WorldWideScience

Sample records for three-dimensional image reconstruction

  1. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao

    1999-01-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  2. Three-dimensional temporal reconstruction and analysis of plume images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Atam P.; Disimile, Peter J.; Peck, Charles, III

    1992-01-01

    An experiment with two subsonic jets generating a cross-flow was conducted as part of a study of the structural features of temporal reconstruction of plume images. The flow field structure was made visible using a direct injection flow visualization technique. It is shown that image analysis and temporal three-dimensional visualization can provide new information on the vortical structural dynamics of multiple jets in a cross-flow. It is expected that future developments in image analysis, quantification and interpretation, and flow visualization of rocket engine plume images may provide a tool for correlating the engine diagnostic features by interpreting the evolution of the structures in the plume.

  3. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2005-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context, qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  4. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by order, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  5. Three dimensional reconstruction of tomographic images of the retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glittenberg, C.; Zeiler, F.; Falkner, C.; Binder, S.; Povazay, B.; Hermann, B.; Drexler, W.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new display system for the three-dimensional visualization of tomographic images in ophthalmology. Specifically, a system that can use stacks of B-mode scans from an ultrahigh resolution optical tomography examination to vividly display retinal specimens as three-dimensional objects. Several subroutines were programmed in the rendering and raytracing program Cinema 4D XL 9.102 Studio Bundle (Maxon Computer Inc., Friedrichsburg, Germany), which could process stacks of tomographic scans into three-dimensional objects. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography examinations were performed on patients with various retinal pathologies and post processed with the subroutines that had been designed. All ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomographies were performed with a titanium: sapphire based ultra broad bandwidth (160 nm) femtosecond laser system (INTEGRAL, Femtolasers Productions GmbH. Vienna Austria) with an axial resolution of 3 μm. A new three dimensional display system for tomographic images in ophthalmology was developed, which allows a highly vivid display of physiological and pathological structures of the retina. The system also distinguishes itself through its high interactivity and adaptability. This new display system allows the visualization of physiological and pathological structures of the retina in a new way, which will give us new insight into their morphology and development. (author) [de

  6. Research on image matching method of big data image of three-dimensional reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunsen; Qiu, Zhenguo; Zhu, Shihuan; Wang, Xiqi; Xu, Xiaolei; Zhong, Sidong

    2015-12-01

    Image matching is the main flow of a three-dimensional reconstruction. With the development of computer processing technology, seeking the image to be matched from the large date image sets which acquired from different image formats, different scales and different locations has put forward a new request for image matching. To establish the three dimensional reconstruction based on image matching from big data images, this paper put forward a new effective matching method based on visual bag of words model. The main technologies include building the bag of words model and image matching. First, extracting the SIFT feature points from images in the database, and clustering the feature points to generate the bag of words model. We established the inverted files based on the bag of words. The inverted files can represent all images corresponding to each visual word. We performed images matching depending on the images under the same word to improve the efficiency of images matching. Finally, we took the three-dimensional model with those images. Experimental results indicate that this method is able to improve the matching efficiency, and is suitable for the requirements of large data reconstruction.

  7. Reconstruction of pseudo three-dimensional dental image from dental panoramic radiograph and tooth surface shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, Masataka; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Oshiro, Osamu; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kagiyama, Yoshiyuki; Yagi, Masakazu; Takada, Kenji; Azuma, Hiroko

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional volume data set is useful for diagnosis in dental treatments. However, to obtain three-dimensional images of a dental arch in general dental clinics is difficult. In this paper, we propose a method to reconstruct pseudo three-dimensional dental images from a dental panoramic radiograph and a tooth surface shape which can be obtained from three dimensional shape measurement of a dental impression. The proposed method finds an appropriate curved surface on which the dental panoramic radiograph is mapped by comparing a virtual panoramic image made from a tooth surface shape to a real panoramic radiograph. The developed pseudo three-dimensional dental images give clear impression of patient's dental condition. (author)

  8. Image-guided stereotactic surgery using ultrasonography and reconstructive three-dimensional CT-imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hirotsune; Iseki, Hiroshi; Umezawa, Yoshihiro (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)) (and others)

    1991-12-01

    A new simulation and navigation system utilizing three-dimensional CT images has been developed for image-guided stereotactic surgery. Preoperative CT images are not always useful in predicting the intraoperative location of lesions, for cerebral lesions are easily displaced or distorted by gravity, brain retraction, and/or CSF aspiration during operative procedure. This new system, however, has the advantage that the intraoperative locations of intracranial lesions or the anatomical structures of the brain can be precisely confirmed during stereotactic surgery. Serial CT images were obtained from a patient whose head had been fixed to the ISEKI CT-guided stereotactic frame. The data of serial CT images were saved on a floppy disc and then transferred to the work station (IRIS) using the off line. In order to find the best approach angle for ultrasound-guided stereotactic surgery, three-dimenstional CT images were reconstructed using the work station. The site of the craniotomy or the angle of the trajectory of the ultrasound probe was measured preoperatively based on the three-dimensional CT images. Then, in the operating room, the patient's head was fixed to the ISEKI frame with the subframe at the same position as before according to the measurement of the CT images. In a case of cystic glioma, the predicable ultrasonograms from three-dimensional reconstructive CT images were ascertained to correspond well to the actual ultrasound images during ultrasound-guided stereotactic surgery. Therefore, the new simulation and navigation system can be judged to be a powerful operative supporting modality for correcting the locations of cerebral lesions; it allows one to perform stereotactic surgery more accurately and less invasively. (author).

  9. Three-dimensional reconstruction of intracoronary ultrasound images. Rationale, approaches, problems, and directions

    OpenAIRE

    Roelandt, Jos; Mario, Carlo; Pandian, Natesa; Wenguang, L.; Keane, David; Slager, Cornelis; Feyter, Pim; Serruys, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAlthough intracoronary ultrasonography allows detailed tomographic imaging of the arterial wall, it fails to provide data on the structural architecture and longitudinal extent of arterial disease. This information is essential for decision making during therapeutic interventions. Three-dimensional reconstruction techniques offer visualization of the complex longitudinal architecture of atherosclerotic plaques in composite display. Progress in computer hardware and software techno...

  10. Vascular fluorescence casting and imaging cryomicrotomy for computerized three-dimensional renal arterial reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, Brunolf W.; ter Wee, Rene D.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Spaan, Jos A. E.; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the combined use of a casting technique, cryomicrotomy imaging, and three-dimensional (3D) computer analysis as a method for visualizing and reconstructing the arterial vascular tree in a porcine renal model. MATERIAL AND METHODS The arterial branches of two porcine kidneys were

  11. Development of a technique for three-dimensional image reconstruction from emission computed tomograms (ECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerischer, R.

    1987-01-01

    The described technique for three-dimensional image reconstruction from ECT sections is based on a simple procedure, which can be carried out with the aid of any standard-type computer used in nuclear medicine and requires no sophisticated arithmetic approach. (TRV) [de

  12. Accelerating image reconstruction in three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography on graphics processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Huang, Chao; Kao, Yu-Jiun; Chou, Cheng-Ying; Oraevsky, Alexander A; Anastasio, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Optoacoustic tomography (OAT) is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) inverse problem. However, most studies of OAT image reconstruction still employ two-dimensional imaging models. One important reason is because 3D image reconstruction is computationally burdensome. The aim of this work is to accelerate existing image reconstruction algorithms for 3D OAT by use of parallel programming techniques. Parallelization strategies are proposed to accelerate a filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm and two different pairs of projection/backprojection operations that correspond to two different numerical imaging models. The algorithms are designed to fully exploit the parallel computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs). In order to evaluate the parallelization strategies for the projection/backprojection pairs, an iterative image reconstruction algorithm is implemented. Computer simulation and experimental studies are conducted to investigate the computational efficiency and numerical accuracy of the developed algorithms. The GPU implementations improve the computational efficiency by factors of 1000, 125, and 250 for the FBP algorithm and the two pairs of projection/backprojection operators, respectively. Accurate images are reconstructed by use of the FBP and iterative image reconstruction algorithms from both computer-simulated and experimental data. Parallelization strategies for 3D OAT image reconstruction are proposed for the first time. These GPU-based implementations significantly reduce the computational time for 3D image reconstruction, complementing our earlier work on 3D OAT iterative image reconstruction.

  13. Computationally efficient approach to three-dimensional point cloud reconstruction from video image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient solution to three-dimensional point cloud reconstruction from video image sequences that are captured by a hand-held camera. Our solution starts with a frame selection step to remove frames that cause physically nonrealizable reconstruction outcomes. Then, a computationally efficient approach for obtaining the absolute camera pose is introduced based on pairwise relative camera poses. This is followed by a computationally efficient rotation registration to update the absolute camera pose. The reconstruction results obtained based on actual video sequences indicate lower computation times and lower reprojection errors of the introduced approach compared to the conventional approach.

  14. Three dimensional reconstruction of computed tomographic images by computer graphics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Toru; Kimura, Kazufumi.

    1986-01-01

    A three dimensional computer reconstruction system for CT images has been developed in a commonly used radionuclide data processing system using a computer graphics technique. The three dimensional model was constructed from organ surface information of CT images (slice thickness: 5 or 10 mm). Surface contours of the organs were extracted manually from a set of parallel transverse CT slices in serial order and stored in the computer memory. Interpolation was made between a set of the extracted contours by cubic spline functions, then three dimensional models were reconstructed. The three dimensional images were displayed as a wire-frame and/or solid models on the color CRT. Solid model images were obtained as follows. The organ surface constructed from contours was divided into many triangular patches. The intensity of light to each patch was calculated from the direction of incident light, eye position and the normal to the triangular patch. Firstly, this system was applied to the liver phantom. Reconstructed images of the liver phantom were coincident with the actual object. This system also has been applied to human various organs such as brain, lung, liver, etc. The anatomical organ surface was realistically viewed from any direction. The images made us more easily understand the location and configuration of organs in vivo than original CT images. Furthermore, spacial relationship among organs and/or lesions was clearly obtained by superimposition of wire-frame and/or different colored solid models. Therefore, it is expected that this system is clinically useful for evaluating the patho-morphological changes in broad perspective. (author)

  15. Study of system for segmentation of images and elaboration of algorithms for three dimensional scene reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufacchi, A.; Tripi, A.

    1995-09-01

    The aim of this paper is the presentation of a series of methodologies to recognize and to obtain a three-dimensional reconstruction of an inner architectural scene, using a gray level image obtained using a TV camera. In the first part of the work, a series of methods used to find the edges in an effective way are critically compared, obtaining a binary image, and then the application of the Hough transform to such binary image to find the straight lines in the original image are discussed. In the second part, an algorithm is shown in order to find the vanishing points in such image

  16. System and method for three-dimensional image reconstruction using an absolute orientation sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Giancola, Silvio

    2018-01-18

    A three-dimensional image reconstruction system includes an image capture device, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), and an image processor. The image capture device captures image data. The inertial measurement unit (IMU) is affixed to the image capture device and records IMU data associated with the image data. The image processor includes one or more processing units and memory for storing instructions that are executed by the one or more processing units, wherein the image processor receives the image data and the IMU data as inputs and utilizes the IMU data to pre-align the first image and the second image, and wherein the image processor utilizes a registration algorithm to register the pre-aligned first and second images.

  17. Comparison of different reconstruction algorithms for three-dimensional ultrasound imaging in a neurosurgical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D; Lippert, C; Vollmer, F; Bozinov, O; Benes, L; Schulte, D M; Sure, U

    2012-09-01

    Freehand three-dimensional ultrasound imaging (3D-US) is increasingly used in image-guided surgery. During image acquisition, a set of B-scans is acquired that is distributed in a non-parallel manner over the area of interest. Reconstructing these images into a regular array allows 3D visualization. However, the reconstruction process may introduce artefacts and may therefore reduce image quality. The aim of the study is to compare different algorithms with respect to image quality and diagnostic value for image guidance in neurosurgery. 3D-US data sets were acquired during surgery of various intracerebral lesions using an integrated ultrasound-navigation device. They were stored for post-hoc evaluation. Five different reconstruction algorithms, a standard multiplanar reconstruction with interpolation (MPR), a pixel nearest neighbour method (PNN), a voxel nearest neighbour method (VNN) and two voxel based distance-weighted algorithms (VNN2 and DW) were tested with respect to image quality and artefact formation. The capability of the algorithm to fill gaps within the sample volume was investigated and a clinical evaluation with respect to the diagnostic value of the reconstructed images was performed. MPR was significantly worse than the other algorithms in filling gaps. In an image subtraction test, VNN2 and DW reliably reconstructed images even if large amounts of data were missing. However, the quality of the reconstruction improved, if data acquisition was performed in a structured manner. When evaluating the diagnostic value of reconstructed axial, sagittal and coronal views, VNN2 and DW were judged to be significantly better than MPR and VNN. VNN2 and DW could be identified as robust algorithms that generate reconstructed US images with a high diagnostic value. These algorithms improve the utility and reliability of 3D-US imaging during intraoperative navigation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Image reconstruction using three-dimensional compound Gauss-Markov random field in emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shuichi; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Saito, Tsuneo

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new reconstruction algorithm based on MAP (maximum a posteriori probability) estimation principle for emission tomography. To improve noise suppression properties of the conventional ML-EM (maximum likelihood expectation maximization) algorithm, direct three-dimensional reconstruction that utilizes intensity correlations between adjacent transaxial slices is introduced. Moreover, to avoid oversmoothing of edges, a priori knowledge of RI (radioisotope) distribution is represented by using a doubly-stochastic image model called the compound Gauss-Markov random field. The a posteriori probability is maximized by using the iterative GEM (generalized EM) algorithm. Computer simulation results are shown to demonstrate validity of the proposed algorithm. (author)

  19. Improving three-dimensional reconstruction of buildings from web-harvested images using forensic clues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Simone; Tronca, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    During the past years, research has focused on the reconstruction of three-dimensional point cloud models from unordered and uncalibrated sets of images. Most of the proposed solutions rely on the structure-from-motion algorithm, and their performances significantly degrade whenever exchangeable image file format information about focal lengths is missing or corrupted. We propose a preprocessing strategy that permits estimating the focal lengths of a camera more accurately. The basic idea is to cluster the input images into separate subsets according to an array of interpolation-related multimedia forensic clues. This operation permits having a more robust estimate and improving the accuracy of the final model.

  20. Three-dimensional medical images and its application for surgical simulation of plastic and reconstructive surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Nakajima, Hideo; Fujino, Toyomi

    1992-01-01

    The author's three surgical simulation systems are presented. First the computer graphics surgical simulation system has been developed which make the three dimensional skull image from CT scans and the arbitrary osteotomy, mobilization of bone segments and prediction of post-operative appearance is made possible. The second system is solid modeling of the skull using laser curable resin and it is concluded that life-sized skull model is useful not only for surgical simulation of major craniofacial surgery but also educational purposes. The third one is solid modeling of the ear using non-contact 3-D shape measurement with slit laser scanner. The mirror image life-sized wax model is made from the normal side of th ear and the autologous cartilage framework is assembled to simulate the wax model, thus the precise three dimensional reconstruction of the auricle is made possible. (author)

  1. Three-dimensional profilometric reconstruction using flexible sensing integral imaging and occlusion removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Markman, Adam; Javidi, Bahram

    2017-03-20

    We present a method for three-dimensional (3D) profilometric reconstruction using flexible sensing integral imaging with object recognition and automatic occlusion removal. Two-dimensional images, known as elemental images (EIs), of a scene containing an object behind occlusion are captured by flexible sensing integral imaging using a moving camera randomly placed on a non-planar surface with unknown camera position and orientation. After 3D image acquisition, the unknown camera poses are estimated using the EIs and 3D reconstruction is performed based on flexible sensing integral imaging. Object recognition using the 3D reconstructed images is conducted to detect the object behind occlusion and estimate the object depth and position. Occlusion removal is then performed on the 2D EIs for the occluded object by computing variance maps of the scene. For each EI, occluded object pixels with low variance are replaced by object pixels from other perspectives using multi-view geometry. The new set of elemental images may be used to visualize the 3D profile of the scene containing the object without occlusion. Experiments are performed to validate the feasibility of the proposed method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of applying flexible sensing integral imaging to profilometric reconstruction with object recognition and occlusion removal.

  2. Three-dimensional breast image reconstruction from a limited number of views

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Thomas G.; Stewart, Alexander X.; Stanton, Martin J.; Wu, Tao; Phillips, Walter C.

    2000-04-01

    Typically in three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) imaging, hundreds or thousands of x-ray projection images are recorded. The image-collection time and patient dose required rule out conventional CT as a tool for screening mammography. We have developed a CT method that overcomes these limitations by using (1) a novel image collection geometry, (2) new digital electronic x-ray detector technology, and (3) modern image reconstruction procedures. The method, which we call Computed Planar Mammography (CPM), is made possible by the full-field, low-noise, high-resolution CCD-based detector design that we have previously developed. With this method, we need to record only a limited number (10 - 50) of low-dose x- ray images of the breast. The resulting 3D full breast image has a resolution in two orientations equal to the full detector resolution (47 microns), and a lower, variable resolution (0.5 - 10 mm) in the third orientation. This 3D reconstructed image can then be viewed as a series of cross- sectional layers, or planes, each at the full detector resolution. Features due to overlapping tissue, which could not be differentiated in a conventional mammogram, are separated into layers at different depths. We demonstrate the features and capabilities of this method by presenting reconstructed images of phantoms and mastectomy specimens. Finally, we discuss outstanding issues related to the further development of this procedure, as well as considerations for its clinical implementation.

  3. Automated seed detection and three-dimensional reconstruction. I. Seed localization from fluoroscopic images or radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubic, Dragan; Zaccarin, Andre; Pouliot, Jean; Beaulieu, Luc

    2001-01-01

    An automated procedure for the detection of the position and the orientation of radioactive seeds on fluoroscopic images or scanned radiographs is presented. The extracted positions of seed centers and the orientations are used for three-dimensional reconstruction of permanent prostate implants. The extraction procedure requires several steps: correction of image intensifier distortions, normalization, background removal, automatic threshold selection, thresholding, and finally, moment analysis and classification of the connected components. The algorithm was tested on 75 fluoroscopic images. The results show that, on average, 92% of the seeds are detected automatically. The orientation is found with an error smaller than 5 deg. for 75% of the seeds. The orientation of overlapping seeds (10%) should be considered as an estimate at best. The image processing procedure can also be used for seed or catheter detection in CT images, with minor modifications

  4. The comparison of aneurysmal necks measured on three dimensional reconstruction images of rotational DSA and those of traditional DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chunhong; Chen Zuoquan; Gu Binxian; Zhang Guiyun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of three dimensional reconstruction images of rotational DSA on measuring aneurysmal necks and make a comparison with traditional DSA so as to provide more abundant and accurate information for the embolization of aneurysm. Methods: A comparison was made between the measurement of aneurismal necks from 14 cases with traditional DSA examination and a measurement made on three dimensional reconstruction images of the same patients. Results: There was a difference shown in the measurement of the aneurysmal necks between three dimensional reconstruction images of rotational DSA and those of traditional DSA, outcoming with more angles and data on three dimensional reconstruction images. Conclusions: There are more angles of aneurysmal neck can be shown on rotational 3D DSA especially for the demonstration of the largest aneurysmal neck with a directional value for the intervention. (authors)

  5. Probabilistic Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Reconstructions from X-Ray Images Spanning a Limited Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Ostermann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An important part of computed tomography is the calculation of a three-dimensional reconstruction of an object from series of X-ray images. Unfortunately, some applications do not provide sufficient X-ray images. Then, the reconstructed objects no longer truly represent the original. Inside of the volumes, the accuracy seems to vary unpredictably. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to evaluate any reconstruction, voxel by voxel. The evaluation is based on a sophisticated probabilistic handling of the measured X-rays, as well as the inclusion of a priori knowledge about the materials that the object receiving the X-ray examination consists of. For each voxel, the proposed method outputs a numerical value that represents the probability of existence of a predefined material at the position of the voxel while doing X-ray. Such a probabilistic quality measure was lacking so far. In our experiment, false reconstructed areas get detected by their low probability. In exact reconstructed areas, a high probability predominates. Receiver Operating Characteristics not only confirm the reliability of our quality measure but also demonstrate that existing methods are less suitable for evaluating a reconstruction.

  6. Probabilistic Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Reconstructions from X-Ray Images Spanning a Limited Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Anja; Renners, Eike; Hötter, Michael; Ostermann, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    An important part of computed tomography is the calculation of a three-dimensional reconstruction of an object from series of X-ray images. Unfortunately, some applications do not provide sufficient X-ray images. Then, the reconstructed objects no longer truly represent the original. Inside of the volumes, the accuracy seems to vary unpredictably. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to evaluate any reconstruction, voxel by voxel. The evaluation is based on a sophisticated probabilistic handling of the measured X-rays, as well as the inclusion of a priori knowledge about the materials that the object receiving the X-ray examination consists of. For each voxel, the proposed method outputs a numerical value that represents the probability of existence of a predefined material at the position of the voxel while doing X-ray. Such a probabilistic quality measure was lacking so far. In our experiment, false reconstructed areas get detected by their low probability. In exact reconstructed areas, a high probability predominates. Receiver Operating Characteristics not only confirm the reliability of our quality measure but also demonstrate that existing methods are less suitable for evaluating a reconstruction. PMID:23344378

  7. Three-dimensional graphic reconstruction of the insect exoskeleton through confocal imaging of endogenous fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, S; Frazier, S F; Neff, D; Quimby, L; Carney, M; DiCaprio, R; Thuma, J; Norton, M

    2000-03-15

    The exoskeleton of the cockroach leg was imaged via confocal microscopy to generate digital graphic reconstructions of its three-dimensional structure. The cuticle is autofluorescent and can be visualized without staining, but is maximally imaged in aldehyde-fixed preparations viewed under krypton-argon laser illumination (yellow green (568 nm) excitation, commonly used in confocal microscopes). Images of the entire trochanteral segment of the leg were constructed as montages from optical sections taken as overlapping series that were coincident in the z-axis. Reconstructions of the exoskeleton from these images showed that strain sensing mechanoreceptors are located in association with buttresses and thickenings that form a consistent internal architecture in both juvenile and adult animals. Accuracy of reconstructions was gauged by embedding specimens in Spurr's resin and histologically sectioning them perpendicular to the optical plane of section (z-axis). Comparison of plastic sections with two-dimensional images generated by "resectioning" the software model showed that reconstructed exoskeleton had a high level of accuracy. Imaging of older and larger animals was limited by the sclerotization and increased thickness of the cuticle. Surface extraction algorithms were used to generate vector graphic files in CAD format for export to software used in engineering and design. Among other potential uses, these models have been studied by Finite Element Analysis to examine the distribution of mechanical strains in the exoskeleton that occur during posture and locomotion. The advantages and limitations of the techniques are discussed. These methods may be used in studying the exoskeleton and the anatomy of cuticular mechanoreceptors of other arthropods to similar advantage. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. High-quality three-dimensional reconstruction and noise reduction of multifocal images from oversized samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martišek, Dalibor; Procházková, Jana; Ficker, Tomáš

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction is an indispensable tool in areas such as biology, chemistry, medicine, material sciences, etc. The sample can be reconstructed using confocal or nonconfocal mode of a microscope. The limitation of the confocal approach is the sample size. Currently used devices work mostly with sample surface area up to 1 cm2. We suggest a three-step method that creates 3-D reconstruction from multifocal images in nonconfocal mode that is qualitatively comparable to the confocal results. Our method, thus, takes advantage of both microscope modes-high-quality results without sample size limitation. The preprocessing step eliminates the additive noise with Linderberg-Lévi theorem. The main focus criterion is based on adjusted Fourier transform. In the final step, we eliminate the defective clusters using the adaptive pixel neighborhood algorithm. We proved the effectiveness of our noise reduction and 3-D reconstruction method by the statistical comparisons; the correlation coefficients average 0.987 for all types of Fourier transforms.

  9. Stereo-vision three-dimensional reconstruction of curvilinear structures imaged with a TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oveisi, Emad; Letouzey, Antoine; De Zanet, Sandro; Lucas, Guillaume; Cantoni, Marco; Fua, Pascal; Hébert, Cécile

    2018-01-01

    Deriving accurate three-dimensional (3-D) structural information of materials at the nanometre level is often crucial for understanding their properties. Tomography in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful technique that provides such information. It is however demanding and sometimes inapplicable, as it requires the acquisition of multiple images within a large tilt arc and hence prolonged exposure to electrons. In some cases, prior knowledge about the structure can tremendously simplify the 3-D reconstruction if incorporated adequately. Here, a novel algorithm is presented that is able to produce a full 3-D reconstruction of curvilinear structures from stereo pair of TEM images acquired within a small tilt range that spans from only a few to tens of degrees. Reliability of the algorithm is demonstrated through reconstruction of a model 3-D object from its simulated projections, and is compared with that of conventional tomography. This method is experimentally demonstrated for the 3-D visualization of dislocation arrangements in a deformed metallic micro-pillar. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Registration and three-dimensional reconstruction of autoradiographic images by the disparity analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Weizhao; Ginsberg, M. (Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Cerebral Vascular Disease Research Center); Young, T.Y. (Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    Quantitative autoradiography is a powerful radio-isotopic-imaging method for neuroscientists to study local cerebral blood flow and glucose-metabolic rate at rest, in response to physiologic activation of the visual, auditory, somatosensory, and motor systems, and in pathologic conditions. Most autoradiographic studies analyze glucose utilization and blood flow in two-dimensional (2-D) coronal sections. With modern digital computer and image-processing techniques, a large number of closely spaced coronal sections can be stacked appropriately to form a three-dimensional (3-d) image. 3-D autoradiography allows investigators to observe cerebral sections and surfaces from any viewing angle. A fundamental problem in 3-D reconstruction is the alignment (registration) of the coronal sections. A new alignment method based on disparity analysis is presented which can overcome many of the difficulties encountered by previous methods. The disparity analysis method can deal with asymmetric, damaged, or tilted coronal sections under the same general framework, and it can be used to match coronal sections of different sizes and shapes. Experimental results on alignment and 3-D reconstruction are presented.

  11. Review of three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Rachel L; Stevens, Roger J G; Harris, Paul A; Rusby, Jennifer E

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional surface imaging (3D-SI) is being marketed as a tool in aesthetic breast surgery. It has recently also been studied in the objective evaluation of cosmetic outcome of oncological procedures. The aim of this review is to summarise the use of 3D-SI in oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery. An extensive literature review was undertaken to identify published studies. Two reviewers independently screened all abstracts and selected relevant articles using specific inclusion criteria. Seventy two articles relating to 3D-SI for breast surgery were identified. These covered endpoints such as image acquisition, calculations and data obtainable, comparison of 3D and 2D imaging and clinical research applications of 3D-SI. The literature provides a favourable view of 3D-SI. However, evidence of its superiority over current methods of clinical decision making, surgical planning, communication and evaluation of outcome is required before it can be accepted into mainstream practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phase analysis for three-dimensional surface reconstruction of apples using structured-illumination reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuzhen; Lu, Renfu

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) shape information is valuable for fruit quality evaluation. This study was aimed at developing phase analysis techniques for reconstruction of the 3-D surface of fruit from the pattern images acquired by a structuredillumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) system. Phase-shifted sinusoidal patterns, distorted by the fruit geometry, were acquired and processed through phase demodulation, phase unwrapping and other post-processing procedures to obtain phase difference maps relative to the phase of a reference plane. The phase maps were then transformed into height profiles and 3-D shapes in a world coordinate system based on phase-to-height and in-plane calibrations. A reference plane-based approach, coupled with the curve fitting technique using polynomials of order 3 or higher, was utilized for phase-to-height calibrations, which achieved superior accuracies with the root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) of 0.027- 0.033 mm for a height measurement range of 0-91 mm. The 3rd-order polynomial curve fitting technique was further tested on two reference blocks with known heights, resulting in relative errors of 3.75% and 4.16%. In-plane calibrations were performed by solving a linear system formed by a number of control points in a calibration object, which yielded a RMSE of 0.311 mm. Tests of the calibrated system for reconstructing the surface of apple samples showed that surface concavities (i.e., stem/calyx regions) could be easily discriminated from bruises from the phase difference maps, reconstructed height profiles and the 3-D shape of apples. This study has laid a foundation for using SIRI for 3-D shape measurement, and thus expanded the capability of the technique for quality evaluation of horticultural products. Further research is needed to utilize the phase analysis techniques for stem/calyx detection of apples, and optimize the phase demodulation and unwrapping algorithms for faster and more reliable detection.

  13. Reporducibilities of cephalometric measurements of three-dimensional CT images reconstructed in the personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Kug Jin; Park, Hyok; Lee, Hee Cheol; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the reproducibility of intra-observer and inter-observer consistency of cephalometric measurements using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT), and the degree of difference of the cephalometric measurements. CT images of 16 adult patients with normal class I occlusion were sent to personal computer and reconstructed into 3D images using V-Works 3.5 TM (Cybermed Inc., Seoul, Korea). With the internal program of V-Works 3.5 TM , 12 landmarks on regular cephalograms were transformed into 21 analytic categories and measured by 2 observers and in addition, one of the observers repeated their measurements. Intra-observer difference was calculated using paired t-test, and inter-observer by two sample test. There were significant differences in the intra-observer measurements (p<0.05) in four of the categories which included ANS-Me, ANS-PNS, Cdl-GO (Lt), GoL-GoR, but with the exception of Cdl-Go (Lt), ZmL-ZmR, Zyo-Zyo, the average differences were within 2 mm of each other. The inter-observer observations also showed significant differences in the measurements of the ZmL-ZmR and Zyo-Zyo categories (p<0.05). With the exception of the Cdl-Me (Rt), ZmL-ZmR, Zyo-Zyo categories, the average differences between the two observers were within 2mm, but the ZmL-ZmR and Zyo-Zyo values differed greatly with values of 8.10 and 19.8 mm respectively. In general, 3D CT images showed greater accuracy and reproducibility, with the exception of suture areas such as Zm and Zyo, than regular cephalograms in orthodontic measurement, showing differences of less than 2 mm, therefore 3D CT images can be useful in cephalometric measurements and treatment planning.

  14. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction imaging for evaluation of congenital heart disease from ECG-triggered MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannier, M.W.; Laschinger, J.; Knapp, R.H.; Gutierrez, F.R.; Gronnemeyer, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional surface reconstruction images of the heart and great vessels were produced from contiguous sequences of electrocardiographically triggered MR images in 25 patients with congenital heart disease and in three healthy subjects. The imaging data were semiautomatically processed to separate the epicardial and endocardial surfaces and to define the outline of the enclosed blood volumes on a section by section basis. Images were obtained at 5-mm intervals in patients aged 3 months to 30 years with anomalies of the great vessels, tetralogy of Fallot, septal defects, pulmonary atresia, and other congenital heart malformations. The results were used to facilitate the surgical treatment of these patients and were compared with echocardiographic and cineradiographic studies, and with surgical findings or pathologic specimens. These surface reconstruction images were useful for communicating the results of diagnostic examinations to cardiac surgeons, for sizing and location of intracardiac defects, for imaging the pulmonary venous drainage, and for assessing regional and global function

  15. Three-dimensional histological specimen preparation for accurate imaging and spatial reconstruction of the middle and inner ear

    OpenAIRE

    Rau, Thomas S.; W?rfel, Waldemar; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Purpose ???This paper presents a highly accurate cross-sectional preparation technique. The research aim was to develop an adequate imaging modality for both soft and bony tissue structures featuring high contrast and high resolution. Therefore, the advancement of an already existing microgrinding procedure was pursued. The central objectives were to preserve spatial relations and to ensure the accurate three-dimensional reconstruction of histological sections. Methods ???Twelve human tempora...

  16. Three-dimensional imaging utilizing energy discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, D.L.; Hoffman, K.R.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for three-dimensional image reconstruction in nuclear medicine which uses scattered radiation rather than multiple projected images to determine the source depth within the body. Images taken from numerous energy windows are combined to construct the source distribution in the body. The gamma-ray camera is not moved during the imaging process. Experiments with both Tc-99m and Ga-67 demonstrate that two channels of depth information can be extracted from the low energy images produced by scattered radiation. By combining this technique with standard SPECT reconstruction using multiple projections the authors anticipate much improved spatial resolution in the overall three-dimensional reconstruction

  17. Three-dimensional reconstruction of brain surface anatomy: technique comparison between flash and diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jianzhong; Wang Zhikang; Gong Xiangyang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare two methods 3D flash and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) in reconstructing the brain surface anatomy, and to evaluate their displaying ability, advantages, limitations and clinical application. Methods: Thrity normal cases were prospectively examined with 3D flash sequence and echo-planar DWI. Three-dimensional images were acquired with volume-rendering on workstation. Brain surface structures were evaluated and scored by a group of doctors. Results: Main structures of brain surface were clearly displayed on three-dimensional images based on 3D flash sequence. Average scores were all above 2.50. For images based on DWI, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus, precentral sulcus, central sulcus, postcentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus and superior frontal sulcus were best shown with average scores between 2.60-2.75, However, supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, lateral sulcus, inferior frontal sulcus could not be well shown, with average scores between 1.67-2.48. Middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, superior temporal sulcus and inferior temporal sulcus can only get scores from 0.88 to 1.27. Scores of images based on 3D flash were much higher than that based on DWI with distinct differentiations, P values were all below 0.01. Conclusion: Three-dimensional images based on 3D flash can really display brain surface structures. It is very useful for anatomic researches. Three-dimensional reconstruction of brain surface based on DWI is a worthy technique to display brain surface anatomy, especially for frontal and parietal structures. (authors)

  18. Reconstruction of magnetic resonance imaging by three-dimensional dual-dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying; Zhu, Zhen; Lu, Yang; Liu, Qiegen; Zhao, Jun

    2014-03-01

    To improve the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data acquisition speed while maintaining the reconstruction quality, a novel method is proposed for multislice MRI reconstruction from undersampled k-space data based on compressed-sensing theory using dictionary learning. There are two aspects to improve the reconstruction quality. One is that spatial correlation among slices is used by extending the atoms in dictionary learning from patches to blocks. The other is that the dictionary-learning scheme is used at two resolution levels; i.e., a low-resolution dictionary is used for sparse coding and a high-resolution dictionary is used for image updating. Numerical experiments are carried out on in vivo 3D MR images of brains and abdomens with a variety of undersampling schemes and ratios. The proposed method (dual-DLMRI) achieves better reconstruction quality than conventional reconstruction methods, with the peak signal-to-noise ratio being 7 dB higher. The advantages of the dual dictionaries are obvious compared with the single dictionary. Parameter variations ranging from 50% to 200% only bias the image quality within 15% in terms of the peak signal-to-noise ratio. Dual-DLMRI effectively uses the a priori information in the dual-dictionary scheme and provides dramatically improved reconstruction quality. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. THREE-DIMENSIONAL BUILDING RECONSTRUCTION USING IMAGES OBTAINED BY UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wefelscheid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs offer several new possibilities in a wide range of applications. One example is the 3D reconstruction of buildings. In former times this was either restricted by earthbound vehicles to the reconstruction of facades or by air-borne sensors to generate only very coarse building models. This paper describes an approach for fully automatic image-based 3D reconstruction of buildings using UAVs. UAVs are able to observe the whole 3D scene and to capture images of the object of interest from completely different perspectives. The platform used by this work is a Falcon 8 octocopter from Ascending Technologies. A slightly modified high-resolution consumer camera serves as sensor for data acquisition. The final 3D reconstruction is computed offline after image acquisition and follows a reconstruction process originally developed for image sequences obtained by earthbound vehicles. The per- formance of the described method is evaluated on benchmark datasets showing that the achieved accuracy is high and even comparable with Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR. Additionally, the results of the application of the complete processing-chain starting at image acquisition and ending in a dense surface-mesh are presented and discussed.

  20. Cost-effective system for facial imaging and three-dimensional reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, S. B.; Monro, D. M.; Sherlock, Barry G.

    1998-06-01

    Three dimensional (3-D) images have recently received wide attention in applications involving medical treatment. Most current 3-D imaging methods focus on the internal organs of the body. However, several medical image applications such as plastic surgery, body deformities, rehabilitation, dental surgery and orthodontics, make use of the surface contours of the body. Several techniques are currently available for producing 3-D images of the body surface and most of the systems which implement these techniques are expensive, requiring complex equipment with highly trained operators. The research involves the development of a simple, low cost and non-invasive contour capturing method for facial surfaces. This is achieved using the structured light technique, employing a standard commercial slide projector, CCD camera and a frame-grabber card linked to a PC. Structured light has already been used for many applications, but only to a limited extent in the clinical environment. All current implementations involve extensive manual intervention by highly skilled operators and this has proven to be a serious hindrance to clinical acceptance of 3-D imaging. A primary objective of this work is to minimize the amount of manual intervention required, so that the system can be used by clinicians who do not have specialist training in the use of this equipment. The eventual aim is to provide a software assisted surgical procedure, which by merging the facial data, allows the manipulation of soft tissue and gives the facility to predict and monitor post-surgical appearance. The research focuses on how the images are obtained using the structured light optic system and the subsequent image processing of data to give a realistic 3-D image.

  1. A three-dimensional dose-distribution estimation system using computerized image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Akihiko; Kidoya, Eiji; Komuro, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Masato; Asada, Naoki.

    1990-01-01

    In radiotherapy planning, three dimensional (3-D) estimation of dose distribution has been very troublesome and time-consuming. To solve this problem, a simple and fast 3-D dose distribution image using a computer and Charged Couple Device (CCD) camera was developed. A series of X-ray films inserted in the phantom using a linear accelerator unit was exposed. The degree of film density was degitized with a CCD camera and a minicomputer (VAX 11-750). After that these results were compared with the present depth dose obtained by a JARP type dosimeter, with a dose error being less than 2%. The 3-D dose distribution image could accurately depict the density changes created by aluminum and air put into the phantom. The contrast resolution of the CCD camera seemed to be superior to the convention densitometer in the low-to-intermediate contrast range. In conclusion, our method seem to be very fast and simple for obtaining 3-D dose distribution images and is very effective when compared with the conventional method. (author)

  2. [Research on Three-dimensional Medical Image Reconstruction and Interaction Based on HTML5 and Visualization Toolkit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Peng; Su, Hongsen; Qiao, Liang

    2015-04-01

    Integrating visualization toolkit and the capability of interaction, bidirectional communication and graphics rendering which provided by HTML5, we explored and experimented on the feasibility of remote medical image reconstruction and interaction in pure Web. We prompted server-centric method which did not need to download the big medical data to local connections and avoided considering network transmission pressure and the three-dimensional (3D) rendering capability of client hardware. The method integrated remote medical image reconstruction and interaction into Web seamlessly, which was applicable to lower-end computers and mobile devices. Finally, we tested this method in the Internet and achieved real-time effects. This Web-based 3D reconstruction and interaction method, which crosses over internet terminals and performance limited devices, may be useful for remote medical assistant.

  3. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the size and shape of protein microcrystals using Bragg coherent diffractive imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlan, H. D.; Darmanin, C.; Kirkwood, H. J.; Phillips, N. W.; Hoxley, D.; Clark, J. N.; Harder, R. J.; Maxey, E.; Abbey, B.

    2016-03-14

    Three-dimensional imaging of protein crystals during X-ray diffraction experiments opens up a range of possibilities for optimising crystal quality and gaining new insights into the fundamental processes that drive radiation damage. Obtaining this information at the appropriate lengthscales however is extremely challenging. One approach that has been recently demonstrated as a promising avenue for charactering the size and shape of protein crystals at nanometre lengthscales is Bragg Coherent Diffractive Imaging (BCDI). BCDI is a recently developed technique that is able to recover the phase of the continuous diffraction intensity signal around individual Bragg peaks. When data is collected at multiple points on a rocking curve a Reciprocal Space Map (RSM) can be assembled and then inverted using BCDI to obtain a three-dimensional image of the crystal. The first demonstration of two-dimensional BCDI of protein crystals was reported by Boutet at al., recently this work was extended to the study of radiation damage of micron-sized crystals. Here we present the first three-dimensional reconstructions of a Lysozyme protein crystal using BDI. The results are validated against RSM and TEM data and have implications for both radiation damage studies and for developing new approaches to structure retrieval from micron-sized protein crystals.

  4. Three-dimensional reconstruction for a large scene of integral imaging based on color-position characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiao-xue; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Yu; Zhou, Li-qiu; Zhao, Xing

    2015-07-01

    A new large-scale three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technology based on integral imaging with color-position characteristics is presented. The color of the object point is similar to those of corresponding points. The corresponding point coordinates form arithmetic progressions because integral imaging captures information with a senior array which has similar pitches on x and y directions. This regular relationship is used to determine the corresponding point parameters for reconstructing 3D information from divided elemental images separated by color, which contain several corresponding points. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated through an optical indoor experiment. A large-scale application of the proposed method is illustrated by the experiment with a corner of our school as its object.

  5. Image-based reconstruction of three-dimensional myocardial infarct geometry for patient-specific modeling of cardiac electrophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukwatta, Eranga, E-mail: eukwatt1@jhu.edu; Arevalo, Hermenegild; Pashakhanloo, Farhad; Prakosa, Adityo; Vadakkumpadan, Fijoy [Institute for Computational Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Rajchl, Martin [Department of Computing, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); White, James [Stephenson Cardiovascular MR Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 2T9 (Canada); Herzka, Daniel A.; McVeigh, Elliot [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Lardo, Albert C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 and Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins Institute of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224 (United States); Trayanova, Natalia A. [Institute for Computational Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins Institute of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Accurate three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of myocardial infarct geometry is crucial to patient-specific modeling of the heart aimed at providing therapeutic guidance in ischemic cardiomyopathy. However, myocardial infarct imaging is clinically performed using two-dimensional (2D) late-gadolinium enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) techniques, and a method to build accurate 3D infarct reconstructions from the 2D LGE-CMR images has been lacking. The purpose of this study was to address this need. Methods: The authors developed a novel methodology to reconstruct 3D infarct geometry from segmented low-resolution (Lo-res) clinical LGE-CMR images. Their methodology employed the so-called logarithm of odds (LogOdds) function to implicitly represent the shape of the infarct in segmented image slices as LogOdds maps. These 2D maps were then interpolated into a 3D image, and the result transformed via the inverse of LogOdds to a binary image representing the 3D infarct geometry. To assess the efficacy of this method, the authors utilized 39 high-resolution (Hi-res) LGE-CMR images, including 36 in vivo acquisitions of human subjects with prior myocardial infarction and 3 ex vivo scans of canine hearts following coronary ligation to induce infarction. The infarct was manually segmented by trained experts in each slice of the Hi-res images, and the segmented data were downsampled to typical clinical resolution. The proposed method was then used to reconstruct 3D infarct geometry from the downsampled images, and the resulting reconstructions were compared with the manually segmented data. The method was extensively evaluated using metrics based on geometry as well as results of electrophysiological simulations of cardiac sinus rhythm and ventricular tachycardia in individual hearts. Several alternative reconstruction techniques were also implemented and compared with the proposed method. Results: The accuracy of the LogOdds method in reconstructing 3D

  6. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Bony Nasolacrimal Canal by Automated Segmentation of Computed Tomography Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Jañez-Garcia

    Full Text Available To apply a fully automated method to quantify the 3D structure of the bony nasolacrimal canal (NLC from CT scans whereby the size and main morphometric characteristics of the canal can be determined.Cross-sectional study.36 eyes of 18 healthy individuals.Using software designed to detect the boundaries of the NLC on CT images, 36 NLC reconstructions were prepared. These reconstructions were then used to calculate NLC volume. The NLC axis in each case was determined according to a polygonal model and to 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree polynomials. From these models, NLC sectional areas and length were determined. For each variable, descriptive statistics and normality tests (Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk were established.Time for segmentation, NLC volume, axis, sectional areas and length.Mean processing time was around 30 seconds for segmenting each canal. All the variables generated were normally distributed. Measurements obtained using the four models polygonal, 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree polynomial, respectively, were: mean canal length 14.74, 14.3, 14.80, and 15.03 mm; mean sectional area 15.15, 11.77, 11.43, and 11.56 mm2; minimum sectional area 8.69, 7.62, 7.40, and 7.19 mm2; and mean depth of minimum sectional area (craniocaudal 7.85, 7.71, 8.19, and 8.08 mm.The method proposed automatically reconstructs the NLC on CT scans. Using these reconstructions, morphometric measurements can be calculated from NLC axis estimates based on polygonal and 2nd, 3rd and 4th polynomial models.

  7. Accelerated three-dimensional cine phase contrast imaging using randomly undersampled echo planar imaging with compressed sensing reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Tamer A; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Goddu, Beth; Berg, Sophie; Nezafat, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate an accelerated three-dimensional (3D) cine phase contrast MRI sequence by combining a randomly sampled 3D k-space acquisition sequence with an echo planar imaging (EPI) readout. An accelerated 3D cine phase contrast MRI sequence was implemented by combining EPI readout with randomly undersampled 3D k-space data suitable for compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction. The undersampled data were then reconstructed using low-dimensional structural self-learning and thresholding (LOST). 3D phase contrast MRI was acquired in 11 healthy adults using an overall acceleration of 7 (EPI factor of 3 and CS rate of 3). For comparison, a single two-dimensional (2D) cine phase contrast scan was also performed with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) rate 2 and approximately at the level of the pulmonary artery bifurcation. The stroke volume and mean velocity in both the ascending and descending aorta were measured and compared between two sequences using Bland-Altman plots. An average scan time of 3 min and 30 s, corresponding to an acceleration rate of 7, was achieved for 3D cine phase contrast scan with one direction flow encoding, voxel size of 2 × 2 × 3 mm(3) , foot-head coverage of 6 cm and temporal resolution of 30 ms. The mean velocity and stroke volume in both the ascending and descending aorta were statistically equivalent between the proposed 3D sequence and the standard 2D cine phase contrast sequence. The combination of EPI with a randomly undersampled 3D k-space sampling sequence using LOST reconstruction allows a seven-fold reduction in scan time of 3D cine phase contrast MRI without compromising blood flow quantification. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Three-dimensional esophagus reconstruction and monitoring during ablation of atrial fibrillation: combination of two imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scazzuso, Fernando A; Rivera, Santiago H; Albina, Gastón; de la Paz Ricapito, María; Gómez, Luis Alberto; Sanmartino, Victoria; Kamlofsky, Matías; Laiño, Ruben; Giniger, Alberto

    2013-10-03

    The purpose of the study was to determine the accuracy of a novel three-dimensional (3D) imaging integration technique of the esophagus combining multislice computed tomography (CT) scan of the esophagus into the three-dimensional (3D) electroanatomic map just before pulmonary vein (PV) isolation. We included 94 consecutive patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent ablation. All patients had a CT performed prior procedure that was integrated to the 3D reconstruction electromechanical map of the atrium and the esophagus (Verismo(TM), EnSite® NavX version 7.0 J, St. Jude Medical Inc.). During the procedure, a quadripolar electrophysiology catheter placed in the esophagus was used for mapping and to monitor esophagus position. Integrated (fusion) images were used to determinate the esophagus position compared to the left atrium posterior wall and its relationship with PV ostiums. We compared esophagus position by CT and fusion images. Procedural success was 97.9% with no fatal complications. Esophagus locations were as follows: left 57%, right 7%, oblique course 11% and central 25%. Agreements in esophageal position between CT and fusion imaging techniques were 83.3% and 64% for patients with a recent (≤48 h) and non-recent CT assessment (>48 h), respectively. Throughout the procedure, esophagus stability was 88.8% (lateral displacement<15 mm). Ablative strategy was modified in 51% of the cases due to awareness of esophagus location. Guidance of AF ablation with 3D fusion images was safe and effective. CT images of the esophagus, especially if acquired within 48 h before ablation, ensure appropriate intraprocedural localization of the esophagus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Three-dimensional reconstruction of intracoronary ultrasound images. Rationale, approaches, problems, and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); C. di Mario (Carlo); N.G. Pandian (Natesa); L. Wenguang; D.T.J. Keane (David); C.J. Slager (Cornelis); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAlthough intracoronary ultrasonography allows detailed tomographic imaging of the arterial wall, it fails to provide data on the structural architecture and longitudinal extent of arterial disease. This information is essential for decision making during therapeutic interventions.

  10. Magnetically guided left ventricular lead implantation based on a virtual three-dimensional reconstructed image of the coronary sinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rivero-Ayerza (Maximo); E. Jessurun; S. Ramcharitar (Steve); Y. van Belle (Yves); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAims: Left ventricular (LV) lead implantation is feasible using remote magnetic navigation of a guidewire (Stereotaxis, St Louis, MO, USA). A novel software that performs a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of vessels based on two or more angiographic views has been developed

  11. Assessment of murine colorectal cancer by micro-ultrasound using three dimensional reconstruction and non-linear contrast imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Freeling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively low success rates of current colorectal cancer (CRC therapies have led investigators to search for more specific treatments. Vertebrate models of colorectal cancer are essential tools for the verification of new therapeutic avenues such as gene therapy. The evaluation of colorectal cancer in mouse models has been limited due to the lack of an accurate quantitative and longitudinal noninvasive method. This work introduces a method of three-dimensional micro-ultrasound reconstruction and microbubble administration for the comprehensive and longitudinal evaluation of CRC progression. This approach enabled quantification of both tumor volume and relative vascularity using a well-established inducible murine model of colon carcinogenesis. This inducible model recapitulated the adenocarcinoma sequence that occurs in human CRC allowing systematic in situ evaluation of the ultrasound technique. The administration of intravenous microbubbles facilitated enhancement of colon vascular contrast and quantification of relative vascularity of the mid and distal colon of the mouse in three dimensions. In addition, two-dimensional imaging in the sagittal orientation of the colon using Non-Linear Contrast Mode enabled calculation of relative blood volume and perfusion as the microbubbles entered the colon microvasculature. Quantitative results provided by the outlined protocol represent a noninvasive tool that can more accurately define CRC development and progression. This ultrasound technique will allow the practical and economical longitudinal study of murine CRC in both basic and preclinical studies.

  12. Pre-operative CT angiography and three-dimensional image post processing for deep inferior epigastric perforator flap breast reconstructive surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, D L; Mitsumori, L M; Neligan, P C; Warren, B H; Shuman, W P; Dubinsky, T J

    2012-01-01

    Autologous breast reconstructive surgery with deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator flaps has become the mainstay for breast reconstructive surgery. CT angiography and three-dimensional image post processing can depict the number, size, course and location of the DIEA perforating arteries for the pre-operative selection of the best artery to use for the tissue flap. Knowledge of the location and selection of the optimal perforating artery shortens operative times and decreases pat...

  13. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Sandpile Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, G. T.

    2001-03-01

    The granular bed, or sandpile, has become one of the condensed matter physicist's favorite systems. In addition to conceptual appeal, the simplest sandpile of monodisperse hard spheres is a valuable model system for understanding powders, liquids, and metallic glasses. Any fundamental approach to the transport and mechanical properties of three-dimensional mesoscale disordered materials must follow from a thorough understanding of their structure. However, in the overwhelming majority of cases, structure measurements have been limited to the mean filling fraction and the structural autocorrelation function. This is particularly unfortunate in the ongoing sandpile renaissance, where some of the most interesting questions concern structure and the relationship between structure and dynamics. I will discuss the combination of synchrotron x-ray microtomography and computer vision algorithms to perform three-dimensional virtual reconstructions of real sandpiles. This technique is rapid and noninvasive, and is applicable to samples large enough to separate bulk and boundary properties. The resulting complete knowledge of structure can be used to calculate otherwise inaccessible correlation functions. I will present results for several measures of the bond-orientational order in three-dimensional sandpiles, including fabric tensors and nematic order parameters.

  14. Three dimensional animated images of anorectal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Shigeru; Yanagimachi, Noriharu; Muro, Isao; Komiya, Taizo; Yokoyama, Seishichi; Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Tajima, Tomoo; Mitomi, Toshio; Suto, Yasuzo.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the pelvic structures is a most important factor in obtaining a desirable result after anorectoplasty for a patient with anorectal malformation. Preoperative evaluation of the anatomy is indispensable for choosing an appropriate operative method in each case. To facilitate preoperative evaluation, three dimensional animated images of the pelvic structure of patients with anorectal malformations were constructed by computer graphics based upon tomographic images obtained from magnetic resonance imaging. Axial 1-mm thick images of the pelvic portion were generated with spoiling pulse gradient echo sequences using short repetition times (13 msec TR) and short echo times (6 msec TE) with a flip angle of 25 degrees with the patient in the jack-knife position. Graphic data from MR images were transferred to a graphic work station and processed on it. The skin surface, the ano-rectum, the lower urinary tract and the sphincter musculature were segmented by thresholding images by the signal intensity. Three dimensional images were displayed by surface rendering method using the segmented data of each organ and then animation images of these organs were obtained. The anatomy of each type of anomaly was easily recognized by 3-D visualization, and animation of the pelvic viscera and the sphincter musculature made the images more realistic. Animated images of the musculature were especially useful for simulating surgical procedures and could be helpful for reviewing surgical results. (author)

  15. Eustachian tube three-dimensional reconstruction of secretory otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yafeng; Zhou Weirong; Bao Xueping; Li Min; Hu Zhenmin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study relationship between Eustachian tube and secretory otitis media and to explore the pathogeny of secretory otitis by three-dimensional reconstruction of Eustachian tube. Methods: Thirty cases of secretory otitis media (male 19, female 11) were selected randomly. Everyone was checked by otoscope and audiometry. Their bilateral Eustachian tubes were scanning by helix CT while making Valsalva's action. All images were passed on to work station to make three-dimensional reconstruction. Results: Four patients were found have Eustachian tube diseases, while most of patients' Eustachian tubes ventilated normally. Conclusions: Three-dimensional reconstruction of Eustachian tube can open out some pathogens of some secretory otitis medias. It will be helpful to diagnosis and therapy of secretory otitis media. (authors)

  16. Three-dimensional reconstructions in spine and screw trajectory simulation on 3D digital images: a step by step approach by using Mimics software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Chen, Chun-Hui; Tang, Li; Wang, Kai; Li, Yu-Zhe; Phan, Kevin; Wu, Ai-Min

    2017-12-01

    There is a rapidly increasing amount of literature outlining the use of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and printing technologies in recent years. However, precise instructive articles which describe step-by-step methods of reconstructing 3D images from computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remain limited. To address these issues, this article describes a detailed protocol which will allow the reader to easily perform the 3D reconstruction in their future research, to allow investigation of the appropriate surgical anatomy and allow innovative designs of novel screw fixation techniques or pre-operative surgical planning.

  17. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the pigeon inner ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.; Segenhout, J. M.; Wit, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional reconstructions of the inner ear of the pigeon (Columba livia domestica), from two-dimensional images, obtained with (conventional) light microscopy or orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning (OPFOS), are presented. The results are compared with available information on

  18. Computational methods for three-dimensional microscopy reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to the recovery of three-dimensional information on a biological object, which are often formulated or implemented initially in an intuitive way, are concisely described here based on physical models of the object and the image-formation process. Both three-dimensional electron microscopy and X-ray tomography can be captured in the same mathematical framework, leading to closely-related computational approaches, but the methodologies differ in detail and hence pose different challenges. The editors of this volume, Gabor T. Herman and Joachim Frank, are experts in the respective methodologies and present research at the forefront of biological imaging and structural biology.   Computational Methods for Three-Dimensional Microscopy Reconstruction will serve as a useful resource for scholars interested in the development of computational methods for structural biology and cell biology, particularly in the area of 3D imaging and modeling.

  19. Panoramic three-dimensional CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamata, Akitoshi; Fujishita, Masami

    1998-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is a unique projection technique for producing a single image of both maxillary and mandibular arches and many other anatomical structures. To obtain a similar panoramic image without panoramic radiography system, a modified three-dimensional (3D) CT imaging technique was designed. A set of CT slice image data extending from the chin to the orbit was used for 3D reconstruction. The CT machine used in this study was the X-Vision (TOSHIBA, Japan). The helical scan technique was used. The slice thickness of reconstructed image was one or 1.5 mm. The occlusal plane or Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane was used as the reference line. The resultant slice image data was stored on a magnetic optical disk and then used to create panoramic 3D-CT images on a Macintosh computer systems (Power Macintosh 8600/250, Apple Computer Inc., USA). To create the panoramic 3D-CT image, the following procedure was designed: Design a curved panoramic 3D-CT imaging layer using the imaging layer and the movement of the x-ray beam in panoramic radiography system as a template; Cut this imaging layer from each slice image, then the trimmed image was transformed to a rectangular layer using the ''still image warping'' special effect in the Elastic Reality special effects system (Elastic Reality Inc., USA); Create panoramic 3D-CT image using the Voxel View (Vital Images Inc., USA) rendering system and volume rendering technique. Although the image quality was primitive, a panoramic view of maxillofacial region was obtained by this technique. (author)

  20. Three dimensional imaging of otoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.; David, B.

    2008-01-01

    Otoliths are small structures in fish ears made of calcium carbonate which carry a record of the environment in which the fish live. Traditionally, in order to study their microchemistry by a scanning technique such as PIXE the otoliths have been either ground down by hand or thin sectioned to expose the otolith core. However this technique is subject to human error in judging the core position. In this study we have scanned successive layers of otoliths 50 and 100 μm apart by removing the otolith material in a lapping machine which can be set to a few μm precision. In one study by comparing data from otoliths from the two ears of a freshwater species we found that polishing by hand could miss the core and thus give misleading results as to the life cycle of the fish. In another example we showed detail in a marine species which could be used to build a three dimensional picture of the Sr distribution. (author)

  1. Application of Image Processing and Three-Dimensional Data Reconstruction Algorithm Based on Traffic Video in Vehicle Component Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle detection is one of the important technologies in intelligent video surveillance systems. Owing to the perspective projection imaging principle of cameras, traditional two-dimensional (2D images usually distort the size and shape of vehicles. In order to solve these problems, the traffic scene calibration and inverse projection construction methods are used to project the three-dimensional (3D information onto the 2D images. In addition, a vehicle target can be characterized by several components, and thus vehicle detection can be fulfilled based on the combination of these components. The key characteristics of vehicle targets are distinct during a single day; for example, the headlight brightness is more significant at night, while the vehicle taillight and license plate color are much more prominent in the daytime. In this paper, by using the background subtraction method and Gaussian mixture model, we can realize the accurate detection of target lights at night. In the daytime, however, the detection of the license plate and taillight of a vehicle can be fulfilled by exploiting the background subtraction method and the Markov random field, based on the spatial geometry relation between the corresponding components. Further, by utilizing Kalman filters to follow the vehicle tracks, detection accuracy can be further improved. Finally, experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  2. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the biliary tract using spiral computed tomography. Three-dimensional cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gon, Masanori; Ogura, Norihiro; Uetsuji, Shouji; Ueyama, Yasuo

    1995-01-01

    In this study, 310 patients with benign biliary diseases, 20 with gallbladder cancer, and 8 with biliary tract carcinoma underwent spiral CT (SCT) scanning at cholangiography. Depiction rate of the shape of the conjunction site of the gallbladder and biliary tract was 27.5% by conventional intravenous cholangiography (DIC), 92.5% by ERC, and 90.0% by DIC-SCT. Abnormal cystic duct course was admitted in 14.1%. Multiplanar reconstruction by DIC-SCT enabled identification of the common bile duct and intrahepatic bile duct stone. Three-dimensional reconstruction of DIC-SCT was effective in evaluating obstruction of the anastomosis or passing condition of after hepatico-jejunostomy. Two-dimensional SCT images through PTCD tube enabled degree of hepatic invasion in bile duct cancer, and three-dimensional images were useful in grasping the morphology of the bile duct branches near the obstruction site. DIC-SCT is therefore considered a useful procedure as non-invasive examination of bile duct lesions. (S.Y.)

