Fifty-four patients (39 men and 15 women) were scanned with an EBCT unit between 3 and 110 months after performing orthotopic ureteroileal urethrostomy (''Hemi-Kock'') or ureteroileal rectosigmoidostomy. Various parameters and spatial viewing points were used in the 3D reconstruction, which was performed interactively on external workstations with commercially available software. The anti-reflux nipple was visualized as a distinct structure in all patients. In 8 patients with an interval of more than 12 months between surgery and CT, the pouch had developed an ovoid shape almost indistinguishable from the original bladder. The segmented data sets were partly animated to display the anatomy as virtual endoscopy. Three-dimensional depiction and virtual endoscopy of the neobladder using EBCT are a new way of imaging the postoperative anatomy. Its clinical efficacy in the diagnosis of inconclusive postoperative morbidity, especially voiding problems, and planning of necessary therapy have to be the subject of further evaluation. (orig.)

  13. MRI-three dimensional reconstruction of biliary system in choledochal cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Tatsuru; Takamatsu, Hideo; Noguchi, Hiroyuki; Tahara, Hiroyuki; Fukushige, Takahiko; Kajiya, Hiroshi; Kajiya, Yoshiki

    1995-01-01

    We report a trial of MR cholangiography in children with choledochal cyst. Recently, three-dimensional reconstruction using magnetic resolution imaging of biliary system (MR cholangiography) has been reported as the less-invasive diagnostic method for obstructive lesions of biliary system. Forty-eight cases of choledochal cyst were treated at Kagoshima University Hospital in the past ten years. In 22 of them, intrahepatic duct dilatation was revealed by preoperative or operative cholangiogram. We tried MR cholangiography in nine cases of 22 cases pre- and/or post-operatively. Five cases had MR cholangiography preoperatively. Intrahepatic biliary dilatation was revealed in all of them and intrahepatic biliary stenosis was revealed in two cases. These findings were almost the same as those by preoperative or operative cholangiogram. MR cholangiography was applied on seven cases postoperatively: 3 cases had fine construction of biliary system, because they still had intrahepatic biliary dilatation, and no dilatation was seen in 4 cases, because of good operative results. This method has advantages of less-invasive in children, no need of contrast dye, and fair delineation of biliary system as samely as endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC). In cases of huge biliary dilatation, MR cholangiography provides more information concerning intrahepatic biliary than ERCP. (author)

  14. 3D-ANTLERS: Virtual Reconstruction and Three-Dimensional Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, S.; Fiorillo, F.; De Feo, E.

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of this paper is to establish a procedural method for measuring and cataloguing antlers through the use of laser scanner and of a 3D reconstruction of complex modeling. The deer's antlers have been used as a test and subjected to capture and measurement. For this purpose multiple data sources techniques have been studied and compared, (also considering low-cost sensors) estimating the accuracy and its errors in order to demonstrate the validity of the process. A further development is the comparison of results with applications of digital photogrammetry, considering also cloud computing software. The study has began with an introduction to sensors, addressing the underlying characteristics of the technology available, the scope and the limits of these applications. We have focused particularly on the "structured light", as the acquisition will be completed through three-dimensional scanners: DAVID and the ARTEC MH. The first is a low-cost sensor, a basic webcam and a linear laser pointer, red coloured, that leads to acquisition of three-dimensional strips. The other one is a hand scanner; even in this case we will explain how to represent a 3D model, with a pipeline that provides data export from the "proprietary" to a "reverse engineering" software. Typically, these are the common steps to the two approaches that have been performed in WRAP format: point sampling, manual and global registration, repair normals, surface editing and texture projection. In fact, after a first and common data processing was done with the use of a software supplied with the equipment, the proto-models thus obtained were treated in Geomagic Studio, which was also chosen to allow the homogenization and standardization of data in order to make a more objective comparison. It is commonplace to observe that the editing of the digital mock-up obtained with the DAVID - which had not yet been upgraded to the 3.5 release at the time of this study - is substantially different

  15. Efficient three-dimensional reconstruction of aquatic vegetation geometry: Estimating morphological parameters influencing hydrodynamic drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Jean; Lynn, Kendra; Strigul, Nikolay; Norris, Benjamin K.; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Mullarney, Julia C.; Bryan, Karin, R.; Henderson, Stephen M.

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic vegetation can shelter coastlines from energetic waves and tidal currents, sometimes enabling accretion of fine sediments. Simulation of flow and sediment transport within submerged canopies requires quantification of vegetation geometry. However, field surveys used to determine vegetation geometry can be limited by the time required to obtain conventional caliper and ruler measurements. Building on recent progress in photogrammetry and computer vision, we present a method for reconstructing three-dimensional canopy geometry. The method was used to survey a dense canopy of aerial mangrove roots, called pneumatophores, in Vietnam's Mekong River Delta. Photogrammetric estimation of geometry required 1) taking numerous photographs at low tide from multiple viewpoints around 1 m2 quadrats, 2) computing relative camera locations and orientations by triangulation of key features present in multiple images and reconstructing a dense 3D point cloud, and 3) extracting pneumatophore locations and diameters from the point cloud data. Step 3) was accomplished by a new 'sector-slice' algorithm, yielding geometric parameters every 5 mm along a vertical profile. Photogrammetric analysis was compared with manual caliper measurements. In all 5 quadrats considered, agreement was found between manual and photogrammetric estimates of stem number, and of number × mean diameter, which is a key parameter appearing in hydrodynamic models. In two quadrats, pneumatophores were encrusted with numerous barnacles, generating a complex geometry not resolved by hand measurements. In remaining cases, moderate agreement between manual and photogrammetric estimates of stem diameter and solid volume fraction was found. By substantially reducing measurement time in the field while capturing in greater detail the 3D structure, photogrammetry has potential to improve input to hydrodynamic models, particularly for simulations of flow through large-scale, heterogenous canopies.

  16. Three-dimensional reconstruction of colorectal tumors from serial tissue sections by computer graphics: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, S; Matsuzaki, H; Kondo, K; Ohtani, Y; Ihara, A; Hiki, Y; Kakita, A; Kuwao, S

    2000-01-01

    We present herein the three-dimensional reconstruction of colorectal tumors, with particular reference to growth pattern into each layer of the colorectal wall, and measurement of tumor volume and surface area. Conventional tissue section images of colorectal tumors were analyzed using a computer graphics analysis program. The two-dimensional extent of invasion by each tumor into each layer of intestinal wall were determined from the images of each section. Based on data from multiple sections, tumor and surrounding normal tissue layers were reconstructed three-dimensionally, and volume and surface area of the tumors were determined. Using this technique, three-dimensional morphology of tumor and tumor progression into colorectal wall could be determined. Volume and surface area of the colon tumor were 4871 mm3 and 1741 mm2, respectively. Volume and surface area of the rectal tumor were 1090 mm3 and 877 mm2, respectively. This technique may provide a new approach for pathological analysis of colorectal carcinoma.

  17. Curved reconstructions versus three-dimensional surface rendering in the demonstration of cortical lesions in patients with extratemporal epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiners, LC; Scheffers, JM; De Kort, GAP; Burger, H; Van Huffelen, AC; Van Rijen, PC; Van Veelen, CWM

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES. TO compare the visibility and localization of extratemporal cortical lesions in extratemporal epilepsy by using curved reconstruction (CR) and three-dimensional surface rendering (3D SR) of 3D-acquired MR images and to study the degree of confidence with which localizations

  18. Uncertainty evaluation for three-dimensional scanning electron microscope reconstructions based on the stereo-pair technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; Genta, G; Cantatore, Angela

    2011-01-01

    3D-SEM is a method, based on the stereophotogrammetry technique, which obtains three-dimensional topographic reconstructions starting typically from two SEM images, called the stereo-pair. In this work, a theoretical uncertainty evaluation of the stereo-pair technique, according to GUM (Guide to ...

  19. Reporducibilities of cephalometric measurements of three-dimensional CT images reconstructed in the personal computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Kug Jin; Park, Hyok; Lee, Hee Cheol; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to report the reproducibility of intra-observer and inter-observer consistency of cephalometric measurements using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT), and the degree of difference of the cephalometric measurements. CT images of 16 adult patients with normal class I occlusion were sent to personal computer and reconstructed into 3D images using V-Works 3.5{sup TM} (Cybermed Inc., Seoul, Korea). With the internal program of V-Works 3.5{sup TM}, 12 landmarks on regular cephalograms were transformed into 21 analytic categories and measured by 2 observers and in addition, one of the observers repeated their measurements. Intra-observer difference was calculated using paired t-test, and inter-observer by two sample test. There were significant differences in the intra-observer measurements (p<0.05) in four of the categories which included ANS-Me, ANS-PNS, Cdl-GO (Lt), GoL-GoR, but with the exception of Cdl-Go (Lt), ZmL-ZmR, Zyo-Zyo, the average differences were within 2 mm of each other. The inter-observer observations also showed significant differences in the measurements of the ZmL-ZmR and Zyo-Zyo categories (p<0.05). With the exception of the Cdl-Me (Rt), ZmL-ZmR, Zyo-Zyo categories, the average differences between the two observers were within 2mm, but the ZmL-ZmR and Zyo-Zyo values differed greatly with values of 8.10 and 19.8 mm respectively. In general, 3D CT images showed greater accuracy and reproducibility, with the exception of suture areas such as Zm and Zyo, than regular cephalograms in orthodontic measurement, showing differences of less than 2 mm, therefore 3D CT images can be useful in cephalometric measurements and treatment planning.

  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the giant mimivirus particle with an x-ray free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeberg, Tomas; Svenda, Martin; Abergel, Chantal; Maia, Filipe R N C; Seltzer, Virginie; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Hantke, Max; Jönsson, Olof; Nettelblad, Carl; van der Schot, Gijs; Liang, Mengning; DePonte, Daniel P; Barty, Anton; Seibert, M Marvin; Iwan, Bianca; Andersson, Inger; Loh, N Duane; Martin, Andrew V; Chapman, Henry; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D; Ferguson, Ken R; Krzywinski, Jacek; Epp, Sascha W; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Hartmann, Robert; Kimmel, Nils; Hajdu, Janos

    2015-03-06

    We present a proof-of-concept three-dimensional reconstruction of the giant mimivirus particle from experimentally measured diffraction patterns from an x-ray free-electron laser. Three-dimensional imaging requires the assembly of many two-dimensional patterns into an internally consistent Fourier volume. Since each particle is randomly oriented when exposed to the x-ray pulse, relative orientations have to be retrieved from the diffraction data alone. We achieve this with a modified version of the expand, maximize and compress algorithm and validate our result using new methods.

  1. Measurement of acetabular morphology under three-dimensional reconstruction of CT and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yingying; Yang Qiwei; Lai Ying; Hao Shuang; Ma Hecheng; Xiao Chengshuang; Li Youqiong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To measure the acetabular morphology of Chinese on CT three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction image, and provide the evidence on the prevention and treatment of hip disease. Methods: 96 cases (192 sides) of adult hip CT scans were reconstructed, the acetabular index (AA), center-edge (CE), ACE angle, anteversion angle (AVA), abduction angle (ABA), and vertical diameter (SID) were measured. Results: The total acetabular index was (8.78±5.34)°, of which male was (7.84±5.55)° and female was (9.60±5.06)°. The total CE was (33.59±5.91)°, of which male was (34.55±6.03)° and female was (32.78±5.70)°. The total ACE angle was (29.01±5.65)°, of which male was (28.02±5.94)° and female was (29.80±5.30)°. The total AVA was (20.92±5.55)°, of which male was (20.48±5.08)° and female was (21.25±5.89)°. The total ABA was (51.27±4.16)°, of which male was (51.71±4.37)° and female was (50.89±3.96)°. The total SID was (53.79±3.92) mm, of which male was (56.55±2.64) mm and female was (51.46±3.25) mm. Of the above data, there were statistical differences in the acetabular index, CE angle, ACE angle and acetabular diameter between men and women (P<0.05), Chinese and foreigners (P<0.05). While there was no statistical difference between the left and right sides (P>0.05). Conclusion: There are differences in acetabular morphology between men and women, Chinese and foreigners. Compared with simply using overseas data, it is better to study morphological parameters of native acetabula to instruct the preoperative preparation and operation of national total hip arthroplasty surgery. And it is meaningful to design national parameters. (authors)

  2. Age-Based Comparison of Human Dendritic Spine Structure Using Complete Three-Dimensional Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; Robles, Victor; Yuste, Rafael; DeFelipe, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons are targets of most excitatory synapses in the cerebral cortex. Recent evidence suggests that the morphology of the dendritic spine could determine its synaptic strength and learning rules. However, unfortunately, there are scant data available regarding the detailed morphology of these structures for the human cerebral cortex. In the present study, we analyzed over 8900 individual dendritic spines that were completely 3D reconstructed along the length of apical and basal dendrites of layer III pyramidal neurons in the cingulate cortex of 2 male humans (aged 40 and 85 years old), using intracellular injections of Lucifer Yellow in fixed tissue. We assembled a large, quantitative database, which revealed a major reduction in spine densities in the aged case. Specifically, small and short spines of basal dendrites and long spines of apical dendrites were lost, regardless of the distance from the soma. Given the age difference between the cases, our results suggest selective alterations in spines with aging in humans and indicate that the spine volume and length are regulated by different biological mechanisms. PMID:22710613

  3. Atomic force microscopy: A three-dimensional reconstructive tool of oral microbiota in gingivitis and periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sunder Salavadhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to ascertain the advantages of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM in the morphologic study of microorganisms and their interactions within the subgingival biofilm in patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. Settings and Design: Conducted a study on twenty patients, ten patients with severe periodontitis with probing the pocket depth of ≥8 mm, with a clinical attachment loss (CAL of ≥6 mm CAL and ten patients with gingivitis: ≥5 mm pocket depth, and no attachment loss, was selected for the study. Materials and Methods: Bacterial biofilms were collected and slide preparation done. Morphological study was done using AFM. AFM consists of a cantilever-mounted tip, a piezoelectric scanner, a photodetector diode, a laser diode, and a feedback control. The laser beam is reflected from back of the cantilever into the quadrant of the photodetector. AFM works on the principle of interaction between the tip and the sample which causes the cantilever to deflect, thereby changing the position of laser onto the photodetector. Methodology used for studying the bacteria through AFM includes the following: (1 Probe type: Platinum coated silicon nitrate tip. (2 Probe force: 0.11 N/m. (3 Probe geometry: Triangular shaped tip. (4 Probe frequency: 22 KHz. (5 Probe immobilization: Used in Contact mode. AFM Solver Pro-M (NT-MDT equipped with ETALON probe was used to take images in Nova software. Results: The investigation showed various morphological features, such as shape, size, and secretory product-like vesicles of the bacterial species involved in gingivitis and periodontitis. More bacterial surface details were studied by reproducing a three-dimensional reconstruction using AFM. Conclusions: The morphological variations of bacteria of different sizes, and shapes, cell wall structures, secretory product-like vesicles flagellated and filamentous microorganisms, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and bacterial coaggregation analysis were done by

  4. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Block Shape Irregularity and its Effects on Block Impacts Using an Energy-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Liu, Zaobao; Shi, Chong; Shao, Jianfu

    2018-04-01

    This study is devoted to three-dimensional modeling of small falling rocks in block impact analysis in energy view using the particle flow method. The restitution coefficient of rockfall collision is introduced from the energy consumption mechanism to describe rockfall-impacting properties. Three-dimensional reconstruction of falling block is conducted with the help of spherical harmonic functions that have satisfactory mathematical properties such as orthogonality and rotation invariance. Numerical modeling of the block impact to the bedrock is analyzed with both the sphere-simplified model and the 3D reconstructed model. Comparisons of the obtained results suggest that the 3D reconstructed model is advantageous in considering the combination effects of rockfall velocity and rotations during colliding process. Verification of the modeling is carried out with the results obtained from other experiments. In addition, the effects of rockfall morphology, surface characteristics, velocity, and volume, colliding damping and relative angle are investigated. A three-dimensional reconstruction modulus of falling blocks is to be developed and incorporated into the rockfall simulation tools in order to extend the modeling results at block scale to slope scale.

  5. A greedy method for reconstructing polycrystals from three-dimensional X-ray diffraction data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulshreshth, Arun Kumar; Alpers, Andreas; Herman, Gabor T.

    2009-01-01

    An iterative search method is proposed for obtaining orientation maps inside polycrystals from three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) data. In each step, detector pixel intensities are calculated by a forward model based on the current estimate of the orientation map. The pixel at which...

  6. Accuracy assessment of three-dimensional surface reconstructions of teeth from cone beam computed tomography scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Rawi, B.; Hassan, B.; Vandenberge, B.; Jacobs, R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) models of the dentition obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is becoming increasingly more popular in dentistry. A recent trend is to replace the traditional dental casts with digital CBCT models for diagnosis, treatment planning and simulation. The

  7. Direct Conversion of Equine Adipose-Derived Stem Cells into Induced Neuronal Cells Is Enhanced in Three-Dimensional Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Gayle F; Hilbert, Bryan J; Trope, Gareth D; Kalle, Wouter H J; Strappe, Padraig M

    2015-12-01

    The ability to culture neurons from horses may allow further investigation into equine neurological disorders. In this study, we demonstrate the generation of induced neuronal cells from equine adipose-derived stem cells (EADSCs) using a combination of lentiviral vector expression of the neuronal transcription factors Brn2, Ascl1, Myt1l (BAM) and NeuroD1 and a defined chemical induction medium, with βIII-tubulin-positive induced neuronal cells displaying a distinct neuronal morphology of rounded and compact cell bodies, extensive neurite outgrowth, and branching of processes. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of dimensionality on neuronal transdifferentiation, comparing conventional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer culture against three-dimensional (3D) culture on a porous polystyrene scaffold. Neuronal transdifferentiation was enhanced in 3D culture, with evenly distributed cells located on the surface and throughout the scaffold. Transdifferentiation efficiency was increased in 3D culture, with an increase in mean percent conversion of more than 100% compared to 2D culture. Additionally, induced neuronal cells were shown to transit through a Nestin-positive precursor state, with MAP2 and Synapsin 2 expression significantly increased in 3D culture. These findings will help to increase our understanding of equine neuropathogenesis, with prospective roles in disease modeling, drug screening, and cellular replacement for treatment of equine neurological disorders.

  8. Measurement of normal intracranial artery diameter using three-dimensional reconstruction rotational angiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Bae Ju; Han, Moon Hee; Go, Joong Seok; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Seung Rho; Hahm, Chang Kok

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the distribution of normal intracranial artery diameter according to sex and age, using three-dimensional reconstruction rotational angiography. One hundred and twenty-five adults with normal intracranial arteries who underwent 3D rotational angiography (n=177) were included in this study. The arterial diameter was measured at four sites of the internal carotid artery (cavernous, paraophthalmic, supraclinoid, and distal), that of the middle cerebral artery at two (proximal and distal), and that of the anterior cerebral artery at one (middle). For each sex and age group (<30, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, ≥ 60 years), the mean diameter of the artery at these seven sites was calculated, and differences analysed. In addition, the middle cerebral artery diameter was compared between a younger group (<50 years) and an older group (≥ 50 years). The mean diameter at each site for each sex was as follows: male (mean±SD): 4.61±0.69, 3.96±0.60, 3.48±0.45, 3.61±0.50, 2.44±0.32, 2.44±0.37, 1.81±0.32; female : 4.29±0.57, 3.83±0.56, 3.37±0.56, 3.52±0.48, 2.32±0.37, 2.30±0.36, 1.76±0.34. For those in their 40s, the diameter at five sites (all four sites of the internal cerebral artery and a distal middle cerebral artery) was significantly greater in males than in females. For other age groups, however, the difference between the sexes was absent, or was significant at only one (cavernous internal cerebral artery for those in their 30s) or two (proximal and distal middle cerebral artery was 2.59±0.35 mm in males and 2.38±0.37 mm in females. For the distal middle cerebral artery, the corresponding figures were 2.63±0.43 and 2.39±0.35 mm, respectively. For both sexes, the differences between the two age groups were significant. For those in their 40, the normal diameter of the intracranial artery at most arterial sites was significantly greater in males than in females. The normal diameter of the middle cerebral artery was significantly greater or tended to

  9. Reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound from an edison cylinder using three dimensional non-contact optical surface metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadeyev, V.; Haber, C.; Maul, C.; McBride, J.W.; Golden, M.

    2004-04-20

    Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph disc record or cylinder may be reconstructed, without contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision optical metrology methods and digital image processing. The viability of this approach was recently demonstrated on a 78 rpm shellac disc using two dimensional image acquisition and analysis methods. The present work reports the first three dimensional reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound. The source material, a celluloid cylinder, was scanned using color coded confocal microscopy techniques and resulted in a faithful playback of the recorded information.

  10. Assessment of Normal Eyeball Protrusion Using Computed Tomographic Imaging and Three-Dimensional Reconstruction in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang-Jae; Gil, Young-Chun; Lee, Shin-Hyo; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Yoo, Ja-Young; Kim, Soon-Heum; Choi, Hyun-Gon; Shin, Hyun Jin; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess normal eyeball protrusion from the orbital rim using two- and three-dimensional images and demonstrate the better suitability of CT images for assessment of exophthalmos. The facial computed tomographic (CT) images of Korean adults were acquired in sagittal and transverse views. The CT images were used in reconstructing three-dimensional volume of faces using computer software. The protrusion distances from orbital rims and the diameters of eyeballs were measured in the two views of the CT image and three-dimensional volume of the face. Relative exophthalmometry was calculated by the difference in protrusion distance between the right and left sides. The eyeball protrusion was 4.9 and 12.5 mm in sagittal and transverse views, respectively. The protrusion distances were 2.9 mm in the three-dimensional volume of face. There were no significant differences between right and left sides in the degree of protrusion, and the difference was within 2 mm in more than 90% of the subjects. The results of the present study will provide reliable criteria for precise diagnosis and postoperative monitoring using CT imaging of diseases such as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and orbital tumors.

  11. Systems and methods that generate height map models for efficient three dimensional reconstruction from depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Jan-Michael; Pollefeys, Marc Andre Leon; Gallup, David Robert

    2015-12-08

    Methods of generating a three dimensional representation of an object in a reference plane from a depth map including distances from a reference point to pixels in an image of the object taken from a reference point. Weights are assigned to respective voxels in a three dimensional grid along rays extending from the reference point through the pixels in the image based on the distances in the depth map from the reference point to the respective pixels, and a height map including an array of height values in the reference plane is formed based on the assigned weights. An n-layer height map may be constructed by generating a probabilistic occupancy grid for the voxels and forming an n-dimensional height map comprising an array of layer height values in the reference plane based on the probabilistic occupancy grid.

  12. Dynamic three-dimensional display of common congenital cardiac defects from reconstruction of two-dimensional echocardiographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, K S; Lin, C C; Liu, W S; Chen, F L

    1996-01-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography had long been a standard diagnostic modality for congenital heart disease. Further attempts of three-dimensional reconstruction using two-dimensional echocardiographic images to visualize stereotypic structure of cardiac lesions have been successful only recently. So far only very few studies have been done to display three-dimensional anatomy of the heart through two-dimensional image acquisition because such complex procedures were involved. This study introduced a recently developed image acquisition and processing system for dynamic three-dimensional visualization of various congenital cardiac lesions. From December 1994 to April 1995, 35 cases were selected in the Echo Laboratory here from about 3000 Echo examinations completed. Each image was acquired on-line with specially designed high resolution image grazmber with EKG and respiratory gating technique. Off-line image processing using a window-architectured interactive software package includes construction of 2-D ehcocardiographic pixel to 3-D "voxel" with conversion of orthogonal to rotatory axial system, interpolation, extraction of region of interest, segmentation, shading and, finally, 3D rendering. Three-dimensional anatomy of various congenital cardiac defects was shown, including four cases with ventricular septal defects, two cases with atrial septal defects, and two cases with aortic stenosis. Dynamic reconstruction of a "beating heart" is recorded as vedio tape with video interface. The potential application of 3D display of the reconstruction from 2D echocardiographic images for the diagnosis of various congenital heart defects has been shown. The 3D display was able to improve the diagnostic ability of echocardiography, and clear-cut display of the various congenital cardiac defects and vavular stenosis could be demonstrated. Reinforcement of current techniques will expand future application of 3D display of conventional 2D images.

  13. Silicon scaffolds promoting three-dimensional neuronal web of cytoplasmic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Evie L; Samara, Athina; Barberoglou, Marios; Manousaki, Aleka; Pagakis, Stamatis N; Anastasiadou, Ema; Fotakis, Costas; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    Primary neurons were grown on structured silicon (Si) substrates, in the absence of chemotropic factors or synthetic extracellular matrix. The Si substrates used for the study comprise hierarchical structures in the micro- and nanolength scales. The substrates were structured via femtosecond laser irradiation of the Si wafer, in a reactive SF(6) environment. Electron microscopy revealed that the neurons formed an elaborate web of cytoplasmic processes in the absence of glial elements. The neuronal cytoplasm autografted the depth of the spikes, and the neurite sprouting took place over the spikes surface. Here we demonstrate how microfabrication of a Si surface provides an excellent platform for multifaceted studies of neuronal specimens.

  14. Three-dimensional analysis of somatic mitochondrial dynamics in fission-deficient injured motor neurons using FIB/SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Hiromi; Kiryu-Seo, Sumiko; Hosokawa, Hiroki; Ohta, Keisuke; Ishihara, Naotada; Nomura, Masatoshi; Mihara, Katsuyoshi; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    Mitochondria undergo morphological changes through fusion and fission for their quality control, which are vital for neuronal function. In this study, we examined three-dimensional morphologies of mitochondria in motor neurons under normal, nerve injured, and nerve injured plus fission-impaired conditions using the focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), because the FIB/SEM technology is a powerful tool to demonstrate both 3D images of whole organelle and the intra-organellar structure simultaneously. Crossing of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) gene-floxed mice with neuronal injury-specific Cre driver mice, Atf3:BAC Tg mice, allowed for Drp1 ablation specifically in injured neurons. FIB/SEM analysis demonstrated that somatic mitochondrial morphologies in motor neurons were not altered before or after nerve injury. However, the fission impairment resulted in prominent somatic mitochondrial enlargement, which initially induced complex morphologies with round regions and long tubular processes, subsequently causing a decrease in the number of processes and further enlargement of the round regions, which eventually resulted in big spheroidal mitochondria without processes. The abnormal mitochondria exhibited several degradative morphologies: local or total cristae collapse, vacuolization, and mitophagy. These suggest that mitochondrial fission is crucial for maintaining mitochondrial integrity in injured motor neurons, and multiple forms of mitochondria degradation may accelerate neuronal degradation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Three-dimensional reconstruction and modeling of middle ear biomechanics by high-resolution computed tomography and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Fone; Chen, Peir-Rong; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Liu, Tien-Chen

    2006-05-01

    To present a systematic and practical approach that uses high-resolution computed tomography to derive models of the middle ear for finite element analysis. This prospective study included 31 subjects with normal hearing and no previous otologic disorders. Temporal bone images obtained from 15 right ears and 16 left ears were used for evaluation and reconstruction. High-resolution computed tomography of temporal bone was performed using simultaneous acquisition of 16 sections with a collimated slice thickness of 0.625 mm. All images were transferred to an Amira visualization system for three-dimensional reconstruction. The created three-dimensional model was translated into two commercial modeling packages, Patran and ANSYS, for finite element analysis. The characteristic dimensions of the model were measured and compared with previously published histologic section data. This result confirms that the geometric model created by the proposed method is accurate except that the tympanic membrane is thicker than when measured by the histologic section method. No obvious difference in the geometrical dimension between right and left ossicles was found (P > .05). The three-dimensional model created by finite element method and predicted umbo and stapes displacements are close to the bounds of the experimental curves of Nishihara's, Huber's, Gan's, and Sun's data across the frequency range of 100 to 8000 Hz. The model includes a description of the geometry of the middle ear components and dynamic equations of vibration. The proposed method is quick, practical, low-cost, and, most importantly, noninvasive as compared with histologic section methods.

  16. 16 multi-slice CT three-dimensional and multiplanar reconstruction for evaluation of pediatric congenital scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yun; Zhang Ningning; Zhang Xuejun; Sun Guoqiang; Zeng Jinjin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Our study is to use of 16 MSCT three-dimensional images and multiplanar reconstruction images in the preoperative investigation of patients with congenital scoliosis, to study its technical advantage and work out surgical plan. Methods: Twenty-seven pediatric patients with congenital scoliosis processing between April to October 2004 were reviewed, including 13 boys and 14 girls. X-ray plain film and sixteen multi-slice CT examination on curved/standard multiplanar reconstruction and three- dimensional computed tomographic imaging may offer, many potential advantages for defining congenital spine anomalies liable to cause progression of scoliosis, including visualization of the deformity in any plane, from any angle, with the overlying structures subtracted. Results: Ten patients had segmentation defects, 6 patients underwent formation defects, 11 patients had complex, unclassifiable anomalies. The patients of rib deformity were found in 15 patients, the most prominent part of the rib cage deformity was at the same level as the most rotated vertebra in 7 patients; 8 patients had vertebral anomalies accompanied with diastematomyelie, including 6 patients with uncompleted or completed bony spur. In 19 of 27 cases, the muhiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional images allowed identification of unrecognized malformations and completely evaluated the degree of scoliosis, during conventional X-ray images and axial CT images, including volume 3D imaging evaluated approximately classification and modality of complex anomalies in 11 cases, which were unclassifiable malformation in 7 cases and unsegmented bar with contralateral hemivertebrae; 4 children had segmentation defects revealed unilateral unsegmented bar (3 cases) and bilateral block vertebra (1 case) in volume 3D reconstruction images; 2 children were found occultation hemivertebrae which were not been discovered during conventional X-ray images and axial CT images; and 2 children were revaluated

  17. Reliability of tunnel angle in ACL reconstruction: two-dimensional versus three-dimensional guide technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Jeff R S; de Korompay, Nevin; Macdonald, Lindsey; McRae, Sheila; Froese, Warren; Macdonald, Peter B

    2011-08-01

    To compare the reliability of tibial tunnel position and angle produced with a standard ACL guide (two-dimensional guide) or Howell 65° Guide (three-dimensional guide) in the coronal and sagittal planes. In the sagittal plane, the dependent variables were the angle of the tibial tunnel relative to the tibial plateau and the position of the tibial tunnel with respect to the most posterior aspect of the tibia. In the coronal plane, the dependent variables were the angle of the tunnel with respect to the medial joint line of the tibia and the medial and lateral placement of the tibial tunnel relative to the most medial aspect of the tibia. The position and angle of the tibial tunnel in the coronal and sagittal planes were determined from anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, respectively, taken 2-6 months postoperatively. The two-dimensional and three-dimensional guide groups included 28 and 24 sets of radiographs, respectively. Tibial tunnel position was identified, and tunnel angle measurements were completed. Multiple investigators measured the position and angle of the tunnel 3 times, at least 7 days apart. The angle of the tibial tunnel in the coronal plane using a two-dimensional guide (61.3 ± 4.8°) was more horizontal (P guide (64.7 ± 6.2°). The position of the tibial tunnel in the sagittal plane was more anterior (P guide group compared to the three-dimensional guide group (43.3 ± 2.9%). The Howell Tibial Guide allows for reliable placement of the tibial tunnel in the coronal plane at an angle of 65°. Tibial tunnels were within the anatomical footprint of the ACL with either technique. Future studies should investigate the effects of tibial tunnel angle on knee function and patient quality of life. Case-control retrospective comparative study, Level III.

  18. Three-dimensional reconstruction of brain surface anatomy: technique comparison between flash and diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jianzhong; Wang Zhikang; Gong Xiangyang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare two methods 3D flash and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) in reconstructing the brain surface anatomy, and to evaluate their displaying ability, advantages, limitations and clinical application. Methods: Thrity normal cases were prospectively examined with 3D flash sequence and echo-planar DWI. Three-dimensional images were acquired with volume-rendering on workstation. Brain surface structures were evaluated and scored by a group of doctors. Results: Main structures of brain surface were clearly displayed on three-dimensional images based on 3D flash sequence. Average scores were all above 2.50. For images based on DWI, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus, precentral sulcus, central sulcus, postcentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus and superior frontal sulcus were best shown with average scores between 2.60-2.75, However, supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, lateral sulcus, inferior frontal sulcus could not be well shown, with average scores between 1.67-2.48. Middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, superior temporal sulcus and inferior temporal sulcus can only get scores from 0.88 to 1.27. Scores of images based on 3D flash were much higher than that based on DWI with distinct differentiations, P values were all below 0.01. Conclusion: Three-dimensional images based on 3D flash can really display brain surface structures. It is very useful for anatomic researches. Three-dimensional reconstruction of brain surface based on DWI is a worthy technique to display brain surface anatomy, especially for frontal and parietal structures. (authors)

  19. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Nishida

    Full Text Available The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  20. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Kazuhiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  1. Use of a Three-Dimensional Model to Optimize a MEDPOR Implant for Delayed Reconstruction of a Suprastructure Maxillectomy Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echo, Anthony; Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Weathers, William; McKnight, Aisha; Izaddoost, Shayan

    2013-01-01

    The use of a three-dimensional (3-D) model has been well described for craniomaxillofacial reconstruction, especially with the preoperative planning of free fibula flaps. This article reports the application of an innovative 3-D model approach for the calculation of the exact contours, angles, length, and general morphology of a prefabricated MEDPOR 2/3 orbital implant for reconstruction of a suprastructure maxillectomy defect. The 3-D model allowed intraoperative modification of the MEDPOR implant which decreased the risk of iatrogenic harm, contamination while also improving aesthetic results and function. With the aid of preoperative 3-D models, porous polypropylene facial implants can be contoured efficiently intraoperatively to precisely reconstruct complex craniomaxillofacial defects. PMID:24436774

  2. Three-dimensional reconstruction of neutron, gamma-ray, and x-ray sources using spherical harmonic decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volegov, P. L.; Danly, C. R.; Fittinghoff, D.; Geppert-Kleinrath, V.; Grim, G.; Merrill, F. E.; Wilde, C. H.

    2017-11-01

    Neutron, gamma-ray, and x-ray imaging are important diagnostic tools at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measuring the two-dimensional (2D) size and shape of the neutron producing region, for probing the remaining ablator and measuring the extent of the DT plasmas during the stagnation phase of Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. Due to the difficulty and expense of building these imagers, at most only a few two-dimensional projections images will be available to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) sources. In this paper, we present a technique that has been developed for the 3D reconstruction of neutron, gamma-ray, and x-ray sources from a minimal number of 2D projections using spherical harmonics decomposition. We present the detailed algorithms used for this characterization and the results of reconstructed sources from experimental neutron and x-ray data collected at OMEGA and NIF.

  3. Radionuclide imaging with coded apertures and three-dimensional image reconstruction from focal-plane tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.T.

    1976-05-01

    Two techniques for radionuclide imaging and reconstruction have been studied;; both are used for improvement of depth resolution. The first technique is called coded aperture imaging, which is a technique of tomographic imaging. The second technique is a special 3-D image reconstruction method which is introduced as an improvement to the so called focal-plane tomography

  4. Three-dimensional reconstruction of indoor whole elements based on mobile LiDAR point cloud data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuejian; Mao, Wenbo; Bi, Jiantao; Ji, Wei; He, Zhanjun

    2014-11-01

    Ground-based LiDAR is one of the most effective city modeling tools at present, which has been widely used for three-dimensional reconstruction of outdoor objects. However, as for indoor objects, there are some technical bottlenecks due to lack of GPS signal. In this paper, based on the high-precision indoor point cloud data which was obtained by LiDAR, an international advanced indoor mobile measuring equipment, high -precision model was fulfilled for all indoor ancillary facilities. The point cloud data we employed also contain color feature, which is extracted by fusion with CCD images. Thus, it has both space geometric feature and spectral information which can be used for constructing objects' surface and restoring color and texture of the geometric model. Based on Autodesk CAD platform and with help of PointSence plug, three-dimensional reconstruction of indoor whole elements was realized. Specifically, Pointools Edit Pro was adopted to edit the point cloud, then different types of indoor point cloud data was processed, including data format conversion, outline extracting and texture mapping of the point cloud model. Finally, three-dimensional visualization of the real-world indoor was completed. Experiment results showed that high-precision 3D point cloud data obtained by indoor mobile measuring equipment can be used for indoor whole elements' 3-d reconstruction and that methods proposed in this paper can efficiently realize the 3 -d construction of indoor whole elements. Moreover, the modeling precision could be controlled within 5 cm, which was proved to be a satisfactory result.

  5. Accelerating the reconstruction of magnetic resonance imaging by three-dimensional dual-dictionary learning using CUDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiansen Li; Jianqi Sun; Ying Song; Yanran Xu; Jun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    An effective way to improve the data acquisition speed of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is using under-sampled k-space data, and dictionary learning method can be used to maintain the reconstruction quality. Three-dimensional dictionary trains the atoms in dictionary in the form of blocks, which can utilize the spatial correlation among slices. Dual-dictionary learning method includes a low-resolution dictionary and a high-resolution dictionary, for sparse coding and image updating respectively. However, the amount of data is huge for three-dimensional reconstruction, especially when the number of slices is large. Thus, the procedure is time-consuming. In this paper, we first utilize the NVIDIA Corporation's compute unified device architecture (CUDA) programming model to design the parallel algorithms on graphics processing unit (GPU) to accelerate the reconstruction procedure. The main optimizations operate in the dictionary learning algorithm and the image updating part, such as the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm and the k-singular value decomposition (K-SVD) algorithm. Then we develop another version of CUDA code with algorithmic optimization. Experimental results show that more than 324 times of speedup is achieved compared with the CPU-only codes when the number of MRI slices is 24.

  6. Three-dimensional reconstruction and segmentation of intact Drosophila by ultramicroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Jährling

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic mutants are invaluable for understanding the development, physiology and behaviour of Drosophila. Modern molecular genetic techniques enable the rapid generation of large numbers of different mutants. To phenotype these mutants sophisticated microscopy techniques are required, ideally allowing the 3D-reconstruction of the anatomy of an adult fly from a single scan. Ultramicroscopy enables up to cm fields of view, whilst providing micron resolution. In this paper, we present ultramicroscopy reconstructions of the flight musculature, the nervous system, and the digestive tract of entire, chemically cleared, drosophila in autofluorescent light. The 3D-reconstructions thus obtained verify that the anatomy of a whole fly, including the filigree spatial organisation of the direct flight muscles, can be analyzed from a single ultramicroscopy reconstruction. The recording procedure, including 3D-reconstruction using standard software, takes no longer than 30 minutes. Additionally, image segmentation, which would allow for further quantitative analysis, was performed.

  7. Use of an object model in three dimensional image reconstruction. Application in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delageniere-Guillot, S.

    1993-02-01

    Threedimensional image reconstruction from projections corresponds to a set of techniques which give information on the inner structure of the studied object. These techniques are mainly used in medical imaging or in non destructive evaluation. Image reconstruction is an ill-posed problem. So the inversion has to be regularized. This thesis deals with the introduction of a priori information within the reconstruction algorithm. The knowledge is introduced through an object model. The proposed scheme is applied to the medical domain for cone beam geometry. We address two specific problems. First, we study the reconstruction of high contrast objects. This can be applied to bony morphology (bone/soft tissue) or to angiography (vascular structures opacified by injection of contrast agent). With noisy projections, the filtering steps of standard methods tend to smooth the natural transitions of the investigated object. In order to regularize the reconstruction but to keep contrast, we introduce a model of classes which involves the Markov random fields theory. We develop a reconstruction scheme: analytic reconstruction-reprojection. Then, we address the case of an object changing during the acquisition. This can be applied to angiography when the contrast agent is moving through the vascular tree. The problem is then stated as a dynamic reconstruction. We define an evolution AR model and we use an algebraic reconstruction method. We represent the object at a particular moment as an intermediary state between the state of the object at the beginning and at the end of the acquisition. We test both methods on simulated and real data, and we prove how the use of an a priori model can improve the results. (author)

  8. Three-dimensional digital tomosynthesis iterative reconstruction, artifact reduction and alternative acquisition geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Levakhina, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Yulia Levakhina gives an introduction to the major challenges of image reconstruction in Digital Tomosynthesis (DT), particularly to the connection of the reconstruction problem with the incompleteness of the DT dataset. The author discusses the factors which cause the formation of limited angle artifacts and proposes how to account for them in order to improve image quality and axial resolution of modern DT. The addressed methods include a weighted non-linear back projection scheme for algebraic reconstruction and?novel dual-axis acquisition geometry. All discussed algorithms and methods are supplemented by detailed illustrations, hints for practical implementation, pseudo-code, simulation results and real patient case examples.

  9. Electrothermal Equivalent Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Model of a Single Neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Ilaria; Destrade, Michel; Duffy, Maeve; McHugh, Peter

    2018-06-01

    We propose a novel approach for modelling the interdependence of electrical and mechanical phenomena in nervous cells, by using electrothermal equivalences in finite element (FE) analysis so that existing thermomechanical tools can be applied. First, the equivalence between electrical and thermal properties of the nerve materials is established, and results of a pure heat conduction analysis performed in Abaqus CAE Software 6.13-3 are validated with analytical solutions for a range of steady and transient conditions. This validation includes the definition of equivalent active membrane properties that enable prediction of the action potential. Then, as a step toward fully coupled models, electromechanical coupling is implemented through the definition of equivalent piezoelectric properties of the nerve membrane using the thermal expansion coefficient, enabling prediction of the mechanical response of the nerve to the action potential. Results of the coupled electromechanical model are validated with previously published experimental results of deformation for squid giant axon, crab nerve fibre, and garfish olfactory nerve fibre. A simplified coupled electromechanical modelling approach is established through an electrothermal equivalent FE model of a nervous cell for biomedical applications. One of the key findings is the mechanical characterization of the neural activity in a coupled electromechanical domain, which provides insights into the electromechanical behaviour of nervous cells, such as thinning of the membrane. This is a first step toward modelling three-dimensional electromechanical alteration induced by trauma at nerve bundle, tissue, and organ levels.

  10. The application of three-dimensional reconstruction technology in industrial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Sun Lingxia; Zhou Ying; Ye Yunchang

    2009-01-01

    It's an important research aspect in domestic ICT field, that the 3-D visualization of continuous ICT images reconstructed by 3-D reconstruction technology. The contour lines are joint by triangles in the course of 3-D reconstructions of the continuous equidistant ICT images. After the stereo images of the scanned objects are displayed, some special functions including inspections of the objects from different angles and orientations, nondestructive measurement of some 3-D parameters and so on will be carried out just by operating the computer. The inspectors can get more detailed structural information by the reconstructed images. So in this way the convenience and veracity of the non-detection have been promoted. (authors)

  11. Digital holography super-resolution for accurate three-dimensional reconstruction of particle holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Nicolas; Fournier, Corinne

    2015-01-15

    In-line digital holography (DH) is used in many fields to locate and size micro or nano-objects spread in a volume. To reconstruct simple shaped objects, the optimal approach is to fit an imaging model to accurately estimate their position and their characteristic parameters. Increasing the accuracy of the reconstruction is a big issue in DH, particularly when the pixel is large or the signal-to-noise ratio is low. We suggest exploiting the information redundancy of videos to improve the reconstruction of the holograms by jointly estimating the position of the objects and the characteristic parameters. Using synthetic and experimental data, we checked experimentally that this approach can improve the accuracy of the reconstruction by a factor more than the square root of the image number.

  12. Types and three-dimensional distribution of neuronal ectopias in the brain of mice prenatally subjected to X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xue-Zhi; Takahashi, Sentaro; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Sato, Hiroshi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Cui, Chun; Fukui, Yoshihiro [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Inouye, Minoru [Shin Nippon Biomedical Lab., Ltd., Miyanoura, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    The types and three-dimensional distribution of neocortical ectopias following prenatal exposure to X-irradiation were studied by a histological examination and computer reconstruction techniques. Pregnant ICR mice were subjected to X-irradiation at a dose of 1.5 Gy on embryonic day 13. The brains from 30-day-old mice were serially sectioned on the frontal plane at 15 {mu}m, stained with HE and observed with a microscope. The image data for the sections were input to a computer, and then reconstructed to three-dimensional brain structures using the Magellan 3.6 program. Sectional images were then drawn on a computer display at 240 {mu}m intervals, and the positions of the different types of neocortical ectopias were marked using color coding. Three types of neocortical ectopias were recognized in the irradiated brains. Neocortical Lay I ectopias were identified as small patches in the caudal occipital cortex, and were located more laterally in the neocortex in caudal sections than in the rostral sections. Periventricular ectopias were located more rostrally than Lay I ectopias, and were found from the most caudal extent of the presumed motor cortex to the most caudal extent of the lateral ventricle. Hippocampal ectopias appeared as continuous linear bands, and were frequently associated with the anterior parts of the periventricular ectopias. (author)

  13. Reconstruction of magnetic resonance imaging by three-dimensional dual-dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying; Zhu, Zhen; Lu, Yang; Liu, Qiegen; Zhao, Jun

    2014-03-01

    To improve the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data acquisition speed while maintaining the reconstruction quality, a novel method is proposed for multislice MRI reconstruction from undersampled k-space data based on compressed-sensing theory using dictionary learning. There are two aspects to improve the reconstruction quality. One is that spatial correlation among slices is used by extending the atoms in dictionary learning from patches to blocks. The other is that the dictionary-learning scheme is used at two resolution levels; i.e., a low-resolution dictionary is used for sparse coding and a high-resolution dictionary is used for image updating. Numerical experiments are carried out on in vivo 3D MR images of brains and abdomens with a variety of undersampling schemes and ratios. The proposed method (dual-DLMRI) achieves better reconstruction quality than conventional reconstruction methods, with the peak signal-to-noise ratio being 7 dB higher. The advantages of the dual dictionaries are obvious compared with the single dictionary. Parameter variations ranging from 50% to 200% only bias the image quality within 15% in terms of the peak signal-to-noise ratio. Dual-DLMRI effectively uses the a priori information in the dual-dictionary scheme and provides dramatically improved reconstruction quality. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm for an inverse-geometry volumetric CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Taly Gilat; Fahrig, Rebecca; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2005-01-01

    An inverse-geometry volumetric computed tomography (IGCT) system has been proposed capable of rapidly acquiring sufficient data to reconstruct a thick volume in one circular scan. The system uses a large-area scanned source opposite a smaller detector. The source and detector have the same extent in the axial, or slice, direction, thus providing sufficient volumetric sampling and avoiding cone-beam artifacts. This paper describes a reconstruction algorithm for the IGCT system. The algorithm first rebins the acquired data into two-dimensional (2D) parallel-ray projections at multiple tilt and azimuthal angles, followed by a 3D filtered backprojection. The rebinning step is performed by gridding the data onto a Cartesian grid in a 4D projection space. We present a new method for correcting the gridding error caused by the finite and asymmetric sampling in the neighborhood of each output grid point in the projection space. The reconstruction algorithm was implemented and tested on simulated IGCT data. Results show that the gridding correction reduces the gridding errors to below one Hounsfield unit. With this correction, the reconstruction algorithm does not introduce significant artifacts or blurring when compared to images reconstructed from simulated 2D parallel-ray projections. We also present an investigation of the noise behavior of the method which verifies that the proposed reconstruction algorithm utilizes cross-plane rays as efficiently as in-plane rays and can provide noise comparable to an in-plane parallel-ray geometry for the same number of photons. Simulations of a resolution test pattern and the modulation transfer function demonstrate that the IGCT system, using the proposed algorithm, is capable of 0.4 mm isotropic resolution. The successful implementation of the reconstruction algorithm is an important step in establishing feasibility of the IGCT system

  15. Three-dimensional optical reconstruction of vocal fold kinematics using high-speed video with a laser projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luegmair, Georg; Mehta, Daryush D.; Kobler, James B.; Döllinger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Vocal fold kinematics and its interaction with aerodynamic characteristics play a primary role in acoustic sound production of the human voice. Investigating the temporal details of these kinematics using high-speed videoendoscopic imaging techniques has proven challenging in part due to the limitations of quantifying complex vocal fold vibratory behavior using only two spatial dimensions. Thus, we propose an optical method of reconstructing the superior vocal fold surface in three spatial dimensions using a high-speed video camera and laser projection system. Using stereo-triangulation principles, we extend the camera-laser projector method and present an efficient image processing workflow to generate the three-dimensional vocal fold surfaces during phonation captured at 4000 frames per second. Initial results are provided for airflow-driven vibration of an ex vivo vocal fold model in which at least 75% of visible laser points contributed to the reconstructed surface. The method captures the vertical motion of the vocal folds at a high accuracy to allow for the computation of three-dimensional mucosal wave features such as vibratory amplitude, velocity, and asymmetry. PMID:26087485

  16. Postoperative assessment of surgical results using three dimensional surface reconstruction CT (3D-CT) in a craniofacial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Jiro; Sato, Kaoru; Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Takashi; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Akagawa, Tetsuya.