  3. Three-dimensional reconstruction in electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grano, D.A.

    1979-05-01

    The development and implementation of a versatile system of image processing programs for electron microscopy is described. Both high-dose, negatively stained specimens and low-dose, unstained specimens can be analyzed by this system. The theory behind image analysis in electron microscopy is described together with the practical aspects of computer processing of electron micrographs. The Fourier transform of cylindrically symmetric objects is studied in some detail. The range of structural deductions that may be made from the Fourier transforms of projections of such objects is discussed. The methods of 2-D image filtering are applied to high-dose images of negatively stained gap junction membranes and to frozen, hydrated, low-dose images of the hexagonally packed protein component of Spirillum serpens cell wall. The computer processed Spirillum specimen reveals the presence of Y-linkers similar to those seen in negatively stained preparations. Computer processing of the gap junction images makes the presence of a central staining pit more obvious. The techniques of 3-D helical reconstruction are applied to high-dose images of negatively stained T4 bacteriophage tails, to demonstrate the successful transfer of the IBM-based MRC helical reconstruction programs to our Control Data corporation computer system. Finally, the tubular structures found in preparations of Spirillum serpens cell wall are analyzed by Fourier methods.

  4. Three-dimensional image reconstruction of macula from stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) for diagnosis of macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arinilhaq; Widita, R

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of macular degeneration using a Stratus OCT with a fast macular thickness map (FMTM) method produced six B-scan images of macula from different angles. The images were converted into a retinal thickness chart to be evaluated by normal distribution percentile of data so that it can be classified as normal thickness of macula or as experiencing abnormality (e.g. thickening and thinning). Unfortunately, the diagnostic images only represent the retinal thickness in several areas of the macular region. Thus, this study is aims to obtain the entire retinal thickness in the macula area from Status OCT's output images. Basically, the volumetric image is obtained by combining each of the six images. Reconstruction consists of a series of processes such as pre-processing, segmentation, and interpolation. Linear interpolation techniques are used to fill the empty pixels in reconstruction matrix. Based on the results, this method is able to provide retinal thickness maps on the macula surface and the macula 3D image. Retinal thickness map can display the macula area which experienced abnormalities. The macula 3D image can show the layers of tissue in the macula that is abnormal. The system built cannot replace ophthalmologist in decision making in term of diagnosis. (paper)

  5. Three-dimensional image reconstruction of macula from stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) for diagnosis of macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinilhaq; Widita, R.

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosis of macular degeneration using a Stratus OCT with a fast macular thickness map (FMTM) method produced six B-scan images of macula from different angles. The images were converted into a retinal thickness chart to be evaluated by normal distribution percentile of data so that it can be classified as normal thickness of macula or as experiencing abnormality (e.g. thickening and thinning). Unfortunately, the diagnostic images only represent the retinal thickness in several areas of the macular region. Thus, this study is aims to obtain the entire retinal thickness in the macula area from Status OCT's output images. Basically, the volumetric image is obtained by combining each of the six images. Reconstruction consists of a series of processes such as pre-processing, segmentation, and interpolation. Linear interpolation techniques are used to fill the empty pixels in reconstruction matrix. Based on the results, this method is able to provide retinal thickness maps on the macula surface and the macula 3D image. Retinal thickness map can display the macula area which experienced abnormalities. The macula 3D image can show the layers of tissue in the macula that is abnormal. The system built cannot replace ophthalmologist in decision making in term of diagnosis.

  6. A comparative study between data obtained from conventional lateral cephalometry and reconstructed three-dimensional computed tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Suseok; Kim, Ci-Young; Hong, Jongrak

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the concordance of the measurement values when the same cephalometric analysis method was used for two-dimensional (2D) cephalometric radiography and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT), and to identify which 3D Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane was the most concordant with FH plane used for cephalometric radiography. Reference horizontal plane was FH plane. Palatal angle and occlusal plane angle was evaluated with FH plane. Gonial angle (GA), palatal angle, upper occlusal plane angle (UOPA), mandibular plane angle (MPA), U1 to occlusal plane angle, U1 to FH plane angle, SNA and SNB were obtained on 2D cephalmetries and reconstructed 3D CT. The values measured eight angles in 2D lateral cephalometry and reconstructed 3D CT were evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficiency (ICC). It also was evaluated to identify 3D FH plane with high degree of concordance to 2D one by studying which one in four FH planes shows the highest degree of concordance with 2D FH plane. ICCs of MPA (0.752), UOPA (0.745), SNA (0.798) and SNB (0.869) were high. On the other hand, ICCs of gonial angle (0.583), palatal angle (0.287), U1 to occlusal plane (0.404), U1 to FH plane (0.617) were low respectively. Additionally GA and MPA acquired from 2D were bigger than those on 3D in all 20 patients included in this study. Concordance between one UOPA from 2D and four UOPAs from 3D CT were evaluated by ICC values. Results showed no significant difference among four FH planes defined on 3D CT. FH plane that can be set on 3D CT does not have difference in concordance from FH plane on lateral cephalometry. However, it is desirable to define FH plane on 3D CT with two orbitales and one porion considering the reproduction of orbitale itself.

  7. The use of transport and diffusion equations in the three-dimensional reconstruction of computerized tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Sandrerley Ramos, E-mail: sandrerley@eee.ufg.br [Escola de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao - EEEC, Universidade Federal de Goias - UFG, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Flores, Edna Lucia; Pires, Dulcineia Goncalves F.; Carrijo, Gilberto Arantes; Veiga, Antonio Claudio Paschoarelli [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica - FEELT, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia - UFU, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Barcelos, Celia Aparecida Z. [Faculdade de Matematica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia - UFU, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    The visualization of a computerized tomographic (TC) exam in 3D increases the quality of the medical diagnosis and, consequently, the success probability in the treatment. To obtain a high quality image it is necessary to obtain slices which are close to one another. Motivated towards the goal of reaching an improved balance between quantity of slices and visualization quality, this research work presents a digital inpainting technique of 3D interpolation for CT slices used in the visualization of human body structures. The inpainting is carried out via non-linear partial differential equations (PDE). The PDE's have been used, in the image-processing context to fill in the damaged regions in a digital 2D image. Inspired by this idea, this article proposes an interpolation method for the filling in of the empty regions between the CT slices. To do it, considering the high similarity between two consecutive real slice, the first step of the proposed method is to create the virtual slices. The virtual slices contain all similarity between the intercalated slices and, when there are not similarities between real slices, the virtual slices will contain indefinite portions. In the second step of the proposed method, the created virtual slices will be used together with the real slices images, in the reconstruction of the structure in three dimensions, mapped onto the exam. The proposed method is capable of reconstructing the curvatures of the patient's internal structures without using slices that are close to one another. The experiments carried out show the proposed method's efficiency. (author)

  8. Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... The image data can be jointly analysed with the physical laws governing transport and principles of image formation. Hence, with the experiment suitably carried out, three-dimensional physical domains with unsteady processes can be accommodated. Optical methods promise to breach the holy grail of ...

  9. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Nuclear Envelope Architecture Using Dual-Color Metal-Induced Energy Transfer Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhik, Anna M; Ruhlandt, Daja; Pfaff, Janine; Karedla, Narain; Chizhik, Alexey I; Gregor, Ingo; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Enderlein, Jörg

    2017-12-26

    The nuclear envelope, comprising the inner and the outer nuclear membrane, separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm and plays a key role in cellular functions. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which are embedded in the nuclear envelope, control transport of macromolecules between the two compartments. Here, using dual-color metal-induced energy transfer (MIET), we determine the axial distance between Lap2β and Nup358 as markers for the inner nuclear membrane and the cytoplasmic side of the NPC, respectively. Using MIET imaging, we reconstruct the 3D profile of the nuclear envelope over the whole basal area, with an axial resolution of a few nanometers. This result demonstrates that optical microscopy can achieve nanometer axial resolution in biological samples and without recourse to complex interferometric approaches.

  10. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  11. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction Optical System Using Shadows Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, J. Leiner; Vargas, Q. Lorena; Torres, M. Cesar; Mattos, V. Lorenzo

    2008-04-01

    In this work is developed a three-dimensional reconstruction system using the Shades3D tool of the Matlab® Programming Language and materials of low cost, such as webcam camera, a stick, a weak structured lighting system composed by a desk lamp, and observation plane in which the object is located. The reconstruction is obtained through a triangulation process that is executed after acquiring a sequence of images of the scene with a shadow projected on the object; additionally an image filtering process is done for obtaining only the part of the scene that will be reconstructed. Previously, it is necessary to develop a calibration process for determining the internal camera geometric and optical characteristics (intrinsic parameters), and the 3D position and orientation of the camera frame relative to a certain world coordinate system (extrinsic parameters). The lamp and the stick are used to produce a shadow which scans the object; in this technique, it is not necessary to know the position of the light source, instead the triangulation is obtained using shadow plane produced by intersection between the stick and the illumination pattern. The webcam camera captures all images with the shadow scanning the object, and Shades3D tool processes all information taking into account captured images and calibration parameters. Likewise, this technique is evaluated in the reconstruction of parts of the human body and its application in the detection of external abnormalities and elaboration of prosthesis or implant.

  12. A three-dimensional-weighted cone beam filtered backprojection (CB-FBP) algorithm for image reconstruction in volumetric CT-helical scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiangyang; Hsieh Jiang; Nilsen, Roy A; Dutta, Sandeep; Samsonov, Dmitry; Hagiwara, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Based on the structure of the original helical FDK algorithm, a three-dimensional (3D)-weighted cone beam filtered backprojection (CB-FBP) algorithm is proposed for image reconstruction in volumetric CT under helical source trajectory. In addition to its dependence on view and fan angles, the 3D weighting utilizes the cone angle dependency of a ray to improve reconstruction accuracy. The 3D weighting is ray-dependent and the underlying mechanism is to give a favourable weight to the ray with the smaller cone angle out of a pair of conjugate rays but an unfavourable weight to the ray with the larger cone angle out of the conjugate ray pair. The proposed 3D-weighted helical CB-FBP reconstruction algorithm is implemented in the cone-parallel geometry that can improve noise uniformity and image generation speed significantly. Under the cone-parallel geometry, the filtering is naturally carried out along the tangential direction of the helical source trajectory. By exploring the 3D weighting's dependence on cone angle, the proposed helical 3D-weighted CB-FBP reconstruction algorithm can provide significantly improved reconstruction accuracy at moderate cone angle and high helical pitches. The 3D-weighted CB-FBP algorithm is experimentally evaluated by computer-simulated phantoms and phantoms scanned by a diagnostic volumetric CT system with a detector dimension of 64 x 0.625 mm over various helical pitches. The computer simulation study shows that the 3D weighting enables the proposed algorithm to reach reconstruction accuracy comparable to that of exact CB reconstruction algorithms, such as the Katsevich algorithm, under a moderate cone angle (4 deg.) and various helical pitches. Meanwhile, the experimental evaluation using the phantoms scanned by a volumetric CT system shows that the spatial resolution along the z-direction and noise characteristics of the proposed 3D-weighted helical CB-FBP reconstruction algorithm are maintained very well in comparison to the FDK

  13. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome

  14. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome.

  15. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337

  16. Wavefront reconstruction from three dimensional intensity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.A.; Roberts, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that is is possible to use intensity measurements taken in a series of planes perpendicular to some axis to produce full four-dimensional information about the cross spectral density function. This measurement of the intensity in any given plane gives a series of slices thorough the four-dimensional Fourier transform of the Brightness function. For a coherent field, this information also enables us to calculate the phase and amplitude of the electric field in any given plane. If a finite measurement range is taken, the resolution of the reconstructed field is degraded, but in the limit of measurements taken over an infinite range, the full Fresnel field can be calculated. When considering the practical application of this technique to real data, the delta function definition needs to be redefined in terms of a 'top-hat' function. This does not alter any of the central conclusions obtained using delta functions, but enables the production of an algorithm for the reconstruction of the electric field from real intensity measurements. This was applied to a simulation of the simple case of a Gaussian beam. The reconstructed phase and amplitude of the electric field so obtained were in good agreement with assumed values. 14 refs., 5 figs

  17. Three-dimensional reconstructions of solid surfaces using conventional microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficker, Tomáš; Martišek, Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional digital replicas of solid surfaces are subject of interest of different branches of science and technology. The present paper in its introductory parts brings an overview of the various microscopic reconstructive techniques based on optical sectioning. The main attention is devoted to conventional reconstruction methods and especially to that one employing the Fourier transform. The three-dimensional replicas of this special reconstructive frequency method are compared graphically and numerically with the three-dimensional replicas of the confocal method. Based on the comparative study it has been concluded that the quality of the conventional replicas of surfaces possessing textures of intermediate height irregularities is acceptable and almost comparable with the quality of confocal replicas. This study is relevant both for identifying a convenient technique that provides good qualities of three-dimensional replicas and for selecting the hardware whose price is affordable even for small research groups studying rougher surface textures. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Correction for Patient Sway in Radiographic Biplanar Imaging for Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Spine: In Vitro Study of a New Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legaye, J. (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Univ. of Louvain - Mont-Godinne, Yvoir (Belgium)); Saunier, P.; Dumas, R. (Univ. of Lyon 1 - INRETS, Villeurbanne (France)); Vallee, C. (Radiology Dept., Hpital Raymond Poincare, Garches (France))

    2009-08-15

    Background: Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the spine in the upright position are classically obtained using two-dimensional, non-simultaneous radiographic imaging. However, a subject's sway between exposures induces inaccuracy in the 3D reconstructions. Purpose: To evaluate the impact of patient sway between successive radiographic exposures, and to test if 3D reconstruction accuracy can be improved by a corrective method with simultaneous Moire-X-ray imaging. Material and Methods: Using a calibrated deformable phantom perceptible by both techniques (Moire and X-ray), the 3D positional and rotational vertebral data from 3D reconstructions with and without the corrective procedure were compared to the corresponding data of computed tomography (CT) scans, considered as a reference. All were expressed in the global axis system, as defined by the Scoliosis Research Society. Results: When a sagittal sway of 10 deg occurred between successive biplanar X-rays, the accuracy of the 3D reconstruction without correction was 8.8 mm for the anteroposterior vertebral locations and 6.4 deg for the sagittal orientations. When the corrective method was applied, the accuracy was improved to 1.3 mm and 1.5 deg, respectively. Conclusion: 3D accuracy improved significantly by using the corrective method, whatever the subject's sway. This technique is reliable for clinical appraisal of the spine, if the subject's sway does not exceed 10 deg. For greater sway, improvement persists, but a risk of lack of accuracy exists

  19. Three-dimensional short-range MR angiography and multiplanar reconstruction images in the evaluation of neurovascular compression in hemifacial spasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong; Lee, Jae Gue; Rhee, Bong Arm [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of three-dimensional(3D) short-range MR angiography(MRA) and multiplanar reconstruction(MPR) imaging in hemifacial spasm(HS). Materials and Methods : Two hundreds patients with HS were studied using a 1.5T MRI system with a 3D time-of-flight(TOF) MRA sequence. To reconstruct short-range MRA, 6-10 source images near the 7-8th cranial nerve complex were processed using a maximum-intensity projection technique. In addition, an MPR technique was used to investigate neurovascular compression. We observed the relationship between the root-exit zone(REZ) of the 7th cranial nerve and compressive vessel, and identified the compressive vessels on symptomatic sides. To investigate neurovascular contact, asymptomatic contralateral sides were also evaluated. Results : MRI showed that in 197 of 200 patients there was vascular compression or contact with the facial nerve REZ on symptomatic sides. One of the three remaining patients was suffering from acoustic neurinoma on the symptomatic side, while in two patients there were no definite abnormal findings.Compressive vessels were demonstrated in all 197 patients; 80 cases involved the anterior inferior cerebellar artery(AICA), 74 the posterior cerebellar artery(PICA), 13 the vertebral artery(VA), 16 the VA and AICA, eight the VA and PICA, and six the AICA and PICA. In all 197 patients, compressive vessels were reconstructed on one 3D short-range MRA image without discontinuation from vertebral or basilar arteries. 3D MPR studies provided additional information such as the direction of compression and course of the compressive vessel. In 31 patients there was neurovascular contact on the contralateral side at the 7-8th cranial nerve complex. Conclusion : Inpatients with HS, 3D short-range MRA and MPR images are excellent and very helpful for the investigation of neurovascular compression and the identification of compressive vessels.

  20. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.L.; Eddy, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory has recently acquired the computer hardware (Silicon Graphics Personal Iris Workstations) and software (Dynamic Graphics, Interactive Surface and Volume Modeling) to perform three dimensional analysis of hydrogeologic data. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data is a powerful technique that can be used to incorporate field, analytical, and modeling results from geologic, hydrologic, ecologic, and chemical studies into a comprehensive model for visualization and interpretation. This report covers the contamination of four different sites of the Savannah River Plant. Each section of this report has a computer graphic display of the concentration of contamination in the groundwater and/or sediments of each site

  1. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, D; Jung, J; Suh, T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  2. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction from Single Image Base on Combination of CNN and Multi-Spectral Photometric Stereo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-spectral photometric stereo can recover pixel-wise surface normal from a single RGB image. The difficulty lies in that the intensity in each channel is the tangle of illumination, albedo and camera response; thus, an initial estimate of the normal is required in optimization-based solutions. In this paper, we propose to make a rough depth estimation using the deep convolutional neural network (CNN instead of using depth sensors or binocular stereo devices. Since high-resolution ground-truth data is expensive to obtain, we designed a network and trained it with rendered images of synthetic 3D objects. We use the model to predict initial normal of real-world objects and iteratively optimize the fine-scale geometry in the multi-spectral photometric stereo framework. The experimental results illustrate the improvement of the proposed method compared with existing methods.

  3. Accuracy and reliability of three-dimensional surface reconstruction measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizukami, Chikashi; Yamamoto, Etsuo; Ohmura, Masaki; Oiki, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Jun; Muneta, Yuki; Tanabe, Makito; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Azemoto, Syougo.

    1993-01-01

    We are using a new three-dimensional (3-D) surface reconstruction system to measure the temporal bones. This system offers the advantage of observation of the external aperture of the vestibular aqueduct and the porus acusticus internus in living subjects. However, its accuracy has not been confirmed. To investigate the accuracy of this new system, we measured the length of an in situ ceramic ossicular replacement prosthesis (CORP) of known length of 6.0 mm using 3-D surface reconstruction, conventional plain X-ray and polytomography. The CORP was scanned in the axial, sagittal and oblique directions. The mean measured length obtained with the 3-D surface reconstruction images was 5.94±0.21 on vertical scans, 5.91±0.27 on horizontal scans, and 6.01±0.25 on oblique scans. There were no significant differences among the measured lengths obtained in the three directions. Therefore, this 3-D surface reconstruction measurement system is considered to be reliable. Conversely, the mean measured length obtained by plain X-ray was 7.98±0.20, and by polytomography it was 7.94±0.23. These conventional methods have the inherent disadvantage of magnification of size which consequently requires correction. (author)

  4. Three-dimensional digital reconstruction of skin epidermis and dermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Zhu, J-Y; Tang, B; Hu, Z-C

    2018-05-01

    This study describes how three-dimensional (3D) human skin tissue is reconstructed, and provides digital anatomical data for the physiological structure of human skin tissue based on large-scale thin serial sections. Human skin samples embedded in paraffin were cut serially into thin sections and then stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Images of serial sections obtained from lighting microscopy were scanned and aligned by the scale-invariant feature transform algorithm. 3D reconstruction of the skin tissue was generated using Mimics software. Fibre content, porosity, average pore diameter and specific surface area of dermis were analysed using the ImageJ analysis system. The root mean square error and mutual information based on the scale-invariant feature transform algorithm registration were significantly greater than those based on the manual registration. Fibre distribution gradually decreased from top to bottom; while porosity showed an opposite trend with irregular average pore diameter distribution. A specific surface area of the dermis showed a 'V' shape trend. Our data suggested that 3D reconstruction of human skin tissue based on large-scale serial sections could be a valuable tool for providing a highly accurate histological structure for analysis of skin tissue. Moreover, this technology could be utilized to produce tissue-engineered skin via a 3D bioprinter in the future. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. Three-dimensional total variation norm for SPECT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Mikael; Bone, Dianna; Elmqvist, H.

    2001-01-01

    The total variation (TV) norm has been described in literature as a method for reducing noise in two-dimensional (2D) images. At the same time, the TV-norm is very good at recovering edges in images, without introducing ringing or edge artefacts. It has also been proposed as a 2D regularisation function in Bayesian reconstruction, implemented in an expectation maximisation (EM) algorithm, and called TV-EM. The TV-EM was developed for 2D SPECT imaging, and the algorithm is capable of smoothing noise while maintaining edges without introducing artefacts. We have extended the TV-norm to take into account the third spatial dimension, and developed an iterative EM algorithm based on the three-dimensional (3D) TV-norm, which we call TV3D-EM. This takes into account the correlation between transaxial sections in SPECT, due to system resolution. We have compared the 2D and 3D algorithms using reconstructed images from simulated projection data. Phantoms used were a homogeneous sphere, and a 3D head phantom based on the Shepp-Logan phantom. The TV3D-EM algorithm yielded somewhat lower noise levels than TV-EM. The noise in the TV3D-EM had similar correlation in transaxial and longitudinal sections, which was not the case for TV-EM, or any 2D reconstruction method. In particular, longitudinal sections from TV3D-EM were perceived as less noisy when compared to TV-EM. The use of 3D reconstruction should also be advantageous if compensation for distant dependent collimator blurring is incorporated in the iterative algorithm

  6. Three-dimensional MR imaging of congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laschinger, J.C.; Vannier, M.W.; Knapp, R.H.; Gutierrez, F.R.; Cox, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Contiguous 5-mm thick ECG-gated MR images of the thorax were edited using surface reconstruction techniques to produce three-dimensional (3D) images of the heart and great vessels in four healthy individuals and 25 patients with congenital heart disease (aged 3 months-30 years). Anomalies studied include atrial and ventricular septal defects, aortic coarctation, AV canal defects, double outlet ventricles, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and a wide spectrum of patients with tetralogy of Fallot. The results were correlated with echocardiographic and cineradiographic studies, and with surgical findings or pathologic specimens. Three-dimensional reconstructions accurately localized the dimensions and locations of all cardiac and great vessel anomalies and often displayed anatomic findings not diagnosed or visualized with other forms of diagnostic imaging

  7. Plenoptic Imaging of a Three Dimensional Cold Atom Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Gordon

    2017-04-01

    A plenoptic imaging system is capable of sampling the rays of light in a volume, both spatially and angularly, providing information about the three dimensional (3D) volume being imaged. The extraction of the 3D structure of a cold atom cloud is demonstrated, using a single plenoptic camera and a single image. The reconstruction is tested against a reference image and the results discussed along with the capabilities and limitations of the imaging system. This capability is useful when the 3D distribution of the atoms is desired, such as determining the shape of an atom trap, particularly when there is limited optical access. Gratefully acknowledge support from AFRL.

  8. Three-dimensional detectors for neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendicino, R.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.

    2018-01-01

    Solid-state sensors fabricated with 3D technologies and coupled to different neutron converter materials have been developed by several groups as direct replacement of 3 He gas detectors, mainly for homeland security applications. Results so far achieved in terms of detection efficiency are quite good (up to ≃50%) and, combined with the intrinsic excellent position resolution of silicon sensors, could lead to high performance neutron imaging systems. In this paper, we review the state of the art in three-dimensional silicon sensors for thermal-neutron detection, addressing the most promising solutions for neutron imaging. Moreover, selected results from the developments at the University of Trento on 3D pixelated detectors having relatively low fabrication complexity and expected high neutron detection efficiency up to 30% will be reported.

  9. In vivo three-dimensional imaging analysis of femoral and tibial tunnel locations in single and double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Chang, Minho; Kwak, Dai-Soon; Jang, Ki-Mo; Wang, Joon Ho

    2014-03-01

    Anatomic footprint restoration of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is recommended during reconstruction surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the femoral and tibial tunnel positions of transtibial single bundle (SB) and transportal double bundle (DB) ACL reconstruction using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). In this study, 26 patients who underwent transtibial SB ACL reconstruction and 27 patients with transportal DB ACL reconstruction using hamstring autograft. 3D-CTs were taken within 1 week after the operation. The obtained digital images were then imported into the commercial package Geomagic Studio v10.0. The femoral tunnel positions were evaluated using the quadrant method. The mean, standard deviation, standard error, minimum, maximum, and 95% confidence interval values were determined for each measurement. The femoral tunnel for the SB technique was located 35.07% ± 5.33% in depth and 16.62% ± 4.99% in height. The anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) tunnel of DB technique was located 30.48% ± 5.02% in depth, 17.12% ± 5.84% in height and 34.76% ± 5.87% in depth, 45.55% ± 6.88% in height, respectively. The tibial tunnel with the SB technique was located 45.43% ± 4.81% from the anterior margin and 47.62% ± 2.51% from the medial tibial articular margin. The AM and PL tunnel of the DB technique was located 33.76% ± 7.83% from the anterior margin, 45.56% ± 2.71% from the medial tibial articular margin and 53.19% ± 3.74% from the anterior margin, 46.00% ± 2.48% from the medial tibial articular margin, respectively. The tibial tunnel position with the transtibial SB technique was located between the AM and PL tunnel positions formed with the transportal DB technique. Using the 3D-CT measuring method, the location of the tibia tunnel was between the AM and PL footprints, but the center of the femoral tunnel was at more shallow position from the AM bundle footprint when ACL reconstruction was performed by the

  10. An algorithm for three-dimensional imaging in the positron camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Kun; Ma Mei; Xu Rongfen; Shen Miaohe

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical algorithm of back-projection filtered for image reconstructions using two-dimensional signals detected from parallel multiwire proportional chambers is described. The approaches of pseudo three-dimensional and full three-dimensional image reconstructions are introduced, and the available point response functions are defined as well. The designing parameters and computation procedure of the full three-dimensional method is presented

  11. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the rat nephron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Grann, Birgitte; Kristoffersen, Inger B.

    2014-01-01

    This study gives a three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis of rat nephrons and their connections to collecting ducts. Approximately 4,500 2.5-μm-thick serial sections from the renal surface to the papillary tip were obtained from each of 3 kidneys of Wistar rats. Digital images were recorded...

  12. Conoscopic holography: toward three-dimensional reconstructions of opaque objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnier, L M

    1995-03-10

    Conoscopic holography is an interferometric technique that permits the recording of three-dimensional objects. A two-step scheme is presented to recover an opaque object's shape from its conoscopic hologram, consisting of a reconstruction algorithm to give a first estimate of the shape and an iterative restoration procedure that uses the object's support information to make the reconstruction more robust. The existence, uniqueness, and stability of the solution, as well as the convergence of the restoration algorithm, are studied. A preliminary experimental result is presented.

  13. Visibility-enhanced reconstruction of three-dimensional objects under a heavily scattering medium through combined use of intermediate view reconstruction, multipixel extraction, and histogram equalization methods in the conventional integral imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Piao, Yongri; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an effective approach for reconstructing visibility-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) objects under the heavily scattering medium of dense fog in the conventional integral imaging system through the combined use of the intermediate view reconstruction (IVR), multipixel extraction (MPE), and histogram equalization (HE) methods. In the proposed system, the limited number of elemental images (EIs) picked up from the 3D objects under the dense fog is increased by as many as required by using the IVR technique. The increased number of EIs is transformed into the subimages (SIs) in which the resolution of the transformed SIs has been also improved as much as possible with the MPE method. Subsequently, by using the HE algorithm, the histogram of the resolution-enhanced SIs is uniformly redistributed over the entire range of discrete pixel levels of the image in a way that the subimage contrast can be much enhanced. Then, these equalized SIs are converted back into the newly modified EIs, and consequently a visibility-enhanced 3D object image can be reconstructed. Successful experimental results with the test object confirmed the feasibility of the proposed method.

  14. Surface image of herniated disc on three-dimensional CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyung Il; Jeon, Chang Hoon; Kim, Sun Yong; Kim, Ok Hwa; Suh, Jung Ho [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Suwon(Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    To evaluate surface configuration of herniated disc on three-dimensional CT. Three dimensional surface images reconstructed from CT scans(1 mm thick) of 24 surgically confirmed herniated discs in 23 patients were reviewed. Disc surface was classified into peripheral and central zones in contact with consecutive peripheral ring and central endplate. Surface irregularity was categorized into two types(local and general). The incidence, size, and extent of local irregularity were observed. General irregularity incidence and severity ranges in 4 grades, and peripheral width were evaluated. The findings were correlated with discography. Local irregularity compatible with anulus tear in discography was shown in all. It was large(13/24) and mainly peripheral tract extending to disc margin in protrusion(3/5) and sequestration(5/7), and cleft encompassing central zone to disc margin in extrusion(9/12). General irregularity was predominantly grade 3(15/22) and was shown in all except in 2 protrusions. Peripheral width was 0.56 of central radius. Extrusion in herniated disc shows characteristic cleft encompassing central zone to disc margin whereas sequestration or protrusion displays tract extending from peripheral zone to disc margin. Thus, three dimensional surface imaging may aid the diagnosis, follow-up, prediction, and treatment of herniated disc.

  15. Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... physical domains with unsteady processes can be accommodated. Optical methods promise to breach the holy grail of measurements by extracting unsteady three-dimensional data in applications related to transport phenomena. Keywords. Optical measurement; fluid flow and transport; refractive index ...

  16. Three-dimensional dental imaging by spiral CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Michael W.; Hildebolt, Charles F.; Conover, Gary; Knapp, Robert H.; Yokoyama-Crothers, Naoko; Wang, Ge

    1995-05-01

    Three-dimensional image acquisition, display, and analysis of dental structures was performed and validated using spiral computed tomography (SCT) with metal artifact suppression. Isolated extracted teeth, a dry mandible, cadaver mandible, and cadaver head were scanned and reconstructed using a spiral CT scanner (Siemens Somatom PLUS-S) with 1 mm detector collimation, 1-mm table feed, and 0.1 - 1 mm reconstruction interval using specially developed software. Algorithms for metal artifact reduction including extended attenuation range and interpolation of missing projections were applied. Volumetric rendering of voxel sum images was performed to synthesize images comparable to conventional intraoral dental radiographs. Direct comparison of voxel-based synthetic and digitized film images was made. Several isolated, extracted teeth were sectioned with a diamond saw and submitted for histomorphometric analysis to aid in direct comparison with CT slice images obtained by multiplanar reconstruction. Metal artifact reduction was successful in markedly reducing the streaks and star patterns that usually accompany metallic restorations and intraoral appliances. Individual teeth were comparable to CT slice images. Voxel sum images were comparable to dental radiographs; however, for the SCT images, the spatial resolution was higher within the plane of section than it was orthogonal to the plane of section. Serial examinations were obtained by SCT, registered by surface matching, and interval change measured by 3D subtraction. Simulated lesions and restorations were introduced and quantitatively evaluated pre- and post-interventionally to assess imaging method performance.

  17. Simulation and experimental studies of three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction from insufficient sampling data based on compressed-sensing theory for potential applications to dental cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Je, U.K.; Lee, M.S.; Cho, H.S.; Hong, D.K.; Park, Y.O.; Park, C.K.; Cho, H.M.; Choi, S.I.; Woo, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    In practical applications of three-dimensional (3D) tomographic imaging, there are often challenges for image reconstruction from insufficient sampling data. In computed tomography (CT), for example, image reconstruction from sparse views and/or limited-angle (<360°) views would enable fast scanning with reduced imaging doses to the patient. In this study, we investigated and implemented a reconstruction algorithm based on the compressed-sensing (CS) theory, which exploits the sparseness of the gradient image with substantially high accuracy, for potential applications to low-dose, high-accurate dental cone-beam CT (CBCT). We performed systematic simulation works to investigate the image characteristics and also performed experimental works by applying the algorithm to a commercially-available dental CBCT system to demonstrate its effectiveness for image reconstruction in insufficient sampling problems. We successfully reconstructed CBCT images of superior accuracy from insufficient sampling data and evaluated the reconstruction quality quantitatively. Both simulation and experimental demonstrations of the CS-based reconstruction from insufficient data indicate that the CS-based algorithm can be applied directly to current dental CBCT systems for reducing the imaging doses and further improving the image quality

  18. Three-dimensional reconstruction and surface extraction of lower limbs as visualization methodologies of ecchymosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Thomaz, Ricardo; Patrocinio, Ana Claudia; Barbosa Soares, Alcimar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a computational system for three-dimensional reconstruction and surface extraction of the human lower limb as a new methodology of visualizing images of multifaceted ecchymosis on the lower limbs. Through standardization of image acquisition by a mechanical system, an algorithm was developed for three-dimensional and surface reconstruction based on the extraction of depth from silhouettes. In order to validate this work, a three-dimensional model of the human lower limb was used inside a virtual environment. At this environment the mechanical procedure of image acquisition was simulated, resulting in 100 images which was later submitted to all algorithms developed. It was observed that the systems for three-dimensional reconstruction and surface extraction of the object were able to generate a new visualization method of the lesion. The results allow us to conclude that the developed systems provided adequate three-dimensional and two-dimensional visualization of the surface of the simulated model. Despite the lack of experiments with real ecchymoses, the systems developed in this work show great potential to be included in the standard methods for the visualization of ecchymoses.

  19. Three-dimensional nanoscale imaging by plasmonic Brownian microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labno, Anna; Gladden, Christopher; Kim, Jeongmin; Lu, Dylan; Yin, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Zhaowei; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging at the nanoscale is a key to understanding of nanomaterials and complex systems. While scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has been the workhorse of nanoscale metrology, its slow scanning speed by a single probe tip can limit the application of SPM to wide-field imaging of 3D complex nanostructures. Both electron microscopy and optical tomography allow 3D imaging, but are limited to the use in vacuum environment due to electron scattering and to optical resolution in micron scales, respectively. Here we demonstrate plasmonic Brownian microscopy (PBM) as a way to improve the imaging speed of SPM. Unlike photonic force microscopy where a single trapped particle is used for a serial scanning, PBM utilizes a massive number of plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) under Brownian diffusion in solution to scan in parallel around the unlabeled sample object. The motion of NPs under an evanescent field is three-dimensionally localized to reconstruct the super-resolution topology of 3D dielectric objects. Our method allows high throughput imaging of complex 3D structures over a large field of view, even with internal structures such as cavities that cannot be accessed by conventional mechanical tips in SPM.

  20. Three-dimensional tomosynthetic image restoration for brachytherapy source localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persons, Timothy M.

    2001-01-01

    Tomosynthetic image reconstruction allows for the production of a virtually infinite number of slices from a finite number of projection views of a subject. If the reconstructed image volume is viewed in toto, and the three-dimensional (3D) impulse response is accurately known, then it is possible to solve the inverse problem (deconvolution) using canonical image restoration methods (such as Wiener filtering or solution by conjugate gradient least squares iteration) by extension to three dimensions in either the spatial or the frequency domains. This dissertation presents modified direct and iterative restoration methods for solving the inverse tomosynthetic imaging problem in 3D. The significant blur artifact that is common to tomosynthetic reconstructions is deconvolved by solving for the entire 3D image at once. The 3D impulse response is computed analytically using a fiducial reference schema as realized in a robust, self-calibrating solution to generalized tomosynthesis. 3D modulation transfer function analysis is used to characterize the tomosynthetic resolution of the 3D reconstructions. The relevant clinical application of these methods is 3D imaging for brachytherapy source localization. Conventional localization schemes for brachytherapy implants using orthogonal or stereoscopic projection radiographs suffer from scaling distortions and poor visibility of implanted seeds, resulting in compromised source tracking (reported errors: 2-4 mm) and dosimetric inaccuracy. 3D image reconstruction (using a well-chosen projection sampling scheme) and restoration of a prostate brachytherapy phantom is used for testing. The approaches presented in this work localize source centroids with submillimeter error in two Cartesian dimensions and just over one millimeter error in the third

  1. Three-dimensional microwave imaging for breast-cancer detection using the log-phase formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Meincke, Peter; Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2007-01-01

    The log-phase formulation is applied for the reconstruction of images from a simulation of a three-dimensional imaging system. By using this formulation, a clear improvement in the quality of the reconstructed images is achieved compared to the case in which the usual complex phasor notation is e...

  2. Three-dimensional reconstructed magnetic resonance scans: Accuracy in identifying and defining knee meniscal tears

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Neil; McNally, Eugene; Al-Ali, Sami; Rout, Raj; Rees, Jonathan L; Price, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine whether three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction from conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to accurately detect a meniscal tear, and define the configuration. METHODS Thirty-three patients? 3T MRI scan data were collected and sagittal uni-planar 3D reconstructions performed from the preoperative MRI. There were 24 meniscal tears in 24 patients, and nine controls. All patients had arthroscopic corroboration of MRI findings. Two independent observers prospectively...

  3. A vein display system based on three-dimensional reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danting; Zhou, Ya; Hu, Xiaoming; Wu, Zhaoguo; Dai, Xiaobin

    2014-10-01

    Venipuncture is the most common way of all invasive medical procedures. A vein display system can make vein access easier by capturing the vein information and projecting a visible vein image onto the skin, which is correctly aligned with the subject's vein. The existing systems achieve correct alignment by the design of coaxial structure. Such a structure causes complex optical and mechanical design and big physical dimensions inevitably. In this paper, we design a stereovision- based vein display system, which consists of a pair of cameras, a DLP projector and a near-infrared light source. We recover the three-dimensional venous structure from image pair acquired from two near-infrared cameras. Then the vein image from the viewpoint of projector is generated from the three-dimensional venous structure and projected exactly onto skin by the DLP projector. Since the stereo cameras get the depth information of vessels, the system can make sure the alignment of projected veins and the real veins without a coaxial structure. The experiment results prove that we propose a feasible solution for a portable and low-cost vein display device.

  4. Three-Dimensional Anatomic Evaluation of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament for Planning Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Hoshino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomic study related to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction surgery has been developed in accordance with the progress of imaging technology. Advances in imaging techniques, especially the move from two-dimensional (2D to three-dimensional (3D image analysis, substantially contribute to anatomic understanding and its application to advanced ACL reconstruction surgery. This paper introduces previous research about image analysis of the ACL anatomy and its application to ACL reconstruction surgery. Crucial bony landmarks for the accurate placement of the ACL graft can be identified by 3D imaging technique. Additionally, 3D-CT analysis of the ACL insertion site anatomy provides better and more consistent evaluation than conventional “clock-face” reference and roentgenologic quadrant method. Since the human anatomy has a complex three-dimensional structure, further anatomic research using three-dimensional imaging analysis and its clinical application by navigation system or other technologies is warranted for the improvement of the ACL reconstruction.

  5. Three-dimensional reconstructed computed tomography-magnetic resonance fusion image-based preoperative planning for surgical procedures for spinal lipoma or tethered spinal cord after myelomeningocele repair. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Yohei; Nonaka, Masahiro; Nakajima, Shin; Yamasaki, Mami

    2011-01-01

    Surgical procedures for spinal lipoma or tethered spinal cord after myelomeningocele (MMC) repair are often difficult and complicated, because the anatomical structures can be deformed in complex and unpredictable ways. Imaging helps the surgeon understand the patient's spinal anatomy. Whereas two-dimensional images provide only limited information for surgical planning, three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed computed tomography (CT)-magnetic resonance (MR) fusion images produce clearer representations of the spinal regions. Here we describe simple and quick methods for obtaining 3D reconstructed CT-MR fusion images for preoperative planning of surgical procedures using the iPlan cranial (BrainLAB AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) neuronavigation software. 3D CT images of the vertebral bone were combined with heavily T 2 -weighted MR images of the spinal cord, lipoma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space, and nerve root through a process of fusion, segmentation, and reconstruction of the 3D images. We also used our procedure called 'Image Overlay' to directly project the 3D reconstructed image onto the body surface using an light emitting diode (LED) projector. The final reconstructed 3D images took 10-30 minutes to obtain, and provided the surgeon with a representation of the individual pathological structures, so enabled the design of effective surgical plans, even in patients with bony deformity such as scoliosis. None of the 19 patients treated based on our 3D reconstruction method has had neurological complications, except for CSF leakage. This 3D reconstructed imaging method, combined with Image Overlay, improves the visual understanding of complicated surgical situations, and should improve surgical efficiency and outcome. (author)

  6. New possibilities of three-dimensional reconstruction of computed tomography scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.; Tarjan, Z.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) scan reconstructions provide impressive and illustrative images of various parts of the human body. Such images are reconstructed from a series of basic CT scans by dedicated software. The state of the art in 3D computed tomography is demonstrated with emphasis on the imaging of soft tissues. Examples are presented of imaging the craniofacial and maxillofacial complex, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal and urogenital systems, and respiratory system, and their potential in clinical practice is discussed. Although contributing no new essential diagnostic information against conventional CT scans, 3D scans can help in spatial orientation. 11 figs., 25 refs

  7. Measurements using three-dimensional product imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sioma

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a method of creating a three-dimensional cast model using vision systems and how that model can be used in thequality assessment process carried out directly on the assembly line. The technology of active vision, consisting in illumination of theobject with a laser beam, was used to create the model. Appropriate configuration of camera position geometry and laser light allows thecollection of height profiles and construction of a 3D model of the product on their basis. The article discusses problems connected with the resolution of the vision system, resolution of the laser beam analysis, and resolution connected with the application of the successive height profiles on sample cast planes. On the basis of the model, measurements allowing assessment of dimension parameters and surface defects of a given cast are presented. On the basis of tests and analyses of such a threedimensional cast model, a range of checks which are possible to conduct using 3D vision systems is indicated.Testing casts using that technology allows rapid assessment of selected parameters. Construction of the product’s model and dimensional assessment take a few seconds, which significantly reduces the duration of checks in the technological process. Depending on the product, a few checks may be carried out simultaneously on the product’s model.The possibility of controlling all outgoing products, and creating and modifying the product parameter control program, makes the solutionhighly flexible, which is confirmed by pilot industrial implementations. The technology will be developed in terms of detection andidentification of surface defects. It is important due to the possibility of using such information for the purposes of selecting technologicalprocess parameters and observing the effect of changes in selected parameters on the cast parameter controlled in a vision system.

  8. A memory efficient method for fully three-dimensional object reconstruction with HAADF STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, W.; Rosenauer, A.; Van Aert, S.; Sijbers, J.; Van Dyck, D.

    2014-01-01

    The conventional approach to object reconstruction through electron tomography is to reduce the three-dimensional problem to a series of independent two-dimensional slice-by-slice reconstructions. However, at atomic resolution the image of a single atom extends over many such slices and incorporating this image as prior knowledge in tomography or depth sectioning therefore requires a fully three-dimensional treatment. Unfortunately, the size of the three-dimensional projection operator scales highly unfavorably with object size and readily exceeds the available computer memory. In this paper, it is shown that for incoherent image formation the memory requirement can be reduced to the fundamental lower limit of the object size, both for tomography and depth sectioning. Furthermore, it is shown through multislice calculations that high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy can be sufficiently incoherent for the reconstruction of single element nanocrystals, but that dynamical diffraction effects can cause classification problems if more than one element is present. - Highlights: • The full 3D approach to atomic resolution object retrieval has high memory load. • For incoherent imaging the projection process is a matrix–vector product. • Carrying out this product implicitly as Fourier transforms reduces memory load. • Reconstructions are demonstrated from HAADF STEM and depth sectioning simulations

  9. Three-dimensional imaging of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeanne McGurk

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The major hindrance to imaging the intact adult Drosophila is that the dark exoskeleton makes it impossible to image through the cuticle. We have overcome this obstacle and describe a method whereby the internal organs of adult Drosophila can be imaged in 3D by bleaching and clearing the adult and then imaging using a technique called optical projection tomography (OPT. The data is displayed as 2D optical sections and also in 3D to provide detail on the shape and structure of the adult anatomy.We have used OPT to visualize in 2D and 3D the detailed internal anatomy of the intact adult Drosophila. In addition this clearing method used for OPT was tested for imaging with confocal microscopy. Using OPT we have visualized the size and shape of neurodegenerative vacuoles from within the head capsule of flies that suffer from age-related neurodegeneration due to a lack of ADAR mediated RNA-editing. In addition we have visualized tau-lacZ expression in 2D and 3D. This shows that the wholemount adult can be stained without any manipulation and that this stain penetrates well as we have mapped the localization pattern with respect to the internal anatomy.We show for the first time that the intact adult Drosophila can be imaged in 3D using OPT, also we show that this method of clearing is also suitable for confocal microscopy to image the brain from within the intact head. The major advantage of this is that organs can be represented in 3D in their natural surroundings. Furthermore optical sections are generated in each of the three planes and are not prone to the technical limitations that are associated with manual sectioning. OPT can be used to dissect mutant phenotypes and to globally map gene expression in both 2D and 3D.

  10. Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... inally for flow visualization, optical imaging has now emerged as a powerful tool for quantitative measurements. ... but have now evolved to become powerful tools of quantitative measurement [1–5]. As a result, optical .... multiple properties and phase shifting interferometry [13] for controlling resolution.

  11. Three-dimensional tracking of objects in holographic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaneshPanah, Mehdi; Javidi, Bahram

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we overview on a three dimensional imaging and tracking algorithm in order to track biological specimen in sequence of holographic microscopy images. We use a region tracking method based on MAP estimator in a Bayesian framework and we adapt it to 3D holographic data sequences to efficiently track the desired microorganism. In our formulation, the target-background interface is modeled as the isolevel of a level set function which is evolved at each frame via level set update rule. The statistical characteristics of the target microorganism versus the background are exploited to evolve the interface from one frame to another. Using the bivariate Gaussian distribution to model the reconstructed hologram data enables one to take into account the correlation between the amplitude and phase of the reconstructed field to obtain a more accurate solution. Also, the level set surface evolution provides a robust, efficient and numerically stable method which deals automatically with the change in the topology and geometrical deformations that a microorganism may be subject to.

  12. Three-dimensional synthetic aperture particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd T.; Axiak, Michael C.; Techet, Alexandra H.

    2010-12-01

    We present a new method for resolving three-dimensional (3D) fluid velocity fields using a technique called synthetic aperture particle image velocimetry (SAPIV). By fusing methods from the imaging community pertaining to light field imaging with concepts that drive experimental fluid mechanics, SAPIV overcomes many of the inherent challenges of 3D particle image velocimetry (3D PIV). This method offers the ability to digitally refocus a 3D flow field at arbitrary focal planes throughout a volume. The viewable out-of-plane dimension (Z) can be on the same order as the viewable in-plane dimensions (X-Y), and these dimensions can be scaled from tens to hundreds of millimeters. Furthermore, the digital refocusing provides the ability to 'see-through' partial occlusions, enabling measurements in densely seeded volumes. The advantages are achieved using a camera array (typically at least five cameras) to image the seeded fluid volume. The theoretical limits on refocused plane spacing and viewable depth are derived and explored as a function of camera optics and spacing of the array. A geometric optics model and simulated PIV images are used to investigate system performance for various camera layouts, measurement volume sizes and seeding density; performance is quantified by the ability to reconstruct the 3D intensity field, and resolve 3D vector fields in densely seeded simulated flows. SAPIV shows the ability to reconstruct fields with high seeding density and large volume size. Finally, results from an experimental implementation of SAPIV using a low cost eight-camera array to study a vortex ring in a 65 × 40 × 32 mm3 volume are presented. The 3D PIV results are compared with 2D PIV data to demonstrate the capability of the 3D SAPIV technique.

  13. Three-dimensional imaging of magnetic nanoparticles using multiple pickup coils and field-free line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muta, Masahiro; Hamanaga, Shohei; Tanaka, Naoki; Sasayama, Teruyoshi; Yoshida, Takashi; Enpuku, Keiji

    2018-02-01

    We performed three-dimensional detection of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) samples using third-harmonic signal detection. In this method, a combination of five pickup coils and a gradient field with a field-free line was used to acquire three-dimensional MNP sample position information. The resulting two-dimensional maps of the signal fields generated by the MNP samples are sufficient for three-dimensional MNP image reconstruction. In the experiments, two MNP samples with different Fe contents were set at different positions. Two-dimensional field maps were measured using the five pickup coils, and the three-dimensional MNP sample distribution was then reconstructed from these field maps by solving an inversion problem. We demonstrated three-dimensional detection of two MNP samples where we reconstructed the three-dimensional positions and the Fe contents of these two MNP samples with reasonable accuracy. These results indicate the feasibility of the proposed system for three-dimensional magnetic particle imaging.

  14. Three-Dimensional Image Fusion of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography for Computer-Assisted Planning of Maxillectomy of Recurrent Maxillary Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Defect Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao; Zhang, Wen-Bo; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Guo, Chuan-Bin; Yu, Guang-Yan; Peng, Xin

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe new technology assisted by 3-dimensional (3D) image fusion of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) for computer planning of a maxillectomy of recurrent maxillary squamous cell carcinoma and defect reconstruction. Treatment of recurrent maxillary squamous cell carcinoma usually includes tumor resection and free flap reconstruction. FDG-PET/CT provided images of regions of abnormal glucose uptake and thus showed metabolic tumor volume to guide tumor resection. CECT data were used to create 3D reconstructed images of vessels to show the vascular diameters and locations, so that the most suitable vein and artery could be selected during anastomosis of the free flap. The data from preoperative maxillofacial CECT scans and FDG-PET/CT imaging were imported into the navigation system (iPlan 3.0; Brainlab, Feldkirchen, Germany). Three-dimensional image fusion between FDG-PET/CT and CECT was accomplished using Brainlab software according to the position of the 2 skulls simulated in the CECT image and PET/CT image, respectively. After verification of the image fusion accuracy, the 3D reconstruction images of the metabolic tumor, vessels, and other critical structures could be visualized within the same coordinate system. These sagittal, coronal, axial, and 3D reconstruction images were used to determine the virtual osteotomy sites and reconstruction plan, which was provided to the surgeon and used for surgical navigation. The average shift of the 3D image fusion between FDG-PET/CT and CECT was less than 1 mm. This technique, by clearly showing the metabolic tumor volume and the most suitable vessels for anastomosis, facilitated resection and reconstruction of recurrent maxillary squamous cell carcinoma. We used 3D image fusion of FDG-PET/CT and CECT to successfully accomplish resection and reconstruction of recurrent maxillary squamous cell carcinoma

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional CT reconstruction and cephalometry for lateral skull base tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, X Z; Huo, X K

    2015-10-01

    To explore the diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional CT reconstruction and cephalometry in lateral skull base tumors. Fifty-eight patients with lateral skull base tumors were randomly divided into control group (n = 29, examined with conventional diagnostic technique) or study group (n = 29, examined with three-dimensional CT reconstruction and cephalometry). The diagnostic accuracy, tumor distribution and image characteristics were compared between both patient groups. In control group, preoperative tumor diagnosis was consistent with intraoperative diagnosis in 20 patients, similar in 7 patients and discrepant in 2 patients. In study group, there were 24 consistent, 4 similar, and 1 discrepant diagnoses (p cephalometry provides accurate diagnosis of lateral skull base tumors, which is helpful for subsequent surgical treatment.

  16. Three-dimensional display of magnetic source imaging (MSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, Takato; Yamamoto, Tomoya; Nishio, Shunji; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Fukui, Masashi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Nitta, Koichi

    1995-03-01

    Magnetic source imaging (MSI) is a relatively new, noninvasive technique for defining the relationship between brain structure and function of individual patients, and to establish comparisons from one patient to another. This is achieved by combining detailed neurophysiological data derived via magnetoencephalography (MEG) with neuroimaging data such as computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The noninvasive presurgical mapping of cortical functional somatosensory activity and the direct mapping of epilepsy-associated activity are among the neurosurgical uses that are emerging for MSI. Although the procedure provides clinically useful data, there are still limitations to two-dimensional MSI. We employ three-dimensional (3-D) MSI, superimposing MSI localizations on 3-D volumetric reconstruction of MRI. 3-D MSI enhances the visualization of the entire sensory homunculus and clearly demonstrates the spatial relationship with structural lesions. The functional localization of the epileptic focus in spatial relation to the lesion provides important clues for preoperative planning and on the epileptogenicity of the lesion. 3-D MSI improves localization of the sensory cortex and generator areas of epileptic activity. (author).

  17. Three-dimensional display of magnetic source imaging (MSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Takato; Yamamoto, Tomoya; Nishio, Shunji; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Fukui, Masashi; Nitta, Koichi.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic source imaging (MSI) is a relatively new, noninvasive technique for defining the relationship between brain structure and function of individual patients, and to establish comparisons from one patient to another. This is achieved by combining detailed neurophysiological data derived via magnetoencephalography (MEG) with neuroimaging data such as computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The noninvasive presurgical mapping of cortical functional somatosensory activity and the direct mapping of epilepsy-associated activity are among the neurosurgical uses that are emerging for MSI. Although the procedure provides clinically useful data, there are still limitations to two-dimensional MSI. We employ three-dimensional (3-D) MSI, superimposing MSI localizations on 3-D volumetric reconstruction of MRI. 3-D MSI enhances the visualization of the entire sensory homunculus and clearly demonstrates the spatial relationship with structural lesions. The functional localization of the epileptic focus in spatial relation to the lesion provides important clues for preoperative planning and on the epileptogenicity of the lesion. 3-D MSI improves localization of the sensory cortex and generator areas of epileptic activity. (author)

  18. Three-dimensional imaging of rheumatoid hands with MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.J.; Fischer, H.; Hollister, A.; Myers, L.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of soft-tissue proliferation associated with rheumatoid disease provided an objective measure of the activity and pattern of joint pathology. This paper propose a three-dimensional model for this purpose. With use of a 1.5-T Picker MR imager and a stellar GS 2000 computer graphics workstation, hands from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and age-matched controls were imaged to measure the quantity and location of inflammatory tissues. Three-dimensional Fourier transform gradient-echo sequences were used, with 0.8-1.6-mm section thickness. The definition of soft-tissue abnormalities and normal structures was facilitated by image smoothing and edge-detection computer algorithms. Separation of joint components permitted volume measurements and three-dimensional graphic displays

  19. Positron Emission Tomography with Three-Dimensional Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandsson, K.

    1996-10-01

    The development of two different low-cost scanners for positron emission tomography (PET) based on 3D acquisition are presented. The first scanner consists of two rotating scintillation cameras, and produces quantitative images, which have shown to be clinically useful. The second one is a system with two opposed sets of detectors, based on the limited angle tomography principle, dedicated for mammographic studies. The development of low-cost PET scanners can increase the clinical impact of PET, which is an expensive modality, only available at a few centres world-wide and mainly used as a research tool. A 3D reconstruction method was developed that utilizes all the available data. The size of the data-sets is considerably reduced, using the single-slice rebinning approximation. The 3D reconstruction is divided into 1D axial deconvolution and 2D transaxial reconstruction, which makes it relatively fast. This method was developed for the rotating scanner, but was also implemented for multi-ring scanners with and without inter plane septa. An iterative 3D reconstruction method was developed for the limited angle scanner, based on the new concept of `mobile pixels`, which reduces the finite pixel errors and leads to an improved signal to noise ratio. 100 refs.

  20. Speckle reduction of reconstructions of digital holograms using three dimensional filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maycock, Jonathan; McDonald, John B.; Hennelly, Bryan M.

    2013-07-01

    We report on a new digital signal processing technique that reduces speckle in reconstructions of digital holograms. This is achieved by convolving the three dimensional intensity pattern (the intensity of the propagated DH at a series of different distances) with a 3D point spread function in all three dimensions (x,y,z). It is based on the fact that the addition of different independent speckle images on an intensity basis reduces the speckle content. We provide quantitative results in terms of speckle index and resolution, and show that filtering in the z direction has the added benefit of an increase in the depth of focus of the digital hologram reconstruction.

  1. Three-dimensional MR imaging of the cerebrospinal system with the RARE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Ott, D.; Ylayasski, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional RARE myelography is a fast technique for high-resolution imaging of the cerebrospinal fluid. A data set with 1 x 1 x 1-mm resolution can be generated with a 12-minute acquisition time. Sophisticated three-dimensional display algorithms allow reconstruction of planes at arbitrary angles and full three-dimensional displays, which yield extremely useful information for neurosurgical planning. Additionally, the injection of contrast agent can be simulated on the computer and communication pathways between structures of interest can be found noninvasively

  2. Three-dimensional Image Processing of Identifying Toner Particle Centroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Di

    Powder-based 3D printed products are composed of fine particles. The structure formed by the particles in the powder is expected to affect the performance of the final products constructed from them (Finney, 1970; Dinsmore, 2001; Chang, 2015; Patil, 2015). A prior study done by Patil (2015) demonstrated a method for determining the centroids and radii of spherical particles and consequently reconstructed the structure formed by the particles. Patil's method used a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope to capture a stack of cross-sections of fluorescent toner particles and Matlab image analysis tools to determine the particle centroid positions and radii. Patil identified each particle centroid's XY coordinates and particle radius layer by layer, called "frame-by-frame" method; where the Z-position of the particle centroid was estimated by comparing the radius change at different layers. This thesis extends Patil's work by automatically locating particle centroids in 3D space. The researcher built an algorithm, named "3D particle sighting method," for processing the same stacks of two-dimensional images that Patil used. The algorithm at first, created a three-dimensional image matrix and then processed it by convolving with a 3D kernel to locate local maxima, which pinpointed the centroid locations of the particles. This method treated the stack of images as a 3D image matrix and the convolution operation automatically located the particle centroids. By treating Patil's results as the ground truth, the results revealed that the average delta distance between the particle centroids identified through Patil's method and the automated method was 1.02 microm +/- 0.93 microm. Since the diameter of the particles is around 10 microm, this error is small compared to the size of the particles, and the results of the 3D particle sighting method are acceptable. In addition, this automated method need 1/5 of the processing time compared to Patil's frame-by-frame method.