    1988-01-01

    In 1983, Michael W. Vannier and Jeffrey L. Marsh developed a computer method that reconstructs three dimensional (3D) born and soft tissue surfaces, given a high resolution CT scan-series of the facial skeleton. This method has been applied to craniofacial anomalies, basal encephaloceles, and musculoskeletal anomalies. In this study, a postoperative assessment of the craniofacial surgical results has been accomplished using this 3D-CT in 2 children with craniofacial dysmorphism. The authors discuss the advantages of this 3D-CT imaging method in the postoperative assessments of craniofacial anomalies. Results are detailed in the following listing : 1) a postoperative 3D-CT reveals the anatomical details corrected by the craniofacial surgery more precisely and stereographically than conventional radiological methods ; 2) secondary changes of the cranium after the surgery, such as bony formation in the area of the osteotomy and postoperative asymmetric deformities, are detected early by the 3D-CT imaging technique, and, 3) 3D-CT mid-sagittal and top axial views of the intracranial skull base are most useful in postoperative assessments of the surgical results. Basesd on our experience, we expect that three dimensional surface reconstructions from CT scans will become to be used widely in the postoperative assessments of the surgical results of craniofacial anomalies. (author)

  17. Characterization and three-dimensional reconstruction of synthetic bone model foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, S. [Interdepartment Research Group for the Applied Scientific Collaboration (IRGASC), Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Vlad, M.D. [Interdepartment Research Group for the Applied Scientific Collaboration (IRGASC), Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Faculty of Medical Bioengineering, “Gr. T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Str. Kogalniceanu 9-13, 700454 Iasi (Romania); López, J. [Interdepartment Research Group for the Applied Scientific Collaboration (IRGASC), Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Navarro, M. [Centre de Biotecnologia Animal i de Teràpia Gènica (CBATEG), Departament de Sanitat i d' Anatomia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès (Spain); Fernández, E., E-mail: enrique.fernandez@upc.edu [Interdepartment Research Group for the Applied Scientific Collaboration (IRGASC), Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    Sawbones© open-cell foams with different porosity grades are being used as synthetic bone-like models for in vitro mechanical and infiltration experiments. However, a comprehensive characterization of these foams is not available and there is a lack of reliable information about them. For this reason two of these foams (Refs. 1522-505 and -507) have been characterized at the micro architectural level by scanning electron microscopy, computed tomography and image data analysis. BoneJ open software and ImageJ open software were used to obtain the characteristic histomorphometric parameters and the three dimensional virtual models of the foams. The results showed that both foams, while having different macro porosities, appeared undistinguishable at the micro scale. Moreover, the micro structural features resembled those of osteoporotic rather than healthy trabecular bone. It is concluded that Sawbones© foams behave reasonably as synthetic bone-like models. Consequently, their use is recommended for in vitro comparison purposes of both mechanical and infiltration testing performed in real vertebra. Finally, the virtual models obtained, which are available under request, can favour comparisons between future self-similar in vitro experiments and computer simulations. - Highlights: • Sawbones© model foams have been scanned by μ-CT. • Histomorphometric indices and 3D virtual models have been obtained. • The results will be of use to understand biocement vertebra infiltration studies.

  18. Characterization and three-dimensional reconstruction of synthetic bone model foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez, S.; Vlad, M.D.; López, J.; Navarro, M.; Fernández, E.

    2013-01-01

    Sawbones© open-cell foams with different porosity grades are being used as synthetic bone-like models for in vitro mechanical and infiltration experiments. However, a comprehensive characterization of these foams is not available and there is a lack of reliable information about them. For this reason two of these foams (Refs. 1522-505 and -507) have been characterized at the micro architectural level by scanning electron microscopy, computed tomography and image data analysis. BoneJ open software and ImageJ open software were used to obtain the characteristic histomorphometric parameters and the three dimensional virtual models of the foams. The results showed that both foams, while having different macro porosities, appeared undistinguishable at the micro scale. Moreover, the micro structural features resembled those of osteoporotic rather than healthy trabecular bone. It is concluded that Sawbones© foams behave reasonably as synthetic bone-like models. Consequently, their use is recommended for in vitro comparison purposes of both mechanical and infiltration testing performed in real vertebra. Finally, the virtual models obtained, which are available under request, can favour comparisons between future self-similar in vitro experiments and computer simulations. - Highlights: • Sawbones© model foams have been scanned by μ-CT. • Histomorphometric indices and 3D virtual models have been obtained. • The results will be of use to understand biocement vertebra infiltration studies

  19. A three-dimensional dose-distribution estimation system using computerized image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Akihiko; Kidoya, Eiji; Komuro, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Masato; Asada, Naoki.

    1990-01-01

    In radiotherapy planning, three dimensional (3-D) estimation of dose distribution has been very troublesome and time-consuming. To solve this problem, a simple and fast 3-D dose distribution image using a computer and Charged Couple Device (CCD) camera was developed. A series of X-ray films inserted in the phantom using a linear accelerator unit was exposed. The degree of film density was degitized with a CCD camera and a minicomputer (VAX 11-750). After that these results were compared with the present depth dose obtained by a JARP type dosimeter, with a dose error being less than 2%. The 3-D dose distribution image could accurately depict the density changes created by aluminum and air put into the phantom. The contrast resolution of the CCD camera seemed to be superior to the convention densitometer in the low-to-intermediate contrast range. In conclusion, our method seem to be very fast and simple for obtaining 3-D dose distribution images and is very effective when compared with the conventional method. (author)

  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction and volumetry of intracranial haemorrhage and its mass effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strik, H.M.; Baehr, M.; Borchert, H.; Fels, C.; Knauth, M.; Rienhoff, O.; Verhey, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage still causes considerable disability and mortality. The studies on conservative and operative management are inconclusive, probably due to inexact volumetry of the haemorrhage. We investigated whether three-dimensional (3-D), voxel-based volumetry of the haemorrhage and its mass effect is feasible with routine computed tomography (CT) scans. The volumes of the haemorrhage, ventricles, midline shift, the intracranial volume and ventricular compression in CT scans of 12 patients with basal ganglia haemorrhage were determined with the 3-D slicer software. Indices of haemorrhage and intracranial or ventricular volume were calculated and correlated with the clinical data. The intended measures could be determined with an acceptable intra-individual variability. The 3-D volumetric data tended to correlate better with the clinical course than the conventionally assessed distance of midline shift and volume of haemorrhage. 3-D volumetry of intracranial haemorrhage and its mass effect is feasible with routine CT examination. Prospective studies should assess its value for clinical studies on intracranial space-occupying diseases. (orig.)

  1. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction imaging for evaluation of congenital heart disease from ECG-triggered MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannier, M.W.; Laschinger, J.; Knapp, R.H.; Gutierrez, F.R.; Gronnemeyer, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional surface reconstruction images of the heart and great vessels were produced from contiguous sequences of electrocardiographically triggered MR images in 25 patients with congenital heart disease and in three healthy subjects. The imaging data were semiautomatically processed to separate the epicardial and endocardial surfaces and to define the outline of the enclosed blood volumes on a section by section basis. Images were obtained at 5-mm intervals in patients aged 3 months to 30 years with anomalies of the great vessels, tetralogy of Fallot, septal defects, pulmonary atresia, and other congenital heart malformations. The results were used to facilitate the surgical treatment of these patients and were compared with echocardiographic and cineradiographic studies, and with surgical findings or pathologic specimens. These surface reconstruction images were useful for communicating the results of diagnostic examinations to cardiac surgeons, for sizing and location of intracardiac defects, for imaging the pulmonary venous drainage, and for assessing regional and global function

  2. Limited-angle three-dimensional reconstructions using Fourier transform iterations and Radon transform iterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.C.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of limited-angle reconstruction of space-limited objects using the concepts of allowed cone and missing cone in Fourier space are discussed. The distortion of a point source resulting from setting the Fourier components in the missing cone to zero has been calculated mathematically, and its bearing on the convergence of an iteration scheme involving Fourier transforms has been analyzed in detail. it was found that the convergence rate is fairly insensitive to the position of the point source within the boundary of the object, apart from an edge effect which tends to enhance some parts of the boundary in reconstructing the object. Another iteration scheme involving Radon transforms was introduced and compared to the Fourier transform method in such areas as root mean square error, stability with respect to noise, and computer reconstruction time

  3. Three-dimensional fracture visualisation of multidetector CT of the skull base in trauma patients: comparison of three reconstruction algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringl, Helmut; Schernthaner, Ruediger; Philipp, Marcel O.; Metz-Schimmerl, Sylvia; Czerny, Christian; Weber, Michael; Steiner-Ringl, Andrea; Peloschek, Philipp; Herold, Christian J.; Schima, Wolfgang; Gaebler, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively assess the detection rate of skull-base fractures for three different three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction methods of cranial CT examinations in trauma patients. A total of 130 cranial CT examinations of patients with previous head trauma were subjected to 3D reconstruction of the skull base, using solid (SVR) and transparent (TVR) volume-rendering technique and maximum intensity projection (MIP). Three radiologists independently evaluated all reconstructions as well as standard high-resolution multiplanar reformations (HR-MPRs). Mean fracture detection rates for all readers reading rotating reconstructions were 39, 36, 61 and 64% for SVR, TVR, MIP and HR-MPR respectively. Although not significantly different from HR-MPR with respect to sensitivity (P = 0.9), MIP visualised 18% of fractures that were not reported in HR-MPR. Because of the relatively low detection rate using HR-MPRs alone, we recommend reading MIP reconstructions in addition to the obligatory HR-MPRs to improve fracture detection. (orig.)

  4. High-performance blob-based iterative three-dimensional reconstruction in electron tomography using multi-GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Xiaohua

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-dimensional (3D reconstruction in electron tomography (ET has emerged as a leading technique to elucidate the molecular structures of complex biological specimens. Blob-based iterative methods are advantageous reconstruction methods for 3D reconstruction in ET, but demand huge computational costs. Multiple graphic processing units (multi-GPUs offer an affordable platform to meet these demands. However, a synchronous communication scheme between multi-GPUs leads to idle GPU time, and a weighted matrix involved in iterative methods cannot be loaded into GPUs especially for large images due to the limited available memory of GPUs. Results In this paper we propose a multilevel parallel strategy combined with an asynchronous communication scheme and a blob-ELLR data structure to efficiently perform blob-based iterative reconstructions on multi-GPUs. The asynchronous communication scheme is used to minimize the idle GPU time so as to asynchronously overlap communications with computations. The blob-ELLR data structure only needs nearly 1/16 of the storage space in comparison with ELLPACK-R (ELLR data structure and yields significant acceleration. Conclusions Experimental results indicate that the multilevel parallel scheme combined with the asynchronous communication scheme and the blob-ELLR data structure allows efficient implementations of 3D reconstruction in ET on multi-GPUs.

  5. A fully three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm with the nonstationary filter for improved single-orbit cone beam SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Z.J.; Tsui, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional single-orbit cone beam tomography presents special problems. They include incomplete sampling and inadequate three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction algorithm. The commonly used Feldkamp reconstruction algorithm simply extends the two-dimensional (2D) fan beam algorithm to 3D cone beam geometry. A truly 3D reconstruction formulation has been derived for the single-orbit cone beam SPECT based on the 3D Fourier slice theorem. In the formulation, a nonstationary filter which depends on the distance from the central plane of the cone beam was derived. The filter is applied to the 2D projection data in directions along and normal to the axis-of-rotation. The 3D reconstruction algorithm with the nonstationary filter was evaluated using both computer simulation and experimental measurements. Significant improvement in image quality was demonstrated in terms of decreased artifacts and distortions in cone beam reconstructed images. However, compared with the Feldkamp algorithm, a five-fold increase in processing time is required. Further improvement in image quality needs complete sampling in frequency space

  6. DART: a robust algorithm for fast reconstruction of three-dimensional grain maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batenburg, K.J.; Sijbers, J.; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2010-01-01

    and moderate noise levels, DART is shown to generate essentially perfect two-dimensional grain maps for as few as three projections per grain with running times on a PC in the range of less than a second. This is seen as opening up the possibility for fast reconstructions in connection with in situ studies....

  7. THREE-DIMENSIONAL TOMOGRAPHIC RECONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDRY ARTICLES ON LIMITED MODEL AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Vengrinovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ways of overcoming of lack of source information, The ways of overcoming of lack of source information, allowing to reduce energy of primary X-radiation, necessary  for radiography and to provide high quality of reconstruction, are offered.

  8. Image improvement and three-dimensional reconstruction using holographic image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroke, G. W.; Halioua, M.; Thon, F.; Willasch, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Holographic computing principles make possible image improvement and synthesis in many cases of current scientific and engineering interest. Examples are given for the improvement of resolution in electron microscopy and 3-D reconstruction in electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, following an analysis of optical versus digital computing in such applications.

  9. Three-dimensional sheaf of ultrasound planes reconstruction (SOUPR) of ablated volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Atul; Varghese, Tomy

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for 3-D reconstruction of tumor ablations using ultrasound shear wave imaging with electrode vibration elastography. Radio-frequency ultrasound data frames are acquired over imaging planes that form a subset of a sheaf of planes sharing a common axis of intersection. Shear wave velocity is estimated separately on each imaging plane using a piecewise linear function fitting technique with a fast optimization routine. An interpolation algorithm then computes velocity maps on a fine grid over a set of C-planes that are perpendicular to the axis of the sheaf. A full 3-D rendering of the ablation can then be created from this stack of C-planes; hence the name "Sheaf Of Ultrasound Planes Reconstruction" or SOUPR. The algorithm is evaluated through numerical simulations and also using data acquired from a tissue mimicking phantom. Reconstruction quality is gauged using contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio measurements and changes in quality from using increasing number of planes in the sheaf are quantified. The highest contrast of 5 dB is seen between the stiffest and softest regions of the phantom. Under certain idealizing assumptions on the true shape of the ablation, good reconstruction quality while maintaining fast processing rate can be obtained with as few as six imaging planes suggesting that the method is suited for parsimonious data acquisitions with very few sparsely chosen imaging planes.

  10. Colon dissection: a new three-dimensional reconstruction tool for computed tomography colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettgen, R.; Fischbach, F.; Plotkin, M.; Herzog, H.; Freund, T.; Schroeder, R. J.; Felix, R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) colonography in the detection of polyps by comparing the 3D reconstruction tool 'colon dissection' and endoluminal view (virtual colonoscopy) with axial 2D reconstructions. Material and Methods: Forty-eight patients (22 M, 26 F, mean age 57±21) were studied after intra-anal air insufflation in the supine and prone positions using a 16-slice helical CT (16x0.625 mm, pitch 1.7; detector rotation time 0.5 s; 160 mAs und 120 kV) and conventional colonoscopy. Two radiologists blinded to the results of the conventional colonoscopy analyzed the 3D reconstruction in virtual-endoscopy mode, in colon-dissection mode, and axial 2D slices. Results: Conventional colonoscopy revealed a total of 35 polyps in 15 patients; 33 polyps were disclosed by CT methods. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting colon polyps were 94% and 94%, respectively, when using the 'colon dissection', 89% and 94% when using 'virtual endoscopy', and 62% and 100% when using axial 2D reconstruction. Sensitivity in relation to the diameter of colon polyps with 'colon dissection', 'virtual colonoscopy', and axial 2D-slices was: polyps with a diameter >5.0 mm, 100%, 100%, and 71%, respectively; polyps with a diameter of between 3 and 4.9 mm, 92%, 85%, and 46%; and polyps with a diameter <3 mm, 89%, 78%, and 56%. The difference between 'virtual endoscopy' and 'colon dissection' in diagnosing polyps up to 4.9 mm in diameter was statistically significant. Conclusion: 3D reconstruction software 'colon dissection' improves sensitivity of CT colonography compared with the endoluminal view

  11. Cost-effective system for facial imaging and three-dimensional reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, S. B.; Monro, D. M.; Sherlock, Barry G.

    1998-06-01

    Three dimensional (3-D) images have recently received wide attention in applications involving medical treatment. Most current 3-D imaging methods focus on the internal organs of the body. However, several medical image applications such as plastic surgery, body deformities, rehabilitation, dental surgery and orthodontics, make use of the surface contours of the body. Several techniques are currently available for producing 3-D images of the body surface and most of the systems which implement these techniques are expensive, requiring complex equipment with highly trained operators. The research involves the development of a simple, low cost and non-invasive contour capturing method for facial surfaces. This is achieved using the structured light technique, employing a standard commercial slide projector, CCD camera and a frame-grabber card linked to a PC. Structured light has already been used for many applications, but only to a limited extent in the clinical environment. All current implementations involve extensive manual intervention by highly skilled operators and this has proven to be a serious hindrance to clinical acceptance of 3-D imaging. A primary objective of this work is to minimize the amount of manual intervention required, so that the system can be used by clinicians who do not have specialist training in the use of this equipment. The eventual aim is to provide a software assisted surgical procedure, which by merging the facial data, allows the manipulation of soft tissue and gives the facility to predict and monitor post-surgical appearance. The research focuses on how the images are obtained using the structured light optic system and the subsequent image processing of data to give a realistic 3-D image.

  12. Navigator channel adaptation to reconstruct three dimensional heart volumes from two dimensional radiotherapy planning data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Angela; Nguyen, Thao-Nguyen; Moseley, Joanne L; Hodgson, David C; Sharpe, Michael B; Brock, Kristy K

    2012-01-01

    Biologically-based models that utilize 3D radiation dosimetry data to estimate the risk of late cardiac effects could have significant utility for planning radiotherapy in young patients. A major challenge arises from having only 2D treatment planning data for patients with long-term follow-up. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of an advanced deformable image registration (DIR) and navigator channels (NC) adaptation technique to reconstruct 3D heart volumes from 2D radiotherapy planning images for Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) patients. Planning CT images were obtained for 50 HL patients who underwent mediastinal radiotherapy. Twelve image sets (6 male, 6 female) were used to construct a male and a female population heart model, which was registered to 23 HL 'Reference' patients' CT images using a DIR algorithm, MORFEUS. This generated a series of population-to-Reference patient specific 3D deformation maps. The technique was independently tested on 15 additional 'Test' patients by reconstructing their 3D heart volumes using 2D digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR). The technique involved: 1) identifying a matching Reference patient for each Test patient using thorax measurements, 2) placement of six NCs on matching Reference and Test patients' DRRs to capture differences in significant heart curvatures, 3) adapting the population-to-Reference patient-specific deformation maps to generate population-to-Test patient-specific deformation maps using linear and bilinear interpolation methods, 4) applying population-to-Test patient specific deformation to the population model to reconstruct Test-patient specific 3D heart models. The percentage volume overlap between the NC-adapted reconstruction and actual Test patient's true heart volume was calculated using the Dice coefficient. The average Dice coefficient expressed as a percentage between the NC-adapted and actual Test model was 89.4 ± 2.8%. The modified NC adaptation

  13. Three-dimensional reconstructions in neuroanatomy. Dreidimensionale Rekonstruktionen in der Neuroanatomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmann, H.J.; Vogt, H.; Schuetz, T.; Gerke, M.; Riedel, A.; Buhmann, C.; Wesemann, M. (Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Neuroanatomie); Mueller, D. (Hannover Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Informatik)

    1991-10-01

    Computer-aided 3D reconstructions of neurofunctional systems and structures are generated as a reference for neuroimaging (CT, MRI, PET). The clinical application of these 3D reconstructions requires a coordinate system and conditions resembling the intravital neuroanatomy as far as possible. In this paper the neuroanatomical reference system (NeuRef) of the Department of Neuroanatomy of Hannover Medical School is presented. This consists of methods to record brain structures from serial sections with minimal error (less than 1 mm) and to display 3D brain models derived from such a data base. In addition, NeuRef is able to generate sections through, for instance, the visual and pyramidal system and to transfer these data onto a corresponcing CT image. Therefore, this method can serve as a diagnostic aid in neuroradiology, in operation planning, and radiotherapy. It can also be used in PACS. (orig.).

  14. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Dust Particle Trajectories in the NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeglin, W.U.; Roquemore, A.L.; Maqueda, R.

    2009-01-01

    Highly mobile incandescent dust particles are routinely observed on NSTX using two fast cameras operating in the visible region. An analysis method to reconstruct dust particle trajectories in space using two fast cameras is presented in this paper. Position accuracies of a few millimeters depending on the particle's location have been achieved and particle velocities between 10 and 200 m/s have been observed

  15. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Bony Nasolacrimal Canal by Automated Segmentation of Computed Tomography Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Jañez-Garcia

    Full Text Available To apply a fully automated method to quantify the 3D structure of the bony nasolacrimal canal (NLC from CT scans whereby the size and main morphometric characteristics of the canal can be determined.Cross-sectional study.36 eyes of 18 healthy individuals.Using software designed to detect the boundaries of the NLC on CT images, 36 NLC reconstructions were prepared. These reconstructions were then used to calculate NLC volume. The NLC axis in each case was determined according to a polygonal model and to 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree polynomials. From these models, NLC sectional areas and length were determined. For each variable, descriptive statistics and normality tests (Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk were established.Time for segmentation, NLC volume, axis, sectional areas and length.Mean processing time was around 30 seconds for segmenting each canal. All the variables generated were normally distributed. Measurements obtained using the four models polygonal, 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree polynomial, respectively, were: mean canal length 14.74, 14.3, 14.80, and 15.03 mm; mean sectional area 15.15, 11.77, 11.43, and 11.56 mm2; minimum sectional area 8.69, 7.62, 7.40, and 7.19 mm2; and mean depth of minimum sectional area (craniocaudal 7.85, 7.71, 8.19, and 8.08 mm.The method proposed automatically reconstructs the NLC on CT scans. Using these reconstructions, morphometric measurements can be calculated from NLC axis estimates based on polygonal and 2nd, 3rd and 4th polynomial models.

  16. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the S885A Mutant of Human Mitochondrial Lon Protease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kereiche, S.; Kováčik, L.; Pevala, V.; Ambro, L.; Bellová, J.; Kutejová, Eva; Raška, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2014 (2014), s. 62-65 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0030; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : transmission electron microscopy * 3D reconstruction * AAA plus protease Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  17. Fast parallel algorithm for three-dimensional distance-driven model in iterative computed tomography reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian-Lin; Li Lei; Wang Lin-Yuan; Cai Ai-Long; Xi Xiao-Qi; Zhang Han-Ming; Li Jian-Xin; Yan Bin

    2015-01-01

    The projection matrix model is used to describe the physical relationship between reconstructed object and projection. Such a model has a strong influence on projection and backprojection, two vital operations in iterative computed tomographic reconstruction. The distance-driven model (DDM) is a state-of-the-art technology that simulates forward and back projections. This model has a low computational complexity and a relatively high spatial resolution; however, it includes only a few methods in a parallel operation with a matched model scheme. This study introduces a fast and parallelizable algorithm to improve the traditional DDM for computing the parallel projection and backprojection operations. Our proposed model has been implemented on a GPU (graphic processing unit) platform and has achieved satisfactory computational efficiency with no approximation. The runtime for the projection and backprojection operations with our model is approximately 4.5 s and 10.5 s per loop, respectively, with an image size of 256×256×256 and 360 projections with a size of 512×512. We compare several general algorithms that have been proposed for maximizing GPU efficiency by using the unmatched projection/backprojection models in a parallel computation. The imaging resolution is not sacrificed and remains accurate during computed tomographic reconstruction. (paper)

  18. Three-dimensional reconstruction of vessels with stenoses and aneurysms from dual biplane angiograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Macovski, Albert

    1989-05-01

    Parametric model-based approaches to 3-D reconstruction of vessels overcome the inherent problem of underdeterminancy in reconstruction from limited views by incorporating a priori knowledge about the structure of vessels and about the measurement statistics. In this paper, we describe two extensions to the parametric approach. First, we consider the problem of reconstruction from a pair of bi-plane angiograms that are acquired at different projection angles. Since bi-plane angiography systems are widely available, this is a practical measurement geometry. The patient may move between acquisitions, so we have extended our model to allow for object translation between the first and second pair of projections. Second, we describe how to accurately estimate the dimensions of a aneurysm from the dual-biplane angiogram. We applied the new algorithm to four synthetic angiograms (projection angles 0°, 20°, 90°, and 110°) of a vessel with a small aneurysm and an eccentric stenosis. The angiograms were corrupted by additive noise and background structure. Except near the top and bottom of the aneurysm, the estimated cross sections of the aneurysm and stenosis agree very well with the true cross sections.

  19. Three-dimensional seed reconstruction from an incomplete data set for prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Sreeram; Cho, Paul S; MarksII, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Intra-operative dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy requires 3D coordinates of the implanted, radioactive seeds. Since CT is not readily available during the implant operation, projection x-rays are commonly used for intra-operative seed localization. Three x-ray projections are usually used. The requirement of the current seed reconstruction algorithms is that the seeds must be identified on all three projections. However, in practice this is often difficult to accomplish due to the problem of heavily clustered and overlapping seeds. We have developed an algorithm that permits seed reconstruction from an incomplete data set. Instead of all three projections, the new algorithm requires only one of the three projections to be complete. Furthermore, even if all three projections are incomplete, it can reconstruct 100% of the implanted seeds depending on how the undetected seeds are distributed among the projections. The method utilizes the principles of epipolar imaging geometry and pseudo-matching of the undetected seeds. The algorithm was successfully applied to a large number of clinical cases where seeds imperceptibly overlap in some projections

  20. Image-based reconstruction of three-dimensional myocardial infarct geometry for patient-specific modeling of cardiac electrophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukwatta, Eranga, E-mail: eukwatt1@jhu.edu; Arevalo, Hermenegild; Pashakhanloo, Farhad; Prakosa, Adityo; Vadakkumpadan, Fijoy [Institute for Computational Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Rajchl, Martin [Department of Computing, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); White, James [Stephenson Cardiovascular MR Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 2T9 (Canada); Herzka, Daniel A.; McVeigh, Elliot [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Lardo, Albert C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 and Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins Institute of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224 (United States); Trayanova, Natalia A. [Institute for Computational Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins Institute of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Accurate three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of myocardial infarct geometry is crucial to patient-specific modeling of the heart aimed at providing therapeutic guidance in ischemic cardiomyopathy. However, myocardial infarct imaging is clinically performed using two-dimensional (2D) late-gadolinium enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) techniques, and a method to build accurate 3D infarct reconstructions from the 2D LGE-CMR images has been lacking. The purpose of this study was to address this need. Methods: The authors developed a novel methodology to reconstruct 3D infarct geometry from segmented low-resolution (Lo-res) clinical LGE-CMR images. Their methodology employed the so-called logarithm of odds (LogOdds) function to implicitly represent the shape of the infarct in segmented image slices as LogOdds maps. These 2D maps were then interpolated into a 3D image, and the result transformed via the inverse of LogOdds to a binary image representing the 3D infarct geometry. To assess the efficacy of this method, the authors utilized 39 high-resolution (Hi-res) LGE-CMR images, including 36 in vivo acquisitions of human subjects with prior myocardial infarction and 3 ex vivo scans of canine hearts following coronary ligation to induce infarction. The infarct was manually segmented by trained experts in each slice of the Hi-res images, and the segmented data were downsampled to typical clinical resolution. The proposed method was then used to reconstruct 3D infarct geometry from the downsampled images, and the resulting reconstructions were compared with the manually segmented data. The method was extensively evaluated using metrics based on geometry as well as results of electrophysiological simulations of cardiac sinus rhythm and ventricular tachycardia in individual hearts. Several alternative reconstruction techniques were also implemented and compared with the proposed method. Results: The accuracy of the LogOdds method in reconstructing 3D

  1. Three-dimensional image reconstruction using rotational digital subtraction technique: the initial experience of the clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Zhongnan; Tang Jun; He Jianjun; Lu Xiaohe; Xun Yanping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the benefit of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction images with rotational digital subtraction technique for the clinical applications. Methods: Conventional two-dimensional digital substraction angiography (2D DSA) was obtained on A-P and lateral view. Three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3D DSA) images were obtained by reconstruction of a rotational acquisition on a C-arm (LCV +, GE Medical Systems) spinning at 40 degrees per second. 53 cases of cerebral angiographies were performed (32 men and 21 women; the age ranged from 19 to 72 years, mean 46.3 years). Results: In this series of 53 cases of cerebral angiographies, 5 cases of arteriovenous malformation were all correctly diagnosed by 3D DSA and 2D DSA. Seven cases were misdiagnosed as intracranial aneurysms at conventional 2D DSA but confirmed to be kinking of the vessel by 3D DSA. 41 cases were confirmed to be intracranial aneurysms. Of the 41 cases, 5 cases were diagnosed as normal at 2D DSA but confirmed to be intracranial aneurysms at 3D DSA. The total consistency rate of 3D DSA and 2D DSA for the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysm is 77.4% (41/53). The consistent test shows that there was consistency between the two modalities (chi-square test, χ 2 = 5.267, P < 0.05). 29 cases were treated with endovascular coil embolization. Among them only 3 cases of the aneurysm's neck could be best visualized by 2D DSA but 29 cases by 3D DSA. Conclusion: 3D reconstruction images with rotational digital subtraction technique is a useful tool to study the vascular diseases using less contrast agent and a lower radiation dose and shortening the examination process. It is replenishment for conventional 2D DSA. This technique enables better diagnosis for intracranial vascular lesion and visualization of complex vascular relationships and structures. It is valuable for surgical planning and interventional procedure

  2. Reconstruction of measurable three-dimensional point cloud model based on large-scene archaeological excavation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Sen; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Zhang, Wei-Xing

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a low-cost, user-friendly photogrammetric technique with nonmetric cameras to obtain excavation site digital sequence images, based on photogrammetry and computer vision. Digital camera calibration, automatic aerial triangulation, image feature extraction, image sequence matching, and dense digital differential rectification are used, combined with a certain number of global control points of the excavation site, to reconstruct the high precision of measured three-dimensional (3-D) models. Using the acrobatic figurines in the Qin Shi Huang mausoleum excavation as an example, our method solves the problems of little base-to-height ratio, high inclination, unstable altitudes, and significant ground elevation changes affecting image matching. Compared to 3-D laser scanning, the 3-D color point cloud obtained by this method can maintain the same visual result and has advantages of low project cost, simple data processing, and high accuracy. Structure-from-motion (SfM) is often used to reconstruct 3-D models of large scenes and has lower accuracy if it is a reconstructed 3-D model of a small scene at close range. Results indicate that this method quickly achieves 3-D reconstruction of large archaeological sites and produces heritage site distribution of orthophotos providing a scientific basis for accurate location of cultural relics, archaeological excavations, investigation, and site protection planning. This proposed method has a comprehensive application value.

  3. Application of three-dimensional CT reconstruction technology on inferior oblique muscle in congenital superior oblique palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the viability of the morphology of inferior oblique muscle observed stereoscopically using 3-dimensional CT reconstruction technique. METHODS: This control study included of 29 cases which were clinically diagnosed with monocular congenital superior oblique palsy, examined by dimensional CT. The images of the inferior oblique muscle were reconstructed by Mimics software. 3D digital images on the basis of CT scanning data of the individuals were established. Observing the morphology of binocular inferior oblique muscle by self-controlled design, we compared the maximum transverse diameter of inferior oblique muscle of paralyzed eye with non-paralyzed one. We chose 5% as the significant level.RESULTS: The reconstructed results of 3-dimensional CT scan showed that not all of the inferior oblique abdominal muscle of paralyzed eyes were thinner than that of the non-paralyzed eye in maximum transverse diameter of cross-sectional area. The maximum transverse diameter of inferior oblique muscle was measured. The average maximum transverse diameter of the paralyzed eye was 6.797±1.083mm and the non-paralyzed eye was 6.507±0.848mm. The maximum transverse diameter of inferior oblique muscle of paralyzed eye did not, however, differ significantly from the normal(P>0.05. CONCLUSION: The three-dimensional CT reconstruction technology can be used for preoperative evaluation of the morphology of inferior oblique muscle.

  4. Three-dimensional reconstruction of axonemal outer dynein arms in situ by electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupetti, Pietro; Lanzavecchia, Salvatore; Mercati, David; Cantele, Francesca; Dallai, Romano; Mencarelli, Caterina

    2005-10-01

    We present here for the first time a 3D reconstruction of in situ axonemal outer dynein arms. This reconstruction has been obtained by electron tomography applied to a series of tilted images collected from metal replicas of rapidly frozen, cryofractured, and metal-replicated sperm axonemes of the cecidomid dipteran Monarthropalpus flavus. This peculiar axonemal model consists of several microtubular laminae that proved to be particularly suitable for this type of analysis. These laminae are sufficiently planar to allow the visualization of many dynein molecules within the same fracture face, allowing us to recover a significant number of equivalent objects and to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstruction by applying advanced averaging protocols. The 3D model we obtained showed the following interesting structural features: First, each dynein arm has two head domains that are almost parallel and are obliquely oriented with respect to the longitudinal axis of microtubules. The two heads are therefore positioned at different distances from the surface of the A-tubule. Second, each head domain consists of a series of globular subdomains that are positioned on the same plane. Third, a stalk domain originates as a conical region from the proximal head and ends with a small globular domain that contacts the B-tubule. Fourth, the stem region comprises several globular subdomains and presents two distinct points of anchorage to the surface of the A-tubule. Finally, and most importantly, contrary to what has been observed in isolated dynein molecules adsorbed to flat surfaces, the stalk and the stem domains are not in the same plane as the head.

  5. Real-time three-dimensional soft tissue reconstruction for laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Jędrzej; Meyer, Avishai; Carlson, Jay; Psota, Eric T; Buettner, Shelby; Pérez, Lance C; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2012-12-01

    Accurate real-time 3D models of the operating field have the potential to enable augmented reality for endoscopic surgery. A new system is proposed to create real-time 3D models of the operating field that uses a custom miniaturized stereoscopic video camera attached to a laparoscope and an image-based reconstruction algorithm implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU). The proposed system was evaluated in a porcine model that approximates the viewing conditions of in vivo surgery. To assess the quality of the models, a synthetic view of the operating field was produced by overlaying a color image on the reconstructed 3D model, and an image rendered from the 3D model was compared with a 2D image captured from the same view. Experiments conducted with an object of known geometry demonstrate that the system produces 3D models accurate to within 1.5 mm. The ability to produce accurate real-time 3D models of the operating field is a significant advancement toward augmented reality in minimally invasive surgery. An imaging system with this capability will potentially transform surgery by helping novice and expert surgeons alike to delineate variance in internal anatomy accurately.

  6. Reconstruction of Interfering Waves from Three Dimensional Analysis of Their Interference Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Tavassoli

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available   Optical interferometry is being used as an efficient tool to analyse smooth surfaces for more than a century. Although, due to introduction of novel computer assisted analyzing techniques and array detectors, like CCD, the speed and the precision of processing have been increased tremendously, but the main equation involved is not changed. The main equation is the intensity distribution in the interference pattern of a plane reference wave and the required wave.   In the paper it is shown that by analysis of the interference pattern of two unknown waves in three dimension (which is possible for coherent waves it is possible to reconstruct each wave separately. This approach has several useful applications, namely, on can do without reference plane wave in the interferometric surface analysis and, it is possible to reconstruct an unknown wave by making it to interfere with itself. This is very useful in determining the profile of laser beams and erasing the effect of atmospheric disturbances on observing astronomical objects.

  7. Three-dimensional prediction of the human eyeball and canthi for craniofacial reconstruction using cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Rok; Lee, Kyung-Min; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik

    2016-04-01

    An anatomical relationship between the hard and soft tissues of the face is mandatory for facial reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the positions of the eyeball and canthi three-dimensionally from the relationships between the facial hard and soft tissues using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT scan data of 100 living subjects were used to obtain the measurements of facial hard and soft tissues. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were carried out using the hard tissue measurements in the orbit, nasal bone, nasal cavity and maxillary canine to predict the most probable positions of the eyeball and canthi within the orbit. Orbital width, orbital height, and orbital depth were strong predictors of the eyeball and canthi position. Intercanine width was also a predictor of the mediolateral position of the eyeball. Statistically significant regression models for the positions of the eyeball and canthi could be derived from the measurements of orbit and maxillary canine. These results suggest that CBCT data can be useful in predicting the positions of the eyeball and canthi three-dimensionally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Three-dimensional reconstruction from low-count SPECT data using deformable models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, G.S.; Hanson, K.M.; Battle, X.L.

    1998-03-01

    The authors demonstrate the reconstruction of a 3D, time-varying bolus of radiotracer from first-pass data obtained at the dynamic SPECT imager, FASTSPECT, built by the University of Arizona. The object imaged is a CardioWest Total Artificial Heart. The bolus is entirely contained in one ventricle and its associated inlet and outlet tracts. The model for the radiotracer distribution is a time-varying closed surface parameterized by 162 vertices that are connected to make 960 triangles, with uniform intensity of radiotracer inside. The total curvature of the surface is minimized through the use of a weighted prior in the Bayesian framework. MAP estimates for the vertices, interior intensity and background scatter are produced for diastolic and systolic frames, the only two frames analyzed

  9. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of a Gas Bubble Trajectory in Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustyniak Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the shape of the bubble trajectory is crucial for understanding the mechanism of bubble motion in liquid. In the paper it has been presented the technique of 3D bubble trajectory reconstruction using a single high speed camera and the system of mirrors. In the experiment a glass tank filled with distilled water was used. The nozzle through which the bubbles were generated was placed in the centre of the tank. The movement of the bubbles was recorded with a high speed camera, the Phantom v1610 at a 600 fps. The techniques of image analysis has been applied to determine the coordinates of mass centre of each bubble image. The 3D trajectory of bubble can be obtained by using triangulation methods. In the paper the measurement error of imaging computer tomography has been estimated. The maximum measurement error was equal to ±0,65 [mm]. Trajectories of subsequently departing bubbles were visualized.

  10. New method of three-dimensional reconstruction from two-dimensional MR data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrazidlo, W.; Schneider, S.; Brambs, H.J.; Richter, G.M.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Geiger, B.; Fischer, C.

    1989-01-01

    In medical diagnosis and therapy, cross-sectional images are obtained by means of US, CT, or MR imaging. The authors propose a new solution to the problem of constructing a shape over a set of cross-sectional contours from two-dimensional (2D) MR data sets. The authors' method reduces the problem of constructing a shape over the cross sections to one of constructing a sequence of partial shapes, each of them connecting two cross sections lying on adjacent planes. The solution makes use of the Delaunay triangulation, which is isomorphic in that specific situation. The authors compute this Delaunay triangulation. Shape reconstruction is then achieved section by pruning Delaunay triangulations

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of chondrodysplasia punctata tibia-metacarpal type using multidetector CT and three-dimensional reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Osamu [National Centre for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Sago, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Noriyoshi; Ebina, Shunsuke [National Centre for Child Health and Development, Department of Perinatal Medicine and Maternal Care, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    We report a case of chondrodysplasia punctata tibia-metacarpal type (CDP-TM) that was diagnosed prenatally using multidetector CT (MDCT) with three-dimensional (3-D) CT reconstructions. Prenatal US had shown severe thoracic hypoplasia and rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, raising the suspicion of thanatophoric dysplasia. However, MDCT showed punctate calcifications in the epiphyseal cartilage of the humeri and femora, carpal bones, and paravertebral region. On 3-D CT, the tibiae were much shorter than the fibulae, the humeri were very short and bowed, and severe platyspondyly was evident. These findings led to the diagnosis of CDP-TM. The diagnosis was confirmed on postnatal radiographs. Prenatal MDCT with 3-D images may make a useful contribution to prenatal diagnosis in selected fetuses with severe skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  12. Preoperative planning of thoracic surgery with use of three-dimensional reconstruction, rapid prototyping, simulation and virtual navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuts, Samuel; Maessen, Jos G.

    2016-01-01

    For the past decades, surgeries have become more complex, due to the increasing age of the patient population referred for thoracic surgery, more complex pathology and the emergence of minimally invasive thoracic surgery. Together with the early detection of thoracic disease as a result of innovations in diagnostic possibilities and the paradigm shift to personalized medicine, preoperative planning is becoming an indispensable and crucial aspect of surgery. Several new techniques facilitating this paradigm shift have emerged. Pre-operative marking and staining of lesions are already a widely accepted method of preoperative planning in thoracic surgery. However, three-dimensional (3D) image reconstructions, virtual simulation and rapid prototyping (RP) are still in development phase. These new techniques are expected to become an important part of the standard work-up of patients undergoing thoracic surgery in the future. This review aims at graphically presenting and summarizing these new diagnostic and therapeutic tools PMID:29078505

  13. Three-dimensional CT pyelography for planning of percutaneous nephrostolithotomy: accuracy of stone measurement, stone depiction and pelvicalyceal reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Uday [St George' s Hospital and Medical School, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Princess Grace Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Walkden, Richard Miles [St George' s Hospital and Medical School, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Ghani, Khurshid R. [St George' s Hospital and Medical School, Department of Urology, London (United Kingdom); Anson, Ken [St George' s Hospital and Medical School, Department of Urology, London (United Kingdom); Princess Grace Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    Retrospective evaluation of computed tomographic (CT) pyelography before percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL). Twenty patients with renal calculi underwent CT pyelography using a dedicated protocol. Calculus size, uniformity of contrast excretion and accuracy of calculus and pelvicalyceal (PC) system reconstructions were scored and compared on axial and coronal maximum intensity projections (MIP) and volume reconstructions (VRmovie loops). After contrast medium administration, the size of calculi is accurate on axial images, but underestimated on coronal studies: mean 14.7 mm vs. 14.4 mm (axial) and 17.2 mm vs. 16.1 mm (coronal) for measurements before and after enhancement, respectively (p = 0.11 and 0.03). Uniform contrast medium excretion (median 228 HU; 95% CI 209-266 HU) was sufficiently lower than calculus density (median 845 HU; 95% CI 457-1,193 HU) for precise calculus and pelvicalyceal reconstructions in 87% and 85%, respectively. Coronal MIP scans were rated best for calculus depiction (mean score 2.68 vs. 2.50 and 2.41 for coronal, axial and VRs, respectively; p = 0.14) and VR studies best for PC anatomy (mean score 4.4 vs. 3.73 and 2.89 for VR, coronal and axial studies, respectively; p = <0.0001). Three-dimensional CT pyelography can accurately demonstrate calculus position and spatial relationships of the collecting system before PCNL. (orig.)

  14. Three-dimensional CT pyelography for planning of percutaneous nephrostolithotomy: accuracy of stone measurement, stone depiction and pelvicalyceal reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Uday; Walkden, Richard Miles; Ghani, Khurshid R.; Anson, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Retrospective evaluation of computed tomographic (CT) pyelography before percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL). Twenty patients with renal calculi underwent CT pyelography using a dedicated protocol. Calculus size, uniformity of contrast excretion and accuracy of calculus and pelvicalyceal (PC) system reconstructions were scored and compared on axial and coronal maximum intensity projections (MIP) and volume reconstructions (VRmovie loops). After contrast medium administration, the size of calculi is accurate on axial images, but underestimated on coronal studies: mean 14.7 mm vs. 14.4 mm (axial) and 17.2 mm vs. 16.1 mm (coronal) for measurements before and after enhancement, respectively (p = 0.11 and 0.03). Uniform contrast medium excretion (median 228 HU; 95% CI 209-266 HU) was sufficiently lower than calculus density (median 845 HU; 95% CI 457-1,193 HU) for precise calculus and pelvicalyceal reconstructions in 87% and 85%, respectively. Coronal MIP scans were rated best for calculus depiction (mean score 2.68 vs. 2.50 and 2.41 for coronal, axial and VRs, respectively; p = 0.14) and VR studies best for PC anatomy (mean score 4.4 vs. 3.73 and 2.89 for VR, coronal and axial studies, respectively; p = <0.0001). Three-dimensional CT pyelography can accurately demonstrate calculus position and spatial relationships of the collecting system before PCNL. (orig.)

  15. Uncertainty evaluation for three-dimensional scanning electron microscope reconstructions based on the stereo-pair technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carli, L; Cantatore, A; De Chiffre, L; Genta, G; Barbato, G; Levi, R

    2011-01-01

    3D-SEM is a method, based on the stereophotogrammetry technique, which obtains three-dimensional topographic reconstructions starting typically from two SEM images, called the stereo-pair. In this work, a theoretical uncertainty evaluation of the stereo-pair technique, according to GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement), was carried out, considering 3D-SEM reconstructions of a wire gauge with a reference diameter of 250 µm. Starting from the more commonly used tilting strategy, one based on the item rotation inside the SEM chamber was also adopted. The latter enables multiple-view reconstructions of the cylindrical item under consideration. Uncertainty evaluation was performed starting from a modified version of the Piazzesi equation, enabling the calculation of the z-coordinate from a given stereo-pair. The metrological characteristics of each input variable have been taken into account and a SEM stage calibration has been performed. Uncertainty tables for the cases of tilt and rotation were then produced, leading to the calculation of expanded uncertainty. For the case of rotation, the largest uncertainty contribution resulted to be the rotational angle; however, for the case of tilt it resulted to be the pixel size. A relative expanded uncertainty equal to 5% and 4% was obtained for the case of rotation and tilt, respectively

  16. Application of three-dimensional reconstruction technology in establishment of atlas space model and sex determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianying; Tian Yong; He Qing; Li Youqiong; Han Qing; Cheng Kailiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish the method of using the atlas morphological indexes for sex determination in Jilin province and to evaluate its effect. Methods: The clinic neck CT images were used to reconstruct the 3D image of atlas. A total of 27 linear measurement on 8 aspects of the atlas were measured and the ratios were calculated. The 14 items were selected. Results: Of the total 27 linear measurements, 14 were sexually dimorphic (P<0.05), and the accuracies of sex determination of 27 indexes were 52.0% -89.3% . The highest accuracy was width of vertebral body (86.7% ). A function with variables predicting sex with 96.8% accuracy was derived by using stepwise method of discriminant function analysis: Y=1.308W - 0.409CDF - 0.469LTPSD - 0.849LUACD + 0.478RUACD + 0.332RDACD + 0.363ATH - 0.334PTH - 0.236PAL. Conclusion: The method of using atlas traits for sex determination in Jilin province is practicable. (authors)

  17. Abducens nerve enhancement demonstrated by multiplanar reconstruction of contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoya, T.; Adachi, M.; Sugai, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan); Yamaguchi, K.; Yamaguchi, K. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan); Kato, T. [3. Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    We describe contrast enhancement of the cisternal portion of the abducens nerve and discuss its clinical significance. We examined 67 patients with ophthalmoplegia using contrast-enhanced 3-dimensional (3D) MRI with multiplanar reconstruction along the nerves and found 16 patients (ten men, six women), aged 10-73 years (mean 34.4 years), with contrast enhancement of the abducens nerve. Of the 36 patients who had an abducens palsy, 14 (39 %) showed contrast enhancement. In the 16 patients, 23 abducens nerves enhanced; 13 were symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic at the time. The causes were disseminated tumour (1), an inflammatory process (3), trauma (2), ischaemia (2) and autoimmune diseases (8), such as the Miller Fisher syndrome, acute ophthalmoparesis, polyneuropathy and multiple sclerosis. Abducens and/or oculomotor nerve enhancement was the only abnormality on MRI in the patients with traumatic or ischaemic neuropathy or autoimmune diseases. There were 14 patients who recovered fully within 1-6 months after treatment, and resolution of the enhancement correlated well with recovery. (orig.)

  18. Abducens nerve enhancement demonstrated by multiplanar reconstruction of contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, T.; Adachi, M.; Sugai, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Kato, T.

    2001-01-01

    We describe contrast enhancement of the cisternal portion of the abducens nerve and discuss its clinical significance. We examined 67 patients with ophthalmoplegia using contrast-enhanced 3-dimensional (3D) MRI with multiplanar reconstruction along the nerves and found 16 patients (ten men, six women), aged 10-73 years (mean 34.4 years), with contrast enhancement of the abducens nerve. Of the 36 patients who had an abducens palsy, 14 (39 %) showed contrast enhancement. In the 16 patients, 23 abducens nerves enhanced; 13 were symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic at the time. The causes were disseminated tumour (1), an inflammatory process (3), trauma (2), ischaemia (2) and autoimmune diseases (8), such as the Miller Fisher syndrome, acute ophthalmoparesis, polyneuropathy and multiple sclerosis. Abducens and/or oculomotor nerve enhancement was the only abnormality on MRI in the patients with traumatic or ischaemic neuropathy or autoimmune diseases. There were 14 patients who recovered fully within 1-6 months after treatment, and resolution of the enhancement correlated well with recovery. (orig.)

  19. Three-dimensional reconstruction of clustered microcalcifications from two digitized mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotzka, Rainer; Mueller, Tim O.; Epper, Wolfgang; Gemmeke, Hartmut

    1998-06-01

    X-ray mammography is one of the most significant diagnosis methods in early detection of breast cancer. Usually two X- ray images from different angles are taken from each mamma to make even overlapping structures visible. X-ray mammography has a very high spatial resolution and can show microcalcifications of 50 - 200 micron in size. Clusters of microcalcifications are one of the most important and often the only indicator for malignant tumors. These calcifications are in some cases extremely difficult to detect. Computer assisted diagnosis of digitized mammograms may improve detection and interpretation of microcalcifications and cause more reliable diagnostic findings. We build a low-cost mammography workstation to detect and classify clusters of microcalcifications and tissue densities automatically. New in this approach is the estimation of the 3D formation of segmented microcalcifications and its visualization which will put additional diagnostic information at the radiologists disposal. The real problem using only two or three projections for reconstruction is the big loss of volume information. Therefore the arrangement of a cluster is estimated using only the positions of segmented microcalcifications. The arrangement of microcalcifications is visualized to the physician by rotating.

  20. The Importance of a Conchal Bowl Element in the Fabrication of a Three-Dimensional Framework in Total Auricular Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Soo Kim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo construct a sophisticated three-dimensional framework, numerous modifications have been reported in the literature. However, most surgeons have paid little attention to the anatomical configuration of the concha and more to its deepness and hollowness, leading to unsatisfactory outcomes.MethodsFor a configuration of the concha that is definitely anatomical, the author further developed and employed the conchal bowl element, which has been used by several surgeons although the results have not been published elsewhere. The author constructed the conchal bowl element in one of three patterns according to the amount of available cartilages: one block, two-pieces, or a cymba bowl element only. A total of 20 patients underwent auricular reconstruction using a costal cartilage framework between 2009 and 2012. The 8 earliest reconstructions were performed without a conchal bowl element and the latter 12 with a conchal bowl element. The patients were followed up for more than 1 year. The aesthetic results were scored by evaluating characteristics involving the stability of the crus helicis, the conchal definition, and the smoothness of the helical curve.ResultsThe ears reconstructed early without a conchal bowl element showed a shallow and one or two incompletely separated concha with an obliterated cymba conchal space. They also did not have a realistic or smooth curve of the helix because of an unstable crus helicis. However, ears reconstructed later with the concha bowl element showed a definite crus helicis, deep cymba conchal space, and smooth helical curve.ConclusionsThe construction of the conchal bowl element is simple, not time-consuming procedure. It is suggested that the conchal bowl element must be constructed and attached to the main framework for natural configuration of the reconstructed ear.

  1. The use of three-dimensional tomographic reconstructions in the diagnosis on facial trauma: report of three cases and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Junior, Jose Lacet de; Goes, Kilma Keilla Honorio de; Dias-Ribeiro, Eduardo; Araujo, Tulio Neves de; Oliveira, Patricia Teixeira de

    2007-01-01

    Fractures on the maxillofacial complex demand a detailed three dimensional comprehension of the damaged area. A correct radiographic evaluation is essential for the planning of the repair surgery. The surgical maneuvers involving this type of trauma depend on the knowledge of anatomy and an image diagnosis. The three dimensional images are especially important for the surgeons due to the fact that they allow a panoramic representation of the facial complex and of the fracture, facilitating the treatment planning. This study aims to report three clinical cases, as well as a literature review, discussing the utilization of three-dimensional tomography reconstructions on the diagnosis of the facial trauma. (author)

  2. Reconstruction of blood propagation in three-dimensional rotational X-ray angiography (3D-RA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Holger; Grass, Michael; Suurmond, Rolf; Köhler, Thomas; Rasche, Volker; Hähnel, Stefan; Heiland, Sabine

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents a framework of non-interactive algorithms for the mapping of blood flow information to vessels in 3D-RA images. With the presented method, mapping of flow information to 3D-RA images is done automatically without user interaction. So far, radiologists had to perform this task by extensive image comparisons and did not obtain visualizations of the results. In our approach, flow information is reconstructed by forward projection of vessel pieces in a 3D-RA image to a two-dimensional projection series capturing the propagation of a short additional contrast agent bolus. For accurate 2D-3D image registration, an efficient patient motion compensation technique is introduced. As an exemplary flow-related quantity, bolus arrival times are reconstructed for the vessel pieces by matching of intensity-time curves. A plausibility check framework was developed which handles projection ambiguities and corrects for noisy flow reconstruction results. It is based on a linear programming approach to model the feeding structure of the vessel. The flow reconstruction method was applied to 12 cases of cerebral stenoses, AVMs and aneurysms, and it proved to be feasible in the clinical environment. The propagation of the injected contrast agent was reconstructed and visualized in three-dimensional images. The flow reconstruction method was able to visualize different types of useful information. In cases of stenosis of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), flow reconstruction can reveal impeded blood flow depending on the severeness of the stenosis. With cases of AVMs, flow reconstruction can clarify the feeding structure. The presented methods handle the problems imposed by clinical demands such as non-interactive algorithms, patient motion compensation, short reconstruction times, and technical requirements such as correction of noisy bolus arrival times and handling of overlapping vessel pieces. Problems occurred mainly in the reconstruction and segmentation of 3D

  3. Three-dimensional quantification of cardiac surface motion: a newly developed three-dimensional digital motion-capture and reconstruction system for beating heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshiki; Omata, Sadao; Odamura, Motoki; Okada, Masahumi; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2006-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate our newly developed 3-dimensional digital motion-capture and reconstruction system in an animal experiment setting and to characterize quantitatively the three regional cardiac surface motions, in the left anterior descending artery, right coronary artery, and left circumflex artery, before and after stabilization using a stabilizer. Six pigs underwent a full sternotomy. Three tiny metallic markers (diameter 2 mm) coated with a reflective material were attached on three regional cardiac surfaces (left anterior descending, right coronary, and left circumflex coronary artery regions). These markers were captured by two high-speed digital video cameras (955 frames per second) as 2-dimensional coordinates and reconstructed to 3-dimensional data points (about 480 xyz-position data per second) by a newly developed computer program. The remaining motion after stabilization ranged from 0.4 to 1.01 mm at the left anterior descending, 0.91 to 1.52 mm at the right coronary artery, and 0.53 to 1.14 mm at the left circumflex regions. Significant differences before and after stabilization were evaluated in maximum moving velocity (left anterior descending 456.7 +/- 178.7 vs 306.5 +/- 207.4 mm/s; right coronary artery 574.9 +/- 161.7 vs 446.9 +/- 170.7 mm/s; left circumflex 578.7 +/- 226.7 vs 398.9 +/- 192.6 mm/s; P heart surface movement. This helps us better understand the complexity of the heart, its motion, and the need for developing a better stabilizer for beating heart surgery.

  4. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Using High-Speed Video and VHF Broadband Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Qiu, Shi; Shi, Lihua; Huang, Zhengyu; Wang, Tao; Duan, Yantao

    2017-12-01

    The time resolved three-dimensional (3-D) spatial reconstruction of lightning channels using high-speed video (HSV) images and VHF broadband interferometer (BITF) data is first presented in this paper. Because VHF and optical radiations in step formation process occur with time separation no more than 1 μs, the observation data of BITF and HSV at two different sites provide the possibility of reconstructing the time resolved 3-D channel of lightning. With the proposed procedures for 3-D reconstruction of leader channels, dart leaders as well as stepped leaders with complex multiple branches can be well reconstructed. The differences between 2-D speeds and 3-D speeds of leader channels are analyzed by comparing the development of leader channels in 2-D and 3-D space. Since return stroke (RS) usually follows the path of previous leader channels, the 3-D speeds of the return strokes are first estimated by combination with the 3-D structure of the preceding leaders and HSV image sequences. For the fourth RS, the ratios of the 3-D to 2-D RS speeds increase with height, and the largest ratio of the 3-D to 2-D return stroke speeds can reach 2.03, which is larger than the result of triggered lightning reported by Idone. Since BITF can detect lightning radiation in a 360° view, correlated BITF and HSV observations increase the 3-D detection probability than dual-station HSV observations, which is helpful to obtain more events and deeper understanding of the lightning process.

  5. Automated computation of femoral angles in dogs from three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions: Comparison with manual techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, F; Nicetto, T; Banzato, T; Savio, G; Drigo, M; Meneghello, R; Concheri, G; Isola, M

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to test a novel three-dimensional (3D) automated computer-aided design (CAD) method (aCAD) for the computation of femoral angles in dogs from 3D reconstructions of computed tomography (CT) images. The repeatability and reproducibility of three manual radiography, manual CT reconstructions and the aCAD method for the measurement of three femoral angles were evaluated: (1) anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA); (2) femoral neck angle (FNA); and (3) femoral torsion angle (FTA). Femoral angles of 22 femurs obtained from 16 cadavers were measured by three blinded observers. Measurements were repeated three times by each observer for each diagnostic technique. Femoral angle measurements were analysed using a mixed effects linear model for repeated measures to determine the levels of intra-observer agreement (repeatability) and inter-observer agreement (reproducibility). Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements using the aCAD method were excellent (intra-class coefficients, ICCs≥0.98) for all three angles assessed. Manual radiography and CT exhibited excellent agreement for the aLDFA measurement (ICCs≥0.90). However, FNA repeatability and reproducibility were poor (ICCscomputation of the 3D aCAD method provided the highest repeatability and reproducibility among the tested methodologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Virtual Plant Branching Structure Based on Terrestrial LIDAR Technologies and L-System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, X.

    2018-04-01

    For the purpose of extracting productions of some specific branching plants effectively and realizing its 3D reconstruction, Terrestrial LiDAR data was used as extraction source of production, and a 3D reconstruction method based on Terrestrial LiDAR technologies combined with the L-system was proposed in this article. The topology structure of the plant architectures was extracted using the point cloud data of the target plant with space level segmentation mechanism. Subsequently, L-system productions were obtained and the structural parameters and production rules of branches, which fit the given plant, was generated. A three-dimensional simulation model of target plant was established combined with computer visualization algorithm finally. The results suggest that the method can effectively extract a given branching plant topology and describes its production, realizing the extraction of topology structure by the computer algorithm for given branching plant and also simplifying the extraction of branching plant productions which would be complex and time-consuming by L-system. It improves the degree of automation in the L-system extraction of productions of specific branching plants, providing a new way for the extraction of branching plant production rules.

  7. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE VIRTUAL PLANT BRANCHING STRUCTURE BASED ON TERRESTRIAL LIDAR TECHNOLOGIES AND L-SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of extracting productions of some specific branching plants effectively and realizing its 3D reconstruction, Terrestrial LiDAR data was used as extraction source of production, and a 3D reconstruction method based on Terrestrial LiDAR technologies combined with the L-system was proposed in this article. The topology structure of the plant architectures was extracted using the point cloud data of the target plant with space level segmentation mechanism. Subsequently, L-system productions were obtained and the structural parameters and production rules of branches, which fit the given plant, was generated. A three-dimensional simulation model of target plant was established combined with computer visualization algorithm finally. The results suggest that the method can effectively extract a given branching plant topology and describes its production, realizing the extraction of topology structure by the computer algorithm for given branching plant and also simplifying the extraction of branching plant productions which would be complex and time-consuming by L-system. It improves the degree of automation in the L-system extraction of productions of specific branching plants, providing a new way for the extraction of branching plant production rules.

  8. Comparison of Conventional Versus Spiral Computed Tomography with Three Dimensional Reconstruction in Chronic Otitis Media with Ossicular Chain Destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghibi, Saeed; Seifirad, Sirous; Adami Dehkordi, Mahboobeh; Einolghozati, Sasan; Ghaffarian Eidgahi Moghadam, Nafiseh; Akhavan Rezayat, Amir; Seifirad, Soroush

    2016-01-01

    Chronic otitis media (COM) can be treated with tympanoplasty with or without mastoidectomy. In patients who have undergone middle ear surgery, three-dimensional spiral computed tomography (CT) scan plays an important role in optimizing surgical planning. This study was performed to compare the findings of three-dimensional reconstructed spiral and conventional CT scan of ossicular chain study in patients with COM. Fifty patients enrolled in the study underwent plane and three dimensional CT scan (PHILIPS-MX 8000). Ossicles changes, mastoid cavity, tympanic cavity, and presence of cholesteatoma were evaluated. Results of the two methods were then compared and interpreted by a radiologist, recorded in questionnaires, and analyzed. Logistic regression test and Kappa coefficient of agreement were used for statistical analyses. Sixty two ears with COM were found in physical examination. A significant difference was observed between the findings of the two methods in ossicle erosion (11.3% in conventional CT vs. 37.1% in spiral CT, P = 0.0001), decrease of mastoid air cells (82.3% in conventional CT vs. 93.5% in spiral CT, P = 0.001), and tympanic cavity opacity (12.9% in conventional CT vs. 40.3% in spiral CT, P=0.0001). No significant difference was observed between the findings of the two methods in ossicle destruction (6.5% conventional CT vs. 56.4% in spiral CT, P = 0.125), and presence of cholesteatoma (3.2% in conventional CT vs. 42% in spiral CT, P = 0.172). In this study, spiral CT scan demonstrated ossicle dislocation in 9.6%, decrease of mastoid air cells in 4.8%, and decrease of volume in the tympanic cavity in 1.6%; whereas, none of these findings were reported in the patients' conventional CT scans. Spiral-CT scan is superior to conventional CT in the diagnosis of lesions in COM before operation. It can be used for detailed evaluation of ossicular chain in such patients

  9. Injectable Shape-Memorizing Three-Dimensional Hyaluronic Acid Cryogels for Skin Sculpting and Soft Tissue Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liying; Ji, Kai; Shih, Ting-Yu; Haddad, Anthony; Giatsidis, Giorgio; Mooney, David J.; Orgill, Dennis P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hyaluronic acid (HA)-based fillers are used for various cosmetic procedures. However, due to filler migration and degradation, reinjections of the fillers are often required. Methacrylated HA (MA-HA) can be made into injectable shape-memorizing fillers (three-dimensional [3D] MA-HA) aimed to address these issues. In this study, shape retention, firmness, and biocompatibility of 3D MA-HA injected subcutaneously in mice were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Fifteen mice, each receiving two subcutaneous injections in their back, were divided into four groups receiving HA, MA-HA, 3D MA-HA, or saline, respectively. Digital imaging, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in vivo imaging system (IVIS), durometry, and histology were utilized to evaluate in vitro/vivo degradation and migration, material firmness, and the angiogenic (CD31) and immunogenic (CD45) response of the host tissue toward the injected materials. Results: Digital imaging, SEM, and IVIS revealed that 3D MA-HA fillers maintained their predetermined shape for at least 30 days in vitro and in vivo. Little volume effects were noted in the saline and other control groups. There were no differences in skin firmness between the groups or over time. Histology showed intact skin architecture in all groups. Three-dimensional MA-HA maintained its macroporous structure with significant angiogenesis at the 3D MA-HA/skin interfaces and throughout the 3D MA-HA. There was no significant inflammatory response to any of the injected materials. Conclusion: 3D MA-HA showed remarkable tissue compatibility, compliance, and shape predictability, as well as retention, and thus might be suitable for various skin sculpting and soft tissue reconstruction purposes. PMID:27875939

  10. Effect of Scanning and Reconstruction Parameters on Three Dimensional Volume and CT Value Measurement of Pulmonary Nodules: A Phantom Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datong SU

    2017-08-01

    value (F=34.79, P<0.001 vs F=156.14, P<0.001. Conclusion An infinitesimally small errors of volumetric measurement of 5 mm or 10 mm nodule could achieved with very low current and ASIR reconstruction, suggesting a possibility of remarkable radiation dose reductions, while it is not applicable for 5 mm nodule. The attenuation acquired through three dimensional software has large measurement error and can not applied in clinical currently.

  11. Accelerated three-dimensional cine phase contrast imaging using randomly undersampled echo planar imaging with compressed sensing reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Tamer A; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Goddu, Beth; Berg, Sophie; Nezafat, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate an accelerated three-dimensional (3D) cine phase contrast MRI sequence by combining a randomly sampled 3D k-space acquisition sequence with an echo planar imaging (EPI) readout. An accelerated 3D cine phase contrast MRI sequence was implemented by combining EPI readout with randomly undersampled 3D k-space data suitable for compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction. The undersampled data were then reconstructed using low-dimensional structural self-learning and thresholding (LOST). 3D phase contrast MRI was acquired in 11 healthy adults using an overall acceleration of 7 (EPI factor of 3 and CS rate of 3). For comparison, a single two-dimensional (2D) cine phase contrast scan was also performed with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) rate 2 and approximately at the level of the pulmonary artery bifurcation. The stroke volume and mean velocity in both the ascending and descending aorta were measured and compared between two sequences using Bland-Altman plots. An average scan time of 3 min and 30 s, corresponding to an acceleration rate of 7, was achieved for 3D cine phase contrast scan with one direction flow encoding, voxel size of 2 × 2 × 3 mm(3) , foot-head coverage of 6 cm and temporal resolution of 30 ms. The mean velocity and stroke volume in both the ascending and descending aorta were statistically equivalent between the proposed 3D sequence and the standard 2D cine phase contrast sequence. The combination of EPI with a randomly undersampled 3D k-space sampling sequence using LOST reconstruction allows a seven-fold reduction in scan time of 3D cine phase contrast MRI without compromising blood flow quantification. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Validation of Spherically Symmetric Inversion by Use of a Tomographically Reconstructed Three-Dimensional Electron Density of the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Davila, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the coronal electron density by the inversion of white-light polarized brightness (pB) measurements by coronagraphs is a classic problem in solar physics. An inversion technique based on the spherically symmetric geometry (spherically symmetric inversion, SSI) was developed in the 1950s and has been widely applied to interpret various observations. However, to date there is no study of the uncertainty estimation of this method. We here present the detailed assessment of this method using a three-dimensional (3D) electron density in the corona from 1.5 to 4 solar radius as a model, which is reconstructed by a tomography method from STEREO/COR1 observations during the solar minimum in February 2008 (Carrington Rotation, CR 2066).We first show in theory and observation that the spherically symmetric polynomial approximation (SSPA) method and the Van de Hulst inversion technique are equivalent. Then we assess the SSPA method using synthesized pB images from the 3D density model, and find that the SSPA density values are close to the model inputs for the streamer core near the plane of the sky (POS) with differences generally smaller than about a factor of two; the former has the lower peak but extends more in both longitudinal and latitudinal directions than the latter. We estimate that the SSPA method may resolve the coronal density structure near the POS with angular resolution in longitude of about 50 deg. Our results confirm the suggestion that the SSI method is applicable to the solar minimum streamer (belt), as stated in some previous studies. In addition, we demonstrate that the SSPA method can be used to reconstruct the 3D coronal density, roughly in agreement with the reconstruction by tomography for a period of low solar activity (CR 2066). We suggest that the SSI method is complementary to the 3D tomographic technique in some cases, given that the development of the latter is still an ongoing research effort.

  13. An objective algorithm for reconstructing the three-dimensional ocean temperature field based on Argo profiles and SST data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaojie; Ding, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Jungang; Ma, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    While global oceanic surface information with large-scale, real-time, high-resolution data is collected by satellite remote sensing instrumentation, three-dimensional (3D) observations are usually obtained from in situ measurements, but with minimal coverage and spatial resolution. To meet the needs of 3D ocean investigations, we have developed a new algorithm to reconstruct the 3D ocean temperature field based on the Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) profiles and sea surface temperature (SST) data. The Argo temperature profiles are first optimally fitted to generate a series of temperature functions of depth, with the vertical temperature structure represented continuously. By calculating the derivatives of the fitted functions, the calculation of the vertical temperature gradient of the Argo profiles at an arbitrary depth is accomplished. A gridded 3D temperature gradient field is then found by applying inverse distance weighting interpolation in the horizontal direction. Combined with the processed SST, the 3D temperature field reconstruction is realized below the surface using the gridded temperature gradient. Finally, to confirm the effectiveness of the algorithm, an experiment in the Pacific Ocean south of Japan is conducted, for which a 3D temperature field is generated. Compared with other similar gridded products, the reconstructed 3D temperature field derived by the proposed algorithm achieves satisfactory accuracy, with correlation coefficients of 0.99 obtained, including a higher spatial resolution (0.25° × 0.25°), resulting in the capture of smaller-scale characteristics. Finally, both the accuracy and the superiority of the algorithm are validated.

  14. [Evaluating the accuracy of three-dimensional reconstruction of the intercuspal position for dentition casts aided by a mechanical appliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z W; Li, W W; Zhang, X Y; Fan, B L; Wang, Y; Sun, Y C

    2016-08-01

    To develop a aided mechanical appliance for rapid reconstruction of three-dimensional(3D)relationship of dentition model after scanning and evaluation of its accuracy. The appliance was designed by forward engineering software and fabricated by a high precision computer numerical control(CNC)system. It contained upper and lower body, magnetic pedestal and three pillars. Nine 3 mm diameter hemispheres were distributed equally on the axial surface of each pedestal. Faro Edge 1.8m was used to directly obtain center of each hemisphere(contact method), defined as known center. A pair of die-stone standard dentition model were fixed in intercuspal position and then fixed on the magnetic pedestals with low expansion ratio plaster. Activity 880 dental scanner was used to scan casts after the plaster was completely set. In Geomagic 2012, the centers of each hemisphere were fitted and defined as scanning centers. Scanning centers were aligned to known centers by reference point system to finish the 3D reconstruction of the intercuspal occlusion for the dentition casts. An observation coordinate system was interactively established. The straight-line distances in the X(coronal), Y(saggital), and Z(vertical)between the remaining 6 pairs of center points derived from contact method and fitting method were measured respectively and analyzed using a paired t-test. The differences of the straight-line distances of the remaining 6 pairs of center points between the two methods were X:(-0.05±0.10)mm, Y:(0.02±0.06)mm, and Z:(0.01 ± 0.05)mm. The results of paired t-test showed no significant differences(P>0.05). The mechanical appliance can help to reconstruct 3D jaw relation by scanning single upper and lower dentition model with usual commercial available dental cast scanning system.

  15. Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of native thin filaments reveal species-specific differences in regulatory strand densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammarato, Anthony, E-mail: acammara@burnham.org [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Craig, Roger [Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States); Lehman, William [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom striated muscle contraction is regulated by the thin filament troponin-tropomyosin complex. Homologous regulatory components are shared among vertebrate and arthropod muscles; however, unique protein extensions and/or components characterize the latter. The Troponin T (TnT) isoforms of Drosophila indirect flight and tarantula femur muscle for example contain distinct C-terminal extensions and are {approx}20% larger overall than their vertebrate counterpart. Using electron microscopy and three-dimensional helical reconstruction of native Drosophila, tarantula and frog muscle thin filaments we have identified species-specific differences in tropomyosin regulatory strand densities. The strands on the arthropod thin filaments were significantly larger in diameter than those from vertebrates, although not significantly different from each other. These findings reflect differences in the regulatory troponin-tropomyosin complex, which are likely due to the larger TnT molecules aligning and extending along much of the tropomyosin strands' length. Such an arrangement potentially alters the physical properties of the regulatory strands and may help establish contractile characteristics unique to certain arthropod muscles.

  16. Descriptive anatomy and three-dimensional reconstruction of the skull of the early tetrapod Acanthostega gunnari Jarvik, 1952.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B Porro

    Full Text Available The early tetrapod Acanthostega gunnari is an iconic fossil taxon exhibiting skeletal morphology reflecting the transition of vertebrates from water onto land. Computed tomography data of two Acanthostega skulls was segmented using visualization software to digitally separate bone from matrix and individual bones of the skull from each other. A revised description of cranial and lower jaw anatomy in this taxon based on CT data includes new details of sutural morphology, the previously undescribed quadrate and articular bones, and the mandibular symphysis. Sutural morphology is used to infer loading regime in the skull during feeding, and suggests Acanthostega used its anterior jaws to initially seize prey while smaller posterior teeth were used to restrain struggling prey during ingestion. Novel methods were used to repair and retrodeform the skull, resulting in a three-dimensional digital reconstruction that features a longer postorbital region and more strongly hooked anterior lower jaw than previous attempts while supporting the presence of a midline gap between the nasals and median rostrals.

  17. Descriptive anatomy and three-dimensional reconstruction of the skull of the early tetrapod Acanthostega gunnari Jarvik, 1952.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Laura B; Rayfield, Emily J; Clack, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    The early tetrapod Acanthostega gunnari is an iconic fossil taxon exhibiting skeletal morphology reflecting the transition of vertebrates from water onto land. Computed tomography data of two Acanthostega skulls was segmented using visualization software to digitally separate bone from matrix and individual bones of the skull from each other. A revised description of cranial and lower jaw anatomy in this taxon based on CT data includes new details of sutural morphology, the previously undescribed quadrate and articular bones, and the mandibular symphysis. Sutural morphology is used to infer loading regime in the skull during feeding, and suggests Acanthostega used its anterior jaws to initially seize prey while smaller posterior teeth were used to restrain struggling prey during ingestion. Novel methods were used to repair and retrodeform the skull, resulting in a three-dimensional digital reconstruction that features a longer postorbital region and more strongly hooked anterior lower jaw than previous attempts while supporting the presence of a midline gap between the nasals and median rostrals.

  18. Postoperative follow-up study of craniosynostosis using three-dimensional surface reconstruction CT (3D-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Takashi; Nishimura, Jiro; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Tsubokawa, Takashi.

    1988-12-01

    In 1983, Michael W. Vannier and Jeffrey L. Marsh developed a computer method that reconstructs three-dimensional images from high-resolution CT-scan series of the facial skeleton. This method has been applied to craniofacial anomalies, basal encephalocele, and other skeletal pathologies. In this study, the postoperative assessment of craniofacial surgical results has been accomplished using 3D-CT techniques in craniosynostosis. The results are as follows: (1) Postoperative 3D-CTs reveal the bony anatomical details corrected by the craniofacial surgery more precisely and more stereographically than do conventional radiological techniques. (2) Secondary changes in the cranium after the surgery, such as reossification at the area of osteotomies or postoperative asymmetric skull deformities, are more early detected by the 3D-CT imaging technique than by a craniogram. (3) In 3D-CT images, internal views of the skull, such mid-sagittal, rear internal, or top axial views of the intracranial skull base, are most useful in postoperative assessments of the surgical results and of postoperative secondary changes in the cranium. Based on our experience, we expect that 3D-CT imaging techniques will become more important in the management of craniosynostosis.

  19. Postoperative follow-up study of craniosynostosis using three-dimensional surface reconstruction CT (3D-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Takashi; Nishimura, Jiro; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Tsubokawa, Takashi.

    1988-01-01

    In 1983, Michael W. Vannier and Jeffrey L. Marsh developed a computer method that reconstructs three-dimensional images from high-resolution CT-scan series of the facial skeleton. This method has been applied to craniofacial anomalies, basal encephalocele, and other skeletal pathologies. In this study, the postoperative assessment of craniofacial surgical results has been accomplished using 3D-CT techniques in craniosynostosis. The results are as follows: 1) Postoperative 3D-CTs reveal the bony anatomical details corrected by the craniofacial surgery more precisely and more stereographically than do conventional radiological techniques. 2) Secondary changes in the cranium after the surgery, such as reossification at the area of osteotomies or postoperative asymmetric skull deformities, are more early detected by the 3D-CT imaging technique than by a craniogram. 3) In 3D-CT images, internal views of the skull, such mid-sagittal, rear internal, or top axial views of the intracranial skull base, are most useful in postoperative assessments of the surgical results and of postoperative secondary changes in the cranium. Based on our experience, we expect that 3D-CT imaging techniques will become more important in the management of craniosynostosis. (author)

  20. Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of native thin filaments reveal species-specific differences in regulatory strand densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammarato, Anthony; Craig, Roger; Lehman, William

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom striated muscle contraction is regulated by the thin filament troponin-tropomyosin complex. Homologous regulatory components are shared among vertebrate and arthropod muscles; however, unique protein extensions and/or components characterize the latter. The Troponin T (TnT) isoforms of Drosophila indirect flight and tarantula femur muscle for example contain distinct C-terminal extensions and are ∼20% larger overall than their vertebrate counterpart. Using electron microscopy and three-dimensional helical reconstruction of native Drosophila, tarantula and frog muscle thin filaments we have identified species-specific differences in tropomyosin regulatory strand densities. The strands on the arthropod thin filaments were significantly larger in diameter than those from vertebrates, although not significantly different from each other. These findings reflect differences in the regulatory troponin-tropomyosin complex, which are likely due to the larger TnT molecules aligning and extending along much of the tropomyosin strands' length. Such an arrangement potentially alters the physical properties of the regulatory strands and may help establish contractile characteristics unique to certain arthropod muscles.

  1. Three-dimensional reconstruction of highly complex microscopic samples using scanning electron microscopy and optical flow estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Baghaie

    Full Text Available Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM as one of the major research and industrial equipment for imaging of micro-scale samples and surfaces has gained extensive attention from its emerge. However, the acquired micrographs still remain two-dimensional (2D. In the current work a novel and highly accurate approach is proposed to recover the hidden third-dimension by use of multi-view image acquisition of the microscopic samples combined with pre/post-processing steps including sparse feature-based stereo rectification, nonlocal-based optical flow estimation for dense matching and finally depth estimation. Employing the proposed approach, three-dimensional (3D reconstructions of highly complex microscopic samples were achieved to facilitate the interpretation of topology and geometry of surface/shape attributes of the samples. As a byproduct of the proposed approach, high-definition 3D printed models of the samples can be generated as a tangible means of physical understanding. Extensive comparisons with the state-of-the-art reveal the strength and superiority of the proposed method in uncovering the details of the highly complex microscopic samples.

  2. Descriptive Anatomy and Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Skull of the Early Tetrapod Acanthostega gunnari Jarvik, 1952

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Laura B.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Clack, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The early tetrapod Acanthostega gunnari is an iconic fossil taxon exhibiting skeletal morphology reflecting the transition of vertebrates from water onto land. Computed tomography data of two Acanthostega skulls was segmented using visualization software to digitally separate bone from matrix and individual bones of the skull from each other. A revised description of cranial and lower jaw anatomy in this taxon based on CT data includes new details of sutural morphology, the previously undescribed quadrate and articular bones, and the mandibular symphysis. Sutural morphology is used to infer loading regime in the skull during feeding, and suggests Acanthostega used its anterior jaws to initially seize prey while smaller posterior teeth were used to restrain struggling prey during ingestion. Novel methods were used to repair and retrodeform the skull, resulting in a three-dimensional digital reconstruction that features a longer postorbital region and more strongly hooked anterior lower jaw than previous attempts while supporting the presence of a midline gap between the nasals and median rostrals. PMID:25760343

  3. Photographic Atlas and Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Holotype Skull of Euhelopus zdanskyi with Description of Additional Cranial Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poropat, Stephen F.; Kear, Benjamin P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Euhelopus zdanskyi is one of relatively few sauropod taxa known from an almost complete skull and mandible. Recent phylogenetic analyses suggest that Euhelopus is a somphospondylan titanosauriform, and that it is a member of the clade (Euhelopodidae) which is the sister taxon to the hugely successful, dominantly Cretaceous sauropod group Titanosauria. Methodology/Principal Findings The skull elements of Euhelopus were CT scanned at Uppsala Akademiska Sjukhuset. Three-dimensional models of the elements were constructed from the DICOM data using Mimics 14.0, InVesalius 3.0, and GeoMagic Studio 2012, the skull was rearticulated in Rhinoceros 4.0, and the final version was rendered in GeoMagic Studio 2012. Conclusions/Significance The fact that relatively complete sauropod skulls are so rare in the fossil record, particularly among titanosauriforms, means that the skulls that are known should be as thoroughly described and well-illustrated as possible. This contribution supplements previous descriptions of the cranial elements of Euhelopus, one of the few euhelopodid taxa for which cranial material is known, by presenting a comprehensive photographic atlas of the skull elements to facilitate a better understanding of their morphology. We describe several elements which have been overlooked in past studies of Euhelopus, and also provide as accurate a reconstruction of the skull as possible (in the absence of the braincase), the most significant components of which are the articulations of the palate and the mandible. PMID:24278222

  4. Three-dimensional kinematics of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint using x-ray reconstruction of moving morphology - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Bronwen A; Pugliese, Brenna R; Carballo, Cristina T; Miranda, Daniel L; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Kirker-Head, Carl A

    2017-07-20

    X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM) uses biplanar videoradiography and computed tomography (CT) scanning to capture three-dimensional (3D) bone motion. In XROMM, morphologically accurate 3D bone models derived from CT are animated with motion from videoradiography, yielding a highly accurate and precise reconstruction of skeletal kinematics. We employ this motion analysis technique to characterize metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) motion in the absence and presence of protective legwear in a healthy pony. Our in vivo marker tracking precision was 0.09 mm for walk and trot, and 0.10 mm during jump down exercises. We report MCPJ maximum extension (walk: -27.70 ± 2.78° [standard deviation]; trot: -33.84 ± 4.94°), abduction/adduction (walk: 0.04 ± 0.24°; trot: -0.23 ± 0.35°) and external/internal rotations (walk: 0.30 ± 0.32°; trot: -0.49 ± 1.05°) indicating that the MCPJ in this pony is a stable hinge joint with negligible extra-sagittal rotations. No substantial change in MCPJ maximum extension angles or vertical ground reaction forces (GRFv) were observed upon application of legwear during jump down exercise. Neoprene boot application yielded -65.20 ± 2.06° extension (GRFv = 11.97 ± 0.67 N/kg) and fleece polo wrap application yielded -64.23 ± 1.68° extension (GRFv = 11.36 ± 1.66 N/kg), when compared to naked control (-66.11 ± 0.96°; GRFv = 12.02 ± 0.53 N/kg). Collectively, this proof of concept study illustrates the benefits and practical limitations of using XROMM to document equine MCPJ kinematics in the presence and absence of legwear.

  5. Preoperative planning with three-dimensional reconstruction of patient's anatomy, rapid prototyping and simulation for endoscopic mitral valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardari Nia, Peyman; Heuts, Samuel; Daemen, Jean; Luyten, Peter; Vainer, Jindrich; Hoorntje, Jan; Cheriex, Emile; Maessen, Jos

    2017-02-01

    Mitral valve repair performed by an experienced surgeon is superior to mitral valve replacement for degenerative mitral valve disease; however, many surgeons are still deterred from adapting this procedure because of a steep learning curve. Simulation-based training and planning could improve the surgical performance and reduce the learning curve. The aim of this study was to develop a patient-specific simulation for mitral valve repair and provide a proof of concept of personalized medicine in a patient prospectively planned for mitral valve surgery. A 65-year old male with severe symptomatic mitral valve regurgitation was referred to our mitral valve heart team. On the basis of three-dimensional (3D) transoesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography, 3D reconstructions of the patient's anatomy were constructed. By navigating through these reconstructions, the repair options and surgical access were chosen (minimally invasive repair). Using rapid prototyping and negative mould fabrication, we developed a process to cast a patient-specific mitral valve silicone replica for preoperative repair in a high-fidelity simulator. Mitral valve and negative mould were printed in systole to capture the pathology when the valve closes. A patient-specific mitral valve silicone replica was casted and mounted in the simulator. All repair techniques could be performed in the simulator to choose the best repair strategy. As the valve was printed in systole, no special testing other than adjusting the coaptation area was required. Subsequently, the patient was operated, mitral valve pathology was validated and repair was successfully done as in the simulation. The patient-specific simulation and planning could be applied for surgical training, starting the (minimally invasive) mitral valve repair programme, planning of complex cases and the evaluation of new interventional techniques. The personalized medicine could be a possible pathway towards enhancing reproducibility

  6. Three-dimensional portal image-based dose reconstruction in a virtual phantom for rapid evaluation of IMRT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansbacher, W.

    2006-01-01

    A new method for rapid evaluation of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans has been developed, using portal images for reconstruction of the dose delivered to a virtual three-dimensional (3D) phantom. This technique can replace an array of less complete but more time-consuming measurements. A reference dose calculation is first created by transferring an IMRT plan to a cylindrical phantom, retaining the treatment gantry angles. The isocenter of the fields is placed on or near the phantom axis. This geometry preserves the relative locations of high and low dose regions and has the required symmetry for the dose reconstruction. An electronic portal image (EPI) is acquired for each field, representing the dose in the midplane of a virtual phantom. The image is convolved with a kernel to correct for the lack of scatter, replicating the effect of the cylindrical phantom surrounding the dose plane. This avoids the need to calculate fluence. Images are calibrated to a reference field that delivers a known dose to the isocenter of this phantom. The 3D dose matrix is reconstructed by attenuation and divergence corrections and summed to create a dose matrix (PI-dose) on the same grid spacing as the reference calculation. Comparison of the two distributions is performed with a gradient-weighted 3D dose difference based on dose and position tolerances. Because of its inherent simplicity, the technique is optimally suited for detecting clinically significant variances from a planned dose distribution, rather than for use in the validation of IMRT algorithms. An analysis of differences between PI-dose and calculation, δ PI , compared to differences between conventional quality assurance (QA) and calculation, δ CQ , was performed retrospectively for 20 clinical IMRT cases. PI-dose differences at the isocenter were in good agreement with ionization chamber differences (mean δ PI =-0.8%, standard deviation σ=1.5%, against δ CQ =0.3%, σ=1.0%, respectively). PI

  7. Small-angle X-ray scattering tensor tomography: model of the three-dimensional reciprocal-space map, reconstruction algorithm and angular sampling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebi, Marianne; Georgiadis, Marios; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Holler, Mirko; Raabe, Jörg; Usov, Ivan; Menzel, Andreas; Schneider, Philipp; Bunk, Oliver; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering tensor tomography, which allows reconstruction of the local three-dimensional reciprocal-space map within a three-dimensional sample as introduced by Liebi et al. [Nature (2015), 527, 349-352], is described in more detail with regard to the mathematical framework and the optimization algorithm. For the case of trabecular bone samples from vertebrae it is shown that the model of the three-dimensional reciprocal-space map using spherical harmonics can adequately describe the measured data. The method enables the determination of nanostructure orientation and degree of orientation as demonstrated previously in a single momentum transfer q range. This article presents a reconstruction of the complete reciprocal-space map for the case of bone over extended ranges of q. In addition, it is shown that uniform angular sampling and advanced regularization strategies help to reduce the amount of data required.

  8. Getting in shape: Reconstructing three-dimensional long-track speed skating kinematics by comparing several body pose reconstruction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kruk, E; Schwab, A L; van der Helm, F C T; Veeger, H E J

    2018-03-01

    In gait studies body pose reconstruction (BPR) techniques have been widely explored, but no previous protocols have been developed for speed skating, while the peculiarities of the skating posture and technique do not automatically allow for the transfer of the results of those explorations to kinematic skating data. The aim of this paper is to determine the best procedure for body pose reconstruction and inverse dynamics of speed skating, and to what extend this choice influences the estimation of joint power. The results show that an eight body segment model together with a global optimization method with revolute joint in the knee and in the lumbosacral joint, while keeping the other joints spherical, would be the most realistic model to use for the inverse kinematics in speed skating. To determine joint power, this method should be combined with a least-square error method for the inverse dynamics. Reporting on the BPR technique and the inverse dynamic method is crucial to enable comparison between studies. Our data showed an underestimation of up to 74% in mean joint power when no optimization procedure was applied for BPR and an underestimation of up to 31% in mean joint power when a bottom-up inverse dynamics method was chosen instead of a least square error approach. Although these results are aimed at speed skating, reporting on the BPR procedure and the inverse dynamics method, together with setting a golden standard should be common practice in all human movement research to allow comparison between studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of the real structure of artificial and natural opals on the basis of three-dimensional reconstructions of reciprocal space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eliseev, A.A.; Gorozhankin, D.F.; Napolskii, K.S.; Petukhov, A.V.; Sapoletova, N.A.; Vasilieva, A.V.; Grigoryeva, N.A.; Mistonov, A.A.; Belov, D.V.; Bouwman, W.G.; Kvashnina, K.; Chernyshov, D.Y.; Bosak, A.A.; Grigoriev, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the scattering intensity in the reciprocal space for natural and artificial opals has been reconstructed from a set of small-angle X-ray diffraction patterns. The resulting three-dimensional intensity maps are used to analyze the defect structure of opals. The structure of

  10. A three-dimensional image processing program for accurate, rapid, and semi-automated segmentation of neuronal somata with dense neurite outgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James D.; Cullen, D. Kacy; Harris, James P.; LaPlaca, Michelle C.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) image analysis techniques provide a powerful means to rapidly and accurately assess complex morphological and functional interactions between neural cells. Current software-based identification methods of neural cells generally fall into two applications: (1) segmentation of cell nuclei in high-density constructs or (2) tracing of cell neurites in single cell investigations. We have developed novel methodologies to permit the systematic identification of populations of neuronal somata possessing rich morphological detail and dense neurite arborization throughout thick tissue or 3-D in vitro constructs. The image analysis incorporates several novel automated features for the discrimination of neurites and somata by initially classifying features in 2-D and merging these classifications into 3-D objects; the 3-D reconstructions automatically identify and adjust for over and under segmentation errors. Additionally, the platform provides for software-assisted error corrections to further minimize error. These features attain very accurate cell boundary identifications to handle a wide range of morphological complexities. We validated these tools using confocal z-stacks from thick 3-D neural constructs where neuronal somata had varying degrees of neurite arborization and complexity, achieving an accuracy of ≥95%. We demonstrated the robustness of these algorithms in a more complex arena through the automated segmentation of neural cells in ex vivo brain slices. These novel methods surpass previous techniques by improving the robustness and accuracy by: (1) the ability to process neurites and somata, (2) bidirectional segmentation correction, and (3) validation via software-assisted user input. This 3-D image analysis platform provides valuable tools for the unbiased analysis of neural tissue or tissue surrogates within a 3-D context, appropriate for the study of multi-dimensional cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. PMID

  11. [Use of four kinds of three-dimensional printing guide plate in bone tumor resection and reconstruction operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jun; Guo, Zheng; Wang, Zhen; Li, Xiangdong; Fan, Hongbin; Li, Jing; Pei, Yanjun; Pei, Guoxian; Li, Dan

    2014-03-01

    To explore the effectiveness of excision and reconstruction of bone tumor by using operation guide plate made by variety of three-dimensional (3-D) printing techniques, and to compare the advantages and disadvantages of different 3-D printing techniques in the manufacture and application of operation guide plate. Between September 2012 and January 2014, 31 patients with bone tumor underwent excision and reconstruction of bone tumor by using operation guide plate. There were 19 males and 12 females, aged 6-67 years (median, 23 years). The disease duration ranged from 15 days to 12 months (median, 2 months). There were 13 cases of malignant tumor and 18 cases of benign tumor. The tumor located in the femur (9 cases), the spine (7 cases), the tibia (6 cases), the pelvis (5 cases), the humerus (3 cases), and the fibula (1 case). Four kinds of 3-D printing technique were used in processing operation guide plate: fused deposition modeling (FDM) in 9 cases, stereo lithography appearance (SLA) in 14 cases, 3-D printing technique in 5 cases, and selective laser sintering (SLS) in 3 cases; the materials included ABS resin, photosensitive resin, plaster, and aluminum alloy, respectively. Before operation, all patients underwent thin layer CT scanning (0.625 mm) in addition to conventional imaging. The data were collected for tumor resection design, and operation guide plate was designed on the basis of excision plan. Preoperatively, the operation guide plates were made by 3-D printing equipment. After sterilization, the guide plates were used for excision and reconstruction of bone tumor. The time of plates processing cycle was recorded to analyse the efficiency of 4 kinds of 3-D printing techniques. The time for design and operation and intraoperative fluoroscopy frequency were recorded. Twenty-eight patients underwent similar operations during the same period as the control group. The processing time of operation guide plate was (19.3 +/- 6.5) hours in FDM, (5.2 +/- 1

  12. Pre-operative CT angiography and three-dimensional image post processing for deep inferior epigastric perforator flap breast reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, D L; Mitsumori, L M; Neligan, P C; Warren, B H; Shuman, W P; Dubinsky, T J

    2012-12-01

    Autologous breast reconstructive surgery with deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator flaps has become the mainstay for breast reconstructive surgery. CT angiography and three-dimensional image post processing can depict the number, size, course and location of the DIEA perforating arteries for the pre-operative selection of the best artery to use for the tissue flap. Knowledge of the location and selection of the optimal perforating artery shortens operative times and decreases patient morbidity.