  3. Evaluation of engraftment of superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled mesenchymal stem cells using three-dimensional reconstruction of magnetic resonance imaging in photo thrombotic cerebral infarction models of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Jae Hyun; Kwak, Byung Kook; Jung, Ji Sung; Park, Se Rah [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate engraftment by visualizing the location of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) three-dimensionally in photothrombotic cerebral infarction (PTCI) models of rats. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of an agarose block containing superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled hBM-MSCs was performed using a 3.0-T MRI, T2-(T2WI), T2{sup *}-(T2{sup *}WI), and susceptibility-weighted images (SWI). PTCI was induced in 6 rats, and 2.5 x 10(5) SPIO-labeled hBM-MSCs were infused through the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA group) or tail vein (IV group). MRI was performed on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after stem cell injection. Dark signal regions were confirmed using histology. Three-dimensional MRI reconstruction was performed using the clinical workflow solution to evaluate the engraftment of hBM-MSCs. Volumetric analysis of the engraftment was also performed. The volumes of SPIO-labeled hBM-MSCs in the phantom MRI were 129.3, 68.4, and 25.9 microL using SWI, T2{sup *}WI, and T2WI, respectively. SPIO-labeled hBM-MSCs appeared on day 1 after injection, encircling the cerebral infarction from the ventral side. Dark signal regions matched iron positive cells and human origin (positive) cells. The volume of the engraftment was larger in the ICA group on days 1, 3, and 7, after stem cell injection (p < 0.05 on SWI). SWI was the most sensitive MRI pulse sequence (p < 0.05). The volume of infarction decreased until day 14. The engraftment of SPIO-labeled hBM-MSCs can be visualized and evaluated three-dimensionally in PTCI models of rats. The engraftment volume was larger in the ICA group than IV group on early stage within one week.

  4. Application of three-dimensional computerised tomography reconstruction and image processing technology in individual operation design of developmental dysplasia of the hip patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuyi, Wang; Jianping, Peng; Junfeng, Zhu; Chao, Shen; Yimin, Cui; Xiaodong, Chen

    2016-02-01

    Acetabular coverage deficiency displays individual difference among patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Therefore, the correct direction and degree of the acetabular fragment is patient-specific during Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). This paper introduces a feasible method using 3D computed tomography (CT) and computer image processing technology for customised surgical planning. CT data of 96 hips in 60 DDH patients (male 15, female 45; average age/range 30 ± 8/14-49 years) and 53 normal hips (male 13, female 37; average age/range 52 ± 13/16-69 years) were reconstructed using commercially available software Mimics and Imageware. Geometric parameters of each hip were measured in relation to the anterior pelvic plane after correcting for pelvic tilt and rotation. Deficiency types and degrees of acetabular dysplasia in patients with DDH were determined by comparison with normal hips, and improvement in femoral-head coverage was analysed again after virtual PAO. A customised surgery programme for each DDH patient was designed and provided the reference for the actual operation. We produced a 3D pelvic model using image processing software, doing precise measurement and with close approximation to the actual PAO. Lateral centre-edge angle (LCEA), anterior centre-edge angle (ACEA), acetabular anteversion angle (AAVA), anterior acetabular sector angle (AASA) and posterior acetabular sector angle (PASA) of normal hips in the control group were 35.128 ± 6.337, 57.052 ± 6.853, 19.215 ± 5.504, 61.537 ± 7.291 and 99.434 ± 8.372°, respectively. Angles of hips with DDH before surgery were 11.46 ± 11.19, 35.79 ± 13.75, 22.77 ± 6.13, 43.58 ± 9.15 and 88.46 ± 8.24, which were corrected to 33.81 ± 2.36, 55.38 ± 2.09, 20.16 ± 2.18, 58.29 ± 7.60, and 4.71 ± 7.75°, respectively, after surgery. After virtual Bernese PAO, LCEA, ACEA, AAVA, AASA and PASA were corrected

  5. Three dimensional refractive index imaging with differential interference contrast microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Htet; Buckley, Jared; Kostyk, Piotr; Rodriguez, Braulio; Phelan, Shelley; Xu, M.

    2012-03-01

    We report here a new approach based on an extension of the transport of the intensity equation for three dimensional refractive index imaging of a weak phase object from a series of images recorded by a differential interference contrast microscope at different focus (z-stack). Our method is first validated by imaging polystyrene spheres. We then apply this method to monitor in vivo apoptosis of human breast MCF7 epithelial cells. The potential applications are discussed at the end.

  6. Color-coded volume rendering for three-dimensional reconstructions of CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieker, O.; Mildenberger, P.; Thelen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a technique of colored three-dimensional reconstructions without segmentation. Material and methods: Color-coded volume rendered images were reconstructed from the volume data of 25 thoracic, abdominal, musculoskeletal, and vascular helical CT scans using commercial software. The CT volume rendered voxels were encoded with color in the following manner. Opacity, hue, lightness, and chroma were assigned to each of four classes defined by CT number. Color-coded reconstructions were compared to the corresponding grey-scale coded reconstructions. Results: Color-coded volume rendering enabled realistic visualization of pathologic findings when there was sufficient difference in CT density. Segmentation was necessary in some cases to demonstrate small details in a complex volume. Conclusion: Color-coded volume rendering allowed lifelike visualisation of CT volumes without the need of segmentation in most cases. (orig.) [de

  7. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Seeley, C.H.; Henderson, J.A.; Schmidl, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental flow visualization tool, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), is being used to determine the velocity field in two-dimensional fluid flows. In the past few years, the technique has been improved to allow the capture of flow fields in three dimensions. This paper describes changes which were made to two existing two-dimensional tracking algorithms to enable them to track three-dimensional PIV data. Results of the tests performed on these three-dimensional routines with synthetic data are presented. Experimental data was also used to test the tracking algorithms. The test setup which was used to acquire the three-dimensional experimental data is described, along with the results from both of the tracking routines which were used to analyze the experimental data. (author)

  8. Reconstruction of three-dimensional porous media using generative adversarial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, Lukas; Dubrule, Olivier; Blunt, Martin J.

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the variability of multiphase flow properties of porous media at the pore scale, it is necessary to acquire a number of representative samples of the void-solid structure. While modern x-ray computer tomography has made it possible to extract three-dimensional images of the pore space, assessment of the variability in the inherent material properties is often experimentally not feasible. We present a method to reconstruct the solid-void structure of porous media by applying a generative neural network that allows an implicit description of the probability distribution represented by three-dimensional image data sets. We show, by using an adversarial learning approach for neural networks, that this method of unsupervised learning is able to generate representative samples of porous media that honor their statistics. We successfully compare measures of pore morphology, such as the Euler characteristic, two-point statistics, and directional single-phase permeability of synthetic realizations with the calculated properties of a bead pack, Berea sandstone, and Ketton limestone. Results show that generative adversarial networks can be used to reconstruct high-resolution three-dimensional images of porous media at different scales that are representative of the morphology of the images used to train the neural network. The fully convolutional nature of the trained neural network allows the generation of large samples while maintaining computational efficiency. Compared to classical stochastic methods of image reconstruction, the implicit representation of the learned data distribution can be stored and reused to generate multiple realizations of the pore structure very rapidly.

  9. Reconstruction of three-dimensional porous media using generative adversarial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, Lukas; Dubrule, Olivier; Blunt, Martin J

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the variability of multiphase flow properties of porous media at the pore scale, it is necessary to acquire a number of representative samples of the void-solid structure. While modern x-ray computer tomography has made it possible to extract three-dimensional images of the pore space, assessment of the variability in the inherent material properties is often experimentally not feasible. We present a method to reconstruct the solid-void structure of porous media by applying a generative neural network that allows an implicit description of the probability distribution represented by three-dimensional image data sets. We show, by using an adversarial learning approach for neural networks, that this method of unsupervised learning is able to generate representative samples of porous media that honor their statistics. We successfully compare measures of pore morphology, such as the Euler characteristic, two-point statistics, and directional single-phase permeability of synthetic realizations with the calculated properties of a bead pack, Berea sandstone, and Ketton limestone. Results show that generative adversarial networks can be used to reconstruct high-resolution three-dimensional images of porous media at different scales that are representative of the morphology of the images used to train the neural network. The fully convolutional nature of the trained neural network allows the generation of large samples while maintaining computational efficiency. Compared to classical stochastic methods of image reconstruction, the implicit representation of the learned data distribution can be stored and reused to generate multiple realizations of the pore structure very rapidly.

  10. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the otosclerotic focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sune Land; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2010-01-01

    The location and three-dimensional (3D) shapes of the otosclerotic foci suggest a general centripetal distribution of otosclerotic bone remodeling around the inner ear space, whereas the normal bone remodeling is distributed centrifugally. The existence of an inverse spatial relation between norm...... and otosclerotic bone remodeling suggests that inner ear mechanisms in control of bone remodeling may have a pathogenetic role in otosclerosis....

  11. Colour-coded three-dimensional reconstruction from spiral CT data sets: Improvement from the physical point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, A.P.; Lenz, M.; Kirsten, R.; Gerhardt, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the possibility of improving the spatial depth impression of colour-coded three-dimensional reconstructions by modulation of colour saturation. Patients were observed with spiral computed tomography (slice thickness 10 mm, table feed 10 mm/s, reconstruction of overlapping axial images at 2 mm increment). Interesting anatomical and pathological objects (vessels, organs, tumours, metastases) were segmented, colour-coded, and reconstructed three-dimensionally. Spatial depth impression of the coloured objects could be improved by modulating not only the brightness, but also the colour saturation. (orig.) [de

  12. Structured-illumination reflectance imaging coupled with spiral phase transform for bruise detection and three-dimensional geometry reconstruction of apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) is a new, promising imaging technique with enhanced, versatile capabilities for quality evaluation of food products. SIRI enables simultaneous acquisition of higher-contrast/resolution and better depth-controlled intensity and phase images for detec...

  13. Three-dimensional imaging techniques: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Orhan Hakki; Toy, Ebubekir

    2014-01-01

    Imaging is one of the most important tools for orthodontists to evaluate and record size and form of craniofacial structures. Orthodontists routinely use 2-dimensional (2D) static imaging techniques, but deepness of structures cannot be obtained and localized with 2D imaging. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging has been developed in the early of 1990's and has gained a precious place in dentistry, especially in orthodontics. The aims of this literature review are to summarize the current state of the 3D imaging techniques and to evaluate the applications in orthodontics. PMID:24966761

  14. Fully three-dimensional reconstruction from data collected on concentric cubes in Fourier space: implementation and a sample application to MRI [magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, G.T.; Roberts, D.; Axel, L.

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for rapid and accurate reconstruction from data collected in Fourier space at points arranged on a grid of concentric cubes. The whole process has computational complexity of the same order as required for the 3D fast Fourier transform and so (for medically relevant sizes of the data set) it is faster than backprojection into the same size rectangular grid. The design of the algorithm ensures that no interpolations are needed, in contrast to methods involving backprojection with their unavoidable interpolations. As an application, a 3D data collection method for MRI has been designed which directly samples the Fourier transform of the object to be reconstructed on concentric cubes as needed for the algorithm. (author)

  15. Three dimensional reconstruction of fossils with X-ray CT and computer graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Takashi; Tateno, Satoko (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Arts and Sciences); Suzuki, Naoki

    1991-12-01

    We have developed a method for three dimensional (3D) visualization of fossils such as trilobites and ammonites by non-destructive measurement and computer graphics. The imaging techniques in the medical sciences are applied for fossils by us to have quantitative data analyses on the structural and functional features of some extinct creatures. These methods are composed of a high resolutional X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) and computer graphics. We are able to observe not only outer shape but also inner structure of fossils as a 3D image by this method. Consequently, the shape and volume are measurable on these 3D image quantitatively. In addition to that, it is able to reconstruct an ideal figure from the deformed fossils by graphical treatments of the data. Such a 3D reconstruction method is useful to obtain a new information from the paleontological standpoint. (author).

  16. Three dimensional reconstruction of fossils with X-ray CT and computer graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Takashi; Tateno, Satoko; Suzuki, Naoki.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a method for three dimensional (3D) visualization of fossils such as trilobites and ammonites by non-destructive measurement and computer graphics. The imaging techniques in the medical sciences are applied for fossils by us to have quantitative data analyses on the structural and functional features of some extinct creatures. These methods are composed of a high resolutional X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) and computer graphics. We are able to observe not only outer shape but also inner structure of fossils as a 3D image by this method. Consequently, the shape and volume are measurable on these 3D image quantitatively. In addition to that, it is able to reconstruct an ideal figure from the deformed fossils by graphical treatments of the data. Such a 3D reconstruction method is useful to obtain a new information from the paleontological standpoint. (author)

  17. Single-pixel three-dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming-Jie; Edgar, Matthew P.; Gibson, Graham M.; Sun, Baoqing; Radwell, Neal; Lamb, Robert; Padgett, Miles J.

    2016-07-01

    Time-of-flight three-dimensional imaging is an important tool for applications such as object recognition and remote sensing. Conventional time-of-flight three-dimensional imaging systems frequently use a raster scanned laser to measure the range of each pixel in the scene sequentially. Here we show a modified time-of-flight three-dimensional imaging system, which can use compressed sensing techniques to reduce acquisition times, whilst distributing the optical illumination over the full field of view. Our system is based on a single-pixel camera using short-pulsed structured illumination and a high-speed photodiode, and is capable of reconstructing 128 × 128-pixel resolution three-dimensional scenes to an accuracy of ~3 mm at a range of ~5 m. Furthermore, by using a compressive sampling strategy, we demonstrate continuous real-time three-dimensional video with a frame-rate up to 12 Hz. The simplicity of the system hardware could enable low-cost three-dimensional imaging devices for precision ranging at wavelengths beyond the visible spectrum.

  18. Three-dimensional focus of attention for iterative cone-beam micro-CT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, T M; Gregor, J

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional iterative reconstruction of high-resolution, circular orbit cone-beam x-ray CT data is often considered impractical due to the demand for vast amounts of computer cycles and associated memory. In this paper, we show that the computational burden can be reduced by limiting the reconstruction to a small, well-defined portion of the image volume. We first discuss using the support region defined by the set of voxels covered by all of the projection views. We then present a data-driven preprocessing technique called focus of attention that heuristically separates both image and projection data into object and background before reconstruction, thereby further reducing the reconstruction region of interest. We present experimental results for both methods based on mouse data and a parallelized implementation of the SIRT algorithm. The computational savings associated with the support region are substantial. However, the results for focus of attention are even more impressive in that only about one quarter of the computer cycles and memory are needed compared with reconstruction of the entire image volume. The image quality is not compromised by either method

  19. Automated three-dimensional reconstruction of the Caenorhabditis elegans germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Sandeep; Boag, Peter; Pocock, Roger

    2017-12-15

    The Caenorhabditis elegans germline is widely used as a model to study stem cell development, chromosome dynamics and apoptosis. Major readouts of germline phenotypes such as cell counting and protein expression profiling are routinely analyzed manually and in a two-dimensional manner. The major disadvantages of the existing approaches are 1) they are time-consuming and laborious and 2) there is an inability to study the effects of genetic mutations in three dimensions. Here, we demonstrate a rapid, automated method for analyzing the three-dimensional distribution of proteins, germline nuclei and cytoskeletal structures in the C. elegans germline. Using this method, we have revealed previously unappreciated germline organization and cytoskeletal structures that will have a major impact on the characterization of germline phenotypes. To conclude, our new method dramatically enhances the efficiency and resolution of C. elegans germline analysis and may be applied to other cellular structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Visual Interpretation with Three-Dimensional Annotations (VITA): Three-Dimensional Image Interpretation Tool for Radiological Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Sharmili; Brown, Michael S.; Shih, George L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a software framework called Visual Interpretation with Three-Dimensional Annotations (VITA) that is able to automatically generate three-dimensional (3D) visual summaries based on radiological annotations made during routine exam reporting. VITA summaries are in the form of rotating 3D volumes where radiological annotations are highlighted to place important clinical observations into a 3D context. The rendered volume is produced as a Digital Imaging and Communications i...

  1. Three dimensional image presentation techniques in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizer, S.M.; Fuchs, H.

    1987-01-01

    Medical images can be presented three-dimensionally by techniques that either calculate the effect of reflections from surfaces predefined from slices or project a three-space of luminosities computed from voxel intensities onto the visual receptors. Sliced-based reflective displays are the most common type. Means of producing surface descriptions both via voxel sets and via slice contours are reviewed. Advantages of and means of transparent display to allow the appreciation of the 3D relationships among objects are set forth. Ways to produce additional depth cues by stereoscopy and the kinetic depth effect are discussed, and the importance of interactive modification of viewpoint, clipping plane, displayed objects, etc. are explained. A new device, UNC's Pixel-planes, for accomplishing this in real time are illustrated. Voxel intensity based display methods avoid the need for time-consuming predefinition of object surfaces and thus can allow exploration of 3D image data. Varifocal mirror hardware and fast computation of one or more projections based on object probabilities are two of the more important approaches. While 3D display provides important information about 3D relationships, it cannot provide the kind of appreciation of subtle grey-scale changes that 2D display can. Methods that can combine these two kinds of information by superimposing 2D grey-scale slices on or in the context of 3D displays are discussed. Applications of these techniques for both diagnosis and radiotherapy planning are used as illustrations and guides to the usefulness of these techniques with CT, MRI, and other 3D medical imaging modalities. 24 refs.; 5 figs

  2. Multifractal analysis of three-dimensional histogram from color images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, Julien; Rousseau, David; Richard, Paul; Chapeau-Blondeau, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Natural images, especially color or multicomponent images, are complex information-carrying signals. To contribute to the characterization of this complexity, we investigate the possibility of multiscale organization in the colorimetric structure of natural images. This is realized by means of a multifractal analysis applied to the three-dimensional histogram from natural color images. The observed behaviors are confronted to those of reference models with known multifractal properties. We use for this purpose synthetic random images with trivial monofractal behavior, and multidimensional multiplicative cascades known for their actual multifractal behavior. The behaviors observed on natural images exhibit similarities with those of the multifractal multiplicative cascades and display the signature of elaborate multiscale organizations stemming from the histograms of natural color images. This type of characterization of colorimetric properties can be helpful to various tasks of digital image processing, as for instance modeling, classification, indexing.

  3. Reconstruction of Mammary Gland Structure Using Three-Dimensional Computer-Based Microscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de

    2003-01-01

    During the administrative funding period of this grant we have developed a system that permits three-dimensional reconstruction of entire the entire murine ductal epithelium from physical tissue sections...

  4. Reconstruction of Mammary Gland Structure Using Three-Dimensional Computer-Based Microscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Solorzano, Carlos O

    2004-01-01

    During the administrative funding period of this grant we have developed a system that permits three-dimensional reconstruction of entire the entire murine ductal epithelium from physical tissue sections...

  5. Three-dimensional imaging of lumbar spinal fusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chafetz, N.; Hunter, J.C.; Cann, C.E.; Morris, J.M.; Ax, L.; Catterling, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    Using a Cemax 1000 three-dimensional (3D) imaging computer/workstation, the author evaluated 15 patients with lumbar spinal fusions (four with pseudarthrosis). Both axial images with sagittal and coronal reformations and 3D images were obtained. The diagnoses (spinal stenosis and psuedarthrosis) were changed in four patients, confirmed in six patients, and unchanged in five patients with the addition of the 3D images. The ''cut-away'' 3D images proved particularly helpful for evaluation of central and lateral spinal stenosis, whereas the ''external'' 3D images were most useful for evaluation of the integrity of the fusion. Additionally, orthopedic surgeons found 3D images superior for both surgical planning and explaining pathology to patients

  6. Three-dimensional reconstruction of fracture surfaces of CFRP type composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Raquel de Moraes

    2009-01-01

    The three-dimensional reconstruction of fracture surfaces of CFRP type composite materials is presented in this work as a possible method for the fractographic analysis of this material, whose rupture surface can present an accentuated roughness, with great variation in height. Two methods are presented for this purpose: the reconstruction for variable focus, carried through with images of optic microscopy and the reconstruction for parallax, carried through with pair of stereo images, obtained by means of scanning electronic microscopy. An evaluation is carried through for each one of the two methods, having argued its limits and the efficiency of each one of them, before the difficulties of analysis of unidirectional and multidirectional composite materials. The method of variable focus presented an excellent reconstruction result, but it has the need of a great number of images, spent time of the instrument and magnifying limit of the images as factors to be considered in the choice of better method. The tilting of the specimen, during the parallax method, discloses alterations in the histograms of the images acquired in the clockwise direction that limit the use of the method for materials with high roughness. The acquiring of images in only one direction and the construction of a region of interest, located in the center of the image are suggestions to turn the method most including. The linearity of the projections of features in the inclined image also suggests the possibility to carry through the reconstruction using, instead of only two, multiple images gotten in the counter-clockwise direction. The alterations proposals to modify the routine, are suggested so that the program can be applied in a more comprehensive form, independent of the quality of the observed fracture surface. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional reconstruction of enamel thickness and volume in humans and hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, David G; Kappleman, John; Ketcham, Richard A; Alder, Marden E; Deahl, Thomas H

    2006-05-01

    Enamel thickness is an important diagnostic characteristic in Hominoidea. However, the sample size is extremely small, relying upon mostly fractured specimens and a few sectioned specimens, providing an estimate of enamel thickness only. What is needed to fully understand the significance of enamel thickness is a non-destructive technique that is able to obtain the thickness, density, and volume of the dental hard tissues of large samples, thereby providing an accurate means of relating thickness, area, volume, and the pattern of distribution of both enamel and dentin. Investigators have attempted to circumvent this problem by developing a variety of indexes. However, we are still left with subjective descriptions, such as 'thin', 'thick', 'intermediate thick', and 'hyperthick'. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to demonstrate the ability of high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography (HRXCT), as a non-destructive method, to produce, accurately and reliably, contiguous slices revealing the thickness and area of enamel, dentin, and pulp chamber. Using imaging software, three-dimensional reconstructions were produced, which provided volume data for enamel and dentin. Three-dimensional reconstruction of HRXCT images provide, for the first time, the capability of accurately quantifying enamel and dentin thickness, distribution and volume, thereby eliminating the necessity of destructive thin-sectional analysis.

  8. Three-dimensional visualization of myocardial motion and blood flow with cine-MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro; Mikami, Taisei; Kitabatake, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and presentation method to visualize myocardial motion and blood flow in a heart using cine-MR (magnetic resonance) images. Firstly, the region of myocardium and blood were segmented with certain threshold gray values. Secondly, some slices were interpolated linearly to reconstruct a 3D static image. Finally, a 3D dynamic image was presented with displaying the 3D static images sequentially. The experimental results indicate that this method enables to visualize not only normal but also abnormal blood flow in cine-mode. (author)

  9. X-ray computed tomography of packed bed chromatography columns for three dimensional imaging and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T F; Levison, P R; Shearing, P R; Bracewell, D G

    2017-03-03

    Physical characteristics critical to chromatography including geometric porosity and tortuosity within the packed column were analysed based upon three dimensional reconstructions of bed structure in-situ. Image acquisition was performed using two X-ray computed tomography systems, with optimisation of column imaging performed for each sample in order to produce three dimensional representations of packed beds at 3μm resolution. Two bead materials, cellulose and ceramic, were studied using the same optimisation strategy but resulted in differing parameters required for X-ray computed tomography image generation. After image reconstruction and processing into a digital three dimensional format, physical characteristics of each packed bed were analysed, including geometric porosity, tortuosity, surface area to volume ratio as well as inter-bead void diameters. Average porosities of 34.0% and 36.1% were found for ceramic and cellulose samples and average tortuosity readings at 1.40 and 1.79 respectively, with greater porosity and reduced tortuosity overall values at the centre compared to the column edges found in each case. X-ray computed tomography is demonstrated to be a viable method for three dimensional imaging of packed bed chromatography systems, enabling geometry based analysis of column axial and radial heterogeneity that is not feasible using traditional techniques for packing quality which provide an ensemble measure. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Three-dimensional MR imaging of the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, Mamoru

    1991-01-01

    The value of a three-dimensional (3D) imaging system was evaluated using a newly developed workstation. Fifteen knee joints with meniscal tears confirmed by arthroscopic examinations underwent 3D magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. These 3D data sets were processed into 3D display by multiplanar reformation (MPR) and the volume rendering technique, and the features of the meniscal tears were compared with those on conventional two-dimensional (2D) MR images. The 3D images with MPR provided higher detectability and more descriptive delineation of the meniscal tears than the 2D images. With its powerful image processing capacity, the workstation facilitated high-speed, high-quality 3D display and provided precise views of meniscal cleavages for the planning of surgical treatment. The independent processing system permitted efficient throughput of the MR data and eliminated wasteful filming processes. (author)

  11. Three-dimensional reconstruction of colorectal tumors from serial tissue sections by computer graphics: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, S; Matsuzaki, H; Kondo, K; Ohtani, Y; Ihara, A; Hiki, Y; Kakita, A; Kuwao, S

    2000-01-01

    We present herein the three-dimensional reconstruction of colorectal tumors, with particular reference to growth pattern into each layer of the colorectal wall, and measurement of tumor volume and surface area. Conventional tissue section images of colorectal tumors were analyzed using a computer graphics analysis program. The two-dimensional extent of invasion by each tumor into each layer of intestinal wall were determined from the images of each section. Based on data from multiple sections, tumor and surrounding normal tissue layers were reconstructed three-dimensionally, and volume and surface area of the tumors were determined. Using this technique, three-dimensional morphology of tumor and tumor progression into colorectal wall could be determined. Volume and surface area of the colon tumor were 4871 mm3 and 1741 mm2, respectively. Volume and surface area of the rectal tumor were 1090 mm3 and 877 mm2, respectively. This technique may provide a new approach for pathological analysis of colorectal carcinoma.

  12. Uncertainty evaluation for three-dimensional scanning electron microscope reconstructions based on the stereo-pair technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; Genta, G; Cantatore, Angela

    2011-01-01

    3D-SEM is a method, based on the stereophotogrammetry technique, which obtains three-dimensional topographic reconstructions starting typically from two SEM images, called the stereo-pair. In this work, a theoretical uncertainty evaluation of the stereo-pair technique, according to GUM (Guide to ...

  13. A new method for three-dimensional laparoscopic ultrasound model reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, C W; Pless, T; Durup, J

    2004-01-01

    was to perform a volumetric test and a clinical feasibility test of a new 3D method using standard laparoscopic ultrasound equipment. METHODS: Three-dimensional models were reconstructed from a series of two-dimensional ultrasound images using either electromagnetic tracking or a new 3D method. The volumetric...... accuracy of the new method was tested ex vivo, and the clinical feasibility was tested on a small series of patients. RESULTS: Both electromagnetic tracked reconstructions and the new 3D method gave good volumetric information with no significant difference. Clinical use of the new 3D method showed...... accurate models comparable to findings at surgery and pathology. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the new 3D method is technically feasible, and its volumetrically, accurate compared to 3D with electromagnetic tracking....

  14. Three-dimensional slum urban reconstruction in Envisat and Google Earth Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghany, M.; Genderen, J. v.

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to aim to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed country such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slam. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data.

  15. Three-dimensional slum urban reconstruction in Envisat and Google Earth Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marghany, M; Genderen, J v

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to aim to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed country such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slam. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data

  16. A three-dimensional radiation image display on a real space image created via photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y.; Ozawa, S.; Tanifuji, Y.; Torii, T.

    2018-03-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc., went into meltdown after the occurrence of a large tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011. The radiation distribution measurements inside the FDNPS buildings are indispensable to execute decommissioning tasks in the reactor buildings. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction method for radioactive substances using a compact Compton camera. Moreover, we succeeded in visually recognizing the position of radioactive substances in real space by the integration of 3D radiation images and the 3D photo-model created using photogrammetry.

  17. Characterization of a saphenous vein graft aneurysm by intravascular ultrasound and computerized three-dimensional reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, B M; Zientek, D M; Ruggie, N T; Billhardt, R A; Klein, L W

    1993-04-01

    Aneurysmal dilatations in saphenous vein grafts are rare complications of coronary artery bypass surgery that mostly represent thin-wall pseudoaneurysms at anastomotic sites. We describe a case of an enlarging distal saphenous vein graft aneurysm in which intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and computerized three-dimensional reconstruction (3DR) of the IVUS images was performed to conclusively demonstrate true aneurysm morphology. Although both atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic mechanisms for vein graft aneurysm formation have been previously suggested, IVUS images and 3DR of the aneurysm in this case did not reveal any of the features typical for atherosclerotic lesions. Further, the IVUS images and 3DR suggest that progressive atherosclerosis is not the likely cause of aneurysm formation in this case. This application of IVUS and 3DR provides detailed information about saphenous vein graft aneurysm structure, clues to aneurysm formation, and suggests a natural history that may differ from that of pseudoaneurysms.

  18. Three-dimensional histopathological reconstruction as a reliable ground truth for prostate cancer studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildeboer, R. R.; Schalk, S. G.; Demi, L.; Wijkstra, H.; Mischi, M.

    2017-01-01

    To validate new imaging modalities for prostate cancer, images must be three-dimensionally correlated with the histological ground truth. In this work, an interpolation algorithm is described to construct a reliable three-dimensional reference from two-dimensional (2D) histological slices. Eight

  19. Study of Three-Dimensional Image Brightness Loss in Stereoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Cheng Yu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When viewing three-dimensional (3D images, whether in cinemas or on stereoscopic televisions, viewers experience the same problem of image brightness loss. This study aims to investigate image brightness loss in 3D displays, with the primary aim being to quantify the image brightness degradation in the 3D mode. A further aim is to determine the image brightness relationship to the corresponding two-dimensional (2D images in order to adjust the 3D-image brightness values. In addition, the photographic principle is used in this study to measure metering values by capturing 2D and 3D images on television screens. By analyzing these images with statistical product and service solutions (SPSS software, the image brightness values can be estimated using the statistical regression model, which can also indicate the impact of various environmental factors or hardware on the image brightness. In analysis of the experimental results, comparison of the image brightness between 2D and 3D images indicates 60.8% degradation in the 3D image brightness amplitude. The experimental values, from 52.4% to 69.2%, are within the 95% confidence interval

  20. An intelligent three dimensional reconstruction system for cerebral arteries from biplane cineangiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Susumu; Guan, Yang; Tsukamoto, Yasuo; Kumamoto, Etsuko; Asada, Katsunobu; Matsuo, Michimasa; Yamasaki, Katsuhito.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, an intelligent system is developed for the three dimensional reconstruction of cerebral arteries from biplane cineangiograms. The system is composed of two blocks, i.e., an inferencing-control-block and a processing-block. The inferencing-control block controls the flow of the image-processing by inferencing with the knowledge stored in the block and is a production system based on 'IF, THEN' rule. The processing-block is a collection of image processing procedures activated by a call from the inferencing-control-block. On the other hand, the flow of the image-processing is outlined as follows: After the extraction of vessel center lines from the angiograms, the blood flow directions and connectivity states of vessels are determined and the vessel graph is translated to a vessel connectivity tree. Then, by utilizing the knowledge about anatomic structure of cerebral arteries and characteristics of angiograms, important arteries are distinguished and vessel groups classified. Finally, by using a shape-oriented matching method, the vessels on the two projected planes are matched and the three dimensional structure of vessels constructed. An example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of the knowledge which enables the system to improve the efficiency and precision of the processing, such as vessel analysis and matching. (author)

  1. An intelligent three dimensional reconstruction system for cerebral arteries from biplane cineangiograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Susumu (Kobe Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Guan, Yang; Tsukamoto, Yasuo; Kumamoto, Etsuko; Asada, Katsunobu; Matsuo, Michimasa; Yamasaki, Katsuhito

    1993-12-01

    In this study, an intelligent system is developed for the three dimensional reconstruction of cerebral arteries from biplane cineangiograms. The system is composed of two blocks, i.e., an inferencing-control-block and a processing-block. The inferencing-control block controls the flow of the image-processing by inferencing with the knowledge stored in the block and is a production system based on 'IF, THEN' rule. The processing-block is a collection of image processing procedures activated by a call from the inferencing-control-block. On the other hand, the flow of the image-processing is outlined as follows: After the extraction of vessel center lines from the angiograms, the blood flow directions and connectivity states of vessels are determined and the vessel graph is translated to a vessel connectivity tree. Then, by utilizing the knowledge about anatomic structure of cerebral arteries and characteristics of angiograms, important arteries are distinguished and vessel groups classified. Finally, by using a shape-oriented matching method, the vessels on the two projected planes are matched and the three dimensional structure of vessels constructed. An example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of the knowledge which enables the system to improve the efficiency and precision of the processing, such as vessel analysis and matching. (author).

  2. Three-dimensional reconstruction of entire vertebral bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, A.; Andersen, K.; Ullerup, R.

    1994-01-01

    conducting experimental and clinical studies related to cancellous bone architecture and, ultimately, to cancellous bone quality. A set of new and unbiased methods for quantification of cancellous bone has been a stimulus for the development of the technique, as the quantification methods rely on 3-D...... hour, which means that an average vertebral body can be reconstructed in about 2 h. Compared to previous implementations of the general principle of serial sectioning, this is a significant improvement both in resolution and in time efficiency....

  3. Three Dimensional Digital Image Processing using Edge Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schmeelk

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to three dimensional image edge detection and its relationship to partial derivatives, convolutions and wavelets. We are especially addressing the notion of edge detection because it has far reaching applications in all areas of research to include medical research. A patient can be diagnosed as having an aneurysm by studying an angiogram. An angiogram is the visual view of the blood vessels whereby the edges are highlighted through the implementation of edge detectors. This process is completed through convolution, wavelets and matrix techniques. Some illustrations included will be vertical, horizontal, Sobel and wavelet edge detectors.

  4. Three-dimensional track reconstruction for directional Dark Matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, J.; Mayet, F.; Santos, D.

    2012-01-01

    Directional detection of Dark Matter is a promising search strategy. However, to perform such detection, a given set of parameters has to be retrieved from the recoiling tracks: direction, sense and position in the detector volume. In order to optimize the track reconstruction and to fully exploit the data of forthcoming directional detectors, we present a likelihood method dedicated to 3D track reconstruction. This new analysis method is applied to the MIMAC detector. It requires a full simulation of track measurements in order to compare real tracks to simulated ones. We conclude that a good spatial resolution can be achieved, i.e. sub-mm in the anode plane and cm along the drift axis. This opens the possibility to perform a fiducialization of directional detectors. The angular resolution is shown to range between 20° to 80°, depending on the recoil energy, which is however enough to achieve a high significance discovery of Dark Matter. On the contrary, we show that sense recognition capability of directional detectors depends strongly on the recoil energy and the drift distance, with small efficiency values (50%–70%). We suggest not to consider this information either for exclusion or discovery of Dark Matter for recoils below 100 keV and then to focus on axial directional data

  5. Aspects of Three-Dimensional Imaging by Classical Tomography for Dual Detector Positron Emission Mammography (PEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Andrew G. Weisenberger; Raymond R. Raylman; Douglas A. Kieper; Joseph D. Kalen; Panos P. Fatouros

    2001-12-01

    Images from dual detector positron emission mammography (PEM) systems are commonly reconstructed by backprojection methods of classical tomography. Characteristics of three-dimensional (3-D) PEM images were investigated using analytic models, computer simulations, and experimental acquisitions with compact pixellated detectors, in particular depth resolution normal to the detectors. An analytic formula was developed using circular image pixels that models blurring normal to the detectors. The amount of blurring is dependent on the acceptance angle for coincidence events and may vary across the field of view due to geometric limitations on the maximum angle of lines of response normal to the detectors. For experimental acquisitions with line sources and a pixellated lutetium gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (LGSO) detector, depth resolution is broader than predicted by numerical simulations, possibly due to uncorrected randoms or scatter within the scintillator arrays. Iterative image reconstruction with the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm of a compressed breast phantom acquisition with a pixellated gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (GSO) detector shows improved contract compared with backprojection reconstruction. Image reconstruction for dual detector PEM with static detectors represents a case of limited angle tomography with truncated projection data, and there is the opportunity to improve three-dimensional PEM imaging by the use of more sophisticated image reconstruction techniques.

  6. Clinical application of EBCT angiography and three-dimensional reconstruction in the diagnosis of aortic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Bin; Dai Ruping; Zhang Shaoxiong; Bai Hua; He Sha; Jing Baolian; Cao Cheng; Ren Li

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To work out the routine and three dimensional reconstruction (3D) methods of electron beam computed tomography angiography (EBCTA) and evaluate its clinical application. Materials and methods: In this group, 189 cases with aortic diseases (152 male, 37 female) were studied retrospectively. The EBCT scan methods were enhanced single slice mode (SSM) and continuous volume scan (CVS); The 3D reconstruction methods were shaded surface display (SSD), maximum intensity projection (MIP) and multiple/curved planar reconstruction (MPR/CPR). Results: In 189 cases, including 97 cases with aortic dissection, 26 cases with aortic aneurysm and 8 cases with pseudo aneurysm, others including Marfan's syndrome in 37 cases, Takayasu's arteritis in 5 cases and congenital aortic malformations in 14 cases; 68 cases received operation and the EBCT diagnosis coincided well with the operative findings in 97% of cases. Conclusion: EBCT angiographic images have very high temporal resolution and most artifacts are eliminated. The 3D images are in helpful accurate diagnosis and direct surgical operation. In the management of aortic diseases, EBCT angiography and 3D reconstruction may supplant conventional angiography in the near future

  7. Optical projection tomography via phase retrieval algorithms for hidden three dimensional imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Daniele; Di Battista, Diego; Giasafaki, Georgia; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Liapis, Evangelos; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2017-02-01

    Optical tomography in biomedical imaging is a highly dynamic field in which non-invasive optical and computational techniques are combined to obtain a three dimensional representation of the specimen we are interested to image. Although at optical wavelengths scattering is the main obstacle to reach diffraction limited resolution, recently several studies have shown the possibility to image even objects fully hidden behind a turbid layer exploiting the information contained in the speckle autocorrelation via an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. In this work we explore the possibility of blind three dimensional reconstruction approach based on the Optical Projection Tomography principles, a widely used tool to image almost transparent model organism such as C. Elegans and D. Rerio. By using autocorrelation information rather than projections at each angle we prove, both numerically and experimentally, the possibility to perform exact three dimensional reconstructions via a specifically designed phase retrieval algorithm, extending the capability of the projection-based tomographic methods to image behind scattering curtains. The reconstruction scheme we propose is simple to implement, does not require post-processing data alignment and moreover can be trivially implemented in parallel to fully exploit the computing power offered by modern GPUs, further reducing the need for costly computational resources.

  8. Volumetric three-dimensional reconstruction and segmentation of spectral-domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaker, Grant D; Gracia, Luis; Myung, Jane S; Borcherding, Vanessa; Banfelder, Jason R; D'Amico, Donald J; Kiss, Szilárd

    2011-07-01

    Despite advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT), three-dimensional (3D) renderings of OCT images remain limited to scanning consecutive two-dimensional (2D) OCT slices. The authors describe a method of reconstructing 2D OCT data for 3D retinal analysis and visualization in a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment (CAVE). Using customized signal processing software, raw data from 2D slice-based spectral-domain OCT images were rendered into high-resolution 3D images for segmentation and quantification analysis. Reconstructed OCT images were projected onto a four-walled space and viewed through stereoscopic glasses, resulting in a virtual reality perception of the retina. These 3D retinal renderings offer a novel method for segmentation and isolation of volumetric images. The ability to manipulate the images in a virtual reality environment allows visualization of complex spatial relationships that may aid our understanding of retinal pathology. More importantly, these 3D retinal renderings can be viewed, manipulated, and analyzed on traditional 2D monitors independent of the CAVE. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Rotational Angiography Based Three-Dimensional Left Atrial Reconstruction: A New Approach for Transseptal Puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koektuerk, Buelent; Yorgun, Hikmet; Koektuerk, Oezlem; Turan, Cem H; Gorr, Eduard; Horlitz, Marc; Turan, Ramazan G

    2016-02-01

    Rotational angiography is a well-known method for the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of left atrium and pulmonary veins during left-sided atrial arrhythmia ablation procedures. In our study, we aimed to review our experience in transseptal puncture (TSP) using 3-D rotational angiography. We included a total of 271 patients who underwent atrial fibrillation ablation using cryoballoon. Rotational angiography was performed to get the three-dimensional left atrial and pulmonary vein reconstructions using cardiac C-arm computed tomography. The image reconstruction was made using the DynaCT Cardiac software (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The mean age of the study population was 61 ± 10 years. The indications for left atrial arrhythmia ablation were paroxysmal AF in 140 patients (52%) and persistent AF patients in 131 (48%) patients. The success rate of TSP using only rotational guidance was (264/271 patients, 97.4%). In the remaining seven patients, transesophageal guidance was used after the initial attempt due to thick interatrial septum in five patients and difficult TSP due to abnormal anatomy and mild pericardial effusion in the remaining two patients. Mean fluoroscopy dosage of the rotational angiography was 4896.4 ± 825.3 μGym(2). The mean time beginning from femoral vein puncture to TSP was 12.3 ± 5.5 min. TSP guided by rotational angiography is a safe and effective method. Our results indicate that integration of rotational angiographic images into the real-time fluoroscopy can guide the TSP during the procedure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Brain lesion analysis using three-dimensional SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Iekado; Onagi, Atsuo; Kuroki, Takao

    1995-01-01

    A three-headed gamma camera (PRISM 3000) is capable to scan the protocol of early dynamic SPECT and to analyze two radioisotopes at the same time. We have framed three-dimensional brain SPECT images for several brain diseases by using the Application Visualization System (AVS). We carried out volume measurements in brain tumors and/or AVMs by applying this methodology. Thallium-201 and/or 123I-IMP were used for brain SPECT imaging. The dynamic scan protocol was changed in accordance with the given disease. The protocol for brain tumors was derived from a preliminary comparative study with thallium-201 and 123I-IMP that had suggested a disparity in the detection of brain tumors and the differentiation between tumor tissue and normal brain. The three-dimension SPECT image represented the brain tumor or AVM in a striking fashion, and the changes with respect to tumor or AVM after radiosurgery or embolization were understood readily. (author)

  11. Three-dimensional speckle-noise reduction by using computational integral imaging and statistical point estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Inkyu

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we overview a method which can remove speckle noises to exist in coherent imaging systems. Integral imaging (II) system under coherent illumination records the elemental image set with speckle noise patterns of a threedimensional (3D) object. The computational geometrical ray propagation and statistical point estimation algorithms are applied to the elemental image set in order to reconstruct the speckle reduced 3D integral imaging. As performance metrics, the SNR and speckle index are calculated. The results are used to compare the speckle reduced 3D image reconstructed by the presented method with the coherent image having speckle patterns. It is shown in experiments that the presented method can three dimensionally reduce the speckle noise in the 3D object reconstruction.

  12. Creation of three-dimensional craniofacial standards from CBCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyan, Krishna; Palomo, Martin; Hans, Mark

    2006-03-01

    Low-dose three-dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is becoming increasingly popular in the clinical practice of dental medicine. Two-dimensional Bolton Standards of dentofacial development are routinely used to identify deviations from normal craniofacial anatomy. With the advent of CBCT three dimensional imaging, we propose a set of methods to extend these 2D Bolton Standards to anatomically correct surface based 3D standards to allow analysis of morphometric changes seen in craniofacial complex. To create 3D surface standards, we have implemented series of steps. 1) Converting bi-plane 2D tracings into set of splines 2) Converting the 2D splines curves from bi-plane projection into 3D space curves 3) Creating labeled template of facial and skeletal shapes and 4) Creating 3D average surface Bolton standards. We have used datasets from patients scanned with Hitachi MercuRay CBCT scanner providing high resolution and isotropic CT volume images, digitized Bolton Standards from age 3 to 18 years of lateral and frontal male, female and average tracings and converted them into facial and skeletal 3D space curves. This new 3D standard will help in assessing shape variations due to aging in young population and provide reference to correct facial anomalies in dental medicine.

  13. Three-dimensional photoacoustic endoscopic imaging of the rabbit esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Mo Yang

    Full Text Available We report photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopic images of two intact rabbit esophagi. To investigate the esophageal lumen structure and microvasculature, we performed in vivo and ex vivo imaging studies using a 3.8-mm diameter photoacoustic endoscope and correlated the images with histology. Several interesting anatomic structures were newly found in both the in vivo and ex vivo images, which demonstrates the potential clinical utility of this endoscopic imaging modality. In the ex vivo imaging experiment, we acquired high-resolution motion-artifact-free three-dimensional photoacoustic images of the vasculatures distributed in the walls of the esophagi and extending to the neighboring mediastinal regions. Blood vessels with apparent diameters as small as 190 μm were resolved. Moreover, by taking advantage of the dual-mode high-resolution photoacoustic and ultrasound endoscopy, we could better identify and characterize the anatomic structures of the esophageal lumen, such as the mucosal and submucosal layers in the esophageal wall, and an esophageal branch of the thoracic aorta. In this paper, we present the first photoacoustic images showing the vasculature of a vertebrate esophagus and discuss the potential clinical applications and future development of photoacoustic endoscopy.

  14. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Mouse Nephron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, Xiao-Yue; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Birn, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Renal function is crucially dependent on renal microstructure which provides the basis for the regulatory mechanisms that control the transport of water and solutes between filtrate and plasma and the urinary concentration. This study provides new, detailed information on mouse renal architecture...... and collecting ducts was performed on aligned digital images, obtained from 2.5-µm-thick serial sections of mouse kidneys. Important new findings were highlighted: (1) A tortuous course of the descending thin limbs of long-looped nephrons and a winding course of the thick ascending limbs of short-looped nephrons......-looped nephron bends were identified to relate to the length and the position of the nephron and its corresponding glomerulus. The ultrastructure of the tubule segments was identified and suggests important implications for renal transport mechanisms that should be considered when evaluating the segmental...

  15. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    KAUST Repository

    Kallepitis, Charalambos

    2017-03-22

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell–material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  16. Evaluations of Three-Dimensional Building Model Reconstruction from LiDAR Point Clouds and Single-View Perspective Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tsai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly presents two approaches for effective three-dimensional (3D building model reconstruction from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS data and single perspective view imagery and assesses their applicability to the reconstruction of 3D models of landmark or historical buildings. The collected LiDAR point clouds are registered based on conjugate points identified using a seven-parameter transformation system. Three dimensional models are generated using plan and surface fitting algorithms. The proposed single-view reconstruction (SVR method is based on vanishing points and single-view metrology. More detailed models can also be generated according to semantic analysis of the façade images. Experimental results presented in this paper demonstrate that both TLS and SVR approaches can successfully produce accurate and detailed 3D building models from LiDAR point clouds or different types of single-view perspective images.

  17. Three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of fossils across taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mietchen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of life forms in the fossil record is largely determined by the extent to which they were mineralised at the time of their death. In addition to mineral structures, many fossils nonetheless contain detectable amounts of residual water or organic molecules, the analysis of which has become an integral part of current palaeontological research. The methods available for this sort of investigations, though, typically require dissolution or ionisation of the fossil sample or parts thereof, which is an issue with rare taxa and outstanding materials like pathological or type specimens. In such cases, non-destructive techniques could provide a valuable methodological alternative. While Computed Tomography has long been used to study palaeontological specimens, a number of complementary approaches have recently gained ground. These include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI which had previously been employed to obtain three-dimensional images of pathological belemnites non-invasively on the basis of intrinsic contrast. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether 1H MRI can likewise provide anatomical information about non-pathological belemnites and specimens of other fossil taxa. To this end, three-dimensional MR image series were acquired from intact non-pathological invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils. At routine voxel resolutions in the range of several dozens to some hundreds of micrometers, these images reveal a host of anatomical details and thus highlight the potential of MR techniques to effectively complement existing methodological approaches for palaeontological investigations in a wide range of taxa. As for the origin of the MR signal, relaxation and diffusion measurements as well as 1H and 13C MR spectra acquired from a belemnite suggest intracrystalline water or hydroxyl groups, rather than organic residues.

  18. Dynamic evaluation of pelvic floor reconstructive surgery using radiopaque meshes and three-dimensional helical CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Palma

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This prospective study was performed to achieve visualization of the reestablishment of anatomy after reconstructive surgery in the different pelvic compartments with non-absorbable radiopaque meshes, providing valuable anatomic information for surgeons implanting meshes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 female patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI, anterior and posterior vaginal wall prolapse, or both underwent surgical repair using radiopaque meshes after written informed consent. Patients with SUI underwent five different surgeries. Patients with anterior vaginal prolapse underwent a procedure using a combined pre-pubic and transobturator mesh, and those with posterior vaginal prolapse underwent posterior slingplasty. Three-dimensional reconstruction using helical CT was performed four weeks postoperatively. RESULTS: In all cases, the mesh was clearly visualized. Transobturator slings were shown at the midurethra, and the anchoring tails perforated the obturator foramen at the safety region. Mini-slings were in the proper place, and computed angiography revealed that the anchoring system was away from the obturator vessels. In patients undergoing procedure for anterior vaginal prolapse, both pre-pubic armpit and obturator slings were clearly seen and the mesh was in the proper position, supporting the bladder base and occluding the distal part of the urogenital hiatus. Transcoccygeal sacropexy revealed indirectly a well-supported "neo rectovaginal fascia" and the anchoring tails at the level of ischial spines. CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional helical tomography images of the female pelvis using radiopaque meshes have a potential role in improving our understanding of pelvic floor reconstructive surgeries. These radiopaque meshes might be the basis of a new investigative methodology.

  19. Applicability of three-dimensional imaging techniques in fetal medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner Junior, Heron; Daltro, Pedro; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro, E-mail: heronwerner@hotmail.com [Clinica de Diagnostico Por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Jorge Lopes dos; Belmonte, Simone; Ribeiro, Gerson [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To generate physical models of fetuses from images obtained with three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and, occasionally, computed tomography (CT), in order to guide additive manufacturing technology. Materials and Methods: We used 3D-US images of 31 pregnant women, including 5 who were carrying twins. If abnormalities were detected by 3D-US, both MRI and in some cases CT scans were then immediately performed. The images were then exported to a workstation in DICOM format. A single observer performed slice-by-slice manual segmentation using a digital high resolution screen. Virtual 3D models were obtained from software that converts medical images into numerical models. Those models were then generated in physical form through the use of additive manufacturing techniques. Results: Physical models based upon 3D-US, MRI, and CT images were successfully generated. The postnatal appearance of either the aborted fetus or the neonate closely resembled the physical models, particularly in cases of malformations. Conclusion: The combined use of 3D-US, MRI, and CT could help improve our understanding of fetal anatomy. These three screening modalities can be used for educational purposes and as tools to enable parents to visualize their unborn baby. The images can be segmented and then applied, separately or jointly, in order to construct virtual and physical 3D models. (author)

  20. Three-dimensional MR imaging in the assessment of physeal growth arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailhan, Frederic; Chotel, Franck; Gollogly, Sohrab; Adam, Philippe; Berard, Jerome; Guibal, Anne-Laure; Guibaud, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe an imaging method for identifying and characterising physeal growth arrest following physeal plate aggression. The authors describe the use of three-dimensional MRI performed with fat-suppressed three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled echo sequences followed by manual image reconstruction to create a 3D model of the physeal plate. This retrospective series reports the analysis of 33 bony physeal bridges in 28 children (mean age 10.5 years) with the use of fat-suppressed three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled echo imaging and 3D reconstructions from the source images. 3D reconstructions were obtained after the outlining was done manually on each source image. Files of all patients were reviewed for clinical data at the time of MRI, type of injury, age at MRI and bone bridge characteristics on reconstructions. Twenty-one (63%) of the 33 bridges were post-traumatic and were mostly situated in the lower extremities (19/21). The distal tibia was involved in 66% (14/21) of the cases. Bridges due to causes other than trauma were located in the lower extremities in 10/12 cases, and the distal femur represented 60% of these cases. Of the 28 patients, five presented with two bridges involving two different growth plates making a total of 33 physeal bone bars. The location and shape of each bridge was accurately identified in each patient, and in post-traumatic cases, 89% of bone bars were of Ogden type III (central) or I (peripheral). Reconstructions were obtained in 15 min and are easy to interpret. Volumes of the physeal bone bridge(s) and of the remaining normal physis were calculated. The bone bridging represented less than 1% to 47% of the total physeal plate volume. The precise shape and location of the bridge can be visualised on the 3D reconstructions. This information is useful in the surgical management of these deformities; as for the eight patients who underwent bone bar resection, an excellent correspondence was

  1. Three-dimensional reconstruction for coherent diffraction patterns obtained by XFEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Miki; Miyashita, Osamu; Jonic, Slavica; Song, Changyong; Nam, Daewoong; Joti, Yasumasa; Tama, Florence

    2017-07-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis of single particles using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) is a new structural biology technique that enables observations of molecules that are difficult to crystallize, such as flexible biomolecular complexes and living tissue in the state close to physiological conditions. In order to restore the 3D structure from the diffraction patterns obtained by the XFEL, computational algorithms are necessary as the orientation of the incident beam with respect to the sample needs to be estimated. A program package for XFEL single-particle analysis based on the Xmipp software package, that is commonly used for image processing in 3D cryo-electron microscopy, has been developed. The reconstruction program has been tested using diffraction patterns of an aerosol nanoparticle obtained by tomographic coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy.

  2. Wrist CT and three-dimensional reconstruction: Direct coronal versus transaxial scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondetti, P.R.; Vannier, M.W.; Gilula, L.A.; Knapp, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Because of its three-dimensional complexity, the wrist cannot be completely examined radiographically without CT. Complex carpal fractures, intercarpal and distal radioulnar dislocations or subluxations, late sequelae of trauma (nonunion, osteonecrosis, degenerative changes, infections), and the painful wrist with normal plain film and abnormal bone scan appearance have been evaluated with CT. In the majority of cases reported in the literature, the wrist was scanned by CT in the transaxial plane. The author compared direct transaxial and coronal CT scanning in 23 patients with wrist disorders. Axial sections were superior for distal radioulnar subluxation, hamate hook fractures, and for the ventral trapezial tubercle not shown on routine radiographs. Coronal scanning, performed using a specially designed wrist fixture, was preferable for most other wrist CT examinations. Coronal wrist CT offers perpendicular orientation for the majority of the carpal joints, anatomic display similar to that of plain film radiography, and fewer scans per wrist CT examination. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction wrist images were better when coronal rather than transaxial scans were used as input. Direct coronal CT should be the method of choice for most patients with wrist problems

  3. Three-dimensional facial digitization using advanced digital image correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu; Kieu, Hien; Wang, Zhaoyang; Le, Hanh N D

    2018-03-20

    Presented in this paper is an effective technique to acquire the three-dimensional (3D) digital images of the human face without the use of active lighting and artificial patterns. The technique is based on binocular stereo imaging and digital image correlation, and it includes two key steps: camera calibration and image matching. The camera calibration involves a pinhole model and a bundle-adjustment approach, and the governing equations of the 3D digitization process are described. For reliable pixel-to-pixel image matching, the skin pores and freckles or lentigines on the human face serve as the required pattern features to facilitate the process. It employs feature-matching-based initial guess, multiple subsets, iterative optimization algorithm, and reliability-guided computation path to achieve fast and accurate image matching. Experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed technique. The simplicity of the approach and the affordable cost of the implementation show its practicability in scientific and engineering applications.

  4. Three-diemensional materials science: An intersection of three-dimensional reconstructions and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Katsuyo; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2008-01-01

    The recent development of experimental techniques that rapidly reconstruct the three-dimensional microstructures of solids has given rise to new possibilities for developing a deeper understanding of the evolution of microstructures and the effects of microstructures on materials properties. Comb...... an overview of this emerging field of materials science, as well as brief descriptions of selected methods and their applicability.......The recent development of experimental techniques that rapidly reconstruct the three-dimensional microstructures of solids has given rise to new possibilities for developing a deeper understanding of the evolution of microstructures and the effects of microstructures on materials properties....... Combined with three-dimensional (3D) simulations and analyses that are capable of handling the complexity of these microstructures, 3D reconstruction, or tomography, has become a powerful tool that provides clear insights into materials processing and properties. This introductory article provides...

  5. Fast Three-dimensional Sparse Holography Imaging Algorithm for Personal Security Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Terahertz holographic imaging has broad applications in the field of personal security verification, concealed weapon detection, and non-destructive testing. To suppress the range ambiguity, a fast sparse image reconstruction approach and imaging scheme is proposed for three-dimensional terahertz holography. The proposed algorithm establishes the terahertz imaging geometry and corresponding echo model. The range ambiguity is eliminated using the random step frequency method, and a frequency shift procedure is applied to recover the targets with a high computational efficiency. Simulation and experimental results verify the proposed algorithm.

  6. Three-dimensional imaging of atomic four-body processes

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, M; Fischer, D; Kollmus, H; Madison, D H; Jones, S; Ullrich, J

    2003-01-01

    To understand the physical processes that occur in nature we need to obtain a solid concept about the 'fundamental' forces acting between pairs of elementary particles. it is also necessary to describe the temporal and spatial evolution of many mutually interacting particles under the influence of these forces. This latter step, known as the few-body problem, remains an important unsolved problem in physics. Experiments involving atomic collisions represent a useful testing ground for studying the few-body problem. For the single ionization of a helium atom by charged particle impact, kinematically complete experiments have been performed since 1969. The theoretical analysis of such experiments was thought to yield a complete picture of the basic features of the collision process, at least for large collision energies. These conclusions are, however, almost exclusively based on studies of restricted electron-emission geometries. We report three- dimensional images of the complete electron emission pattern for...