  13. RECONSTRUCTING THE SUBSURFACE THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETIC STRUCTURE OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION USING SDO/HMI OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintzoglou, Georgios; Zhang Jie

    2013-01-01

    A solar active region (AR) is a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic structure formed in the convection zone, whose property is fundamentally important for determining the coronal structure and solar activity when emerged. However, our knowledge of the detailed 3D structure prior to its emergence is rather poor, largely limited by the low cadence and sensitivity of previous instruments. Here, using the 45 s high-cadence observations from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we are able for the first time to reconstruct a 3D data cube and infer the detailed subsurface magnetic structure of NOAA AR 11158, and to characterize its magnetic connectivity and topology. This task is accomplished with the aid of the image-stacking method and advanced 3D visualization. We find that the AR consists of two major bipoles or four major polarities. Each polarity in 3D shows interesting tree-like structure, i.e., while the root of the polarity appears as a single tree-trunk-like tube, the top of the polarity has multiple branches consisting of smaller and thinner flux tubes which connect to the branches of the opposite polarity that is similarly fragmented. The roots of the four polarities align well along a straight line, while the top branches are slightly non-coplanar. Our observations suggest that an active region, even appearing highly complicated on the surface, may originate from a simple straight flux tube that undergoes both horizontal and vertical bifurcation processes during its rise through the convection zone.

  14. Noninvasive reconstruction of the three-dimensional ventricular activation sequence during pacing and ventricular tachycardia in the canine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; He, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Single-beat imaging of myocardial activation promises to aid in both cardiovascular research and clinical medicine. In the present study we validate a three-dimensional (3D) cardiac electrical imaging (3DCEI) technique with the aid of simultaneous 3D intracardiac mapping to assess its capability to localize endocardial and epicardial initiation sites and image global activation sequences during pacing and ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the canine heart. Body surface potentials were measured simultaneously with bipolar electrical recordings in a closed-chest condition in healthy canines. Computed tomography images were obtained after the mapping study to construct realistic geometry models. Data analysis was performed on paced rhythms and VTs induced by norepinephrine (NE). The noninvasively reconstructed activation sequence was in good agreement with the simultaneous measurements from 3D cardiac mapping with a correlation coefficient of 0.74 ± 0.06, a relative error of 0.29 ± 0.05, and a root mean square error of 9 ± 3 ms averaged over 460 paced beats and 96 ectopic beats including premature ventricular complexes, couplets, and nonsustained monomorphic VTs and polymorphic VTs. Endocardial and epicardial origins of paced beats were successfully predicted in 72% and 86% of cases, respectively, during left ventricular pacing. The NE-induced ectopic beats initiated in the subendocardium by a focal mechanism. Sites of initial activation were estimated to be ∼7 mm from the measured initiation sites for both the paced beats and ectopic beats. For the polymorphic VTs, beat-to-beat dynamic shifts of initiation site and activation pattern were characterized by the reconstruction. The present results suggest that 3DCEI can noninvasively image the 3D activation sequence and localize the origin of activation of paced beats and NE-induced VTs in the canine heart with good accuracy. This 3DCEI technique offers the potential to aid interventional therapeutic procedures for

  15. A homologous mapping method for three-dimensional reconstruction of protein networks reveals disease-associated mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sing-Han; Lo, Yu-Shu; Luo, Yong-Chun; Tseng, Yu-Yao; Yang, Jinn-Moon

    2018-03-19

    One of the crucial steps toward understanding the associations among molecular interactions, pathways, and diseases in a cell is to investigate detailed atomic protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in the structural interactome. Despite the availability of large-scale methods for analyzing PPI networks, these methods often focused on PPI networks using genome-scale data and/or known experimental PPIs. However, these methods are unable to provide structurally resolved interaction residues and their conservations in PPI networks. Here, we reconstructed a human three-dimensional (3D) structural PPI network (hDiSNet) with the detailed atomic binding models and disease-associated mutations by enhancing our PPI families and 3D-domain interologs from 60,618 structural complexes and complete genome database with 6,352,363 protein sequences across 2274 species. hDiSNet is a scale-free network (γ = 2.05), which consists of 5177 proteins and 19,239 PPIs with 5843 mutations. These 19,239 structurally resolved PPIs not only expanded the number of PPIs compared to present structural PPI network, but also achieved higher agreement with gene ontology similarities and higher co-expression correlation than the ones of 181,868 experimental PPIs recorded in public databases. Among 5843 mutations, 1653 and 790 mutations involved in interacting domains and contacting residues, respectively, are highly related to diseases. Our hDiSNet can provide detailed atomic interactions of human disease and their associated proteins with mutations. Our results show that the disease-related mutations are often located at the contacting residues forming the hydrogen bonds or conserved in the PPI family. In addition, hDiSNet provides the insights of the FGFR (EGFR)-MAPK pathway for interpreting the mechanisms of breast cancer and ErbB signaling pathway in brain cancer. Our results demonstrate that hDiSNet can explore structural-based interactions insights for understanding the mechanisms of disease

  16. Printed Three-dimensional Anatomic Templates for Virtual Preoperative Planning Before Reconstruction of Old Pelvic Injuries: Initial Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Bao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Old pelvis fractures are among the most challenging fractures to treat because of their complex anatomy, difficult-to-access surgical sites, and the relatively low incidence of such cases. Proper evaluation and surgical planning are necessary to achieve the pelvic ring symmetry and stable fixation of the fracture. The goal of this study was to assess the use of three-dimensional (3D printing techniques for surgical management of old pelvic fractures. Methods: First, 16 dried human cadaveric pelvises were used to confirm the anatomical accuracy of the 3D models printed based on radiographic data. Next, nine clinical cases between January 2009 and April 2013 were used to evaluate the surgical reconstruction based on the 3D printed models. The pelvic injuries were all type C, and the average time from injury to reconstruction was 11 weeks (range: 8-17 weeks. The workflow consisted of: (1 Printing patient-specific bone models based on preoperative computed tomography (CT scans, (2 virtual fracture reduction using the printed 3D anatomic template, (3 virtual fracture fixation using Kirschner wires, and (4 preoperatively measuring the osteotomy and implant position relative to landmarks using the virtually defined deformation. These models aided communication between surgical team members during the procedure. This technique was validated by comparing the preoperative planning to the intraoperative procedure. Results: The accuracy of the 3D printed models was within specification. Production of a model from standard CT DICOM data took 7 hours (range: 6-9 hours. Preoperative planning using the 3D printed models was feasible in all cases. Good correlation was found between the preoperative planning and postoperative follow-up X-ray in all nine cases. The patients were followed for 3-29 months (median: 5 months. The fracture healing time was 9-17 weeks (mean: 10 weeks. No delayed incision healing, wound infection, or nonunions occurred. The

  17. The Nanoscale Observation of the Three-Dimensional Structures of Neurosynapses, Membranous Conjunctions Between Cultured Hippocampal Neurons and Their Significance in the Development of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lan; Jiang, Shuang; Tang, Xianhua; Zhang, Yingge; Qin, Luye; Jiang, Xia; Yu, Albert Cheung Hoi

    2016-12-01

    The nanoscale three-dimensional structures of neurosynapses are unknown, and the neuroanatomical basis of epilepsy remains to be elucidated. Here, we studied the nanoscale three-dimensional synapses between hippocampal neurons, and membranous conjunctions between neurons were found with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM), and their pathophysiological significance was primarily investigated. The neurons and dendrites were marked by MAP-2, axons by neurofilament 200, and synapses by synapsin I immunological staining. In the synapsin I-positive neurite ends of the neurons positively stained with MAP-2 and neurofilament 200, neurosynapses with various nanoscale morphology and structure could be found by AFM. The neurosynapses had typical three-dimensional structures of synaptic triplet including the presynaptic neurite end, synaptic cleft of 30 ∼ 40 in chemical synapses and 2 ∼ 6 nm in electrical ones, the postsynaptic neurite or dendrite spine, the typical neurite end button, the distinct pre- and postsynaptic membranes, and the obvious thickening of the postsynaptic membranes or neurites. Some membranous connections including membrane-like junctions (MLJ) and fiber-tube links (FTL) without triplet structures and cleft were found between neurons. The development frequencies of the two membranous conjunctions increased while those of the synaptic conjunctions decreased between the neurons from Otx1 knock-out mice in comparison with those between the neurons from normal mice. These results suggested that the neuroanatomical basis of Otx1 knock-out epilepsy is the combination of the decreased synaptic conjunctions and the increased membranous conjunctions.

  18. Three-dimensional reconstructions in spine and screw trajectory simulation on 3D digital images: a step by step approach by using Mimics software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Chen, Chun-Hui; Tang, Li; Wang, Kai; Li, Yu-Zhe; Phan, Kevin; Wu, Ai-Min

    2017-12-01

    There is a rapidly increasing amount of literature outlining the use of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and printing technologies in recent years. However, precise instructive articles which describe step-by-step methods of reconstructing 3D images from computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remain limited. To address these issues, this article describes a detailed protocol which will allow the reader to easily perform the 3D reconstruction in their future research, to allow investigation of the appropriate surgical anatomy and allow innovative designs of novel screw fixation techniques or pre-operative surgical planning.

  19. The dental cavities of equine cheek teeth: three-dimensional reconstructions based on high resolution micro-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopke Susan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies reported on the very complex morphology of the pulp system in equine cheek teeth. The continuous production of secondary dentine leads to distinct age-related changes of the endodontic cavity. Detailed anatomical knowledge of the dental cavities in all ages is required to explain the aetiopathology of typical equine endodontic diseases. Furthermore, data on mandibular and maxillary pulp systems is in high demand to provide a basis for the development of endodontic therapies. However, until now examination of the pulp cavity has been based on either sectioned teeth or clinical computed tomography. More precise results were expected by using micro-computed tomography with a resolution of about 0.1 mm and three-dimensional reconstructions based on previous greyscale analyses and histological verification. The aim of the present study was to describe the physiological configurations of the pulp system within a wide spectrum of tooth ages. Results Maxillary teeth: All morphological constituents of the endodontic cavity were present in teeth between 4 and 16 years: Triadan 06s displayed six pulp horns and five root canals, Triadan 07-10s five pulp horns and four root canals and Triadan 11s seven pulp horns and four to six root canals. A common pulp chamber was most frequent in teeth ≤5 years, but was found even in a tooth of 9 years. A large variety of pulp configurations was observed within 2.5 and 16 years post eruption, but most commonly a separation into mesial and distal pulp compartments was seen. Maxillary cheek teeth showed up to four separate pulp compartments but the frequency of two, three and four pulp compartments was not related to tooth age (P > 0.05. In Triadan 06s, pulp horn 6 was always connected to pulp horns 1 and 3 and root canal I. In Triadan 11s, pulp horns 7 and 8 were present in variable constitutions. Mandibular teeth: A common pulp chamber was present in teeth up to 15 years, but most

  20. Evaluation of Orthopedic Metal Artifact Reduction Application in Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Reconstruction of Spinal Instrumentation: A Single Saudi Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amir Monir

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the commercially available orthopedic metal artifact reduction (OMAR) technique in postoperative three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) reconstruction studies after spinal instrumentation and to investigate its clinical application. One hundred and twenty (120) patients with spinal metallic implants were included in the study. All had 3DCT reconstruction examinations using the OMAR software after obtaining the informed consents and approval of the Institution Ethical Committee. The degree of the artifacts, the related muscular density, the clearness of intermuscular fat planes, and definition of the adjacent vertebrae were qualitatively evaluated. The diagnostic satisfaction and quality of the 3D reconstruction images were thoroughly assessed. The majority (96.7%) of 3DCT reconstruction images performed were considered satisfactory to excellent for diagnosis. Only 3.3% of the reconstructed images had rendered unacceptable diagnostic quality. OMAR can effectively reduce metallic artifacts in patients with spinal instrumentation with highly diagnostic 3DCT reconstruction images.

  1. Three-dimensional (3-D) model utilization for fracture reconstruction in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, Ista; Lilies, Latief, Benny S.

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) printing has been identified as an innovative manufacturing technology of functional parts. The 3-D model was produced based on CT-Scan using Osyrix software, where automatic segmentation was performed and convert into STL format. This STL format was then ready to be produced physically, layer-by-layer to create 3-D model.

  2. Surface Reconstruction-Induced Coincidence Lattice Formation Between Two-Dimensionally Bonded Materials and a Three-Dimensionally Bonded Substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, Jos E.; Momand, Jamo; Bragaglia, Valeria; Wang, Ruining; Perumal, Karthick; Giussani, Alessandro; Kooi, Bart J.; Riechert, Henning; Calarco, Raffaella

    Sb2Te3 films are used for studying the epitaxial registry between two-dimensionally bonded (2D) materials and three-dimensional bonded (3D) substrates. In contrast to the growth of 3D materials, it is found that the formation of coincidence lattices between Sb2Te3 and Si(111) depends on the geometry

  3. Do three-dimensional reconstructions add to the diagnostic value of computed tomography in the field of traumatology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billet, F.P.J.; Schmitt, W.G.H.; Hofmann, M.; Huber, M.; Gay, B.

    1990-01-01

    Very little time was needed for three-dimensional techniques to show that they are of great importance to the accurracy and, above all, interpretation of CT-based diagnostic findings in the skeleton. This method is not associated with any increased risks from radiation and if there is no absolute requirement for a 'second plane' to be displayed, as for instance in fractures of the calcaneus, radiation exposure can be reduced even further. Particular mention should here also be made of the sternoclavicular joint, coracoid process and intervertebral foramina, even more so as we feel that the diagnostic advantages offered by three-dimensional techniques in traumatology have so far not been described in sufficient detail. (orig./GDG) [de

  4. Three-dimensional virtual reconstruction as a tool for preoperative planning in the management of complex anorectal fistulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Carvalho Sousa Júnior

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The making of three-dimensional virtual models is a promising technology in preoperative planning, but that is not used in the treatment of anorectal fistulas. The objective of this work is to describe the development and initial experience of the construction of a virtual three-dimensional model of the pelvic anatomy of a patient, allowing the exact identification of the relationships between the fistulous tracts of complex anorectal fistulas and the other pelvic structures. An MRI was performed on this patient, and the images were exported to the Vitrea fX Workstation® software. A radiologist did the analysis and segmentation of the images that were then sent to a three-dimensional image processor (Meshlab v. 1.3.3 – ISTI – CNR Research Center, Pisa University, Italy. The final 3D color image was analyzed by the surgeon and used to guide the catheterization of the fistulous pathways, the internal orifice and to assist in the identification of adjacent structures. The final three-dimensional model presented a high correlation with the intraoperative findings and facilitated the surgical planning. Resumo: A criação de modelos virtuais tridimensionais é uma tecnologia promissora no planejamento pré-operatorio, entretanto não é utilizada no tratamento de fistulas anais. O objetivo desse trabalho é descrever o desenvolvimento e a experiência inicial da construção de um modelo virtual tridimensional da anatomia pélvica de um paciente, que permite a identificação exata das relações entre os tratos fistulosos de fistulas anais complexas e as demais estruturas pélvicas. O paciente realizou uma ressonância magnética e as imagens foram exportadas para o programa Vitrea fX software Workstation®. Um radiologista realizou a analise e segmentação das imagens que, em seguida, foram enviadas para um processador de imagens tridimensionais (Meshlab v. 1.3.3 – ISTI – CNR research center, Pisa University, Italy®. A imagem 3D colorida

  5. Development of a three-dimensional computer code for reconstructing power distributions by means of side reflector instrumentation and determination of the capabilities and limitations of this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knob, P.J.

    1982-07-01

    This work is concerned with the detection of flux disturbances in pebble bed high temperature reactors by means of flux measurements in the side reflector. Included among the disturbances studied are xenon oscillations, rod group insertions, and individual rod insertions. Using the three-dimensional diffusion code CITATION, core calculations for both a very small reactor (KAHTER) and a large reactor (PNP-3000) were carried out to determine the neutron fluxes at the detector positions. These flux values were then used in flux mapping codes for reconstructing the flux distribution in the core. As an extension of the already existing two-dimensional MOFA code, which maps azimuthal disturbances, a new three-dimensional flux mapping code ZELT was developed for handling axial disturbances as well. It was found that both flux mapping programs give satisfactory results for small and large pebble bed reactors alike. (orig.) [de

  6. Computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstruction of the corticospinal system as a reference for CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhmann, C. [Department of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)]|[University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Kretschmann, H.J. [Department of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) anatomical computer-graphics model of the corticospinal system acquired from equidistant serial anatomical slices of six intracranially-fixed human brains. This model is part of a neuroanatomical reference system (NeuRef) which enables 3D visualization of the brain and shows the relationship of its components such as anatomical structures, functional fibre tracts and arteries. Sections through the models can be matched with corresponding CT or MR images. This allows the probable localisation of corticospinal fibres on CT or MRI. (orig.) (orig.) With 18 figs., 3 tabs., 40 refs.

  7. Computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstruction of the corticospinal system as a reference for CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhmann, C.; Kretschmann, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) anatomical computer-graphics model of the corticospinal system acquired from equidistant serial anatomical slices of six intracranially-fixed human brains. This model is part of a neuroanatomical reference system (NeuRef) which enables 3D visualization of the brain and shows the relationship of its components such as anatomical structures, functional fibre tracts and arteries. Sections through the models can be matched with corresponding CT or MR images. This allows the probable localisation of corticospinal fibres on CT or MRI. (orig.) (orig.)

  8. Geometric morphometric methods for three-dimensional virtual reconstruction of a fragmented cranium: the case of Angelo Poliziano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, S; Stansfield, E; Milani, C; Gruppioni, G

    2009-07-01

    The process of forensic identification of missing individuals is frequently reliant on the superimposition of cranial remains onto an individual's picture and/or facial reconstruction. In the latter, the integrity of the skull or a cranium is an important factor in successful identification. Here, we recommend the usage of computerized virtual reconstruction and geometric morphometrics for the purposes of individual reconstruction and identification in forensics. We apply these methods to reconstruct a complete cranium from facial remains that allegedly belong to the famous Italian humanist of the fifteenth century, Angelo Poliziano (1454-1494). Raw data was obtained by computed tomography scans of the Poliziano face and a complete reference skull of a 37-year-old Italian male. Given that the amount of distortion of the facial remains is unknown, two reconstructions are proposed: The first calculates the average shape between the original and its reflection, and the second discards the less preserved left side of the cranium under the assumption that there is no deformation on the right. Both reconstructions perform well in the superimposition with the original preserved facial surface in a virtual environment. The reconstruction by means of averaging between the original and reflection yielded better results during the superimposition with portraits of Poliziano. We argue that the combination of computerized virtual reconstruction and geometric morphometric methods offers a number of advantages over traditional plastic reconstruction, among which are speed, reproducibility, easiness of manipulation when superimposing with pictures in virtual environment, and assumptions control.

  9. Three-dimensional reconstruction of a left ventricular shape from time and viewpoint varying X-ray cineangiocardiograms. Development of a system for clinical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Masamitsu; Yoshimoto, Fujiichi [Wakayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sato, Yoshinobu; Hanayama, Masayuki; Ueguchi, Takashi; Naito, Hiroaki; Tamura, Shinichi

    1998-05-01

    This paper describes a system for the accurate three-dimensional reconstruction of a left ventricular shape from x-ray cineangiocardiograms with different viewpoints as well as times. We perform direct B-spline fitting to a 4D closed surface model, called ``BF4D method``, using an iterative method consisting of two stages, so as to deal with fragmented contours such as extracted from x-ray cineangiocardiograms. However, it is necessary for making clinical use that we can set parameters easily to reconstruct the 3D model. Therefore we develop a system considering user interface. The system consists of three subsystems; The first subsystem is a contour detector of a left ventricle, the second one is for setting parameters for 3D reconstruction, and the third one is fitting to the model. We also show the results using real left ventricular angiographic image sequences. (author)

  10. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and quantitative analysis of the microvasculature in medulloblastoma and ependymoma subtypes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilhuis, H.J.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Pomp, J.; Kappelle, A.C.; Gijtenbeek, J.M.M.; Wesseling, P.

    2006-01-01

    In the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of tumours of the nervous system, four main histopathological subtypes of medulloblastomas (classic medulloblastoma, desmoplastic medulloblastoma, medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity and advanced neuronal differentiation and large

  11. Determination of the real structure of artificial and natural opals on the basis of three-dimensional reconstructions of reciprocal space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, A. A.; Gorozhankin, D. F.; Napolskii, K. S.; Petukhov, A. V.; Sapoletova, N. A.; Vasilieva, A. V.; Grigoryeva, N. A.; Mistonov, A. A.; Byelov, D. V.; Bouwman, W. G.; Kvashnina, K. O.; Chernyshov, D. Yu.; Bosak, A. A.; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2009-10-01

    The distribution of the scattering intensity in the reciprocal space for natural and artificial opals has been reconstructed from a set of small-angle X-ray diffraction patterns. The resulting three-dimensional intensity maps are used to analyze the defect structure of opals. The structure of artificial opals can be satisfactorily described in the Wilson probability model with the prevalence of layers in the fcc environment. The diffraction patterns observed for a natural opal confirm the presence of sufficiently long unequally occupied fcc domains.

  12. Three-dimensional inversion recovery manganese-enhanced MRI of mouse brain using super-resolution reconstruction to visualize nuclei involved in higher brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Dana S; Plenge, Esben; Poot, Dirk H J; Lakke, Egbert A J F; Niessen, Wiro J; Meijering, Erik; van der Weerd, Louise

    2014-07-01

    The visualization of activity in mouse brain using inversion recovery spin echo (IR-SE) manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) provides unique contrast, but suffers from poor resolution in the slice-encoding direction. Super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) is a resolution-enhancing post-processing technique in which multiple low-resolution slice stacks are combined into a single volume of high isotropic resolution using computational methods. In this study, we investigated, first, whether SRR can improve the three-dimensional resolution of IR-SE MEMRI in the slice selection direction, whilst maintaining or improving the contrast-to-noise ratio of the two-dimensional slice stacks. Second, the contrast-to-noise ratio of SRR IR-SE MEMRI was compared with a conventional three-dimensional gradient echo (GE) acquisition. Quantitative experiments were performed on a phantom containing compartments of various manganese concentrations. The results showed that, with comparable scan times, the signal-to-noise ratio of three-dimensional GE acquisition is higher than that of SRR IR-SE MEMRI. However, the contrast-to-noise ratio between different compartments can be superior with SRR IR-SE MEMRI, depending on the chosen inversion time. In vivo experiments were performed in mice receiving manganese using an implanted osmotic pump. The results showed that SRR works well as a resolution-enhancing technique in IR-SE MEMRI experiments. In addition, the SRR image also shows a number of brain structures that are more clearly discernible from the surrounding tissues than in three-dimensional GE acquisition, including a number of nuclei with specific higher brain functions, such as memory, stress, anxiety and reward behavior. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Dynamic concision for three-dimensional reconstruction of human organ built with virtual reality modelling language (VRML)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zheng-yang; Zheng, Shu-sen; Chen, Lei-ting; He, Xiao-qian; Wang, Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    This research studies the process of 3D reconstruction and dynamic concision based on 2D medical digital images using virtual reality modelling language (VRML) and JavaScript language, with a focus on how to realize the dynamic concision of 3D medical model with script node and sensor node in VRML. The 3D reconstruction and concision of body internal organs can be built with such high quality that they are better than those obtained from the traditional methods. With the function of dynamic concision, the VRML browser can offer better windows for man-computer interaction in real-time environment than ever before. 3D reconstruction and dynamic concision with VRML can be used to meet the requirement for the medical observation of 3D reconstruction and have a promising prospect in the fields of medical imaging. PMID:15973760

  14. Fully automated reconstruction of three-dimensional vascular tree structures from two orthogonal views using computational algorithms and productionrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Iching; Sun, Ying

    1992-10-01

    A system for reconstructing 3-D vascular structure from two orthogonally projected images is presented. The formidable problem of matching segments between two views is solved using knowledge of the epipolar constraint and the similarity of segment geometry and connectivity. The knowledge is represented in a rule-based system, which also controls the operation of several computational algorithms for tracking segments in each image, representing 2-D segments with directed graphs, and reconstructing 3-D segments from matching 2-D segment pairs. Uncertain reasoning governs the interaction between segmentation and matching; it also provides a framework for resolving the matching ambiguities in an iterative way. The system was implemented in the C language and the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert system shell. Using video images of a tree model, the standard deviation of reconstructed centerlines was estimated to be 0.8 mm (1.7 mm) when the view direction was parallel (perpendicular) to the epipolar plane. Feasibility of clinical use was shown using x-ray angiograms of a human chest phantom. The correspondence of vessel segments between two views was accurate. Computational time for the entire reconstruction process was under 30 s on a workstation. A fully automated system for two-view reconstruction that does not require the a priori knowledge of vascular anatomy is demonstrated.

  15. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the bacteriophage CUS-3 virion reveal a conserved coat protein I-domain but a distinct tailspike receptor-binding domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, Kristin N.; Tang, Jinghua; Cardone, Giovanni; Gilcrease, Eddie B.; Janssen, Mandy E.; Olson, Norman H.; Casjens, Sherwood R.; Baker, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    CUS-3 is a short-tailed, dsDNA bacteriophage that infects serotype K1 Escherichia coli. We report icosahedrally averaged and asymmetric, three-dimensional, cryo-electron microscopic reconstructions of the CUS-3 virion. Its coat protein structure adopts the “HK97-fold” shared by other tailed phages and is quite similar to that in phages P22 and Sf6 despite only weak amino acid sequence similarity. In addition, these coat proteins share a unique extra external domain (“I-domain”), suggesting that the group of P22-like phages has evolved over a very long time period without acquiring a new coat protein gene from another phage group. On the other hand, the morphology of the CUS-3 tailspike differs significantly from that of P22 or Sf6, but is similar to the tailspike of phage K1F, a member of the extremely distantly related T7 group of phages. We conclude that CUS-3 obtained its tailspike gene from a distantly related phage quite recently. - Highlights: • Asymmetric and symmetric three-dimensional reconstructions of phage CUS-3 are presented. • CUS-3 major capsid protein has a conserved I-domain, which is found in all three categories of “P22-like phage”. • CUS-3 has very different tailspike receptor binding domain from those of P22 and Sf6. • The CUS-3 tailspike likely was acquired by horizontal gene transfer

  16. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the bacteriophage CUS-3 virion reveal a conserved coat protein I-domain but a distinct tailspike receptor-binding domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parent, Kristin N., E-mail: kparent@msu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0378 (United States); Tang, Jinghua; Cardone, Giovanni [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0378 (United States); Gilcrease, Eddie B. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Janssen, Mandy E.; Olson, Norman H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0378 (United States); Casjens, Sherwood R., E-mail: sherwood.casjens@path.utah.edu [University of Utah School of Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Baker, Timothy S., E-mail: tsb@ucsd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0378 (United States); University of California, San Diego, Division of Biological Sciences, La Jolla, CA, 92093 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    CUS-3 is a short-tailed, dsDNA bacteriophage that infects serotype K1 Escherichia coli. We report icosahedrally averaged and asymmetric, three-dimensional, cryo-electron microscopic reconstructions of the CUS-3 virion. Its coat protein structure adopts the “HK97-fold” shared by other tailed phages and is quite similar to that in phages P22 and Sf6 despite only weak amino acid sequence similarity. In addition, these coat proteins share a unique extra external domain (“I-domain”), suggesting that the group of P22-like phages has evolved over a very long time period without acquiring a new coat protein gene from another phage group. On the other hand, the morphology of the CUS-3 tailspike differs significantly from that of P22 or Sf6, but is similar to the tailspike of phage K1F, a member of the extremely distantly related T7 group of phages. We conclude that CUS-3 obtained its tailspike gene from a distantly related phage quite recently. - Highlights: • Asymmetric and symmetric three-dimensional reconstructions of phage CUS-3 are presented. • CUS-3 major capsid protein has a conserved I-domain, which is found in all three categories of “P22-like phage”. • CUS-3 has very different tailspike receptor binding domain from those of P22 and Sf6. • The CUS-3 tailspike likely was acquired by horizontal gene transfer.

  17. Noninvasive reconstruction of the three-dimensional ventricular activation sequence during pacing and ventricular tachycardia in the rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias represent one of leading causes for sudden cardiac death, a significant problem in public health. Noninvasive imaging of cardiac electric activities associated with ventricular arrhythmias plays an important role in better our understanding of the mechanisms and optimizing the treatment options. The present study aims to rigorously validate a novel three-dimensional (3-D) cardiac electrical imaging (3-DCEI) technique with the aid of 3-D intra-cardiac mapping during paced rhythm and ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the rabbit heart. Body surface potentials and intramural bipolar electrical recordings were simultaneously measured in a closed-chest condition in thirteen healthy rabbits. Single-site pacing and dual-site pacing were performed from ventricular walls and septum. VTs and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) were induced by intravenous norepinephrine (NE). The non-invasively imaged activation sequence correlated well with invasively measured counterparts, with a correlation coefficient of 0.72 and a relative error of 0.30 averaged over all paced beats and NE-induced PVCs and VT beats. The averaged distance from imaged site of initial activation to measured site determined from intra-cardiac mapping was ∼5mm. These promising results suggest that 3-DCEI is feasible to non-invasively localize the origins and image activation sequence of focal ventricular arrhythmias.

  18. Implementation of the Graduated Cylindrical Shell Model for the Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thernisien, A.

    2011-06-01

    The graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) model developed by Thernisien et al. has been used with the goal of studying the three-dimensional morphology, position, and kinematics of coronal mass ejections observed by coronagraphs. These studies focused more on the results rather than the details of the model itself. As more researchers begin to use the model, it becomes necessary to provide a deeper discussion on how it is derived, which is the purpose of this paper. The model is built using the following features and constraints: (1) the legs are conical, (2) the front is pseudo-circular, (3) the cross section is circular, and (4) it expands in a self-similar way. We derive the equation of the model from these constraints. We also show that the ice-cream cone model is a limit of the GCS when the two legs overlap completely. Finally, we provide formulae for the calculation of various geometrical dimensions, such as angular width and aspect ratio, as well as the pseudo-code that is used for its computer implementation.

  19. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GRADUATED CYLINDRICAL SHELL MODEL FOR THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thernisien, A.

    2011-01-01

    The graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) model developed by Thernisien et al. has been used with the goal of studying the three-dimensional morphology, position, and kinematics of coronal mass ejections observed by coronagraphs. These studies focused more on the results rather than the details of the model itself. As more researchers begin to use the model, it becomes necessary to provide a deeper discussion on how it is derived, which is the purpose of this paper. The model is built using the following features and constraints: (1) the legs are conical, (2) the front is pseudo-circular, (3) the cross section is circular, and (4) it expands in a self-similar way. We derive the equation of the model from these constraints. We also show that the ice-cream cone model is a limit of the GCS when the two legs overlap completely. Finally, we provide formulae for the calculation of various geometrical dimensions, such as angular width and aspect ratio, as well as the pseudo-code that is used for its computer implementation.

  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the cranial and anterior spinal nerves in early tadpoles of Xenopus laevis (Pipidae, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Benjamin; Olsson, Lennart

    2018-04-01

    Xenopus laevis is one of the most widely used model organism in neurobiology. It is therefore surprising, that no detailed and complete description of the cranial nerves exists for this species. Using classical histological sectioning in combination with fluorescent whole mount antibody staining and micro-computed tomography we prepared a detailed innervation map and a freely-rotatable three-dimensional (3D) model of the cranial nerves and anterior-most spinal nerves of early X. laevis tadpoles. Our results confirm earlier descriptions of the pre-otic cranial nerves and present the first detailed description of the post-otic cranial nerves. Tracing the innervation, we found two previously undescribed head muscles (the processo-articularis and diaphragmatico-branchialis muscles) in X. laevis. Data on the cranial nerve morphology of tadpoles are scarce, and only one other species (Discoglossus pictus) has been described in great detail. A comparison of Xenopus and Discoglossus reveals a relatively conserved pattern of the post-otic and a more variable morphology of the pre-otic cranial nerves. Furthermore, the innervation map and the 3D models presented here can serve as an easily accessible basis to identify alterations of the innervation produced by experimental studies such as genetic gain- and loss of function experiments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. WE-G-18A-08: Axial Cone Beam DBPF Reconstruction with Three-Dimensional Weighting and Butterfly Filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, S; Wang, W [School of Automation, Xi' an University of Post and Telecommunication, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Tang, X [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: With the major benefit in dealing with data truncation for ROI reconstruction, the algorithm of differentiated backprojection followed by Hilbert filtering (DBPF) is originally derived for image reconstruction from parallel- or fan-beam data. To extend its application for axial CB scan, we proposed the integration of the DBPF algorithm with 3-D weighting. In this work, we further propose the incorporation of Butterfly filtering into the 3-D weighted axial CB-DBPF algorithm and conduct an evaluation to verify its performance. Methods: Given an axial scan, tomographic images are reconstructed by the DBPF algorithm with 3-D weighting, in which streak artifacts exist along the direction of Hilbert filtering. Recognizing this orientation-specific behavior, a pair of orthogonal Butterfly filtering is applied on the reconstructed images with the horizontal and vertical Hilbert filtering correspondingly. In addition, the Butterfly filtering can also be utilized for streak artifact suppression in the scenarios wherein only partial scan data with an angular range as small as 270° are available. Results: Preliminary data show that, with the correspondingly applied Butterfly filtering, the streak artifacts existing in the images reconstructed by the 3-D weighted DBPF algorithm can be suppressed to an unnoticeable level. Moreover, the Butterfly filtering also works at the scenarios of partial scan, though the 3-D weighting scheme may have to be dropped because of no sufficient projection data are available. Conclusion: As an algorithmic step, the incorporation of Butterfly filtering enables the DBPF algorithm for CB image reconstruction from data acquired along either a full or partial axial scan.

  2. WE-G-18A-08: Axial Cone Beam DBPF Reconstruction with Three-Dimensional Weighting and Butterfly Filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, S; Wang, W; Tang, X

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: With the major benefit in dealing with data truncation for ROI reconstruction, the algorithm of differentiated backprojection followed by Hilbert filtering (DBPF) is originally derived for image reconstruction from parallel- or fan-beam data. To extend its application for axial CB scan, we proposed the integration of the DBPF algorithm with 3-D weighting. In this work, we further propose the incorporation of Butterfly filtering into the 3-D weighted axial CB-DBPF algorithm and conduct an evaluation to verify its performance. Methods: Given an axial scan, tomographic images are reconstructed by the DBPF algorithm with 3-D weighting, in which streak artifacts exist along the direction of Hilbert filtering. Recognizing this orientation-specific behavior, a pair of orthogonal Butterfly filtering is applied on the reconstructed images with the horizontal and vertical Hilbert filtering correspondingly. In addition, the Butterfly filtering can also be utilized for streak artifact suppression in the scenarios wherein only partial scan data with an angular range as small as 270° are available. Results: Preliminary data show that, with the correspondingly applied Butterfly filtering, the streak artifacts existing in the images reconstructed by the 3-D weighted DBPF algorithm can be suppressed to an unnoticeable level. Moreover, the Butterfly filtering also works at the scenarios of partial scan, though the 3-D weighting scheme may have to be dropped because of no sufficient projection data are available. Conclusion: As an algorithmic step, the incorporation of Butterfly filtering enables the DBPF algorithm for CB image reconstruction from data acquired along either a full or partial axial scan

  3. Dynamic concision for three-dimensional reconstruction of human organ built with virtual reality modelling language (VRML)*

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zheng-yang; Zheng, Shu-sen; Chen, Lei-ting; He, Xiao-qian; Wang, Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    This research studies the process of 3D reconstruction and dynamic concision based on 2D medical digital images using virtual reality modelling language (VRML) and JavaScript language, with a focus on how to realize the dynamic concision of 3D medical model with script node and sensor node in VRML. The 3D reconstruction and concision of body internal organs can be built with such high quality that they are better than those obtained from the traditional methods. With the function of dynamic c...

  4. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the topographical cerebral surface anatomy for presurgical planning with free OsiriX Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, Mehmet V; Gonzalez-Lopez, Pablo; Türe, Uğur

    2014-09-01

    During surgery for intrinsic brain lesions, it is important to distinguish the pathological gyrus from the surrounding normal sulci and gyri. This task is usually tedious because of the pia-arachnoid membranes with their arterial and venous complexes that obscure the underlying anatomy. Moreover, most tumors grow in the white matter without initially distorting the cortical anatomy, making their direct visualization more difficult. To create and evaluate a simple and free surgical planning tool to simulate the anatomy of the surgical field with and without vessels. We used free computer software (OsiriX Medical Imaging Software) that allowed us to create 3-dimensional reconstructions of the cerebral surface with and without cortical vessels. These reconstructions made use of magnetic resonance images from 51 patients with neocortical supratentorial lesions operated on over a period of 21 months (June 2011 to February 2013). The 3-dimensional (3-D) anatomic images were compared with the true surgical view to evaluate their accuracy. In all patients, the landmarks determined by 3-D reconstruction were cross-checked during surgery with high-resolution ultrasonography; in select cases, they were also checked with indocyanine green videoangiography. The reconstructed neurovascular structures were confirmed intraoperatively in all patients. We found this technique to be extremely useful in achieving pure lesionectomy, as it defines tumor's borders precisely. A 3-D reconstruction of the cortical surface can be easily created with free OsiriX software. This technique helps the surgeon perfect the mentally created 3-D picture of the tumor location to carry out cleaner, safer surgeries.

  5. The use of computed tomographic three-dimensional reconstructions to develop instructional models for equine pelvic ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Mary Beth; Doval, John; Peters, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography has gained increased utility to diagnose pelvic fractures in horses; however, internal pelvic contours can be difficult to appreciate from external palpable landmarks. We developed three-dimensional (3D) simulations of the pelvic ultrasonographic examination to assist with translation of pelvic contours into two-dimensional (2D) images. Contiguous 1mm transverse computed tomography (CT) images were acquired through an equine femur and hemipelvis using a single slice helical scanner. 3D surface models were created using a DICOM reader and imported into a 3D modeling and animation program. The bone models were combined with a purchased 3D horse model and the skin made translucent to visualize pelvic surface contours. 3D models of ultrasound transducers were made from reference photos, and a thin sector shape was created to depict the ultrasound beam. Ultrasonographic examinations were simulated by moving transducers on the skin surface and rectally to produce images of pelvic structures. Camera angles were manipulated to best illustrate the transducer-beam-bone interface. Fractures were created in multiple configurations. Animations were exported as QuickTime movie files for use in presentations coupled with corresponding ultrasound videoclips. 3D models provide a link between ultrasonographic technique and image generation by depicting the interaction of the transducer, ultrasound beam, and structure of interest. The horse model was important to facilitate understanding of the location of pelvic structures relative to the skin surface. While CT acquisition time was brief, manipulation within the 3D software program was time intensive. Results were worthwhile from an instructional standpoint based on user feedback. © 2011 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  6. The impact of three-dimensional reconstruction on laparoscopic-assisted surgery for right-sided colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Tadano, Sosuke; Sano, Naoki; Inagawa, Satoshi; Adachi, Shinya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2017-09-01

    During laparoscopic-assisted colorectal surgery (LACS) for right-sided colon cancer patients, we performed three-dimensional (3D) surgical simulation to investigate vascular anatomy, including the ileocolic artery (ICA), right colic artery (RCA) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV). We also used 3D imaging to examine the shortest distance from the root of the ileocolic vein (ICV) to the gastrocolic trunk (GCT). We analyzed 46 right-sided colon cancer patients who underwent 3D-simulated LACS. We also examined a control group of 20 right-sided colon cancer patients who underwent LACS without 3D imaging. Patients who received such assessments were classified into the following two groups based on the vessel arrangement patterns of the ICA and SMV: the type A group, in which the ICA crosses anterior to the SMV, and the type B group, in which the ICA crosses posterior to the SMV. The shortest length from the root of the ICV to the GCT (D mm) was measured via 3D imaging. Patient characteristics and perioperative outcomes for these three groups were compared. The mean D mm for all cases was 29.2 ±5.21 mm. Mean D mm values for the type A and type B groups were 27.8 ±4.21 and 30.5 ±5.53 mm, respectively. Intraoperative blood loss was lower in the type A group (41.8 ±27.5 g) and the type B group (44.5 ±31.6 g) than that in the control group (86.8 ±27.5 g) (p = 0.013). 3D imaging was useful for understanding anatomical relationships during LACS.

  7. Three dimensional electrochemical simulation of solid oxide fuel cell cathode based on microstructure reconstructed by marching cubes method

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, An; Gong, Jiaming; Shikazono, Naoki

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, a model is introduced to correlate the electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with the 3D microstructure reconstructed by focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) in which the solid surface is modeled by the marching cubes (MC) method. Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to solve the governing equations. In order to maintain the geometries reconstructed by the MC method, local effective diffusivities and conductivities computed based on the MC geometries are applied in each grid, and partial bounce-back scheme is applied according to the boundary predicted by the MC method. From the tortuosity factor and overpotential calculation results, it is concluded that the MC geometry drastically improves the computational accuracy by giving more precise topology information.

  8. Three-dimensional model of the skull and the cranial bones reconstructed from CT scans designed for rapid prototyping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzat, Janusz; Spulber, Alexandru; Walocha, Jerzy

    This paper presents the effects of building mesh models of the human skull and the cranial bones from a series of CT-scans. With the aid of computer so ware, 3D reconstructions of the whole skull and segmented cranial bones were performed and visualized by surface rendering techniques. The article briefly discusses clinical and educational applications of 3D cranial models created using stereolitographic reproduction.

  9. Continuous Nondestructive Monitoring Method Using the Reconstructed Three-Dimensional Conductivity Images via GREIT for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Ahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous Nondestructive monitoring method is required to apply proper feedback controls during tissue regeneration. Conductivity is one of valuable information to assess the physiological function and structural formation of regenerated tissues or cultured cells. However, conductivity imaging methods suffered from inherited ill-posed characteristics in image reconstruction, unknown boundary geometry, uncertainty in electrode position, and systematic artifacts. In order to overcome the limitation of microscopic electrical impedance tomography (micro-EIT, we applied a 3D-specific container with a fixed boundary geometry and electrode configuration to maximize the performance of Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT (GREIT. The separation of driving and sensing electrodes allows us to simplify the hardware complexity and obtain higher measurement accuracy from a large number of small sensing electrodes. We investigated the applicability of the GREIT to 3D micro-EIT images via numerical simulations and large-scale phantom experiments. We could reconstruct multiple objects regardless of the location. The resolution was 5 mm3 with 30 dB SNR and the position error was less than 2.54 mm. This shows that the new micro-EIT system integrated with GREIT is robust with the intended resolution. With further refinement and scaling down to a microscale container, it may be a continuous nondestructive monitoring tool for tissue engineering applications.

  10. Segmental sandwich osteotomy and tunnel technique for three-dimensional reconstruction of the jaw atrophy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagata, Mario; Sgaramella, Nicola; Ferrieri, Ivo; Corvo, Giovanni; Tartaro, Gianpaolo; D'Amato, Salvatore

    2017-12-01

    A three-dimensionally favourable mandibular bone crest is desirable to be able to successfully implant placement to meet the aesthetic and functional criteria in the implant-prosthetic rehabilitation. Several surgical procedures have been advocated for bone augmentation of the atrophic mandible, and the sandwich osteotomy is one of these techniques. The aim of the present case report was to assess the suitability of segmental mandibular sandwich osteotomy combined with a tunnel technique of soft tissue. Based on our knowledge, nobody described before the sandwich osteotomy with tunnel technique to improve the healing of the wound and meet the dimensional requirements of preimplant bone augmentation in cases of a severely atrophic mandible. A 59-year-old woman with a severely atrophied right mandible was treated with the sandwich osteotomy technique filled with autologous bone graft harvested by a cortical bone collector from the ramus. Clinical examination revealed that the mandible was edentulous bilaterally from the first molar to the second molar region. Radiographically, atrophy of the mandibular alveolar ridge in the same teeth site was observed. We began to treat the right side. A horizontal osteotomy of the edentulous mandibular bone was then made with a piezoelectric device after tunnel technique of the soft tissue. The segmental mandibular sandwich osteotomy (SMSO) was finished by two (mesial and distal) slightly divergent vertical osteotomies. The entire bone fragment was displaced cranially, and the desirable position was obtained. The gap was filled completely with autologous bone chips harvested from the mandibular ramus through a cortical bone collector. No barrier membranes were used to protect the grafts. The vertical incisions were closing with interruptive suturing of the flaps with a resorbable material. In this way, the suture will not fall on the osteotomy line of the jaw; the result will be a better predictability of soft and hard tissue

  11. Computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstructions of [14C]-2-deoxy-D-glucose metabolism in cat lumbosacral spinal cord following cutaneous stimulation of the hindfoot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, D.P.; Smith, W.K.; Proshansky, E.; Kauer, J.S.; Stewart, W.B.; Woodward, D.J.; Schlusselberg, D.S.; Egger, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    We report on computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstruction of spinal cord activity associated with stimulation of the plantar cushion (PC) as revealed by [14C]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) serial autoradiographs. Moderate PC stimulation in cats elicits a reflex phasic plantar flexion of the toes. Four cats were chronically spinalized at about T6 under barbiturate anesthesia. Four to 11 days later, the cats were injected (i.v.) with 2-DG (100 microCi/kg) and the PC was electrically stimulated with needle electrodes at 2-5 times threshold for eliciting a reflex. Following stimulation, the spinal cord was processed for autoradiography. Subsequently, autoradiographs, representing approximately 8-18 mm from spinal segments L6-S1, were digitized for computer analysis and 3-D reconstruction. Several strategies of analysis were employed: (1) Three-dimensional volume images were color-coded to represent different levels of functional activity. (2) On the reconstructed volumes, virtual sections were made in the horizontal, sagittal, and transverse planes to view regions of 2-DG activity. (3) In addition, we were able to sample different regions within the grey and white matter semi-quantitatively (i.e., pixel intensity) from section to section to reveal differences between ipsi- and contralateral activity, as well as possible variation between sections. These analyses revealed 2-DG activity associated with moderate PC stimulation, not only in the ipsilateral dorsal horn as we had previously demonstrated, but also in both the ipsilateral and contralateral ventral horns, as well as in the intermediate grey matter. The use of novel computer analysis techniques--combined with an unanesthetized preparation--enabled us to demonstrate that the increased metabolic activity in the lumbosacral spinal cord associated with PC stimulation was much more extensive than had heretofore been observed

  12. Differentiation Potential of Human Chorion-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Motor Neuron-Like Cells in Two- and Three-Dimensional Culture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Faezeh; Mirzaei, Esmaeil; Ai, Jafar; Lotfi, Abolfazl; Sayahpour, Forough Azam; Barough, Somayeh Ebrahimi; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-04-01

    Many people worldwide suffer from motor neuron-related disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal cord injuries. Recently, several attempts have been made to recruit stem cells to modulate disease progression in ALS and also regenerate spinal cord injuries. Chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSCs), used to be discarded as postpartum medically waste product, currently represent a class of cells with self renewal property and immunomodulatory capacity. These cells are able to differentiate into mesodermal and nonmesodermal lineages such as neural cells. On the other hand, gelatin, as a simply denatured collagen, is a suitable substrate for cell adhesion and differentiation. It has been shown that electrospinning of scaffolds into fibrous structure better resembles the physiological microenvironment in comparison with two-dimensional (2D) culture system. Since there is no report on potential of human chorion-derived MSCs to differentiate into motor neuron cells in two- and three-dimensional (3D) culture systems, we set out to determine the effect of retinoic acid (RA) and sonic hedgehog (Shh) on differentiation of human C-MSCs into motor neuron-like cells cultured on tissue culture plates (2D) and electrospun nanofibrous gelatin scaffold (3D).

  13. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTIONS AND MASS DETERMINATION OF THE 2008 JUNE 2 LASCO CORONAL MASS EJECTION USING STELab INTERPLANETARY SCINTILLATION OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Jackson, B. V.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Clover, J. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K.