  7. Three dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging: advantages and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Michelle L; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Xu, Juan; Kim, Jongsick; Kagemann, Larry; Folio, Lindsey S; Schuman, Joel S

    2010-11-01

    Three dimensional (3D) ophthalmic imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized assessment of the eye, the retina in particular. Recent technological improvements have made the acquisition of 3D-OCT datasets feasible. However, while volumetric data can improve disease diagnosis and follow-up, novel image analysis techniques are now necessary in order to process the dense 3D-OCT dataset. Fundamental software improvements include methods for correcting subject eye motion, segmenting structures or volumes of interest, extracting relevant data post hoc and signal averaging to improve delineation of retinal layers. In addition, innovative methods for image display, such as C-mode sectioning, provide a unique viewing perspective and may improve interpretation of OCT images of pathologic structures. While all of these methods are being developed, most remain in an immature state. This review describes the current status of 3D-OCT scanning and interpretation, and discusses the need for standardization of clinical protocols as well as the potential benefits of 3D-OCT scanning that could come when software methods for fully exploiting these rich datasets are available clinically. The implications of new image analysis approaches include improved reproducibility of measurements garnered from 3D-OCT, which may then help improve disease discrimination and progression detection. In addition, 3D-OCT offers the potential for preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative surgical guidance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 16 multi-slice CT three-dimensional and multiplanar reconstruction for evaluation of pediatric congenital scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yun; Zhang Ningning; Zhang Xuejun; Sun Guoqiang; Zeng Jinjin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Our study is to use of 16 MSCT three-dimensional images and multiplanar reconstruction images in the preoperative investigation of patients with congenital scoliosis, to study its technical advantage and work out surgical plan. Methods: Twenty-seven pediatric patients with congenital scoliosis processing between April to October 2004 were reviewed, including 13 boys and 14 girls. X-ray plain film and sixteen multi-slice CT examination on curved/standard multiplanar reconstruction and three- dimensional computed tomographic imaging may offer, many potential advantages for defining congenital spine anomalies liable to cause progression of scoliosis, including visualization of the deformity in any plane, from any angle, with the overlying structures subtracted. Results: Ten patients had segmentation defects, 6 patients underwent formation defects, 11 patients had complex, unclassifiable anomalies. The patients of rib deformity were found in 15 patients, the most prominent part of the rib cage deformity was at the same level as the most rotated vertebra in 7 patients; 8 patients had vertebral anomalies accompanied with diastematomyelie, including 6 patients with uncompleted or completed bony spur. In 19 of 27 cases, the muhiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional images allowed identification of unrecognized malformations and completely evaluated the degree of scoliosis, during conventional X-ray images and axial CT images, including volume 3D imaging evaluated approximately classification and modality of complex anomalies in 11 cases, which were unclassifiable malformation in 7 cases and unsegmented bar with contralateral hemivertebrae; 4 children had segmentation defects revealed unilateral unsegmented bar (3 cases) and bilateral block vertebra (1 case) in volume 3D reconstruction images; 2 children were found occultation hemivertebrae which were not been discovered during conventional X-ray images and axial CT images; and 2 children were revaluated

  9. A Novel Abandoned Object Detection System Based on Three-Dimensional Image Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new idea of an abandoned object detection system for road traffic surveillance systems based on three-dimensional image information is proposed in this paper to prevent traffic accidents. A novel Binocular Information Reconstruction and Recognition (BIRR algorithm is presented to implement the new idea. As initial detection, suspected abandoned objects are detected by the proposed static foreground region segmentation algorithm based on surveillance video from a monocular camera. After detection of suspected abandoned objects, three-dimensional (3D information of the suspected abandoned object is reconstructed by the proposed theory about 3D object information reconstruction with images from a binocular camera. To determine whether the detected object is hazardous to normal road traffic, road plane equation and height of suspected-abandoned object are calculated based on the three-dimensional information. Experimental results show that this system implements fast detection of abandoned objects and this abandoned object system can be used for road traffic monitoring and public area surveillance.

  10. [Acetabular morphological analysis in patients with high dislocated DDH using three-dimensional surface reconstruction technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengy, Yi; Min, Li; Lai, Ou-jie; Shen, Bin; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Zong-ke; Kang, Peng-de; Pei, Fu-xing

    2015-03-01

    To simulate acetabular morphology and perform acetabular quantitative analysis in high dislocated developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) patients using three-dimensional (3D) surface reconstruction technique, in order to understand the acetabular anatomic features and develop operative strategies for acetabular reconstruction. 3D pelvic images were reconstructed by Mimics software from CT data of 13 patients (13 hips) with high developmental DDH and 13 normal persons (26 hips). True acetabular superior-inferior diameter, anterior-posterior diameter, acetabular depth, medial wall thickness, abduction angle and anteversion angle were measured and compared between the two groups of participants. Irregular acetabular shape was found in high dislocated group, showing a triangle with wide upper and narrow lower. The acetabular quantitative analysis revealed (38.29 +/- 2.71) mm superior-inferior diameter, (21.74 +/- 5.33) mm anterior-posterior diameter, (15.50 +/- 2.93) mm acetabular depth, (6.80 +/- 2.97) mm medial wall thickness, (49.29 +/- 7.40) degrees abduction angle and (23.82 +/- 11.21) degrees anteversion angle in high dislocated patients. The superior-inferior diameter, anterior-posterior diameter and acetabular depth of high dislocated patients were significantly smaller than those of the normal contirols (PDDH patients have acetabular features: irregular shape, lower opening, higher medial wall and bigger abduction and anteversion angles. Joint arthroplasty surgery in high dislocated DDH patients needs to look at these acetabular features.

  11. Computer-Assisted Reconstruction and Motion Analysis of the Three-Dimensional Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Soll

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though several microscopic techniques provide three-dimensional (3D information on fixed and living cells, the perception persists that cells are two-dimensional (2D. Cells are, in fact, 3D and their behavior, including the extension of pseudopods, includes an important 3D component. Although treating the cell as a 2D entity has proven effective in understanding how cells locomote, and in identifying defects in a variety of mutant and abnormal cells, there are cases in which 3D reconstruction and analysis are essential. Here, we describe advanced computer-assisted 3D reconstruction and motion analysis programs for both individual live, crawling cells and developing embryos. These systems (3D-DIAS, 3D-DIASemb can be used to reconstruct and motion analyze at short time intervals the nucleus and pseudopodia as well as the entire surface of a single migrating cell, or every cell and nucleus in a developing embryo. Because all images are converted to mathematical representations, a variety of motility and dynamic morphology parameters can be computed that have proven quite valuable in the identification of mutant behaviors. We also describe examples of mutant behaviors in Dictyostelium that were revealed through 3D analysis.

  12. A Three-Dimensional Reconstructive Study of Pelvic Cavity in the New Zealand Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Özkadif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been performed to reveal biometrical aspects and diameter-related differences in terms of sexes regarding pelvic cavity via three-dimensional (3D reconstruction by using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT images of pelvic cavity of the New Zealand rabbit. A total of 16 adult New Zealand rabbits, including 8 males and 8 females, were used in this study. Under anesthesia, the images obtained from MDCT were stacked and overlaid to reconstruct the 3D model of the pelvic cavity using 3D modeling software (Mimics 13.1. Measurements, such as the conjugate, transverse, and vertical diameters of the pelvic cavity, and the pelvic inclination were calculated and analyzed statistically. Biometrical differences of the pelvic diameters in New Zealand rabbits of both sexes were shown clearly. It was concluded that the pelvic diameters revealed by 3D modeling techniques can shed light on medical students who take both anatomy training and gynecological applications. The authors hope that the synchronization of medical approaches may give rise to novel diagnostic and therapeutic developments related to pelvic cavity.

  13. Clinical application of the three-dimensional reconstruction of spiral CT pneumocolon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shenping; Li Ziping; Xu Dasheng; Lin Erjian; Lin Peizhang; Xu Qiaolan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical role of the 3 types of reconstruction of the spiral CT pneumocolon in the diagnosis of colon lesions. Methods: Three types of reconstruction with spiral CT pneumocolon including air cast imaging (ACI), CT virtual endoscopy (CTVE), and multiple planner reconstruction (MPR) in 34 patients with colorectal cancer or polyps were correlated with surgical pathology respectively. Results: Among the 34 patients, 30 was colorectal cancer and 6 was polyps (2 of which in the proximal lumen of 2 colon cancer). (1) Comparison between the 3 types of the spiral CT pneumocolon reconstruction and pathology in colorectal cancer. 1) ACI: tumor patterns: coincide (n =22), anti-coincide (n = 8); tumor extension: coincide (n = 24), anti-coincide (n = 6); tumor size: coincide (n = 28), anti-coincide (n = 2). 2) CTVE: tumor patterns: coincide (n = 26), anti-coincide (n = 4); tumor extension: coincide (n = 25), anti-coincide ( n 5); tumor size: coincide (n = 23), anti-coincide (n = 7). 3) MPR: tumor patterns: coincide (n = 24), anti-coincide (n = 6); tumor extension: coincide (n = 30), anti-coincide (n = 0); tumor size: coincide (n = 26), anti-coincide (n = 4). (2) Comparison between the 3 types of the spiral CT pneumocolon reconstruction and pathology in colorectal polyps: the lesions were displayed in 4 (ACI) and in 6 (CTVE and MPR). Conclusion: (1) For the diagnosis of colorectal cancers: CTVE was the best means to display the tumor patterns, MPR most correct to judge the tumor extension, and ACI most suitable to measure the tumor size. (2) For the diagnosis of colorectal polyps, ACI can be used for oriented diagnosis, CTVE can well display the intra-luminal three-dimensional structure and can be used for characteristic diagnosis, MPR can be used for differential diagnosis

  14. Reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound from an edison cylinder using three dimensional non-contact optical surface metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadeyev, V.; Haber, C.; Maul, C.; McBride, J.W.; Golden, M.

    2004-04-20

    Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph disc record or cylinder may be reconstructed, without contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision optical metrology methods and digital image processing. The viability of this approach was recently demonstrated on a 78 rpm shellac disc using two dimensional image acquisition and analysis methods. The present work reports the first three dimensional reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound. The source material, a celluloid cylinder, was scanned using color coded confocal microscopy techniques and resulted in a faithful playback of the recorded information.

  15. Three-dimensional reconstruction of port wine stain vascular anatomy from serial histological sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smithies, D. J.; van Gemert, M. J.; Hansen, M. K.; Milner, T. E.; Nelson, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    Port wine stains (PWSs) treated with a flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser show a variability in clinical response that is incompletely understood. To identify any vascular structure that might adversely affect treatment response, we obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction of the vascular anatomy

  16. Three-dimensional Imaging for Large LArTPCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Viren, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Diwan, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-12-14

    High-performance event reconstruction is critical for current and future massive liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) to realize their full scientic potential. LArTPCs with readout using wire planes provides a limited number of 2D projections. In general, without a pixel-type readout it is challenging to achieve unambiguous 3D event reconstruction. As a remedy, we present a novel 3D imaging method, Wire-Cell, which incorporates the charge and sparsity information in addition to the time and geometry through simple and robust mathematics.

  17. Three-dimensional modeling and simulation of asphalt concrete mixtures based on X-ray CT microstructure images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hainian Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available X-ray CT (computed tomography was used to scan asphalt mixture specimen to obtain high resolution continuous cross-section images and the meso-structure. According to the theory of three-dimensional (3D reconstruction, the 3D reconstruction algorithm was investigated in this paper. The key to the reconstruction technique is the acquisition of the voxel positions and the relationship between the pixel element and node. Three-dimensional numerical model of asphalt mixture specimen was created by a self-developed program. A splitting test was conducted to predict the stress distributions of the asphalt mixture and verify the rationality of the 3D model.

  18. Three-dimensional imaging and scanning: Current and future applications for pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Farahani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging is vital for the assessment of physiologic and phenotypic details. In the past, biomedical imaging was heavily reliant on analog, low-throughput methods, which would produce two-dimensional images. However, newer, digital, and high-throughput three-dimensional (3D imaging methods, which rely on computer vision and computer graphics, are transforming the way biomedical professionals practice. 3D imaging has been useful in diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic decision-making for the medical and biomedical professions. Herein, we summarize current imaging methods that enable optimal 3D histopathologic reconstruction: Scanning, 3D scanning, and whole slide imaging. Briefly mentioned are emerging platforms, which combine robotics, sectioning, and imaging in their pursuit to digitize and automate the entire microscopy workflow. Finally, both current and emerging 3D imaging methods are discussed in relation to current and future applications within the context of pathology.

  19. Three-dimensional visualization of objects in scattering medium using integral imaging and spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonkyung; Yoo, Hoon

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional visualization method of 3D objects in a scattering medium. The proposed method employs integral imaging and spectral analysis to improve the visual quality of 3D images. The images observed from 3D objects in the scattering medium such as turbid water suffer from image degradation due to scattering. The main reason is that the observed image signal is very weak compared with the scattering signal. Common image enhancement techniques including histogram equalization and contrast enhancement works improperly to overcome the problem. Thus, integral imaging that enables to integrate the weak signals from multiple images was discussed to improve image quality. In this paper, we apply spectral analysis to an integral imaging system such as the computational integral imaging reconstruction. Also, we introduce a signal model with a visibility parameter to analyze the scattering signal. The proposed method based on spectral analysis efficiently estimates the original signal and it is applied to elemental images. The visibility-enhanced elemental images are then used to reconstruct 3D images using a computational integral imaging reconstruction algorithm. To evaluate the proposed method, we perform the optical experiments for 3D objects in turbid water. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method outperforms the existing methods.

  20. Brain volume measurement using three-dimensional magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Yoshihiro

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to validate accurate measurement method of human brain volume using three dimensional (3D) MRI data on a workstation, and to establish optimal correcting method of human brain volume on diagnosis of brain atrophy. 3D MRI data were acquired by fast SPGR sequence using 1.5 T MR imager. 3D MRI data were segmented by region growing method and 3D image was displayed by surface rendering method on the workstation. Brain volume was measured by the volume measurement function of the workstation. In order to validate the accurate measurement method, phantoms and a specimen of human brain were examined. Phantom volume was measured by changing the lower level of threshold value. At the appropriate threshold value, percentage of error of phantoms and the specimen were within 0.6% and 0.08%, respectively. To establish the optimal correcting method, 130 normal volunteers were examined. Brain volumes corrected with height weight, body surface area, and alternative skull volume were evaluated. Brain volume index, which is defined as dividing brain volume by alternative skull volume, had the best correlation with age (r=0.624, p<0.05). No gender differences was observed in brain volume index in contrast to in brain volume. The clinical usefulness of this correcting method for brain atrophy diagnosis was evaluated in 85 patients. Diagnosis by 2D spin echo MR images was compared with brain volume index. Diagnosis of brain atrophy by 2D MR image was concordant with the evaluation by brain volume index. These results indicated that this measurement method had high accuracy, and it was important to set the appropriate threshold value. Brain volume index was the appropriate indication for evaluation of human brain volume, and was considered to be useful for the diagnosis of brain atrophy. (author)

  1. Three-dimensional image analysis as a tool for embryology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Andre

    1992-06-01

    In the study of cell fate, cell lineage, and morphogenetic transformation it is necessary to obtain 3-D data. Serial sections of glutaraldehyde fixed and glycol methacrylate embedded material provide high resolution data. Clonal spread during germ layer formation in the mouse embryo has been followed by labeling a progenitor epiblast cell with horseradish peroxidase and staining its descendants one or two days later, followed by histological processing. Reconstruction of a 3-D image from histological sections must provide a solution for the alignment problem. As we want to study images at different magnification levels, we have chosen a method in which the sections are aligned under the microscope. Positioning is possible through a translation and a rotation stage. The first step for reconstruction is a coarse alignment on the basis of the moments in a binary, low magnification image of the embedding block. Thereafter, images of higher magnification levels are aligned by optimizing a similarity measure between the images. To analyze, first a global 3-D second order surface is fitted on the image to obtain the orientation of the embryo. The coefficients of this fit are used to normalize the size of the different embryos. Thereafter, the image is resampled with respect to the surface to create a 2-D mapping of the embryo and to guide the segmentation of the different cell layers which make up the embryo.

  2. Fuzzy B-spline optimization for urban slum three-dimensional reconstruction using ENVISAT satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghany, Maged

    2014-06-01

    A critical challenges in urban aeras is slums. In fact, they are considered a source of crime and disease due to poor-quality housing, unsanitary conditions, poor infrastructures and occupancy security. The poor in the dense urban slums are the most vulnerable to infection due to (i) inadequate and restricted access to safety, drinking water and sufficient quantities of water for personal hygiene; (ii) the lack of removal and treatment of excreta; and (iii) the lack of removal of solid waste. This study aims to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed countries such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize some 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that the fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate between them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slum. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that the fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data.

  3. Fuzzy B-spline optimization for urban slum three-dimensional reconstruction using ENVISAT satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marghany, Maged

    2014-01-01

    A critical challenges in urban aeras is slums. In fact, they are considered a source of crime and disease due to poor-quality housing, unsanitary conditions, poor infrastructures and occupancy security. The poor in the dense urban slums are the most vulnerable to infection due to (i) inadequate and restricted access to safety, drinking water and sufficient quantities of water for personal hygiene; (ii) the lack of removal and treatment of excreta; and (iii) the lack of removal of solid waste. This study aims to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed countries such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize some 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that the fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate between them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slum. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that the fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data

  4. A whole-mount immunofluorescence protocol for three-dimensional imaging of the embryonic mammary primordium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogata, Naoko; Howard, Beatrice A

    2013-06-01

    Whole-mount immunofluorescent staining facilitates the profiling of protein expression patterns within diverse and complex tissues. Thanks to the application of antibodies on whole mounted instead of sectioned specimens, this technique has many advantages with respect to the preservation of biological and pathological features of specimens when compared to conventional immunohistological methods. Here, we describe a protocol and optimal conditions of whole-mount immunofluorescence for studying the formation of mammary primordia. We also show an example three-dimensional reconstruction of a mammary primordium based on z-stacked images of a whole-mount stained specimen using confocal microscopy and image analysis software.

  5. Three-dimensional inkjet biofabrication based on designed images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenichi; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Toda, Hideki; Genci, Capi; Nakamura, Makoto; Nishiyama, Yuichi

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering has been developed with the ultimate aim of manufacturing human organs, but success has been limited to only thin tissues and tissues with no significant structures. In order to construct more complicated tissues, we have developed a three-dimensional (3D) fabrication technology in which 3D structures are directly built up by layer-by-layer printing with living cells and several tissue components. We developed a custom-made inkjet printer specially designed for this purpose. Recently, this printer was improved, and the on-demand printing mode was developed and installed to fabricate further complicated structures. As a result of this version, 3D layer-by-layer printing based on complicated image data has become possible, and several 2D and 3D structures with more complexity than before were successfully fabricated. The effectiveness of the on-demand printing mode in the fabrication of complicated 3D tissue structures was confirmed. As complicated 3D structures are essential for biofunctional tissues, inkjet 3D biofabrication has great potential for engineering complicated bio-functional tissues.

  6. Three-dimensional inkjet biofabrication based on designed images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Kenichi; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Toda, Hideki; Genci, Capi; Nakamura, Makoto [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Nishiyama, Yuichi, E-mail: maknaka@eng.u-toyama.ac.jp [Bioprinting Project of Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Kawasaki (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Tissue engineering has been developed with the ultimate aim of manufacturing human organs, but success has been limited to only thin tissues and tissues with no significant structures. In order to construct more complicated tissues, we have developed a three-dimensional (3D) fabrication technology in which 3D structures are directly built up by layer-by-layer printing with living cells and several tissue components. We developed a custom-made inkjet printer specially designed for this purpose. Recently, this printer was improved, and the on-demand printing mode was developed and installed to fabricate further complicated structures. As a result of this version, 3D layer-by-layer printing based on complicated image data has become possible, and several 2D and 3D structures with more complexity than before were successfully fabricated. The effectiveness of the on-demand printing mode in the fabrication of complicated 3D tissue structures was confirmed. As complicated 3D structures are essential for biofunctional tissues, inkjet 3D biofabrication has great potential for engineering complicated bio-functional tissues.

  7. Three-dimensional subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussally, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this applied research and development project is to develop a system known as '3-D SISAR'. This system consists of a ground penetrating radar with software algorithms designed for the detection, location, and identification of buried objects in the underground hazardous waste environments found at DOE storage sites. Three-dimensional maps of the object locations will be produced which can assist the development of remediation strategies and the characterization of the digface during remediation operations. It is expected that the 3-D SISAR will also prove useful for monitoring hydrocarbon based contaminant migration after remediation. The underground imaging technique being developed under this contract utilizes a spotlight mode Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) approach which, due to its inherent stand-off capability, will permit the rapid survey of a site and achieve a high degree of productivity over large areas. When deployed from an airborne platform, the stand-off techniques is also seen as a way to overcome practical survey limitations encountered at vegetated sites

  8. Differential diagnosis of vertical root fractures using reconstructed three-dimensional models of bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, K; Abe, Y; Yoshioka, T; Ishimura, H; Ebihara, A; Suda, H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of diagnosing vertical root fractures (VRFs) by comparing the volume of bone defects in VRFs with those in non-VRFs on reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) models (TDMs) using CBCT. 32 maxillary pre-molars and anterior teeth with radiolucent areas were evaluated on pre-operative CBCT images. Of the 32 teeth, 16 had a fractured root (VRF group) and 16 had a non-fractured root (non-VRF group). The radiolucent area of each tooth was traced in each dimension [mesiodistal, buccolingual and horizontal (the apicoincisal aspect)] by two observers, and 3D images were reconstructed with the Amira(®) software (Visage Imaging Inc., Richmond, Australia). The volume, V, of the TDM was divided into the coronal side and the periapical side at the horizontal slice through the apical foramen, and v was defined as the volume of the coronal side. The values of v/V were calculated for all cases. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare values between the VRF group and the non-VRF group (p < 0.05). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to select the optimal cut-point. There was a statistically significant difference in the value of v/V between the two groups (p < 0.05). With a cut-point derived from the ROC curve, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of predicting the VRFs were 1.00, 0.75 and 0.88, respectively. Lesions resulting from VRFs can be distinguished from those of non-VRFs on 3D CBCT images with a high degree of accuracy, based on their different 3D shapes.

  9. Three-dimensional display of the pelvic viscera using multi-sliced MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Shigeru; Suto, Yasuzo.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the pelvic structure is the most important factor to obtain desirable results after anorectal surgery. Preoperative evaluation of the anatomy is indispensable for choosing an appropriate operative method in each case. To facilitate the preoperative evaluation, three dimensional images of the pelvic structure of patients with anorectal malformations were constructed by computer graphics based upon two dimensional images obtained from MR-CT. Graphic data from MR images were transferred to a graphic work station. The anorectum, bladder and sphincter musculature were displayed three-dimensionally after segmenting these organs by (1) manually regioning the area containing the specific organ and (2) thresholding the area by the T 1 intensity level. The anatomy of each type of anomaly is easily recognized by the 3-D visualization of pelvic viscera and sphincter musculature with emphasis on position and shape of the musculature although there are some difficulties to visualize soft tissue organs. The advanced programs could show the graphic images from any desirable angle quickly enough to be helpful for the simulation of the surgery. Three-dimensional display can be very useful for better understanding of each anomaly and determining the operative method prior to surgery. (author)

  10. Observations of three dimensional images for cracks of doweled teeth. Comparison of images from specimen sections and dental tomograms from small three dimensional X-ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, Hiroko; Tsuchiya, Soichiro; Sasaki, Norichika

    2005-01-01

    Intraoral views of teeth with dowel and post hole taken by small three-dimensional X-ray CT (3 DX) were compared with three-dimensional images from specimen sections of the same extracted teeth. This comparison shows the usefulness of 3 DX for examination of cracked teeth in the oral cavity. After taking dental tomographic images using 3 DX for fractured teeth in the oral cavity, the fractured teeth were extracted and three-dimensional images for them and their cracks were obtained from a set of photographed sections. Then both sets of three-dimensional images for the fractured teeth were compared in terms of the form and region of the cracks. The tooth cracks were observed at the root face region in the intraoral view. Also, in the extracted teeth, fracture lines were recognized from the three-dimensional images. Moreover, a discontinuous image was obtained in teeth from the dental tomographic image using 3 DX. This discontinuous image in teeth was observed in the same region and direction as the cracks of the three dimensional image from specimen sections of the extracted teeth. The discontinuous images of teeth in the dental tomographic images from 3 DX were observed in the same region and direction as the cracks of teeth in the three-dimensional images from specimen sections of the extracted teeth. It was confirmed that dental tomographic images from 3 DX are useful for finding cracks in living teeth. However, dental tomographic images from small three-dimensional X-ray CT are not perfectly reliable because the discontinuous image is not found in some teeth where the cracks are recognized by images from specimen sections after extraction. (author)

  11. A three-dimensional computer graphic imaging for neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Masafumi; Onagi, Atsuo; Seiki, Yoshikatsu

    1987-01-01

    Information offered by conventional diagnostic tools for medical use, including X-ray films, CT, MRI, RI images and PET, are usually two-dimensional. However, the human body and pathological lesions are really extended in 3 dimensions. Interpreters have to reconstruct an imaginative, 3-dimensional configuration of lesions from 2-dimensional information on many films, according to their knowledge and experience. All this sometimes wastes a lot of time and gives rise to inconclusive discussion among interpreters. The advent and rapid progress of new computer graphic techniques, however, makes it possible to draw an apparent 3-dimensional image of a lesion on the basis of a 2-dimensional display; this is named a pseudo-3-dimensional image. After the region of interest of the CT-sliced image has been extracted by means of a semi-automatic contour extraction algorithm, multi-slice CT images are constructed by the voxel method. A 3-dimensional image is then generated by the use of the Z-buffer. Subsequently, transparent, semi-transparent, and color display are provided. This new method of display was used for CT-scan films of various intracerebral pathological lesions, including tumors, hematomas, and congenital anomalies: The benefits, prospects, and technical limits of this imaging technique for clinical use were discussed. (author)

  12. DART: a robust algorithm for fast reconstruction of three-dimensional grain maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batenburg, K.J.; Sijbers, J.; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2010-01-01

    A novel algorithm is introduced for fast and nondestructive reconstruction of grain maps from X-ray diffraction data. The discrete algebraic reconstruction technique (DART) takes advantage of the intrinsic discrete nature of grain maps, while being based on iterative algebraic methods known from...... classical tomography. To test the properties of the algorithm, three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy data are simulated and reconstructed with DART as well as by a conventional iterative technique, namely SIRT (simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique). For 100 × 100 pixel reconstructions...... and moderate noise levels, DART is shown to generate essentially perfect two-dimensional grain maps for as few as three projections per grain with running times on a PC in the range of less than a second. This is seen as opening up the possibility for fast reconstructions in connection with in situ studies....

  13. Three-dimensional ground penetrating radar imaging using multi-frequency diffraction tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    In this talk we present results from a three-dimensional image reconstruction algorithm for impulse radar operating in monostatic pule-echo mode. The application of interest to us is the nondestructive evaluation of civil structures such as bridge decks. We use a multi-frequency diffraction tomography imaging technique in which coherent backward propagations of the received reflected wavefield form a spatial image of the scattering interfaces within the region of interest. This imaging technique provides high-resolution range and azimuthal visualization of the subsurface region. We incorporate the ability to image in planarly layered conductive media and apply the algorithm to experimental data from an offset radar system in which the radar antenna is not directly coupled to the surface of the region. We present a rendering in three-dimensions of the resulting image data which provides high-detail visualization.

  14. Three-dimensional multislice CT imaging of otitis media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Miyako [Yanagibasi Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Akira; Furukawa, Tomoyasu; Ichikawa, Ginichiro [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Wada, Akihiro; Ando, Ichiro [Juntendo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Urayasu Hospital

    2002-07-01

    In recent years, the multislice CT system has come into practical use that enables table movement of half mm, resulting in a significant improvement in resolution. The use of this CT system enables to depict the entire auditory ossicles, including the stapes. 3D reconstruction was performed using helical CT data in 5 patients with chronic otitis media and 5 patients with cholesteatoma. An Aquilion Multi (Toshiba) multislice helical CT scanner and a Xtension (Toshiba) image workstation were used in this study. We demonstrated the 3D display with axial, coronal and sagittal images. Compared with the normal ears, it was necessary to set a higher threshold for the affected ears. It is important to select suitable threshold for demonstration of 3D images optimally. Bone destruction of the stapes was confirmed at surgery in 2 ears. The stapes was observed at 3D-CT imaging in other 18 ears. It was found that the 3D images of the ossicular destruction in ears with cholesteatoma were consistent with surgical findings. It is therefore concluded that 3D imaging of the middle ear using a multislice CT scanner is clinically useful. (author)

  15. Three-dimensional object recognition via integral imaging and scale invariant feature transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu

    2014-06-01

    We propose a three-dimensional (3D) object recognition approach via computational integral imaging and scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) that can be invariance to object changes in illumination, scale, rotation and affine. Usually, the matching between features extracted in reference object and that in computationally reconstructed image should be done for 3D object recognition. However, this process needs to alternately illustrate all of the depth images first which will affect the recognition efficiency. Considering that there are a set of elemental images with different viewpoint in integral imaging, we first recognize the object in 2D image by using five elemental images and then choose one elemental image with the most matching points from the five images. This selected image will include more information related to the reference object. Finally, we can use this selected elemental image and its neighboring elemental images which should also contain much reference object information to calculate the disparity with SIFT algorithm. Consequently, the depth of the 3D object can be achieved with stereo camera theory and the recognized 3D object can be reconstructed in computational integral imaging. This method sufficiently utilizes the different information provided by elemental images and the robust feature extraction SIFT algorithm to recognize 3D objects.

  16. Three-dimensional reconstruction of neutron, gamma-ray, and x-ray sources using spherical harmonic decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volegov, P. L.; Danly, C. R.; Fittinghoff, D.; Geppert-Kleinrath, V.; Grim, G.; Merrill, F. E.; Wilde, C. H.

    2017-11-01

    Neutron, gamma-ray, and x-ray imaging are important diagnostic tools at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measuring the two-dimensional (2D) size and shape of the neutron producing region, for probing the remaining ablator and measuring the extent of the DT plasmas during the stagnation phase of Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. Due to the difficulty and expense of building these imagers, at most only a few two-dimensional projections images will be available to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) sources. In this paper, we present a technique that has been developed for the 3D reconstruction of neutron, gamma-ray, and x-ray sources from a minimal number of 2D projections using spherical harmonics decomposition. We present the detailed algorithms used for this characterization and the results of reconstructed sources from experimental neutron and x-ray data collected at OMEGA and NIF.

  17. Mathematical modeling of three-dimensional images in emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koblik, Yu.N.; Khugaev, A. V.; Mktchyan, G.A.; Ioannou, P.; Dimovasili, E.

    2002-01-01

    The model of processing results of three-dimensional measurements in positron-emissive tomograph is proposed in this work. The algorithm of construction and visualization of phantom objects of arbitrary shape was developed and its concrete realization in view of program packet for PC was carried out

  18. Visual Interpretation with Three-Dimensional Annotations (VITA): three-dimensional image interpretation tool for radiological reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sharmili; Brown, Michael S; Shih, George L

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces a software framework called Visual Interpretation with Three-Dimensional Annotations (VITA) that is able to automatically generate three-dimensional (3D) visual summaries based on radiological annotations made during routine exam reporting. VITA summaries are in the form of rotating 3D volumes where radiological annotations are highlighted to place important clinical observations into a 3D context. The rendered volume is produced as a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) object and is automatically added to the study for archival in Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). In addition, a video summary (e.g., MPEG4) can be generated for sharing with patients and for situations where DICOM viewers are not readily available to referring physicians. The current version of VITA is compatible with ClearCanvas; however, VITA can work with any PACS workstation that has a structured annotation implementation (e.g., Extendible Markup Language, Health Level 7, Annotation and Image Markup) and is able to seamlessly integrate into the existing reporting workflow. In a survey with referring physicians, the vast majority strongly agreed that 3D visual summaries improve the communication of the radiologists' reports and aid communication with patients.

  19. Verifying Three-Dimensional Skull Model Reconstruction Using Cranial Index of Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kung, Woon-Man; Chen, Shuo-Tsung; Lin, Chung-Hsiang; Lu, Yu-Mei; Chen, Tzu-Hsuan; Lin, Muh-Shi

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Difficulty exists in scalp adaptation for cranioplasty with customized computer-assisted design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) implant in situations of excessive wound tension and sub-cranioplasty dead space. To solve this clinical problem, the CAD/CAM technique should include algorithms to reconstruct a depressed contour to cover the skull defect. Satisfactory CAM-derived alloplastic implants are based on highly accurate three-dimensional (3-D) CAD modeling. Thus, it is quite important ...

  20. A three-dimensional graphic reconstruction method of the vertebral column from CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbout, A.J.; Falke, T.H.M.; Tinkelenberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    The method of graphic reconstruction using the oblique view technique was applied on the transverse CT scans of the vertebral column. In the scanning procedure the low-dose thin-slice technique was used. The method proved valuable for the construction of three-dimensional models as reliable reproduction of the original. The results are useful for preoperative evaluation of the deformed spine as well as for anatomic research. (orig.)

  1. Three-dimensional reconstruction and modeling of middle ear biomechanics by high-resolution computed tomography and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Fone; Chen, Peir-Rong; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Liu, Tien-Chen

    2006-05-01

    To present a systematic and practical approach that uses high-resolution computed tomography to derive models of the middle ear for finite element analysis. This prospective study included 31 subjects with normal hearing and no previous otologic disorders. Temporal bone images obtained from 15 right ears and 16 left ears were used for evaluation and reconstruction. High-resolution computed tomography of temporal bone was performed using simultaneous acquisition of 16 sections with a collimated slice thickness of 0.625 mm. All images were transferred to an Amira visualization system for three-dimensional reconstruction. The created three-dimensional model was translated into two commercial modeling packages, Patran and ANSYS, for finite element analysis. The characteristic dimensions of the model were measured and compared with previously published histologic section data. This result confirms that the geometric model created by the proposed method is accurate except that the tympanic membrane is thicker than when measured by the histologic section method. No obvious difference in the geometrical dimension between right and left ossicles was found (P > .05). The three-dimensional model created by finite element method and predicted umbo and stapes displacements are close to the bounds of the experimental curves of Nishihara's, Huber's, Gan's, and Sun's data across the frequency range of 100 to 8000 Hz. The model includes a description of the geometry of the middle ear components and dynamic equations of vibration. The proposed method is quick, practical, low-cost, and, most importantly, noninvasive as compared with histologic section methods.

  2. A reconstruction algorithm for three-dimensional object-space data using spatial-spectral multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhejun; Kudenov, Michael W.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a reconstruction algorithm for the Spatial-Spectral Multiplexing (SSM) optical system. The goal of this algorithm is to recover the three-dimensional spatial and spectral information of a scene, given that a one-dimensional spectrometer array is used to sample the pupil of the spatial-spectral modulator. The challenge of the reconstruction is that the non-parametric representation of the three-dimensional spatial and spectral object requires a large number of variables, thus leading to an underdetermined linear system that is hard to uniquely recover. We propose to reparameterize the spectrum using B-spline functions to reduce the number of unknown variables. Our reconstruction algorithm then solves the improved linear system via a least- square optimization of such B-spline coefficients with additional spatial smoothness regularization. The ground truth object and the optical model for the measurement matrix are simulated with both spatial and spectral assumptions according to a realistic field of view. In order to test the robustness of the algorithm, we add Poisson noise to the measurement and test on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional spatial and spectral scenes. Our analysis shows that the root mean square error of the recovered results can be achieved within 5.15%.

  3. Three-dimensional dictionary-learning reconstruction of (23)Na MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Nicolas G R; Gnahm, Christine; Bachert, Peter; Ladd, Mark E; Nagel, Armin M

    2016-04-01

    To reduce noise and artifacts in (23)Na MRI with a Compressed Sensing reconstruction and a learned dictionary as sparsifying transform. A three-dimensional dictionary-learning compressed sensing reconstruction algorithm (3D-DLCS) for the reconstruction of undersampled 3D radial (23)Na data is presented. The dictionary used as the sparsifying transform is learned with a K-singular-value-decomposition (K-SVD) algorithm. The reconstruction parameters are optimized on simulated data, and the quality of the reconstructions is assessed with peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity (SSIM). The performance of the algorithm is evaluated in phantom and in vivo (23)Na MRI data of seven volunteers and compared with nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) and other Compressed Sensing reconstructions. The reconstructions of simulated data have maximal PSNR and SSIM for an undersampling factor (USF) of 10 with numbers of averages equal to the USF. For 10-fold undersampling, the PSNR is increased by 5.1 dB compared with the NUFFT reconstruction, and the SSIM by 24%. These results are confirmed by phantom and in vivo (23)Na measurements in the volunteers that show markedly reduced noise and undersampling artifacts in the case of 3D-DLCS reconstructions. The 3D-DLCS algorithm enables precise reconstruction of undersampled (23)Na MRI data with markedly reduced noise and artifact levels compared with NUFFT reconstruction. Small structures are well preserved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Imaging three-dimensional innervation zone distribution in muscles from M-wave recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan; Peng, Yun; Liu, Yang; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Ping; Zev Rymer, William; Zhang, Yingchun

    2017-06-01

    Objective. To localize neuromuscular junctions in skeletal muscles in vivo which is of great importance in understanding, diagnosing and managing of neuromuscular disorders. Approach. A three-dimensional global innervation zone imaging technique was developed to characterize the global distribution of innervation zones, as an indication of the location and features of neuromuscular junctions, using electrically evoked high-density surface electromyogram recordings. Main results. The performance of the technique was evaluated in the biceps brachii of six intact human subjects. The geometric centers of the distributions of the reconstructed innervation zones were determined with a mean distance of 9.4  ±  1.4 cm from the reference plane, situated at the medial epicondyle of the humerus. A mean depth was calculated as 1.5  ±  0.3 cm from the geometric centers to the closed points over the skin. The results are consistent with those reported in previous histology studies. It was also found that the volumes and distributions of the reconstructed innervation zones changed as the stimulation intensities increased until the supramaximal muscle response was achieved. Significance. Results have demonstrated the high performance of the proposed imaging technique in noninvasively imaging global distributions of the innervation zones in the three-dimensional muscle space in vivo, and the feasibility of its clinical applications, such as guiding botulinum toxin injections in spasticity management, or in early diagnosis of neurodegenerative progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  5. Three-dimensional wake reconstruction of a flapping-wing MAV using a Kriging regression technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Percin, M.; De Baar, J.H.S.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.; Dwight, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    The work explores the three-dimensional unsteady wake of a flapping-wing Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) ‘DelFly II’, applying a Kriging regression technique for the spatial regression of time-resolved Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (Stereo-PIV) data. In the view of limited number of measurement

  6. Efficient three-dimensional reconstruction of aquatic vegetation geometry: Estimating morphological parameters influencing hydrodynamic drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Jean; Lynn, Kendra; Strigul, Nikolay; Norris, Benjamin K.; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Mullarney, Julia C.; Bryan, Karin, R.; Henderson, Stephen M.

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic vegetation can shelter coastlines from energetic waves and tidal currents, sometimes enabling accretion of fine sediments. Simulation of flow and sediment transport within submerged canopies requires quantification of vegetation geometry. However, field surveys used to determine vegetation geometry can be limited by the time required to obtain conventional caliper and ruler measurements. Building on recent progress in photogrammetry and computer vision, we present a method for reconstructing three-dimensional canopy geometry. The method was used to survey a dense canopy of aerial mangrove roots, called pneumatophores, in Vietnam's Mekong River Delta. Photogrammetric estimation of geometry required 1) taking numerous photographs at low tide from multiple viewpoints around 1 m2 quadrats, 2) computing relative camera locations and orientations by triangulation of key features present in multiple images and reconstructing a dense 3D point cloud, and 3) extracting pneumatophore locations and diameters from the point cloud data. Step 3) was accomplished by a new 'sector-slice' algorithm, yielding geometric parameters every 5 mm along a vertical profile. Photogrammetric analysis was compared with manual caliper measurements. In all 5 quadrats considered, agreement was found between manual and photogrammetric estimates of stem number, and of number × mean diameter, which is a key parameter appearing in hydrodynamic models. In two quadrats, pneumatophores were encrusted with numerous barnacles, generating a complex geometry not resolved by hand measurements. In remaining cases, moderate agreement between manual and photogrammetric estimates of stem diameter and solid volume fraction was found. By substantially reducing measurement time in the field while capturing in greater detail the 3D structure, photogrammetry has potential to improve input to hydrodynamic models, particularly for simulations of flow through large-scale, heterogenous canopies.

  7. Three-dimensional reconstruction of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes and organelle distribution along the cell division cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Thiago Cesar Prata; Freymüller-Haapalainen, Edna; Schenkman, Sergio

    2011-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the protozoan that causes Chagas disease. It divides in the insect vector gut or in the cytosol of an infected mammalian cell. T. cruzi has one mitochondrion, one Golgi complex, one flagellum, and one cytostome. Here, we provide three-dimensional (3D) models of this protozoan based on images obtained from serial sections on electron microscopy at different stages of the cell cycle. Ultrathin serial sections were obtained from Epon™ embedded parasites, photographed in a transmission electron microscope, and 3D models were generated using Reconstruct and Blender 3D modeling softwares. The localization and distribution of organelles was evaluated and attributed to specific morphological patterns and deduced by distribution of specific markers by immunofluorescence analysis. The new features found in the 3D reconstructions are (1) the electron-dense chromatin is interconnected leaving an internal space for a centrally located nucleolus; (2) The kinetoplast is accommodated within a separated branch of the tubular and single mitochondrion; (3) The disk shaped kinetoplast, which is the mitochondrial DNA, duplicates from the interior in G2 phase; (4) The mitochondrion faces the external membrane and shrinks to accommodate an enlarged number of cytosolic vesicles from G1 to G2; (5) The cytostome progress from the parasite surface toward the posterior end contouring the kinetoplast and nucleus and retracts during cell cycle. These new observations might help understanding how organelles are formed and distributed in early divergent eukaryotic cells and provides a useful method to understand the organelle distribution in small eukaryotic cells. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  8. Microwave Imaging of Three-Dimensional Targets by Means of an Inexact-Newton-Based Inversion Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Estatico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A microwave imaging method previously developed for tomographic inspection of dielectric targets is extended to three-dimensional objects. The approach is based on the full vector equations of the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem. The ill-posedness of the problem is faced by the application of an inexact-Newton method. Preliminary reconstruction results are reported.

  9. Three-dimensional Reconstruction Method Study Based on Interferometric Circular SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Liying

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Circular Synthetic Aperture Radar (CSAR can acquire targets’ scattering information in all directions by a 360° observation, but a single-track CSAR cannot efficiently obtain height scattering information for a strong directive scatter. In this study, we examine the typical target of the three-dimensional circular SAR interferometry theoryand validate the theory in a darkroom experiment. We present a 3D reconstruction of the actual tank metal model of interferometric CSAR for the first time, verify the validity of the method, and demonstrate the important potential applications of combining 3D reconstruction with omnidirectional observation.

  10. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction and Solar Energy Potential Estimation of Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Li, M.; Cheng, L.; Xu, H.; Li, S.; Liu, X.

    2017-12-01

    In the context of the construction of low-carbon cities, green cities and eco-cities, the ability of the airborne and mobile LiDAR should be explored in urban renewable energy research. As the main landscape in urban environment, buildings have large regular envelopes could receive a huge amount of solar radiation. In this study, a relatively complete calculation scheme about building roof and façade solar utilization potential is proposed, using building three-dimensional geometric feature information. For measuring the city-level building solar irradiance, the precise three-dimensional building roof and façade models should be first reconstructed from the airborne and mobile LiDAR, respectively. In order to obtaining the precise geometric structure of building facades from the mobile LiDAR data, a new method for structure detection and the three-dimensional reconstruction of building façades from mobile LiDAR data is proposed. The method consists of three steps: the preprocessing of façade points, the detection of façade structure, the restoration and reconstruction of building façade. As a result, the reconstruction method can effectively deal with missing areas caused by occlusion, viewpoint limitation, and uneven point density, as well as realizing the highly complete 3D reconstruction of a building façade. Furthermore, the window areas can be excluded for more accurate estimation of solar utilization potential. After then, the solar energy utilization potential of global building roofs and facades is estimate by using the solar irradiance model, which combine the analysis of the building shade and sky diffuse, based on the analysis of the geometrical structure of buildings.

  11. [Application of three-dimensional laser scanning-based maxillofacial soft tissue reconstruction in orthodontic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Wu, Bu-ling; Bi, Zhen-yu; Jiao, Pei-feng; Zhao, Wei-dong; Sun, Feng-yang; Xu, Hui-yong; Liu, Yang

    2011-05-01

    To establish a convenient and rapid method for constructing a digital model of the maxillofacial soft tissue based on three-dimensional laser surface scanning to allow direct and accurate observation of the soft tissue changes in the course of orthodontic treatment. The point cloud data of three-dimensional laser scanning of the maxillofacial region were acquired from a healthy woman with Angle Class I occlusion, who maintained a horizontal Frankfort plane during scanning with the scanner placed at a distance of 80 cm. The scanning was repeated twice after wearing the dental cast for an Angle Class I occlusion. The three-dimensional digital model of the maxillofacial soft tissue was constructed based on the point cloud using GeoMagic10.0 software. The high-resolution three-dimensional model of the maxillofacial soft tissue reconstructed allowed accurate observation of the distinct facial anatomical landmarks and represented directly the soft tissue changes in the process of orthodontic treatment by merging the models. Using the analytic tool provided by the software, this model also allowed direct quantitative measurement of the nasolabial angle and the distances from the esthetic plane to the upper lip, labral inferior, and mentolabial sulcus, which were 111.86°, -3.57 mm, -2.54 mm, and 3.95 mm before orthodontic treatment as compared to 114.31°, -2.73 mm, -1.06 mm, and 3.46 mm during treatment, and 116.53°, -0.15 mm, 0.64 mm, and 3.11 mm after the treatment, respectively. Three-dimensional laser surface scanning enables accurate and rapid construction of the digital model of the facial soft tissues, which may provide valuable assistance in orthodontic treatment.

  12. A prospective comparison between three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and ventriculography for target-coordinate determination in frame-based functional stereotactic neurosurgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, P. R.; de Bie, R. M.; Majoie, C. B.; Speelman, J. D.; Bosch, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECT: The purpose of this prospective study was to compare stereotactic coordinates obtained with ventriculography with coordinates derived from stereotactic computer-reconstructed three-dimensional magnetic resonance (3D-MR) imaging in functional stereotactic procedures. METHODS: In 15

  13. Three-dimensional, subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussally, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this applied research and devolpment project is to develop a system known as 3-D SISAR. This sytem consists of a gound penetrating radar with software algorithms designed for detection, location, and identification of buried objects in the underground hazardous waste environments found at US DOE storage sites. Three-dimensional maps can assist the development of remdiation strategies and characterization of the digface during remediation. The system should also be useful for monitoring hydrocarbon-based contaminant migration after remediation. 5 figs

  14. Three-dimensional imaging of trapped cold atoms with a light field microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Gordon E; Marciniak, Michael A; Burke, John H

    2017-11-01

    This research images trapped atoms in three dimensions, utilizing light field imaging. Such a system is of interest in the development of atom interferometer accelerometers in dynamic systems where strictly defined focal planes may be impractical. In this research, a light field microscope was constructed utilizing a Lytro Development Kit micro lens array and sensor. It was used to image fluorescing rubidium atoms in a magneto optical trap. The three-dimensional (3D) volume of the atoms is reconstructed using a modeled point spread function (PSF), taking into consideration that the low magnification (1.25) of the system changed typical assumptions used in the optics model for the PSF. The 3D reconstruction is analyzed with respect to a standard off-axis fluorescence image. Optical axis separation between two atom clouds is measured to a 100 μm accuracy in a 3 mm deep volume, with a 16 μm in-focus standard resolution with a 3.9 mm by 3.9 mm field of view. Optical axis spreading is observed in the reconstruction and discussed. The 3D information can be used to determine properties of the atom cloud with a single camera and single image, and can be applied anywhere 3D information is needed but optical access may be limited.

  15. Three-Dimensional Microwave Imaging for Concealed Weapon Detection Using Range Stacking Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixian Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D microwave imaging has been proven to be well suited for concealed weapon detection application. For the 3D image reconstruction under two-dimensional (2D planar aperture condition, most of current imaging algorithms focus on decomposing the 3D free space Green function by exploiting the stationary phase and, consequently, the accuracy of the final imagery is obtained at a sacrifice of computational complexity due to the need of interpolation. In this paper, from an alternative viewpoint, we propose a novel interpolation-free imaging algorithm based on wavefront reconstruction theory. The algorithm is an extension of the 2D range stacking algorithm (RSA with the advantages of low computational cost and high precision. The algorithm uses different reference signal spectrums at different range bins and then forms the target functions at desired range bin by a concise coherent summation. Several practical issues such as the propagation loss compensation, wavefront reconstruction, and aliasing mitigating are also considered. The sampling criterion and the achievable resolutions for the proposed algorithm are also derived. Finally, the proposed method is validated through extensive computer simulations and real-field experiments. The results show that accurate 3D image can be generated at a very high speed by utilizing the proposed algorithm.

  16. Three-dimensional modeler for animated images display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubekeur, Rania

    1987-01-01

    The mv3d software allows the modeling and display of three dimensional objects in interpretative mode with animation possibility in real time. This system is intended for a graphical extension of a FORTH interpreter (implemented by CEA/IRDI/D.LETI/DEIN) in order to control a specific hardware (3.D card designed and implemented by DEIN) allowing the generation of three dimensional objects. The object description is carried out with a specific graphical language integrated in the FORTH interpreter. Objects are modeled using elementary solids called basic forms (cube, cone, cylinder...) assembled with classical geometric transformations (rotation, translation and scaling). These basic forms are approximated by plane polygonal facets further divided in triangles. Coordinates of the summits of triangles constitute the geometrical data. These are sent to the 3.D. card for processing and display. Performed processing are: geometrical transformations on display, hidden surface elimination, shading and clipping. The mv3d software is not an entire modeler but a simple, modular and extensible tool, to which other specific functions may be easily added such as: robots motion, collisions... (author) [fr

  17. Three-dimensional display of blood vessels and soft tissues with MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Y.; Sato, H.; Machida, Y.; Yoshida, T.

    1988-01-01

    The authors developed a three-dimensional display technique for blood vessels related to soft tissues, using MR images generated by the three-dimensional Fourier transform method or multisection method. An application of this study for neurosurgery provided satisfactory results. In this paper they describe this display technique and its clinical practice, including procedures (1) to enhance blood vessels by nonlinear filter capable of detecting three-dimensional line patterns without losing the form of soft tissues, (2) to generate three-dimensional images by the numerical projection, and (3) to present three-dimensional display utilizing the dynamic or binocular parallex (animation display or stereoscopic display). This technique facilitates the recognition of the three-dimensional structure of blood vessels related to soft tissues

  18. Technology and clinical use of three-dimensional image processing in radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Yoshihide; Ozaki, Shin

    1986-01-01

    An attempt was made to express the three-dimensional relationship between body organs and incident high energy beams by applying three-dimensional images. In addition to the traditional CT cut-surface images, shading images in which the calculation was made faster and easier, was able to be applied. Presentation of the organ shape superposed by isodose curves can be obtained as shading images by inputting certain values of the isodose curves. This allowed easier three-dimensional recognition of how the isodose curves come close together. This paper describes the procedure of digital image processing of images of shading and CT cut-surface. (author)

  19. Quantitative Assessment of the Rat Intrahepatic Biliary System by Three-Dimensional Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masyuk, Tatyana V.; Ritman, Erik L.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.

    2001-01-01

    The anatomical details of the biliary tree architecture of normal rats and rats in whom selective proliferation was induced by feeding α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) were reconstructed in three dimension using a microscopic-computed tomography scanner. The intrahepatic biliary tree was filled with a silicone polymer through the common bile duct and each liver lobe embedded in Bioplastic; specimens were then scanned by a microscopic-computed tomography scanner and modified Feldkamp cone beam backprojection algorithm applied to generate three-dimensional images. Quantitative analysis of bile duct geometry was performed using a customized software program. The diameter of the bile duct segments of normal and ANIT-fed rats progressively decreased with increasing length of the biliary tree. Diameter of bile ducts from ANIT-fed rats (range, 21 to 264 μm) was similar to that of normal rats (22 to 279 μm). In contrast, the number of bile duct segments along the major branch reproducibly doubled, the length of the bile duct segments decreased twofold, and the length of the biliary tree remained unchanged after ANIT feeding. Moreover, the total volume of the biliary tree of ANIT-fed rats was significantly greater (855 μl) than in normal rats (47 μl). Compared with normal rats, the total surface area of the biliary tree increased 26 times after ANIT-induced bile duct proliferation. Taken together, these observations quantitate the anatomical remodeling after selective cholangiocyte proliferation and strongly suggest that the proliferative process involves sprouting of new side branches. Our results may be relevant to the mechanisms by which ducts proliferate in response to hepatic injury and to the hypercholeresis that occurs after experimentally induced bile duct proliferation. PMID:11395385

  20. Carotid plaque segmentation from three-dimensional ultrasound images by direct three-dimensional sparse field level-set optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jieyu; Chen, Yimin; Yu, Yanyan; Chiu, Bernard

    2018-03-01

    Total plaque volume (TPV) measured from 3D carotid ultrasound has been shown to be able to predict cardiovascular events and is sensitive in detecting treatment effects. Manual plaque segmentation was performed in previous studies to quantify TPV, but is tedious, requires long training times and is prone to observer variability. This article introduces the first 3D direct volume-based level-set algorithm to segment plaques from 3D carotid ultrasound images. The plaque surfaces were first initialized based on the lumen and outer wall boundaries generated by a previously described semi-automatic algorithm and then deformed by a direct three-dimensional sparse field level-set algorithm, which enforced the longitudinal continuity of the segmented plaque surfaces. This is a marked advantage as compared to a previously proposed 2D slice-by-slice plaque segmentation method. In plaque boundary initialization, the previous technique performed a search on lines connecting corresponding point pairs of the outer wall and lumen boundaries. A limitation of this initialization strategy was that an inaccurate initial plaque boundary would be generated if the plaque was not enclosed entirely by the wall and lumen boundaries. A mechanism is proposed to extend the search range in order to capture the entire plaque if the outer wall boundary lies on a weak edge in the 3D ultrasound image. The proposed method was compared with the previously described 2D slice-by-slice plaque segmentation method in 26 three-dimensional carotid ultrasound images containing 27 plaques with volumes ranging from 12.5 to 450.0 mm 3 . The manually segmented plaque boundaries serve as the surrogate gold standard. Segmentation accuracy was quantified by volume-, area- and distance-based metrics, including absolute plaque volume difference (|ΔPV|), Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), mean and maximum absolute distance (MAD and MAXD). The proposed direct 3D plaque segmentation algorithm was associated with a

  1. Application of Time-Frequency Domain Transform to Three-Dimensional Interpolation of Medical Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shengqing; Chen, Yimin; Li, Zeyu; Lu, Jiahui; Gao, Mingke; Lu, Rongrong

    2017-11-01

    Medical image three-dimensional (3D) interpolation is an important means to improve the image effect in 3D reconstruction. In image processing, the time-frequency domain transform is an efficient method. In this article, several time-frequency domain transform methods are applied and compared in 3D interpolation. And a Sobel edge detection and 3D matching interpolation method based on wavelet transform is proposed. We combine wavelet transform, traditional matching interpolation methods, and Sobel edge detection together in our algorithm. What is more, the characteristics of wavelet transform and Sobel operator are used. They deal with the sub-images of wavelet decomposition separately. Sobel edge detection 3D matching interpolation method is used in low-frequency sub-images under the circumstances of ensuring high frequency undistorted. Through wavelet reconstruction, it can get the target interpolation image. In this article, we make 3D interpolation of the real computed tomography (CT) images. Compared with other interpolation methods, our proposed method is verified to be effective and superior.

  2. Systems and methods that generate height map models for efficient three dimensional reconstruction from depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Jan-Michael; Pollefeys, Marc Andre Leon; Gallup, David Robert

    2015-12-08

    Methods of generating a three dimensional representation of an object in a reference plane from a depth map including distances from a reference point to pixels in an image of the object taken from a reference point. Weights are assigned to respective voxels in a three dimensional grid along rays extending from the reference point through the pixels in the image based on the distances in the depth map from the reference point to the respective pixels, and a height map including an array of height values in the reference plane is formed based on the assigned weights. An n-layer height map may be constructed by generating a probabilistic occupancy grid for the voxels and forming an n-dimensional height map comprising an array of layer height values in the reference plane based on the probabilistic occupancy grid.

  3. Integrated three-dimensional display of MR, CT, and PET images of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.N.; Herrmann, A.; Chen, G.T.Y.