    2010-01-01

    We examine and reconstruct the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) first seen in space-based coronagraph white-light difference images on 2008 June 1 and 2. We use observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) taken with the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STELab), Japan, in our three-dimensional (3D) tomographic reconstruction of density and velocity. The coronal mass ejection (CME) was first observed by the LASCO C3 instrument at around 04:17 UT on 2008 June 2. Its motion subsequently moved across the C3 field of view with a plane-of-the-sky velocity of 192 km s -1 . The 3D reconstructed ICME is consistent with the trajectory and extent of the CME measurements taken from the CDAW CME catalog. However, excess mass estimates vary by an order of magnitude from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory coronagraphs to our 3D IPS reconstructions of the inner heliosphere. We discuss the discrepancies and give possible explanations for these differences as well as give an outline for future studies.

  14. Utility of the three-dimensional reconstruction by means of helical scanography in the study of stringed instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morillo Zarate, Anibal Jose; Uriza Carrasco, Luis Felipe

    1998-01-01

    The evaluation of stringed instruments with axial computerized tomography (CT) sections has been described as a reliable method for the study of its internal components and for the detection of damaged instruments. We present the application of helical CT with thin sections and 3-D reconstructions in a series of violins, for an anatomical study of the instrument. The 3-D images offer complementary information and permit a better evaluation of the internal structure of the violin that can be useful for the understanding of the secrets of its construction and for the diagnosis of structural lesions that can affect its acoustic performance

  15. Three-dimensional image reconstruction of macula from stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) for diagnosis of macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arinilhaq; Widita, R

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of macular degeneration using a Stratus OCT with a fast macular thickness map (FMTM) method produced six B-scan images of macula from different angles. The images were converted into a retinal thickness chart to be evaluated by normal distribution percentile of data so that it can be classified as normal thickness of macula or as experiencing abnormality (e.g. thickening and thinning). Unfortunately, the diagnostic images only represent the retinal thickness in several areas of the macular region. Thus, this study is aims to obtain the entire retinal thickness in the macula area from Status OCT's output images. Basically, the volumetric image is obtained by combining each of the six images. Reconstruction consists of a series of processes such as pre-processing, segmentation, and interpolation. Linear interpolation techniques are used to fill the empty pixels in reconstruction matrix. Based on the results, this method is able to provide retinal thickness maps on the macula surface and the macula 3D image. Retinal thickness map can display the macula area which experienced abnormalities. The macula 3D image can show the layers of tissue in the macula that is abnormal. The system built cannot replace ophthalmologist in decision making in term of diagnosis. (paper)

  16. Three-dimensional image reconstruction of macula from stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) for diagnosis of macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinilhaq; Widita, R.

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosis of macular degeneration using a Stratus OCT with a fast macular thickness map (FMTM) method produced six B-scan images of macula from different angles. The images were converted into a retinal thickness chart to be evaluated by normal distribution percentile of data so that it can be classified as normal thickness of macula or as experiencing abnormality (e.g. thickening and thinning). Unfortunately, the diagnostic images only represent the retinal thickness in several areas of the macular region. Thus, this study is aims to obtain the entire retinal thickness in the macula area from Status OCT's output images. Basically, the volumetric image is obtained by combining each of the six images. Reconstruction consists of a series of processes such as pre-processing, segmentation, and interpolation. Linear interpolation techniques are used to fill the empty pixels in reconstruction matrix. Based on the results, this method is able to provide retinal thickness maps on the macula surface and the macula 3D image. Retinal thickness map can display the macula area which experienced abnormalities. The macula 3D image can show the layers of tissue in the macula that is abnormal. The system built cannot replace ophthalmologist in decision making in term of diagnosis.

  17. Linkage group-chromosome correlations in Sordaria macrospora: Chromosome identification by three dimensional reconstruction of their synaptonemal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickler, D; Leblon, G; Haedens, V; Collard, A; Thuriaux, P

    1984-01-01

    Reconstruction of serially sectioned zygotene and pachytene nuclei has allowed, by measuring the lengths of synaptonemal complexes, an assignment of the 7 linkage (LG) groups to the 7 chromosomes in the fungus Sordaria macrospora. The 7 LG have been established using 19 mutants showing low second division segregation frequencies. Eight chromosomal rearrangements mapped on the 7 LG were used to identify the chromosomes involved. The following one to one assignment of the 7 LG to specific chromosomes was obtained: LG a: chromosome (chr) 1, LG b: chr5, LG c: chr6, LG d: chr7, LG e: chr4, LG f: chr3 and LG g: chr2 (the chromosome carrying the nucleolus organizer region).

  18. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Nuclear Envelope Architecture Using Dual-Color Metal-Induced Energy Transfer Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhik, Anna M; Ruhlandt, Daja; Pfaff, Janine; Karedla, Narain; Chizhik, Alexey I; Gregor, Ingo; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Enderlein, Jörg

    2017-12-26

    The nuclear envelope, comprising the inner and the outer nuclear membrane, separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm and plays a key role in cellular functions. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which are embedded in the nuclear envelope, control transport of macromolecules between the two compartments. Here, using dual-color metal-induced energy transfer (MIET), we determine the axial distance between Lap2β and Nup358 as markers for the inner nuclear membrane and the cytoplasmic side of the NPC, respectively. Using MIET imaging, we reconstruct the 3D profile of the nuclear envelope over the whole basal area, with an axial resolution of a few nanometers. This result demonstrates that optical microscopy can achieve nanometer axial resolution in biological samples and without recourse to complex interferometric approaches.

  19. Three-dimensional SPECT [single photon emission computed tomography] reconstruction of combined cone beam and parallel beam data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, R.J.; Jianying Li; Huili Wang; Coleman, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using cone beam (CB) collimation exhibits increased sensitivity compared with acquisition geometries using parallel (P) hole collimation. However, CB collimation has a smaller field-of-view which may result in truncated projections and image artifacts. A primary objective of this work is to investigate maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) methods to reconstruct simultaneously acquired parallel and cone beam (P and CB) SPECT data. Simultaneous P and CB acquisition can be performed with commercially available triple camera systems by using two cone-beam collimators and a single parallel-hole collimator. The loss in overall sensitivity (relative to the use of three CB collimators) is about 15 to 20%. The authors have developed three methods to combine P and CB data using modified ML-EM algorithms. (author)

  20. The use of transport and diffusion equations in the three-dimensional reconstruction of computerized tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Sandrerley Ramos, E-mail: sandrerley@eee.ufg.br [Escola de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao - EEEC, Universidade Federal de Goias - UFG, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Flores, Edna Lucia; Pires, Dulcineia Goncalves F.; Carrijo, Gilberto Arantes; Veiga, Antonio Claudio Paschoarelli [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica - FEELT, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia - UFU, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Barcelos, Celia Aparecida Z. [Faculdade de Matematica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia - UFU, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    The visualization of a computerized tomographic (TC) exam in 3D increases the quality of the medical diagnosis and, consequently, the success probability in the treatment. To obtain a high quality image it is necessary to obtain slices which are close to one another. Motivated towards the goal of reaching an improved balance between quantity of slices and visualization quality, this research work presents a digital inpainting technique of 3D interpolation for CT slices used in the visualization of human body structures. The inpainting is carried out via non-linear partial differential equations (PDE). The PDE's have been used, in the image-processing context to fill in the damaged regions in a digital 2D image. Inspired by this idea, this article proposes an interpolation method for the filling in of the empty regions between the CT slices. To do it, considering the high similarity between two consecutive real slice, the first step of the proposed method is to create the virtual slices. The virtual slices contain all similarity between the intercalated slices and, when there are not similarities between real slices, the virtual slices will contain indefinite portions. In the second step of the proposed method, the created virtual slices will be used together with the real slices images, in the reconstruction of the structure in three dimensions, mapped onto the exam. The proposed method is capable of reconstructing the curvatures of the patient's internal structures without using slices that are close to one another. The experiments carried out show the proposed method's efficiency. (author)

  1. Porcine pulmonary angiotensin I-converting enzyme--biochemical characterization and spatial arrangement of the N- and C-domains by three-dimensional electron microscopic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Ling; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Hecht, Hans-Jürgen; Tsai, Hsin

    2010-08-01

    The somatic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (sACE; peptidyl-dipeptidase A; EC 3.4.15.1) was isolated from pig lung and purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme has a molecular mass of about 180 kDa. Upon proteolytic cleavage, two approximately 90 kDa fragments were obtained and identified by amino-terminal sequence analysis as the N- and C-domains of sACE. Both purified domains were shown to be catalytically active. A 2.3 nm resolution model of sACE was obtained by three-dimensional electron microscopic reconstruction of negatively stained sACE particles, based on atomic X-ray data fitting. Our model shows for the first time the relative orientation of the sACE catalytically active domains and their spatial distance. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Upregulated epidermal growth factor receptor expression following near-infrared irradiation simulating solar radiation in a three-dimensional reconstructed human corneal epithelial tissue culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yohei; Nakayama, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Humans are increasingly exposed to near-infrared (NIR) radiation from both natural (eg, solar) and artificial (eg, electrical appliances) sources. Although the biological effects of sun and ultraviolet (UV) exposure have been extensively investigated, the biological effect of NIR radiation is still unclear. We previously reported that NIR as well as UV induces photoaging and standard UV-blocking materials, such as sunglasses, do not sufficiently block NIR. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in gene expression in three-dimensional reconstructed corneal epithelial tissue culture exposed to broad-spectrum NIR irradiation to simulate solar NIR radiation that reaches human tissues. DNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis were used to assess gene expression levels in a three-dimensional reconstructed corneal epithelial model composed of normal human corneal epithelial cells exposed to water-filtered broad-spectrum NIR irradiation with a contact cooling (20°C). The water-filter allowed 1,000-1,800 nm wavelengths and excluded 1,400-1,500 nm wavelengths. A DNA microarray with >62,000 different probes showed 25 and 150 genes that were up- or downregulated by at least fourfold and twofold, respectively, after NIR irradiation. In particular, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was upregulated by 19.4-fold relative to control cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that two variants of EGFR in human corneal epithelial tissue were also significantly upregulated after five rounds of 10 J/cm(2) irradiation (Psolar energy reaching the Earth is in the NIR region, which cannot be adequately blocked by eyewear and thus can induce eye damage with intensive or long-term exposure, protection from both UV and NIR radiation may prevent changes in gene expression and in turn eye damage.

  3. Three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography to predict weight and volume of deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap for breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosson, Gedge D; Shridharani, Sachin M; Magarakis, Michael; Manahan, Michele A; Stapleton, Sahael M; Gilson, Marta M; Flores, Jaime I; Basdag, Basak; Fishman, Elliot K

    2011-10-01

    Three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D CTA) can be used preoperatively to evaluate the course and caliber of perforating blood vessels for abdominal free-flap breast reconstruction. For postmastectomy breast reconstruction, many women inquire whether the abdominal tissue volume will match that of the breast to be removed. Therefore, our goal was to estimate preoperative volume and weight of the proposed flap and compare them with the actual volume and weight to determine if diagnostic imaging can accurately identify the amount of tissue that could potentially to be harvested. Preoperative 3D CTA was performed in 15 patients, who underwent breast reconstruction using the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. Before each angiogram, stereotactic fiducials were placed on the planned flap outline. The radiologist reviewed each preoperative angiogram to estimate the volume, and thus, weight of the flap. These estimated weights were compared with the actual intraoperative weights. The average estimated weight was 99.7% of the actual weight. The interquartile range (25th to 75th percentile), which represents the "middle half" of the patients, was 91-109%, indicating that half of the patients had an estimated weight within 9% of the actual weight; however, there was a large range (70-133%). 3D CTA with stereotactic fiducials allows surgeons to adequately estimate abdominal flap volume before surgery, potentially giving guidance in the amount of tissue that can be harvested from a patient's lower abdomen. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Finite-element design and optimization of a three-dimensional tetrahedral porous titanium scaffold for the reconstruction of mandibular defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Danmei; Rong, Qiguo; Chen, Quan

    2017-09-01

    Reconstruction of segmental defects in the mandible remains a challenge for maxillofacial surgery. The use of porous scaffolds is a potential method for repairing these defects. Now, additive manufacturing techniques provide a solution for the fabrication of porous scaffolds with specific geometrical shapes and complex structures. The goal of this study was to design and optimize a three-dimensional tetrahedral titanium scaffold for the reconstruction of mandibular defects. With a fixed strut diameter of 0.45mm and a mean cell size of 2.2mm, a tetrahedral structural porous scaffold was designed for a simulated anatomical defect derived from computed tomography (CT) data of a human mandible. An optimization method based on the concept of uniform stress was performed on the initial scaffold to realize a minimal-weight design. Geometric and mechanical comparisons between the initial and optimized scaffold show that the optimized scaffold exhibits a larger porosity, 81.90%, as well as a more homogeneous stress distribution. These results demonstrate that tetrahedral structural titanium scaffolds are feasible structures for repairing mandibular defects, and that the proposed optimization scheme has the ability to produce superior scaffolds for mandibular reconstruction with better stability, higher porosity, and less weight. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Three-dimensional surgical modelling with an open-source software protocol: study of precision and reproducibility in mandibular reconstruction with the fibula free flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganry, L; Quilichini, J; Bandini, C M; Leyder, P; Hersant, B; Meningaud, J P

    2017-08-01

    Very few surgical teams currently use totally independent and free solutions to perform three-dimensional (3D) surgical modelling for osseous free flaps in reconstructive surgery. This study assessed the precision and technical reproducibility of a 3D surgical modelling protocol using free open-source software in mandibular reconstruction with fibula free flaps and surgical guides. Precision was assessed through comparisons of the 3D surgical guide to the sterilized 3D-printed guide, determining accuracy to the millimetre level. Reproducibility was assessed in three surgical cases by volumetric comparison to the millimetre level. For the 3D surgical modelling, a difference of less than 0.1mm was observed. Almost no deformations (free flap modelling was between 0.1mm and 0.4mm, and the average precision of the complete reconstructed mandible was less than 1mm. The open-source software protocol demonstrated high accuracy without complications. However, the precision of the surgical case depends on the surgeon's 3D surgical modelling. Therefore, surgeons need training on the use of this protocol before applying it to surgical cases; this constitutes a limitation. Further studies should address the transfer of expertise. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Developmental anatomy of the liver from computerized three-dimensional reconstructions of four human embryos (from Carnegie stage 14 to 23).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuaire, Martin; Tonnelet, Romain; Renard, Yohann; Piardi, Tullio; Sommacale, Daniele; Duparc, Fabrice; Braun, Marc; Labrousse, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Some aspects of human embryogenesis and organogenesis remain unclear, especially concerning the development of the liver and its vasculature. The purpose of this study was to investigate, from a descriptive standpoint, the evolutionary morphogenesis of the human liver and its vasculature by computerized three-dimensional reconstructions of human embryos. Serial histological sections of four human embryos at successive stages of development belonging to three prestigious French historical collections were digitized and reconstructed in 3D using software commonly used in medical radiology. Manual segmentation of the hepatic anatomical regions of interest was performed section by section. In this study, human liver organogenesis was examined at Carnegie stages 14, 18, 21 and 23. Using a descriptive and an analytical method, we showed that these stages correspond to the implementation of the large hepatic vascular patterns (the portal system, the hepatic artery and the hepatic venous system) and the biliary system. To our knowledge, our work is the first descriptive morphological study using 3D computerized reconstructions from serial histological sections of the embryonic development of the human liver between Carnegie stages 14 and 23. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Three-dimensional reconstruction from cone-beam data using an efficient Fourier technique combined with a special interpolation filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson Seger, Maria

    1998-01-01

    We here present LINCON FAST which is an exact method for 3D reconstruction from cone-beam projection data. The new method is compared to the LINCON method which is known to be fast and to give good image quality. Both methods have O(N 3 log N) complexity and are based on Grangeat's result which states that the derivative of the Radon transform of the object function can be obtained from cone-beam projections. One disadvantage with LINCON is that the rather computationally intensive chirp z-transform is frequently used. In LINCON FAST , FFT and interpolation in the Fourier domain are used instead, which are less computationally demanding. The computation tools involved in LINCON FAST are solely FFT, 1D eight-point interpolation, multiplicative weighting and tri-linear interpolation. We estimate that LINCON FAST will be 2-2.5 times faster than LINCON. The interpolation filter belongs to a special class of filters developed by us. It turns out that the filter must be very carefully designed to keep a good image quality. Visual inspection of experimental results shows that the image quality is almost the same for LINCON and the new method LINCON FAST . However, it should be remembered that LINCON FAST can never give better image quality than LINCON, since LINCON FAST is designed to approximate LINCON as well as possible. (author)

  8. A three-dimensional-weighted cone beam filtered backprojection (CB-FBP) algorithm for image reconstruction in volumetric CT-helical scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiangyang; Hsieh Jiang; Nilsen, Roy A; Dutta, Sandeep; Samsonov, Dmitry; Hagiwara, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Based on the structure of the original helical FDK algorithm, a three-dimensional (3D)-weighted cone beam filtered backprojection (CB-FBP) algorithm is proposed for image reconstruction in volumetric CT under helical source trajectory. In addition to its dependence on view and fan angles, the 3D weighting utilizes the cone angle dependency of a ray to improve reconstruction accuracy. The 3D weighting is ray-dependent and the underlying mechanism is to give a favourable weight to the ray with the smaller cone angle out of a pair of conjugate rays but an unfavourable weight to the ray with the larger cone angle out of the conjugate ray pair. The proposed 3D-weighted helical CB-FBP reconstruction algorithm is implemented in the cone-parallel geometry that can improve noise uniformity and image generation speed significantly. Under the cone-parallel geometry, the filtering is naturally carried out along the tangential direction of the helical source trajectory. By exploring the 3D weighting's dependence on cone angle, the proposed helical 3D-weighted CB-FBP reconstruction algorithm can provide significantly improved reconstruction accuracy at moderate cone angle and high helical pitches. The 3D-weighted CB-FBP algorithm is experimentally evaluated by computer-simulated phantoms and phantoms scanned by a diagnostic volumetric CT system with a detector dimension of 64 x 0.625 mm over various helical pitches. The computer simulation study shows that the 3D weighting enables the proposed algorithm to reach reconstruction accuracy comparable to that of exact CB reconstruction algorithms, such as the Katsevich algorithm, under a moderate cone angle (4 deg.) and various helical pitches. Meanwhile, the experimental evaluation using the phantoms scanned by a volumetric CT system shows that the spatial resolution along the z-direction and noise characteristics of the proposed 3D-weighted helical CB-FBP reconstruction algorithm are maintained very well in comparison to the FDK

  9. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Building Roofs from Airborne LiDAR Data Based on a Layer Connection and Smoothness Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for three-dimensional (3-D reconstruction of building roofs from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR data is proposed, and it includes four steps. Building roof points are first extracted from LiDAR data by using the reversed iterative mathematic morphological (RIMM algorithm and the density-based method. The corresponding relations between points and rooftop patches are then established through a smoothness strategy involving “seed point selection, patch growth, and patch smoothing.” Layer-connection points are then generated to represent a layer in the horizontal direction and to connect different layers in the vertical direction. Finally, by connecting neighboring layer-connection points, building models are constructed with the second level of detailed data. The key contributions of this approach are the use of layer-connection points and the smoothness strategy for building model reconstruction. Experimental results are analyzed from several aspects, namely, the correctness and completeness, deviation analysis of the reconstructed building roofs, and the influence of elevation to 3-D roof reconstruction. In the two experimental regions used in this paper, the completeness and correctness of the reconstructed rooftop patches were about 90% and 95%, respectively. For the deviation accuracy, the average deviation distance and standard deviation in the best case were 0.05 m and 0.18 m, respectively; and those in the worst case were 0.12 m and 0.25 m. The experimental results demonstrated promising correctness, completeness, and deviation accuracy with satisfactory 3-D building roof models.

  10. The Importance of a Conchal Bowl Element in the Fabrication of a Three-Dimensional Framework in Total Auricular Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Soo Kim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background  To construct a sophisticated three-dimensionalframework, numerousmodifications have been reported in the literature. However, mostsurgeons have paid little attentionto the anatomical configuration of the concha and more to its deepness and hollowness,leading to unsatisfactory outcomes.Methods  For a configuration ofthe concha thatis definitely anatomical,the authorfurtherdeveloped and employed the conchal bowl element,which has been used by severalsurgeonsalthough the results have not been published elsewhere. The author constructed the conchalbowl element in one of three patterns according to the amount of available cartilages: oneblock,two-pieces, or a cymba bowl element only. A total of 20 patients underwent auricularreconstruction using a costal cartilage framework between 2009 and 2012. The 8 earliestreconstructionswere performedwithout a conchal bowl element and the latter 12with a conchalbowl element. The patientswere followed up for more than 1 year. The aesthetic resultswerescored by evaluating characteristicsinvolving the stability ofthe crus helicis,the conchal definition, and the smoothness ofthe helical curve.Results  The earsreconstructed earlywithout a conchal bowl elementshowed a shallowandone or two incompletely separated concha with an obliterated cymba conchal space. Theyalso did not have a realistic orsmooth curve ofthe helix because of an unstable crus helicis.However, earsreconstructed laterwith the concha bowl elementshowed a definite crus helicis,deep cymba conchalspace, and smooth helical curve.Conclusions  The construction of the conchal bowl element is simple, not time-consumingprocedure. It is suggested that the conchal bowl element must be constructed and attachedto themain framework for natural configuration ofthe reconstructed ear.

  11. The use of three-dimensional tomographic reconstructions in the diagnosis on facial trauma: report of three cases and literature review; O uso das reconstrucoes tomograficas tridimensionais no diagnostico do trauma facial: relato de tres casos e revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Junior, Jose Lacet de; Goes, Kilma Keilla Honorio de; Dias-Ribeiro, Eduardo; Araujo, Tulio Neves de [Hospital de Emergencia e Trauma Senador Humberto Lucena (HETSHL), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Servico de Cirurgia e Trauma Buco-Maxilo-Facial; Costa, Vanio Santos [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Oliveira, Patricia Teixeira de [Universidade Potiguar (UnP), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Fractures on the maxillofacial complex demand a detailed three dimensional comprehension of the damaged area. A correct radiographic evaluation is essential for the planning of the repair surgery. The surgical maneuvers involving this type of trauma depend on the knowledge of anatomy and an image diagnosis. The three dimensional images are especially important for the surgeons due to the fact that they allow a panoramic representation of the facial complex and of the fracture, facilitating the treatment planning. This study aims to report three clinical cases, as well as a literature review, discussing the utilization of three-dimensional tomography reconstructions on the diagnosis of the facial trauma. (author)

  12. Three-dimensional reconstruction of prostate cancer architecture with serial immunohistochemical sections: hallmarks of tumour growth, tumour compartmentalisation, and implications for grading and heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkach, Yuri; Thomann, Stefan; Kristiansen, Glen

    2018-05-01

    Conventional morphology of prostate cancer considers only the two-dimensional (2D) architecture of the tumour. Our aim was to examine the feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of tumour morphology based on multiple consecutive histological sections and to decipher relevant features of prostate cancer architecture. Seventy-five consecutive histological sections (5 μm) of a typical prostate adenocarcinoma (Gleason score of 3 + 4 = 7) were immunostained (pan-cytokeratin) and scanned for further 3D reconstructions with fiji/imagej software. The main findings related to the prostate cancer architecture in this case were: (i) continuity of all glands, with the tumour being an integrated system, even in Gleason pattern 4 with poorly formed glands-no short-range migration of cells by Gleason pattern 4 (poorly formed glands); (ii) no repeated interconnections between the glands, with a tumour building a tree-like branched structure with very 'plastic' branches (maximal depth of investigation 375 μm); (iii) very stark compartmentalisation of the tumour related to extensive branching, the coexistence of independent terminal units of such branches in one 2D slice explaining intratumoral heterogeneity; (iv) evidence of a craniocaudal growth direction in interglandular regions of the prostate and for a lateromedial growth direction in subcapsular posterolateral regions; and (v) a 3D architecture-based description of Gleason pattern 4 with poorly formed glands, and its continuum with Gleason pattern 3. Consecutive histological sections provide high-quality material for 3D reconstructions of the tumour architecture, with excellent resolution. The reconstruction of multiple regions in this typical case of a Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 tumour provides insights into relevant aspects of tumour growth, the continuity of Gleason patterns 3 and 4, and tumour heterogeneity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Upregulated epidermal growth factor receptor expression following near-infrared irradiation simulating solar radiation in a three-dimensional reconstructed human corneal epithelial tissue culture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Y

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yohei Tanaka,1,2 Jun Nakayama2 1Department of Plastic Surgery, Clinica Tanaka Plastic, Reconstructive Surgery and Anti-aging Center, 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan Background and objective: Humans are increasingly exposed to near-infrared (NIR radiation from both natural (eg, solar and artificial (eg, electrical appliances sources. Although the biological effects of sun and ultraviolet (UV exposure have been extensively investigated, the biological effect of NIR radiation is still unclear. We previously reported that NIR as well as UV induces photoaging and standard UV-blocking materials, such as sunglasses, do not sufficiently block NIR. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in gene expression in three-dimensional reconstructed corneal epithelial tissue culture exposed to broad-spectrum NIR irradiation to simulate solar NIR radiation that reaches human tissues.Materials and methods: DNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis were used to assess gene expression levels in a three-dimensional reconstructed corneal epithelial model composed of normal human corneal epithelial cells exposed to water-filtered broad-spectrum NIR irradiation with a contact cooling (20°C. The water-filter allowed 1,000–1,800 nm wavelengths and excluded 1,400–1,500 nm wavelengths.Results: A DNA microarray with >62,000 different probes showed 25 and 150 genes that were up- or downregulated by at least fourfold and twofold, respectively, after NIR irradiation. In particular, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR was upregulated by 19.4-fold relative to control cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that two variants of EGFR in human corneal epithelial tissue were also significantly upregulated after five rounds of 10 J/cm2 irradiation (P<0.05.Conclusion: We found that NIR irradiation induced the

  14. A practical method for three-dimensional reconstruction of joints using a C-arm system and shift-and-add algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Senhu; Jiang Huabei

    2005-01-01

    Currently, radiography with C-arm systems is playing a major role in the assessment of arthritis. However, the radiographic two-dimensional projection images of joints often interfere with physicians' efforts to better understand and measure the structure changes of joints due to the overlap of bone structures at different depths. An accurate, low-cost, and practical three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction approach of joints will be beneficial in diagnosing arthritis. Toward this end, a novel method is developed in this paper based on a C-arm system. The idea is to apply the shift-and-add algorithm (commonly used in digital tomosynthesis) on the segmented projection images at multiple angles, which results in accurate reconstruction of the 3D structures of joints. The method provides a new solution to precisely distinguish objects from blurring background. The proposed method has been tested and evaluated on simulated cylinders, a chicken bone phantom with known structure, and an in vivo human index finger. The results are demonstrated and discussed

  15. Precision of three-dimensional stereo-photogrammetry (3dMD™) in anthropometry of the auricle and its application in microtia reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zung-Chung; Albdour, Mohammad Nayef; Lizardo, Jesus Ablaza; Chen, Ying-An; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting

    2015-05-01

    The advent of three-dimensional stereo-photogrammetry in recent years has vastly helped the craniomaxillofacial field improve in terms of preoperative and intraoperative decision making. With regard to the auricle though, there is paucity of research as to the application of this promising technology. A total of 20 normal adult ears were included in this study. Thirteen anthropometric measurements were taken, twice by two plastic surgeons using direct measurement (DM) and through images captured via 3dMD™. The purpose was to compare the reliability of measurements involving the two instruments. The overall mean absolute differences (MADs) of all ear anthropometries of DM and 3dMD™ were 0.52 mm (range: 0.28-0.72 mm) and 0.27 mm (range: 0.15-0.53 mm), respectively, and the grand mean relative error magnitudes (REMs) were 2.85% (range: 1.01-5.99%) and 1.57% (range: 0.48-3.62%), respectively, across observers. Thus, the precision of all ear anthropometries across observers was high in both methods, but the precision of 3dMD was better than DM irrespective of observers. In addition, the MADs were less than a millimeter across all measurements. The application of three-dimensional technology in microtia surgery for both template production and soft tissue analysis leads to improved planning and satisfactory results with fewer complications. We believe that with further refinement and enhancement, the use of this innovation will pave the way for prefabricated, individualized autologous or biocompatible alloplastic implantable frameworks based on an accurate mirror image of each patient's normal ear in unilateral cases and in bilateral cases, appropriately sized. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Three-dimensional short-range MR angiography and multiplanar reconstruction images in the evaluation of neurovascular compression in hemifacial spasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong; Lee, Jae Gue; Rhee, Bong Arm [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of three-dimensional(3D) short-range MR angiography(MRA) and multiplanar reconstruction(MPR) imaging in hemifacial spasm(HS). Materials and Methods : Two hundreds patients with HS were studied using a 1.5T MRI system with a 3D time-of-flight(TOF) MRA sequence. To reconstruct short-range MRA, 6-10 source images near the 7-8th cranial nerve complex were processed using a maximum-intensity projection technique. In addition, an MPR technique was used to investigate neurovascular compression. We observed the relationship between the root-exit zone(REZ) of the 7th cranial nerve and compressive vessel, and identified the compressive vessels on symptomatic sides. To investigate neurovascular contact, asymptomatic contralateral sides were also evaluated. Results : MRI showed that in 197 of 200 patients there was vascular compression or contact with the facial nerve REZ on symptomatic sides. One of the three remaining patients was suffering from acoustic neurinoma on the symptomatic side, while in two patients there were no definite abnormal findings.Compressive vessels were demonstrated in all 197 patients; 80 cases involved the anterior inferior cerebellar artery(AICA), 74 the posterior cerebellar artery(PICA), 13 the vertebral artery(VA), 16 the VA and AICA, eight the VA and PICA, and six the AICA and PICA. In all 197 patients, compressive vessels were reconstructed on one 3D short-range MRA image without discontinuation from vertebral or basilar arteries. 3D MPR studies provided additional information such as the direction of compression and course of the compressive vessel. In 31 patients there was neurovascular contact on the contralateral side at the 7-8th cranial nerve complex. Conclusion : Inpatients with HS, 3D short-range MRA and MPR images are excellent and very helpful for the investigation of neurovascular compression and the identification of compressive vessels.

  17. Phase correction for three-dimensional (3D) diffusion-weighted interleaved EPI using 3D multiplexed sensitivity encoding and reconstruction (3D-MUSER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Hui, Edward S; Chiu, Pui-Wai; Liu, Xiaoxi; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) multiplexed sensitivity encoding and reconstruction (3D-MUSER) algorithm is proposed to reduce aliasing artifacts and signal corruption caused by inter-shot 3D phase variations in 3D diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging (DW-EPI). 3D-MUSER extends the original framework of multiplexed sensitivity encoding (MUSE) to a hybrid k-space-based reconstruction, thereby enabling the correction of inter-shot 3D phase variations. A 3D single-shot EPI navigator echo was used to measure inter-shot 3D phase variations. The performance of 3D-MUSER was evaluated by analyses of point-spread function (PSF), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and artifact levels. The efficacy of phase correction using 3D-MUSER for different slab thicknesses and b-values were investigated. Simulations showed that 3D-MUSER could eliminate artifacts because of through-slab phase variation and reduce noise amplification because of SENSE reconstruction. All aliasing artifacts and signal corruption in 3D interleaved DW-EPI acquired with different slab thicknesses and b-values were reduced by our new algorithm. A near-whole brain single-slab 3D DTI with 1.3-mm isotropic voxel acquired at 1.5T was successfully demonstrated. 3D phase correction for 3D interleaved DW-EPI data is made possible by 3D-MUSER, thereby improving feasible slab thickness and maximum feasible b-value. Magn Reson Med 79:2702-2712, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Three-dimensional short-range MR angiography and multiplanar reconstruction images in the evaluation of neurovascular compression in hemifacial spasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong; Lee, Jae Gue; Rhee, Bong Arm

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of three-dimensional(3D) short-range MR angiography(MRA) and multiplanar reconstruction(MPR) imaging in hemifacial spasm(HS). Materials and Methods : Two hundreds patients with HS were studied using a 1.5T MRI system with a 3D time-of-flight(TOF) MRA sequence. To reconstruct short-range MRA, 6-10 source images near the 7-8th cranial nerve complex were processed using a maximum-intensity projection technique. In addition, an MPR technique was used to investigate neurovascular compression. We observed the relationship between the root-exit zone(REZ) of the 7th cranial nerve and compressive vessel, and identified the compressive vessels on symptomatic sides. To investigate neurovascular contact, asymptomatic contralateral sides were also evaluated. Results : MRI showed that in 197 of 200 patients there was vascular compression or contact with the facial nerve REZ on symptomatic sides. One of the three remaining patients was suffering from acoustic neurinoma on the symptomatic side, while in two patients there were no definite abnormal findings.Compressive vessels were demonstrated in all 197 patients; 80 cases involved the anterior inferior cerebellar artery(AICA), 74 the posterior cerebellar artery(PICA), 13 the vertebral artery(VA), 16 the VA and AICA, eight the VA and PICA, and six the AICA and PICA. In all 197 patients, compressive vessels were reconstructed on one 3D short-range MRA image without discontinuation from vertebral or basilar arteries. 3D MPR studies provided additional information such as the direction of compression and course of the compressive vessel. In 31 patients there was neurovascular contact on the contralateral side at the 7-8th cranial nerve complex. Conclusion : Inpatients with HS, 3D short-range MRA and MPR images are excellent and very helpful for the investigation of neurovascular compression and the identification of compressive vessels

  19. The Three-Dimensional Culture System with Matrigel and Neurotrophic Factors Preserves the Structure and Function of Spiral Ganglion Neuron In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gaoying; Liu, Wenwen; Fan, Zhaomin; Zhang, Daogong; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Qi, Jieyu; Zhang, Shasha; Gao, Bradley T; Bai, Xiaohui; Li, Jianfeng; Chai, Renjie; Wang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Whole organ culture of the spiral ganglion region is a resourceful model system facilitating manipulation and analysis of live sprial ganglion neurons (SGNs). Three-dimensional (3D) cultures have been demonstrated to have many biomedical applications, but the effect of 3D culture in maintaining the SGNs structure and function in explant culture remains uninvestigated. In this study, we used the matrigel to encapsulate the spiral ganglion region isolated from neonatal mice. First, we optimized the matrigel concentration for the 3D culture system and found the 3D culture system protected the SGNs against apoptosis, preserved the structure of spiral ganglion region, and promoted the sprouting and outgrowth of SGNs neurites. Next, we found the 3D culture system promoted growth cone growth as evidenced by a higher average number and a longer average length of filopodia and a larger growth cone area. 3D culture system also significantly elevated the synapse density of SGNs. Last, we found that the 3D culture system combined with neurotrophic factors had accumulated effects in promoting the neurites outgrowth compared with 3D culture or NFs treatment only groups. Together, we conclude that the 3D culture system preserves the structure and function of SGN in explant culture.

  20. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  1. Direct Simulation of Transport Properties from Three-Dimensional (3D) Reconstructed Solid-Oxide Fuel-Cell (SOFC) Electrode Microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunda, Naga Siva Kumar; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2012-01-01

    A well-known approach to develop a high efficiency solid-oxide fuel-cell (SOFC) consists of extracting the microstructure and transport properties such as volume fractions, internal surface area, geometric connectivity, effective gas diffusivity, effective electronic conductivity and geometric tortuosities from three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of the SOFC electrodes; thereafter, performing the SOFC efficiency calculations using previously mentioned quantities. In the present work, dual-beam focused ion beam - scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) is applied on one of the SOFC cathodes, a lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) electrode, to estimate the aforementioned properties. A framework for calculating transport properties is presented in this work. 3D microstructures of LSM electrode are reconstructed from a series of two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional FIB-SEM images. Volume percentages of connected, isolated and dead-ends networks of pore and LSM phases are estimated. Different networks of pore and LSM phases are discretized with tetrahedral elements. Finally, the finite element method (FEM) is applied to calculate effective gas diffusivity and electronic conductivity of pore and LSM phases, respectively. Geometric tortuosities are estimated from the porosity and effective transport properties. The results obtained using FEM are compared with the finite volume method (FVM) results obtained by Gunda et al. [J. Power Sources, 196(7), 35929(2011)] and other numerical results obtained on randomly generated porous medium. Effect of consideration of dead-ends and isolated-ends networks on calculation of effective transport properties is studied.

  2. Prospective randomized comparison of rotational angiography with three-dimensional reconstruction and computed tomography merged with electro-anatomical mapping: a two center atrial fibrillation ablation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Rishi; Gorev, Maxim V; Poghosyan, Hermine; Pothier, Lindsay; Matkins, John; Kotler, Gregory; Moroz, Sarah; Armstrong, James; Nemtsov, Sergei V; Orlov, Michael V

    2016-08-01

    To compare the efficacy and accuracy of rotational angiography with three-dimensional reconstruction (3DATG) image merged with electro-anatomical mapping (EAM) vs. CT-EAM. A prospective, randomized, parallel, two-center study conducted in 36 patients (25 men, age 65 ± 10 years) undergoing AF ablation (33 % paroxysmal, 67 % persistent) guided by 3DATG (group 1) vs. CT (group 2) image fusion with EAM. 3DATG was performed on the Philips Allura Xper FD 10 system. Procedural characteristics including time, radiation exposure, outcome, and navigation accuracy were compared between two groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in total procedure duration or time spent for various procedural steps. Minor differences in procedural characteristics were present between two centers. Segmentation and fusion time for 3DATG or CT-EAM was short and similar between both centers. Accuracy of navigation guided by either method was high and did not depend on left atrial size. Maintenance of sinus rhythm between the two groups was no different up to 24 months of follow-up. This study did not find superiority of 3DATG-EAM image merge to guide AF ablation when compared to CT-EAM fusion. Both merging techniques result in similar navigation accuracy.

  3. Characterization of a detector chain using a FPGA-based time-to-digital converter to reconstruct the three-dimensional coordinates of single particles at high flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogrette, F.; Heurteau, D.; Chang, R.; Bouton, Q.; Westbrook, C. I.; Sellem, R.; Clément, D.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the development of a novel FPGA-based time-to-digital converter and its implementation in a detection chain that records the coordinates of single particles along three dimensions. The detector is composed of micro-channel plates mounted on top of a cross delay line and connected to fast electronics. We demonstrate continuous recording of the timing signals from the cross delay line at rates up to 4.1 × 106 s-1 and three-dimensional reconstruction of the coordinates up to 3.2 × 106 particles per second. From the imaging of a calibrated structure we measure the in-plane resolution of the detector to be 140(20) μm at a flux of 3 × 105 particles per second. In addition, we analyze a method to estimate the resolution without placing any structure under vacuum, a significant practical improvement. While we use UV photons here, the results of this work apply to the detection of other kinds of particles.

  4. Three-dimensional image reconstruction with free open-source OsiriX software in video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy and segmentectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fei; Wang, Jian; Yao, Ju; Hang, Fangrong; Lei, Xu; Cao, Yongke

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the practice and the feasibility of Osirix, a free and open-source medical imaging software, in performing accurate video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy and segmentectomy. From July 2014 to April 2016, 63 patients received anatomical video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), either lobectomy or segmentectomy, in our department. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction images of 61 (96.8%) patients were preoperatively obtained with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Preoperative resection simulations were accomplished with patient-individual reconstructed 3D images. For lobectomy, pulmonary lobar veins, arteries and bronchi were identified meticulously by carefully reviewing the 3D images on the display. For segmentectomy, the intrasegmental veins in the affected segment for division and the intersegmental veins to be preserved were identified on the 3D images. Patient preoperative characteristics, surgical outcomes and postoperative data were reviewed from a prospective database. The study cohort of 63 patients included 33 (52.4%) men and 30 (47.6%) women, of whom 46 (73.0%) underwent VATS lobectomy and 17 (27.0%) underwent VATS segmentectomy. There was 1 conversion from VATS lobectomy to open thoracotomy because of fibrocalcified lymph nodes. A VATS lobectomy was performed in 1 case after completing the segmentectomy because invasive adenocarcinoma was detected by intraoperative frozen-section analysis. There were no 30-day or 90-day operative mortalities CONCLUSIONS: The free, simple, and user-friendly software program Osirix can provide a 3D anatomic structure of pulmonary vessels and a clear vision into the space between the lesion and adjacent tissues, which allows surgeons to make preoperative simulations and improve the accuracy and safety of actual surgery. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring the Excavation Damaged Zone in Opalinus clay by three dimensional reconstruction of the electrical resistivity in the Mont Terri gallery G-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesparre, N.; Adler, A.; Nicollin, F.; Gibert, D.; Nussbaum, C.

    2012-04-01

    The characteristics of opalinus clay have been studied in the last years for its capacity to retain radionuclide transport as a low permeable rock. This formation presents thereby suitable properties for hosting repository sites of radioactive waste. The Mont Terri underground rock laboratory (Switzerland) has been excavated in opalinus clay layer in order to develop experiences improving the knowledge on the physico-chemical properties of the rock. The study of electrical properties furnishes information on the rock structure, its anisotropy and the changes of these properties with time (Nicollin et al., 2010 ; Thovert et al., 2011). Here the three dimensional reconstruction of the electrical resistivity aims at monitoring the temporal evolution of the excavation damaged zone. Three rings of electrodes have been set-up around the gallery and voltage is measured between two electrodes while a current is injected between two others (Gibert et al., 2006). Measurements have been achieved from July 2004 until April 2008 before, during and after the excavation of the gallery 04. In this study we develop a computational approach to reconstruct three dimensional images of the resistivity in the vicinity of the electrodes. A finite element model is used to represent the complex geometry of the gallery. The measurements inferred from a given resistivity distribution are estimated using the software EIDORS (Adler and Lionheart, 2006), this constitutes the forward problem. The reconstruction of the media resistivity is then implemented by fitting the estimated to the measured data, via the resolution of an inverse problem. The parameters of this inverse problem are defined by mapping the forward problem elements into a coarser mesh. This allows to reduce drastically the number of unknowns and so increases the robustness of the inversion. The inversion is executed with the conjugate gradient method regularised by an analysis of the Jacobian singular values. The results show an

  6. Influence of the initial rupture size and tendon subregion on three-dimensional biomechanical properties of single-row and double-row rotator cuff reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbach, O; Pape, D; Raber, F; Busch, L C; Kohn, D; Kieb, M

    2012-11-01

    Influence of the initial rotator cuff tear size and of different subregions of the SSP tendon on the cyclic loading behavior of a modified single-row reconstruction compared to a suture-bridging double-row repair. Artificial tears (25 and 35 mm) were created in the rotator cuff of 24 human cadaver shoulders. The reconstructions were performed as a single-row repair (SR) using a modified suture configuration or a suture-bridge double-row repair (DR). Radiostereometric analysis was used under cyclic loading (50 cycles, 10–180 N, 10–250 N) to calculate cyclic displacement in three different planes (anteroposterior (x), craniocaudal (y) and mediolateral (z) level). Cyclic displacement was recorded, and differences in cyclic displacement of the anterior compared to the posterior subregions of the tendon were calculated. In small-to-medium tears (25 mm) and medium-to-large tears (35 mm), significant lower cyclic displacement was seen for the SR-reconstruction compared to the DR-repair at 180 N (p ≤ 0.0001; p = 0.001) and 250 N (p = 0.001; p = 0.007) in the x-level. These results were confirmed in the y-level at 180 N (p = 0.001; p = 0.0022) and 250 N (p = 0.005; p = 0.0018). Comparison of the initial tear sizes demonstrated significant differences in cyclic displacement for the DR technique in the x-level at 180 N (p = 0.002) and 250 N (p = 0.004). Comparison of the anterior versus the posterior subregion of the tendon revealed significant lower gap formation in the posterior compared to the anterior subregions in the x-level for both tested rotator cuff repairs (p ≤ 0.05). The tested single-row repair using a modified suture configuration achieved superior results in three-dimensional measurements of cyclic displacement compared to the tested double-row suture-bridge repair. The results were dependent on the initial rupture size of the rotator cuff tear. Furthermore, significant differences were found between tendon subregions of the rotator cuff with

  7. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, D; Jung, J; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea, College of medicine, Department of biomedical engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  8. A semi-experimental nodal synthesis method for the on-line reconstruction of three-dimensional neutron flux-shapes and reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacqmin, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The safety and optimal performance of large, commercial, light-water reactors require the knowledge at all time of the neutron-flux distribution in the core. In principle, this information can be obtained by solving the time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. However, this approach is complicated and very expensive. Sufficiently accurate, real-time calculations (time scale of approximately one second) are not yet possible on desktop computers, even with fast-running, nodal kinetics codes. A semi-experimental, nodal synthesis method which avoids the solution of the time-dependent, neutron diffusion equations is described. The essential idea of this method is to approximate instantaneous nodal group-fluxes by a linear combination of K, precomputed, three-dimensional, static expansion-functions. The time-dependent coefficients of the combination are found from the requirement that the reconstructed flux-distribution agree in a least-squares sense with the readings of J (≥K) fixed, prompt-responding neutron-detectors. Possible numerical difficulties with the least-squares solution of the ill-conditioned, J-by-K system of equations are brought under complete control by the use of a singular-value-decomposition technique. This procedure amounts to the rearrangement of the original, linear combination of K expansion functions into an equivalent more convenient, linear combination of R (≤K) orthogonalized ''modes'' of decreasing magnitude. Exceedingly small modes are zeroed to eliminate any risk of roundoff-error amplification, and to assure consistency with the limited accuracy of the data. Additional modes are zeroed when it is desirable to limit the sensitivity of the results to measurement noise

  9. Three-dimensional visualization and characterization of bone structure using reconstructed in-vitro μCT images: A pilot study for bone microarchitecture analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar, E-mail: fourier@fi.itb.ac.id [Physics of Earth and Complex Systems, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina [2Biomedical Engineering Research Division, School of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Shari, Mohd Aliff Bin Mohd [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40000 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-03-24

    Micro Computed Tomography (μCT) has been largely used to perform micrometer scale imaging of specimens, bone biopsies and small animals for the study of porous or cavity-containing objects. One of its favored applications is for assessing structural properties of bone. In this research, we perform a pilot study to visualize and characterize bone structure of a chicken bone thigh, as well as to delineate its cortical and trabecular bone regions. We utilize an In-Vitro μCT scanner Skyscan 1173 to acquire a three dimensional image data of a chicken bone thigh. The thigh was scanned using X-ray voltage of 45 kV and current of 150 μA. The reconstructed images have spatial resolution of 142.50 μm/pixel. Using image processing and analysis e.i segmentation by thresholding the gray values (which represent the pseudo density) and binarizing the images, we were able to visualize each part of the bone, i.e., the cortical and trabecular regions. Total volume of the bone is 4663.63 mm{sup 3}, and the surface area of the bone is 7913.42 mm{sup 2}. The volume of the cortical is approximately 1988.62 mm{sup 3} which is nearly 42.64% of the total bone volume. This pilot study has confirmed that the μCT is capable of quantifying 3D bone structural properties and defining its regions separately. For further development, these results can be improved for understanding the pathophysiology of bone abnormality, testing the efficacy of pharmaceutical intervention, or estimating bone biomechanical properties.