    1988-01-01

    MR, CT, and PET studies depict complementary aspects of brain anatomy and function. The authors' own image-processing software and a Pixar image computer were used to create three-dimensional models of brain soft tissues from MR images, of the skull and calcifications from CT scans, and of brain metabolism from PET images. An image correlation program, based on surface fitting, was used for retrospective registration and merging of these three-dimensional models. The results are demonstrated in a video clip showing how the operator may rotate and perform electronic surgery on the integrated, multimodality three-dimensional model of each patient's brain

  4. Measurement of acetabular morphology under three-dimensional reconstruction of CT and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yingying; Yang Qiwei; Lai Ying; Hao Shuang; Ma Hecheng; Xiao Chengshuang; Li Youqiong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To measure the acetabular morphology of Chinese on CT three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction image, and provide the evidence on the prevention and treatment of hip disease. Methods: 96 cases (192 sides) of adult hip CT scans were reconstructed, the acetabular index (AA), center-edge (CE), ACE angle, anteversion angle (AVA), abduction angle (ABA), and vertical diameter (SID) were measured. Results: The total acetabular index was (8.78±5.34)°, of which male was (7.84±5.55)° and female was (9.60±5.06)°. The total CE was (33.59±5.91)°, of which male was (34.55±6.03)° and female was (32.78±5.70)°. The total ACE angle was (29.01±5.65)°, of which male was (28.02±5.94)° and female was (29.80±5.30)°. The total AVA was (20.92±5.55)°, of which male was (20.48±5.08)° and female was (21.25±5.89)°. The total ABA was (51.27±4.16)°, of which male was (51.71±4.37)° and female was (50.89±3.96)°. The total SID was (53.79±3.92) mm, of which male was (56.55±2.64) mm and female was (51.46±3.25) mm. Of the above data, there were statistical differences in the acetabular index, CE angle, ACE angle and acetabular diameter between men and women (P<0.05), Chinese and foreigners (P<0.05). While there was no statistical difference between the left and right sides (P>0.05). Conclusion: There are differences in acetabular morphology between men and women, Chinese and foreigners. Compared with simply using overseas data, it is better to study morphological parameters of native acetabula to instruct the preoperative preparation and operation of national total hip arthroplasty surgery. And it is meaningful to design national parameters. (authors)

  5. Three-dimensional CT angiography: a new technique for imaging microvascular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregaskiss, Ashley P; Goodwin, Adam N; Bright, Linda D; Ziegler, Craig H; Acland, Robert D

    2007-03-01

    To date there has been no satisfactory research method for imaging microvascular anatomy in three dimensions (3D). In this article we present a new technique that allows both qualitative and quantitative examination of the microvasculature in 3D. In 10 fresh cadavers (7 females, 3 males, mean age 68 years), selected arteries supplying the abdominal wall and back were injected with a lead oxide/gelatin contrast mixture. From these regions, 30 specimens were dissected free and imaged with a 16-slice spiral computed tomographic (CT) scanner. Using three-dimensional CT (3D-CT) angiography, reconstructions of the microvasculature of each specimen were produced and examined for their qualitative content. Two calibration tools were constructed to determine (1) the accuracy of linear measurements made with CT software tools, and (2) the smallest caliber blood vessel that is reliably represented on 3D-CT reconstructions. Three-dimensional CT angiography produced versatile, high quality angiograms of the microvasculature. Correlation between measurements made with electronic calipers and CT software tools was very high (Lin's concordance coefficient, 0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99)). The finest caliber of vessel reliably represented on the 3D-CT reconstructions was 0.4 mm internal diameter. In summary, 3D-CT angiography is a simple, accurate, and reproducible method that imparts a much improved perception of anatomy when compared with existing research methods. Measurement tools provide accurate quantitative data to aid vessel mapping and preoperative planning. Further work will be needed to explore the full utility of 3D-CT angiography in a clinical setting.

  6. Application of Symmetry Adapted Function Method for Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Octahedral Biological Macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songjun Zeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for three-dimensional (3D reconstruction of macromolecule assembles, that is, octahedral symmetrical adapted functions (OSAFs method, was introduced in this paper and a series of formulations for reconstruction by OSAF method were derived. To verify the feasibility and advantages of the method, two octahedral symmetrical macromolecules, that is, heat shock protein Degp24 and the Red-cell L Ferritin, were utilized as examples to implement reconstruction by the OSAF method. The schedule for simulation was designed as follows: 2000 random orientated projections of single particles with predefined Euler angles and centers of origins were generated, then different levels of noises that is signal-to-noise ratio (S/N =0.1,0.5, and 0.8 were added. The structures reconstructed by the OSAF method were in good agreement with the standard models and the relative errors of the structures reconstructed by the OSAF method to standard structures were very little even for high level noise. The facts mentioned above account for that the OSAF method is feasible and efficient approach to reconstruct structures of macromolecules and have ability to suppress the influence of noise.

  7. A fully three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm with the nonstationary filter for improved single-orbit cone beam SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Z.J.; Tsui, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional single-orbit cone beam tomography presents special problems. They include incomplete sampling and inadequate three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction algorithm. The commonly used Feldkamp reconstruction algorithm simply extends the two-dimensional (2D) fan beam algorithm to 3D cone beam geometry. A truly 3D reconstruction formulation has been derived for the single-orbit cone beam SPECT based on the 3D Fourier slice theorem. In the formulation, a nonstationary filter which depends on the distance from the central plane of the cone beam was derived. The filter is applied to the 2D projection data in directions along and normal to the axis-of-rotation. The 3D reconstruction algorithm with the nonstationary filter was evaluated using both computer simulation and experimental measurements. Significant improvement in image quality was demonstrated in terms of decreased artifacts and distortions in cone beam reconstructed images. However, compared with the Feldkamp algorithm, a five-fold increase in processing time is required. Further improvement in image quality needs complete sampling in frequency space

  8. Three-Dimensional Terahertz Coded-Aperture Imaging Based on Single Input Multiple Output Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Luo, Chenggao; Deng, Bin; Wang, Hongqiang; Cheng, Yongqiang; Zhuang, Zhaowen

    2018-01-19

    As a promising radar imaging technique, terahertz coded-aperture imaging (TCAI) can achieve high-resolution, forward-looking, and staring imaging by producing spatiotemporal independent signals with coded apertures. In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional (3D) TCAI architecture based on single input multiple output (SIMO) technology, which can reduce the coding and sampling times sharply. The coded aperture applied in the proposed TCAI architecture loads either purposive or random phase modulation factor. In the transmitting process, the purposive phase modulation factor drives the terahertz beam to scan the divided 3D imaging cells. In the receiving process, the random phase modulation factor is adopted to modulate the terahertz wave to be spatiotemporally independent for high resolution. Considering human-scale targets, images of each 3D imaging cell are reconstructed one by one to decompose the global computational complexity, and then are synthesized together to obtain the complete high-resolution image. As for each imaging cell, the multi-resolution imaging method helps to reduce the computational burden on a large-scale reference-signal matrix. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed architecture can achieve high-resolution imaging with much less time for 3D targets and has great potential in applications such as security screening, nondestructive detection, medical diagnosis, etc.

  9. Three-Dimensional Terahertz Coded-Aperture Imaging Based on Single Input Multiple Output Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a promising radar imaging technique, terahertz coded-aperture imaging (TCAI can achieve high-resolution, forward-looking, and staring imaging by producing spatiotemporal independent signals with coded apertures. In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional (3D TCAI architecture based on single input multiple output (SIMO technology, which can reduce the coding and sampling times sharply. The coded aperture applied in the proposed TCAI architecture loads either purposive or random phase modulation factor. In the transmitting process, the purposive phase modulation factor drives the terahertz beam to scan the divided 3D imaging cells. In the receiving process, the random phase modulation factor is adopted to modulate the terahertz wave to be spatiotemporally independent for high resolution. Considering human-scale targets, images of each 3D imaging cell are reconstructed one by one to decompose the global computational complexity, and then are synthesized together to obtain the complete high-resolution image. As for each imaging cell, the multi-resolution imaging method helps to reduce the computational burden on a large-scale reference-signal matrix. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed architecture can achieve high-resolution imaging with much less time for 3D targets and has great potential in applications such as security screening, nondestructive detection, medical diagnosis, etc.

  10. A pilot study of three dimensional color CT images of brain diseases to improve informed consent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanizaki, Yoshio; Akiyama, Takenori; Hiraga, Kenji; Akaji, Kazunori

    2005-01-01

    We have described brain diseases to patients and their family using monochrome CT images. It is thought that patients have difficulties in giving their consent to our conventional explanation because their understanding of brain diseases is based on three dimensional and color images, however, standard CT images are two dimensional and gray scale images. We have been trying to use three dimensional color CT images to improve the typical patient's comprehension of brain diseases. We also try to simulate surgery using these images. Multi-slice CT accumulates precise isotropic voxel data within a half minute. These two dimensional and monochrome data are converted to three dimensional color CT images by 3D workstation. Three dimensional color CT images of each brain structures (e.g. scalp, skull, brain, ventricles and lesions) are created separately. Then, selected structures are fused together for different purposes. These images are able to rotate around any axis. Because the methods to generate three-dimensional color images have not established, we neurosurgeons must create these images. In particular, when an operation is required, the surgeon should create the images. In this paper, we demonstrate how three-dimensional color CT images can improve informed consent. (author)

  11. Postoperative assessment of surgical results using three dimensional surface reconstruction CT (3D-CT) in a craniofacial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Jiro; Sato, Kaoru; Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Takashi; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Akagawa, Tetsuya.

    1988-01-01

    In 1983, Michael W. Vannier and Jeffrey L. Marsh developed a computer method that reconstructs three dimensional (3D) born and soft tissue surfaces, given a high resolution CT scan-series of the facial skeleton. This method has been applied to craniofacial anomalies, basal encephaloceles, and musculoskeletal anomalies. In this study, a postoperative assessment of the craniofacial surgical results has been accomplished using this 3D-CT in 2 children with craniofacial dysmorphism. The authors discuss the advantages of this 3D-CT imaging method in the postoperative assessments of craniofacial anomalies. Results are detailed in the following listing : 1) a postoperative 3D-CT reveals the anatomical details corrected by the craniofacial surgery more precisely and stereographically than conventional radiological methods ; 2) secondary changes of the cranium after the surgery, such as bony formation in the area of the osteotomy and postoperative asymmetric deformities, are detected early by the 3D-CT imaging technique, and, 3) 3D-CT mid-sagittal and top axial views of the intracranial skull base are most useful in postoperative assessments of the surgical results. Basesd on our experience, we expect that three dimensional surface reconstructions from CT scans will become to be used widely in the postoperative assessments of the surgical results of craniofacial anomalies. (author)

  12. Three-dimensional bubble field resolution using synthetic aperture imaging: application to a plunging jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Jesse; Ravela, Sai; Truscott, Tadd T.; Techet, Alexandra H.

    2012-09-01

    A methodology for resolving three-dimensional (3D) bubble fields using 3D synthetic aperture imaging (SA imaging) is developed and applied to the bubbly flows induced by a turbulent circular plunging jet. 3D SA imaging involves capturing entirely in-focus images in an array of cameras with multiple viewpoints, then reprojecting the images into the measurement volume and combining them post capture. The result is a stack of synthetically refocused images that span the measurement volume with each refocused image having a narrow focus on a particular plane. In this paper, bubble shadow images are captured by projecting diffuse backlight onto the measurement volume. 3D SA imaging is ideally suited to investigate optically dense multiphase flows due to the ability to reconstruct volumes that contain partial occlusions. Instantaneous bubble sizes and locations in the plunging jet bubble fields are extracted from the volumes using two feature extraction algorithms and presented for various jet heights. The data are compared with existing literature on bubble penetration depth and size distributions. A scaling law for the integrated air concentration as a function of depth below the free-surface is proposed. Coupled with scaling laws for a parameter describing the radius of the bubble cone and radial concentration profiles, this new scaling law can be used to determine the entire air concentration profile given a minimal number of single-point measurements.

  13. Early orthognathic surgery with three-dimensional image simulation during presurgical orthodontics in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Moon-Key; Park, Sun-Yeon; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Park, Wonse; Lee, Sang-Hwy

    2011-03-01

    To correct dentofacial deformities, three-dimensional skeletal analysis and computerized orthognathic surgery simulation are used to facilitate accurate diagnoses and surgical plans. Computed tomography imaging of dental occlusion can inform three-dimensional facial analyses and orthognathic surgical simulations. Furthermore, three-dimensional laser scans of a cast model of the predetermined postoperative dental occlusion can be used to increase the accuracy of the preoperative surgical simulation. In this study, we prepared cast models of planned postoperative dental occlusions from 12 patients diagnosed with skeletal class III malocclusions with mandibular prognathism and facial asymmetry that had planned to undergo bimaxillary orthognathic surgery during preoperative orthodontic treatment. The data from three-dimensional laser scans of the cast models were used in three-dimensional surgical simulations. Early orthognathic surgeries were performed based on three-dimensional image simulations using the cast images in several presurgical orthodontic states in which teeth alignment, leveling, and space closure were incomplete. After postoperative orthodontic treatments, intraoral examinations revealed that no patient had a posterior open bite or space. The two-dimensional and three-dimensional skeletal analyses showed that no mandibular deviations occurred between the immediate and final postoperative states of orthodontic treatment. These results showed that early orthognathic surgery with three-dimensional computerized simulations based on cast models of predetermined postoperative dental occlusions could provide early correction of facial deformities and improved efficacy of preoperative orthodontic treatment. This approach can reduce the decompensation treatment period of the presurgical orthodontics and contribute to efficient postoperative orthodontic treatments.

  14. [Research progress on three-dimensional reconstruction and visualization of peripheral nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Gaohong; Pei, Guoxian

    2009-02-01

    To review the research progress on the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and visualization of peripheral nerve. Literature about the research on the 3D reconstruction and visualization of peripheral nerve both at home and abroad were extensively reviewed and thoroughly analyzed. The application of 3D reconstruction and visualization technology was capable of not only reappearing the 3D outer contour and spatial adjacent relationship of peripheral nerve veritable but also displaying, rotating, zooming, dividing and real-time measuring their 3D internal structure and the delicate pathways in any direction either separately or totally. Preliminary achievements were achieved in terms of brachial plexus, lumbosacral plexus, the functional cluster of nerve trunk, intramuscular nerve distribution pattern, peripheral nerve regeneration and the 3D reconstruction and visualization research of complex tissue including peripheral nerve. However, the research on the visualization of peripheral nerve was still in the initial stage since such problems as recognition, segmentation, registration and fusion of the peripheral nerve information were not resolved yet. Researching 3D reconstruction and visualization of the peripheral nerve is of great value for updating the diagnosis and treatment principle of peripheral nerve injury, improving its diagnosis and treatment method and launching a new way for the studying and teaching, which may be a new growing point for the peripheral nerve surgery.

  15. Verifying three-dimensional skull model reconstruction using cranial index of symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Woon-Man; Chen, Shuo-Tsung; Lin, Chung-Hsiang; Lu, Yu-Mei; Chen, Tzu-Hsuan; Lin, Muh-Shi

    2013-01-01

    Difficulty exists in scalp adaptation for cranioplasty with customized computer-assisted design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) implant in situations of excessive wound tension and sub-cranioplasty dead space. To solve this clinical problem, the CAD/CAM technique should include algorithms to reconstruct a depressed contour to cover the skull defect. Satisfactory CAM-derived alloplastic implants are based on highly accurate three-dimensional (3-D) CAD modeling. Thus, it is quite important to establish a symmetrically regular CAD/CAM reconstruction prior to depressing the contour. The purpose of this study is to verify the aesthetic outcomes of CAD models with regular contours using cranial index of symmetry (CIS). From January 2011 to June 2012, decompressive craniectomy (DC) was performed for 15 consecutive patients in our institute. 3-D CAD models of skull defects were reconstructed using commercial software. These models were checked in terms of symmetry by CIS scores. CIS scores of CAD reconstructions were 99.24±0.004% (range 98.47-99.84). CIS scores of these CAD models were statistically significantly greater than 95%, identical to 99.5%, but lower than 99.6% (ppairs signed rank test). These data evidenced the highly accurate symmetry of these CAD models with regular contours. CIS calculation is beneficial to assess aesthetic outcomes of CAD-reconstructed skulls in terms of cranial symmetry. This enables further accurate CAD models and CAM cranial implants with depressed contours, which are essential in patients with difficult scalp adaptation.

  16. Toward a virtual reconstruction of an antique three-dimensional marble puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamar, Fatima Zahra; Fauvet, Eric; Hostein, Antony; Laligant, Olivier; Truchetet, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    The reconstruction of broken objects is an important field of research for many applications, such as art restoration, surgery, forensics, and solving puzzles. In archaeology, the reconstruction of broken artifacts is a very time-consuming task due to the handling of fractured objects, which are generally fragile. However, it can now be supported by three-dimensional (3-D) data acquisition devices and computer processing. Those techniques are very useful in this domain because they allow the remote handling of very accurate models of fragile parts, they permit the extensive testing of reconstruction solutions, and they provide access to the parts for the entire research community. An interesting problem has recently been proposed by archaeologists in the form of a huge puzzle composed of a thousand fragments of Pentelic marble of different sizes found in Autun (France), and all attempts to reconstruct the puzzle during the last two centuries have failed. Archaeologists are sure that some fragments are missing and that some of the ones we have come from different slabs. We propose an inexpensive transportable system for 3-D acquisition setup and a 3-D reconstruction method that is applied to this Roman inscription but is also relevant to other applications.

  17. Three-dimensional digital imaging based on shifted point-array encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jindong; Peng, Xiang

    2005-09-10

    An approach to three-dimensional (3D) imaging based on shifted point-array encoding is presented. A kind of point-array structure light is projected sequentially onto the reference plane and onto the object surface to be tested and thus forms a pair of point-array images. A mathematical model is established to formulize the imaging process with the pair of point arrays. This formulation allows for a description of the relationship between the range image of the object surface and the lateral displacement of each point in the point-array image. Based on this model, one can reconstruct each 3D range image point by computing the lateral displacement of the corresponding point on the two point-array images. The encoded point array can be shifted digitally along both the lateral and the longitudinal directions step by step to achieve high spatial resolution. Experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical predictions. This method is applicable for implementing 3D imaging of object surfaces with complex topology or large height discontinuities.

  18. Clinical application of three-dimensional imaging with multislice CT for laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Mitsuru; Okuda, Jyunji; Yoshikawa, Syushi

    2003-01-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery, while minimally invasive, is a complicated technique. Therefore, prior to this surgery, it is important to determine the anatomical information of colorectal cancer. Fifty-eight cases of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of colon cancer [caecal (n=4), ascending colon (n=6), transverse colon (n=7), descending colon (n=2), sigmoid colon (n=22), and rectal (n=17) cancer] were evaluated using multislice CT before laparoscopic surgery. CT examination was performed in an air-filled colorectum by colon fiberscopy. Contrast-enhanced images on multislice CT were obtained at arterial and venous phases. All images were reviewed on a workstation, and three-dimensional (3D) images of vessels, colorectum, cancer, and swollen lymph nodes were reconstructed by volume rendering and fused (integrated 3D imaging). We evaluated the usefulness of integrated 3D imaging with multislice CT for laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Integrated 3D imaging demonstrated clearly the distribution of arteries feeding the colorectal cancer and the anatomical location of colorectal cancer and arterial and venous systems. Moreover, measurement of the distance between the aortic bifurcation and the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery and that between the base of the inferior mesenteric artery and the origin of the left colic artery on integrated 3D imaging contributed to safe, prompt ligation of the vessels and excision of lymph nodes. Integrated 3D imaging with multislice CT was useful for simulation of laparoscopic colorectal surgery. (author)

  19. Clinical application of three-dimensional imaging with multislice CT for laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuki, Mitsuru; Okuda, Jyunji; Yoshikawa, Syushi [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)] (and others)

    2003-03-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery, while minimally invasive, is a complicated technique. Therefore, prior to this surgery, it is important to determine the anatomical information of colorectal cancer. Fifty-eight cases of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of colon cancer [caecal (n=4), ascending colon (n=6), transverse colon (n=7), descending colon (n=2), sigmoid colon (n=22), and rectal (n=17) cancer] were evaluated using multislice CT before laparoscopic surgery. CT examination was performed in an air-filled colorectum by colon fiberscopy. Contrast-enhanced images on multislice CT were obtained at arterial and venous phases. All images were reviewed on a workstation, and three-dimensional (3D) images of vessels, colorectum, cancer, and swollen lymph nodes were reconstructed by volume rendering and fused (integrated 3D imaging). We evaluated the usefulness of integrated 3D imaging with multislice CT for laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Integrated 3D imaging demonstrated clearly the distribution of arteries feeding the colorectal cancer and the anatomical location of colorectal cancer and arterial and venous systems. Moreover, measurement of the distance between the aortic bifurcation and the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery and that between the base of the inferior mesenteric artery and the origin of the left colic artery on integrated 3D imaging contributed to safe, prompt ligation of the vessels and excision of lymph nodes. Integrated 3D imaging with multislice CT was useful for simulation of laparoscopic colorectal surgery. (author)

  20. Automated recovery of three-dimensional models of plant shoots from multiple color images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Michael P; French, Andrew P; Murchie, Erik H; Pridmore, Tony P

    2014-12-01

    Increased adoption of the systems approach to biological research has focused attention on the use of quantitative models of biological objects. This includes a need for realistic three-dimensional (3D) representations of plant shoots for quantification and modeling. Previous limitations in single-view or multiple-view stereo algorithms have led to a reliance on volumetric methods or expensive hardware to record plant structure. We present a fully automatic approach to image-based 3D plant reconstruction that can be achieved using a single low-cost camera. The reconstructed plants are represented as a series of small planar sections that together model the more complex architecture of the leaf surfaces. The boundary of each leaf patch is refined using the level-set method, optimizing the model based on image information, curvature constraints, and the position of neighboring surfaces. The reconstruction process makes few assumptions about the nature of the plant material being reconstructed and, as such, is applicable to a wide variety of plant species and topologies and can be extended to canopy-scale imaging. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on data sets of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa) plants as well as a unique virtual data set that allows us to compute quantitative measures of reconstruction accuracy. The output is a 3D mesh structure that is suitable for modeling applications in a format that can be imported in the majority of 3D graphics and software packages. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Confocal imaging reveals three-dimensional fine structure difference between ventral and dorsal nerve roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxiang; Sui, Tao; Cao, Xiaojian; Lv, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun; Sun, Peng

    2011-05-01

    Peripheral nerve injury repair is one of the most challenging problems in neurosurgery, partially due to lack of knowledge of three-dimensional (3-D) fine structure and organization of peripheral nerves. In this paper, we explored the structures of nerve fibers in ventral and dorsal nerves with a laser scanning confocal microscopy. Thick tissue staining results suggested that nerve fibers have a different 3-D structure in ventral and dorsal nerves, and reconstruction from serial sectioning images showed that in ventral nerves the nerve fibers travel in a winding form, while in dorsal nerves, the nerve fibers form in a parallel cable pattern. These structural differences could help surgeons to differentiate ventral and dorsal nerves in peripheral nerve injury repair, and also facilitate scientists to get a deeper understanding about nerve fiber organization.

  2. Computer simulation of three-dimensional heavy ion beam trajectory imaging techniques used for magnetic field estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, C.; Connor, K. A.; Demers, D. R.; Radke, R. J.; Schoch, P. M.

    2007-11-01

    A magnetic field mapping technique via heavy ion beam trajectory imaging is being developed on the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch. This paper describes the computational tools created to model camera images of the light emitted from a simulated ion beam, reconstruct a three-dimensional trajectory, and estimate the accuracy of the reconstruction. First, a computer model is used to create images of the torus interior from any candidate camera location. It is used to explore the visual field of the camera and thus to guide camera parameters and placement. Second, it is shown that a three-dimensional ion beam trajectory can be recovered from a pair of perspectively projected trajectory images. The reconstruction considers effects due to finite beam size, nonuniform beam current density, and image background noise. Third, it is demonstrated that the trajectory reconstructed from camera images can help compute magnetic field profiles, and might be used as an additional constraint to an equilibrium reconstruction code, such as MSTFit.

  3. Use of a three-dimensional custom-made porous titanium prosthesis for mandibular body reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qassemyar, Q; Assouly, N; Temam, S; Kolb, F

    2017-10-01

    The progress made in recent years in the field of head and neck bone reconstruction is directly related to technological advancements made in computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and three-dimensional printing in particular. Today these technologies are mainly used in mandibular reconstruction to manufacture aids for harvesting and shaping bone flaps. However problems remain when addressing patients with a contraindication to microsurgery who need extensive bone reconstruction. For these patients who cannot benefit from vascularized bone grafts, surgeons have to find alternative solutions aimed at maintaining best function and aesthetics. The goal of this article is to present an original method for mandibular body replacement with custom-made porous titanium prostheses in patients ineligible for a bone free flap. This solution has been used for two patients with an intraoral approach, resulting in no visible scars, with simple postoperative care of a short duration. This innovative solution represents an additional option for the treatment of complex mandibular reconstructions. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Three-dimensional reconstruction from radiographs and electron micrographs: application of convolutions instead of Fourier transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, G N; Lakshminarayanan, A V

    1971-09-01

    A new technique is proposed for the mathematical process of reconstruction of a three-dimensional object from its transmission shadowgraphs; it uses convolutions with functions defined in the real space of the object, without using Fourier transforms. The object is rotated about an axis at right angles to the direction of a parallel beam of radiation, and sections of it normal to the axis are reconstructed from data obtained by scanning the corresponding linear strips in the shadowgraphs at different angular settings. Since the formulae in the convolution method involve only summations over one variable at a time, while a two-dimensional reconstruction with the Fourier transform technique requires double summations, the convolution method is much faster (typically by a factor of 30); the relative increase in speed is larger where greater resolution is required. Tests of the convolution method with computer-simulated shadowgraphs show that it is also more accurate than the Fourier transform method. It has good potentialities for application in electron microscopy and x-radiography. A new method of reconstructing helical structures by this technique is also suggested.

  5. Three-Dimensional Custom-Made Titanium Ribs for Reconstruction of a Large Chest Wall Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simal, Isabel; García-Casillas, Maria Antonia; Cerdá, Julio Arturo; Riquelme, Óscar; Lorca-García, Concepción; Pérez-Egido, Laura; Fernández-Bautista, Beatriz; Torre, Manuel de la; de Agustín, Juan Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Reconstruction of large chest wall defects always demand surgeons of having lots of means available (both materials and resourceful) to apply a cover to chest wall defects which can range from a few centimeters to the lack of a few entire ribs. In this study, we present the case of a teenager who suffered from a complete resection of three ribs because of Ewing sarcoma dependent on the sixth rib. Given the size of the defect, a multidisciplinary approach was chosen to provide rigid and soft tissue coverage and minimal functional and aesthetic impact. Custom-made titanium implants were designed based on three-dimensional computed tomography scan reconstruction. The surgical specimen via a left lateral thoracotomy (fifth, sixth, and seventh entire ribs) was resected, leaving a defect of 35 × 12 × 6 cm. A Gore-Tex patch (W. L. Gore & Associates, Arizona, United States) was placed and, after that, the implants were anchored to the posterior fragment of the healthy ribs and to the costal cartilage anteriorly. Finally, the surgical site was covered with a latissimus dorsi flap. The postoperative course was uneventful. After 9 months of follow-up, the patient has full mobility. This case shows that the implant of custom-made ribs, combined with other techniques, is a good surgical choice for reconstruction of large chest wall defects. The implant of custom-made ribs, combined with other techniques, is a good surgical choice for reconstruction of large chest wall defects.

  6. Data Visualization in Physics II: VRML and Java for three-dimensional imaging and fully three-dimensional movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Flavio H.; Evans, Steven J.; Hastings, Harold M.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.

    2006-03-01

    Presentation and analysis of large three-dimensional data sets is in general hard to do using only two-dimensional figures and plots. In this talk, we will demonstrate techniques for illustrating static and dynamic three-dimensional objects and data using Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) as well as Java. The advantage of these two languages is that they are platform-independent, which allows for easy sharing of data and visualizations. In addition, manipulation of data is relatively easy as rotation, translation and zooming can be done in real- time for static objects as well as for data and objects that vary and deform in time. Examples of fully three-dimensional movies will be shown, including dendritic growth and propagation of electrical waves in cardiac tissue. In addition, we will show how to include VRML and Java viewers in PowerPoint for easy presentation of results in classes and seminars.

  7. Large scale three-dimensional reconstruction of an entire Caenorhabditis elegans larva using AutoCUTS-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xixia; Ji, Gang; Chen, Xi; Ding, Wei; Sun, Lei; Xu, Wei; Han, Hua; Sun, Fei

    2017-11-01

    Large scale, high resolution three dimensional (3D) ultrastructural reconstruction of cells and tissues has become increasingly important to our understanding of complex biological systems. There have been a few partial 3D ultra-structures of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) reported, however 3D reconstruction of a whole nematode has never been achieved. Here, we independently developed a technique called automatic collector of ultrathin sections scanning electron microscopy and using this methodology, generated a 3D reconstruction of an entire C. elegans larva with 100 nm axial and 15 nm lateral resolution. Compared to the current available ATUM (automated tape-collecting ultramicrotome) technique, our work provides another alternative complete solution that can be applied to obtain large scale 3D ultrastructure of tissues. Our workflow includes an automated hardware system for high throughput serial section collection, a software package for automatic SEM imaging, and an image reconstruction program. These combined techniques can now be used together to rapidly provide access to understand the anatomy of the whole nematodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Three dimensional CT of stapes. Stapedial imagings in dry temporal bone and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edamatsu, Hideo; Kubota, Osamu; Yamashita, Koichi [Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of three dimensional (3-D) imagings of stapes in the middle ear by high speed helical CT. One dissected human temporal bone, ten normal and diseased ears were scanned with a slice of 1.0 mm and reconstructed in a thickness of 0.2-0.5 mm. Every specimen of 3-D can be observed in any plane and from any direction. Ossicular imagings of the temporal bone in 3-D were reconstructed as if the malleus, incus and stapes were observed under microscope. The whole structure of stapes was impossible to be represented by two dimensional CT heretofore in use, but 3-D in our study showed the head, crus and foot plate of the stapes in detail. Stapedial imagings of 3-D CT in normal ears showed the same findings as those recorded in temporal bone. Preoperative diagnostic findings of ossicles in the affected ears were very useful. Especially in ossicular anomalies, 3-D CT was positive in diagnosis and its accuracies were confirmed with operative observation. For the postoperative evaluation concerning the ossicular reconstruction, i.e. TORP and PORP, 3-D CT was also important method. It could present an anatomical relation between those prosthesis and the oval window. High speed helical CT can scan an object more quickly and clearly than formerly used CT, and its biological damage for human is less than that of the others. 3-D CT can be more clearly reconstructed with helical CT than former CT. (author).

  9. Plenoptic Imaging for Three-Dimensional Particle Field Diagnostics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hall, Elise Munz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Plenoptic imaging is a promising emerging technology for single-camera, 3D diagnostics of particle fields. In this work, recent developments towards quantitative measurements of particle size, positions, and velocities are discussed. First, the technique is proven viable with measurements of the particle field generated by the impact of a water drop on a thin film of water. Next, well cont rolled experiments are used to verify diagnostic uncertainty. Finally, an example is presented of 3D plenoptic imaging of a laboratory scale, explosively generated fragment field.

  10. Three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels in tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoelen, C.G.A.; de Mul, F.F.M.; Pongers, R.; Dekker, A.

    1998-01-01

    We applied photoacoustics as a tissue tomography technique for the detection of blood concentrations, e.g., angiogenesis around tumors. We imaged blood vessels in highly scattering samples, using 532-nm light, to depths of ,1 cm. The samples were real tissue (chicken breast) or 10% dilutions of

  11. Local helioseismology: three-dimensional imaging of the solar interior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizon, L.; Birch, A.C.; Spruit, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    The Sun supports a rich spectrum of internal waves that are continuously excited by turbulent convection. The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) network and the SOHO/MDI (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager) space instrument provide an exceptional database of spatially

  12. Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Imaging Of The Cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyser, Rrichar C.; Rooney, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed technique generates pictures of curved surfaces. Object ultrasonically scanned in raster pattern generated by scanning transmitter/receiver. Receiver turned on at frequent intervals to measure depth variations of scanned object. Used for medical diagnoses by giving images of small curved objects as cornea. Adaptable to other types of reflection measurementsystems such as sonar and radar.

  13. Three-dimensional imaging in degraded visual field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oran, A.; Ozdur, I.; Ozharar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging at degraded visual environments is one of the biggest challenges in today’s imaging technologies. Especially military and commercial rotary wing aviation is suffering from impaired visual field in sandy, dusty, marine and snowy environments. For example during landing the rotor churns up the particles and creates dense clouds of highly scattering medium, which limits the vision of the pilot and may result in an uncontrolled landing. The vision in such environments is limited because of the high ratio of scattered photons over the ballistic photons which have the image information. We propose to use optical spatial filtering (OSF) method in order to eliminate the scattered photons and only collect the ballistic photons at the receiver. OSF is widely used in microscopy, to the best of our knowledge this will be the first application of OSF for macroscopic imaging. Our experimental results show that most of the scattered photons are eliminated using the spatial filtering in a highly scattering impaired visual field. The results are compared with a standard broad area photo detector which shows the effectiveness of spatial filtering. (paper)

  14. Effective one-dimensional approach to the source reconstruction problem of three-dimensional inverse optoacoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritzel, J; Melchert, O; Wollweber, M; Roth, B

    2017-09-01

    The direct problem of optoacoustic signal generation in biological media consists of solving an inhomogeneous three-dimensional (3D) wave equation for an initial acoustic stress profile. In contrast, the more defiant inverse problem requires the reconstruction of the initial stress profile from a proper set of observed signals. In this article, we consider an effectively 1D approach, based on the assumption of a Gaussian transverse irradiation source profile and plane acoustic waves, in which the effects of acoustic diffraction are described in terms of a linear integral equation. The respective inverse problem along the beam axis can be cast into a Volterra integral equation of the second kind for which we explore here efficient numerical schemes in order to reconstruct initial stress profiles from observed signals, constituting a methodical progress of computational aspects of optoacoustics. In this regard, we explore the validity as well as the limits of the inversion scheme via numerical experiments, with parameters geared toward actual optoacoustic problem instances. The considered inversion input consists of synthetic data, obtained in terms of the effectively 1D approach, and, more generally, a solution of the 3D optoacoustic wave equation. Finally, we also analyze the effect of noise and different detector-to-sample distances on the optoacoustic signal and the reconstructed pressure profiles.

  15. The assessment of orthodontic bonding defects: optical coherence tomography followed by three-dimensional reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominu, R.; Sinescu, C.; Rominu, M.; Negrutiu, M.; Petrescu, E.; Pop, D.; Podoleanu, A. Gh.

    2011-10-01

    Orthodontic bonding is a simple yet important procedure that can influence the outcome of treatment in case it is performed incorrectly. An orthodontic treatment shadowed by repeated bonding failures can become unduly long and will decrease patient trust and compliance. Optical coherence tomography has been widely used in ophtalmology but is relatively new to dentistry. Using OCT one can detect aerial inclusions within the orthodontic adhesive or even identify incongruence between the bracket base and the tooth surface. The aim of our study was to identify bonding defects and reconstruct them three-dimensionally in order to be able to characterize them more accurately. We bonded 30 sound human permanent teeth with ceramic orthodontic brackets using a no-mix self-curing orthodontic adhesive. Prior to bonding all teeth were stored in tap water at 4°C and then professionally cleaned with rotary brushes and pumice. The samples were processed by the same person and the rotary brushes were changed after every fifth tooth. All interfaces were investigated by means of OCT and 4 defects were found. Subsequently, the defects were reconstructed threedimensionally using an open-source program. By identifying and reconstructing bonding defects we could assess the quality of the bonding procedure. Since bonding tends to be more accurate in vitro where the environmental conditions are close to ideal, it is probable that defects found in vivo be even greater in number, which leads to the conclusion that this type of investigation is potentially valuable.

  16. Grain boundary character distribution derived from three-dimensional microstructure reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirgazi, H; Kestens, L A I

    2015-01-01

    Manual serial sectioning which includes consecutive steps of sample preparation and Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD) measurement was employed to extract the twodimensional (2D) sections of a pure nickel sample and to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure. A general alignment algorithm based on the minimization of misorientation between two adjacent sections has been developed to accurately align the sections. By employing this alignment algorithm, any in-plane (translational) and rotational misalignment as well as the planparallelity can be corrected. Surface triangulation technique was used to reconstruct the grain boundary surfaces. The Grain Boundary Character Distribution (GBCD) was derived from reconstructed grain boundaries. The results show that a smoother grain boundary plane can be obtained after precise translational and rotational alignment and correction of planparallelity.The relative grain boundary energy was computed as a function of the five grain boundary parameters based on equilibrium at triple lines. The results show that the grain boundary planes carrying a Σ 3 type misorientation are dominantly parallel to the {111} crystal plane, which indicates the presence of coherent twin boundaries. It was observed that coherent Σ 3 type boundaries exhibit the minimum relative grain boundary energy, which is approximately 57% smaller than the average of all Σ 3 boundaries, including also incoherent twin boundaries. (paper)

  17. Grain boundary character distribution derived from three-dimensional microstructure reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirgazi, H.; Kestens, L. A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Manual serial sectioning which includes consecutive steps of sample preparation and Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD) measurement was employed to extract the twodimensional (2D) sections of a pure nickel sample and to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure. A general alignment algorithm based on the minimization of misorientation between two adjacent sections has been developed to accurately align the sections. By employing this alignment algorithm, any in-plane (translational) and rotational misalignment as well as the planparallelity can be corrected. Surface triangulation technique was used to reconstruct the grain boundary surfaces. The Grain Boundary Character Distribution (GBCD) was derived from reconstructed grain boundaries. The results show that a smoother grain boundary plane can be obtained after precise translational and rotational alignment and correction of planparallelity. The relative grain boundary energy was computed as a function of the five grain boundary parameters based on equilibrium at triple lines. The results show that the grain boundary planes carrying a Σ3 type misorientation are dominantly parallel to the {111} crystal plane, which indicates the presence of coherent twin boundaries. It was observed that coherent Σ3 type boundaries exhibit the minimum relative grain boundary energy, which is approximately 57% smaller than the average of all Σ3 boundaries, including also incoherent twin boundaries.

  18. Effective one-dimensional approach to the source reconstruction problem of three-dimensional inverse optoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritzel, J.; Melchert, O.; Wollweber, M.; Roth, B.

    2017-09-01

    The direct problem of optoacoustic signal generation in biological media consists of solving an inhomogeneous three-dimensional (3D) wave equation for an initial acoustic stress profile. In contrast, the more defiant inverse problem requires the reconstruction of the initial stress profile from a proper set of observed signals. In this article, we consider an effectively 1D approach, based on the assumption of a Gaussian transverse irradiation source profile and plane acoustic waves, in which the effects of acoustic diffraction are described in terms of a linear integral equation. The respective inverse problem along the beam axis can be cast into a Volterra integral equation of the second kind for which we explore here efficient numerical schemes in order to reconstruct initial stress profiles from observed signals, constituting a methodical progress of computational aspects of optoacoustics. In this regard, we explore the validity as well as the limits of the inversion scheme via numerical experiments, with parameters geared toward actual optoacoustic problem instances. The considered inversion input consists of synthetic data, obtained in terms of the effectively 1D approach, and, more generally, a solution of the 3D optoacoustic wave equation. Finally, we also analyze the effect of noise and different detector-to-sample distances on the optoacoustic signal and the reconstructed pressure profiles.

  19. Three-dimensional Radar Imaging of a Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    CFAR ) detector. We discuss methods of 3-D image visualization and interpretation of the results and point the way to possible future improvements. 15...13 Figure 6. CFAR detector sliding windows for point-like targets, showing (a) 2-D and (b) 3-D version... CFAR detection of walls, showing (a) 2-D version (line detector), (b) 3-D version for the airborne case (line detector), and (c) 3-D version for the

  20. Three-Dimensional Near-Field Microwave Holography for Tissue Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza K. Amineh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the progress toward a fast and reliable microwave imaging setup for tissue imaging exploiting near-field holographic reconstruction. The setup consists of two wideband TEM horn antennas aligned along each other’s boresight and performing a rectangular aperture raster scan. The tissue sensing is performed without coupling liquids. At each scanning position, wideband data is acquired. Then, novel holographic imaging algorithms are implemented to provide three-dimensional images of the inspected domain. In these new algorithms, the required incident field and Green’s function are obtained from numerical simulations. They replace the plane (or spherical wave assumption in the previous holographic methods and enable accurate near-field imaging results. Here, we prove that both the incident field and Green’s function can be obtained from a single numerical simulation. This eliminates the need for optimization-based deblurring which was previously employed to remove the effect of realistic non-point-wise antennas.

  1. Three-dimensional imaging of artificial fingerprint by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Cheng, Yezeng

    2008-03-01

    Fingerprint recognition is one of the popular used methods of biometrics. However, due to the surface topography limitation, fingerprint recognition scanners are easily been spoofed, e.g. using artificial fingerprint dummies. Thus, biometric fingerprint identification devices need to be more accurate and secure to deal with different fraudulent methods including dummy fingerprints. Previously, we demonstrated that Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images revealed the presence of the artificial fingerprints (made from different household materials, such as cement and liquid silicone rubber) at all times, while the artificial fingerprints easily spoofed the commercial fingerprint reader. Also we demonstrated that an analysis of the autocorrelation of the OCT images could be used in automatic recognition systems. Here, we exploited the three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the artificial fingerprint by OCT to generate vivid 3D image for both the artificial fingerprint layer and the real fingerprint layer beneath. With the reconstructed 3D image, it could not only point out whether there exists an artificial material, which is intended to spoof the scanner, above the real finger, but also could provide the hacker's fingerprint. The results of these studies suggested that Optical Coherence Tomography could be a powerful real-time noninvasive method for accurate identification of artificial fingerprints real fingerprints as well.

  2. Verifying three-dimensional skull model reconstruction using cranial index of symmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon-Man Kung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Difficulty exists in scalp adaptation for cranioplasty with customized computer-assisted design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM implant in situations of excessive wound tension and sub-cranioplasty dead space. To solve this clinical problem, the CAD/CAM technique should include algorithms to reconstruct a depressed contour to cover the skull defect. Satisfactory CAM-derived alloplastic implants are based on highly accurate three-dimensional (3-D CAD modeling. Thus, it is quite important to establish a symmetrically regular CAD/CAM reconstruction prior to depressing the contour. The purpose of this study is to verify the aesthetic outcomes of CAD models with regular contours using cranial index of symmetry (CIS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2011 to June 2012, decompressive craniectomy (DC was performed for 15 consecutive patients in our institute. 3-D CAD models of skull defects were reconstructed using commercial software. These models were checked in terms of symmetry by CIS scores. RESULTS: CIS scores of CAD reconstructions were 99.24±0.004% (range 98.47-99.84. CIS scores of these CAD models were statistically significantly greater than 95%, identical to 99.5%, but lower than 99.6% (p<0.001, p = 0.064, p = 0.021 respectively, Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test. These data evidenced the highly accurate symmetry of these CAD models with regular contours. CONCLUSIONS: CIS calculation is beneficial to assess aesthetic outcomes of CAD-reconstructed skulls in terms of cranial symmetry. This enables further accurate CAD models and CAM cranial implants with depressed contours, which are essential in patients with difficult scalp adaptation.

  3. The application of three-dimensional reconstruction technology in industrial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Sun Lingxia; Zhou Ying; Ye Yunchang

    2009-01-01

    It's an important research aspect in domestic ICT field, that the 3-D visualization of continuous ICT images reconstructed by 3-D reconstruction technology. The contour lines are joint by triangles in the course of 3-D reconstructions of the continuous equidistant ICT images. After the stereo images of the scanned objects are displayed, some special functions including inspections of the objects from different angles and orientations, nondestructive measurement of some 3-D parameters and so on will be carried out just by operating the computer. The inspectors can get more detailed structural information by the reconstructed images. So in this way the convenience and veracity of the non-detection have been promoted. (authors)

  4. Applications of three-dimensional image correlation in conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Herk, M.; Gilhuijs, K.; Kwa, S.; Lebesque, J.; Muller, S.; De Munck, J.; Touw, A. [Nederlands Kanker Inst. `Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis`, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kooy, H. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The development of techniques for the registration of CT, MRI and SPECT creates new possibilities for improved target volume definition and quantitative image analysis. The discussed technique is based on chamfer matching and is suitable for automatic 3-D matching of CT with CT, CT with MRI, CT with SPECT and MRI with SPECT. By integrating CT with MRI, the diagnostic qualities of MRI are combined with the geometric accuracy of the planning CT. Significant differences in the delineation of the target volume for brain, head and neck and prostate tumors were demonstrated when using integrated CT and MRI compared with using CT alone. In addition, integration of the planning CT with pre-operative scans improves knowledge of possible tumor extents. By first matching scans based on the bony anatomy and subsequently matching on an organ of study, relative motion of the organ is quantified accurately. In a study with 42 CT scans of 11 patients, magnitude and causes of prostate motion were analysed. The most important motion of the prostate is a forward-backward rotation around a point near the apex caused by rectal volume difference. Significant correlations were also found between motion of the legs and the prostate. By integrating functional images made before and after radiotherapy with the planning CT, the relation between local change of lung function and delivered dose has been quantified accurately. The technique of chamfer matching is a convenient and more accurate alternative for the use of external markers in a CT/SPECT lung damage study. Also, damage visible in diagnostic scans can be related to radiation dose, thereby improving follow-up diagnostics. It can be concluded that 3-D image integration plays an important role in assessing and improving the accuracy of radiotherapy and is therefore indispensable for conformal therapy. However, user-friendly implementation of these techniques remains to be done to facilitate clinical application on a large scale.

  5. Applications of three-dimensional image correlation in conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Herk, M.; Gilhuijs, K.; Kwa, S.; Lebesque, J.; Muller, S.; De Munck, J.; Touw, A.; Kooy, H.

    1995-01-01

    The development of techniques for the registration of CT, MRI and SPECT creates new possibilities for improved target volume definition and quantitative image analysis. The discussed technique is based on chamfer matching and is suitable for automatic 3-D matching of CT with CT, CT with MRI, CT with SPECT and MRI with SPECT. By integrating CT with MRI, the diagnostic qualities of MRI are combined with the geometric accuracy of the planning CT. Significant differences in the delineation of the target volume for brain, head and neck and prostate tumors have been demonstrated when using integrated CT and MRI compared with using CT alone. In addition, integration of the planning CT with pre-operative scans improves knowledge of possible tumor extents. By first matching scans based on the bony anatomy and subsequently matching on an organ of study, relative motion of the organ is quantified accurately. In a study with 42 CT scans of 11 patients, magnitude and causes of prostate motion have been analysed. The most important motion of the prostate is a forward-backward rotation around a point near the apex caused by rectal volume difference. Significant correlations were also found between motion of the legs and the prostate. By integrating functional images made before and after radiotherapy with the planning CT, the relation between local change of lung function and delivered dose has been quantified accurately. The technique of chamfer matching is a convenient and more accurate alternative for the use of external markers in a CT/SPECT lung damage study. Also, damage visible in diagnostic scans can be related to radiation dose, thereby improving follow-up diagnostics. It can be concluded that 3-D image integration plays an important role in assessing and improving the accuracy of radiotherapy and is therefore indispensable for conformal therapy. However, user-friendly implementation of these techniques remains to be done to facilitate clinical application on a large

  6. Three-dimensional virtual reality simulation of periarticular tumors using Dextroscope reconstruction and simulated surgery: a preliminary 10 case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, JingSheng; Xia, Jun; Wei, YiBing; Wang, SiQun; Wu, JianGuo; Chen, FeiYan; Huang, GangYong; Chen, Jie

    2014-03-01

    Dextroscope three-dimensional (3D) imaging has been extensively applied for generation of virtual reality (VR) workspaces for in neurosurgery and laparoscopy, though few applications in orthopedic surgery have been reported. Patients undergoing surgery for periarticular tumors (n = 10) from Oct. 2008 to Jun. 2010 were enrolled and presurgically subjected to computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRI angiography (MRI-A). Imaging data was transferred and integrated in Dextroscope, producing a VR simulation. Resultant presurgical 3D anatomical reconstructions and intraoperative anatomical characteristics (virtual vs. actual data) and surgical approach (virtual vs. actual situation) measurement and subjective appearance were compared. Anatomical characteristics in the area of interest and tumor diameters were consistent between virtual and actual data. However, the virtual surgical situations remained inconsistent with the actual intraoperative situation in many cases, leading to complications. The resolution of original CT, MRI, and MRI-A images directly correlated with the quality of 3D simulations, with soft tissues most poorly represented. Tumor tissue imaging quality in 3D varied extensively by tumor type. Anatomical structures of periarticular tumors can be reconstructed using the Dextroscope system with good accuracy in the case of simple fenestration, increasing individualization of treatment, surgical competence level, and potentially reducing intraoperative complications. However, further specialization of VR tools for use in orthopedic applications that involve specialized tools and procedures, such as drilling and implant placement, are urgently required.

  7. Radiotherapy treatment planning using three dimensional CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yutaka; Isobe, Yoshihide; Ozaki, Shin; Hosoki, Takuya; Mori, Shigeru; Ikeda, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Recently superimposition of dose distribution onto CT images has become available with the use of planning computers. However, the distribution is mostly along the plane of central axis of the beam, and evaluation of the quality of planning has not been established yet. It cannot be concluded whether the planning is suitable or not, even if the dose distribution at a certain CT slice seems to be optimum. The need has been emerged to compare the treatment planning quantitatively with other ones. A computerized treatment planning system has been developed in our hospital, which can accumulate voxel dose of each lattice point, can superimpose isodose curves on multiple transverse contours, and can construct and display a 3-dimensional image of the treatment region using a ''cutting method''. In this paper, a method is proposed to evaluate the quality of treatment planning, introducing the definitions in ICRU report 29 and using the 3-dimensional computer algorism. Concepts and procedures are described in detail with some case examples. (author)

  8. Automatic measurement of axial length of human eye using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Kiryu, Tohru

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of axial length and the evaluation of three dimensional (3D) form of an eye are essential to evaluate the mechanism of myopia progression. We propose a method of automatic measurement of axial length including adjustment of the pulse sequence of short-term scan which could suppress influence of eyeblink, using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which acquires 3D images noninvasively. Acquiring T 2 -weighted images with 3.0 tesla MRI device and eight-channel phased-array head coil, we extracted left and right eye ball images, and then reconstructed 3D volume. The surface coordinates were calculated from 3D volume, fitting the ellipsoid model coordinates with the surface coordinates, and measured the axial length automatically. Measuring twenty one subjects, we compared the automatically measured values of axial length with the manually measured ones, then confirmed significant elongation in the axial length of myopia compared with that of emmetropia. Furthermore, there were no significant differences (P<0.05) between the means of automatic measurements and the manual ones. Accordingly, the automatic measurement process of axial length could be a tool for the elucidation of the mechanism of myopia progression, which would be suitable for evaluating the axial length easily and noninvasively. (author)

  9. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging for groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legchenko, A; Descloitres, M; Guyard, H [IRD/ UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS/G-INP, LTHE UMR 5564, Grenoble F-38041 (France); Vincent, C [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement and CNRS-LGGE, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Garambois, S [Institut des Sciences de la terre (ISTerre), Universite Joseph Fourier and CNRS, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Chalikakis, K [Universite d' Avignon, UMR EMMAH (UAPV-INRA), 33, rue Pasteur, 84000 Avignon (France); Ezersky, M, E-mail: anatoli.legtchenko@ird.fr [Geophysical Institute of Israel, BP182, Lod 71100 (Israel)

    2011-02-15

    The surface nuclear magnetic resonance method (SNMR) is an established geophysical tool routinely used for investigating one-dimensional (1D) and sometimes 2D subsurface water-saturated formations. We have expanded the tool by developing a 3D application. 3D-SNMR is a large-scale method that allows magnetic resonance imaging of groundwater down to about 80 m. Similar to most surface geophysical methods, 3D-SNMR has limited resolution, but it is effective for investigating water-saturated geological formations larger than several tens of meters. Because the performance of the method depends on variable survey conditions, we cannot estimate it in general. For demonstration purposes, we present an example of numerical modeling under fixed conditions. Results show that under certain conditions it is possible to detect a water volume as small as 500 m{sup 3} and the detection threshold depends on the ambient electromagnetic noise magnitude and on the location of the target volume relative to the SNMR loops. The 3D-SNMR method was used to investigate accumulated water within the Tete Rousse glacier (French Alps). Inversion of the field measurements made it possible to locate the principal reservoir in the central part of the glacier and estimate the volume of accumulated water. These results were verified by 20 boreholes installed after the 3D-SNMR results were obtained and by pumping water out of the glacier. Very good correspondence between the 3D-SNMR and borehole results was observed.

  10. High immersive three-dimensional tabletop display system with high dense light field reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mengqing; Yu, Xunbo; Xie, Songlin; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Chongxiu

    2014-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tabletop display is a kind of display with wide range of potential applications. An auto-stereoscopic 3D tabletop display system is designed to provide the observers with high level of immersive perception. To improve the freedom of viewing position, the eye tracking system and a set of active partially pixelated masks are utilized. To improve the display quality, large number of images is prepared to generate the stereo pair. The light intensity distribution and crosstalk of parallax images are measured respectively to evaluate the rationality of the auto-stereoscopic system. In the experiment, the high immersive auto-stereoscopic tabletop display system is demonstrated, together with the system architectures including hardware and software. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the high immersive auto-stereoscopic tabletop display system.

  11. A study to evaluate the reliability of using two-dimensional photographs, three-dimensional images, and stereoscopic projected three-dimensional images for patient assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, S; Yang, Y; Khambay, B

    2017-01-01

    Clinicians are accustomed to viewing conventional two-dimensional (2D) photographs and assume that viewing three-dimensional (3D) images is similar. Facial images captured in 3D are not viewed in true 3D; this may alter clinical judgement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of using conventional photographs, 3D images, and stereoscopic projected 3D images to rate the severity of the deformity in pre-surgical class III patients. Forty adult patients were recruited. Eight rat...

  12. The Evolution of Photography and Three-Dimensional Imaging in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissler, Jason M; Stern, Carrie S; Schreiber, Jillian E; Amirlak, Bardia; Tepper, Oren M

    2017-03-01

    Throughout history, the technological advancements of conventional clinical photography in plastic surgery have not only refined the methods available to the plastic surgeon, but have invigorated the profession through technology. The technology of the once traditional two-dimensional photograph has since been revolutionized and refashioned to incorporate novel applications, which have since become the standard in clinical photography. Contrary to traditional standardized two-dimensional photographs, three-dimensional photography provides the surgeon with an invaluable volumetric and morphologic analysis by demonstrating true surface dimensions both preoperatively and postoperatively. Clinical photography has served as one of the fundamental objective means by which plastic surgeons review outcomes; however, the newer three-dimensional technology has been primarily used to enhance the preoperative consultation with surgical simulations. The authors intend to familiarize readers with the notion that three-dimensional photography extends well beyond its marketing application during surgical consultation. For the cosmetic surgeon, as the application of three-dimensional photography continues to mature in facial plastic surgery, it will continue to bypass the dated conventional photographic methods plastic surgeons once relied on. This article reviews a paradigm shift and provides a historical review of the fascinating evolution of photography in plastic surgery by highlighting the clinical utility of three-dimensional photography as an adjunct to plastic and reconstructive surgery practices. As three-dimensional photographic technology continues to evolve, its application in facial plastic surgery will provide an opportunity for a new objective standard in plastic surgery.

  13. Dual-spacecraft reconstruction of a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope at the Earth's magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hasegawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first results of a data analysis method, developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa (2011, for reconstructing three-dimensional (3-D, magnetohydrostatic structures from data taken as two closely spaced satellites traverse the structures. The method is applied to a magnetic flux transfer event (FTE, which was encountered on 27 June 2007 by at least three (TH-C, TH-D, and TH-E of the five THEMIS probes near the subsolar magnetopause. The FTE was sandwiched between two oppositely directed reconnection jets under a southward interplanetary magnetic field condition, consistent with its generation by multiple X-line reconnection. The recovered 3-D field indicates that a magnetic flux rope with a diameter of ~ 3000 km was embedded in the magnetopause. The FTE flux rope had a significant 3-D structure, because the 3-D field reconstructed from the data from TH-C and TH-D (separated by ~ 390 km better predicts magnetic field variations actually measured along the TH-E path than does the 2-D Grad–Shafranov reconstruction using the data from TH-C (which was closer to TH-E than TH-D and was at ~ 1250 km from TH-E. Such a 3-D nature suggests that the field lines reconnected at the two X-lines on both sides of the flux rope are entangled in a complicated way through their interaction with each other. The generation process of the observed 3-D flux rope is discussed on the basis of the reconstruction results and the pitch-angle distribution of electrons observed in and around the FTE.

  14. Reconstruction of blood propagation in three-dimensional rotational X-ray angiography (3D-RA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Holger; Grass, Michael; Suurmond, Rolf; Köhler, Thomas; Rasche, Volker; Hähnel, Stefan; Heiland, Sabine

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents a framework of non-interactive algorithms for the mapping of blood flow information to vessels in 3D-RA images. With the presented method, mapping of flow information to 3D-RA images is done automatically without user interaction. So far, radiologists had to perform this task by extensive image comparisons and did not obtain visualizations of the results. In our approach, flow information is reconstructed by forward projection of vessel pieces in a 3D-RA image to a two-dimensional projection series capturing the propagation of a short additional contrast agent bolus. For accurate 2D-3D image registration, an efficient patient motion compensation technique is introduced. As an exemplary flow-related quantity, bolus arrival times are reconstructed for the vessel pieces by matching of intensity-time curves. A plausibility check framework was developed which handles projection ambiguities and corrects for noisy flow reconstruction results. It is based on a linear programming approach to model the feeding structure of the vessel. The flow reconstruction method was applied to 12 cases of cerebral stenoses, AVMs and aneurysms, and it proved to be feasible in the clinical environment. The propagation of the injected contrast agent was reconstructed and visualized in three-dimensional images. The flow reconstruction method was able to visualize different types of useful information. In cases of stenosis of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), flow reconstruction can reveal impeded blood flow depending on the severeness of the stenosis. With cases of AVMs, flow reconstruction can clarify the feeding structure. The presented methods handle the problems imposed by clinical demands such as non-interactive algorithms, patient motion compensation, short reconstruction times, and technical requirements such as correction of noisy bolus arrival times and handling of overlapping vessel pieces. Problems occurred mainly in the reconstruction and segmentation of 3D

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of three-dimensional cervical anatomy in the second and third trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Michael; Bhadelia, Rafeeque A; Myers, Kristin; Socrate, Simona

    2009-05-01

    Although a short cervix is known to be associated with preterm birth, the patterns of three-dimensional, anatomic changes leading to a short cervix are unknown. Our objective was to (1) construct three-dimensional anatomic models during normal pregnancy and (2) use the models to compare cervical anatomy in the second and third trimester. A cross-sectional study was performed in a population of patients referred to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for a fetal indication. Using magnetic resonance images for guidance, three-dimensional solid models of the following anatomic structures were constructed: amniotic cavity, uterine wall, cervical stroma, cervical mucosa and anterior vaginal wall. To compare cervical anatomy in the second and third trimester, models were matched according the size of the bony pelvis. Fourteen patients were imaged and divided into two groups according to gestational age: 20-24 weeks (n=7)) and 31-36 weeks (n=7). Compared to the second trimester, the third trimester was associated with significant descent of the amniotic sac (p=.02). Descent of the amniotic sac was associated with modified anatomy of the uterocervical junction. These three-dimensional changes were associated with a cervix that appeared shorter in the third trimester. We report a technique for constructing MRI-based, three-dimensional anatomic models during pregnancy. Compared to the second trimester, the third trimester is associated with three-dimensional changes in the cervix and lower uterine segment.

  16. Three-dimensional reconstruction volume: a novel method for volume measurement in kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Timothy A; Carnell, Jonathan; Turk, Thomas T; Gupta, Gopal N

    2014-06-01

    The role of volumetric estimation is becoming increasingly important in the staging, management, and prognostication of benign and cancerous conditions of the kidney. We evaluated the use of three-dimensional reconstruction volume (3DV) in determining renal parenchymal volumes (RPV) and renal tumor volumes (RTV). We compared 3DV with the currently available methods of volume assessment and determined its interuser reliability. RPV and RTV were assessed in 28 patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for kidney cancer. Patients with a preoperative creatinine level of kidney pre- and postsurgery overestimated 3D reconstruction volumes by 15% to 102% and 12% to 101%, respectively. In addition, volumes obtained from 3DV displayed high interuser reliability regardless of experience. 3DV provides a highly reliable way of assessing kidney volumes. Given that 3DV takes into account visible anatomy, the differences observed using previously published methods can be attributed to the failure of geometry to accurately approximate kidney or tumor shape. 3DV provides a more accurate, reproducible, and clinically useful tool for urologists looking to improve patient care using analysis related to volume.

  17. Three dimensional imaging of paraffin embedded human lung tissue samples by micro-computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Scott

    Full Text Available Understanding the three-dimensional (3-D micro-architecture of lung tissue can provide insights into the pathology of lung disease. Micro computed tomography (µCT has previously been used to elucidate lung 3D histology and morphometry in fixed samples that have been stained with contrast agents or air inflated and dried. However, non-destructive microstructural 3D imaging of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissues would facilitate retrospective analysis of extensive tissue archives of lung FFPE lung samples with linked clinical data.FFPE human lung tissue samples (n = 4 were scanned using a Nikon metrology µCT scanner. Semi-automatic techniques were used to segment the 3D structure of airways and blood vessels. Airspace size (mean linear intercept, Lm was measured on µCT images and on matched histological sections from the same FFPE samples imaged by light microscopy to validate µCT imaging.The µCT imaging protocol provided contrast between tissue and paraffin in FFPE samples (15 mm x 7 mm. Resolution (voxel size 6.7 µm in the reconstructed images was sufficient for semi-automatic image segmentation of airways and blood vessels as well as quantitative airspace analysis. The scans were also used to scout for regions of interest, enabling time-efficient preparation of conventional histological sections. The Lm measurements from µCT images were not significantly different to those from matched histological sections.We demonstrated how non-destructive imaging of routinely prepared FFPE samples by laboratory µCT can be used to visualize and assess the 3D morphology of the lung including by morphometric analysis.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of chondrodysplasia punctata tibia-metacarpal type using multidetector CT and three-dimensional reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Osamu [National Centre for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Sago, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Noriyoshi; Ebina, Shunsuke [National Centre for Child Health and Development, Department of Perinatal Medicine and Maternal Care, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    We report a case of chondrodysplasia punctata tibia-metacarpal type (CDP-TM) that was diagnosed prenatally using multidetector CT (MDCT) with three-dimensional (3-D) CT reconstructions. Prenatal US had shown severe thoracic hypoplasia and rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, raising the suspicion of thanatophoric dysplasia. However, MDCT showed punctate calcifications in the epiphyseal cartilage of the humeri and femora, carpal bones, and paravertebral region. On 3-D CT, the tibiae were much shorter than the fibulae, the humeri were very short and bowed, and severe platyspondyly was evident. These findings led to the diagnosis of CDP-TM. The diagnosis was confirmed on postnatal radiographs. Prenatal MDCT with 3-D images may make a useful contribution to prenatal diagnosis in selected fetuses with severe skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  19. Preoperative planning of thoracic surgery with use of three-dimensional reconstruction, rapid prototyping, simulation and virtual navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuts, Samuel; Sardari Nia, Peyman; Maessen, Jos G

    2016-01-01

    For the past decades, surgeries have become more complex, due to the increasing age of the patient population referred for thoracic surgery, more complex pathology and the emergence of minimally invasive thoracic surgery. Together with the early detection of thoracic disease as a result of innovations in diagnostic possibilities and the paradigm shift to personalized medicine, preoperative planning is becoming an indispensable and crucial aspect of surgery. Several new techniques facilitating this paradigm shift have emerged. Pre-operative marking and staining of lesions are already a widely accepted method of preoperative planning in thoracic surgery. However, three-dimensional (3D) image reconstructions, virtual simulation and rapid prototyping (RP) are still in development phase. These new techniques are expected to become an important part of the standard work-up of patients undergoing thoracic surgery in the future. This review aims at graphically presenting and summarizing these new diagnostic and therapeutic tools.

  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction of scleral cold thermoreceptors of the cat eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppelmann, B; Gallar, J; Trost, B; Schmidt, R F; Belmonte, C

    2001-12-10

    Sensory endings that respond to local cooling were identified electrophysiologically in the cat's sclera. Functionally identified scleral thermal fibers were then used to analyze the structural characteristics of cold receptor endings. Four Adelta units sensitive to controlled cooling of their scleral receptive fields were recorded. The receptive areas were mapped, demarcated with pins and examined electron microscopically using extensive three-dimensional reconstructions. The supporting tissue within the receptive areas of cold units consisted of dense collageneous tissue with a small number of blood vessels that were either veins or capillaries. Adelta nerve fibers were found within these tissue blocks presumably corresponding with cold sensitive fibers. Small nerves and single nerve fibers devoid of a perineurium were found in all parts of the tissue, only occasionally passing a blood vessel. The terminal portions showed axonal swellings all along the unmyelinated segment filled with mitochondria, glycogen particles, and some vesicles. About 30% of the terminal axonal membrane is not covered by Schwann cells. In the unmyelinated distal portion, the mitochondrial content ranged from 0.012 to 0.038 microm(3) mitochondrial volume per microm(2) nerve fiber membrane. In comparison with sensory endings in the cat's knee joint, cold receptors in the cat sclera showed many similarities in their three-dimensional structure with polymodal nociceptor endings of the knee joint but contain less mitochondria. This suggests that cold sensory endings do not require specialized cellular processes for the transduction of cold stimuli, as is the case for multimodal transduction and sensitization in the terminal portion of polymodal nociceptors. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Comparison of surface contour and volumetric three-dimensional imaging of the musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilford, W.B.; Ullrich, C.G.; Moore, T.

    1988-01-01

    Both surface contour and volumetric three-dimensional image processing from CT data can provide accurate demonstration of skeletal anatomy. While realistic, surface contour images may obscure fine detail such as nondisplaced fractures, and thin bone may disappear. Volumetric processing can provide high detail, but the transparency effect is unnatural and may yield a confusing image. Comparison of both three-dimensional modes is presented to demonstrate those findings best shown with each and to illustrate helpful techniques to improve volumetric display, such as disarticulation of unnecessary anatomy, short-angle repeating rotation (dithering), and image combination into overlay displays

  2. Three-Dimensional Imaging Using Microcomputed Tomography For Studying Gaharu Morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazid, Khair'iah; Bin Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Bin Hj Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Masschaele, Bert; Abdullah, Mohd. Zaid; Saleh, Junita Mohamad

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrates the potential application of the high resolution X-ray micro-CT technique in the analysis of internal structure in Gaharu wood. Gaharu or internationally, Agar wood, is known for its fragrant resinous wood. The hardware device used in this study was an X-ray micro-CT scanner at Center of Tomography (UGCT), CT facility in Ghent University, Belgium. This technique allows the 3D investigation of the internal structure of the wood in a non-destructive way. Most of the data analysis was done with the software VG Studio Max and MATLAB. Here we present some preliminary results from three-dimensional images from a piece of high grade Gaharu. Micro-CT images of the specimens were obtained at 7 μm resolution. Besides a clear distinction between pores and material, some bright white areas occur in the reconstruction images. Not only the volume visualization is helpful, morphological parameters of open-pores and dark resins are calculated from these 3D data set. The micro-CT technique is a valid support for evaluating the pores structure and resin distribution in Gaharu.

  3. Digital holography super-resolution for accurate three-dimensional reconstruction of particle holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Nicolas; Fournier, Corinne

    2015-01-15

    In-line digital holography (DH) is used in many fields to locate and size micro or nano-objects spread in a volume. To reconstruct simple shaped objects, the optimal approach is to fit an imaging model to accurately estimate their position and their characteristic parameters. Increasing the accuracy of the reconstruction is a big issue in DH, particularly when the pixel is large or the signal-to-noise ratio is low. We suggest exploiting the information redundancy of videos to improve the reconstruction of the holograms by jointly estimating the position of the objects and the characteristic parameters. Using synthetic and experimental data, we checked experimentally that this approach can improve the accuracy of the reconstruction by a factor more than the square root of the image number.

  4. Three-dimensional reconstruction and the phylogeny of extinct chelicerate orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell J. Garwood

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Arachnids are an important group of arthropods. They are: diverse and abundant; a major constituent of many terrestrial ecosystems; and possess a deep and extensive fossil record. In recent years a number of exceptionally preserved arachnid fossils have been investigated using tomography and associated techniques, providing valuable insights into their morphology. Here we use X-ray microtomography to reconstruct members of two extinct arachnid orders. In the Haptopoda, we demonstrate the presence of ‘clasp-knife’ chelicerae, and our novel redescription of a member of the Phalangiotarbida highlights leg details, but fails to resolve chelicerae in the group due to their small size. As a result of these reconstructions, tomographic studies of three-dimensionally preserved fossils now exist for three of the four extinct orders, and for fossil representatives of several extant ones. Such studies constitute a valuable source of high fidelity data for constructing phylogenies. To illustrate this, here we present a cladistic analysis of the chelicerates to accompany these reconstructions. This is based on a previously published matrix, expanded to include fossil taxa and relevant characters, and allows us to: cladistically place the extinct arachnid orders; explicitly test some earlier hypotheses from the literature; and demonstrate that the addition of fossils to phylogenetic analyses can have broad implications. Phylogenies based on chelicerate morphology—in contrast to molecular studies—have achieved elements of consensus in recent years. Our work suggests that these results are not robust to the addition of novel characters or fossil taxa. Hypotheses surrounding chelicerate phylogeny remain in a state of flux.

  5. Three-dimensional reconstruction and the phylogeny of extinct chelicerate orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Arachnids are an important group of arthropods. They are: diverse and abundant; a major constituent of many terrestrial ecosystems; and possess a deep and extensive fossil record. In recent years a number of exceptionally preserved arachnid fossils have been investigated using tomography and associated techniques, providing valuable insights into their morphology. Here we use X-ray microtomography to reconstruct members of two extinct arachnid orders. In the Haptopoda, we demonstrate the presence of ‘clasp-knife’ chelicerae, and our novel redescription of a member of the Phalangiotarbida highlights leg details, but fails to resolve chelicerae in the group due to their small size. As a result of these reconstructions, tomographic studies of three-dimensionally preserved fossils now exist for three of the four extinct orders, and for fossil representatives of several extant ones. Such studies constitute a valuable source of high fidelity data for constructing phylogenies. To illustrate this, here we present a cladistic analysis of the chelicerates to accompany these reconstructions. This is based on a previously published matrix, expanded to include fossil taxa and relevant characters, and allows us to: cladistically place the extinct arachnid orders; explicitly test some earlier hypotheses from the literature; and demonstrate that the addition of fossils to phylogenetic analyses can have broad implications. Phylogenies based on chelicerate morphology—in contrast to molecular studies—have achieved elements of consensus in recent years. Our work suggests that these results are not robust to the addition of novel characters or fossil taxa. Hypotheses surrounding chelicerate phylogeny remain in a state of flux. PMID:25405073

  6. Three-Dimensional Microwave Holographic Imaging Employing Forward-Scattered Waves Only

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza K. Amineh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a three-dimensional microwave holographic imaging method based on the forward-scattered waves only. In the proposed method, one transmitter and multiple receivers perform together a two-dimensional scan on two planar apertures on opposite sides of the inspected domain. The ability to achieve three-dimensional imaging without back-scattered waves enables the imaging of high-loss objects, for example, tissues, where the back-scattered waves may not be available due to low signal-to-noise ratio or nonreciprocal measurement setup. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the proposed method in providing three-dimensional images. Resolution limits are derived and confirmed with simulation examples.

  7. Integrated teaching of anatomy and radiology using three-dimensional image post-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengier, Fabian; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von; Doll, Sara; Kirsch, Joachim; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Giesel, Frederik L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a new way of teaching by integrating both anatomy and radiology using three-dimensional image post-processing tools. One preclinical and one clinical module were developed for integrated teaching of anatomy and radiology. Potential benefits were assessed by anonymous evaluation among the 176 participating students. The students highly appreciated the new approach, especially the high degree of interactivity with the post-processing software and the possibility to correlate the real dissection with the virtual dissection. Students agreed that three-dimensional imaging and post-processing improved their understanding of difficult anatomical topics and topographical relations. We consider the new approach to provide great additional benefits for participating students regarding preparation for everyday clinical practice. In particular, it imparts familiarity with imaging and image post-processing techniques and may improve anatomical understanding, radiological diagnostic skills and three-dimensional appreciation. (orig.)

  8. Artistic expression in the development of new technology for three dimensional imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sandra; Richardson, Martin; Azevedo, Isabel

    2011-02-01

    The medium of holography offers many new creative possibilities for the development of kinetic art. In the search of new forms of image display we examine new methods of capturing Three Dimensional animated images. Expression in new forms of visualisation leads to new methods for exploration auto-stereoscopic displays, three-dimensional imaging and holography. Artists have long combined cameras together to explore the human body as form and space and this paper sets out the potential of some of these techniques and in particular the technical potential of the use of multicamera capture techniques. Artists such as Tim Macmillan1 (2010) and Dayton Taylor2 (1997) use multi-lens cameras to create the illusion of capturing space and time for different effects, such as frozen moment, live action and slow motion (often seen as a cinemagraphic effect). However, their results are two-dimensional images made with a two-dimensional image capture system. Previous research on the interaction between art and technology has been based on twodimensional video art. This paper outlines a method of three-dimensional video capture to explore three-dimensional space and the human body. The stereoscopic specialist Ray Zone3 has written about the evolution of 3-D technology and 3-D film. Zone examines the development of these 3-D techniques and demonstrates the connection between two fields. This research extends our knowledge of Three Dimensional moving image as an art form. In the new art world, Holography has become a method increasingly used to develop kinetic art. In the search of new forms of display and image capture, we examine new techniques such as 3-D, including auto-stereoscopic display, three-dimensional imaging and holography.

  9. Three-dimensional CT pyelography for planning of percutaneous nephrostolithotomy: accuracy of stone measurement, stone depiction and pelvicalyceal reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Uday; Walkden, Richard Miles; Ghani, Khurshid R.; Anson, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Retrospective evaluation of computed tomographic (CT) pyelography before percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL). Twenty patients with renal calculi underwent CT pyelography using a dedicated protocol. Calculus size, uniformity of contrast excretion and accuracy of calculus and pelvicalyceal (PC) system reconstructions were scored and compared on axial and coronal maximum intensity projections (MIP) and volume reconstructions (VRmovie loops). After contrast medium administration, the size of calculi is accurate on axial images, but underestimated on coronal studies: mean 14.7 mm vs. 14.4 mm (axial) and 17.2 mm vs. 16.1 mm (coronal) for measurements before and after enhancement, respectively (p = 0.11 and 0.03). Uniform contrast medium excretion (median 228 HU; 95% CI 209-266 HU) was sufficiently lower than calculus density (median 845 HU; 95% CI 457-1,193 HU) for precise calculus and pelvicalyceal reconstructions in 87% and 85%, respectively. Coronal MIP scans were rated best for calculus depiction (mean score 2.68 vs. 2.50 and 2.41 for coronal, axial and VRs, respectively; p = 0.14) and VR studies best for PC anatomy (mean score 4.4 vs. 3.73 and 2.89 for VR, coronal and axial studies, respectively; p = <0.0001). Three-dimensional CT pyelography can accurately demonstrate calculus position and spatial relationships of the collecting system before PCNL. (orig.)

  10. A three-dimensional strain measurement method in elastic transparent materials using tomographic particle image velocimetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azuma Takahashi

    Full Text Available The mechanical interaction between blood vessels and medical devices can induce strains in these vessels. Measuring and understanding these strains is necessary to identify the causes of vascular complications. This study develops a method to measure the three-dimensional (3D distribution of strain using tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV and compares the measurement accuracy with the gauge strain in tensile tests.The test system for measuring 3D strain distribution consists of two cameras, a laser, a universal testing machine, an acrylic chamber with a glycerol water solution for adjusting the refractive index with the silicone, and dumbbell-shaped specimens mixed with fluorescent tracer particles. 3D images of the particles were reconstructed from 2D images using a multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART and motion tracking enhancement. Distributions of the 3D displacements were calculated using a digital volume correlation. To evaluate the accuracy of the measurement method in terms of particle density and interrogation voxel size, the gauge strain and one of the two cameras for Tomo-PIV were used as a video-extensometer in the tensile test. The results show that the optimal particle density and interrogation voxel size are 0.014 particles per pixel and 40 × 40 × 40 voxels with a 75% overlap. The maximum measurement error was maintained at less than 2.5% in the 4-mm-wide region of the specimen.We successfully developed a method to experimentally measure 3D strain distribution in an elastic silicone material using Tomo-PIV and fluorescent particles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that applies Tomo-PIV to investigate 3D strain measurements in elastic materials with large deformation and validates the measurement accuracy.

  11. Fusing range and intensity images for generating dense models of three-dimensional environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Miró, Jaime Valls; Dissanayake., Gamini

    This paper presents a novel strategy for the construction of dense three-dimensional environment models by combining images from a conventional camera and a range imager. Ro- bust data association is ?rst accomplished by exploiting the Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT) technique...

  12. Injectable Shape-Memorizing Three-Dimensional Hyaluronic Acid Cryogels for Skin Sculpting and Soft Tissue Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liying; Ji, Kai; Shih, Ting-Yu; Haddad, Anthony; Giatsidis, Giorgio; Mooney, David J; Orgill, Dennis P; Nabzdyk, Christoph S

    2017-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA)-based fillers are used for various cosmetic procedures. However, due to filler migration and degradation, reinjections of the fillers are often required. Methacrylated HA (MA-HA) can be made into injectable shape-memorizing fillers (three-dimensional [3D] MA-HA) aimed to address these issues. In this study, shape retention, firmness, and biocompatibility of 3D MA-HA injected subcutaneously in mice were evaluated. Fifteen mice, each receiving two subcutaneous injections in their back, were divided into four groups receiving HA, MA-HA, 3D MA-HA, or saline, respectively. Digital imaging, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in vivo imaging system (IVIS), durometry, and histology were utilized to evaluate in vitro/vivo degradation and migration, material firmness, and the angiogenic (CD31) and immunogenic (CD45) response of the host tissue toward the injected materials. Digital imaging, SEM, and IVIS revealed that 3D MA-HA fillers maintained their predetermined shape for at least 30 days in vitro and in vivo. Little volume effects were noted in the saline and other control groups. There were no differences in skin firmness between the groups or over time. Histology showed intact skin architecture in all groups. Three-dimensional MA-HA maintained its macroporous structure with significant angiogenesis at the 3D MA-HA/skin interfaces and throughout the 3D MA-HA. There was no significant inflammatory response to any of the injected materials. 3D MA-HA showed remarkable tissue compatibility, compliance, and shape predictability, as well as retention, and thus might be suitable for various skin sculpting and soft tissue reconstruction purposes.

  13. Injectable Shape-Memorizing Three-Dimensional Hyaluronic Acid Cryogels for Skin Sculpting and Soft Tissue Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liying; Ji, Kai; Shih, Ting-Yu; Haddad, Anthony; Giatsidis, Giorgio; Mooney, David J.; Orgill, Dennis P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hyaluronic acid (HA)-based fillers are used for various cosmetic procedures. However, due to filler migration and degradation, reinjections of the fillers are often required. Methacrylated HA (MA-HA) can be made into injectable shape-memorizing fillers (three-dimensional [3D] MA-HA) aimed to address these issues. In this study, shape retention, firmness, and biocompatibility of 3D MA-HA injected subcutaneously in mice were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Fifteen mice, each receiving two subcutaneous injections in their back, were divided into four groups receiving HA, MA-HA, 3D MA-HA, or saline, respectively. Digital imaging, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in vivo imaging system (IVIS), durometry, and histology were utilized to evaluate in vitro/vivo degradation and migration, material firmness, and the angiogenic (CD31) and immunogenic (CD45) response of the host tissue toward the injected materials. Results: Digital imaging, SEM, and IVIS revealed that 3D MA-HA fillers maintained their predetermined shape for at least 30 days in vitro and in vivo. Little volume effects were noted in the saline and other control groups. There were no differences in skin firmness between the groups or over time. Histology showed intact skin architecture in all groups. Three-dimensional MA-HA maintained its macroporous structure with significant angiogenesis at the 3D MA-HA/skin interfaces and throughout the 3D MA-HA. There was no significant inflammatory response to any of the injected materials. Conclusion: 3D MA-HA showed remarkable tissue compatibility, compliance, and shape predictability, as well as retention, and thus might be suitable for various skin sculpting and soft tissue reconstruction purposes. PMID:27875939

  14. Three-dimensional reconstruction of a random fibrous medium: Geometry, transport, and sound absorbing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Hoang Tuan; Perrot, Camille; Monchiet, Vincent; Panneton, Raymond

    2017-06-01

    The main purpose of this article is to present, within a unified framework, a technique based on numerical homogenization, to model the acoustical properties of real fibrous media from their geometrical characteristics and to compare numerical results with experimental data. The authors introduce a reconstruction procedure for a random fibrous medium and use it as a basis for the computation of its geometrical, transport, and sound absorbing properties. The previously ad hoc "fiber anisotropies" and "volume weighted average radii," used to describe the experimental data on microstructure, are here measured using scanning electron microscopy. The authors show that these parameters, in conjunction with the bulk porosity, contribute to a precise description of the acoustical characteristics of fibrous absorbents. They also lead to an accurate prediction of transport parameters which can be used to predict acoustical properties. The computed values of the permeability and frequency-dependent sound absorption coefficient are successfully compared with permeability and impedance-tube measurements. The authors' results indicate the important effect of fiber orientation on flow properties associated with the different physical properties of fibrous materials. A direct link is provided between three-dimensional microstructure and the sound absorbing properties of non-woven fibrous materials, without the need for any empirical formulae or fitting parameters.

  15. Three-dimensional reconstruction of rat dermal blood vessels in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Kulkarni, Manish D.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1997-05-01

    We performed imaging and reconstruction of dermal and subdermal blood vessels in a rat skin flap window model. The window model consists of a double thickness of dorsal skin which is sutured to a holding fixture. A 1 cm circle of skin is removed from one thickness, exposing the dermal blood vessels of the opposing side. An optical coherence tomography system operating at 1310 nm was used to image the blood vessels. A series of transverse images of the window model characterized sections of tissue. Off-the-shelf software for desktop and workstation computers was used to preprocess the images, identify and reconstruct blood vessels, and to extract parameters such depth, diameter, and percent volume of blood vessels. Such parameters may be of interest in developing improved treatments for vascular disorders such as port wine stains.

  16. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Using High-Speed Video and VHF Broadband Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Qiu, Shi; Shi, Lihua; Huang, Zhengyu; Wang, Tao; Duan, Yantao

    2017-12-01

    The time resolved three-dimensional (3-D) spatial reconstruction of lightning channels using high-speed video (HSV) images and VHF broadband interferometer (BITF) data is first presented in this paper. Because VHF and optical radiations in step formation process occur with time separation no more than 1 μs, the observation data of BITF and HSV at two different sites provide the possibility of reconstructing the time resolved 3-D channel of lightning. With the proposed procedures for 3-D reconstruction of leader channels, dart leaders as well as stepped leaders with complex multiple branches can be well reconstructed. The differences between 2-D speeds and 3-D speeds of leader channels are analyzed by comparing the development of leader channels in 2-D and 3-D space. Since return stroke (RS) usually follows the path of previous leader channels, the 3-D speeds of the return strokes are first estimated by combination with the 3-D structure of the preceding leaders and HSV image sequences. For the fourth RS, the ratios of the 3-D to 2-D RS speeds increase with height, and the largest ratio of the 3-D to 2-D return stroke speeds can reach 2.03, which is larger than the result of triggered lightning reported by Idone. Since BITF can detect lightning radiation in a 360° view, correlated BITF and HSV observations increase the 3-D detection probability than dual-station HSV observations, which is helpful to obtain more events and deeper understanding of the lightning process.

  17. Reconstruction of a three-dimensional object from its conoscopic hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnier, Laurent M.; Sirat, Gabriel Y.

    1992-12-01

    Conoscopic holography is a method for recording holograms with incoherent light, first presented in 1985. Its applications range from 3D microscopy to 3D satellite imaging and include robotics. The Point Spread Function (PSF) is a Gabor Zone Pattern, which is known to have zeros in Fourier space. We present an experimental technique to obtain an invertible PSF with an experimental image reconstruction, and an original algorithm to find the object shape, validated with both simulations and first experimental results.

  18. Postoperative follow-up study of craniosynostosis using three-dimensional surface reconstruction CT (3D-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Takashi; Nishimura, Jiro; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Tsubokawa, Takashi.

    1988-12-01

    In 1983, Michael W. Vannier and Jeffrey L. Marsh developed a computer method that reconstructs three-dimensional images from high-resolution CT-scan series of the facial skeleton. This method has been applied to craniofacial anomalies, basal encephalocele, and other skeletal pathologies. In this study, the postoperative assessment of craniofacial surgical results has been accomplished using 3D-CT techniques in craniosynostosis. The results are as follows: (1) Postoperative 3D-CTs reveal the bony anatomical details corrected by the craniofacial surgery more precisely and more stereographically than do conventional radiological techniques. (2) Secondary changes in the cranium after the surgery, such as reossification at the area of osteotomies or postoperative asymmetric skull deformities, are more early detected by the 3D-CT imaging technique than by a craniogram. (3) In 3D-CT images, internal views of the skull, such mid-sagittal, rear internal, or top axial views of the intracranial skull base, are most useful in postoperative assessments of the surgical results and of postoperative secondary changes in the cranium. Based on our experience, we expect that 3D-CT imaging techniques will become more important in the management of craniosynostosis.

  19. Postoperative follow-up study of craniosynostosis using three-dimensional surface reconstruction CT (3D-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Takashi; Nishimura, Jiro; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Tsubokawa, Takashi.

    1988-01-01

    In 1983, Michael W. Vannier and Jeffrey L. Marsh developed a computer method that reconstructs three-dimensional images from high-resolution CT-scan series of the facial skeleton. This method has been applied to craniofacial anomalies, basal encephalocele, and other skeletal pathologies. In this study, the postoperative assessment of craniofacial surgical results has been accomplished using 3D-CT techniques in craniosynostosis. The results are as follows: 1) Postoperative 3D-CTs reveal the bony anatomical details corrected by the craniofacial surgery more precisely and more stereographically than do conventional radiological techniques. 2) Secondary changes in the cranium after the surgery, such as reossification at the area of osteotomies or postoperative asymmetric skull deformities, are more early detected by the 3D-CT imaging technique than by a craniogram. 3) In 3D-CT images, internal views of the skull, such mid-sagittal, rear internal, or top axial views of the intracranial skull base, are most useful in postoperative assessments of the surgical results and of postoperative secondary changes in the cranium. Based on our experience, we expect that 3D-CT imaging techniques will become more important in the management of craniosynostosis. (author)

  20. Characterization and three-dimensional reconstruction of synthetic bone model foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, S. [Interdepartment Research Group for the Applied Scientific Collaboration (IRGASC), Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Vlad, M.D. [Interdepartment Research Group for the Applied Scientific Collaboration (IRGASC), Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Faculty of Medical Bioengineering, “Gr. T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Str. Kogalniceanu 9-13, 700454 Iasi (Romania); López, J. [Interdepartment Research Group for the Applied Scientific Collaboration (IRGASC), Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Navarro, M. [Centre de Biotecnologia Animal i de Teràpia Gènica (CBATEG), Departament de Sanitat i d' Anatomia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès (Spain); Fernández, E., E-mail: enrique.fernandez@upc.edu [Interdepartment Research Group for the Applied Scientific Collaboration (IRGASC), Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    Sawbones© open-cell foams with different porosity grades are being used as synthetic bone-like models for in vitro mechanical and infiltration experiments. However, a comprehensive characterization of these foams is not available and there is a lack of reliable information about them. For this reason two of these foams (Refs. 1522-505 and -507) have been characterized at the micro architectural level by scanning electron microscopy, computed tomography and image data analysis. BoneJ open software and ImageJ open software were used to obtain the characteristic histomorphometric parameters and the three dimensional virtual models of the foams. The results showed that both foams, while having different macro porosities, appeared undistinguishable at the micro scale. Moreover, the micro structural features resembled those of osteoporotic rather than healthy trabecular bone. It is concluded that Sawbones© foams behave reasonably as synthetic bone-like models. Consequently, their use is recommended for in vitro comparison purposes of both mechanical and infiltration testing performed in real vertebra. Finally, the virtual models obtained, which are available under request, can favour comparisons between future self-similar in vitro experiments and computer simulations. - Highlights: • Sawbones© model foams have been scanned by μ-CT. • Histomorphometric indices and 3D virtual models have been obtained. • The results will be of use to understand biocement vertebra infiltration studies.

  1. Depth extraction of three-dimensional objects using block matching for slice images in synthetic aperture integral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-Jae; Lee, Byung-Gook; Yoo, Hoon

    2011-10-10

    We describe a computational method for depth extraction of three-dimensional (3D) objects using block matching for slice images in synthetic aperture integral imaging (SAII). SAII is capable of providing high-resolution 3D slice images for 3D objects because the picked-up elemental images are high-resolution ones. In the proposed method, the high-resolution elemental images are recorded by moving a camera; a computational reconstruction algorithm based on ray backprojection generates a set of 3D slice images from the recorded elemental images. To extract depth information of the 3D objects, we propose a new block-matching algorithm between a reference elemental image and a set of 3D slice images. The property of the slices images is that the focused areas are the right location for an object, whereas the blurred areas are considered to be empty space; thus, this can extract robust and accurate depth information of the 3D objects. To demonstrate our method, we carry out the preliminary experiments of 3D objects; the results indicate that our method is superior to a conventional method in terms of depth-map quality. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  2. An improved three-dimensional non-scanning laser imaging system based on digital micromirror device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenze; Han, Shaokun; Lei, Jieyu; Zhai, Yu; Timofeev, Alexander N.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, there are two main methods to realize three-dimensional non-scanning laser imaging detection, which are detection method based on APD and detection method based on Streak Tube. However, the detection method based on APD possesses some disadvantages, such as small number of pixels, big pixel interval and complex supporting circuit. The detection method based on Streak Tube possesses some disadvantages, such as big volume, bad reliability and high cost. In order to resolve the above questions, this paper proposes an improved three-dimensional non-scanning laser imaging system based on Digital Micromirror Device. In this imaging system, accurate control of laser beams and compact design of imaging structure are realized by several quarter-wave plates and a polarizing beam splitter. The remapping fiber optics is used to sample the image plane of receiving optical lens, and transform the image into line light resource, which can realize the non-scanning imaging principle. The Digital Micromirror Device is used to convert laser pulses from temporal domain to spatial domain. The CCD with strong sensitivity is used to detect the final reflected laser pulses. In this paper, we also use an algorithm which is used to simulate this improved laser imaging system. In the last, the simulated imaging experiment demonstrates that this improved laser imaging system can realize three-dimensional non-scanning laser imaging detection.

  3. Three-dimensional functional images of myocardial oxygen consumption from positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.R.; Wallis, J.W.; Geltman, E.M.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    Images from positron emission tomography (PET) are usually presented as transaxial slices portraying tissue radioactivity. Studies can be difficult to interpret from transaxial images, and the temporal changes in tissue tracer concentrations which permit quantitative determinations of metabolism and perfusion are not displayed. We have developed a method to give quantitatively accurate three-dimensional images of myocardial oxygen consumption from serial images of the myocardial washout of carbon-11-acetate. Following i.v. bolus injection, data are collected for 20-30 min. The time-activity curves for each pixel in the transaxial slices are fit to a monoexponential function to determine the washout rate, which is directly related to the rate of myocardial oxygen utilization. Thus, functional images of myocardial oxygen consumption are produced for all seven slices of PET data. A previously developed method is then used to generate realistic and quantitatively accurate three-dimensional images

  4. Three-dimensional display and measurement of cardiac dynamic indexes from MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, M.; Matsuo, M.; Yamasaki, K.; Banno, T.; Toriwaki, J.; Yokoi, S.; Oshita, H.

    1986-01-01

    The cardiac dynamic index, to which such variables as cardiac output, ejection fraction, and wall motion contribute, is routinely determined using various modalities such as angiography, radionuclide imaging, US, and x-ray CT. Each of these modalities, however, has some disadvantages in regard to evaluating the cardiac dynamic index. The authors have obtained precise multidirectional projection images of the heart by means of computer graphics and reformatted data of cardiac MR images obtained with cardiac gating. The contiguous coronal MR images of the heart are made at an interimage distance of 5 mm. In each section, five or six cardiac images can be obtained, depending on the systolic or diastolic phase. These images are stored in a computer, and a three-dimensional display of the heart with biocular observation and with multiplex holograms is made possible with computer graphics. Three-dimensional measurement of the cardiac index is now being attempted, including cardiac output, ejection fraction, and wall motion

  5. Automated computation of femoral angles in dogs from three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions: Comparison with manual techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, F; Nicetto, T; Banzato, T; Savio, G; Drigo, M; Meneghello, R; Concheri, G; Isola, M

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to test a novel three-dimensional (3D) automated computer-aided design (CAD) method (aCAD) for the computation of femoral angles in dogs from 3D reconstructions of computed tomography (CT) images. The repeatability and reproducibility of three manual radiography, manual CT reconstructions and the aCAD method for the measurement of three femoral angles were evaluated: (1) anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA); (2) femoral neck angle (FNA); and (3) femoral torsion angle (FTA). Femoral angles of 22 femurs obtained from 16 cadavers were measured by three blinded observers. Measurements were repeated three times by each observer for each diagnostic technique. Femoral angle measurements were analysed using a mixed effects linear model for repeated measures to determine the levels of intra-observer agreement (repeatability) and inter-observer agreement (reproducibility). Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements using the aCAD method were excellent (intra-class coefficients, ICCs≥0.98) for all three angles assessed. Manual radiography and CT exhibited excellent agreement for the aLDFA measurement (ICCs≥0.90). However, FNA repeatability and reproducibility were poor (ICCscomputation of the 3D aCAD method provided the highest repeatability and reproducibility among the tested methodologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Three-Dimensional Printing-based Reconstruction of a Maxillary Bone Defect in a Dog Following Tumor Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Eun; Shim, Kyung Mi; Jang, Kwangsik; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Kang, Seong Soo

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been applied extensively not only in human, but also veterinary medicine. However, the technique is still used in the clinical area for a surgical plan or education prior to surgery. Thus, we report a case of reconstruction after tumor removal surgery with the use of a 3D-printed scaffold. A 12-year-old female mixed dog had a left caudal maxillary mass. Based on computed tomography images, a defect was confirmed on the maxillary bone due to the oral mass, and a surgical plan was designed to remove the oral mass and graft the 3D printed scaffold. Customized polycaprolactone/ beta-tracalciumphosphate (PCL/β-TCP) scaffold was fabricated using the micro-extrusion-based 3D printer. In the operation, after the removal of the oral mass, the scaffold was grafted onto the defect site. At follow-up, 8 months after surgery, the result was successful without any special problems in the periodic CT scans and oral examinations. This case is believed to be the first case of reconstruction by using a 3D printed scaffold in the maxillary bone defect, and this 3D printing technique is thought to be very helpful for veterinary patients with bone defects and several other diseases. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. A three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm for an inverse-geometry volumetric CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Taly Gilat; Fahrig, Rebecca; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2005-01-01

    An inverse-geometry volumetric computed tomography (IGCT) system has been proposed capable of rapidly acquiring sufficient data to reconstruct a thick volume in one circular scan. The system uses a large-area scanned source opposite a smaller detector. The source and detector have the same extent in the axial, or slice, direction, thus providing sufficient volumetric sampling and avoiding cone-beam artifacts. This paper describes a reconstruction algorithm for the IGCT system. The algorithm first rebins the acquired data into two-dimensional (2D) parallel-ray projections at multiple tilt and azimuthal angles, followed by a 3D filtered backprojection. The rebinning step is performed by gridding the data onto a Cartesian grid in a 4D projection space. We present a new method for correcting the gridding error caused by the finite and asymmetric sampling in the neighborhood of each output grid point in the projection space. The reconstruction algorithm was implemented and tested on simulated IGCT data. Results show that the gridding correction reduces the gridding errors to below one Hounsfield unit. With this correction, the reconstruction algorithm does not introduce significant artifacts or blurring when compared to images reconstructed from simulated 2D parallel-ray projections. We also present an investigation of the noise behavior of the method which verifies that the proposed reconstruction algorithm utilizes cross-plane rays as efficiently as in-plane rays and can provide noise comparable to an in-plane parallel-ray geometry for the same number of photons. Simulations of a resolution test pattern and the modulation transfer function demonstrate that the IGCT system, using the proposed algorithm, is capable of 0.4 mm isotropic resolution. The successful implementation of the reconstruction algorithm is an important step in establishing feasibility of the IGCT system

  8. Improvement in printing technique of spiral CT three-dimensional colour image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yicheng; Liu Feng; Zhang Ling

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the printing technique of spiral CT three-dimensional (3D) colour image. Methods: The 3D colour images of 136 patients were printed, with the equipment of Marconi spiral CT, personnel computer, colour ink printer, and network switchboard. Results: All printed images were satisfied by this method. Conclusion: This technique is economic, simple, and useful, and can meet the need for clinical diagnosis and operation. (authors)

  9. Diagnosis of temporal bone diseases using three-dimensional images with multislice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Yoshihiro; Togami, Taro; Murota, Makiko; Fukunaga, Kotaro; Hino, Ichiro; Sato, Katashi; Ohkawa, Motoomi [Kagawa Medical Univ., Miki (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of three-dimensional images with multislice CT in the temporal bone diseases. Fifty-nine cases (26 with medial otitis, 8 choresteatoma, 10 congenital malformation, 3 high jugular bulb, 2 otosclerosis, and 10 others) were included in this study. In the ossicular and inner ear lesions, oblique multiplanar images of the long axis of each ossicle was useful the detection of abnormality. Structural deformity of ossicles and bony labyrinth were clearly delineated by surface rendering images. (author)

  10. Reliability of three-dimensional measurements of the upper airway on cone beam computed tomography images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Hui; Aarab, Ghizlane; Parsa, Azin; de Lange, Jan; van der Stelt, Paul F.; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was (1) to assess intra- and interobserver reliability of the localization of anatomic landmarks of the upper airway on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images; and (2) to assess intra- and interobserver reliability of the three-dimensional measurements of the upper airway

  11. Reliability of three-dimensional measurements of the upper airway on cone beam computed tomography images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Aarab, G.; Parsa, A.; de Lange, J.; van der Stelt, P.F.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was (1) to assess intra- and interobserver reliability of the localization of anatomic landmarks of the upper airway on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images; and (2) to assess intra- and interobserver reliability of the three-dimensional measurements of the

  12. Imaging three-dimensional surface objects with submolecular resolution by atomic force microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreno, C.; Stetsovych, Oleksandr; Shimizu, T.K.; Custance, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2015), s. 2257-2262 ISSN 1530-6984 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC- AFM ) * submolecular resolution * three-dimensional dynamic force spectroscopy * high-resolution imaging Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 13.779, year: 2015

  13. Self-interference fluorescence microscopy: three dimensional fluorescence imaging without depth scanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.; Evans, C.L.; de Boer, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method for high-resolution, three-dimensional fluorescence imaging. In contrast to beam-scanning confocal microscopy, where the laser focus must be scanned both laterally and axially to collect a volume, we obtain depth information without the necessity of depth scanning. In this

  14. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry in a generic can-type gas turbine combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyers, BC

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional flow field inside a generic can-type, forward flow, experimental combustor was measured. A stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to obtain the flow field of the combustor in the non-reacting condition...

  15. Navigator channel adaptation to reconstruct three dimensional heart volumes from two dimensional radiotherapy planning data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Angela; Nguyen, Thao-Nguyen; Moseley, Joanne L; Hodgson, David C; Sharpe, Michael B; Brock, Kristy K

    2012-01-01

    Biologically-based models that utilize 3D radiation dosimetry data to estimate the risk of late cardiac effects could have significant utility for planning radiotherapy in young patients. A major challenge arises from having only 2D treatment planning data for patients with long-term follow-up. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of an advanced deformable image registration (DIR) and navigator channels (NC) adaptation technique to reconstruct 3D heart volumes from 2D radiotherapy planning images for Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) patients. Planning CT images were obtained for 50 HL patients who underwent mediastinal radiotherapy. Twelve image sets (6 male, 6 female) were used to construct a male and a female population heart model, which was registered to 23 HL 'Reference' patients' CT images using a DIR algorithm, MORFEUS. This generated a series of population-to-Reference patient specific 3D deformation maps. The technique was independently tested on 15 additional 'Test' patients by reconstructing their 3D heart volumes using 2D digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR). The technique involved: 1) identifying a matching Reference patient for each Test patient using thorax measurements, 2) placement of six NCs on matching Reference and Test patients' DRRs to capture differences in significant heart curvatures, 3) adapting the population-to-Reference patient-specific deformation maps to generate population-to-Test patient-specific deformation maps using linear and bilinear interpolation methods, 4) applying population-to-Test patient specific deformation to the population model to reconstruct Test-patient specific 3D heart models. The percentage volume overlap between the NC-adapted reconstruction and actual Test patient's true heart volume was calculated using the Dice coefficient. The average Dice coefficient expressed as a percentage between the NC-adapted and actual Test model was 89.4 ± 2.8%. The modified NC adaptation

  16. Three-dimensional displacement measurement of image point by point-diffraction interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao; Chen, Lingfeng; Meng, Xiaojie; Yu, Lei

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring the three-dimensional (3-D) displacement of an image point based on point-diffraction interferometry. An object Point-light-source (PLS) interferes with a fixed PLS and its interferograms are captured by an exit pupil. When the image point of the object PLS is slightly shifted to a new position, the wavefront of the image PLS changes. And its interferograms also change. Processing these figures (captured before and after the movement), the wavefront difference of the image PLS can be obtained and it contains the information of three-dimensional (3-D) displacement of the image PLS. However, the information of its three-dimensional (3-D) displacement cannot be calculated until the distance between the image PLS and the exit pupil is calibrated. Therefore, we use a plane-parallel-plate with a known refractive index and thickness to determine this distance, which is based on the Snell's law for small angle of incidence. Thus, since the distance between the exit pupil and the image PLS is a known quantity, the 3-D displacement of the image PLS can be simultaneously calculated through two interference measurements. Preliminary experimental results indicate that its relative error is below 0.3%. With the ability to accurately locate an image point (whatever it is real or virtual), a fiber point-light-source can act as the reticle by itself in optical measurement.

  17. Three-dimensional imaging of a complex concaved cuboctahedron copper sulfide crystal by x-ray nanotomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jie; Tian Jinping; Li Wenjie; Tian Yangchao; Wu Chunyan; Yu Shuhong

    2008-01-01

    By combining Fresnel zone-plate based transmission x-ray microscopy with computed tomography, the nanoscale features in materials with complex shapes can be imaged using synchrotron radiation. The tomographic data sets of a complex copper sulfide crystal were acquired in the angle range ±70 deg. at photon energy of 8.0 keV and then were reconstructed by a standard filtered-back-projection algorithm. This experiment shows the quantifiable three-dimensional information of the copper sulfide crystal, which offers a complete understanding of the concaved cuboctahedron structure with 14 faces comprising of six squares and eight triangles

  18. GOTCHA experience report: three-dimensional SAR imaging with complete circular apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertin, Emre; Austin, Christian D.; Sharma, Samir; Moses, Randolph L.; Potter, Lee C.

    2007-04-01

    We study circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR) systems collecting radar backscatter measurements over a complete circular aperture of 360 degrees. This study is motivated by the GOTCHA CSAR data collection experiment conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Circular SAR provides wide-angle information about the anisotropic reflectivity of the scattering centers in the scene, and also provides three dimensional information about the location of the scattering centers due to a non planar collection geometry. Three dimensional imaging results with single pass circular SAR data reveals that the 3D resolution of the system is poor due to the limited persistence of the reflectors in the scene. We present results on polarimetric processing of CSAR data and illustrate reasoning of three dimensional shape from multi-view layover using prior information about target scattering mechanisms. Next, we discuss processing of multipass (CSAR) data and present volumetric imaging results with IFSAR and three dimensional backprojection techniques on the GOTCHA data set. We observe that the volumetric imaging with GOTCHA data is degraded by aliasing and high sidelobes due to nonlinear flightpaths and sparse and unequal sampling in elevation. We conclude with a model based technique that resolves target features and enhances the volumetric imagery by extrapolating the phase history data using the estimated model.

  19. Three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and systems for near-field applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Jones, Anthony M.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.

    2016-05-12

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed three-dimensional holographic (synthetic aperture) radar imaging techniques and systems for a wide variety of near-field applications. These applications include radar cross-section (RCS) imaging, personnel screening, standoff concealed weapon detection, concealed threat detection, through-barrier imaging, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and non-destructive evaluation (NDE). Sequentially-switched linear arrays are used for many of these systems to enable high-speed data acquisition and 3-D imaging. In this paper, the techniques and systems will be described along with imaging results that demonstrate the utility of near-field 3-D radar imaging for these compelling applications.

  20. Advances in high-resolution imaging--techniques for three-dimensional imaging of cellular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidke, Diane S; Lidke, Keith A

    2012-06-01

    A fundamental goal in biology is to determine how cellular organization is coupled to function. To achieve this goal, a better understanding of organelle composition and structure is needed. Although visualization of cellular organelles using fluorescence or electron microscopy (EM) has become a common tool for the cell biologist, recent advances are providing a clearer picture of the cell than ever before. In particular, advanced light-microscopy techniques are achieving resolutions below the diffraction limit and EM tomography provides high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) images of cellular structures. The ability to perform both fluorescence and electron microscopy on the same sample (correlative light and electron microscopy, CLEM) makes it possible to identify where a fluorescently labeled protein is located with respect to organelle structures visualized by EM. Here, we review the current state of the art in 3D biological imaging techniques with a focus on recent advances in electron microscopy and fluorescence super-resolution techniques.

  1. Three-dimensional reconstruction of highly complex microscopic samples using scanning electron microscopy and optical flow estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Baghaie

    Full Text Available Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM as one of the major research and industrial equipment for imaging of micro-scale samples and surfaces has gained extensive attention from its emerge. However, the acquired micrographs still remain two-dimensional (2D. In the current work a novel and highly accurate approach is proposed to recover the hidden third-dimension by use of multi-view image acquisition of the microscopic samples combined with pre/post-processing steps including sparse feature-based stereo rectification, nonlocal-based optical flow estimation for dense matching and finally depth estimation. Employing the proposed approach, three-dimensional (3D reconstructions of highly complex microscopic samples were achieved to facilitate the interpretation of topology and geometry of surface/shape attributes of the samples. As a byproduct of the proposed approach, high-definition 3D printed models of the samples can be generated as a tangible means of physical understanding. Extensive comparisons with the state-of-the-art reveal the strength and superiority of the proposed method in uncovering the details of the highly complex microscopic samples.

  2. Measurement of three-dimensional morphological characteristics of the calcaneus using CT image post-processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Minfei; Chen, Yanxi; Zhang, Kun; Li, Haobo; Dai, Hao

    2014-03-14

    Although computed tomography (CT) with three-dimensional (3D) rendering of the calcaneus is used for diagnostic evaluation of disorders, morphological measurements for the calcaneus are mostly based on a two-dimensional plane. The purposes of this study were to design a method for 3D morphological measurements of the normal calcaneus based on CT post-processing techniques, to measure morphological parameters in the male and female groups and describe gender differences of the parameters, and to investigate the reliability of such measurements. One hundred and seventy-nine patients (83 men and 96 women) with a mean age of 40.6 (range, 21 to 59) years who underwent CT scans for their feet were reviewed retrospectively. The 3D structure of a normal calcaneus after shaded surface display reconstruction was extracted by interactive and automatic segmentation. Morphological measurements were achieved by means of a 3D measurement method based on CT image post-processing. Lengths and heights of the main parts of the calcaneus, Gissane's angle, Böhler's angle and the area of articular facet were worked out in 3D space. Gender-related size differences of parameters were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for body height. Intra-observer and inter-observer reliabilities were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the root mean square standard deviation (RMS-SD) for precision study. A large range of measurement values was found. Only the length of the anterior process was without gender difference (p > 0.05). The other parameters in the male group were greater than those in the female group (p  0.8). Precision was acceptable for intra-observer RMS-SD (linear, angular and areal measurements no more than 0.6 mm, 1.2° and 0.25 mm2, respectively). Inter-observer RMS-SD ranged from 0.4 to 1.6 mm for linear measurements, 1.2 to 2.5° for angles and 0.24 to 0.40 mm2 for areas. Three-dimensional morphological measurement based on

  3. Three-dimensional computer graphic imaging using a personal computer for neuroradiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Tatsumi; Shima, Fumio; Natori, Yoshihiro; Itoyama, Yasuto; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Fukui, Masashi

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional images of deep-seated brain tumors were constructed from serial CT scans in a personal-computer environment. The graphic information of the CT view was digitized using a graphic tablet. The system offers stereoscopic images and optional tomography of the CT views and enables investigations to measure the position, size, and volume of each tumor. The stereoscopic image pair of the tumor was superimposed on the stereoscopic angiogram so that the tumor was viewed in relation to the surrounding blood vessels. This made it possible to select an appropriate stereotactic trajectory in which the biopsy needle could reach the tumor without damaging the blood vessels. The three-dimensional images of the tumor and ventricles were projected on the intraoperative X-ray films during stereotactic biopsy. This method provided useful information for localizing the surgical target and for understanding the spatial relationship between the needle and the ventricular system. (author)

  4. Three-dimensional CT and MR imaging in congenital dislocation of the hip: Technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.; Steiger, P.; Lindquist, T.; Skinner, S.; Moore, S.; Chafetz, N.I.; Genant, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) software techniques were developed to generate diagnostic-quality three-dimensional (3D) MR studies in two patients with congenital dislocation of the hip. Comparable 3D CT studies were obtained in two other patients. Unsharp masks were divided into the original MR images to correct for local variations in signal intensity. Combinations of first- and second-echo images improved the object contrast. Pixels with insufficient homogeneity relative to their neighboring data were excluded. CT did not require 2D preprocessing. Three-dimensional CT and MR images demonstrated subluxation and dislocation. 3D MR, in contrast to CT, demonstrated the cartilaginous femoral head. The described 2D MR preprocessing provides diagnostic-quality 3D MR studies. It will be useful for generating 3D MR images of other anatomic structures

  5. A Novel Medical Image Watermarking in Three-dimensional Fourier Compressed Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoru Han

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is a research hotspot in the field of image security, which is protected digital image copyright. In order to ensure medical image information security, a novel medical image digital watermarking algorithm in three-dimensional Fourier compressed domain is proposed. The novel medical image digital watermarking algorithm takes advantage of three-dimensional Fourier compressed domain characteristics, Legendre chaotic neural network encryption features and robust characteristics of differences hashing, which is a robust zero-watermarking algorithm. On one hand, the original watermarking image is encrypted in order to enhance security. It makes use of Legendre chaotic neural network implementation. On the other hand, the construction of zero-watermarking adopts differences hashing in three-dimensional Fourier compressed domain. The novel watermarking algorithm does not need to select a region of interest, can solve the problem of medical image content affected. The specific implementation of the algorithm and the experimental results are given in the paper. The simulation results testify that the novel algorithm possesses a desirable robustness to common attack and geometric attack.

  6. Optimization of three-dimensional angiographic data obtained by self-calibration of multiview imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noeel, Peter B.; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Kasodekar, Snehal; Walczak, Alan M.; Schafer, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the U.S. The treatment of stroke often involves vascular interventions in which devices are guided to the intervention site often through tortuous vessels based on two-dimensional (2-D) angiographic images. Three dimensional (3-D) vascular information may facilitate these procedures. Methods have been proposed for the self-calibrating determination of 3-D vessel trees from biplane and multiple plane images and the geometric relationships between the views (imaging geometries). For the biplane analysis, four or more corresponding points must be identified in the biplane images. For the multiple view technique, multiple vessels must be indicated and only the translation vectors relating the geometries are calculated. We have developed methods for the calculation of the 3-D vessel data and the full transformations relating the multiple views (rotations and translations) obtained during interventional procedures, and the technique does not require indication of corresponding points, but only the indication of a single vessel, e.g., the vessel of interest. Multiple projection views of vessel trees are obtained and transferred to the analysis computer. The vessel or vessels of interest are indicated by the user. Using the initial imaging geometry determined from the gantry information, 3-D vessel centerlines are calculated using the indicated centerlines in pairs of images. The imaging geometries are then iteratively adjusted and 3-D centerlines recalculated until the root-mean-square (rms) difference between the calculated 3-D centerlines is minimized. Simulations indicate that the 3-D centerlines can be accurately determined (to within 1 mm) even for errors in indication of the vessel endpoints as large as 5 mm. In phantom studies, the average rms difference between the pairwise calculated 3-D centerlines is approximately 7.5 mm prior to refinement (i.e., using the gantry information alone), whereas the average rms

  7. Fast parallel algorithm for three-dimensional distance-driven model in iterative computed tomography reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian-Lin; Li Lei; Wang Lin-Yuan; Cai Ai-Long; Xi Xiao-Qi; Zhang Han-Ming; Li Jian-Xin; Yan Bin

    2015-01-01

    The projection matrix model is used to describe the physical relationship between reconstructed object and projection. Such a model has a strong influence on projection and backprojection, two vital operations in iterative computed tomographic reconstruction. The distance-driven model (DDM) is a state-of-the-art technology that simulates forward and back projections. This model has a low computational complexity and a relatively high spatial resolution; however, it includes only a few methods in a parallel operation with a matched model scheme. This study introduces a fast and parallelizable algorithm to improve the traditional DDM for computing the parallel projection and backprojection operations. Our proposed model has been implemented on a GPU (graphic processing unit) platform and has achieved satisfactory computational efficiency with no approximation. The runtime for the projection and backprojection operations with our model is approximately 4.5 s and 10.5 s per loop, respectively, with an image size of 256×256×256 and 360 projections with a size of 512×512. We compare several general algorithms that have been proposed for maximizing GPU efficiency by using the unmatched projection/backprojection models in a parallel computation. The imaging resolution is not sacrificed and remains accurate during computed tomographic reconstruction. (paper)

  8. Three-dimensional calcification reconstruction from a limited number of views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Albert, Michael; Conant, Emily F.; Feig, Stephen A.

    1996-04-01

    A method has been developed to allow mammographic differential diagnosis based upon the 3- D orientation and morphology of mammary calcifications. Two to seven digital radiographs of a cluster of calcifications are acquired on a prone stereotactic breast biopsy system. The images are segmented using a recursive region-growing algorithm. Inclusion of calcific material is dependent upon local statistics calculated over a region surrounding each calcification. Segmentation is aided by correlation of the calcifications in two or more views through analysis of their positions, sizes and shapes. The location of each calcification is determined geometrically; the shape of each calcification is calculated using the segmented images and a simulated annealing reconstruction method. Image segmentation and reconstruction can be reproducibly performed with an accuracy of 0.1 mm, which is sufficient to perform 3-D morphologic analysis. Biopsy specimens and in vivo calcifications have been examined. In instances where calcifications are associated with amass, we can distinguish preferentially peripherally distributed calcifications from homogeneously distributed calcifications. We have also been able to elucidate the linear distribution of calcifications contained within the ductal system. In a preliminary ROC study involving 3 radiologists and 26 lesions (5 malignant), specificity increased when 3-D images were included in the diagnostic evaluation, resulting in an increase of Az from 0.66 to 0.88 (p equals 0.0039).

  9. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Block Shape Irregularity and its Effects on Block Impacts Using an Energy-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Liu, Zaobao; Shi, Chong; Shao, Jianfu

    2018-04-01

    This study is devoted to three-dimensional modeling of small falling rocks in block impact analysis in energy view using the particle flow method. The restitution coefficient of rockfall collision is introduced from the energy consumption mechanism to describe rockfall-impacting properties. Three-dimensional reconstruction of falling block is conducted with the help of spherical harmonic functions that have satisfactory mathematical properties such as orthogonality and rotation invariance. Numerical modeling of the block impact to the bedrock is analyzed with both the sphere-simplified model and the 3D reconstructed model. Comparisons of the obtained results suggest that the 3D reconstructed model is advantageous in considering the combination effects of rockfall velocity and rotations during colliding process. Verification of the modeling is carried out with the results obtained from other experiments. In addition, the effects of rockfall morphology, surface characteristics, velocity, and volume, colliding damping and relative angle are investigated. A three-dimensional reconstruction modulus of falling blocks is to be developed and incorporated into the rockfall simulation tools in order to extend the modeling results at block scale to slope scale.