  10. A semi-experimental nodal synthesis method for the on-line reconstruction of three-dimensional neutron flux-shapes and reactivity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacqmin, Robert P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1991-12-10

    The safety and optimal performance of large, commercial, light-water reactors require the knowledge at all time of the neutron-flux distribution in the core. In principle, this information can be obtained by solving the time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. However, this approach is complicated and very expensive. Sufficiently accurate, real-time calculations (time scale of approximately one second) are not yet possible on desktop computers, even with fast-running, nodal kinetics codes. A semi-experimental, nodal synthesis method which avoids the solution of the time-dependent, neutron diffusion equations is described. The essential idea of this method is to approximate instantaneous nodal group-fluxes by a linear combination of K, precomputed, three-dimensional, static expansion-functions. The time-dependent coefficients of the combination are found from the requirement that the reconstructed flux-distribution agree in a least-squares sense with the readings of J (≥K) fixed, prompt-responding neutron-detectors. Possible numerical difficulties with the least-squares solution of the ill-conditioned, J-by-K system of equations are brought under complete control by the use of a singular-value-decomposition technique. This procedure amounts to the rearrangement of the original, linear combination of K expansion functions into an equivalent more convenient, linear combination of R (≤K) orthogonalized ``modes`` of decreasing magnitude. Exceedingly small modes are zeroed to eliminate any risk of roundoff-error amplification, and to assure consistency with the limited accuracy of the data. Additional modes are zeroed when it is desirable to limit the sensitivity of the results to measurement noise.

  11. A semi-experimental nodal synthesis method for the on-line reconstruction of three-dimensional neutron flux-shapes and reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacqmin, R.P.

    1991-12-10

    The safety and optimal performance of large, commercial, light-water reactors require the knowledge at all time of the neutron-flux distribution in the core. In principle, this information can be obtained by solving the time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. However, this approach is complicated and very expensive. Sufficiently accurate, real-time calculations (time scale of approximately one second) are not yet possible on desktop computers, even with fast-running, nodal kinetics codes. A semi-experimental, nodal synthesis method which avoids the solution of the time-dependent, neutron diffusion equations is described. The essential idea of this method is to approximate instantaneous nodal group-fluxes by a linear combination of K, precomputed, three-dimensional, static expansion-functions. The time-dependent coefficients of the combination are found from the requirement that the reconstructed flux-distribution agree in a least-squares sense with the readings of J ({ge}K) fixed, prompt-responding neutron-detectors. Possible numerical difficulties with the least-squares solution of the ill-conditioned, J-by-K system of equations are brought under complete control by the use of a singular-value-decomposition technique. This procedure amounts to the rearrangement of the original, linear combination of K expansion functions into an equivalent more convenient, linear combination of R ({le}K) orthogonalized modes'' of decreasing magnitude. Exceedingly small modes are zeroed to eliminate any risk of roundoff-error amplification, and to assure consistency with the limited accuracy of the data. Additional modes are zeroed when it is desirable to limit the sensitivity of the results to measurement noise.

  12. High-resolution fiber tract reconstruction in the human brain by means of three-dimensional polarized light imaging (3D-PLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eAxer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional interactions between different brain regions require connecting fiber tracts, the structural basis of the human connectome. To assemble a comprehensive structural understanding of neural network elements from the microscopic to the macroscopic dimensions, a multimodal and multiscale approach has to be envisaged. However, the integration of results from complementary neuroimaging techniques poses a particular challenge. In this paper, we describe a steadily evolving neuroimaging technique referred to as three-dimensional polarized light imaging (3D-PLI. It is based on the birefringence of the myelin sheaths surrounding axons, and enables the high-resolution analysis of myelinated axons constituting the fiber tracts. 3D-PLI provides the mapping of spatial fiber architecture in the postmortem human brain at a sub-millimeter resolution, i.e. at the mesoscale. The fundamental data structure gained by 3D-PLI is a comprehensive 3D vector field description of fibers and fiber tract orientations – the basis for subsequent tractography. To demonstrate how 3D-PLI can contribute to unravel and assemble the human connectome, a multiscale approach with the same technology was pursued. Two complementary state-of-the-art polarimeters providing different sampling grids (pixel sizes of 100 μm and 1.6 μm were used. To exemplarily highlight the potential of this approach, fiber orientation maps and 3D fiber models were reconstructed in selected regions of the brain (e.g., Corpus callosum, Internal capsule, Pons. The results demonstrate that 3D-PLI is an ideal tool to serve as an interface between the microscopic and macroscopic levels of organization of the human connectome.

  13. The effect of a manual instrumentation technique on five types of premolar root canal geometry assessed by microcomputed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke-Zeng; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Ru; Hu, Tao; Guo, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Together with diagnosis and treatment planning, a good knowledge of the root canal system and its frequent variations is a necessity for successful root canal therapy. The selection of instrumentation techniques for variants in internal anatomy of teeth has significant effects on the shaping ability and cleaning effectiveness. The aim of this study was to reveal the differences made by including variations in the internal anatomy of premolars into the study protocol for investigation of a single instrumentation technique (hand ProTaper instruments) assessed by microcomputed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction. Five single-root premolars, whose root canal systems were classified into one of five types, were scanned with micro-CT before and after preparation with a hand ProTaper instrument. Instrumentation characteristics were measured quantitatively in 3-D using a customized application framework based on MeVisLab. Numeric values were obtained for canal surface area, volume, volume changes, percentage of untouched surface, dentin wall thickness, and the thickness of dentin removed. Preparation errors were also evaluated using a color-coded reconstruction. Canal volumes and surface areas were increased after instrumentation. Prepared canals of all five types were straightened, with transportation toward the inner aspects of S-shaped or multiple curves. However, a ledge was formed at the apical third curve of the type II canal system and a wide range in the percentage of unchanged canal surfaces (27.4-83.0%) was recorded. The dentin walls were more than 0.3 mm thick except in a 1 mm zone from the apical surface and the hazardous area of the type II canal system after preparation with an F3 instrument. The 3-D color-coded images showed different morphological changes in the five types of root canal systems shaped with the same hand instrumentation technique. Premolars are among the most complex teeth for root canal treatment and instrumentation techniques

  14. The effect of a manual instrumentation technique on five types of premolar root canal geometry assessed by microcomputed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Tao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Together with diagnosis and treatment planning, a good knowledge of the root canal system and its frequent variations is a necessity for successful root canal therapy. The selection of instrumentation techniques for variants in internal anatomy of teeth has significant effects on the shaping ability and cleaning effectiveness. The aim of this study was to reveal the differences made by including variations in the internal anatomy of premolars into the study protocol for investigation of a single instrumentation technique (hand ProTaper instruments assessed by microcomputed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction. Methods Five single-root premolars, whose root canal systems were classified into one of five types, were scanned with micro-CT before and after preparation with a hand ProTaper instrument. Instrumentation characteristics were measured quantitatively in 3-D using a customized application framework based on MeVisLab. Numeric values were obtained for canal surface area, volume, volume changes, percentage of untouched surface, dentin wall thickness, and the thickness of dentin removed. Preparation errors were also evaluated using a color-coded reconstruction. Results Canal volumes and surface areas were increased after instrumentation. Prepared canals of all five types were straightened, with transportation toward the inner aspects of S-shaped or multiple curves. However, a ledge was formed at the apical third curve of the type II canal system and a wide range in the percentage of unchanged canal surfaces (27.4-83.0% was recorded. The dentin walls were more than 0.3 mm thick except in a 1 mm zone from the apical surface and the hazardous area of the type II canal system after preparation with an F3 instrument. Conclusions The 3-D color-coded images showed different morphological changes in the five types of root canal systems shaped with the same hand instrumentation technique. Premolars are among the most

  15. Three dimensional canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A generic construction of canonical transformations is given in three-dimensional phase spaces on which Nambu bracket is imposed. First, the canonical transformations are defined as based on cannonade transformations. Second, it is shown that determination of the generating functions and the transformation itself for given generating function is possible by solving correspondent Pfaffian differential equations. Generating functions of type are introduced and all of them are listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed as the complementary subject. Finally, it is shown that decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase spaces as in the usual two-dimensional ones.

  16. Three-dimensional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toga, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on new neuroimaging technologies that are revolutionizing the study of the brain be enabling investigators to visualize its structure and entire pattern of functional activity in three dimensions. The book provides a theoretical and practical explanation of the new science of creating three-dimensional computer images of the brain. The coverage includes a review of the technology and methodology of neuroimaging, the instrumentation and procedures, issues of quantification, analytic protocols, and descriptions of neuroimaging systems. Examples are given to illustrate the use of three-dimensional enuroimaging to quantitate spatial measurements, perform analysis of autoradiographic and histological studies, and study the relationship between brain structure and function

  17. Microsurgical management of cerebral aneurysms based in CT angiography with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CTA) and without preoperative cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Darder, J.M.; Pesudo-Martinez, J.V.; Feliu-Tatay, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To study the possibilities of the microsurgical management of ruptured intracranial aneurysms with the sole preoperative information provided by computed tomography angiography with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CTA). Methods. Patients were studied with 3D-CTA after diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage. If the study had an adequate quality and revealed an aneurysm congruent with the clinical findings or neurological examination and/or with the location of the bleeding on computed tomography (CT) scan an early microsurgical clipping of the lesion was done. When the quality of the 3D-CTA study was not adequate or the quality being adequate displayed no lesions or the findings were not accurate enough to warrant direct microsurgical treatment, the patient was studied with cerebral digital substraction (DS) angiography. A total of 44 consecutive patients harboring a total of 47 intracranial aneurysms diagnosed by 3D-CTA and without preoperative DS angiography were submitted to microsurgical clipping and included in the study. Results. The overall mortality was 15.9 % and the favorable results evaluated 6 months after discharge by means of the Glasgow outcome scale reached 70.4 %. All lesions were successfully clipped. Surgery was done a mean of 4.1 days after the admission bleeding. A total of four microlesions undiagnosed by 3D-CTA were found at surgery and clipped. Postoperative DS angiography and necropsy findings were also used as control of the 3D-CTA findings but no additional information was provided excepting the finding in DS angiography of an asymptomatic intracavemous aneurysm. Therefore the sensitivity of the 3D-CTA for diagnosis of symtomatic aneurysms was 100 % and the overall sensitivity 90.4 %. Conclusions. We have reached similar results in patients operated on with or without preoperative angiography. 3D-CTA provides very valuable anatomical information, which has an additional value in the microsurgical treatment of aneurysms of the

  18. A complete three-dimensional reconstruction of the myoanatomy of Loricifera: comparative morphology of an adult and a Higgins larva stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ricardo C; Bailly, Xavier; Leasi, Francesca; Reichert, Heinrich; Sørensen, Martin V; Kristensen, Reinhardt M

    2013-04-15

    Loricifera is a group of small, marine animals, with undetermined phylogenetic relationships within Ecdysozoa (molting protostome animals). Despite their well-known external morphology, data on the internal anatomy of loriciferans are still incomplete. Aiming to increase the knowledge of this enigmatic phylum, we reconstruct for the first time the three-dimensional myoanatomy of loriciferans. Adult Nanaloricus sp. and the Higgins larva of Armorloricus elegans were investigated with cytochemical labeling techniques and CLSM. We discuss our findings with reference to other loriciferan species and recently established phylogenies. The somatic musculature of both adult and larval stages is very complex and includes several muscles arranged in three orientations: circular, transverse and longitudinal. In adult Nanaloricus sp., the introvert is characterized by a net-like muscular arrangement, which is composed of five thin circular fibers crossed by several (up to 30) thin longitudinal fibers with bifurcated anterior ends. Two sets of muscles surround the pre-pharyngeal armature: 6 buccal tube retractors arranged 3 × 2 in a conical shaped structure, and 8 mouth cone retractors. Additionally, a thick, circular muscle marks the neck region and a putative anal sphincter is the posteriormost myoanatomical feature. In the Higgins larva of A. elegans, two circular muscles are distinguished anteriorly in the introvert: a dorsal semicircular fiber and a thin ring muscle. The posteriormost region of the body is characterized by an anal sphincter and a triangular muscle. Based on the currently available knowledge, the myoanatomical bodyplan of adult loriciferans includes: (i) 8 mouth cone retractors, (ii) a pharynx bulb composed of transversal fibers arranged radially, (iii) circular muscles of the head and neck, (iv) internal muscles of the spinoscalids, (v) longitudinal muscles spanning all body regions, and (vi) transverse (circular) muscles in the abdomen. Concerning the

  19. Development of a High-Order Navier-Stokes Solver Using Flux Reconstruction to Simulate Three-Dimensional Vortex Structures in a Curved Artery Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher

    Low-order numerical methods are widespread in academic solvers and ubiquitous in industrial solvers due to their robustness and usability. High-order methods are less robust and more complicated to implement; however, they exhibit low numerical dissipation and have the potential to improve the accuracy of flow simulations at a lower computational cost when compared to low-order methods. This motivates our development of a high-order compact method using Huynh's flux reconstruction scheme for solving unsteady incompressible flow on unstructured grids. We use Chorin's classic artificial compressibility formulation with dual time stepping to solve unsteady flow problems. In 2D, an implicit non-linear lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel scheme with backward Euler discretization is used to efficiently march the solution in pseudo time, while a second-order backward Euler discretization is used to march in physical time. We verify and validate implementation of the high-order method coupled with our implicit time stepping scheme using both steady and unsteady incompressible flow problems. The current implicit time stepping scheme is proven effective in satisfying the divergence-free constraint on the velocity field in the artificial compressibility formulation. The high-order solver is extended to 3D and parallelized using MPI. Due to its simplicity, time marching for 3D problems is done explicitly. The feasibility of using the current implicit time stepping scheme for large scale three-dimensional problems with high-order polynomial basis still remains to be seen. We directly use the aforementioned numerical solver to simulate pulsatile flow of a Newtonian blood-analog fluid through a rigid 180-degree curved artery model. One of the most physiologically relevant forces within the cardiovascular system is the wall shear stress. This force is important because atherosclerotic regions are strongly correlated with curvature and branching in the human vasculature, where the

  20. Three-dimensional imaging utilizing energy discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, D.L.; Hoffman, K.R.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for three-dimensional image reconstruction in nuclear medicine which uses scattered radiation rather than multiple projected images to determine the source depth within the body. Images taken from numerous energy windows are combined to construct the source distribution in the body. The gamma-ray camera is not moved during the imaging process. Experiments with both Tc-99m and Ga-67 demonstrate that two channels of depth information can be extracted from the low energy images produced by scattered radiation. By combining this technique with standard SPECT reconstruction using multiple projections the authors anticipate much improved spatial resolution in the overall three-dimensional reconstruction

  1. Magnetic-resonance-imaging-based three-dimensional muscle reconstruction of hip abductor muscle volume in a person with a transfemoral bone-anchored prosthesis : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijendekkers, Ruud A.; Marra, Marco A.; Ploegmakers, Marieke J.M.; Van Hinte, Gerben; Frölke, Jan Paul; Van De Meent, Hendrik; Staal, J. Bart; Hoogeboom, Thomas J.; Verdonschot, Nico

    2018-01-01

    Background: Persons with transfemoral amputation typically have severe muscle atrophy of the residual limb. The effect of bone-anchored prosthesis use on existing muscle atrophy is unknown. A potentially feasible method to evaluate this is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based three-dimensional

  2. Three-Dimensional Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, Vitor; Viana, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors present the elements of a general theory for flows on three-dimensional compact boundaryless manifolds, encompassing flows with equilibria accumulated by regular orbits. The book aims to provide a global perspective of this theory and make it easier for the reader to digest the growing literature on this subject. This is not the first book on the subject of dynamical systems, but there are distinct aspects which together make this book unique. Firstly, this book treats mostly continuous time dynamical systems, instead of its discrete counterpart, exhaustively treated

  3. Three dimensional system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Antonis; Radojcic, Riko

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuit (IC) stacking is the next big step in electronic system integration. It enables packing more functionality, as well as integration of heterogeneous materials, devices, and signals, in the same space (volume). This results in consumer electronics (e.g., mobile, handheld devices) which can run more powerful applications, such as full-length movies and 3D games, with longer battery life. This technology is so promising that it is expected to be a mainstream technology a few years from now, less than 10-15 years from its original conception. To achieve thi

  4. Demonstrating the Usefulness of CAELinux for Computer Aided Engineering using an Example of the Three Dimensional Reconstruction of a Pig Liver

    OpenAIRE

    P., Kirana Kumara

    2012-01-01

    CAELinux is a Linux distribution which is bundled with free software packages related to Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). The free software packages include software that can build a three dimensional solid model, programs that can mesh a geometry, software for carrying out Finite Element Analysis (FEA), programs that can carry out image processing etc. Present work has two goals: 1) To give a brief description of CAELinux 2) To demonstrate that CAELinux could be useful for Computer Aided En...

  5. Three Dimensional Dirac Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Saad

    2014-03-01

    Dirac points on the Fermi surface of two dimensional graphene are responsible for its unique electronic behavior. One can ask whether any three dimensional materials support similar pseudorelativistic physics in their bulk electronic spectra. This possibility has been investigated theoretically and is now supported by two successful experimental demonstrations reported during the last year. In this talk, I will summarize the various ways in which Dirac semimetals can be realized in three dimensions with primary focus on a specific theory developed on the basis of representations of crystal spacegroups. A three dimensional Dirac (Weyl) semimetal can appear in the presence (absence) of inversion symmetry by tuning parameters to the phase boundary separating a bulk insulating and a topological insulating phase. More generally, we find that specific rules governing crystal symmetry representations of electrons with spin lead to robust Dirac points at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Combining these rules with microscopic considerations identifies six candidate Dirac semimetals. Another method towards engineering Dirac semimetals involves combining crystal symmetry and band inversion. Several candidate materials have been proposed utilizing this mechanism and one of the candidates has been successfully demonstrated as a Dirac semimetal in two independent experiments. Work carried out in collaboration with: Julia A. Steinberg, Steve M. Young, J.C.Y. Teo, C.L. Kane, E.J. Mele and Andrew M. Rappe.

  6. Long-term culture of rat hippocampal neurons at low density in serum-free medium: combination of the sandwich culture technique with the three-dimensional nanofibrous hydrogel PuraMatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Ai; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    The primary culture of neuronal cells plays an important role in neuroscience. There has long been a need for methods enabling the long-term culture of primary neurons at low density, in defined serum-free medium. However, the lower the cell density, the more difficult it is to maintain the cells in culture. Therefore, we aimed to develop a method for long-term culture of neurons at low density, in serum-free medium, without the need for a glial feeder layer. Here, we describe the work leading to our determination of a protocol for long-term (>2 months) primary culture of rat hippocampal neurons in serum-free medium at the low density of 3×10(4) cells/mL (8.9×10(3) cells/cm2) without a glial feeder layer. Neurons were cultured on a three-dimensional nanofibrous hydrogel, PuraMatrix, and sandwiched under a coverslip to reproduce the in vivo environment, including the three-dimensional extracellular matrix, low-oxygen conditions, and exposure to concentrated paracrine factors. We examined the effects of varying PuraMatrix concentrations, the timing and presence or absence of a coverslip, the timing of neuronal isolation from embryos, cell density at plating, medium components, and changing the medium or not on parameters such as developmental pattern, cell viability, neuronal ratio, and neurite length. Using our method of combining the sandwich culture technique with PuraMatrix in Neurobasal medium/B27/L-glutamine for primary neuron culture, we achieved longer neurites (≥3,000 µm), greater cell viability (≥30%) for 2 months, and uniform culture across the wells. We also achieved an average neuronal ratio of 97%, showing a nearly pure culture of neurons without astrocytes. Our method is considerably better than techniques for the primary culture of neurons, and eliminates the need for a glial feeder layer. It also exhibits continued support for axonal elongation and synaptic activity for long periods (>6 weeks).

  7. Long-term culture of rat hippocampal neurons at low density in serum-free medium: combination of the sandwich culture technique with the three-dimensional nanofibrous hydrogel PuraMatrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Kaneko

    Full Text Available The primary culture of neuronal cells plays an important role in neuroscience. There has long been a need for methods enabling the long-term culture of primary neurons at low density, in defined serum-free medium. However, the lower the cell density, the more difficult it is to maintain the cells in culture. Therefore, we aimed to develop a method for long-term culture of neurons at low density, in serum-free medium, without the need for a glial feeder layer. Here, we describe the work leading to our determination of a protocol for long-term (>2 months primary culture of rat hippocampal neurons in serum-free medium at the low density of 3×10(4 cells/mL (8.9×10(3 cells/cm2 without a glial feeder layer. Neurons were cultured on a three-dimensional nanofibrous hydrogel, PuraMatrix, and sandwiched under a coverslip to reproduce the in vivo environment, including the three-dimensional extracellular matrix, low-oxygen conditions, and exposure to concentrated paracrine factors. We examined the effects of varying PuraMatrix concentrations, the timing and presence or absence of a coverslip, the timing of neuronal isolation from embryos, cell density at plating, medium components, and changing the medium or not on parameters such as developmental pattern, cell viability, neuronal ratio, and neurite length. Using our method of combining the sandwich culture technique with PuraMatrix in Neurobasal medium/B27/L-glutamine for primary neuron culture, we achieved longer neurites (≥3,000 µm, greater cell viability (≥30% for 2 months, and uniform culture across the wells. We also achieved an average neuronal ratio of 97%, showing a nearly pure culture of neurons without astrocytes. Our method is considerably better than techniques for the primary culture of neurons, and eliminates the need for a glial feeder layer. It also exhibits continued support for axonal elongation and synaptic activity for long periods (>6 weeks.

  8. Three dimensional electrochemical system for neurobiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez, Patricia; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report a novel three dimensional electrode array for electrochemical measurements in neuronal studies. The main advantage of working with these out-of-plane structures is the enhanced sensitivity of the system in terms of measuring electrochemical changes in the environment...

  9. Porcine pulmonary angiotensin I-converting enzyme--biochemical characterization and spatial arrangement of the N- and C-domains by three-dimensional electron microscopic reconstruction.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hui-Ling; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Hecht, Hans-Jürgen; Tsai, Hsin

    2010-01-01

    The somatic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (sACE; peptidyl-dipeptidase A; EC 3.4.15.1) was isolated from pig lung and purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme has a molecular mass of about 180 kDa. Upon proteolytic cleavage, two approximately 90 kDa fragments were obtained and identified by amino-terminal sequence analysis as the N- and C-domains of sACE. Both purified domains were shown to be catalytically active. A 2.3 nm resolution model of sACE was obtained by three-dimensional elect...

  10. 3D Reconstruction and Standardization of the Rat Vibrissal Cortex for Precise Registration of Single Neuron Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Robert; Narayanan, Rajeevan T.; Helmstaedter, Moritz; de Kock, Christiaan P. J.; Oberlaender, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) structure of neural circuits is commonly studied by reconstructing individual or small groups of neurons in separate preparations. Investigation of structural organization principles or quantification of dendritic and axonal innervation thus requires integration of many reconstructed morphologies into a common reference frame. Here we present a standardized 3D model of the rat vibrissal cortex and introduce an automated registration tool that allows for precise placement of single neuron reconstructions. We (1) developed an automated image processing pipeline to reconstruct 3D anatomical landmarks, i.e., the barrels in Layer 4, the pia and white matter surfaces and the blood vessel pattern from high-resolution images, (2) quantified these landmarks in 12 different rats, (3) generated an average 3D model of the vibrissal cortex and (4) used rigid transformations and stepwise linear scaling to register 94 neuron morphologies, reconstructed from in vivo stainings, to the standardized cortex model. We find that anatomical landmarks vary substantially across the vibrissal cortex within an individual rat. In contrast, the 3D layout of the entire vibrissal cortex remains remarkably preserved across animals. This allows for precise registration of individual neuron reconstructions with approximately 30 µm accuracy. Our approach could be used to reconstruct and standardize other anatomically defined brain areas and may ultimately lead to a precise digital reference atlas of the rat brain. PMID:23284282

  11. Simulation and experimental studies of three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction from insufficient sampling data based on compressed-sensing theory for potential applications to dental cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Je, U.K.; Lee, M.S.; Cho, H.S.; Hong, D.K.; Park, Y.O.; Park, C.K.; Cho, H.M.; Choi, S.I.; Woo, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    In practical applications of three-dimensional (3D) tomographic imaging, there are often challenges for image reconstruction from insufficient sampling data. In computed tomography (CT), for example, image reconstruction from sparse views and/or limited-angle (<360°) views would enable fast scanning with reduced imaging doses to the patient. In this study, we investigated and implemented a reconstruction algorithm based on the compressed-sensing (CS) theory, which exploits the sparseness of the gradient image with substantially high accuracy, for potential applications to low-dose, high-accurate dental cone-beam CT (CBCT). We performed systematic simulation works to investigate the image characteristics and also performed experimental works by applying the algorithm to a commercially-available dental CBCT system to demonstrate its effectiveness for image reconstruction in insufficient sampling problems. We successfully reconstructed CBCT images of superior accuracy from insufficient sampling data and evaluated the reconstruction quality quantitatively. Both simulation and experimental demonstrations of the CS-based reconstruction from insufficient data indicate that the CS-based algorithm can be applied directly to current dental CBCT systems for reducing the imaging doses and further improving the image quality

  12. Three-dimensional CT of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinreich, S.J.; Price, J.C.; Wang, H.; Ahn, H.S.; Kashima, H.

    1988-01-01

    Seventeen patients with mandibular oblation for facial neoplasia, primary neoplasm, and trauma were evaluated with CT and three-dimensional CT. In eight of these patients, a computerized acrylic model was generated for preoperative planning and postoperative reconstruction. The ramus and body of the mandible were reconstructed with mirror image and fusion techniques. Reconstructions of the anterior mandible were generated from models including the midface, skull based, and residual mandibular fragments. The results are preliminary; however, the authors believe that these represent a powerful new tool and a significant advance in mandibular reconstructive technique, reduced anesthesia time, and the optimized restoration of dental alignment and facial contour

  13. Three-Dimensional post-myelographic CT reconstruction in the diagnosis and therapy planning for spinal development disorders; Dreidimensionale postmyelographische CT-Rekonstruktion in der Diagnostik und Therapieplanung spinaler Entwicklungsstoerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicht, L. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany); Schedel, H. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany); Benndorf, G. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany); Beier, J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany); Haberl, H. [Neurochirurgische Abt., Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany); Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany)

    1996-05-01

    Dysrhaphia is often associated with severe osseous aberrations of the spine such as, for example scoliosis, hemivertebra, and synostosis. With the advanced possibilities of the post-processing of CT-data (segmentation, three-dimensional reconstruction), post-myelo-CT is an excellent method for the evaluation of osseous structures and the myelon in preoperative planning. (orig.) [Deutsch] Dysraphien gehen haeufig mit ausgepraegten ossaeren Veraenderungen der Wirbelsaeule wie Skoliose, Halbwirbelbildungen und Synostosen einher. Mit den verbesserten Moeglichkeiten der Datennachbearbeitung (Segmentierung, 3D-dimensionale Rekonstruktion) stellt die postmyelographische Computertomographie vor allem bei komplexen Fehlbildungen ein geeignetes Verfahren zur praeoperativen Beurteilung der ossaeren Strukturen der Wirbelsaeule und des Myelons dar. (orig.)

  14. Detection of compression vessels in trigeminal neuralgia by surface-rendering three-dimensional reconstruction of 1.5- and 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Masahiro; Imai, Hideaki; Kagoshima, Kaiei; Umezawa, Eriko; Shimizu, Tsuneo; Yoshimoto, Yuhei

    2013-01-01

    Surface-rendered three-dimensional (3D) 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is useful for presurgical simulation of microvascular decompression. This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of 1.5- and 3.0-T surface-rendered 3D MR imaging for preoperative identification of the compression vessels of trigeminal neuralgia. One hundred consecutive patients underwent microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. Forty and 60 patients were evaluated by 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging, respectively. Three-dimensional MR images were constructed on the basis of MR imaging, angiography, and venography data and evaluated to determine the compression vessel before surgery. MR imaging findings were compared with the microsurgical findings to compare the sensitivity and specificity of 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging. The agreement between MR imaging and surgical findings depended on the compression vessels. For superior cerebellar artery, 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging had 84.4% and 82.7% sensitivity and 100% and 100% specificity, respectively. For anterior inferior cerebellar artery, 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging had 33.3% and 50% sensitivity and 92.9% and 95% specificity, respectively. For the petrosal vein, 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging had 75% and 64.3% sensitivity and 79.2% and 78.1% specificity, respectively. Complete pain relief was obtained in 36 of 40 and 55 of 60 patients undergoing 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging, respectively. The present study showed that both 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging provided high sensitivity and specificity for preoperative assessment of the compression vessels of trigeminal neuralgia. Preoperative 3D imaging provided very high quality presurgical simulation, resulting in excellent clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Three dimensional energy profile:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowsari, Reza; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    The provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable energy has been considered as a cornerstone of development. More than one-third of the world's population has a very limited access to modern energy services and suffers from its various negative consequences. Researchers have been exploring various dimensions of household energy use in order to design strategies to provide secure access to modern energy services. However, despite more than three decades of effort, our understanding of household energy use patterns is very limited, particularly in the context of rural regions of the developing world. Through this paper, the past and the current trends in the field of energy analysis are investigated. The literature on rural energy and energy transition in developing world has been explored and the factors affecting households' decisions on energy use are listed. The and the factors affecting households' decisions on energy use are listed. The gaps identified in the literature on rural household energy analysis provide a basis for developing an alternative model that can create a more realistic view of household energy use. The three dimensional energy profile is presented as a new conceptual model for assessment of household energy use. This framework acts as a basis for building new theoretical and empirical models of rural household energy use. - Highlights: ► Reviews literature on household energy, energy transitions and decision-making in developing countries. ► Identifies gaps in rural household energy analysis and develops a new conceptual framework. ► The 3-d energy profile provides a holistic view of household energy system characteristics. ► Illustrates the use of the framework for understanding household energy transitions.

  16. Three-dimensional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Presents tips and tricks for beginners and experts Provides educational material for 3D training courses Features comprehensively illustrated cases Includes an accompanying DVD with video clips of all sample cases Three-dimensional echocardiography is the most recent fundamental advancement in echocardiography. Since real-time 3D echocardiography became commercially available in 2002, it has rapidly been accepted in echo labs worldwide. This book covers all clinically relevant aspects of this fascinating new technology, including a comprehensive explanation of its basic principles, practical aspects of clinical application, and detailed descriptions of specific uses in the broad spectrum of clinically important heart disease. The book was written by a group of well-recognized international experts in the field, who have not only been involved in the scientific and clinical evolution of 3D echocardiography since its inception but are also intensively involved in expert training courses. As a result, the clear focus of this book is on the practical application of 3D echocardiography in daily clinical routine with tips and tricks for both beginners and experts, accompanied by more than 150 case examples comprehensively illustrated in more than 800 images and more than 500 videos provided on a DVD. In addition to an in-depth review of the most recent literature on real-time 3D echocardiography, this book represents an invaluable reference work for beginners and expert users of 3D echocardiography. - Tips and tricks for beginners and experts - Educational material for 3D training courses - Comprehensively illustrated cases - DVD with video clips of all sample cases.

  17. Classifying and assembling two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns of a single particle to reconstruct the three-dimensional diffraction intensity function: resolution limit due to the quantum noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Taka, Junichiro; Kono, Hidetoshi; Go, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A new algorithm is developed for reconstructing the high-resolution three-dimensional diffraction intensity function of a globular biological macromolecule from many quantum-noise-limited two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns, each for an unknown orientation. The structural resolution is expressed as a function of the incident X-ray intensity and quantities characterizing the target molecule. A new two-step algorithm is developed for reconstructing the three-dimensional diffraction intensity of a globular biological macromolecule from many experimentally measured quantum-noise-limited two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns, each for an unknown orientation. The first step is classification of the two-dimensional patterns into groups according to the similarity of direction of the incident X-rays with respect to the molecule and an averaging within each group to reduce the noise. The second step is detection of common intersecting circles between the signal-enhanced two-dimensional patterns to identify their mutual location in the three-dimensional wavenumber space. The newly developed algorithm enables one to detect a signal for classification in noisy experimental photon-count data with as low as ∼0.1 photons per effective pixel. The wavenumber of such a limiting pixel determines the attainable structural resolution. From this fact, the resolution limit due to the quantum noise attainable by this new method of analysis as well as two important experimental parameters, the number of two-dimensional patterns to be measured (the load for the detector) and the number of pairs of two-dimensional patterns to be analysed (the load for the computer), are derived as a function of the incident X-ray intensity and quantities characterizing the target molecule

  18. Influence of three-dimensional reconstruction method for building a model of the cervical spine on its biomechanical responses: A finite element analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Zafarparandeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In some finite element analysis studies of models of sections of the spine, the three-dimensional solid model is built by assuming symmetry about the mid-sagittal plane of the section, whereas in other studies, the model is built from the exact geometry of the section. The influence of the method used to build the solid model on model parameters, in the case of the cervical spine, has not been reported in the literature. This issue is the subject of this study, with the section being C2–C7, the applied loadings being extension, flexion, left lateral bending, and right axial rotation (each of magnitude 1 Nm, and the model parameters determined being rotation, intradiskal pressure, and facet load at each of the segments. When all the parameter results were considered, it was found that, by and large, the influence of solid model construction method used (exact geometry vs assumption of symmetry about the mid-sagittal plane of the section was marginal. As construction of a symmetric finite element model requires less time and effort, construction of an asymmetric model may be justified in special cases only.

  19. Histomorphometric study and three-dimensional reconstruction of the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network one hour after applying tensile and compressive forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozal, Carola B; Sánchez, Luciana M; Mandalunis, Patricia M; Ubios, Ángela M

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of very early morphological changes in the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network following application of tensile and/or compressive forces remains unknown to date. Thus, the aim of this study was to perform a morphological and morphometric evaluation of the changes in the three-dimensional structure of the lacuno-canalicular network and the osteocyte network of alveolar bone that take place very early after applying tensile and compressive forces in vivo, conducting static histomorphometry on bright-field microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy images. Our results showed that both the tensile and compressive forces induced early changes in osteocytes and their lacunae, which manifested as an increase in lacunar volume and changes in lacunar shape and orientation. An increase in canalicular width and a decrease in the width and an increase in the length of cytoplasmic processes were also observed. The morphological changes in the lacuno-canalicular and osteocyte networks that occur in vivo very early after application of tensile and compressive forces would be an indication of an increase in permeability within the system. Thus, both compressive and tensile forces would cause fluid displacement very soon after being applied; the latter would in turn rapidly activate alveolar bone osteocytes, enhancing transmission of the signals to the entire osteocyte network and the effector cells located at the bone surface. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. An algorithm based on OmniView technology to reconstruct sagittal and coronal planes of the fetal brain from volume datasets acquired by three-dimensional ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Capponi, A; Pietrolucci, M E; Capece, A; Aiello, E; Mammarella, S; Arduini, D

    2011-08-01

    To describe a novel algorithm, based on the new display technology 'OmniView', developed to visualize diagnostic sagittal and coronal planes of the fetal brain from volumes obtained by three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography. We developed an algorithm to image standard neurosonographic planes by drawing dissecting lines through the axial transventricular view of 3D volume datasets acquired transabdominally. The algorithm was tested on 106 normal fetuses at 18-24 weeks of gestation and the visualization rates of brain diagnostic planes were evaluated by two independent reviewers. The algorithm was also applied to nine cases with proven brain defects. The two reviewers, using the algorithm on normal fetuses, found satisfactory images with visualization rates ranging between 71.7% and 96.2% for sagittal planes and between 76.4% and 90.6% for coronal planes. The agreement rate between the two reviewers, as expressed by Cohen's kappa coefficient, was > 0.93 for sagittal planes and > 0.89 for coronal planes. All nine abnormal volumes were identified by a single observer from among a series including normal brains, and eight of these nine cases were diagnosed correctly. This novel algorithm can be used to visualize standard sagittal and coronal planes in the fetal brain. This approach may simplify the examination of the fetal brain and reduce dependency of success on operator skill. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. BigNeuron: Large-scale 3D Neuron Reconstruction from Optical Microscopy Images

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Hanchuan; Hawrylycz, Michael; Roskams, Jane; Hill, Sean; Spruston, Nelson; Meijering, Erik; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2015-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding the structure of single neurons is critical for understanding how they function within neural circuits. BigNeuron is a new community effort that combines modern bioimaging informatics, recent leaps in labeling and microscopy, and the widely recognized need for openness and standardization to provide a community resource for automated reconstruction of dendritic and axonal morphology of single neurons. Understanding the structure of single neurons is critical for unde...

  2. Three-dimensional reconstructions for asymptomatic and cerebral palsy children's lower limbs using a biplanar X-ray system: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assi, Ayman; Chaibi, Yasmina; Presedo, Ana; Dubousset, Jean; Ghanem, Ismat; Skalli, Wafa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of 3D subject-specific skeletal reconstructions of lower limb in children using stereoradiography, and to assess uncertainty of clinical and anatomical parameters for children with cerebral palsy and for healthy children. The stereoradiography technique, using the EOS ® system (Eos-imaging ® ), is based on the acquisition of two simultaneous digital anteroposterior and lateral X-rays, from head to feet in standing position and at low radiation dose. This technique allows subject-specific skeletal 3D reconstructions. Five children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 5 typically developing children (TD) were included in the study. Two operators performed the lower limb reconstructions twice. Tridimensional reconstructions were feasible for children over the age of 5 years. The study of reproducibility of anatomical parameters defining skeletal alignment showed uncertainties under 3° for the neck shaft angle, the femoral mechanical angle, and for the femoral and tibial torsions. The maximum degree of uncertainty was obtained for the femoral tibial rotation (4° for healthy children and 3.5° for children with CP)

  3. Three-dimensional reconstructions for asymptomatic and cerebral palsy children's lower limbs using a biplanar X-ray system: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assi, Ayman, E-mail: ayman.assi@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Biomécanique, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Paris (France); Laboratory of Biomechanics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Saint-Joseph, Beirut (Lebanon); Gait and Motion Analysis Lab, SESOBEL, Beirut (Lebanon); Chaibi, Yasmina, E-mail: yasmina.chaibi@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Biomécanique, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Paris (France); Presedo, Ana, E-mail: a.presedo@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Biomécanique, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Paris (France); Hôpital Robert Debré, Paris (France); Dubousset, Jean, E-mail: jean.dubousset@wanadoo.fr [Laboratoire de Biomécanique, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Paris (France); Ghanem, Ismat, E-mail: ghanem.i@dm.net.lb [Laboratory of Biomechanics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Saint-Joseph, Beirut (Lebanon); Gait and Motion Analysis Lab, SESOBEL, Beirut (Lebanon); Hôpital Hôtel Dieu de France, Beirut (Lebanon); Skalli, Wafa, E-mail: wafa.skalli@ensam.eu [Laboratoire de Biomécanique, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Paris (France)

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of 3D subject-specific skeletal reconstructions of lower limb in children using stereoradiography, and to assess uncertainty of clinical and anatomical parameters for children with cerebral palsy and for healthy children. The stereoradiography technique, using the EOS{sup ®} system (Eos-imaging{sup ®}), is based on the acquisition of two simultaneous digital anteroposterior and lateral X-rays, from head to feet in standing position and at low radiation dose. This technique allows subject-specific skeletal 3D reconstructions. Five children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 5 typically developing children (TD) were included in the study. Two operators performed the lower limb reconstructions twice. Tridimensional reconstructions were feasible for children over the age of 5 years. The study of reproducibility of anatomical parameters defining skeletal alignment showed uncertainties under 3° for the neck shaft angle, the femoral mechanical angle, and for the femoral and tibial torsions. The maximum degree of uncertainty was obtained for the femoral tibial rotation (4° for healthy children and 3.5° for children with CP)

  4. Three-dimensional in vivo patellofemoral kinematics and contact area of anterior cruciate ligament-deficient and -reconstructed subjects using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Choongsoo S; Carpenter, R Dana; Majumdar, Sharmila; Ma, C Benjamin

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether (1) the 3-dimensional in vivo patellofemoral kinematics and patellofemoral contact area of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees are different from those of normal, contralateral knees and (2) ACL reconstruction restores in vivo patellofemoral kinematics and contact area. Ten ACL-deficient knees and twelve ACL-reconstructed knees, as well as the contralateral uninjured knees, were tested. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at full extension and 40 degrees of flexion under simulated partial weight-bearing conditions. Six-degrees of freedom patellofemoral kinematics, patellofemoral contact area, and contact location were analyzed by use of magnetic resonance image-based 3-dimensional patellofemoral knee models. The patella in the ACL-deficient knees underwent significantly more lateral tilt during flexion (P contact areas of ACL-deficient knees at both the extended and flexed positions (37 +/- 22 mm(2) and 357 +/- 53 mm(2), respectively) were significantly smaller than those of contralateral knees (78 +/- 45 mm(2) and 437 +/- 119 mm(2), respectively) (P contact area of ACL-reconstructed knees in the extended position (86 +/- 41 mm(2)) was significantly larger (P contact centroid translation, and contact area showed coefficients of variation of less than 6.8%. ACL injuries alter patellofemoral kinematics including patellar tilt and patellar lateral translation, but ACL reconstruction with hamstring or allograft restores altered patellar tilt. ACL injuries reduce the patellofemoral contact area at both the extended and flexed positions, but ACL reconstruction enlarges the patellofemoral contact area at extension and restores the normal contact area at low angles of flexion. Level III, case-control study.

  5. Fully three-dimensional reconstruction from data collected on concentric cubes in Fourier space: implementation and a sample application to MRI [magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, G.T.; Roberts, D.; Axel, L.

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for rapid and accurate reconstruction from data collected in Fourier space at points arranged on a grid of concentric cubes. The whole process has computational complexity of the same order as required for the 3D fast Fourier transform and so (for medically relevant sizes of the data set) it is faster than backprojection into the same size rectangular grid. The design of the algorithm ensures that no interpolations are needed, in contrast to methods involving backprojection with their unavoidable interpolations. As an application, a 3D data collection method for MRI has been designed which directly samples the Fourier transform of the object to be reconstructed on concentric cubes as needed for the algorithm. (author)

  6. Comparison of Generated Parallel Capillary Arrays to Three-Dimensional Reconstructed Capillary Networks in Modeling Oxygen Transport in Discrete Microvascular Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Graham M.; Goldman, Daniel; Ellis, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We compare Reconstructed Microvascular Networks (RMN) to Parallel Capillary Arrays (PCA) under several simulated physiological conditions to determine how the use of different vascular geometry affects oxygen transport solutions. Methods Three discrete networks were reconstructed from intravital video microscopy of rat skeletal muscle (84×168×342 μm, 70×157×268 μm and 65×240×571 μm) and hemodynamic measurements were made in individual capillaries. PCAs were created based on statistical measurements from RMNs. Blood flow and O2 transport models were applied and the resulting solutions for RMN and PCA models were compared under 4 conditions (rest, exercise, ischemia and hypoxia). Results Predicted tissue PO2 was consistently lower in all RMN simulations compared to the paired PCA. PO2 for 3D reconstructions at rest were 28.2±4.8, 28.1±3.5, and 33.0±4.5 mmHg for networks I, II, and III compared to the PCA mean values of 31.2±4.5, 30.6±3.4, and 33.8±4.6 mmHg. Simulated exercise yielded mean tissue PO2 in the RMN of 10.1±5.4, 12.6±5.7, and 19.7±5.7 mmHg compared to 15.3±7.3, 18.8±5.3, and 21.7±6.0 in PCA. Conclusions These findings suggest that volume matched PCA yield different results compared to reconstructed microvascular geometries when applied to O2 transport modeling; the predominant characteristic of this difference being an over estimate of mean tissue PO2. Despite this limitation, PCA models remain important for theoretical studies as they produce PO2 distributions with similar shape and parameter dependence as RMN. PMID:23841679

  7. Three-dimensional computer reconstruction of large tissue volumes based on composing series of high-resolution confocal images by GlueMRC and LinkMRC software

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karen, Petr; Jirkovská, M.; Tomori, Z.; Demjénová, E.; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 5 (2003), s. 415-422 ISSN 1059-910X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/01/0257 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/1146/21; CZ-SK GA MŠk(CZ) KONTAKT 126/184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : 3D reconstruction * confocal microscopy * image processing Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 2.307, year: 2003

  8. Three dimensional MEMS supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei

    2011-10-15

    The overall objective of this research is to achieve compact supercapacitors with high capacitance, large power density, and long cycle life for using as micro power sources to drive low power devices and sensors. The main shortcoming of supercapacitors as a power source is that its energy density typically is about 1/10 of that of batteries. To achieve compact supercapacitors of large energy density, supercapacitors must be developed with high capacitance and power density which are mainly depended on the effective surface area of the electrodes of the supercapacitors. Many studies have been done to increase the effective surface area by modifying the electrode materials, however, much less investigations are focus on machining the electrodes. In my thesis work, micro- and nano-technologies are applied as technology approaches for machining the electrodes with three dimensional (3D) microstructures. More specific, Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) fabrication process flow, which integrates the key process such as LIGA-like (German acronym for Lithographie, Galvanoformung, Abformung, which mean Lithography, Electroplating and Molding) technology or DRIE (deep reactive ion etching), has been developed to enable innovative designs of 3D MEMS supercapacitors which own the electrodes of significantly increased geometric area. Two types of 3D MEMS supercapcitors, based on LIGA-like and DRIE technology respectively, were designed and successfully created. The LIGA-like based 3D MEMS supercapacitor is with an interdigital 3D structure, and consists of silicon substrate, two electroplated nickel current collectors, two PPy (poly pyrrole) electrodes, and solid state electrolyte. The fabrication process flow developed includes the flowing key processes, SU-8 lithography, nickel electroplating, PPy polymerization and solid state electrolyte coating. Electrochemical tests showed that the single electrode of the supercapacitor has the specific capacitance of 0.058 F cm-2

  9. A Three-Dimensional Skeletal Reconstruction of the Stem Amniote Orobates pabsti (Diadectidae: Analyses of Body Mass, Centre of Mass Position, and Joint Mobility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Nyakatura

    Full Text Available Orobates pabsti, a basal diadectid from the lower Permian, is a key fossil for the understanding of early amniote evolution. Quantitative analysis of anatomical information suffers from fragmentation of fossil bones, plastic deformation due to diagenetic processes and fragile preservation within surrounding rock matrix, preventing further biomechanical investigation. Here we describe the steps taken to digitally reconstruct MNG 10181, the holotype specimen of Orobates pabsti, and subsequently use the digital reconstruction to assess body mass, position of the centre of mass in individual segments as well as the whole animal, and study joint mobility in the shoulder and hip joints. The shape of most fossil bone fragments could be recovered from micro-focus computed tomography scans. This also revealed structures that were hitherto hidden within the rock matrix. However, parts of the axial skeleton had to be modelled using relevant isolated bones from the same locality as templates. Based on the digital fossil, mass of MNG 10181 was estimated using a model of body shape that was varied within a plausible range to account for uncertainties of the dimension. In the mean estimate model the specimen had an estimated mass of circa 4 kg. Varying of the mass distribution amongst body segments further revealed that Orobates carried most of its weight on the hind limbs. Mostly unrestricted joint morphology further suggested that MNG 10181 was able to effectively generate propulsion with the pelvic limbs. The digital reconstruction is made available for future biomechanical studies.