  10. [Cartilage repair and subchondral bone reconstruction based on three-dimensional printing technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijie; Lian, Qin; Li, Dichen; Wang, Kunzheng; Jin, Zhongmin; Bian, Weiguo; Liu, Yaxiong; He, Jiankang; Wang, Ling

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether subchondral bone microstructural parameters are related to cartilage repair during large osteochondral defect repairing based on three-dimensional (3-D) printing technique. Biomimetic biphasic osteochondral composite scaffolds were fabricated by using 3-D printing technique. The right trochlea critical sized defects (4.8 mm in diameter, 7.5 mm in depth) were created in 40 New Zealand white rabbits (aged 6 months, weighing 2.5-3.5 kg). Biomimetic biphasic osteochondral composite scaffolds were implanted into the defects in the experimental group (n = 35), and no composite scaffolds implantation served as control group (n = 5); the left side had no defect as sham-operation group. Animals of experimental and sham-operation groups were euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 52 weeks after operation, while animals of control group were sampled at 24 weeks. Subchondral bone microstructural parameters and cartilage repair were quantitatively analyzed using Micro-CT and Wayne scoring system. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were applied to reveal the relationship between subchondral bone parameters and cartilage repair. The subchondral bone parameters included bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone surface area fraction (BSA/BV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp). In the experimental group, articular cartilage repair was significantly improved at 52 weeks postoperatively, which was dominated by hyaline cartilage tissue, and tidal line formed. Wayne scores at 24 and 52 weeks were significantly higher than that at 16 weeks in the experimental group (P 0.05); the scores of experimental group were significantly lower than those of sham-operation group at all time points (P twin peaks" like discipline to which BV/TV, BSA/BV, and Tb.N increased at 2 and 16 weeks, and then they returned to normal level. The Tb.Sp showed reversed discipline compared to the former 3 parameters, no significant change

  11. Virtual reality exposure using three-dimensional images for the treatment of social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Gebara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To test a potential treatment for social phobia, which provides exposure to phobia-inducing situations via computer-generated, three-dimensional images, using an open clinical trial design.Methods:Twenty-one patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of social phobia took part in the trial. Treatment consisted of up to 12 sessions of exposure to relevant images, each session lasting 50 minutes.Results:Improvements in social anxiety were seen in all scales and instruments used, including at follow-up 6 months after the end of treatment. The average number of sessions was seven, as the participants habituated rapidly to the process. Only one participant dropped out.Conclusion:This study provides evidence that exposure to computer-generated three-dimensional images is relatively inexpensive, leads to greater treatment adherence, and can reduce social anxiety. Further studies are needed to corroborate these findings.

  12. Medical Image Watermarking in Sub-block Three-dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoru Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking can be applied to protection of medical images privacy, hiding of patient's diagnosis information and so on. In order to improve the ability of resisting geometric attacks, a new watermarking algorithm for medical volume data in sub-block three-dimensional discrete cosine transform domain is presented. The original watermarking image is scrambled by a Chebyshev chaotic neural network so as to improve watermarking security. Sub-block three-dimensional discrete cosine transform and perceptual hashing are used to construct zero-watermarking. In this way it does not produce medical image distortion and gives the algorithm the ability to resist geometric attacks. Experimental results show that the algorithm has good security, and it has good robustness to various geometric attacks.

  13. A study to evaluate the reliability of using two-dimensional photographs, three-dimensional images, and stereoscopic projected three-dimensional images for patient assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S; Yang, Y; Khambay, B

    2017-03-01

    Clinicians are accustomed to viewing conventional two-dimensional (2D) photographs and assume that viewing three-dimensional (3D) images is similar. Facial images captured in 3D are not viewed in true 3D; this may alter clinical judgement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of using conventional photographs, 3D images, and stereoscopic projected 3D images to rate the severity of the deformity in pre-surgical class III patients. Forty adult patients were recruited. Eight raters assessed facial height, symmetry, and profile using the three different viewing media and a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS), and appraised the most informative viewing medium. Inter-rater consistency was above good for all three media. Intra-rater reliability was not significantly different for rating facial height using 2D (P=0.704), symmetry using 3D (P=0.056), and profile using projected 3D (P=0.749). Using projected 3D for rating profile and symmetry resulted in significantly lower median VAS scores than either 3D or 2D images (all Pprojection was the preferred method for rating. The reliability of assessing specific characteristics was dependent on the viewing medium. Clinicians should be aware that the visual information provided when viewing 3D images is not the same as when viewing 2D photographs, especially for facial depth, and this may change the clinical impression. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of deformity in scaphoid non-unions using two- and three-dimensional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Berg, P W L; Dobbe, J G G; Horbach, S E R; Gerards, R M; Strackee, S D; Streekstra, G J

    2016-09-01

    Pre-operative assessment of the deformity in scaphoid non-unions influences surgical decision-making. To characterize deformity, we used three-dimensional computed tomographic modelling in 28 scaphoid non-unions, and quantified bone loss, dorsal osteophyte volume and flexion deformity. We further related these three-dimensional parameters to the intrascaphoid and capitate-lunate angles, and stage of scaphoid non-union advanced collapse assessed on conventional two-dimensional images and to the chosen surgical procedure. Three-dimensional flexion deformity (mean 26°) did not correlate with intrascaphoid and capitate-lunate angles. Osteophyte volume was positively correlated with bone loss and stage of scaphoid non-union advanced collapse. Osteophyte volume and bone loss increased over time. Three-dimensional modelling enables the quantification of bone loss and osteophyte volume, which may be valuable parameters in the characterization of deformity and subsequent decision-making about treatment, when taken in addition to the clinical aspects and level of osteoarthritis. Level IV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Design and development of the associated-particle three-dimensional imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ussery, L.E.; Hollas, C.L.

    1994-10-01

    The authors describe the development of the ''associated-particle'' imaging technique for producing low-resolution three-dimensional images of objects. Based on the t(d,n) 4 He reaction, the method requires access to only one side of the object being imaged and allows for the imaging of individual chemical elements in the material under observation. Studies were performed to (1) select the appropriate components of the system, including detectors, data-acquisition electronics, and neutron source, and (2) optimize experimental methods for collection and presentation of data. This report describes some of the development steps involved and provides a description of the complete final system that was developed

  16. Three Dimensional Speckle Imaging Employing a Frequency-Locked Tunable Diode Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Bret D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schiffern, John T.; Mendoza, Albert

    2015-09-01

    We describe a high accuracy frequency stepping method for a tunable diode laser to improve a three dimensional (3D) imaging approach based upon interferometric speckle imaging. The approach, modeled after Takeda, exploits tuning an illumination laser in frequency as speckle interferograms of the object (specklegrams) are acquired at each frequency in a Michelson interferometer. The resulting 3D hypercube of specklegrams encode spatial information in the x-y plane of each image with laser tuning arrayed along its z-axis. We present laboratory data of before and after results showing enhanced 3D imaging resulting from precise laser frequency control.

  17. A greedy method for reconstructing polycrystals from three-dimensional X-ray diffraction data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulshreshth, Arun Kumar; Alpers, Andreas; Herman, Gabor T.

    2009-01-01

    An iterative search method is proposed for obtaining orientation maps inside polycrystals from three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) data. In each step, detector pixel intensities are calculated by a forward model based on the current estimate of the orientation map. The pixel at which the ...

  18. New method of three-dimensional reconstruction from two-dimensional MR data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrazidlo, W.; Schneider, S.; Brambs, H.J.; Richter, G.M.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Geiger, B.; Fischer, C.

    1989-01-01

    In medical diagnosis and therapy, cross-sectional images are obtained by means of US, CT, or MR imaging. The authors propose a new solution to the problem of constructing a shape over a set of cross-sectional contours from two-dimensional (2D) MR data sets. The authors' method reduces the problem of constructing a shape over the cross sections to one of constructing a sequence of partial shapes, each of them connecting two cross sections lying on adjacent planes. The solution makes use of the Delaunay triangulation, which is isomorphic in that specific situation. The authors compute this Delaunay triangulation. Shape reconstruction is then achieved section by pruning Delaunay triangulations

  19. Analysis of the Medial Opticocarotid Recess in Patients with Pituitary Macroadenoma Using Three-Dimensional Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryogo; Toda, Masahiro; Wakahara, Sota; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2016-09-01

    The medial opticocarotid recess (MOCR), which contains the lateral tubercular recess (LTR), is an important landmark for the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) and for accessing the parasellar and suprasellar regions. These microanatomic landmarks for endoscopic endonasal surgery can be observed using surgical simulation with three-dimensional images. The aim of this study was to analyze the MOCR in patients with pituitary macroadenoma using three-dimensional images. We constructed three-dimensional computed tomography images of 20 patients with pituitary macroadenoma and 20 patients with unruptured aneurysms as a control. Using these images, we measured the distance between the left and right LTR, the midline and the unilateral LTR, and the left and right ICA. The distance between the left and right LTR was statistically longer in the pituitary adenoma group versus the control group. Tumor volumes were multivariate parameters for the distance between the left and right LTR, which was significantly longer in the group with tumor volumes >5 cm(3) versus the other groups. This distance was also significantly correlated with the distance between the left and right ICA. Pituitary macroadenomas expand the distance between the left and right MOCR together with the distance between the left and right ICA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction from cone beam projection by a block iterative technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrin, Francoise; Goutte, Robert; Amiel, Michel

    1991-07-01

    This work is concerned with truly 3D X-ray tomography. The method consists in the acquisition of an object's radiographs for different positions of an X-ray cone beam source. The image is then obtained by solving a 3D reconstruction problem from cone beam projections. When considering a series expansion approach, the problem is equivalent to the resolution of a linear system, presenting very particular characteristics in size and sparseness. The authors investigate the use of block iterative techniques which allow an efficient implementation of the algorithm on a parallel computer. Three different block iterative reconstruction schemes are developed. They can be used with or without simple constraints on the solution (positivity, amplitude, support...). Results obtained on simulated images allow comparison to the convergence properties of the different methods. Contrary to the conventional case in truly 3D X-ray tomography, different trajectories of the cone beam source are considered and the first results obtained on simulated objects are discussed.

  1. Effect of three-dimensional reconstruction-assisted 23G micro-invasive vitrectomy in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Min; Lu, Xiaohe; Hu, Huijun; Feng, Songfu; Wu, Wei; Ke, Xiaoyun; Xu, Xiaoping; Chen, Xiaohong; Hai, Huiqiao

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of optical coherence tomography (OCT) three-dimensional reconstruction-assisted 23G micro-invasive vitrectomy (abbreviated to'23G') in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). A total of 66 PDR patients (66 eyes) were continuously selected and randomly divided into the control and observation groups with 33 patients in each group. Patients in the control group were treated with routine OCT examination while the patients in the observation group were treated with OCT three-dimensional retinal reconstruction. The 23G surgical method was applied to the two groups, and a comparison was made on the clinical effects in the two groups. The follow-up visits lasted for approximately 6 months, and it was found that the operative time, occurrence rate of intraoperative complications and postoperative complications as shown in the observation group were significantly less than those in the control group (Pobservation group was significantly greater than that of patients in the control group while the intraocular pressure and retinal thickness of patients in the observation group were significantly less than those of patients in the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the effect of 23G surgical method in PDR patients can be improved and corresponding complications can be reduced under the assistance of OCT three-dimensional reconstruction.

  2. Three-dimensional x-ray stereometry from paired coplanar images: a progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Moffitt, F H; Curry, S

    1983-10-01

    More than fifty years ago, Broadbent reported the development of a three-dimensional cephalometric method which complexed information from pairs of x-ray images oriented in two planes at right angles to each other. Empirical problems have prevented the routine clinical use of this "biplanar" method, notwithstanding its obvious conceptual brilliance. The present article reports on recent work toward the development of an alternative method of three-dimensional cephalometry in which the two images of each x-ray pair are positioned in the same plane rather than being at right angles to each other. It is believed that this "coplanar" method avoids many of the technical problems that have limited the use of the Broadbent method.

  3. Three-dimensional fetal cephalometry: an evaluation of the reliability of cephalometric measurements based on three-dimensional CT reconstructions and on dry skulls of sheep fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Moschos A; Jannowitz, Christina; Boettcher, Peter; Henke, Julia; Stolla, Rudolf; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Kovacs, Laszlo; Erhardt, Wolf; Biemer, Edgar; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A

    2005-08-01

    To develop a 3D CT cephalometric analysis for maxillary growth evaluation of sheep fetuses operated in utero, and to evaluate the reliability of this analysis by comparing it with a direct cephalometric analysis on dry skulls. Five skulls of operated sheep fetuses were used, which after preparation were CT scanned and a 3D reconstruction was performed. A cephalometric analysis was performed directly on the dry skulls as well as on the reconstructed 3D CT images. In total, 56 linear distances were measured. In order to access the error of the method, the procedure was repeated after a 2 week interval. The comparison between the direct cephalometric and the 3D CT analysis revealed that only 5 variables were significantly different. The evaluation of the error of method revealed that 7 variables of the direct cephalometric analysis and none of the 3D CT analysis differed significantly. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that a cephalometric analysis on 3D CT reconstructed images of the skulls includes fewer identification errors and seems to be an accurate and reliable method that could be regarded at least as equivalent to conventional cephalometry.

  4. A method for real-time three-dimensional vector velocity imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an approach for making real-time three-dimensional vector flow imaging. Synthetic aperture data acquisition is used, and the data is beamformed along the flow direction to yield signals usable for flow estimation. The signals are cross-related to determine the shift in position...... found mainly at the edges of the vessel due to the echo-cancelling, and the probability of false detection was 2.2%....

  5. Radiological evaluation of the fetal face using three-dimensional ultrasound imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bäumler M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marcel Bäumler,1–3 Michèle Bigorre,1,4 Jean-Michel Faure1,51CHU Montpellier, Centre de Compétence des Fentes Faciales, Hôpital Lapeyronie, Montpellier, 2Clinique du Parc, Imagerie de la Femme, Castelnau-le-Lez, 3Cabinet de Radiologie du Trident, Lunel, 4CHU Service de Chirurgie Plastique Pédiatrique, Hôpital Lapeyronie, Montpellier, 5CHU Montpellier, Service de Gynécologie-Obstétrique, Hôpital Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier, FranceAbstract: This paper reviews screening and three-dimensional diagnostic ultrasound imaging of the fetal face. The different techniques available for analyzing biometric and morphological items of the profile, eyes, ears, lips, and hard and soft palate are commented on and briefly compared with the respective bi-dimensional techniques. The available literature supports the use of three-dimensional ultrasound in difficult prenatal diagnostic conditions because of its diagnostic accuracy, enabling improved safety of perinatal care. Globally, a marked increase has been observed in the accuracy of three-dimensional ultrasound in comparison with the bi-dimensional approach. Because there is no consensus about the performance of the different three-dimensional techniques, future studies are needed in order to compare them and to find the best technique for analysis of each of the respective facial elements. Universal prenatal standards may integrate these potential new findings in the future. At this time, the existing guidelines for prenatal facial screening should not be changed.Keywords: prenatal three-dimensional ultrasound, prenatal screening, prenatal diagnosis, cleft lip and palate, fetal profile, retrognathism

  6. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography: imaging and quantifying blood flow and vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairleitner, H; Steiner, H; Hasenoehrl, G; Staudach, A

    1999-08-01

    To assess the feasibility of imaging low-velocity blood flow in adnexal masses by transvaginal three-dimensional power Doppler sonography, to analyze three-dimensional power Doppler sonography data sets with a new computer-assisted method and to test the reproducibility of the technique. A commercially available 5-MHz Combison 530 ultrasound system was used to perform three-dimensional power Doppler sonography transvaginally. A cube (= volume of interest) was defined enclosing the vessels of the cyst and the Cartesian characteristics were stored on a hard disk. This cube was analyzed using specially designed software. Five indices representing vascularization (the vascularization index (VI) or blood flow (the flow index (FI)) or both (the vascularization-flow index (VFI)) were calculated. The intraobserver repeatability of cube definition and scan repetition was assessed using Hartley's test for homogeneous variances. Interobserver agreement was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Imaging of vessels with low-velocity blood flow by three-dimensional power Doppler sonography and cube definition was possible in all adnexal massed studied. In some cases even induced non-vascular flow related to endometriosis was detected. The calculated F value with intraobserver repeated Cartesian file-saving ranged from 0 to 18.8, with intraobserver scan repetition from 4.74 to 24.8 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the calculated F value was 64. The interobserver correlation coefficient ranged between 0.83 and 0.92 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the correlation coefficient was less than 0.75. Vessels with low-velocity blood flow can be imaged using three-dimensional power Doppler sonography. Induced non-vascular flow was detected in endometriotic cyst fluid. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography combined with the cube method gave reproducible information for all indices except VFI 2. These indices might prove to be a new predictor in all fields of

  7. Three-dimensional atomic models from a single projection using Z-contrast imaging: verification by electron tomography and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, A; Jones, L; Lobato, I; Altantzis, T; Goris, B; Nellist, P D; Bals, S; Van Aert, S

    2017-06-29

    In order to fully exploit structure-property relations of nanomaterials, three-dimensional (3D) characterization at the atomic scale is often required. In recent years, the resolution of electron tomography has reached the atomic scale. However, such tomography typically requires several projection images demanding substantial electron dose. A newly developed alternative circumvents this by counting the number of atoms across a single projection. These atom counts can be used to create an initial atomic model with which an energy minimization can be applied to obtain a relaxed 3D reconstruction of the nanoparticle. Here, we compare, at the atomic scale, this single projection reconstruction approach with tomography and find an excellent agreement. This new approach allows for the characterization of beam-sensitive materials or where the acquisition of a tilt series is impossible. As an example, the utility is illustrated by the 3D atomic scale characterization of a nanodumbbell on an in situ heating holder of limited tilt range.

  8. Automated three-dimensional analysis of particle measurements using an optical profilometer and image analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullman, V

    2003-07-01

    The automated collection of topographic images from an optical profilometer coupled with existing image analysis software offers the unique ability to quantify three-dimensional particle morphology. Optional software available with most optical profilers permits automated collection of adjacent topographic images of particles dispersed onto a suitable substrate. Particles are recognized in the image as a set of continuous pixels with grey-level values above the grey level assigned to the substrate, whereas particle height or thickness is represented in the numerical differences between these grey levels. These images are loaded into remote image analysis software where macros automate image processing, and then distinguish particles for feature analysis, including standard two-dimensional measurements (e.g. projected area, length, width, aspect ratios) and third-dimensional measurements (e.g. maximum height, mean height). Feature measurements from each calibrated image are automatically added to cumulative databases and exported to a commercial spreadsheet or statistical program for further data processing and presentation. An example is given that demonstrates the superiority of quantitative three-dimensional measurements by optical profilometry and image analysis in comparison with conventional two-dimensional measurements for the characterization of pharmaceutical powders with plate-like particles.

  9. Label-free three-dimensional imaging of cell nucleus using third-harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2014-09-01

    We report the implementation of the combined third-harmonic generation (THG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy for label-free three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of cell nucleus morphological changes in liver tissue. THG imaging shows regular spherical shapes of normal hepatocytes nuclei with inner chromatin structures while revealing the condensation of chromatins and nuclear fragmentations in hepatocytes of diseased liver tissue. Colocalized THG and TPEF imaging provides complementary information of cell nuclei and cytoplasm in tissue. This work suggests that 3-D THG microscopy has the potential for quantitative analysis of nuclear morphology in cells at a submicron-resolution without the need for DNA staining.

  10. Label-free three-dimensional imaging of cell nucleus using third-harmonic generation microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zi; Huang, Zhiwei, E-mail: biehzw@nus.edu.sg [Optical Bioimaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-09-08

    We report the implementation of the combined third-harmonic generation (THG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy for label-free three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of cell nucleus morphological changes in liver tissue. THG imaging shows regular spherical shapes of normal hepatocytes nuclei with inner chromatin structures while revealing the condensation of chromatins and nuclear fragmentations in hepatocytes of diseased liver tissue. Colocalized THG and TPEF imaging provides complementary information of cell nuclei and cytoplasm in tissue. This work suggests that 3-D THG microscopy has the potential for quantitative analysis of nuclear morphology in cells at a submicron-resolution without the need for DNA staining.

  11. Three-dimensional reconstruction of axonemal outer dynein arms in situ by electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupetti, Pietro; Lanzavecchia, Salvatore; Mercati, David; Cantele, Francesca; Dallai, Romano; Mencarelli, Caterina

    2005-10-01

    We present here for the first time a 3D reconstruction of in situ axonemal outer dynein arms. This reconstruction has been obtained by electron tomography applied to a series of tilted images collected from metal replicas of rapidly frozen, cryofractured, and metal-replicated sperm axonemes of the cecidomid dipteran Monarthropalpus flavus. This peculiar axonemal model consists of several microtubular laminae that proved to be particularly suitable for this type of analysis. These laminae are sufficiently planar to allow the visualization of many dynein molecules within the same fracture face, allowing us to recover a significant number of equivalent objects and to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstruction by applying advanced averaging protocols. The 3D model we obtained showed the following interesting structural features: First, each dynein arm has two head domains that are almost parallel and are obliquely oriented with respect to the longitudinal axis of microtubules. The two heads are therefore positioned at different distances from the surface of the A-tubule. Second, each head domain consists of a series of globular subdomains that are positioned on the same plane. Third, a stalk domain originates as a conical region from the proximal head and ends with a small globular domain that contacts the B-tubule. Fourth, the stem region comprises several globular subdomains and presents two distinct points of anchorage to the surface of the A-tubule. Finally, and most importantly, contrary to what has been observed in isolated dynein molecules adsorbed to flat surfaces, the stalk and the stem domains are not in the same plane as the head.

  12. Imaging method for downward-looking sparse linear array three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar based on reweighted atomic norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qian; Han, Kuoye; Lin, Yun; Zhang, Bingchen; Liu, Jianguo; Hong, Wen

    2016-01-01

    We propose an imaging algorithm for downward-looking sparse linear array three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar (DLSLA 3-D SAR) in the circumstance of cross-track sparse and nonuniform array configuration. Considering the off-grid effect and the resolution improvement, the algorithm combines pseudo-polar formatting algorithm, reweighed atomic norm minimization (RANM), and a parametric relaxation-based cyclic approach (RELAX) to improve the imaging performance with a reduced number of array antennas. RANM is employed in the cross-track imaging after pseudo-polar formatting the DLSLA 3-D SAR echo signal, then the reconstructed results are refined by RELAX. By taking advantage of the reweighted scheme, RANM can improve the resolution of the atomic norm minimization, and outperforms discretized compressive sensing schemes that suffer from off-grid effect. The simulated and real data experiments of DLSLA 3-D SAR verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance reconstruction images before and after surgical therapy of spontaneous canine brain tumors Imagens de reconstrução tri-dimensional por ressonância magnética antes e depois de tratamento cirúrgico de tumores cerebrais espontâneos caninos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Carlos Canola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Specific software was used for reconstruction of spontaneous intracranial tumor volume from magnetic resonance images (MRI in three dogs. Histopathologically confirmed meningioma, cystic meningioma, and choroid plexus tumors were evaluated before and after surgery. The software allowed the whole-volume segmentation of the skin, brain, tumor, edema, and cyst. Manipulation of the three-dimensional images (3D allowed visualization of all anatomical structures, aided clinical understanding, surgical planning, and treatment monitoring.Um programa de computador específico foi utilizado para reconstrução do volume tumoral intracraniano espontâneo por imagens de ressonância magnética (IRM em três cães. Tumores histopatologicamente confirmados como meningioma, meningioma cístico e tumor do plexo coróide foram avaliados antes e após cirurgia. O programa de computador permitiu a segmentação por completo da pele, do cérebro, do tumor, do edema e do cisto. A manipulação das imagens tridimensionais permitiu a visibilização de todas as estruturas anatômicas, além da compreensão clínica, do planejamento cirúrgico e da monitorização do tratamento.

  14. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of the Microstructure of Human Acellular Nerve Allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuang; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Weihong; Jian, Yutao; Zhou, Xiang; He, Bo; Gu, Liqiang; Yan, Liwei; Lin, Tao; Xiang, Jianping; Qi, Jian

    2016-08-01

    The exact inner 3D microstructure of the human peripheral nerve has been a mystery for decades. Therefore, it has been difficult to solve several problems regarding peripheral nerve injury and repair. We used high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography (microCT) to scan a freeze-dried human acellular nerve allograft (hANA). The microCT images were then used to reconstruct a 3D digital model, which was used to print a 3D resin model of the nerve graft. The 3D digital model of the hANA allowed visualization of all planes. The magnified 3D resin model clearly showed the nerve bundles and basement membrane tubes of the hANA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyse the microstructure of the hANA. Compared to the SEM images, the microCT image clearly demonstrated the microstructure of the hANA cross section at a resolution of up to 1.2 μm. The 3D digital model of the hANA facilitates a clear and easy understanding of peripheral nerve microstructure. Furthermore, the enlarged 3D resin model duplicates the unique inner structure of each individual hANA. This is a crucial step towards achieving 3D printing of a hANA or nerve that can be used as a nerve graft.

  15. Three-dimensional reconstruction for coherent diffraction patterns obtained by XFEL

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Miki; Miyashita, Osamu; Jonic, Slavica; Song, Changyong; Nam, Daewoong; Joti, Yasumasa; Tama, Florence

    2017-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis of single particles using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) is a new structural biology technique that enables observations of molecules that are difficult to crystallize, such as flexible biomolecular complexes and living tissue in the state close to physiological conditions. In order to restore the 3D structure from the diffraction patterns obtained by the XFEL, computational algorithms are necessary as the orientation of the incident beam wi...

  16. Improving three-dimensional mechanical imaging of breast lesions with principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Mohit; Wang, Yuqi; Hall, Timothy J; Barbone, Paul E; Oberai, Assad A

    2017-08-01

    Elastography has emerged as a new tool for detecting and diagnosing many types of diseases including breast cancer. To date, most clinical applications of elastography have utilized two-dimensional strain images. The goal of this paper is to present a new quasi-static elastography technique that yields shear modulus images in three dimensions. An automated breast volume scanner was used to acquire ultrasound images of the breast as it was gently compressed. Cross-correlation between successive images was used to determine the displacement within the tissue. The resulting displacement field was filtered of all but compressive motion through principal component analysis. This displacement field was used to infer spatial distribution of shear modulus by solving a 3D elastic inverse problem. Three dimensional shear modulus images of benign breast lesions for two subjects were generated using the techniques described above. It was found that the lesions were visualized more clearly in images generated using the displacement data de-noised through the use of principal components. We have presented experimental and algorithmic techniques that lead to three-dimensional imaging of shear modulus using quasi-static elastography. This work demonstrates feasibility of this approach, and lays the foundation for images of other, more informative, mechanical parameters. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. Requirements For The Display And Analysis Of Three-Dimensional Medical Image Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, , M.; Matteson, R.; Dickie, D.; Keyes, J. W.; Bookstein, F.

    1983-05-01

    Three dimensional arrays of data representing measures of human body tissue properties are produced with x-ray computed tomography, nuclear medicine, ultrasound and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging instruments. Array sizes vary from (64,64,64) to (512,512,128). Techniques to review the array values on a display screen include oblique plane, reprojection with selected dissolution, and simulated surface illumination display. The number of computer instructions required to generate these displays varies from 3.5 to 2500 million .The implementation of these methods requires large, fast random access memory (16 megabytes) and computers capable of executing a minimum of 10 million instructions per second. While computationally expensive, the use of three dimensional display techniques can be essential for accurate disease diagnosis and for optimizing disease treatment.

  18. Three-Dimensional Spatial-Spectral Filtering Based Feature Extraction for Hyperspectral Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKYUREK, H. A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral pixels which have high spectral resolution are used to predict decomposition of material types on area of obtained image. Due to its multidimensional form, hyperspectral image classification is a challenging task. Hyperspectral images are also affected by radiometric noise. In order to improve the classification accuracy, many researchers are focusing on the improvement of filtering, feature extraction and classification methods. In the context of hyperspectral image classification, spatial information is as important as spectral information. In this study, a three-dimensional spatial-spectral filtering based feature extraction method is presented. It consists of three main steps. The first is a pre-processing step which include spatial-spectral information filtering in three-dimensional space. The second comprises extract functional features of filtered data. The last one is combining extracted features by serial feature fusion strategy and using to classify hyperspectral image pixels. Experiments were conducted on two popular public hyperspectral remote sensing image, 1%, 5%, 10% and 15% of samples of each classes used as training set, the remaining is used as test set. The proposed method compared with well-known methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieved outstanding performance than compared methods in hyperspectral image classification task.

  19. Comparison of three software programs for three-dimensional graphic imaging as contrasted with operative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takako; Kanzaki, Masato; Amiki, Manabu; Shimizu, Toshihide; Maeda, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Kei; Ookubo, Yasuo; Onuki, Takamasa

    2012-05-01

    Several types of practical three-dimensional (3D) imaging software programs are available, including those attached to computed tomographic devices. Three different software programs (Advantage Workstation Volume Share 4, OsiriX and CTTRY) were used to generate 3D images on the basis of imaging data obtained by 64-slice multidetector-row computed tomography in the same patient. Surgery was then performed referring to these 3D images in five patients. The characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and utility in the operative field of the images generated with each software program were compared with respect to actual operative findings. There were no marked differences in vascular images at the segmental level among the software programs, and all three were considered useful for surgery. However, vascular images at the subsegmental level differed among the three programs. The depiction of blood vessels at the subsegmental level lacked accuracy when compared with operative findings.

  20. Diffusion tensor imaging and three-dimensional brain fiber tracking for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Bing; Shan Hong; Luo Mingyue; Chen Shaoqiong; Kang Wang; He Bingjun; Zou Yan; Ye Binbin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques, periplaque white matter regions and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) regions in patients with MS, and to evaluate the clinical values of DTI and three-dimensional brain fiber tracking for the diagnosis of MS. Methods: Conventional MRI and DTI were performed in 32 patients with MS and 32 age-matched control subjects. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were generated and coregistered with T 2 -weighted MR images. FA and ADC values were calculated in regions of interest in plaques, periplaque white matter regions, NAWM regions and white matter regions in control subjects. And three-dimensional brain fiber tracking maps were generated by using the DTI. Results: The ADC was (1.233 ± 0.119) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in MS plaques, (0.973 ± 0.098) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in periplaque white matter regions, (0.748 ± 0.089) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in NAWM, and (0.620 ± 0.094) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in control subjects. The FA was 0.225 ± 0.052 in MS plaques, 0.311 ± 0.050 in periplaque white matter regions, 0.421 ± 0.070 in NAWM, and 0.476 ± 0.069 in control subjects. Significant differences in FA and ADC values were observed among all white matter regions (P<0.01). MS plaques were demonstrated in three-dimensional brain fiber tracking maps. Conclusion: FA and ADC maps are helpful for the evaluation of all white matter changes of MS. The abnormalities of white matter fiber tracts in MS plaques could be demonstrated in three-dimensional brain fiber tracking maps. (authors)

  1. Vascular anatomical relationships of the retropubic space and the sacrospinous ligament, using three-dimensional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-Garcia, Omar F; Kim, Youngwu; Leung, Katherine; Flynn, Michel K

    2017-08-01

    Pelvic anatomy is complex and intimate knowledge of variabilities in anatomical relationships is critical for surgeons to safely perform surgical procedures. Three-dimensional Imaging provides the opportunity to analyze undisturbed anatomical relationships. The authors hypothesized that three-dimensional models created from pelvic computed tomography angiograms could be used to obtain vascular anatomical measurements, and that the measurements obtained from three-dimensional models would be similar to those from cadaver studies. We included all pelvic computed tomography angiograms that were acquired in female patients older than 18 years at our institution within the previous 5 years. Three-dimensional models were created using the Invivo5 software based on the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine files. Structures of interest were virtually dissected and measured replicating previous cadaver studies. Statistical analysis of demographics and measurements was performed. The final analysis included 87 studies. The average age of the subjects was 66.9 years and their average BMI was 26.1 kg/m 2 . Of the 87 subjects, 12.6% had a history of hysterectomy, 2.3% a history of a continence procedure, and 1.1% a history of a prolapse procedure. The range of distance between the ischial spine and the pudendal artery was 3-17 mm. The closest vessels to the lower edge of the symphysis pubis were the obturator vessels. The aberrant corona mortis vessel was present in 27.9% of the subjects. Prior hysterectomy was associated with changes in the measurements of the obturator arteries with minimal changes in other measurements. Our results indicate that this technology provides similar measurements to those found in previous unembalmed cadaver studies. This technology offers a great opportunity to study anatomical relationships in a native undisturbed state.

  2. RECONSTRUCTING THE SUBSURFACE THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETIC STRUCTURE OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION USING SDO/HMI OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintzoglou, Georgios; Zhang Jie

    2013-01-01

    A solar active region (AR) is a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic structure formed in the convection zone, whose property is fundamentally important for determining the coronal structure and solar activity when emerged. However, our knowledge of the detailed 3D structure prior to its emergence is rather poor, largely limited by the low cadence and sensitivity of previous instruments. Here, using the 45 s high-cadence observations from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we are able for the first time to reconstruct a 3D data cube and infer the detailed subsurface magnetic structure of NOAA AR 11158, and to characterize its magnetic connectivity and topology. This task is accomplished with the aid of the image-stacking method and advanced 3D visualization. We find that the AR consists of two major bipoles or four major polarities. Each polarity in 3D shows interesting tree-like structure, i.e., while the root of the polarity appears as a single tree-trunk-like tube, the top of the polarity has multiple branches consisting of smaller and thinner flux tubes which connect to the branches of the opposite polarity that is similarly fragmented. The roots of the four polarities align well along a straight line, while the top branches are slightly non-coplanar. Our observations suggest that an active region, even appearing highly complicated on the surface, may originate from a simple straight flux tube that undergoes both horizontal and vertical bifurcation processes during its rise through the convection zone.

  3. Three-dimensional tomographic imaging for dynamic radiation behavior study using infrared imaging video bolometers in large helical device plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Ryuichi; Iwama, Naofumi [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Peterson, Byron J.; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Mukai, Kiyofumi [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Teranishi, Masaru [Hiroshima Institute of Technology, 2-1-1, Miyake, Saeki-ku, Hiroshima 731-5193 (Japan); Pandya, Shwetang N. [Institute of Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat Village, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2016-05-15

    A three-dimensional (3D) tomography system using four InfraRed imaging Video Bolometers (IRVBs) has been designed with a helical periodicity assumption for the purpose of plasma radiation measurement in the large helical device. For the spatial inversion of large sized arrays, the system has been numerically and experimentally examined using the Tikhonov regularization with the criterion of minimum generalized cross validation, which is the standard solver of inverse problems. The 3D transport code EMC3-EIRENE for impurity behavior and related radiation has been used to produce phantoms for numerical tests, and the relative calibration of the IRVB images has been carried out with a simple function model of the decaying plasma in a radiation collapse. The tomography system can respond to temporal changes in the plasma profile and identify the 3D dynamic behavior of radiation, such as the radiation enhancement that starts from the inboard side of the torus, during the radiation collapse. The reconstruction results are also consistent with the output signals of a resistive bolometer. These results indicate that the designed 3D tomography system is available for the 3D imaging of radiation. The first 3D direct tomographic measurement of a magnetically confined plasma has been achieved.

  4. Application of three-dimensional reconstruction technology in establishment of atlas space model and sex determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianying; Tian Yong; He Qing; Li Youqiong; Han Qing; Cheng Kailiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish the method of using the atlas morphological indexes for sex determination in Jilin province and to evaluate its effect. Methods: The clinic neck CT images were used to reconstruct the 3D image of atlas. A total of 27 linear measurement on 8 aspects of the atlas were measured and the ratios were calculated. The 14 items were selected. Results: Of the total 27 linear measurements, 14 were sexually dimorphic (P<0.05), and the accuracies of sex determination of 27 indexes were 52.0% -89.3% . The highest accuracy was width of vertebral body (86.7% ). A function with variables predicting sex with 96.8% accuracy was derived by using stepwise method of discriminant function analysis: Y=1.308W - 0.409CDF - 0.469LTPSD - 0.849LUACD + 0.478RUACD + 0.332RDACD + 0.363ATH - 0.334PTH - 0.236PAL. Conclusion: The method of using atlas traits for sex determination in Jilin province is practicable. (authors)

  5. Three-dimensional dose distribution of proton beams derived from luminescence images of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S.; Watabe, H.; Toshito, T.; Komori, M.

    2017-05-01

    We recently found that luminescence was emitted from water during proton irradiation at lower energy than the Cerenkov-light threshold and imaging was possible by using a CCD camera. However, since the measured distributions were projection images of the luminescence, precise dose estimations from the images were not possible. If the 3 dimensional images can be formed from the projection images, more precise dose information could be obtained. For this purpose, we calculate the 3-dimensional distribution of the proton beams from the luminescence images and use them for beam width estimations. We assumed that the proton beams have circular shape and the transverse images were reconstructed from the projection images using the filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm for positron emission tomography (PET). The reconstructed images were compared to estimate the proton-beam widths with those obtained from the projection images and simulation results. We obtained 3-dimensional distributions of the proton beams from the projection images and also the reconstructed sagittal, coronal, and transverse images as well as volume rendering images. The estimated beam widths from the reconstructed images, which were slightly smaller than those obtained from the projection images, were identical to those calculated with the simulation. The 3-dimensional distributions of the luminescence images of water of proton beams could be reconstructed from the projection images and showed improved accuracy in estimating the beam widths of the proton beams.

  6. An three-dimensional imaging algorithm based on the radiation model of electric dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Bo; Zhong Weijun; Tong Chuangming

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional imaging algorithm based on the radiation model of dipole (DBP) is presented. On the foundation of researching the principle of the back projection (BP) algorithm, the relationship between the near field imaging model and far field imaging model is analyzed based on the scattering model. Firstly, the far field sampling data is transferred to the near field sampling data through applying the radiation theory of dipole. Then the dealt sampling data was projected to the imaging region to obtain the images of targets. The capability of the new algorithm to detect targets is verified by using finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD), and the coupling effect for imaging is analyzed. (authors)

  7. Three-dimensional tooth imaging using multiphoton and second harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min-Huey; Chen, Wei-Liang; Sun, Yen; Fwu, Peter Tramyeon; Lin, Ming-Gu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2007-02-01

    Detailed morphological and cellular information relating to the human tooth have traditionally been obtained through histological studies that required decalcification, staining, and fixation. With the recent invention of multiphoton microscopy, it has become possible to acquire high resolution images without histological procedures. Using an epiilluminated multiphoton microscope, we obtained two-photon excited autofluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) images of ex vivo human tooth. By combining these two imaging modalities we obtained submicron resolution images of the enamel, dentin, and the periodontal ligaments. The enamel emits endogenous two-photon autofluorescence. The structure of the dentin is visible from both the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. The periodontal ligament composed mostly of collagen can be visualized by SHG imaging. We also constructed three dimensional images of the enamel, dentin, and periodontal ligament. The effectiveness of using multiphoton and second harmonic generation microscopy to obtain structural information of teeth suggest its potential use in dental diagnostics.

  8. Estimation of center line and diameter of brain blood vessel using three-dimensional blood vessel matching method with head three-dimensional CTA image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Masashi; Shinohara, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Masato; Nakasako, Noboru

    2010-01-01

    To support and automate the brain blood vessel disease diagnosis, a novel method to obtain the center line and the diameter of a blood vessel is proposed with a three-dimensional head computed tomographic angiography (CTA) image. Although the line thinning processing with distance transform or gray information is generally used to obtain the blood vessel center line, this method is not essentially one to obtain the center line and tends to yield extra lines depending on CTA images. In this study, the center line of the blood vessel is obtained by tracing the vessel. The blood vessel is traced by sequentially estimating the center point and direction of the blood vessel. The center point and direction of the blood vessel are estimated by taking the correlation between the blood vessel and a solid model of the blood vessel that is designed by considering noise influence. In addition, the vessel diameter is also estimated by correlating the blood vessel and the blood vessel model of which the diameter is variable. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by experimentally applied the proposed method to an actual three-dimensional head CTA image. (author)

  9. Three-dimensional nanometry of vesicle transport in living cells using dual-focus imaging optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Sato, Takashi; Gonda, Kohsuke; Higuchi, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    Dual-focus imaging optics for three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots has been developed to study the molecular mechanisms of motor proteins in cells. The new system has a high spatial and temporal precision, 2 nm in the x-y sample plane and 5 nm along the z-axis at a frame time of 2 ms. Three-dimensional positions of the vesicles labeled with quantum dots were detected in living cells. Vesicles were transported on the microtubules using 8-nm steps towards the nucleus. The steps had fluctuation of ∼20 nm which were perpendicular to the axis of the microtubule but with the constant distance from the microtubule. The most of perpendicular movement was not synchronized with the 8-nm steps, indicating that dynein moved on microtubules without changing the protofilaments. When the vesicles changed their direction of movement toward the cell membrane, they moved perpendicular with the constant distance from the microtubule. The present method is powerful tool to investigate three dimensional movement of molecules in cells with nanometer and millisecond accuracy

  10. First clinical use of a standardized three-dimensional ultrasound for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsianos-Hermle, D. [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich (Germany)], E-mail: dorothea.hermle@med.uni-muenchen.de; Wirth, S.; Fischer, T. [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich (Germany); Hiltawsky, K.M. [General Electric, Global Research, Garching (Germany); Reiser, M. [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Objectives: The feasibility, image quality, and diagnostic potential of the prototype of an automated ultrasound (US) breast scanner were examined. Methods: Ninety-seven patients with suspicious breast lesions had mammograms, manual US, and an automated breast US. The data were evaluated according to the breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) classification, image quality, and amount to diagnostic information. All lesions were confirmed histological. Results: The image quality of the three-dimensional (3D) data sets was equal to or satisfactory compared with cross-sectional images from manual US in at least 72% of cases (p < 0.05). The diagnostic information was equal or superior in at least 63% of cases (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Standardized 3D US scanning is a promising diagnostic adjunct to mammography, but is no substitute for manual US at the current stage of development.

  11. Three-dimensional radar imaging of buildings based on computer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Traian; Liao, DaHan; Le, Calvin

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the study of a through-the-wall radar system for three-dimensional (3-D) building imaging, based on computer simulations. Two possible configurations are considered, corresponding to an airborne spotlight and a ground-based strip-map geometry. The paper details all the steps involved in this analysis: creating the computational meshes, calculating the radar signals scattered by the target, forming the radar images, and processing the images for visualization and interpretation. Particular attention is given to the scattering phenomenology and its dependence on the system geometry. The images are created via the backprojection algorithm and further processed using a constant falsealarm rate (CFAR) detector. We discuss methods of 3-D image visualization and interpretation of the results.

  12. Three-Dimensional Display Of Computed Tomographic Volume Images To Visualize Internal Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lowell D.

    1981-10-01

    Volume images made up of "stacks" of parallel computed tomographic (CT) cross-sectional images are displayed in three dimensions utilizing the method of projection imaging. This technique involves the mathematical projection of the volume picture elements (voxels) of the 3-D image onto a plane to form a two-dimensional projection image which, for x-ray CT volume images, resemble conventional radiographs. Projection images formed at two angles of view, 2° to 8° apart, are utilized as stereo-pair projections to view the volume image in three dimensions. Before projection, selected regions of the volume image are partially dissolved or totally removed from the volume to enhance the visibility of remaining struc-tures. These processes, referred to as numerical tissue "dissolution" and "dissection", are utilized to overcome the undesired effects of superposition which occur as natural consequence of displaying a stack of cross sections as a volume image, i.e., deeper image regions are obscured by overlying structure. Examples are shown where overlying regions of the volume image have been "cut" from the volume to more clearly visualize deeper anatomy. Particular emphasis is given to the use of these methods in identifying two-and three-dimensional subregions of interest within the volume for further detailed view-ing and quantitative analysis. As an example, the use of the 3-D display of volume images to guide the process of identifying the optimal orientation of oblique section images through internal organs of the body is illustrated.

  13. Three dimensional full-wave nonlinear acoustic simulations: Applications to ultrasound imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinton, Gianmarco [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina - North Carolina State University, 348 Taylor Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA gfp@unc.edu (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Characterization of acoustic waves that propagate nonlinearly in an inhomogeneous medium has significant applications to diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound. The generation of an ultrasound image of human tissue is based on the complex physics of acoustic wave propagation: diffraction, reflection, scattering, frequency dependent attenuation, and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity of wave propagation is used to the advantage of diagnostic scanners that use the harmonic components of the ultrasonic signal to improve the resolution and penetration of clinical scanners. One approach to simulating ultrasound images is to make approximations that can reduce the physics to systems that have a low computational cost. Here a maximalist approach is taken and the full three dimensional wave physics is simulated with finite differences. This paper demonstrates how finite difference simulations for the nonlinear acoustic wave equation can be used to generate physically realistic two and three dimensional ultrasound images anywhere in the body. A specific intercostal liver imaging scenario for two cases: with the ribs in place, and with the ribs removed. This configuration provides an imaging scenario that cannot be performed in vivo but that can test the influence of the ribs on image quality. Several imaging properties are studied, in particular the beamplots, the spatial coherence at the transducer surface, the distributed phase aberration, and the lesion detectability for imaging at the fundamental and harmonic frequencies. The results indicate, counterintuitively, that at the fundamental frequency the beamplot improves due to the apodization effect of the ribs but at the same time there is more degradation from reverberation clutter. At the harmonic frequency there is significantly less improvement in the beamplot and also significantly less degradation from reverberation. It is shown that even though simulating the full propagation physics is computationally challenging it

  14. Optical image encryption based on phase retrieval combined with three-dimensional particle-like distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J R

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new phase retrieval algorithm for optical image encryption in three-dimensional (3D) space. The two-dimensional (2D) plaintext is considered as a series of particles distributed in 3D space, and an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is developed to encrypt the series of particles into phase-only masks. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by a numerical experiment, and the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystems are also analyzed and discussed. (paper)

  15. Three-Dimensional Imaging by Self-Reference Single-Channel Digital Incoherent Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Joseph; Kelner, Roy

    2016-08-01

    Digital holography offers a reliable and fast method to image a three-dimensional scene from a single perspective. This article reviews recent developments of self-reference single-channel incoherent hologram recorders. Hologram recorders in which both interfering beams, commonly referred to as the signal and the reference beams, originate from the same observed objects are considered as self-reference systems. Moreover, the hologram recorders reviewed herein are configured in a setup of a single channel interferometer. This unique configuration is achieved through the use of one or more spatial light modulators.

  16. Three-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation of a Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel During Hydrostatic Pressure Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilock, Duane M., Jr.; Thesken, John C.; Schmidt, Timothy E.

    2007-01-01

    Ambient temperature hydrostatic pressurization tests were conducted on a composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) to understand the fiber stresses in COPV components. Two three-dimensional digital image correlation systems with high speed cameras were used in the evaluation to provide full field displacement and strain data for each pressurization test. A few of the key findings will be discussed including how the principal strains provided better insight into system behavior than traditional gauges, a high localized strain that was measured where gages were not present and the challenges of measuring curved surfaces with the use of a 1.25 in. thick layered polycarbonate panel that protected the cameras.

  17. Digital shearing method for three-dimensional data extraction in holographic particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Halliwell, Neil; Coupland, Jeremy

    2003-11-01

    We report a new digital shearing method for extracting the three-dimensional displacement vector data from double-exposure holograms. With this method we can manipulate both the phase and the amplitude of the recorded signal, which, like optical correlation analysis, is inherently immune to imaging aberration. However, digital shearing is not a direct digital implementation of optical correlation, and a considerable saving in computation time results. We demonstrate the power of the method by MATLAB simulation and discuss its performance with reference to optical analysis.

  18. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometric Image Depth Profiling for Three-Dimensional Elemental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    69-74. 18. Hofker, W.K.; et al. Rad. Eff. 1973, 17, 83-90. 19. Lindhard , J .; Scharff, M.; Schiott, H.E. Mat. Fys. Medd. Dan . Vid. Selsk. 1963, 33, 1...7A-A1OS 092 CORNELL UNIV ITHACA NY DEPT OF CHEMISTRY F/9 7/4 SCONARY ION MASS SPECTROMETRIC MAGE DEPTH PROFILING FOR THKf-ETC LW OCT SI A . J PATKIN...SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROMETRIC IMAGE DEPTH PROFILING FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS by Adam J . Patkin and George H. Morrison Prepared for

  19. Three-Dimensional Imaging by Self-Reference Single-Channel Digital Incoherent Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Joseph; Kelner, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Digital holography offers a reliable and fast method to image a three-dimensional scene from a single perspective. This article reviews recent developments of self-reference single-channel incoherent hologram recorders. Hologram recorders in which both interfering beams, commonly referred to as the signal and the reference beams, originate from the same observed objects are considered as self-reference systems. Moreover, the hologram recorders reviewed herein are configured in a setup of a single channel interferometer. This unique configuration is achieved through the use of one or more spatial light modulators. PMID:28757811

  20. Mineralization of collagen may occur on fibril surfaces: evidence from conventional and high-voltage electron microscopy and three-dimensional imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.; Hodgens, K. J.; Song, M. J.; Arena, J.; Kiyonaga, S.; Marko, M.; Owen, C.; McEwen, B. F.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction between collagen and mineral crystals in the normally calcifying leg tendons from the domestic turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, has been investigated at an ultrastructural level with conventional and high-voltage electron microscopy, computed tomography, and three-dimensional image reconstruction methods. Specimens treated by either aqueous or anhydrous techniques and resin-embedded were appropriately sectioned and regions of early tendon mineralization were photographed. On the basis of individual photomicrographs, stereoscopic pairs of images, and tomographic three-dimensional image reconstructions, platelet-shaped crystals may be demonstrated for the first time in association with the surface of collagen fibrils. Mineral is also observed in closely parallel arrays within collagen hole and overlap zones. The mineral deposition at these spatially distinct locations in the tendon provides insight into possible means by which calcification is mediated by collagen as a fundamental event in skeletal and dental formation among vertebrates.

  1. Accurate three-dimensional pose recognition from monocular images using template matched filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picos, Kenia; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Kober, Vitaly; Montemayor, Antonio S.; Pantrigo, Juan J.

    2016-06-01

    An accurate algorithm for three-dimensional (3-D) pose recognition of a rigid object is presented. The algorithm is based on adaptive template matched filtering and local search optimization. When a scene image is captured, a bank of correlation filters is constructed to find the best correspondence between the current view of the target in the scene and a target image synthesized by means of computer graphics. The synthetic image is created using a known 3-D model of the target and an iterative procedure based on local search. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed algorithm in synthetic and real-life scenes are presented and discussed in terms of accuracy of pose recognition in the presence of noise, cluttered background, and occlusion. Experimental results show that our proposal presents high accuracy for 3-D pose estimation using monocular images.

  2. Optical cryptography topology based on a three-dimensional particle-like distribution and diffractive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2011-05-09

    In recent years, coherent diffractive imaging has been considered as a promising alternative for information retrieval instead of conventional interference methods. Coherent diffractive imaging using the X-ray light source has opened up a new research perspective for the measurement of non-crystalline and biological specimens, and can achieve unprecedentedly high resolutions. In this paper, we show how a three-dimensional (3D) particle-like distribution and coherent diffractive imaging can be applied for a study of optical cryptography. An optical multiple-random-phase-mask encoding approach is used, and the plaintext is considered as a series of particles distributed in a 3D space. A topology concept is also introduced into the proposed optical cryptosystem. During image decryption, a retrieval algorithm is developed to extract the plaintext from the ciphertexts. In addition, security and advantages of the proposed optical cryptography topology are also analyzed. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  3. Three-dimensional cloud characterization from paired whole-sky imaging cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allmen, M.; Kegelmeyer, W.P. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) cloud characterization permits the derivation of important cloud geometry properties such as fractional cloudiness, mean cloud and clear length, aspect ratio, and the morphology of cloud cover. These properties are needed as input to the hierarchical diagnosis (HD) and instantaneous radiative transfer (IRF) models, to validate sub-models for cloud occurrence and formation, and to Central Site radiative flux calculations. A full 3-D characterization will eventually require the integration of disparate Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) data sources: whole-sky imagers (WSIs), radar, satellites, ceilometers, volume-imaging lidar, and other sensors. In this paper, we demonstrate how an initial 3-D cloud property, cloud base height, can be determined from fusing paired times series of images from two whole-sky imagers

  4. Discrete imaging models for three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography using radially symmetric expansion functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Schoonover, Robert W; Su, Richard; Oraevsky, Alexander; Anastasio, Mark A

    2014-05-01

    Optoacoustic tomography (OAT), also known as photoacoustic tomography, is an emerging computed biomedical imaging modality that exploits optical contrast and ultrasonic detection principles. Iterative image reconstruction algorithms that are based on discrete imaging models are actively being developed for OAT due to their ability to improve image quality by incorporating accurate models of the imaging physics, instrument response, and measurement noise. In this work, we investigate the use of discrete imaging models based on Kaiser-Bessel window functions for iterative image reconstruction in OAT. A closed-form expression for the pressure produced by a Kaiser-Bessel function is calculated, which facilitates accurate computation of the system matrix. Computer-simulation and experimental studies are employed to demonstrate the potential advantages of Kaiser-Bessel function-based iterative image reconstruction in OAT.

  5. Three dimensional gel dosimetry by use of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Deene, Y.; De Wagter, C.; Van Duyse, B.; Achten, E.; De Neve, W. [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde; De Poorter, J. [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Magnetic Resonance

    1995-12-01

    As co-monomers are found to polymerize by radiation, they are eligible for constructing a three dimensional dosimeter. Another kind of three dimensional dosimeter, based on the radiation sensitivity of the ferrous ions in a Fricke solution, was tested in a previous study. However, a major problem that occurs in this kind of gel dosimeters is the diffusion of the ferric and ferrous ions. The co-monomer gels are more stable. The degree of polymerisation is visualized with a clinical MRI system. Acrylamide and N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide are dissolved in a gel composed of gelatin and water. By irradiation the co-monomers are polymerized to polyacrylamide. The gel is casted in humanoid forms. As such, a simulation of the irradiation of the patient can be performed. Magnetic resonance relaxivity images of the irradiated gel display the irradiation dose. The images of the gel are fused with the radiological images of the patient. Quantitation of the dose response of the co-monomer gel is obtained through calibration by test tubes.

  6. Three-dimensional imaging of drill core samples using synchrotron computed microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, B.; Coker, D.; Lee, S.

    1993-01-01

    Fundamental theories of rock structure are limited by the absence of high resolution, pore level, three dimensional images which could be used for statistical analysis. The ability to produce such images in a non-destructive manner would also allow for repeated measurements of dynamic processes such as fluid motion which could be correlated to the medium properties. One aspect of this funded work is the production of cross sectional images of rock drill core samples with one micron resolution. This work is being done by Keith Jones and Per Spanne of Brookhaven National Laboratory using beam lines X-17 and X-26 of the National Synchrotron Light Source. Jones's annual report will provide a description of the year one progress in this area. The second aspect of this work is the topological and statistical analysis of the pore structure of the three dimensional images provided by our BNL collaborators. We report here on the progress in this area that has been made in year one. Year one effort has focused on the problem of definition of pore space in any given slice (image filtering), analysis of the filtered images via 2-point correlation structure, and on the development of software to trace the connectivity of pores throughout the cross sectional images. The report is divided into the following sections: 2 - a description of the 3D data sets that have been provided by our BNL collaborators; 3 data filtering; 4 - 2-point correlation function analysis; 5 - development of connectivity tracing software; and 6 - proposed work for year two.

  7. Three-dimensional imaging of drill core samples using synchrotron computed microtomography. Year one progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, B.; Coker, D.; Lee, S.

    1993-03-01

    Fundamental theories of rock structure are limited by the absence of high resolution, pore level, three dimensional images which could be used for statistical analysis. The ability to produce such images in a non-destructive manner would also allow for repeated measurements of dynamic processes such as fluid motion which could be correlated to the medium properties. One aspect of this funded work is the production of cross sectional images of rock drill core samples with one micron resolution. This work is being done by Keith Jones and Per Spanne of Brookhaven National Laboratory using beam lines X-17 and X-26 of the National Synchrotron Light Source. Jones`s annual report will provide a description of the year one progress in this area. The second aspect of this work is the topological and statistical analysis of the pore structure of the three dimensional images provided by our BNL collaborators. We report here on the progress in this area that has been made in year one. Year one effort has focused on the problem of definition of pore space in any given slice (image filtering), analysis of the filtered images via 2-point correlation structure, and on the development of software to trace the connectivity of pores throughout the cross sectional images. The report is divided into the following sections: 2 - a description of the 3D data sets that have been provided by our BNL collaborators; 3 data filtering; 4 - 2-point correlation function analysis; 5 - development of connectivity tracing software; and 6 - proposed work for year two.

  8. Integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengier, Fabian; Häfner, Matthias F; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Nawrotzki, Ralph; Kirsch, Joachim; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Giesel, Frederik L

    2013-08-01

    Integrating interactive three-dimensional post-processing software into undergraduate radiology teaching might be a promising approach to synergistically improve both visual-spatial ability and radiological skills, thereby reducing students' deficiencies in image interpretation. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that a hands-on radiology course for medical students using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software improves radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability. A hands-on radiology course was developed using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software. The course consisted of seven seminars held on a weekly basis. The 25 participating fourth- and fifth-year medical students learnt to systematically analyse cross-sectional imaging data and correlated the two-dimensional images with three-dimensional reconstructions. They were instructed by experienced radiologists and collegiate tutors. The improvement in radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability was assessed immediately before and after the course by multiple-choice tests comprising 64 questions each. Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired samples was applied. The total number of correctly answered questions improved from 36.9±4.8 to 49.5±5.4 (pability by 11.3% (psoftware into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves radiological reasoning, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability, and thereby even diagnostic skills for imaging modalities not included in the course. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Two and three dimensional imaging of compact toroid plasmas using fast photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, S.E.; Bell, D.E.; Coffey, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    As is discussed in a companion paper, Degnan el al, fast photography is used as a visual diagnostic tool for high energy plasma research at the Phillips Laboratory. Both, two dimensional and three dimensional images, are gathered by using nanosecond and microsecond range fast photography techniques. A set of microchannel plate cameras and a fast framing camera are used to record images of a compact toroid plasma during formation and acceleration stages. These images are subsequently digitized and enhanced to bring out detailed information of interest. This spatial information is combined with other diagnostic results as well as theoretical models in order to build a more complete picture of the fundamental physics associated with high-energy plasmas

  10. Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging for fluorescence emission difference microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangting You

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method theoretically to break the diffraction limit and to improve the resolution in all three dimensions for fluorescence emission difference microscopy. We produce two kinds of hollow focal spot by phase modulation. By incoherent superposition, these two kinds of focal spot yield a 3D hollow focal spot. The optimal proportion of these two kinds of spot is given in the paper. By employing 3D hollow focal spot, super-resolution image can be yielded by means of fluorescence emission difference microscopy, with resolution enhanced both laterally and axially. According to computation result, size of point spread function of three-dimensional super-resolution imaging is reduced by about 40% in all three spatial directions with respect to confocal imaging.