  10. Three-dimensional reconstructed computed tomography-magnetic resonance fusion image-based preoperative planning for surgical procedures for spinal lipoma or tethered spinal cord after myelomeningocele repair. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Yohei; Nonaka, Masahiro; Nakajima, Shin; Yamasaki, Mami

    2011-01-01

    Surgical procedures for spinal lipoma or tethered spinal cord after myelomeningocele (MMC) repair are often difficult and complicated, because the anatomical structures can be deformed in complex and unpredictable ways. Imaging helps the surgeon understand the patient's spinal anatomy. Whereas two-dimensional images provide only limited information for surgical planning, three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed computed tomography (CT)-magnetic resonance (MR) fusion images produce clearer representations of the spinal regions. Here we describe simple and quick methods for obtaining 3D reconstructed CT-MR fusion images for preoperative planning of surgical procedures using the iPlan cranial (BrainLAB AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) neuronavigation software. 3D CT images of the vertebral bone were combined with heavily T 2 -weighted MR images of the spinal cord, lipoma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space, and nerve root through a process of fusion, segmentation, and reconstruction of the 3D images. We also used our procedure called 'Image Overlay' to directly project the 3D reconstructed image onto the body surface using an light emitting diode (LED) projector. The final reconstructed 3D images took 10-30 minutes to obtain, and provided the surgeon with a representation of the individual pathological structures, so enabled the design of effective surgical plans, even in patients with bony deformity such as scoliosis. None of the 19 patients treated based on our 3D reconstruction method has had neurological complications, except for CSF leakage. This 3D reconstructed imaging method, combined with Image Overlay, improves the visual understanding of complicated surgical situations, and should improve surgical efficiency and outcome. (author)

  11. Change of Femoral Anteversion Angle in Children With Intoeing Gait Measured by Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Reconstruction: One-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Minsik; Jo, Hongsik; Lee, Chang Han; Chun, Se-Woong; Yoon, Chulho; Shin, Heesuk

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate femoral anteversion angle (FAA) change in children with intoeing gait depending on age, gender, and initial FAA using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). The 3D-CT data acquired between 2006 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Children 4 to 10 years of age with symptomatic intoeing gait with follow-up interval of at least 1 year without active treatment were enrolled. Subjects were divided into three groups based on age: group 1 (≥4 and FAAs were measured using 3D-CT. Mean changes in FAAs were calculated and compared. A total of 200 lower limbs of 100 children (48 males and 52 females, mean age of 6.1±1.6 years) were included. The mean follow-up period was 18.0±5.4 months. Average initial and follow-up FAA in children with intoeing gait was 31.1°±7.8° and 28.9°±8.2°, respectively. The initial FAA of group 1 was largest (33.5°±7.7°). Follow-up FAA of group 1 was significantly reduced to 28.7°±9.2° (p=0.000). FAA changes in groups 1, 2, and 3 were -6.5°±5.8°, -6.4°±5.1°, and -5.3°±4.0°, respectively. These changes of FAA were not significantly (p=0.355) different among the three age groups. However, FAA changes were higher (p=0.012) in females than those in males. In addition, FAA changes showed difference depending on initial FAA. When initial FAA was smaller than 30°, mean FAA change was -5.6°±4.9°. When initial FAA was more than 30°, mean FAA change was -6.8°±5.4° (p=0.019). FAA initial in children with intoeing gait was the greatest in age group 1 (4-6 years). This group also showed significant FAA decrease at follow-up. FAA changes were greater when the child was a female, younger, and had greater initial FAA.

  12. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the human spine from bi-planar radiographs: using multiscale wavelet analysis and spline interpolators for semi-automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Sylvain; Godbout, Benoit; Branchaud, Dominic; Mitton, David; Pomero, Vincent; Bleau, Andre; Skalli, Wafa; de Guise, Jacques A.

    2003-05-01

    We propose a new fast stereoradiographic 3D reconstruction method for the spine. User input is limited to few points passing through the spine on two radiographs and two line segments representing the end plates of the limiting vertebrae. A 3D spline that hints the positions of the vertebrae in space is then generated. We then use wavelet multi-scale analysis (WMSA) to automatically localize specific features in both lateral and frontal radiographs. The WMSA gives an elegant spectral investigation that leads to gradient generation and edge extraction. Analysis of the information contained at several scales leads to the detection of 1) two curves enclosing the vertebral bodies' walls and 2) inter-vertebral spaces along the spine. From this data, we extract four points per vertebra per view, corresponding to the corners of the vertebral bodies. These points delimit a hexahedron in space where we can match the vertebral body. This hexahedron is then passed through a 3D statistical database built using local and global information generated from a bank of normal and scoliotic spines. Finally, models of the vertebrae are positioned with respect to these landmarks, completing the 3D reconstruction.

  13. Three-Dimensional Imaging and Numerical Reconstruction of Graphite/Epoxy Composite Microstructure Based on Ultra-High Resolution X-Ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabaj, M. W.; Riccio, M. L.; Whitacre, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study aimed at high-resolution 3D imaging, visualization, and numerical reconstruction of fiber-reinforced polymer microstructures at the fiber length scale is presented. To this end, a sample of graphite/epoxy composite was imaged at sub-micron resolution using a 3D X-ray computed tomography microscope. Next, a novel segmentation algorithm was developed, based on concepts adopted from computer vision and multi-target tracking, to detect and estimate, with high accuracy, the position of individual fibers in a volume of the imaged composite. In the current implementation, the segmentation algorithm was based on Global Nearest Neighbor data-association architecture, a Kalman filter estimator, and several novel algorithms for virtualfiber stitching, smoothing, and overlap removal. The segmentation algorithm was used on a sub-volume of the imaged composite, detecting 508 individual fibers. The segmentation data were qualitatively compared to the tomographic data, demonstrating high accuracy of the numerical reconstruction. Moreover, the data were used to quantify a) the relative distribution of individual-fiber cross sections within the imaged sub-volume, and b) the local fiber misorientation relative to the global fiber axis. Finally, the segmentation data were converted using commercially available finite element (FE) software to generate a detailed FE mesh of the composite volume. The methodology described herein demonstrates the feasibility of realizing an FE-based, virtual-testing framework for graphite/fiber composites at the constituent level.

  14. [Biological evaluation of three-dimensional printed co-poly lactic acid/glycolic acid/tri-calcium phosphate scaffold for bone reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S Y; Zhou, M; Lai, Y X; Geng, Y M; Cao, S S; Chen, X M

    2016-11-09

    Objective: To biologically evaluate the three-dimensional(3D) printed co-poly lactic acid/glycolic acid/tri-calcium phosphate(PLGA/TCP) scaffold which could be used for repairing oral and maxillofacial bone defects, and to provide experimental evidence for its further research and clinical application. Methods: PLGA/TCP scaffolds were fabricated using low temperature rapid prototyping technique. Micro-CT and scanning electron microscope(SEM) were used to characterize the surface morphology. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded onto the scaffold and stained with the rhodamine phalloidin and calcein acetomethoxy. After that, confocal laser scanning microscope was exploited to observe the features and viability of the cells. Moreover, the cells were co-cultured with the extract of PLGA/TCP and complete medium, respectively. The proliferation capability of the cells was assessed by the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd day. The PLGA/TCP scaffolds incorporated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2(rhBMP-2) of 0, 30, 60 μg(i.e. blank control group, low-dose group and high-dose group) were implanted into the latissimus dorsi muscle of the rats, and 6 weeks later, the samples were harvested to estimate the volume and pattern of new bone. Results: The 3D printed PLGA/TCP scaffold possessed a regular and well-defined porous stereo-structure with porosity of (73±3)%. Micro-CT and SEM showed that pore size were (379±32) and (453±29) μm respectively, and distance between layers were (452± 24) and (415±25) μm, and cylinder diameter were (342±24) and (350±28) μm. It also exhibited excellent cell adhesion and growth ability on the exterior and inner surface through rhodamine phalloidin and calcein acetomethoxy staining. The CCK-8 test demonstrated that the absorbance value of extract group on the 1st and 2nd day(0.51±0.08 and 0.63±0.09) were significantly higher than those in the blank control group(0.39± 0.05 and 0.53±0.05)( P 0.05) on the 3

  15. Classifying and assembling two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns of a single particle to reconstruct the three-dimensional diffraction intensity function: resolution limit due to the quantum noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Taka, Junichiro; Kono, Hidetoshi; Go, Nobuhiro

    2012-05-01

    A new two-step algorithm is developed for reconstructing the three-dimensional diffraction intensity of a globular biological macromolecule from many experimentally measured quantum-noise-limited two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns, each for an unknown orientation. The first step is classification of the two-dimensional patterns into groups according to the similarity of direction of the incident X-rays with respect to the molecule and an averaging within each group to reduce the noise. The second step is detection of common intersecting circles between the signal-enhanced two-dimensional patterns to identify their mutual location in the three-dimensional wavenumber space. The newly developed algorithm enables one to detect a signal for classification in noisy experimental photon-count data with as low as ~0.1 photons per effective pixel. The wavenumber of such a limiting pixel determines the attainable structural resolution. From this fact, the resolution limit due to the quantum noise attainable by this new method of analysis as well as two important experimental parameters, the number of two-dimensional patterns to be measured (the load for the detector) and the number of pairs of two-dimensional patterns to be analysed (the load for the computer), are derived as a function of the incident X-ray intensity and quantities characterizing the target molecule. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography

  16. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR OLFACTORY NUCLEUS IN THE HUMAN OLFACTORY BULB AND PEDUNCLE. Reconstrucción tridimiensional del núcleo olfatorio anterior en el bulbo y pedúnculo olfatorio humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Berendsen

    2016-03-01

    case by Crosby and Humphrey (1941. To improve our understanding of the anatomy of the human bulbar and peduncular AON, we investigated the morphology, size and shape of these parts of this nucleus in postmortem tissue of aged individuals. Six olfactory bulbs and peduncles including the substantia perforata anterior (SPA were obtained from donor brains and 40µm horizontal serial sections were cut and stained with Nissl substance. The medium to large sized neurons of these parts of the AON were intensely stained and had an average diameter of 16µm. Three dimensional reconstruction demonstrated that in all but one of the cases the bulbar and peduncular AON consisted on a discontinuous chain of cell groups connected by cell poor to cell free bridges of neuropile. The number of cell groups and the connecting bridges differ in every individual. We arrived at the conclusion that the bulbar and peduncular parts of the human AON should be regarded a human specialization rather than just being rostral extensions of the retrobulbar AON area. This is in line with previously published neurochemical properties and the selective early, preclinical degener-ation of these cell clusters in neurodegenerative diseases. 

  17. Three-dimensional evaluation of cyclic displacement in single-row and double-row rotator cuff reconstructions under static external rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbach, Olaf; Kieb, Matthias; Raber, Florian; Busch, Lüder C; Kohn, Dieter M; Pape, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    The double-row suture bridge repair was recently introduced and has demonstrated superior biomechanical results and higher yield load compared with the traditional double-row technique. It therefore seemed reasonable to compare this second generation of double-row constructs to the modified single-row double mattress reconstruction. The repair technique, initial tear size, and tendon subregion will have a significant effect on 3-dimensional (3D) cyclic displacement under additional static external rotation of a modified single-row compared with a double-row rotator cuff repair. Controlled laboratory study. Rotator cuff tears (small to medium: 25 mm; medium to large: 35 mm) were created in 24 human cadaveric shoulders. Rotator cuff repairs were performed as modified single-row or double-row repairs, and cyclic loading (10-60 N, 10-100 N) was applied under 20° of external rotation. Radiostereometric analysis was used to calculate cyclic displacement in the anteroposterior (x), craniocaudal (y), and mediolateral (z) planes with a focus on the repair constructs and the initial tear size. Moreover, differences in cyclic displacement of the anterior compared with the posterior tendon subregions were calculated. Significantly lower cyclic displacement was seen in small to medium tears for the single-row compared with double-row repair at 60 and 100 N in the x plane (P = .001) and y plane (P = .001). The results were similar in medium to large tears at 100 N in the x plane (P = .004). Comparison of 25-mm versus 35-mm tears did not show any statistically significant differences for the single-row repairs. In the double-row repairs, lower gap formation was found for the 35-mm tears (P ≤ .05). Comparison of the anterior versus posterior tendon subregions revealed a trend toward higher anterior gap formation, although this was statistically not significant. The tested single-row reconstruction achieved superior results in 3D cyclic displacement to the tested double

  18. A novel region-growing based semi-automatic segmentation protocol for three-dimensional condylar reconstruction using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Xi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present and validate a semi-automatic segmentation protocol to enable an accurate 3D reconstruction of the mandibular condyles using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Approval from the regional medical ethics review board was obtained for this study. Bilateral mandibular condyles in ten CBCT datasets of patients were segmented using the currently proposed semi-automatic segmentation protocol. This segmentation protocol combined 3D region-growing and local thresholding algorithms. The segmentation of a total of twenty condyles was performed by two observers. The Dice-coefficient and distance map calculations were used to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of the segmented and 3D rendered condyles. RESULTS: The mean inter-observer Dice-coefficient was 0.98 (range [0.95-0.99]. An average 90th percentile distance of 0.32 mm was found, indicating an excellent inter-observer similarity of the segmented and 3D rendered condyles. No systematic errors were observed in the currently proposed segmentation protocol. CONCLUSION: The novel semi-automated segmentation protocol is an accurate and reproducible tool to segment and render condyles in 3D. The implementation of this protocol in the clinical practice allows the CBCT to be used as an imaging modality for the quantitative analysis of condylar morphology.

  19. Three-Dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy of biological specimens

    KAUST Repository

    De Jonge, Niels; Sougrat, Rachid; Northan, Brian M.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the cytoskeleton and a clathrin-coated pit in mammalian cells has been achieved from a focal-series of images recorded in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM

  20. Three-Dimensional Image Fusion of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography for Computer-Assisted Planning of Maxillectomy of Recurrent Maxillary Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Defect Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao; Zhang, Wen-Bo; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Guo, Chuan-Bin; Yu, Guang-Yan; Peng, Xin

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe new technology assisted by 3-dimensional (3D) image fusion of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) for computer planning of a maxillectomy of recurrent maxillary squamous cell carcinoma and defect reconstruction. Treatment of recurrent maxillary squamous cell carcinoma usually includes tumor resection and free flap reconstruction. FDG-PET/CT provided images of regions of abnormal glucose uptake and thus showed metabolic tumor volume to guide tumor resection. CECT data were used to create 3D reconstructed images of vessels to show the vascular diameters and locations, so that the most suitable vein and artery could be selected during anastomosis of the free flap. The data from preoperative maxillofacial CECT scans and FDG-PET/CT imaging were imported into the navigation system (iPlan 3.0; Brainlab, Feldkirchen, Germany). Three-dimensional image fusion between FDG-PET/CT and CECT was accomplished using Brainlab software according to the position of the 2 skulls simulated in the CECT image and PET/CT image, respectively. After verification of the image fusion accuracy, the 3D reconstruction images of the metabolic tumor, vessels, and other critical structures could be visualized within the same coordinate system. These sagittal, coronal, axial, and 3D reconstruction images were used to determine the virtual osteotomy sites and reconstruction plan, which was provided to the surgeon and used for surgical navigation. The average shift of the 3D image fusion between FDG-PET/CT and CECT was less than 1 mm. This technique, by clearly showing the metabolic tumor volume and the most suitable vessels for anastomosis, facilitated resection and reconstruction of recurrent maxillary squamous cell carcinoma. We used 3D image fusion of FDG-PET/CT and CECT to successfully accomplish resection and reconstruction of recurrent maxillary squamous cell carcinoma

  1. Three-dimensional bio-printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing.

  2. Three dimensional imaging in cardiac nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, Kanji; Ishii, Yasushi; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Tamaki, Takeyoshi

    1981-01-01

    Methods to obtain three dimensional images of the heart were reviewed. Gated three dimensional display reconstructed from images using bidirectional collimator, was a useful method to detect akinesis of the heart wall. Tomographic observation of the heart can be carried out by a pinhole collimator to image ischemia with high sensitivity. However the focusing plane must be carefully selected to prevent false positives. In the case of emission CT (ECT), utilization of positron emitters gave a quantitative image without correction, whereas single photon ECT needed the correction due to the absorption of γ-ray. Though the reliability of the images by ECT was high, the time required for data acquisition was much longer than that by a 7 pinhole or bidirectional collimator. (Nakanishi, T.)

  3. Differentiation of human endometrial stem cells into urothelial cells on a three-dimensional nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffold: an autologous cell resource for reconstruction of the urinary bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoae-Hassani, Alireza; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed Abdolreza; Sharif, Shiva; Seifalian, Alexander Marcus; Azimi, Alireza; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali; Verdi, Javad

    2015-11-01

    Reconstruction of the bladder wall via in vitro differentiated stem cells on an appropriate scaffold could be used in such conditions as cancer and neurogenic urinary bladder. This study aimed to examine the potential of human endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) to form urinary bladder epithelial cells (urothelium) on nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffolds, for construction of the urinary bladder wall. After passage 4, EnSCs were induced by keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) and seeded on electrospun collagen-V, silk and silk-collagen nanofibres. Later we tested urothelium-specific genes and proteins (uroplakin-Ia, uroplakin-Ib, uroplakin-II, uroplakin-III and cytokeratin 20) by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histology were used to detect cell-matrix interactions. DMEM/F12 supplemented by KGF and EGF induced EnSCs to express urothelial cell-specific genes and proteins. Either collagen, silk or silk-collagen scaffolds promoted cell proliferation. The nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffolds provided a three-dimensional (3D) structure to maximize cell-matrix penetration and increase differentiation of the EnSCs. Human EnSCs seeded on 3D nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffolds and differentiated to urothelial cells provide a suitable source for potential use in bladder wall reconstruction in women. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Three-dimensional biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Scientists in biomedical imaging provide researchers, physicians, and academicians with an understanding of the fundamental theories and practical applications of three-dimensional biomedical imaging methodologies. Succinct descriptions of each imaging modality are supported by numerous diagrams and illustrations which clarify important concepts and demonstrate system performance in a variety of applications. Comparison of the different functional attributes, relative advantages and limitations, complementary capabilities, and future directions of three-dimensional biomedical imaging modalities are given. Volume 1: Introductions to Three-Dimensional Biomedical Imaging Photoelectronic-Digital Imaging for Diagnostic Radiology. X-Ray Computed Tomography - Basic Principles. X-Ray Computed Tomography - Implementation and Applications. X-Ray Computed Tomography: Advanced Systems and Applications in Biomedical Research and Diagnosis. Volume II: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography. Position Emission Tomography (PET). Computerized Ultrasound Tomography. Fundamentals of NMR Imaging. Display of Multi-Dimensional Biomedical Image Information. Summary and Prognostications

  5. Effects of knee immobilization on morphological changes in the semitendinosus muscle-tendon complex after hamstring harvesting for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Evaluation using three-dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamae, Atsuo; Adachi, Nobuo; Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Nishimori, Makoto; Ochi, Mitsuo; Deie, Masataka

    2012-01-01

    It is desirable to maintain the morphology of the semitendinosus muscle-tendon complex after tendon harvesting for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of knee immobilization on morphological changes in the semitendinosus muscle-tendon complex. In total, 39 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with autologous semitendinosus tendons were included in this study. After surgery, the knee was immobilized for 3 days in 1 group of patients (group 1; 24 patients; control group) and for a longer period (10-14 days) in the other group (group 2; 15 patients). Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) examination was performed at 6 and/or 12 months after the surgery for all patients. Morphological changes in the semitendinosus muscle-tendon complex (proximal shift of the semitendinosus muscle-tendon junction, width of the regenerated semitendinosus tendons, re-insertion sites of the regenerated tendons, and rate of semitendinosus tendon regeneration) were evaluated. Successful regeneration of the semitendinosus tendon was confirmed in all patients in group 2. In group 1, 3D CT showed that regeneration of the semitendinosus tendon was unsuccessful in 1 of the 24 patients. The average length of the proximal shift of the semitendinosus muscle-tendon junction was 7.3±2.5 cm in group 1 and 7.2±1.9 cm in group 2. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to the morphological changes in the semitendinosus muscle-tendon complex. This study showed that the structure of regenerated tendons could be clearly identified in 38 of 39 cases (97.4%) after ACL reconstruction. However, prolonged knee immobilization (10-14 days) could not prevent morphological changes in the semitendinosus muscle-tendon complex. (author)

  6. Moving and fusion of the pancreatic buds in the rat embryos during the embryonic period (carnegie stages 13-17) by a three-dimensional computer-assisted reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewski, Guilhem; Gaubert, Jacques; Cristol-Gaubert, Renée; Radi, Maïada; Baecker, Volker; Travo, Pierre; Prudhomme, Michel; Prat-Pradal, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to illustrate the modality of rotation of ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds by three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions in the rat embryos, during the Carnegie stages 13-17. Serial sections of thirty rat embryos stages 13-17, were observed. The embryos were fixed in Bouin's solution, dehydrated, and paraffin embedded. The sections, 7 μm thick, were cut in longitudinal or transverse planes and were stained alternately by hematoxylin-eosin or Heindenhain' azan. The images were digitalized by Canon Camera 350 EOS D. The 3D reconstruction was performed by computer using Cell Image Analyser software. The two pancreatic buds ventral and dorsal, were clearly identified at stage 13, in anterior and posterior position, respectively, in relation to the duodenum. In stage 15, the duodenum started its rotation of 90° clockwise. The ventral bud moved 90° from the midline to the right. In stage 16, the ventral pancreas continued its rotation until 180° in posterior position behind the duodenum. In stage 17, the two pancreatic buds were related closely to the ventral part of the portal vein. The two buds began to merge. The anterior face of the pancreas's head was arising from the dorsal pancreatic bud. The rest of the head including the omental tuberosity and the uncinate process emanated from the ventral pancreatic bud. The use of 3D reconstruction of the pancreas of rat embryos illustrates the modality of the two pancreatic buds rotation and fusion. This method explains the final position of the pancreas.

  7. Influence of knee flexion angle and transverse drill angle on creation of femoral tunnels in double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the transportal technique: Three-dimensional computed tomography simulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chong Hyuk; Kim, Sung-Jae; Chun, Yong-Min; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Su-Keon; Eom, Nam-Kyu; Jung, Min

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find appropriate flexion angle and transverse drill angle for optimal femoral tunnels of anteromedial (AM) bundle and posterolateral (PL) bundle in double-bundle ACL reconstruction using transportal technique. Thirty three-dimensional knee models were reconstructed. Knee flexion angles were altered from 100° to 130° at intervals of 10°. Maximum transverse drill angle (MTA), MTA minus 10° and 20° were set up. Twelve different tunnels were determined by four flexion angles and three transverse drill angles for each bundle. Tunnel length, wall breakage, inter-tunnel communication and graft-bending angle were assessed. Mean tunnel length of AM bundle was >30mm at 120° and 130° of flexion in all transverse drill angles. Mean tunnel length of PL bundle was >30mm during every condition. There were ≥1 cases of wall breakage except at 120° and 130° of flexion with MTA for AM bundle. There was no case of wall breakage for PL bundle. Considering inter-tunnel gap of >2mm without communication and obtuse graft-bending angle, 120° of flexion and MTA could be recommended as optimal condition for femoral tunnels of AM and PL bundles. Flexion angle and transverse drill angle had combined effect on femoral tunnel in double-bundle ACL reconstruction using transportal technique. Achieving flexion angle of 120° and transverse drill angle close to the medial femoral condyle could be recommended as optimal condition for femoral tunnels of AM and PL bundles to avoid insufficient tunnel length, wall breakage, inter-tunnel communication and acute graft-bending angle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Three-dimensional interpretation of TEM soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukov, P. O.; Fainberg, E. B.

    2013-07-01

    We describe the approach to the interpretation of electromagnetic (EM) sounding data which iteratively adjusts the three-dimensional (3D) model of the environment by local one-dimensional (1D) transformations and inversions and reconstructs the geometrical skeleton of the model. The final 3D inversion is carried out with the minimal number of the sought parameters. At each step of the interpretation, the model of the medium is corrected according to the geological information. The practical examples of the suggested method are presented.

  9. Three-Dimensional Bio-Printed Scaffold Sleeves With Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Enhancement of Tendon-to-Bone Healing in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Soft-Tissue Tendon Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin Hyung; Choi, Yeong-Jin; Moon, Sang Won; Lee, Byung Hoon; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Dong-Woo; Wang, Joon Ho

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of the insertion of 3-dimensional (3D) bio-printed scaffold sleeves seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to enhance osteointegration between the tendon and tunnel bone in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in a rabbit model. Scaffold sleeves were fabricated by 3D bio-printing. Before ACL reconstruction, MSCs were seeded into the scaffold sleeves. ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon was performed on both legs of 15 adult rabbits (aged 12 weeks). We implanted 15 bone tunnels with scaffold sleeves with MSCs and implanted another 15 bone tunnels with scaffold sleeves without MSCs before passing the graft. The specimens were harvested at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. H&E staining, immunohistochemical staining of type II collagen, and micro-computed tomography of the tunnel cross-sectional area were evaluated. Histologic assessment was conducted with a histologic scoring system. In the histologic assessment, a smooth bone-to-tendon transition through broad fibrocartilage formation was identified in the treatment group, and the interface zone showed abundant type II collagen production on immunohistochemical staining. Bone-tendon healing histologic scores were significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group at all time points. Micro-computed tomography at 12 weeks showed smaller tibial (control, 9.4 ± 0.9 mm 2 ; treatment, 5.8 ± 2.9 mm 2 ; P = .044) and femoral (control, 9.6 ± 2.9 mm 2 ; treatment, 6.0 ± 1.0 mm 2 ; P = .03) bone-tunnel areas in the treated group than in the control group. The 3D bio-printed scaffold sleeve with MSCs exhibited excellent results in osteointegration enhancement between the tendon and tunnel bone in ACL reconstruction in a rabbit model. If secure biological healing between the tendon graft and tunnel bone can be induced in the early postoperative period, earlier, more successful rehabilitation may be facilitated. Three-dimensional bio-printed scaffold sleeves with

  10. Reconstruction of neuronal input through modeling single-neuron dynamics and computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Qing; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Chan, Wai-lok

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models provide a mathematical description of neuron activity, which can better understand and quantify neural computations and corresponding biophysical mechanisms evoked by stimulus. In this paper, based on the output spike train evoked by the acupuncture mechanical stimulus, we present two different levels of models to describe the input-output system to achieve the reconstruction of neuronal input. The reconstruction process is divided into two steps: First, considering the neuronal spiking event as a Gamma stochastic process. The scale parameter and the shape parameter of Gamma process are, respectively, defined as two spiking characteristics, which are estimated by a state-space method. Then, leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model is used to mimic the response system and the estimated spiking characteristics are transformed into two temporal input parameters of LIF model, through two conversion formulas. We test this reconstruction method by three different groups of simulation data. All three groups of estimates reconstruct input parameters with fairly high accuracy. We then use this reconstruction method to estimate the non-measurable acupuncture input parameters. Results show that under three different frequencies of acupuncture stimulus conditions, estimated input parameters have an obvious difference. The higher the frequency of the acupuncture stimulus is, the higher the accuracy of reconstruction is.

  11. Reconstruction of neuronal input through modeling single-neuron dynamics and computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Qing; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin, E-mail: dengbin@tju.edu.cn; Chan, Wai-lok [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Mathematical models provide a mathematical description of neuron activity, which can better understand and quantify neural computations and corresponding biophysical mechanisms evoked by stimulus. In this paper, based on the output spike train evoked by the acupuncture mechanical stimulus, we present two different levels of models to describe the input-output system to achieve the reconstruction of neuronal input. The reconstruction process is divided into two steps: First, considering the neuronal spiking event as a Gamma stochastic process. The scale parameter and the shape parameter of Gamma process are, respectively, defined as two spiking characteristics, which are estimated by a state-space method. Then, leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model is used to mimic the response system and the estimated spiking characteristics are transformed into two temporal input parameters of LIF model, through two conversion formulas. We test this reconstruction method by three different groups of simulation data. All three groups of estimates reconstruct input parameters with fairly high accuracy. We then use this reconstruction method to estimate the non-measurable acupuncture input parameters. Results show that under three different frequencies of acupuncture stimulus conditions, estimated input parameters have an obvious difference. The higher the frequency of the acupuncture stimulus is, the higher the accuracy of reconstruction is.

  12. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shaoen; Zheng Zhijian; Liu Zhongli

    2001-01-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments

  13. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaoen, Jiang; Zhijian, Zheng; Zhongli, Liu [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2001-04-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments.

  14. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography of the atrial septal defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Cárdenas Ángel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transesophageal echocardiography has advantages over transthoracic technique in defining morphology of atrial structures. Even though real time three-dimensional echocardiographic imaging is a reality, the off-line reconstruction technique usually allows to obtain higher spatial resolution images. The purpose of this study was to explore the accuracy of off-line three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in a spectrum of atrial septal defects by comparing them with representative anatomic specimens.

  15. Simulation on three dimensional bubble formation using MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugi, Tomoaki

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical simulation on three-dimensional bubble formation by means of the MARS (Multi-interfaces Advection and Reconstruction Solver) developed by the author. The comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulation on an agglomeration of two bubbles is discussed. Moreover, some simulation results regarding a phase change phenomena such as a boiling and condensation in a two dimensional enclosure with heated and cooled walls are presented. (author)

  16. (Weakly) three-dimensional caseology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomraning, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    The singular eigenfunction technique of Case for solving one-dimensional planar symmetry linear transport problems is extended to a restricted class of three-dimensional problems. This class involves planar geometry, but with forcing terms (either boundary conditions or internal sources) which are weakly dependent upon the transverse spatial variables. Our analysis involves a singular perturbation about the classic planar analysis, and leads to the usual Case discrete and continuum modes, but modulated by weakly dependent three-dimensional spatial functions. These functions satisfy parabolic differential equations, with a different diffusion coefficient for each mode. Representative one-speed time-independent transport problems are solved in terms of these generalised Case eigenfunctions. Our treatment is very heuristic, but may provide an impetus for more rigorous analysis. (author)

  17. Equilibrium: three-dimensional configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter considers toroidal MHD configurations that are inherently three-dimensional. The motivation for investigation such complicated equilibria is that they possess the potential for providing toroidal confinement without the need of a net toroidal current. This leads to a number of advantages with respect to fusion power generation. First, the attractive feature of steady-state operation becomes more feasible since such configurations no longer require a toroidal current transformer. Second, with zero net current, one potentially dangerous class of MHD instabilities, the current-driven kink modes, is eliminated. Finally, three-dimensional configurations possess nondegenerate flux surfaces even in the absence of plasma pressure and plasma current. Although there is an enormous range of possible three-dimensional equilibria, the configurations of interest are accurately described as axisymmetric tori with superimposed helical fields; furthermore, they possess no net toroidal current. Instead, two different and less obvious restoring forces are developed: the helical sideband force and the toroidal dipole current force. Each is discussed in detail in Chapter 7. A detailed discussion of the parallel current constraint, including its physical significance, is given in section 7.2. A general analysis of helical sideband equilibria, along with a detailed description of the Elmo bumpy torus, is presented in sections 7.3 and 7.4. A general description of toroidal dipole-current equilibria, including a detailed discussion of stellarators, heliotrons, and torsatrons, is given in sections 7.5 and 7.6

  18. Three-dimensional imagery by encoding sources of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, Isabelle

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the theoretical and practical study of X ray coded sources, and thus notably aims at exploring whether it would be possible to transform a standard digital radiography apparatus (as those operated in radiology hospital departments) into a low cost three-dimensional imagery system. The author first recalls the principle of conventional tomography and improvement attempts, and describes imagery techniques based on the use of encoding openings and source encoding. She reports the modelling of an imagery system based on encoded sources of X ray, and addresses the original notion of three-dimensional response for such a system. The author then addresses the reconstruction method by considering the reconstruction of a plane object, of a multi-plane object, and of real three-dimensional object. The frequency properties and the tomographic capacities of various types of source codes are analysed. She describes a prototype tomography apparatus, and presents and discusses three-dimensional actual phantom reconstructions. She finally introduces a new principle of dynamic three-dimensional radiography which implements an acquisition technique by 'gating code'. The acquisition principle should allow the reconstruction of volumes animated by periodic deformations, such as the heart for example [fr

  19. Three dimensional CT imaging of ossicular chain: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chunhong; Zhong Shenbin; Fu Yindi; Zhu Wei; Wang Xueyuan; Chen Jianhua; Ding Yi

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To analysis the features of normal and abnormal ossicular chain in three dimensional images and asses the best parameters and its usefulness in diagnosis and treatment of chronic otitis media (COM). Methods: All patients, including 43 patients with normal ears and 24 ears with COM, were examined using spiral CT with inner ear software, 1-mm slice width and 1 pitch. SSD method was used in three dimensional reconstruction and the threshold was 100-300 Hu. Results: In normal cases, Malleus, incus, stapes crura, incudomalleal joints and incudostapedial joints were displayed well, but stapes footplate unsatisfactorily. The disruption of the ossicular chain showed in three-dimensional images in cases of chronic otitis media was in accord with that seen in the operation. Conclusion: It is very important for imaging with high quality through selecting proper parameters, and three-dimensional image can provide valuable information for surgery

  20. [Bone drilling simulation by three-dimensional imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Y; Furuhata, K; Kojima, T; Kurokawa, T; Kobayashi, M

    1989-06-01

    The three-dimensional display technique has a wide range of medical applications. Pre-operative planning is one typical application: in orthopedic surgery, three-dimensional image processing has been used very successfully. We have employed this technique in pre-operative planning for orthopedic surgery, and have developed a simulation system for bone-drilling. Positive results were obtained by pre-operative rehearsal; when a region of interest is indicated by means of a mouse on the three-dimensional image displayed on the CRT, the corresponding region appears on the slice image which is displayed simultaneously. Consequently, the status of the bone-drilling is constantly monitored. In developing this system, we have placed emphasis on the quality of the reconstructed three-dimensional images, on fast processing, and on the easy operation of the surgical planning simulation.

  1. Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J.

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores

  2. Three dimensional animated images of anorectal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Shigeru; Yanagimachi, Noriharu; Muro, Isao; Komiya, Taizo; Yokoyama, Seishichi; Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Tajima, Tomoo; Mitomi, Toshio; Suto, Yasuzo.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the pelvic structures is a most important factor in obtaining a desirable result after anorectoplasty for a patient with anorectal malformation. Preoperative evaluation of the anatomy is indispensable for choosing an appropriate operative method in each case. To facilitate preoperative evaluation, three dimensional animated images of the pelvic structure of patients with anorectal malformations were constructed by computer graphics based upon tomographic images obtained from magnetic resonance imaging. Axial 1-mm thick images of the pelvic portion were generated with spoiling pulse gradient echo sequences using short repetition times (13 msec TR) and short echo times (6 msec TE) with a flip angle of 25 degrees with the patient in the jack-knife position. Graphic data from MR images were transferred to a graphic work station and processed on it. The skin surface, the ano-rectum, the lower urinary tract and the sphincter musculature were segmented by thresholding images by the signal intensity. Three dimensional images were displayed by surface rendering method using the segmented data of each organ and then animation images of these organs were obtained. The anatomy of each type of anomaly was easily recognized by 3-D visualization, and animation of the pelvic viscera and the sphincter musculature made the images more realistic. Animated images of the musculature were especially useful for simulating surgical procedures and could be helpful for reviewing surgical results. (author)

  3. Evaluation of diagnostic quality in musculoskeletal three-dimensional CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannier, M.W.; Hildebolt, C.F.; Gilula, L.A.; Sutherland, C.J.; Offutt, C.J.; Drebin, R.; Mantle, M.; Giordono, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A major application of three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) is in the imaging of the skeleton. Three-dimensional CT has an important role in determining the presence and extent of congenital and acquired orthopedic abnormalities. The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of three-dimensional CT, planar CT, and plain radiography in the detection and characterization of orthopedic abnormalities. Three-dimensional CT scan reconstructions were obtained by two methods, surface reconstruction and volumetric techniques. Seventy patients were imaged with CT, three-dimensional CT, and plain radiography. The consensus opinion of experts with access to all images plus clinical history, surgical findings, and follow-up findings were taken as truth. Expert radiologists read these cases in a blinded fashion. The results were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The diagnostic value of each three-dimensional reconstruction method and the parameters used to perform the reconstructions were evaluated

  4. Multiscale modeling of three-dimensional genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter

    The genome, the blueprint of life, contains nearly all the information needed to build and maintain an entire organism. A comprehensive understanding of the genome is of paramount interest to human health and will advance progress in many areas, including life sciences, medicine, and biotechnology. The overarching goal of my research is to understand the structure-dynamics-function relationships of the human genome. In this talk, I will be presenting our efforts in moving towards that goal, with a particular emphasis on studying the three-dimensional organization, the structure of the genome with multi-scale approaches. Specifically, I will discuss the reconstruction of genome structures at both interphase and metaphase by making use of data from chromosome conformation capture experiments. Computationally modeling of chromatin fiber at atomistic level from first principles will also be presented as our effort for studying the genome structure from bottom up.

  5. Three-dimensional aromatic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Shinji; Iwanaga, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of aromatic units and linkers are reviewed from various aspects. To understand principles for the construction of such compounds, we generalize the roles of building units, the synthetic approaches, and the classification of networks. As fundamental compounds, cyclophanes with large aromatic units and aromatic macrocycles with linear acetylene linkers are highlighted in terms of transannular interactions between aromatic units, conformational preference, and resolution of chiral derivatives. Polycyclic cage compounds are constructed from building units by linkages via covalent bonds, metal-coordination bonds, or hydrogen bonds. Large cage networks often include a wide range of guest species in their cavity to afford novel inclusion compounds. Topological isomers consisting of two or more macrocycles are formed by cyclization of preorganized species. Some complicated topological networks are constructed by self-assembly of simple building units.

  6. An algorithm for three-dimensional imaging in the positron camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Kun; Ma Mei; Xu Rongfen; Shen Miaohe

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical algorithm of back-projection filtered for image reconstructions using two-dimensional signals detected from parallel multiwire proportional chambers is described. The approaches of pseudo three-dimensional and full three-dimensional image reconstructions are introduced, and the available point response functions are defined as well. The designing parameters and computation procedure of the full three-dimensional method is presented

  7. Three-dimensional models of the tracheostoma using stereolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grolman, W.; Schouwenburg, P. F.; Verbeeten, B.; de Boer, M. F.; Meeuwis, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    The availability of an accurate three-dimensional (3-D) model of the tracheostoma and trachea of the laryngectomy patient would be of great help in prototyping of endotracheal prostheses. Stereolithography has been described for skull and jaw models but never for soft-tissue reconstructions of the

  8. Three dimensional imaging of otoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.; David, B.

    2008-01-01

    Otoliths are small structures in fish ears made of calcium carbonate which carry a record of the environment in which the fish live. Traditionally, in order to study their microchemistry by a scanning technique such as PIXE the otoliths have been either ground down by hand or thin sectioned to expose the otolith core. However this technique is subject to human error in judging the core position. In this study we have scanned successive layers of otoliths 50 and 100 μm apart by removing the otolith material in a lapping machine which can be set to a few μm precision. In one study by comparing data from otoliths from the two ears of a freshwater species we found that polishing by hand could miss the core and thus give misleading results as to the life cycle of the fish. In another example we showed detail in a marine species which could be used to build a three dimensional picture of the Sr distribution. (author)

  9. Three-Dimensional Rebar Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Junwei; Salvatierra, Rodrigo V; Dong, Pei; Li, Yilun; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Wang, Tuo; Zhang, Chenhao; Zhang, Jibo; Ji, Yongsung; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun; Zhao, Naiqin; Tour, James M

    2017-03-01

    Free-standing robust three-dimensional (3D) rebar graphene foams (GFs) were developed by a powder metallurgy template method with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a reinforcing bar, sintered Ni skeletons as a template and catalyst, and sucrose as a solid carbon source. As a reinforcement and bridge between different graphene sheets and carbon shells, MWCNTs improved the thermostability, storage modulus (290.1 kPa) and conductivity (21.82 S cm -1 ) of 3D GF resulting in a high porosity and structurally stable 3D rebar GF. The 3D rebar GF can support >3150× the foam's weight with no irreversible height change, and shows only a ∼25% irreversible height change after loading >8500× the foam's weight. The 3D rebar GF also shows stable performance as a highly porous electrode in lithium ion capacitors (LICs) with an energy density of 32 Wh kg -1 . After 500 cycles of testing at a high current density of 6.50 mA cm -2 , the LIC shows 78% energy density retention. These properties indicate promising applications with 3D rebar GFs in devices requiring stable mechanical and electrochemical properties.

  10. Electron tomography, three-dimensional Fourier analysis and colour prediction of a three-dimensional amorphous biophotonic nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawkey, Matthew D.; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Pálsdóttir, Hildur; Crum, John; Ellisman, Mark H.; Auer, Manfred; Prum, Richard O.

    2009-01-01

    Organismal colour can be created by selective absorption of light by pigments or light scattering by photonic nanostructures. Photonic nanostructures may vary in refractive index over one, two or three dimensions and may be periodic over large spatial scales or amorphous with short-range order. Theoretical optical analysis of three-dimensional amorphous nanostructures has been challenging because these structures are difficult to describe accurately from conventional two-dimensional electron microscopy alone. Intermediate voltage electron microscopy (IVEM) with tomographic reconstruction adds three-dimensional data by using a high-power electron beam to penetrate and image sections of material sufficiently thick to contain a significant portion of the structure. Here, we use IVEM tomography to characterize a non-iridescent, three-dimensional biophotonic nanostructure: the spongy medullary layer from eastern bluebird Sialia sialis feather barbs. Tomography and three-dimensional Fourier analysis reveal that it is an amorphous, interconnected bicontinuous matrix that is appropriately ordered at local spatial scales in all three dimensions to coherently scatter light. The predicted reflectance spectra from the three-dimensional Fourier analysis are more precise than those predicted by previous two-dimensional Fourier analysis of transmission electron microscopy sections. These results highlight the usefulness, and obstacles, of tomography in the description and analysis of three-dimensional photonic structures. PMID:19158016

  11. Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography of Magnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales, Morten; Strobl, Markus; Shinohara, Takenao

    2018-01-01

    Through the use of Time-of-Flight Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography (ToF 3DPNT) we have for the first time successfully demonstrated a technique capable of measuring and reconstructing three dimensional magnetic field strengths and directions unobtrusively and non-destructively wi......Through the use of Time-of-Flight Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography (ToF 3DPNT) we have for the first time successfully demonstrated a technique capable of measuring and reconstructing three dimensional magnetic field strengths and directions unobtrusively and non...... and reconstructed, thereby providing the proof-of-principle of a technique able to reveal hitherto unobtainable information on the magnetic fields in the bulk of materials and devices, due to a high degree of penetration into many materials, including metals, and the sensitivity of neutron polarisation to magnetic...... fields. The technique puts the potential of the ToF time structure of pulsed neutron sources to full use in order to optimise the recorded information quality and reduce measurement time....

  12. Quasi-three-dimensional particle imaging with digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppinen, Osku; Heinson, Yuli; Berg, Matthew

    2017-05-01

    In this work, approximate three-dimensional structures of microparticles are generated with digital holography using an automated focus method. This is done by stacking a collection of silhouette-like images of a particle reconstructed from a single in-line hologram. The method enables estimation of the particle size in the longitudinal and transverse dimensions. Using the discrete dipole approximation, the method is tested computationally by simulating holograms for a variety of particles and attempting to reconstruct the known three-dimensional structure. It is found that poor longitudinal resolution strongly perturbs the reconstructed structure, yet the method does provide an approximate sense for the structure's longitudinal dimension. The method is then applied to laboratory measurements of holograms of single microparticles and their scattering patterns.

  13. Three-dimensional, three-component wall-PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthe, André; Kondermann, Daniel; Christensen, Carolyn; Goubergrits, Leonid; Garbe, Christoph; Affeld, Klaus; Kertzscher, Ulrich

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a new time-resolved three-dimensional, three-component (3D-3C) measurement technique called wall-PIV. It was developed to assess near wall flow fields and shear rates near non-planar surfaces. The method is based on light absorption according to Beer-Lambert’s law. The fluid containing a molecular dye and seeded with buoyant particles is illuminated by a monochromatic, diffuse light. Due to the dye, the depth of view is limited to the near wall layer. The three-dimensional particle positions can be reconstructed by the intensities of the particle’s projection on an image sensor. The flow estimation is performed by a new algorithm, based on learned particle trajectories. Possible sources of measurement errors related to the wall-PIV technique are analyzed. The accuracy analysis was based on single particle experiments and a three-dimensional artificial data set simulating a rotating sphere.

  14. Three-dimensional CT imaging of soft-tissue anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, E.K.; Ney, D.R.; Magid, D.; Kuhlman, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional display of computed tomographic data has been limited to skeletal structures. This was in part related to the reconstruction algorithm used, which relied on a binary classification scheme. A new algorithm, volumetric rendering with percentage classification, provides the ability to display three-dimensional images of muscle and soft tissue. A review was conducted of images in 35 cases in which muscle and/or soft tissue were part of the clinical problem. In all cases, individual muscle groups could be clearly identified and discriminated. Branching vessels in the range of 2.3 mm could be identified. Similarly, lymph nodes could be clearly defined. High-resolution three-dimensional images were found to be useful both in providing an increased understanding of complex muscle and soft tissue anatomy and in surgical planning

  15. Use of three-dimensional time-resolved phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging with vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction to assess renal blood flow in a renal cell carcinoma patient treated with sunitinib: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Tatsuya; Takehara, Yasuo; Sugiyama, Masataka; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Ishii, Yasuo; Johnson, Kevin E; Wieben, Oliver; Wakayama, Tetsuya; Sakahara, Harumi; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2014-08-14

    New imaging modalities to assess the efficacy of drugs that have molecular targets remain under development. Here, we describe for the first time the use of time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging to monitor changes in blood supply to a tumor during sunitinib treatment in a patient with localized renal cell carcinoma. A 43-year-old Japanese woman with a tumor-bearing but functional single kidney presented at our hospital in July 2012. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cT1aN0M0 renal cell carcinoma embedded in the upper central region of the left kidney. She was prescribed sunitinib as neoadjuvant therapy for 8 months, and then underwent partial nephrectomy. Tumor monitoring during this time was done using time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging, a recent technique which specifically measures blood flow in the various vessels of the kidney. This imaging allowed visualization of the redistribution of renal blood flow during treatment, and showed that flow to the tumor was decreased and flows to other areas increased. Of note, this change occurred in the absence of any change in tumor size. The ability of time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging to provide quantitative information on blood supply to tumors may be useful in monitoring the efficacy of sunitinib treatment.

  16. Panoramic three-dimensional CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamata, Akitoshi; Fujishita, Masami

    1998-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is a unique projection technique for producing a single image of both maxillary and mandibular arches and many other anatomical structures. To obtain a similar panoramic image without panoramic radiography system, a modified three-dimensional (3D) CT imaging technique was designed. A set of CT slice image data extending from the chin to the orbit was used for 3D reconstruction. The CT machine used in this study was the X-Vision (TOSHIBA, Japan). The helical scan technique was used. The slice thickness of reconstructed image was one or 1.5 mm. The occlusal plane or Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane was used as the reference line. The resultant slice image data was stored on a magnetic optical disk and then used to create panoramic 3D-CT images on a Macintosh computer systems (Power Macintosh 8600/250, Apple Computer Inc., USA). To create the panoramic 3D-CT image, the following procedure was designed: Design a curved panoramic 3D-CT imaging layer using the imaging layer and the movement of the x-ray beam in panoramic radiography system as a template; Cut this imaging layer from each slice image, then the trimmed image was transformed to a rectangular layer using the ''still image warping'' special effect in the Elastic Reality special effects system (Elastic Reality Inc., USA); Create panoramic 3D-CT image using the Voxel View (Vital Images Inc., USA) rendering system and volume rendering technique. Although the image quality was primitive, a panoramic view of maxillofacial region was obtained by this technique. (author)

  17. Dense reconstruction of brain-wide neuronal population close to the ground truth

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yun; Zhou, Hang; Li, Shiwei; Li, Jing; Su, Lei; Li, Anan; Feng, Xiong; Li, Ning; Han, Jiacheng; Kang, Hongtao; Chen, Yijun; Fang, Wenqian; Liu, Yidong; Lin, Huimin; Jin, Sen

    2017-01-01

    Neuron is the basic structure and functional unit of the brain, its projection and connections with other neurons provide a basic physical infrastructure for neural signal storage, allocation, processing, and integration. Recent technique progresses allow for labeling and imaging specific neuronal populations at single axonal level across a whole mouse brain. However, digital reconstruction of these neuron individuals needs months of human labor or sometimes is even an impossible task. Here w...

  18. Three-dimensional surgical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia H C; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2010-09-01

    In this article, we discuss the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery, which allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3-dimensional surface models from cone-beam computed tomography, dynamic cephalometry, semiautomatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone, and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intraoperative guidance. The system provides further intraoperative assistance with a computer display showing jaw positions and 3-dimensional positioning guides updated in real time during the surgical procedure. The computer-aided surgery system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training, and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures before the surgery. Computer-aided surgery can make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Elastocapillary fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honschoten, J.W.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Ondarcuhu, T.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Sundaram, J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2010-01-01

    We describe the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures by means of capillary forces. Using an origami-like technique, planar silicon nitride structures of various geometries are folded to produce three-dimensional objects of 50–100 m. Capillarity is a particularly effective mechanism since

  20. Three-dimensional MR imaging of congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laschinger, J.C.; Vannier, M.W.; Knapp, R.H.; Gutierrez, F.R.; Cox, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Contiguous 5-mm thick ECG-gated MR images of the thorax were edited using surface reconstruction techniques to produce three-dimensional (3D) images of the heart and great vessels in four healthy individuals and 25 patients with congenital heart disease (aged 3 months-30 years). Anomalies studied include atrial and ventricular septal defects, aortic coarctation, AV canal defects, double outlet ventricles, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and a wide spectrum of patients with tetralogy of Fallot. The results were correlated with echocardiographic and cineradiographic studies, and with surgical findings or pathologic specimens. Three-dimensional reconstructions accurately localized the dimensions and locations of all cardiac and great vessel anomalies and often displayed anatomic findings not diagnosed or visualized with other forms of diagnostic imaging

  1. Fusion of three-dimensional X-ray angiography and three-dimensional echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasche, Volker [University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm (Germany); Philips Medical Systems, Bothell, WA (United States); Mansour, Moussa; Reddy, Vivek; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Ruskin, Jeremy [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac Arrhythmia Service, Boston, MA (United States); Qureshi, Answer [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Echocardiography, Boston, MA (United States); Manzke, Robert; Sokka, Sham [Philips Research North America, Clinical Sites Research, Briacliff Manor, NY (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Cardiovascular intervention guidance requires knowledge of heart function relative to its blood supply or venous drainage. Functional and vascular anatomic data are usually generated on different imaging systems, so fusion of the data is necessary to simultaneously visualize the results for intervention planning and guidance. The objective of this work is to establish the feasibility of fusing volumetric ultrasound (U/S) data with three-dimensional (3D) X-ray imaging data for visualization of cardiac morphology, function and coronary venous drainage. Temporally resolved U/S volume data was registered with the 3D reconstruction of vascular structures derived from X-ray modeling and reconstruction. U/S image registration was obtained by optical tracking fiducial markers with simultaneous X-ray imaging. The proposed technique was applied to phantom data for accuracy assessment of the registration process and to biventricular pacemaker implantation as clinical example. Fusion of U/S data with 3D X-ray reconstruction data produced an RMS registration error below 2 mm. Preliminary clinical feasibility of U/S-derived data synchronously with X-ray derived 3D coronary venography was established. This technique can be applied for fusion of functional U/S data with 3D anatomic X-ray data of the coronary veins during a biventricular pacemaker implantation procedures. (orig.)

  2. Fusion of three-dimensional X-ray angiography and three-dimensional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasche, Volker; Mansour, Moussa; Reddy, Vivek; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Ruskin, Jeremy; Qureshi, Answer; Manzke, Robert; Sokka, Sham

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular intervention guidance requires knowledge of heart function relative to its blood supply or venous drainage. Functional and vascular anatomic data are usually generated on different imaging systems, so fusion of the data is necessary to simultaneously visualize the results for intervention planning and guidance. The objective of this work is to establish the feasibility of fusing volumetric ultrasound (U/S) data with three-dimensional (3D) X-ray imaging data for visualization of cardiac morphology, function and coronary venous drainage. Temporally resolved U/S volume data was registered with the 3D reconstruction of vascular structures derived from X-ray modeling and reconstruction. U/S image registration was obtained by optical tracking fiducial markers with simultaneous X-ray imaging. The proposed technique was applied to phantom data for accuracy assessment of the registration process and to biventricular pacemaker implantation as clinical example. Fusion of U/S data with 3D X-ray reconstruction data produced an RMS registration error below 2 mm. Preliminary clinical feasibility of U/S-derived data synchronously with X-ray derived 3D coronary venography was established. This technique can be applied for fusion of functional U/S data with 3D anatomic X-ray data of the coronary veins during a biventricular pacemaker implantation procedures. (orig.)

  3. Three-dimensional CT of the pediatric spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starshak, R.J.; Crawford, C.R.; Waisman, R.C.; Sty, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    CT of the spine has been shown to be useful in evaluating congenital, neoplastic, inflammatory, and traumatic lesions. Any portion of the neural arch may be involved by these disease processes. The complex nature of the spinal column can make evaluation of these abnormalities difficult on axial CT. This is especially true if the spine is distorted by scoliosis, kyphosis, or lordosis. This exhibit illustrates the advantages and drawbacks of three-dimensional CT reconstructed images of spinal abnormalities in children

  4. Three-dimensional harmonic control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapenko, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithms for neutron flux control based on harmonic three-dimensional core are considered. The essence of the considered approach includes determination of harmonics amplitudes by signals self-powered detectors placed in reactor channels and reconstruction of neutron field distribution over the reactor core volume using the data obtained. Neutron field harmonic control is shown to be reduced to independent measurement and calculation of height harmonics in channels using techniques developed for channel power control

  5. Three-Dimensional Computer Graphics Brain-Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-24

    1975-76, one of these brains was hand digitized. It was then reconstructed three dimensionally, using an Evans and Sutherland Picture System 2. This...Yakovlev Collection, we use the Evans and Sutherland Picture System 2 which we have been employing for this purpose for a dozen years. Its virtue is...careful, experimentally designed new protocol (See Figure 20). Most of these heads were imaged with Computed Tomography, thanks to Clint Stiles of Picker

  6. Three-dimensional neural cultures produce networks that mimic native brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Justin L; Quigley, Anita F; Duchi, Serena; O'Connell, Cathal D; Crook, Jeremy M; Wallace, Gordon G; Cook, Mark J; Kapsa, Robert M I

    2018-02-01

    Development of brain function is critically dependent on neuronal networks organized through three dimensions. Culture of central nervous system neurons has traditionally been limited to two dimensions, restricting growth patterns and network formation to a single plane. Here, with the use of multichannel extracellular microelectrode arrays, we demonstrate that neurons cultured in a true three-dimensional environment recapitulate native neuronal network formation and produce functional outcomes more akin to in vivo neuronal network activity. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. [Application Progress of Three-dimensional Laser Scanning Technology in Medical Surface Mapping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghong; Hou, He; Han, Yuchuan; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Xianfeng; Wang, Mingshi

    2016-04-01

    The booming three-dimensional laser scanning technology can efficiently and effectively get spatial three-dimensional coordinates of the detected object surface and reconstruct the image at high speed,high precision and large capacity of information.Non-radiation,non-contact and the ability of visualization make it increasingly popular in three-dimensional surface medical mapping.This paper reviews the applications and developments of three-dimensional laser scanning technology in medical field,especially in stomatology,plastic surgery and orthopedics.Furthermore,the paper also discusses the application prospects in the future as well as the biomedical engineering problems it would encounter with.

  8. Three-dimensional cranio-facial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi Muccelli, R.; Stagul, F.; Pozzi Muccelli, F.; Zuiani, C.; Smathers, R.

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography allows today to reconstruct three-dimensional (eD) images fram axial scans. The authors report their experience in cranio-facial pathology achived in two Departments of Radiology (University of Trieste, Italy and University of Standford, California). 3D images have been realized using two different softwares, one of which allows to reconstruct both soft tissue and bone structures. The application in maxillo-facial traumas, cranio-facial malformations and head tumours are disscussed. 3D images turned out to be very useful for the optimal visualization and for the spatial demostration of the lesion and have potential applications in cranio-facial surgery and radiotherapy

  9. Three-dimensional cranio-facial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi Muccelli, R; Stagul, F; Pozzi Muccelli, F; Zuiani, C; Smathers, R

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography allows today to reconstruct three-dimensional (eD) images fram axial scans. The authors report their experience in cranio-facial pathology achived in two Departments of Radiology (University of Trieste, Italy and University of Standford, California). 3D images have been realized using two different softwares, one of which allows to reconstruct both soft tissue and bone structures. The application in maxillo-facial traumas, cranio-facial malformations and head tumours are disscussed. 3D images turned out to be very useful for the optimal visualization and for the spatial demostration of the lesion and have potential applications in cranio-facial surgery and radiotherapy.

  10. Three-dimensional appearance of the lips muscles with three-dimensional isotropic MRI: in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Raphael; Reychler, H. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Liu, Y.; Xu, T.M. [Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Department of Orthodontics, Beijing (China); Duprez, T. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    Our knowledge of facial muscles is based primarily on atlases and cadaveric studies. This study describes a non-invasive in vivo method (3D MRI) for segmenting and reconstructing facial muscles in a three-dimensional fashion. Three-dimensional (3D), T1-weighted, 3 Tesla, isotropic MRI was applied to a subject. One observer performed semi-automatic segmentation using the Editor module from the 3D Slicer software (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA), version 3.2. We were able to successfully outline and three-dimensionally reconstruct the following facial muscles: pars labialis orbicularis oris, m. levatro labii superioris alaeque nasi, m. levator labii superioris, m. zygomaticus major and minor, m. depressor anguli oris, m. depressor labii inferioris, m. mentalis, m. buccinator, and m. orbicularis oculi. 3D reconstruction of the lip muscles should be taken into consideration in order to improve the accuracy and individualization of existing 3D facial soft tissue models. More studies are needed to further develop efficient methods for segmentation in this field. (orig.)

  11. Three-dimensional appearance of the lips muscles with three-dimensional isotropic MRI: in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Raphael; Liu, Y; Duprez, T; Xu, T M; Reychler, H

    2009-06-01

    Our knowledge of facial muscles is based primarily on atlases and cadaveric studies. This study describes a non-invasive in vivo method (3D MRI) for segmenting and reconstructing facial muscles in a three-dimensional fashion. Three-dimensional (3D), T1-weighted, 3 Tesla, isotropic MRI was applied to a subject. One observer performed semi-automatic segmentation using the Editor module from the 3D Slicer software (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA), version 3.2. We were able to successfully outline and three-dimensionally reconstruct the following facial muscles: pars labialis orbicularis oris, m. levatro labii superioris alaeque nasi, m. levator labii superioris, m. zygomaticus major and minor, m. depressor anguli oris, m. depressor labii inferioris, m. mentalis, m. buccinator, and m. orbicularis oculi. 3D reconstruction of the lip muscles should be taken into consideration in order to improve the accuracy and individualization of existing 3D facial soft tissue models. More studies are needed to further develop efficient methods for segmentation in this field.

  12. Three dimensional visualization of medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yasuzo

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional visualization is a stereoscopic technique that allows the diagnosis and treatment of complicated anatomy site of the bone and organ. In this article, the current status and technical application of three dimensional visualization are introduced with special reference to X-ray CT and MRI. The surface display technique is the most common for three dimensional visualization, consisting of geometric model, voxel element, and stereographic composition techniques. Recent attention has been paid to display method of the content of the subject called as volume rendering, whereby information on the living body is provided accurately. The application of three dimensional visualization is described in terms of diagnostic imaging and surgical simulation. (N.K.)

  13. three dimensional photoelastic investigations on thick rectangular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... Thick rectangular plates are investigated by means of three-dimensional photoelasticity ... a thin plate theory and a higher order thick plate theory. 1. ..... number of fringes lest the accuracy of the results will be considerably.

  14. Three dimensional diffusion calculations of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspo, N.

    1981-07-01

    This work deals with the three dimensional calculation of nuclear reactors using the code TRITON. The purposes of the work were to perform three-dimensional computations of the core of the Soreq nuclear reactor and of the power reactor ZION and to validate the TRITON code. Possible applications of the TRITON code in Soreq reactor calculations and in power reactor research are suggested. (H.K.)

  15. Three-dimensional effects in fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    An overall view of the pioneering theories and works, which enlighten the three-dimensional nature of fracture mechanics during the last years is given. the main aim is not an exhaustive reviewing but the displaying of the last developments on this scientific field in a natural way. This work attempts to envisage the limits of disregarding the three-dimensional behaviour in theories, analyses and experiments. Moreover, it tries to draw attention on the scant fervour, although increasing, this three-dimensional nature of fracture has among the scientific community. Finally, a constructive discussion is presented on the use of two-dimensional solutions in the analysis of geometries which bear a three-dimensional configuration. the static two-dimensional solutions and its applications fields are reviewed. also, the static three-dimensional solutions, wherein a comparative analysis with elastoplastic and elastostatic solutions are presented. to end up, the dynamic three-dimensional solutions are compared to the asymptotic two-dimensional ones under the practical applications point of view. (author)

  16. Three-dimensional nanostructure determination from a large diffraction data set recorded using scanning electron nanodiffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Meng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A diffraction-based technique is developed for the determination of three-dimensional nanostructures. The technique employs high-resolution and low-dose scanning electron nanodiffraction (SEND to acquire three-dimensional diffraction patterns, with the help of a special sample holder for large-angle rotation. Grains are identified in three-dimensional space based on crystal orientation and on reconstructed dark-field images from the recorded diffraction patterns. Application to a nanocrystalline TiN thin film shows that the three-dimensional morphology of columnar TiN grains of tens of nanometres in diameter can be reconstructed using an algebraic iterative algorithm under specified prior conditions, together with their crystallographic orientations. The principles can be extended to multiphase nanocrystalline materials as well. Thus, the tomographic SEND technique provides an effective and adaptive way of determining three-dimensional nanostructures.

  17. Two- and three-dimensional evaluation of the acetabulum in the pediatric patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.; Sponseller, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Complex anatomic structures such as the hip and acetabulum are best evaluated with the use of two- and three-dimensional reconstruction techniques and standard transaxial CT data. CT scans of children with various hip pathologies, including congenital hip dislocation, slipped capital femoral epiphyses, hip dysplasias, dwarfism, and acetabular fractures, were reviewed to determine the value of two- and three-dimensional imaging. The advantages of two-dimensional imaging techniques (sequential coronal/sagittal reconstruction) and three-dimensional valumetric imaging techniques (using real-time video display) are illustrated with specific examples

  18. Three-dimensional distribution of cortical synapses: a replicated point pattern-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Bielza, Concha; Merchán-Pérez, Angel; Rodríguez, José-Rodrigo; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The biggest problem when analyzing the brain is that its synaptic connections are extremely complex. Generally, the billions of neurons making up the brain exchange information through two types of highly specialized structures: chemical synapses (the vast majority) and so-called gap junctions (a substrate of one class of electrical synapse). Here we are interested in exploring the three-dimensional spatial distribution of chemical synapses in the cerebral cortex. Recent research has showed that the three-dimensional spatial distribution of synapses in layer III of the neocortex can be modeled by a random sequential adsorption (RSA) point process, i.e., synapses are distributed in space almost randomly, with the only constraint that they cannot overlap. In this study we hypothesize that RSA processes can also explain the distribution of synapses in all cortical layers. We also investigate whether there are differences in both the synaptic density and spatial distribution of synapses between layers. Using combined focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), we obtained three-dimensional samples from the six layers of the rat somatosensory cortex and identified and reconstructed the synaptic junctions. A total volume of tissue of approximately 4500μm3 and around 4000 synapses from three different animals were analyzed. Different samples, layers and/or animals were aggregated and compared using RSA replicated spatial point processes. The results showed no significant differences in the synaptic distribution across the different rats used in the study. We found that RSA processes described the spatial distribution of synapses in all samples of each layer. We also found that the synaptic distribution in layers II to VI conforms to a common underlying RSA process with different densities per layer. Interestingly, the results showed that synapses in layer I had a slightly different spatial distribution from the other layers. PMID:25206325

  19. A three-dimensional model of a gap junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xylouris, K.; Wittum, G.

    2009-01-01

    Gap junctions are effective electric couplings between neurons and form a very important way of communication between them. Since they can be considered as the points on the neuron's membrane on which for example dendrites of different cells become one piece, in three dimensions they can be modelled by observing this property in the created geometry. Thus they can be easily made part in an already existing 3-dimensional model for signal propagation on the neuron's membrane, if the geometries are chosen in such a way respect the blending of the membranes. A small network of two cells was created, which blend in their dendrites and a simulation of the three-dimensional model was carried out which reveals the fast transmission of the signal from one cell to the other.

  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction of breast implants based on isocentric stereoscopic X-ray pictures (ISXP) for application monitoring and irradiation planning of a remote-controlled interstitial afterloading method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, E.; Sauer, O.

    1988-01-01

    An individual irradiation planning and application monitoring by ISXP is presented for a remote-controlled interstitial afterloading technique using /sup 192/Ir wires which is applied in breast-preserving radiotherapy. The errors of reconstruction of the implants are discussed. The consideration of errors for ISXP can be extended to other stereoscopic methods. In this case the quality considerations made by other authors have to be enlarged. The maximum reconstruction error was investigated for a given digitalization precision, focus size, and object blur by patient's movements in dependence on the deviation angle. The optimum deviation angle is about 45/sup 0/, depending on the importance given to the individual parts and almost without being influenced by the relation between the distance isocenter-film and the distance focus-isocenter. In case of an optimized deviation angle, a displacement of an implant point of 1 mm leads to a maximum reconstruction error of 2 mm. The dosage is made according to the Paris system. If the circumcircle radius of the application triangle is modified by 1 mm, a dosage modification of 14% will be the consequence in case of very short wires and a small side length. A verification in a phantom showed a positioning error below 0.5 mm. The dosage error is 2% due to the mutual compensation of the direction-isotropic reconstruction errors of the needles the number of which is between seven and nine.

  1. Three-dimensional microbubble streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Marin, Alvaro; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kaehler, Christian; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2014-11-01

    Streaming due to acoustically excited bubbles has been used successfully for applications such as size-sorting, trapping and focusing of particles, as well as fluid mixing. Many of these applications involve the precise control of particle trajectories, typically achieved using cylindrical bubbles, which establish planar flows. Using astigmatic particle tracking velocimetry (APTV), we show that, while this two-dimensional picture is a useful description of the flow over short times, a systematic three-dimensional flow structure is evident over long time scales. We demonstrate that this long-time three-dimensional fluid motion can be understood through asymptotic theory, superimposing secondary axial flows (induced by boundary conditions at the device walls) onto the two-dimensional description. This leads to a general framework that describes three-dimensional flows in confined microstreaming systems, guiding the design of applications that profit from minimizing or maximizing these effects.

  2. Towards three-dimensional optical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuo; Ishikawa, Atsushi

    2017-12-01

    Metamaterials have opened up the possibility of unprecedented and fascinating concepts and applications in optics and photonics. Examples include negative refraction, perfect lenses, cloaking, perfect absorbers, and so on. Since these metamaterials are man-made materials composed of sub-wavelength structures, their development strongly depends on the advancement of micro- and nano-fabrication technologies. In particular, the realization of three-dimensional metamaterials is one of the big challenges in this research field. In this review, we describe recent progress in the fabrication technologies for three-dimensional metamaterials, as well as proposed applications.

  3. Development of three dimensional solid modeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, R.M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is aimed at developing a three dimensional solid modeler employing computer graphics techniques using C-Language. Primitives have been generated, by combination of plane surfaces, for various basic geometrical shapes including cylinder, cube and cone. Back face removal technique for hidden surface removal has also been incorporated. Various transformation techniques such as scaling, translation, and rotation have been included for the object animation. Three dimensional solid modeler has been created by the union of two primitives to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed program. (author)

  4. Three-dimensional topological insulators and bosonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Andrea [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Randellini, Enrico [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Sisti, Jacopo [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA),Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2017-05-25

    Massless excitations at the surface of three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulators possess both fermionic and bosonic descriptions, originating from band theory and hydrodynamic BF theory, respectively. We analyze the corresponding field theories of the Dirac fermion and compactified boson and compute their partition functions on the three-dimensional torus geometry. We then find some non-dynamic exact properties of bosonization in (2+1) dimensions, regarding fermion parity and spin sectors. Using these results, we extend the Fu-Kane-Mele stability argument to fractional topological insulators in three dimensions.

  5. Fabrication of malleable three-dimensional-printed customized bolus using three-dimensional scanner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Park

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D-printed customized bolus (3D bolus can be used for radiotherapy application to irregular surfaces. However, bolus fabrication based on computed tomography (CT scans is complicated and also delivers unwanted irradiation. Consequently, we fabricated a bolus using a 3D scanner and evaluated its efficacy. The head of an Alderson Rando phantom was scanned with a 3D scanner. The 3D surface data were exported and reconstructed with Geomagic Design X software. A 3D bolus of 5-mm thickness designed to fit onto the nose was printed with the use of rubber-like printing material, and a radiotherapy plan was developed. We successfully fabricated the customized 3D bolus, and further, a CT simulation indicated an acceptable fit of the 3D bolus to the nose. There was no air gap between the bolus and the phantom surface. The percent depth dose (PDD curve of the phantom with the 3D bolus showed an enhanced surface dose when compared with that of the phantom without the bolus. The PDD of the 3D bolus was comparable with that of a commercial superflab bolus. The radiotherapy plan considering the 3D bolus showed improved target coverage when compared with that without the bolus. Thus, we successfully fabricated a customized 3D bolus for an irregular surface using a 3D scanner instead of a CT scanner.

  6. Three dimensional multi perspective imaging with randomly distributed sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DaneshPanah, Mehdi; Javidi, Bahrain

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review a three dimensional (3D) passive imaging system that exploits the visual information captured from the scene from multiple perspectives to reconstruct the scene voxel by voxel in 3D space. The primary contribution of this work is to provide a computational reconstruction scheme based on randomly distributed sensor locations in space. In virtually all of multi perspective techniques (e.g. integral imaging, synthetic aperture integral imaging, etc), there is an implicit assumption that the sensors lie on a simple, regular pickup grid. Here, we relax this assumption and suggest a computational reconstruction framework that unifies the available methods as its special cases. The importance of this work is that it enables three dimensional imaging technology to be implemented in a multitude of novel application domains such as 3D aerial imaging, collaborative imaging, long range 3D imaging and etc, where sustaining a regular pickup grid is not possible and/or the parallax requirements call for a irregular or sparse synthetic aperture mode. Although the sensors can be distributed in any random arrangement, we assume that the pickup position is measured at the time of capture of each elemental image. We demonstrate the feasibility of the methods proposed here by experimental results.

  7. Three-Dimensional Messages for Interstellar Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    One of the challenges facing independently evolved civilizations separated by interstellar distances is to communicate information unique to one civilization. One commonly proposed solution is to begin with two-dimensional pictorial representations of mathematical concepts and physical objects, in the hope that this will provide a foundation for overcoming linguistic barriers. However, significant aspects of such representations are highly conventional, and may not be readily intelligible to a civilization with different conventions. The process of teaching conventions of representation may be facilitated by the use of three-dimensional representations redundantly encoded in multiple formats (e.g., as both vectors and as rasters). After having illustrated specific conventions for representing mathematical objects in a three-dimensional space, this method can be used to describe a physical environment shared by transmitter and receiver: a three-dimensional space defined by the transmitter--receiver axis, and containing stars within that space. This method can be extended to show three-dimensional representations varying over time. Having clarified conventions for representing objects potentially familiar to both sender and receiver, novel objects can subsequently be depicted. This is illustrated through sequences showing interactions between human beings, which provide information about human behavior and personality. Extensions of this method may allow the communication of such culture-specific features as aesthetic judgments and religious beliefs. Limitations of this approach will be noted, with specific reference to ETI who are not primarily visual.

  8. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAli, Ahmad B; Griffin, Michelle F; Butler, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice.

  9. Electron crystallography of three dimensional protein crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Dilyana

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation of the potential of electron diffraction for studying three dimensional sub-micro-crystals of proteins and pharmaceuticals. A prerequisite for using electron diffraction for structural studies is the predictable availability of tiny crystals. A method for

  10. Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... The image data can be jointly analysed with the physical laws governing transport and principles of image formation. Hence, with the experiment suitably carried out, three-dimensional physical domains with unsteady processes can be accommodated. Optical methods promise to breach the holy grail of ...

  11. Computerized three-dimensional normal atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mano, Isamu; Suto, Yasuzo; Suzuki, Masataka; Iio, Masahiro.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents our ongoing project in which normal human anatomy and its quantitative data are systematically arranged in a computer. The final product, the Computerized Three-Dimensional Normal Atlas, will be able to supply tomographic images in any direction, 3-D images, and coded information on organs, e.g., anatomical names, CT numbers, and T 1 and T 2 values. (author)

  12. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    medium properties, so horizontal refraction and reflection of sound can occur and produce significant three-dimensional (3-D) sound propagation ...by the environmental factors existing commonly in the continental shelf and shelfbreak areas, such as slopes, submarine canyons, sub-bottom layers ...surface waves, internal waves and shelfbreak fronts. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Continental Shelf; 3-D Acoustics , Surface Waves, Sound Propagation 16

  13. Three-dimensional illumination procedure for photodynamic therapy of dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Feng-juan; Dong, Fei; Zhou, Ya

    2014-09-01

    Light dosimetry is an important parameter that affects the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the irregular morphologies of lesions complicate lesion segmentation and light irradiance adjustment. Therefore, this study developed an illumination demo system comprising a camera, a digital projector, and a computing unit to solve these problems. A three-dimensional model of a lesion was reconstructed using the developed system. Hierarchical segmentation was achieved with the superpixel algorithm. The expected light dosimetry on the targeted lesion was achieved with the proposed illumination procedure. Accurate control and optimization of light delivery can improve the efficacy of PDT.

  14. Three-dimensional measurement of a tightly focused laser beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangsheng Xie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of a tightly focused light field is measured with a double knife-edge scanning method. The measurement method is based on the use of a high-quality double knife-edge fabricated from a right-angled silicon fragment mounted on a photodetector. The reconstruction of the three-dimensional structures of tightly focused spots is carried out with both uniform and partially obstructed linearly polarized incident light beams. The optical field distribution is found to deviate substantially from the input beam profile in the tightly focused region, which is in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations.

  15. Wave field restoration using three-dimensional Fourier filtering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, T; Takai, Y; Ikuta, T; Shimizu, R

    2001-11-01

    A wave field restoration method in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was mathematically derived based on a three-dimensional (3D) image formation theory. Wave field restoration using this method together with spherical aberration correction was experimentally confirmed in through-focus images of amorphous tungsten thin film, and the resolution of the reconstructed phase image was successfully improved from the Scherzer resolution limit to the information limit. In an application of this method to a crystalline sample, the surface structure of Au(110) was observed in a profile-imaging mode. The processed phase image showed quantitatively the atomic relaxation of the topmost layer.

  16. Three-dimensional characterization of stress corrosion cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Perez, S.; Rodrigo, P.; Gontard, Lionel Cervera

    2011-01-01

    the best spatial resolution. To illustrate the power of these techniques, different parts of dominant stress corrosion cracks in Ni-alloys and stainless steels have been reconstructed in 3D. All relevant microstructural features can now be studied in detail and its relative orientation respect......Understanding crack propagation and initiation is fundamental if stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms are to be understood. However, cracking is a three-dimensional (3D) phenomenon and most characterization techniques are restricted to two-dimensional (2D) observations. In order to overcome...

  17. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Three-Dimensional Reconstructions of Unbiased Sampled Microglia Shows not Continuous Morphological Changes from Stage 1 to 2 after Multiple Dengue Infections in Callithrix penicillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Daniel G.; Silva, Geane O.; Naves, Thaís B.; Fernandes, Taiany N.; Araújo, Sanderson C.; Diniz, José A. P.; de Farias, Luis H. S.; Sosthenes, Marcia C. K.; Diniz, Cristovam G.; Anthony, Daniel C.; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F.; Picanço Diniz, Cristovam W.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that microglial morphology and function are related, but few studies have explored the subtleties of microglial morphological changes in response to specific pathogens. In the present report we quantitated microglia morphological changes in a monkey model of dengue disease with virus CNS invasion. To mimic multiple infections that usually occur in endemic areas, where higher dengue infection incidence and abundant mosquito vectors carrying different serotypes coexist, subjects received once a week subcutaneous injections of DENV3 (genotype III)-infected culture supernatant followed 24 h later by an injection of anti-DENV2 antibody. Control animals received either weekly anti-DENV2 antibodies, or no injections. Brain sections were immunolabeled for DENV3 antigens and IBA-1. Random and systematic microglial samples were taken from the polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus for 3-D reconstructions, where we found intense immunostaining for TNFα and DENV3 virus antigens. We submitted all bi- or multimodal morphological parameters of microglia to hierarchical cluster analysis and found two major morphological phenotypes designated types I and II. Compared to type I (stage 1), type II microglia were more complex; displaying higher number of nodes, processes and trees and larger surface area and volumes (stage 2). Type II microglia were found only in infected monkeys, whereas type I microglia was found in both control and infected subjects. Hierarchical cluster analysis of morphological parameters of 3-D reconstructions of random and systematic selected samples in control and ADE dengue infected monkeys suggests that microglia morphological changes from stage 1 to stage 2 may not be continuous. PMID:27047345

  18. 弥散张量成像的脑神经示踪重建及临床应用研究%Three-dimensional reconstruction of cranial nerves and clinical exploration based on diffusion tensor tractography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马峻; 苏少波; 赵岩; 李勇刚; 岳树源

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨应用弥散张量成像进行脑神经(CNs)纤维束示踪、可视化重建的可行性,并尝试将其应用于颅底肿瘤术前规划.方法 利用3.0T磁共振对10例健康志愿者,10例颅底肿瘤患者进行稳态采集快速成像、弥散张量成像扫描,3D Slicer软件完成脑神经纤维示踪、重建,病变患者重建肿瘤三维影像,通过手术观察及神经电生理监测确认脑神经的位置.结果 CNⅡ、Ⅲ、Ⅴ、Ⅵ、Ⅶ~Ⅷ、Ⅹ、Ⅻ成像良好,肿瘤、水肿与相关脑神经的三维空间关系通过纤维示踪与三维重建得以呈现,经过手术验证准确无误.结论联合应用弥散张量成像及3D Slicer软件是正常及病理状态下脑神经可视化重建切实可行的方案,具有良好的临床应用前景.%Objective To investigate the feasibility of 3-dimensional reconstruction of cranial nerves (CNs) via diffusion imaging tractography,and attempt to apply in the preoperative plan of skull base tumor.Methods 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scans,including 3D-FSPGR,FIESTA and DTI,were used to collect information of 10 healthy subjects and 10 skull base tumor patients.DTI data were integrated into the 3D-Slicer for fiber tracking,overlapped anatomic images to determine course of nerves.3D reconstructions of tumors were achieved to perform neighbor,encasing,invading relationship between lesion and nerves whose location was then recorded during surgery by surgical observation and neurophysiological monitoring.Results Detailed fibers of the cranialnerves were depicted.Optic pathway showed perfect 3D streamline body,especially the posterior of optic chiasm.Oculomotor nerve coursed from the brainstem to the cavernous sinus distally,which also had high fidelity.Trigeminal nerve allowed visualization of gasserian ganglion as cisternal segment.Cisternal parts of abducent nerve,facial/ vestibulocochlear nerve,vagus nerve,hypoglossal nerve were also imaged well.Moreover,the 3D

  19. Reconstruction of phrenic neuron identity in embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Carolina Barcellos; Kanning, Kevin C; Kreis, Patricia; Stevenson, Danielle; Crossley, Martin; Nowak, Magdalena; Iacovino, Michelina; Kyba, Michael; Chambers, David; Blanc, Eric; Lieberam, Ivo

    2014-02-01

    Air breathing is an essential motor function for vertebrates living on land. The rhythm that drives breathing is generated within the central nervous system and relayed via specialised subsets of spinal motor neurons to muscles that regulate lung volume. In mammals, a key respiratory muscle is the diaphragm, which is innervated by motor neurons in the phrenic nucleus. Remarkably, relatively little is known about how this crucial subtype of motor neuron is generated during embryogenesis. Here, we used direct differentiation of motor neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells as a tool to identify genes that direct phrenic neuron identity. We find that three determinants, Pou3f1, Hoxa5 and Notch, act in combination to promote a phrenic neuron molecular identity. We show that Notch signalling induces Pou3f1 in developing motor neurons in vitro and in vivo. This suggests that the phrenic neuron lineage is established through a local source of Notch ligand at mid-cervical levels. Furthermore, we find that the cadherins Pcdh10, which is regulated by Pou3f1 and Hoxa5, and Cdh10, which is controlled by Pou3f1, are both mediators of like-like clustering of motor neuron cell bodies. This specific Pcdh10/Cdh10 activity might provide the means by which phrenic neurons are assembled into a distinct nucleus. Our study provides a framework for understanding how phrenic neuron identity is conferred and will help to generate this rare and inaccessible yet vital neuronal subtype directly from pluripotent stem cells, thus facilitating subsequent functional investigations.

  20. In Vitro Reconstruction of Neuronal Networks Derived from Human iPS Cells Using Microfabricated Devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzo Takayama

    Full Text Available Morphology and function of the nervous system is maintained via well-coordinated processes both in central and peripheral nervous tissues, which govern the homeostasis of organs/tissues. Impairments of the nervous system induce neuronal disorders such as peripheral neuropathy or cardiac arrhythmia. Although further investigation is warranted to reveal the molecular mechanisms of progression in such diseases, appropriate model systems mimicking the patient-specific communication between neurons and organs are not established yet. In this study, we reconstructed the neuronal network in vitro either between neurons of the human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cell derived peripheral nervous system (PNS and central nervous system (CNS, or between PNS neurons and cardiac cells in a morphologically and functionally compartmentalized manner. Networks were constructed in photolithographically microfabricated devices with two culture compartments connected by 20 microtunnels. We confirmed that PNS and CNS neurons connected via synapses and formed a network. Additionally, calcium-imaging experiments showed that the bundles originating from the PNS neurons were functionally active and responded reproducibly to external stimuli. Next, we confirmed that CNS neurons showed an increase in calcium activity during electrical stimulation of networked bundles from PNS neurons in order to demonstrate the formation of functional cell-cell interactions. We also confirmed the formation of synapses between PNS neurons and mature cardiac cells. These results indicate that compartmentalized culture devices are promising tools for reconstructing network-wide connections between PNS neurons and various organs, and might help to understand patient-specific molecular and functional mechanisms under normal and pathological conditions.

  1. Three-dimensional MR imaging of the cerebrospinal system with the RARE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Ott, D.; Ylayasski, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional RARE myelography is a fast technique for high-resolution imaging of the cerebrospinal fluid. A data set with 1 x 1 x 1-mm resolution can be generated with a 12-minute acquisition time. Sophisticated three-dimensional display algorithms allow reconstruction of planes at arbitrary angles and full three-dimensional displays, which yield extremely useful information for neurosurgical planning. Additionally, the injection of contrast agent can be simulated on the computer and communication pathways between structures of interest can be found noninvasively

  2. Three dimensional analysis of coelacanth body structure by computer graphics and X-ray CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Naoki; Hamada, Takashi.

    1990-01-01

    Three dimensional imaging processes were applied for the structural and functional analyses of the modern coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae). Visualization of the obtained images is performed with computer graphics on the basis of serial images by an X-ray CT scanning method. Reconstruction of three dimensional images of the body structure of coelacanth using the volume rendering and surface rendering methods provides us various information about external and internal shapes of this exquisite fish. (author)

  3. Three-dimensional morphologic description and visualization of brain anatomy from MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraske, W.; George, F.W.; Zee, C.S.; Colletti, P.M.; Halls, J.M.; Boswell, W.O.

    1989-01-01

    The USC VOXAR-MRI system incorporates MR tissue classification algorithms to provide dynamic three- dimensional volumetric visualization and discrimination of brain anatomy and pathology for precision diagnosis, staging, and treatment planning. The VOXAR-MRI approach to tissue classification employs the three-dimensional reconstruction of various intracranial features from gray-scale morphologic erosion and dilation (GMED)-derived skeleton representation of the MR acquisition. Case presentations include an array of VOXAR-MRI-demonstrated tumors, abscesses, hematomas, and other lesions

  4. Secure data storage by three-dimensional absorbers in highly scattering volume medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, Osamu; Matsuki, Shinichiro; Nitta, Kouichi

    2008-01-01

    A novel data storage in a volume medium with highly scattering coefficient is proposed for data security application. Three-dimensional absorbers are used as data. These absorbers can not be measured by interferometer when the scattering in a volume medium is strong enough. We present a method to reconstruct three-dimensional absorbers and present numerical results to show the effectiveness of the proposed data storage.

  5. Arching in three-dimensional clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, János; Lévay, Sára; Szabó, Balázs; Somfai, Ellák; Wegner, Sandra; Stannarius, Ralf; Börzsönyi, Tamás

    2017-06-01

    Arching in dry granular material is a long established concept, however it remains still an open question how three-dimensional orifices clog. We investigate by means of numerical simulations and experimental data how the outflow creates a blocked configuration of particles. We define the concave surface of the clogged dome by two independent methods (geometric and density based). The average shape of the cupola for spheres is almost a hemisphere but individual samples have large holes in the structure indicating a blocked state composed of two-dimensional force chains rather than three-dimensional objects. The force chain structure justifies this assumption. For long particles the clogged configurations display large variations, and in certain cases the empty region reaches a height of 5 hole diameters. These structures involve vertical walls consisting of horizontally placed stable stacking of particles.

  6. Three dimensional transport model for toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhauer, C.

    1980-12-01

    A nonlinear MHD model, developed for three-dimensional toroidal geometries (asymmetric) and for high β (β approximately epsilon), is used as a basis for a three-dimensional transport model. Since inertia terms are needed in describing evolving magnetic islands, the model can calculate transport, both in the transient phase before nonlinear saturation of magnetic islands and afterwards on the resistive time scale. In the β approximately epsilon ordering, the plasma does not have sufficient energy to compress the parallel magnetic field, which allows the Alfven wave to be eliminated in the reduced nonlinear equations, and the model then follows the slower time scales. The resulting perpendicular and parallel plasma drift velocities can be identified with those of guiding center theory

  7. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.L.; Eddy, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory has recently acquired the computer hardware (Silicon Graphics Personal Iris Workstations) and software (Dynamic Graphics, Interactive Surface and Volume Modeling) to perform three dimensional analysis of hydrogeologic data. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data is a powerful technique that can be used to incorporate field, analytical, and modeling results from geologic, hydrologic, ecologic, and chemical studies into a comprehensive model for visualization and interpretation. This report covers the contamination of four different sites of the Savannah River Plant. Each section of this report has a computer graphic display of the concentration of contamination in the groundwater and/or sediments of each site

  8. SNAP - a three dimensional neutron diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallien, C.W.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes a one- two- three-dimensional multi-group diffusion code, SNAP, which is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations but can also carry out gamma calculations if the diffusion approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. SNAP can solve the multi-group neutron diffusion equations using finite difference methods. The one-dimensional slab, cylindrical and spherical geometries and the two-dimensional case are all treated as simple special cases of three-dimensional geometries. Numerous reflective and periodic symmetry options are available and may be used to reduce the number of mesh points necessary to represent the system. Extrapolation lengths can be specified at internal and external boundaries. (Author)

  9. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  10. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337

  11. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome.

  12. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome

  13. THREE DIMENSIONAL GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V. Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality is an important aspect for every firm in modern era of competition. Every product has tough competition in terms of market reach. The factor, which actually makes any product long run in market, is quality and hence quality is the stepping-stone for success of any firm. For everyone meaning of quality is different. We have seen several economists who have defined quality by considering different factors, but what all of them have common in them is Customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is the ultimate result of quality. In three-dimensional graphical representation of quality, optimum quality is obtained by using three-dimensional graph by considering some important factors governing quality of any product, limiting factor, and customer satisfaction.

  14. Three dimensional contact/impact methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The simulation of three-dimensional interface mechanics between reactor components and structures during static contact or dynamic impact is necessary to realistically evaluate their structural integrity to off-normal loads. In our studies of postulated core energy release events, we have found that significant structure-structure interactions occur in some reactor vessel head closure designs and that fluid-structure interactions occur within the reactor vessel. Other examples in which three-dimensional interface mechanics play an important role are: (1) impact response of shipping casks containing spent fuel, (2) whipping pipe impact on reinforced concrete panels or pipe-to-pipe impact after a pipe break, (3) aircraft crash on secondary containment structures, (4) missiles generated by turbine failures or tornados, and (5) drops of heavy components due to lifting accidents. The above is a partial list of reactor safety problems that require adequate treatment of interface mechanics and are discussed in this paper

  15. Three-dimensional simulation of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvila, G.; Salas, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The integral form of the complete, unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the conservation form, cast in generalized coordinate system, are solved, numerically, to simulate the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The inviscid fluxes are discretized using Roe's upwind-biased flux-difference splitting scheme and the viscous fluxes are discretized using central differencing. Time integration is performed using a backward Euler ADI (alternating direction implicit) scheme. A full approximation multigrid is used to accelerate the convergence to steady state.

  16. Impermeability effects in three-dimensional vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscari, P; Canevese, S M; Napoli, G

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the effects of the impermeability constraint on the equilibrium shapes of a three-dimensional vesicle hosting a rigid inclusion. A given alteration of the inclusion and/or vesicle parameters leads to shape modifications of different orders of magnitude, when applied to permeable or impermeable vesicles. Moreover, the enclosed-volume constraint wrecks the uniqueness of stationary equilibrium shapes, and gives rise to pear-shaped or stomatocyte-like vesicles

  17. Three dimensional imaging of surface geometry in SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slowko, W.

    1997-01-01

    A great advantage of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is its ability of the surface topography in the way as a human eye is accustomed to see lights and shadows on macroobjects. However, SEM's can hardly display vertical dimensions of the structures. One of possible solutions is reconstruction of the surface profiles by directional detection of secondary electrons and proper signal processing. However, the surface profile still gives two dimensional information and the method should be extended to obtain fully three dimensional imaging. The extension consists in a simultaneous reconstruction of the surface profiles in two perpendicular directions (x and y) and their superposition. The solution proposed is based on a quadrupole detector system and a computer or analogue system for signal processing. Quantitative data of the surface topography can be displayed in many manners in the system of two or three co-ordinates with use of pseudo-colour for the altitude coding. (author)

  18. Multiparallel Three-Dimensional Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Kellner, Albert L.; Bravo-Zanoquera, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Multiparallel three-dimensional optical microscopy is a method of forming an approximate three-dimensional image of a microscope sample as a collection of images from different depths through the sample. The imaging apparatus includes a single microscope plus an assembly of beam splitters and mirrors that divide the output of the microscope into multiple channels. An imaging array of photodetectors in each channel is located at a different distance along the optical path from the microscope, corresponding to a focal plane at a different depth within the sample. The optical path leading to each photodetector array also includes lenses to compensate for the variation of magnification with distance so that the images ultimately formed on all the photodetector arrays are of the same magnification. The use of optical components common to multiple channels in a simple geometry makes it possible to obtain high light-transmission efficiency with an optically and mechanically simple assembly. In addition, because images can be read out simultaneously from all the photodetector arrays, the apparatus can support three-dimensional imaging at a high scanning rate.

  19. Three dimensional analysis of laterally loaded piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this study static analysis of laterally loaded pile is studied by the three models. The first model is the beam on discrete elastic springs. This model is analyzed using a flexibility method. The second model is the beam on a two-parameter elastic foundation. This model is analyzed using the linear finite element method. The third model is the finite element model, using the three-dimensional iso-parametric parabolic brick element. Three-dimensional pile group analysis is also performed using elastic constants of single pile obtained by any one of the above analyses. The main objective is to develop computer programs for each model related to single piles and to group analysis. Then, the deflections, rotations, moments, shears, stresses and strains of the single pile are obtained at any arbitrary point. Comparison is made between each model and with other studies such as Poulos 1971, Desai and Appel 1976. In addition, to provide a benchmark of three-dimensional finite element analysis, the Boussinesq problem is analyzed. (orig.)

  20. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  1. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W; Carey, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire-bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design.

  2. BigNeuron: Large-Scale 3D Neuron Reconstruction from Optical Microscopy Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Peng (Hanchuan); M. Hawrylycz (Michael); J. Roskams (Jane); S. Hill (Sean); N. Spruston (Nelson); E. Meijering (Erik); G.A. Ascoli (Giorgio A.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding the structure of single neurons is critical for understanding how they function within neural circuits. BigNeuron is a new community effort that combines modern bioimaging informatics, recent leaps in labeling and microscopy, and the widely recognized need for openness and

  3. Three dimensional illustrating - three-dimensional vision and deception of sensibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gánóczy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena of movement parallax, which can be used efficiently in making three-dimensional graphics, the Zöllner- and Corridor-illusion. There are present in this paper the visual elements, which contribute to define a plane two-dimensional image in three-dimension: coherent lines, the covering, the measurement changes, the relative altitude state, the abatement of detail profusion, the shadings and the perspective effects of colors.

  4. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.)

  5. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-08-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.).

  6. Three-dimensional instability of standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing surface waves under the influence of gravity. The analysis employs the transition matrix (TM) approach and uses a new high-order spectral element (HOSE) method for computation of the nonlinear wave dynamics. HOSE is an extension of the original high-order spectral method (HOS) wherein nonlinear wave wave and wave body interactions are retained up to high order in wave steepness. Instead of global basis functions in HOS, however, HOSE employs spectral elements to allow for complex free-surface geometries and surface-piercing bodies. Exponential convergence of HOS with respect to the total number of spectral modes (for a fixed number of elements) and interaction order is retained in HOSE. In this study, we use TM-HOSE to obtain the stability of general three-dimensional perturbations (on a two-dimensional surface) on two classes of standing waves: plane standing waves in a rectangular tank; and radial/azimuthal standing waves in a circular basin. For plane standing waves, we confirm the known result of two-dimensional side-bandlike instability. In addition, we find a novel three-dimensional instability for base flow of any amplitude. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique (standing) wave oriented at an arbitrary angle whose frequency is close to the (nonlinear) frequency of the original standing wave. This finding is confirmed by direct long-time simulations using HOSE which show that the nonlinear evolution leads to classical Fermi Pasta Ulam recurrence. For the circular basin, we find that, beyond a threshold wave steepness, a standing wave (of nonlinear frequency Omega) is unstable to three-dimensional perturbations. The unstable perturbation contains two dominant (standing-wave) components, the sum of whose frequencies is close to 2Omega. From the cases we consider, the critical wave steepness is found to generally decrease/increase with increasing radial

  7. Development of a Three-Dimensional Hand Model Using Three-Dimensional Stereophotogrammetry: Assessment of Image Reproducibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge A Hoevenaren

    Full Text Available Using three-dimensional (3D stereophotogrammetry precise images a