  11. Total three-dimensional imaging of phase objects using defocusing microscopy: Application to red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, P. M. S.; Siman, L.; Amaral, F. T.; Agero, U.; Mesquita, O. N.

    2014-06-01

    We introduce Defocusing Microscopy (DM), a bright-field optical microscopy technique able to perform total three-dimensional (3D) imaging of transparent objects. By total 3D imaging, we mean the determination of the actual shapes of the upper and lower surfaces of a phase object. We propose a methodology using DM and apply it to red blood cells subject to different osmolality conditions: hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic solutions. For each situation, the shapes of the upper and lower cell surface-membranes (lipid bilayer/cytoskeleton) are completely recovered, displaying the deformation of red blood cell (RBC) surfaces due to adhesion on the glass-substrate. The axial resolution of our technique allowed us to image surface-membranes separated by distances as small as 300 nm. Finally, we determine the volume, surface area, sphericity index, and RBC refractive index for each osmotic condition.

  12. Restoration of three-dimensional MR images degraded by rotational movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method to restore three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) images that have been degraded by rotational movements, such as head nodding by a restless patient. The technique for acquiring the 3D MR images includes additional MR signals, which provide one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) projections of anatomy. The 1D projections detect gross movements, and the 2D projections resolve displacements in one plane. The 2D projections are transformed from Cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates to identify rotation. A spatial transformation to reverse the rotation is applied to the imaging data after they have been Fourier transformed to resolve structures in the plane of rotation, but before the Fourier transform for the third direction

  13. Three-dimensional virtual reconstruction as a tool for preoperative planning in the management of complex anorectal fistulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Carvalho Sousa Júnior

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The making of three-dimensional virtual models is a promising technology in preoperative planning, but that is not used in the treatment of anorectal fistulas. The objective of this work is to describe the development and initial experience of the construction of a virtual three-dimensional model of the pelvic anatomy of a patient, allowing the exact identification of the relationships between the fistulous tracts of complex anorectal fistulas and the other pelvic structures. An MRI was performed on this patient, and the images were exported to the Vitrea fX Workstation® software. A radiologist did the analysis and segmentation of the images that were then sent to a three-dimensional image processor (Meshlab v. 1.3.3 – ISTI – CNR Research Center, Pisa University, Italy. The final 3D color image was analyzed by the surgeon and used to guide the catheterization of the fistulous pathways, the internal orifice and to assist in the identification of adjacent structures. The final three-dimensional model presented a high correlation with the intraoperative findings and facilitated the surgical planning. Resumo: A criação de modelos virtuais tridimensionais é uma tecnologia promissora no planejamento pré-operatorio, entretanto não é utilizada no tratamento de fistulas anais. O objetivo desse trabalho é descrever o desenvolvimento e a experiência inicial da construção de um modelo virtual tridimensional da anatomia pélvica de um paciente, que permite a identificação exata das relações entre os tratos fistulosos de fistulas anais complexas e as demais estruturas pélvicas. O paciente realizou uma ressonância magnética e as imagens foram exportadas para o programa Vitrea fX software Workstation®. Um radiologista realizou a analise e segmentação das imagens que, em seguida, foram enviadas para um processador de imagens tridimensionais (Meshlab v. 1.3.3 – ISTI – CNR research center, Pisa University, Italy®. A imagem 3D colorida

  14. Chirp-pulse-compression three-dimensional lidar imager with fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Guy N; Ridley, Kevin D; Willetts, David V

    2005-01-10

    A coherent three-dimensional (angle-angle-range) lidar imager using a master-oscillator-power-amplifier concept and operating at a wavelength of 1.5 microm with chirp-pulse compression is described. A fiber-optic delay line in the local oscillator path enables a single continuous-wave semiconductor laser source with a modulated drive waveform to generate both the constant-frequency local oscillator and the frequency chirp. A portion of this chirp is gated out and amplified by a two-stage fiber amplifier. The digitized return signal was compressed by cross correlating it with a sample of the outgoing pulse. In this way a 350-ns, 10-microJ pulse with a 250-MHz frequency sweep is compressed to a width of approximately 8 ns. With a 25-mm output aperture, the lidar has been used to produce three-dimensional images of hard targets out to a range of approximately 2 km with near-diffraction-limited angular resolution and submeter range resolution.

  15. Clinical application of EBCT angiography and three-dimensional reconstruction for evaluation of CABG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Ruping; Lu Bin; Zhan Shaoxiong; Cao Cheng; He Sha; Bai Hua; Jing Baolian

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To probe into the method of EBCT angiography and 3-D reconstruction of coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) and to evaluate clinical application. Materials and methods: EBCT angiography with 3-D reconstruction was achieved in eighty patients (72 male and 8 female, mean age, 56 +- 8 years) with 204 grafts including 46 internal mammary artery (IMG) and 158 saphenous vein grafts (SVG) respectively. The duration from bypass surgery to EBCT scanning was 7 days-120 months with mean duration of 17 +- 28 months. Both enhanced single slice mode (SSM) and flow study were performed in all cases. The results of 3-D reconstruction of CABG were correlated with bypass operation records and in 6 cases with coronary arteriograms. Results: For all 80 patients, the EBCT angiography and 3-D reconstruction of CABG were carried out satisfactorily. The technical successful rate was 100%. According to 3-D reconstruction of the coronary bypass grafts with flow studies, 163 of 204 coronary bypass grafts were patent including IMG patency in 91.3%(42/46) and SVG in 76.6% (121/158). Overall patent rate was 79.9%. In 6 cases with 11 coronary bypass grafts, EBCT studies showed graft patent in 6 and occluded in 5, which was confirmed by conventional graft angiography. Conclusion: (1) EBCT angiography with 3-D reconstruction is easy to perform and is an effective technique for providing the entire anatomic structure of coronary bypass grafts and evaluating coronary bypass graft patency. (2) EBCT flow study can provide quantitative data for evaluating coronary bypass graft patency to provide supplemental diagnosis of CABG 3-D reconstruction. (3) EBCT angiography is a noninvasive technique that could supplant conventional coronary arteriography for follow-up survey of coronary bypass surgery in future. (4) The limitation of EBCT in diagnosis of CABG was discussed

  16. Three dimensional digital reconstruction of the jaw adductor musculature of the extinct marsupial giant Diprotodon optatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana C. Sharp

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and arrangement of the jaw adductor muscles in vertebrates reflects masticatory style and feeding processes, diet and ecology. However, gross muscle anatomy is rarely preserved in fossils and is, therefore, heavily dependent on reconstructions. An undeformed skull of the extinct marsupial, Diprotodon optatum, recovered from Pleistocene sediments at Bacchus Marsh in Victoria, represents the most complete and best preserved specimen of the species offering a unique opportunity to investigate functional anatomy. Computed tomography (CT scans and digital reconstructions make it possible to visualise internal cranial anatomy and predict location and morphology of soft tissues, including muscles. This study resulted in a 3D digital reconstruction of the jaw adductor musculature of Diprotodon, revealing that the arrangement of muscles is similar to that of kangaroos and that the muscle actions were predominantly vertical. 3D digital muscle reconstructions provide considerable advantages over 2D reconstructions for the visualisation of the spatial arrangement of the individual muscles and the measurement of muscle properties (length, force vectors and volume. Such digital models can further be used to estimate muscle loads and attachment sites for biomechanical analyses.

  17. Microporous membrane-based liver tissue engineering for the reconstruction of three-dimensional functional liver tissues in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Junichi; Tanishita, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand for liver tissue engineering, various three-dimensional (3D) liver cell culture techniques have been developed. Nevertheless, conventional liver cell culture techniques involving the suspending cells in extracellular matrix (ECM) components and the seeding of cells into 3D biodegradable scaffolds have an intrinsic shortcoming, low cell-scaffold ratios. We have developed a microporous membrane-based liver cell culture technique. Cell behaviors and tissue organization can be controlled by membrane geometry, and cell-dense thick tissues can be reconstructed by layering cells cultured on biodegradable microporous membranes. Applications extend from liver parenchymal cell monoculture to multi-cell type cultures for the reconstruction of 3D functional liver tissue. This review focuses on the expanding role for microporous membranes in liver tissue engineering, primarily from our research.

  18. Three dimensional reconstruction of starling flocks: an empirical investigation of collective animal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, Irene

    2009-03-01

    Bird flocking is a striking example of animal collective behaviour: thousands of birds gather above the roosting site, forming sharp-bordered flocks, which wheel and turn with remarkable coherence and synchronization. Despite an increasing theoretical interest, empirical investigations of collective motion have been limited so far by the difficulties of getting data on large systems. By means of stereoscopic photography and using statistical mechanics, optimization theory and computer vision techniques, we have measured for the first time the three-dimensional positions and trajectories of individual birds in groups of up to three thousands elements. This allowed us to analyze global morphological properties of the flocks, as well as structural and dynamical properties. Most notably, we investigated the nature of the inter-individual interaction. We found that the interaction between birds does not depend on their mutual metric distance, as most current models and theories assume, but rather on the topological distance (number of intermediate neighbors). In fact, we discovered that each individual interacts on average with a fixed number of neighbors (six-seven), rather than with all neighbors within a fixed metric distance. We argue that a topological interaction of this kind is indispensable to maintain flock's cohesion against the large density changes caused by external perturbations, typically predation. More recently, we characterized the velocity field, and computed dynamical observables. We showed that flocks exhibit long range correlations, which are a signature of their remarkable collective behavior.

  19. Limited-angle three-dimensional reconstructions using Fourier transform iterations and Radon transform iterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.C.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of limited-angle reconstruction of space-limited objects using the concepts of allowed cone and missing cone in Fourier space are discussed. The distortion of a point source resulting from setting the Fourier components in the missing cone to zero has been calculated mathematically, and its bearing on the convergence of an iteration scheme involving Fourier transforms has been analyzed in detail. it was found that the convergence rate is fairly insensitive to the position of the point source within the boundary of the object, apart from an edge effect which tends to enhance some parts of the boundary in reconstructing the object. Another iteration scheme involving Radon transforms was introduced and compared to the Fourier transform method in such areas as root mean square error, stability with respect to noise, and computer reconstruction time

  20. Breath-hold MR cholangiopancreatography with three-dimensional, segmented, echo-planar imaging and volume rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Wielopolski (Piotr); J. Gaa; D.R. Wielopolski; M. Oudkerk (Matthijs)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractEnd-expiration, 21-second breath-hold, three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) was developed with segmented echo-planar imaging. In 15 healthy subjects and 14 randomly selected patients undergoing liver studies,

  1. Three-dimensional image display by CT data processing and clinical applications in orthopaedics and craniofacial surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonneveld, F.W.; Akkerveeken, P.F. van; Koornneef, L.

    1988-01-01

    The methods of generating three-dimensional images from two-dimensional CT data are described. Four cases are reported explaining its use in the planning of orthopaedic and craniofacial surgery. (orig.) [de

  2. Common site of subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head based on three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Karasuyama, Kazuyuki; Sonoda, Kazuhiko; Kubo, Yusuke; Iwamoto, Yukihide [Kyushu University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the common sites of subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head (SIF) based on three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of MR images. In 33 hips of 31 consecutive patients diagnosed with SIF, 3-D reconstruction of the bone, fracture, and acetabular edge was performed using MR images. These 3-D images were used to measure the fractured areas and clarify the positional relationship between the fracture and degree of acetabular coverage. The fractured area in the anterior portion was significantly larger than in the posterior area. In 11 cases, the fractures contacted the acetabular edge and were distributed on the lateral portion. The indices of acetabular coverage (center-edge angle and acetabular head index) in these cases were less than the normal range. In the remaining 22 cases, the fractures were apart from the acetabular edge and distributed on the mediolateral centerline of the femoral head. The majority of these cases had normal acetabular coverage. The common site of SIF is the anterior portion. In addition, two types of SIF are proposed: (1) Lateral type: the contact stress between the acetabular edge and lateral portion of the femoral head causes SIF based on the insufficient acetabular coverage, and (2) Central type: the contact stress between the acetabular surface and the mediolateral center of the femoral head causes SIF independent from the insufficiency of acetabular coverage. These findings may be useful for considering the treatment and prevention of SIF. (orig.)

  3. A full vectorial contrast source inversion scheme for three-dimensional acoustic imaging of both compressibility and density profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Koen W A; Wright, William M D

    2007-03-01

    Imaging the two acoustic medium parameters density and compressibility requires the use of both the acoustic pressure and velocity wave fields, described via integral equations. Imaging is based on solving for the unknown medium parameters using known measured scattered wave fields, and it is difficult to solve this ill-posed inverse problem directly using a conjugate gradient inversion scheme. Here, a contrast source inversion method is used in which the contrast sources, defined via the product of changes in compressibility and density with the pressure and velocity wave fields, respectively, are computed iteratively. After each update of the contrast sources, an update of the medium parameters is obtained. Total variation as multiplicative regularization is used to minimize blurring in the reconstructed contrasts. The method successfully reconstructed three-dimensional contrast profiles based on changes in both density and compressibility, using synthetic data both with and without 50% white noise. The results were compared with imaging based only on the pressure wave field, where speed of sound profiles were solely based on changes in compressibility. It was found that the results improved significantly by using the full vectorial method when changes in speed of sound depended on changes in both compressibility and density.

  4. Three-dimensional fracture visualisation of multidetector CT of the skull base in trauma patients: comparison of three reconstruction algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringl, Helmut; Schernthaner, Ruediger; Philipp, Marcel O.; Metz-Schimmerl, Sylvia; Czerny, Christian; Weber, Michael; Steiner-Ringl, Andrea; Peloschek, Philipp; Herold, Christian J.; Schima, Wolfgang; Gaebler, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively assess the detection rate of skull-base fractures for three different three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction methods of cranial CT examinations in trauma patients. A total of 130 cranial CT examinations of patients with previous head trauma were subjected to 3D reconstruction of the skull base, using solid (SVR) and transparent (TVR) volume-rendering technique and maximum intensity projection (MIP). Three radiologists independently evaluated all reconstructions as well as standard high-resolution multiplanar reformations (HR-MPRs). Mean fracture detection rates for all readers reading rotating reconstructions were 39, 36, 61 and 64% for SVR, TVR, MIP and HR-MPR respectively. Although not significantly different from HR-MPR with respect to sensitivity (P = 0.9), MIP visualised 18% of fractures that were not reported in HR-MPR. Because of the relatively low detection rate using HR-MPRs alone, we recommend reading MIP reconstructions in addition to the obligatory HR-MPRs to improve fracture detection. (orig.)

  5. Three-dimensional super-resolution structured illumination microscopy with maximum a posteriori probability image estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeš, Tomáš; Křížek, Pavel; Švindrych, Zdeněk; Benda, Jakub; Ovesný, Martin; Fliegel, Karel; Klíma, Miloš; Hagen, Guy M

    2014-12-01

    We introduce and demonstrate a new high performance image reconstruction method for super-resolution structured illumination microscopy based on maximum a posteriori probability estimation (MAP-SIM). Imaging performance is demonstrated on a variety of fluorescent samples of different thickness, labeling density and noise levels. The method provides good suppression of out of focus light, improves spatial resolution, and allows reconstruction of both 2D and 3D images of cells even in the case of weak signals. The method can be used to process both optical sectioning and super-resolution structured illumination microscopy data to create high quality super-resolution images.

  6. Fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging with three-dimensional MP-RAGE sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, Tomokazu; Homma, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Hirose, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    Image misrepresentation due to chemical shifts can create image artifacts on MR images. Distinguishing the organization and affected area can be difficult due to the chemical shift artifacts. Chemical shift selective (CHESS) is a method of decreasing chemical shift artifacts. In this study we have developed a new sequence for fat-saturated three-dimensional diffusion weighted MR imaging. This imaging was done during in vivo studies using an animal experiment MR imaging system at 2.0 T. In this sequence a preparation phase with a ''CHESS-90 deg RF-Motion Proving Gradient (MPG-180 deg RF-MPG-90 deg RF pulse train) was used to sensitize the magnetization to fat-saturated diffusion. Centric k-space acquisition order is necessary to minimize saturation effects from tissues with short relaxation times. From experimental results obtained with a phantom, the effect of the diffusion weighting and the effect of the fat-saturation were confirmed. From rat experimental results, fat-saturated diffusion weighted image data (0.55 x 0.55 x 0.55 mm 3 : voxel size) were obtained. This sequence was useful for in vivo imaging. (author)

  7. Single-Shot, Volumetrically Illuminated, Three-Dimensional, Tomographic Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Imaging in a Gaseous Free Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Single- shot , volumetrically illuminated, three- dimensional, tomographic laser-induced- fluorescence imaging in a gaseous free jet Benjamin R. Halls...37081 Göttingen, Germany 4School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA 5trmeyer@purdue.edu 6james.gord...us.af.mil Abstract: Single- shot , tomographic imaging of the three-dimensional concentration field is demonstrated in a turbulent gaseous free jet in co-flow

  8. Comparing three-dimensional serial optical coherence tomography histology to MRI imaging in the entire mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Alexandre; Lefebvre, Joël; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    An automated serial histology setup combining optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging with vibratome sectioning was used to image eight wild type mouse brains. The datasets resulted in thousands of volumetric tiles resolved at a voxel size of (4.9×4.9×6.5) μm3 stitched back together to give a three-dimensional map of the brain from which a template OCT brain was obtained. To assess deformation caused by tissue sectioning, reconstruction algorithms, and fixation, OCT datasets were compared to both in vivo and ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging. The OCT brain template yielded a highly detailed map of the brain structure, with a high contrast in white matter fiber bundles and was highly resemblant to the in vivo MRI template. Brain labeling using the Allen brain framework showed little variation in regional brain volume among imaging modalities with no statistical differences. The high correspondence between the OCT template brain and its in vivo counterpart demonstrates the potential of whole brain histology to validate in vivo imaging.

  9. Towards a d-bar reconstruction method for three-dimensional EIT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Knudsen, Kim

    here. It is shown that exponentially growing solutions exist for low complex frequencies without imposing any regularity assumption on the conductivity. Further, a reconstruction method for conductivities close to a constant is given. In this method the complex frequency is taken to zero instead...

  10. THREE-DIMENSIONAL TOMOGRAPHIC RECONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDRY ARTICLES ON LIMITED MODEL AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Vengrinovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ways of overcoming of lack of source information, The ways of overcoming of lack of source information, allowing to reduce energy of primary X-radiation, necessary  for radiography and to provide high quality of reconstruction, are offered.

  11. Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Seoeun; Yoon, Jonghee; Heo, Jihan; Choi, Chulhee; Park, Yongkeun

    2016-11-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are subcellular organelles with important roles in lipid storage and metabolism and involved in various diseases including cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Conventional methods, however, have limited ability to provide quantitative information on individual LDs and have limited capability for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of LDs in live cells especially for fast acquisition of 3-D dynamics. Here, we present an optical method based on 3-D quantitative phase imaging to measure the 3-D structural distribution and biochemical parameters (concentration and dry mass) of individual LDs in live cells without using exogenous labelling agents. The biochemical change of LDs under oleic acid treatment was quantitatively investigated, and 4-D tracking of the fast dynamics of LDs revealed the intracellular transport of LDs in live cells.

  12. Near-field three-dimensional coherent imaging: Theory and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Seth D.; Zheng, Yibin

    2004-04-01

    This work presents a rigorous mathematical derivation of an effective approximate solution to the three-dimensional inverse scattering/imaging problem that is applicable for all imaging zones ranging from the near to the far field. Simulation results for the point spread function illustrate the range and cross-range resolution as a function of the optical f number. The model system operates in a synthetic aperture type mode, where the coherent signals are transmitted, and the scattered signals are subsequently received at individual transmitters and receivers. Potential applications of this technology include: Medical ultrasound, foliage penetrating synthetic aperture radar, ground penetrating radar for land mine detection, and electromagnetic millimeter-wave scanning for concealed weapon detection.

  13. Color Image Encryption Using Three-Dimensional Sine ICMIC Modulation Map and DNA Sequence Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhao; Sun, Kehui; He, Yi; Yu, Mengyao

    Derived from Sine map and iterative chaotic map with infinite collapse (ICMIC), a three-dimensional hyperchaotic Sine ICMIC modulation map (3D-SIMM) is proposed based on a close-loop modulation coupling (CMC) method. Based on this map, a novel color image encryption algorithm is designed by employing a hybrid model of multidirectional circular permutation and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) masking. In this scheme, the pixel positions of image are scrambled by multidirectional circular permutation, and the pixel values are substituted by DNA sequence operations. The simulation results and security analysis show that the algorithm has good encryption effect and strong key sensitivity, and can resist brute-force, statistical, differential, known-plaintext and chosen-plaintext attacks.

  14. Simultaneous three-dimensional imaging and manipulation of grain boundaries in colloidal crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Kazem V.; Liu, Yanyan; Curran, Arran; Aarts, Dirk G. A. L.; Sacanna, Stefano; Dullens, Roel P. A.

    Characterizing the properties of grains and grain boundaries is critical for understanding and controlling material properties. We investigate the dynamics of grain boundaries in crystalline materials using concentrated colloidal suspensions of microspheres. The micron-sized particles are suspended in a mixture of solvents whose refractive index and density nearly match those of the particles, enabling three-dimensional visualization and negating gravitational effects. Throughout the sample we disperse specially designed core-shell particles whose cores have a higher refractive index that can be optically trapped. Via optical tweezing, these core-shell particles enable us to directly interact with and probe grain boundaries in 3D within the colloidal crystal. We use a uniquely developed optical microscopy system that combines confocal imaging with holographic trapping, enabling quantitative imaging and precise manipulation simultaneously in three dimensions. Our experiments provide direct insight into the properties of grain boundaries in crystals.

  15. Three-dimensional Ca2+ imaging advances understanding of astrocyte biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindocci, Erika; Savtchouk, Iaroslav; Liaudet, Nicolas; Becker, Denise; Carriero, Giovanni; Volterra, Andrea

    2017-05-19

    Astrocyte communication is typically studied by two-dimensional calcium ion (Ca 2+ ) imaging, but this method has not yielded conclusive data on the role of astrocytes in synaptic and vascular function. We developed a three-dimensional two-photon imaging approach and studied Ca 2+ dynamics in entire astrocyte volumes, including during axon-astrocyte interactions. In both awake mice and brain slices, we found that Ca 2+ activity in an individual astrocyte is scattered throughout the cell, largely compartmented between regions, preponderantly local within regions, and heterogeneously distributed regionally and locally. Processes and endfeet displayed frequent fast activity, whereas the soma was infrequently active. In awake mice, activity was higher than in brain slices, particularly in endfeet and processes, and displayed occasional multifocal cellwide events. Astrocytes responded locally to minimal axonal firing with time-correlated Ca 2+ spots. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Colon dissection: a new three-dimensional reconstruction tool for computed tomography colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettgen, R.; Fischbach, F.; Plotkin, M.; Herzog, H.; Freund, T.; Schroeder, R. J.; Felix, R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) colonography in the detection of polyps by comparing the 3D reconstruction tool 'colon dissection' and endoluminal view (virtual colonoscopy) with axial 2D reconstructions. Material and Methods: Forty-eight patients (22 M, 26 F, mean age 57±21) were studied after intra-anal air insufflation in the supine and prone positions using a 16-slice helical CT (16x0.625 mm, pitch 1.7; detector rotation time 0.5 s; 160 mAs und 120 kV) and conventional colonoscopy. Two radiologists blinded to the results of the conventional colonoscopy analyzed the 3D reconstruction in virtual-endoscopy mode, in colon-dissection mode, and axial 2D slices. Results: Conventional colonoscopy revealed a total of 35 polyps in 15 patients; 33 polyps were disclosed by CT methods. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting colon polyps were 94% and 94%, respectively, when using the 'colon dissection', 89% and 94% when using 'virtual endoscopy', and 62% and 100% when using axial 2D reconstruction. Sensitivity in relation to the diameter of colon polyps with 'colon dissection', 'virtual colonoscopy', and axial 2D-slices was: polyps with a diameter >5.0 mm, 100%, 100%, and 71%, respectively; polyps with a diameter of between 3 and 4.9 mm, 92%, 85%, and 46%; and polyps with a diameter <3 mm, 89%, 78%, and 56%. The difference between 'virtual endoscopy' and 'colon dissection' in diagnosing polyps up to 4.9 mm in diameter was statistically significant. Conclusion: 3D reconstruction software 'colon dissection' improves sensitivity of CT colonography compared with the endoluminal view

  17. Three dimensional reconstruction of human pachytene spermatocyte nuclei of a 17;21 reciprocal translocation carrier: study of XY-autosome relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichaoua, M R; de Lanversin, A; Cataldo, C; Delafontaine, D; Alasia, C; Fraterno, M; Terriou, P; Stahl, A; Luciani, J M

    1991-10-01

    A study of XY-autosome relationships at the pachytene stage in an infertile 17-21 reciprocal translocation carrier was undertaken by means of three dimensional reconstruction. Synaptonemal complexes and the sex vesicle were analysed on electron microscopic serial sections and the reconstruction was performed on transparent sheets and on a Samba 2000 (Alcatel TITN) image analysis system. All asynapsed segments were entirely included in the sex vesicle, the chromatin fibre of the autosomes and sex chromosomes being tightly intermingled. In one nucleus, the four arms of the quadrivalent were paired, except around the breakpoints where an interstitial asynapsis was observed. In the other nuclei, a terminal asynapsis involving one or two arms of the quadrivalent was found. In the sex vesicle, autosomal asynapsed segments showed the same morphological characteristics as those of X and Y chromosomes. This observation agrees with the hypothesis of the extension of gene inactivation from sex chromosomes to autosomes.

  18. Three-dimensional imaging using computer-generated holograms synthesized from 3-D Fourier spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatagai, Toyohiko; Miura, Ken-ichi; Sando, Yusuke; Itoh, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    Computer-generated holograms(CGHs) synthesized from projection images of real existing objects are considered. A series of projection images are recorded both vertically and horizontally with an incoherent light source and a color CCD. According to the principles of computer tomography(CT), the 3-D Fourier spectrum is calculated from several projection images of objects and the Fresnel CGH is synthesized using a part of the 3-D Fourier spectrum. This method has following advantages. At first, no-blur reconstructed images in any direction are obtained owing to two-dimensionally scanning in recording. Secondarily, since not interference fringes but simple projection images of objects are recorded, a coherent light source is not necessary. Moreover, when a color CCD is used in recording, it is easily possible to record and reconstruct colorful objects. Finally, we demonstrate reconstruction of biological objects.

  19. Sliding-slab three-dimensional TSE imaging with a spiral-In/Out readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Wang, Dinghui; Robison, Ryan K; Zwart, Nicholas R; Schär, Michael; Karis, John P; Pipe, James G

    2016-02-01

    T2 -weighted imaging is of great diagnostic value in neuroimaging. Three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian turbo spin echo (TSE) scans provide high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contiguous slice coverage. The purpose of this preliminary work is to implement a novel 3D spiral TSE technique with image quality comparable to 2D/3D Cartesian TSE. The proposed technique uses multislab 3D TSE imaging. To mitigate the slice boundary artifacts, a sliding-slab method is extended to spiral imaging. A spiral-in/out readout is adopted to minimize the artifacts that may be present with the conventional spiral-out readout. Phase errors induced by B0 eddy currents are measured and compensated to allow for the combination of the spiral-in and spiral-out images. A nonuniform slice encoding scheme is used to reduce the truncation artifacts while preserving the SNR performance. Preliminary results show that each of the individual measures contributes to the overall performance, and the image quality of the results obtained with the proposed technique is, in general, comparable to that of 2D or 3D Cartesian TSE. 3D sliding-slab TSE with a spiral-in/out readout provides good-quality T2 -weighted images, and, therefore, may become a promising alternative to Cartesian TSE. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Strategies for displaying computer simulated three-dimensional images from emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlusselberg, D.S.; Simon, T.R.; Smith, W.K.; Woodward, D.J.; Parkey, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Emission computed tomography (ECT) quantitatively localizes radionuclide tracer distributions within a three-dimensional (3D) volume. Currently available techniques limit the display of this information to series of cross-sectional or rotating images. Such techniques of ten rely on special viewing equipment to synthesize the image series into a volumetric display. The authors have developed new algorithms that generate 3D images of radiotracer distributions using computerized analysis of tomographic data. Imaging strategies including transparent volumes, surface models, color-coded circumferential histograms and transparent slices are combined to produce a single image that contains the quantitative distributional information. While the images can be displayed on most raster-based display devices, they are suitable for archiving and distribution as single image photographs. This choice of formats enhances the value of the technique for communicating scintigraphic information to referring physicians while maintaining the quantitative integrity of the data. The technique has been successfully applied to a variety of ECT examination including brain, heart, liver and bone studies

  1. Computed myography: three-dimensional reconstruction of motor functions from surface EMG data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doel, Kees van den; Ascher, Uri M; Pai, Dinesh K

    2008-01-01

    We describe a methodology called computed myography to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the activation level of individual muscles by voltage measurements from an array of voltage sensors on the skin surface. A finite element model for electrostatics simulation is constructed from morphometric data. For the inverse problem, we utilize a generalized Tikhonov regularization. This imposes smoothness on the reconstructed sources inside the muscles and suppresses sources outside the muscles using a penalty term. Results from experiments with simulated and human data are presented for activation reconstructions of three muscles in the upper arm (biceps brachii, bracialis and triceps). This approach potentially offers a new clinical tool to sensitively assess muscle function in patients suffering from neurological disorders (e.g., spinal cord injury), and could more accurately guide advances in the evaluation of specific rehabilitation training regimens

  2. Computed myography: three-dimensional reconstruction of motor functions from surface EMG data

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Doel, Kees; Ascher, Uri M.; Pai, Dinesh K.

    2008-12-01

    We describe a methodology called computed myography to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the activation level of individual muscles by voltage measurements from an array of voltage sensors on the skin surface. A finite element model for electrostatics simulation is constructed from morphometric data. For the inverse problem, we utilize a generalized Tikhonov regularization. This imposes smoothness on the reconstructed sources inside the muscles and suppresses sources outside the muscles using a penalty term. Results from experiments with simulated and human data are presented for activation reconstructions of three muscles in the upper arm (biceps brachii, bracialis and triceps). This approach potentially offers a new clinical tool to sensitively assess muscle function in patients suffering from neurological disorders (e.g., spinal cord injury), and could more accurately guide advances in the evaluation of specific rehabilitation training regimens.

  3. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the S885A Mutant of Human Mitochondrial Lon Protease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kereiche, S.; Kováčik, L.; Pevala, V.; Ambro, L.; Bellová, J.; Kutejová, Eva; Raška, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2014 (2014), s. 62-65 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0030; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : transmission electron microscopy * 3D reconstruction * AAA plus protease Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  4. Quality of brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography images: multicentre evaluation using an anatomically accurate three-dimensional phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, J.; Kuikka, J.T.; Ahonen, A.; Rautio, P.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of routine brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) images in Finnish nuclear medicine laboratories. Twelve laboratories participated in the study. A three-dimensional high resolution brain phantom (Data Spectrum's 3D Hoffman Brain Phantom) was filled with a well-mixed solution of technetium-99m (110 MBq), water and detergent. Acquisition, reconstruction and printing were performed according to the clinical routine in each centre. Three nuclear medicine specialists blindly evaluated all image sets. The results were ranked from 1 to 5 (poor quality-high quality). Also a SPET performance phantom (Nuclear Associates' PET/SPECT Performance Phantom PS 101) was filled with the same radioactivity concentration as the brain phantom. The parameters for the acquisition, the reconstruction and the printing were exactly the same as with the brain phantom. The number of detected ''hot'' (from 0 to 8) and ''cold'' lesions (from 0 to 7) was visually evaluated from hard copies. Resolution and contrast were quantified from digital images. Average score for brain phantom images was 2.7±0.8 (range 1.5-4.5). The average diameter of the ''hot'' cylinders detected was 16 mm (range 9.2-20.0 mm) and that of the ''cold'' cylinders detected, 11 mm (5.9-14.3 mm) according to visual evaluation. Quantification of digital images showed that the hard copy was one reason for low-quality images. The quality of the hard copies was good only in four laboratories and was amazingly low in the others when comparing it with the actual structure of the brain phantom. The described quantification method is suitable for optimizing resolution and contrast detectability of hard copies. This study revealed the urgent need for external quality assurance of clinical brain perfusion SPET images. (orig.)

  5. A web service system supporting three-dimensional post-processing of medical images based on WADO protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Longjun; Xu, Lang; Ming, Xing; Liu, Qian

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional post-processing operations on the volume data generated by a series of CT or MR images had important significance on image reading and diagnosis. As a part of the DIOCM standard, WADO service defined how to access DICOM objects on the Web, but it didn't involve three-dimensional post-processing operations on the series images. This paper analyzed the technical features of three-dimensional post-processing operations on the volume data, and then designed and implemented a web service system for three-dimensional post-processing operations of medical images based on the WADO protocol. In order to improve the scalability of the proposed system, the business tasks and calculation operations were separated into two modules. As results, it was proved that the proposed system could support three-dimensional post-processing service of medical images for multiple clients at the same moment, which met the demand of accessing three-dimensional post-processing operations on the volume data on the web.

  6. An image encryption scheme based on three-dimensional Brownian motion and chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiu-Li; Yuan Ke; Gan Zhi-Hua; Lu Yang; Chen Yi-Ran

    2017-01-01

    At present, many chaos-based image encryption algorithms have proved to be unsafe, few encryption schemes permute the plain images as three-dimensional (3D) bit matrices, and thus bits cannot move to any position, the movement range of bits are limited, and based on them, in this paper we present a novel image encryption algorithm based on 3D Brownian motion and chaotic systems. The architecture of confusion and diffusion is adopted. Firstly, the plain image is converted into a 3D bit matrix and split into sub blocks. Secondly, block confusion based on 3D Brownian motion (BCB3DBM) is proposed to permute the position of the bits within the sub blocks, and the direction of particle movement is generated by logistic-tent system (LTS). Furthermore, block confusion based on position sequence group (BCBPSG) is introduced, a four-order memristive chaotic system is utilized to give random chaotic sequences, and the chaotic sequences are sorted and a position sequence group is chosen based on the plain image, then the sub blocks are confused. The proposed confusion strategy can change the positions of the bits and modify their weights, and effectively improve the statistical performance of the algorithm. Finally, a pixel level confusion is employed to enhance the encryption effect. The initial values and parameters of chaotic systems are produced by the SHA 256 hash function of the plain image. Simulation results and security analyses illustrate that our algorithm has excellent encryption performance in terms of security and speed. (paper)

  7. Recent advances in Optical Computed Tomography (OCT) imaging system for three dimensional (3D) radiotherapy dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ahmad Taufek Abdul; Farah Rosli, Nurul; Zain, Shafirah Mohd; Zin, Hafiz M.

    2018-01-01

    Radiotherapy delivery techniques for cancer treatment are becoming more complex and highly focused, to enable accurate radiation dose delivery to the cancerous tissue and minimum dose to the healthy tissue adjacent to tumour. Instrument to verify the complex dose delivery in radiotherapy such as optical computed tomography (OCT) measures the dose from a three-dimensional (3D) radiochromic dosimeter to ensure the accuracy of the radiotherapy beam delivery to the patient. OCT measures the optical density in radiochromic material that changes predictably upon exposure to radiotherapy beams. OCT systems have been developed using a photodiode and charged coupled device (CCD) as the detector. The existing OCT imaging systems have limitation in terms of the accuracy and the speed of the measurement. Advances in on-pixel intelligence CMOS image sensor (CIS) will be exploited in this work to replace current detector in OCT imaging systems. CIS is capable of on-pixel signal processing at a very fast imaging speed (over several hundred images per second) that will allow improvement in the 3D measurement of the optical density. The paper will review 3D radiochromic dosimeters and OCT systems developed and discuss how CMOS based OCT imaging will provide accurate and fast optical density measurements in 3D. The paper will also discuss the configuration of the CMOS based OCT developed in this work and how it may improve the existing OCT system.

  8. [Reconstruction of mandibular bone defects using three-dimensional skull model and individualized titanium prosthetics from computer assisted design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhenyu; Li, Guohua; Liu, Yanpu; He, Lisheng; Zhou, Bing; Li, Dichen

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of reconstruction of mandibular bone defects using three-dimensional skull model and individualized titanium prosthetics from computer assisted design. Between July 2002 and November 2009, 9 patients with mandibular defects accepted restorative operation using individualized bone prosthetics. Among 9 cases, 4 were male and 5 were female, aged 19-55 years. The causes of mandibulectomy were benign lesions in 8 patients and carcinoma of gingival in 1 patient. Mandibular defects exceeded midline in 2 cases, involved condylar in 4 cases, and was limited in one side without involvement of temporo-mandibular joint in 3 cases. The range of bone defects was 9.0 cm x 2.5 cm-17.0 cm x 2.5 cm. The preoperative spiral CT scan was performed and three-dimensional skull model was obtained. Titanium prosthetics of mandibular defects were designed and fabricated through multi-step procedure of reverse engineering and rapid prototyping. Titanium prosthetics were used for one-stage repair of mandibular bone defects, then two-stage implant denture was performed after 6 months. The individualized titanium prosthetics were inserted smoothly with one-stage operative time of 10-23 minutes. All the cases achieved incision healing by first intention and the oblique mandibular movement was corrected. They all got satisfactory face, had satisfactory contour and good occlusion. In two-stage operation, no loosening of the implants was observed and the abutments were in good position with corresponding teeth which were designed ideally before operation. All cases got satisfactory results after 1-9 years of follow-up. At last follow-up, X-ray examinations showed no loosening of implants with symmetry contour. Computer assisted design and three-dimensional skull model techniques could accomplish the design and manufacture of individualized prosthetic for the repair of mandibular bone defects.

  9. High-Resolution, Quantitative, and Three-Dimensional Coherent Diffractive Imaging with a Tabletop EUV Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanblatt, Elisabeth Rose

    Imaging is a critical tool used across a broad range of applications in science, technology, medicine, and manufacturing. Microscopy, the type of imaging which allows us to access the elusive yet rich world of what is smaller than we can naturally see--makes it possible to observe and design the nano-world of biological, material, and nanofabricated systems. In this thesis, I describe the development of a new type of microscopy that combines two powerful tools: coherent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources produced by high harmonic generation, and ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging. This microscope produces high-resolution, chemically-specific, phase- and amplitude-contrast images with large fields of view on the order of hundreds of microns, while preserving a high spatial resolution on the scale of tens of nanometers. Recently, we extended this new tabletop microscopy technique to image reflective samples, periodic samples, and to image dynamic nano-scale elastic and thermal processes. I will discuss these advances and in particular demonstrate two new capabilities: first, a new imaging technique with high compositionally- and morphologically-sensitive quantitative information, capable of imaging reactions and diffusion at a buried interface. This capability will open up a new, exquisitely sensitive layer-by-layer imaging that has many applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology, including surface and materials science and metrology. Secondly, I will demonstrate imaging of a thick sample in three dimensions. By accounting for diffraction within a thick sample, it is possible to obtain high-resolution three-dimensional images of biological and meta-material samples non-invasively, and without the use of staining or labeling.

  10. Joint analysis of three-dimensional anatomical and functional data considering the cerebral post mortem imaging in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Albertine

    2008-01-01

    The recent development of dedicated small animal anatomical (MRI) and functional (micro-PET) scanners has opened up the possibility of performing repeated functional in vivo studies in the same animal as the longitudinal follow-up of cerebral glucose metabolism. However, these systems still suffer technical limitations including a limited sensitivity and a reduced spatial resolution. Hence, autoradiography and histological studies remain the reference and widely used techniques for biological studies in small animals. The major disadvantage of these post mortem imaging techniques is that they require brain tissue sectioning, entailing the production of large numbers (up to several hundreds) of serial sections and the inherent loss of three-dimensional (3D) spatial consistency. The first step towards improving the analysis of this post mortem information was the development of reliable, automated procedures for the 3D reconstruction of the whole brain sections. We first developed an optimized data acquisition from large numbers of post mortem data (2D sections and block-face photographs). Then, we proposed different strategies of 3D reconstruction of the corresponding volumes. We also addressed the histological to autoradiographic sections and to block-face photographs co-registration problem (the photographic volume is intrinsically spatially consistent). These developments were essential for the 3D reconstruction but also enabled the evaluation of different methods of functional data analysis, from the most straightforward (manual delineation of regions of interest) to the most automated (Statistical Parametric Mapping-like approaches for group analysis). Two biological applications were carried out: visual stimulation in rats and cerebral metabolism in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. One perspective of this work is to match reconstructed post mortem data with in vivo images of the same animal. (author) [fr

  11. System analysis of formation and perception processes of three-dimensional images in volumetric displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshakov, Alexander; Sgibnev, Arthur

    2018-03-01

    One of the promising devices is currently a volumetric display. Volumetric displays capable to visualize complex three-dimensional information as nearly as possible to its natural – volume form without the use of special glasses. The invention and implementation of volumetric display technology will expand opportunities of information visualization in various spheres of human activity. The article attempts to structure and describe the interrelation of the essential characteristics of objects in the area of volumetric visualization. Also there is proposed a method of calculation of estimate total number of voxels perceived by observers during the 3D demonstration, generated using a volumetric display with a rotating screen. In the future, it is planned to expand the described technique and implement a system for estimation the quality of generated images, depending on the types of biplanes and their initial characteristics.

  12. Three dimensional display of the brain surface from magnetic resonance images using a personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Jin

    1991-01-01

    A new system for three dimensional display of brain surface from magnetic resonance images has been developed using a personal computer. The system consists of the personal computer with a co-processor for mathematical operation and frame memory for full color graphic display. MRI data were transferred to the computer with the floppy disks. Using the paint algorithm, extraction of brain tissue was performed semi-automatically with a manual operation. Brain surface data were displayed on a CRT by a voxel method from an arbitral direction. The result of clinical application of the system showed that the 3-dimentional display of brain surface was useful in comprehending abnormalities including atrophy and cystic lesions. In this paper, we introduce the new system and discuss clinical applicabilities. (author)

  13. Improved SAR Amplitude Image Offset Measurements for Deriving Three-Dimensional Coseismic Displacements

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Teng

    2015-02-03

    Offsets of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images have played an important role in deriving complete three-dimensional (3-D) surface displacement fields in geoscientific applications. However, offset maps often suffer from multiple outliers and patch-like artifacts, because the standard offset-measurement method is a regular moving-window operation that does not consider the scattering characteristics of the ground. Here, we show that by focusing the offset measurements on predetected strong reflectors, the reliability and accuracy of SAR offsets can be significantly improved. Application to the 2011 Van (Turkey) earthquake reveals a clear deformation signal from an otherwise decorrelated interferogram, making derivation of the 3-D coseismic displacement field possible. Our proposed method can improve mapping of coseismic deformation and other ground displacements, such as glacier flow and landslide movement when strong reflectors exist.

  14. Reconstruction of Interfering Waves from Three Dimensional Analysis of Their Interference Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Tavassoli

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available   Optical interferometry is being used as an efficient tool to analyse smooth surfaces for more than a century. Although, due to introduction of novel computer assisted analyzing techniques and array detectors, like CCD, the speed and the precision of processing have been increased tremendously, but the main equation involved is not changed. The main equation is the intensity distribution in the interference pattern of a plane reference wave and the required wave.   In the paper it is shown that by analysis of the interference pattern of two unknown waves in three dimension (which is possible for coherent waves it is possible to reconstruct each wave separately. This approach has several useful applications, namely, on can do without reference plane wave in the interferometric surface analysis and, it is possible to reconstruct an unknown wave by making it to interfere with itself. This is very useful in determining the profile of laser beams and erasing the effect of atmospheric disturbances on observing astronomical objects.

  15. A compact structured light based otoscope for three dimensional imaging of the tympanic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anshuman J.; Estrada, Julio C.; Ge, Zhifei; Dolcetti, Sara; Chen, Deborah; Raskar, Ramesh

    2015-02-01

    Three dimensional (3D) imaging of the tympanic membrane (TM) has been carried out using a traditional otoscope equipped with a high-definition webcam, a portable projector and a telecentric optical system. The device allows us to project fringe patterns on the TM and the magnified image is processed using phase shifting algorithms to arrive at a 3D description of the TM. Obtaining a 3D image of the TM can aid in the diagnosis of ear infections such as otitis media with effusion, which is essentially fluid build-up in the middle ear. The high resolution of this device makes it possible examine a computer generated 3D profile for abnormalities in the shape of the eardrum. This adds an additional dimension to the image that can be obtained from a traditional otoscope by allowing visualization of the TM from different perspectives. In this paper, we present the design and construction of this device and details of the imaging processing for recovering the 3D profile of the subject under test. The design of the otoscope is similar to that of the traditional device making it ergonomically compatible and easy to adopt in clinical practice.

  16. Three dimensional surface analyses of pubic symphyseal faces of contemporary Japanese reconstructed with 3D digitized scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biwasaka, Hitoshi; Sato, Kei; Aoki, Yasuhiro; Kato, Hideaki; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Tanijiri, Toyohisa; Fujita, Sachiko; Dewa, Koji

    2013-09-01

    Three dimensional pubic bone images were analyzed to quantify some age-dependent morphological changes of the symphyseal faces of contemporary Japanese residents. The images were synthesized from 145 bone specimens with 3D measuring device. Phases of Suchey-Brooks system were determined on the 3D pubic symphyseal images without discrepancy from those carried out on the real bones because of the high fidelity. Subsequently, mean curvatures of the pubic symphyseal faces to examine concavo-convex condition of the surfaces were analyzed on the 3D images. Average values of absolute mean curvatures of phase 1 and 2 groups were higher than those of phase 3-6 ones, whereas the values were approximately constant over phase 3 presumably reflecting the inactivation of pubic faces over phase 3. Ratio of the concave areas increased gradually with progressing phase or age classes, although convex areas were predominant in every phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The usefulness of three-dimensional imaging with spiral CT in the evaluation of upper airway stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Won Ho; Yoon, Dae Young; Bae, Sang Hoon; Rho, Young Soo; Jung, Yin Gyo [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) spiral CT imaging in patients with upper airway stenosis. We performed 3D spiral CT imagings in ten patients in whom upper airway stenosis was clinically suspected. Eight of these patients had upper airway stenosis caused by intubation or tracheostomy (n-6), tuberculosis (n=1), or extrinsic compression by a thyroid mass (n=1). Spiral CT scanning (30-second continuous exposure and 90-mm length) was performed with a table speed of 3mm/sec and a section thickness of 3mm. The selected starting point was the epiglottis. The resulting data were reformatted by multiplanar reformation (MPR) and shaded surface display (SSD) with peeling after reconstruction of 2mm interval. In the evaluation of location and extent of stenosis, we compared fidings of 3D imaging with those of baseline axial images (n=10), endoscopy (n=9) and operation (n=4). The locations of stenosis in eight patients were as follows;tracheostoma (n=4), subglottic region (n=3), and larynx (n=1). In all eight, 3D imaging demonstrated the location and extent of stenosis, which exactly correlated with endoscopic and operative findings. In one patient, however, another stenotic area in the tracheal bifurcation was not discovered because this lesion was not included in the field of CT scan. In two patients, the diagnosis on 3D images of no 'stenosis' was comfirmed by clinical findings or operation. No differences in diagnostic accuracy were noted between axial images, MPR, and SSD when evalvating the location and extent of stenosis; vertical extent was shown more easily by 3D imaging than by axial images, however. 3D imaging with spiral CT may be an useful adjunctive method in the evaluation of upper airway stenosis with variable causes.

  18. The usefulness of three-dimensional imaging with spiral CT in the evaluation of upper airway stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Won Ho; Yoon, Dae Young; Bae, Sang Hoon; Rho, Young Soo; Jung, Yin Gyo

    1996-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) spiral CT imaging in patients with upper airway stenosis. We performed 3D spiral CT imagings in ten patients in whom upper airway stenosis was clinically suspected. Eight of these patients had upper airway stenosis caused by intubation or tracheostomy (n-6), tuberculosis (n=1), or extrinsic compression by a thyroid mass (n=1). Spiral CT scanning (30-second continuous exposure and 90-mm length) was performed with a table speed of 3mm/sec and a section thickness of 3mm. The selected starting point was the epiglottis. The resulting data were reformatted by multiplanar reformation (MPR) and shaded surface display (SSD) with peeling after reconstruction of 2mm interval. In the evaluation of location and extent of stenosis, we compared fidings of 3D imaging with those of baseline axial images (n=10), endoscopy (n=9) and operation (n=4). The locations of stenosis in eight patients were as follows;tracheostoma (n=4), subglottic region (n=3), and larynx (n=1). In all eight, 3D imaging demonstrated the location and extent of stenosis, which exactly correlated with endoscopic and operative findings. In one patient, however, another stenotic area in the tracheal bifurcation was not discovered because this lesion was not included in the field of CT scan. In two patients, the diagnosis on 3D images of no 'stenosis' was comfirmed by clinical findings or operation. No differences in diagnostic accuracy were noted between axial images, MPR, and SSD when evalvating the location and extent of stenosis; vertical extent was shown more easily by 3D imaging than by axial images, however. 3D imaging with spiral CT may be an useful adjunctive method in the evaluation of upper airway stenosis with variable causes

  19. Digital three-dimensional reconstruction and ultrastructure of the mouse proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, X.Y.; Birn, H.; Jensen, K.B.

    2003-01-01

    , detailed analyses of normal mouse kidney structure and organization are lacking. This study describes the 3D organization and ultrastructural, segmental variation of the mouse kidney proximal tubule. A total of 160 proximal tubules in three C57/BL/6J mouse kidneys were analyzed on 800 serial sections from...... each kidney from the surface to the inner stripe of the outer zone of medulla. All tubules were reconstructed in 3D and visualized by interactive computer graphics. A quantitative ultrastructural analysis of the mouse proximal tubule at every 300 to 400 micro m was performed. The 3D representation....... In the medullary rays, these are arranged in layers outside the clusters of more superficial tubules. In contrast to rat and human kidney, no major segmental variation in the ultrastructure of the proximal tubule was identified, and no parameters enabled definition of distinct segments in this strain of mice...

  20. Three-dimensional Segmentation of Retinal Cysts from Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography Images by the Use of Three-dimensional Curvelet Based K-SVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Mahdad; Dehnavi, Alireza Mehri; Rabbani, Hossein; Hajizadeh, Fedra

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new three-dimensional curvelet transform based dictionary learning for automatic segmentation of intraretinal cysts, most relevant prognostic biomarker in neovascular age-related macular degeneration, from 3D spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. In particular, we focus on the Spectralis SD-OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) system, and show the applicability of our algorithm in the segmentation of these features. For this purpose, we use recursive Gaussian filter and approximate the corrupted pixels from its surrounding, then in order to enhance the cystoid dark space regions and future noise suppression we introduce a new scheme in dictionary learning and take curvelet transform of filtered image then denoise and modify each noisy coefficients matrix in each scale with predefined initial 3D sparse dictionary. Dark pixels between retinal pigment epithelium and nerve fiber layer that were extracted with graph theory are considered as cystoid spaces. The average dice coefficient for the segmentation of cystoid regions in whole 3D volume and with-in central 3 mm diameter on the MICCAI 2015 OPTIMA Cyst Segmentation Challenge dataset were found to be 0.65 and 0.77, respectively.

  1. Chemometric analysis of MALDI mass spectrometric images of three-dimensional cell culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Eric M; Hummon, Amanda B; Keithley, Richard B

    2015-09-07

    As imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has grown in popularity in recent years, the applications of this technique have become increasingly diverse. Currently there is a need for sophisticated data processing strategies that maximize the information gained from large IMS data sets. Traditional two-dimensional heat maps of single ions generated in IMS experiments lack analytical detail, yet manual analysis of multiple peaks across hundreds of pixels within an entire image is time-consuming, tedious and subjective. Here, various chemometric methods were used to analyze data sets obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) IMS of multicellular spheroids. HT-29 colon carcinoma multicellular spheroids are an excellent in vitro model system that mimic the three dimensional morphology of tumors in vivo . These data are especially challenging to process because, while different microenvironments exist, the cells are clonal which can result in strong similarities in the mass spectral profiles within the image. In this proof-of-concept study, a combination of principal component analysis (PCA), clustering methods, and linear discriminant analysis was used to identify unique spectral features present in spatially heterogeneous locations within the image. Overall, the application of these exploratory data analysis tools allowed for the isolation and detection of proteomic changes within IMS data sets in an easy, rapid, and unsupervised manner. Furthermore, a simplified, non-mathematical theoretical introduction to the techniques is provided in addition to full command routines within the MATLAB programming environment, allowing others to easily utilize and adapt this approach.

  2. Biodynamic imaging for phenotypic profiling of three-dimensional tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Merrill, Daniel; An, Ran; Turek, John; Matei, Daniela; Nolte, David D.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) tissue culture represents a more biologically relevant environment for testing new drugs compared to conventional two-dimensional cancer cell culture models. Biodynamic imaging is a high-content 3-D optical imaging technology based on low-coherence interferometry and digital holography that uses dynamic speckle as high-content image contrast to probe deep inside 3-D tissue. Speckle contrast is shown to be a scaling function of the acquisition time relative to the persistence time of intracellular transport and hence provides a measure of cellular activity. Cellular responses of 3-D multicellular spheroids to paclitaxel are compared among three different growth techniques: rotating bioreactor (BR), hanging-drop (HD), and nonadherent (U-bottom, UB) plate spheroids, compared with ex vivo living tissues. HD spheroids have the most homogeneous tissue, whereas BR spheroids display large sample-to-sample variability as well as spatial heterogeneity. The responses of BR-grown tumor spheroids to paclitaxel are more similar to those of ex vivo biopsies than the responses of spheroids grown using HD or plate methods. The rate of mitosis inhibition by application of taxol is measured through tissue dynamics spectroscopic imaging, demonstrating the ability to monitor antimitotic chemotherapy. These results illustrate the potential use of low-coherence digital holography for 3-D pharmaceutical screening applications.

  3. MR imaging of the knee : Three-dimensional fourier transform GRASS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Joo; Lee, Young Uk; Youn, Eun Kyung; No, In Gye; Chin, Seoung Bum; Kim, Joon Sik; Choi, Jae Yeul

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional(3D) Fourier transform(FT) gradient refocused acquisition in steady state (GRASS) technique for MR imaging of the knee. Sixty-three knees in 61 patients were imaged on the 1.5T MR system. We compared 3DFT GRASS technique with 2D spin echo(SE) technique in terms of conspicuousness of the lesions of internal knee structures based on the results of arthroscopy or open surgery. As a SE technique, sagittal T1-and T2-weighted, and coronal fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequences were performed using 3D GRASS technique, and we also evaluated arbitrarily reformatted images produced from the original axial voxel images. For the depiction of the tear, 3DFT GRASS was superior to 2D SE in three cases of medial meniscus, one of lateral meniscus, and two of anterior cruciate ligament. Specificity of 3D GRASS was also higher than that of 2D SE in evaluation of lateral meniscus and anterior cruiciate ligament. There was no significant difference in MR diagnosis for tears of the posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. 3D GRASS was superior in evaluating the extent and morphology of the torn menisci. The 3DFT GRASS technique was comparable or even superior to the 2D SE technique in the evaluation of the internal structure of the knee, and can be expected to supplement standard MR knee techniques, especially in complicated cases of meniscal or ligamentous tears

  4. Three-dimensional imaging of buried objects in very lossy earth by inversion of VETEM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, T.J.; Aydiner, A.A.; Chew, W.C.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.

    2003-01-01

    The very early time electromagnetic system (VETEM) is an efficient tool for the detection of buried objects in very lossy earth, which allows a deeper penetration depth compared to the ground-penetrating radar. In this paper, the inversion of VETEM data is investigated using three-dimensional (3-D) inverse scattering techniques, where multiple frequencies are applied in the frequency range from 0-5 MHz. For small and moderately sized problems, the Born approximation and/or the Born iterative method have been used with the aid of the singular value decomposition and/or the conjugate gradient method in solving the linearized integral equations. For large-scale problems, a localized 3-D inversion method based on the Born approximation has been proposed for the inversion of VETEM data over a large measurement domain. Ways to process and to calibrate the experimental VETEM data are discussed to capture the real physics of buried objects. Reconstruction examples using synthesized VETEM data and real-world VETEM data are given to test the validity and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  5. Age-Based Comparison of Human Dendritic Spine Structure Using Complete Three-Dimensional Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; Robles, Victor; Yuste, Rafael; DeFelipe, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons are targets of most excitatory synapses in the cerebral cortex. Recent evidence suggests that the morphology of the dendritic spine could determine its synaptic strength and learning rules. However, unfortunately, there are scant data available regarding the detailed morphology of these structures for the human cerebral cortex. In the present study, we analyzed over 8900 individual dendritic spines that were completely 3D reconstructed along the length of apical and basal dendrites of layer III pyramidal neurons in the cingulate cortex of 2 male humans (aged 40 and 85 years old), using intracellular injections of Lucifer Yellow in fixed tissue. We assembled a large, quantitative database, which revealed a major reduction in spine densities in the aged case. Specifically, small and short spines of basal dendrites and long spines of apical dendrites were lost, regardless of the distance from the soma. Given the age difference between the cases, our results suggest selective alterations in spines with aging in humans and indicate that the spine volume and length are regulated by different biological mechanisms. PMID:22710613

  6. The Importance of a Conchal Bowl Element in the Fabrication of a Three-Dimensional Framework in Total Auricular Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Soo Kim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo construct a sophisticated three-dimensional framework, numerous modifications have been reported in the literature. However, most surgeons have paid little attention to the anatomical configuration of the concha and more to its deepness and hollowness, leading to unsatisfactory outcomes.MethodsFor a configuration of the concha that is definitely anatomical, the author further developed and employed the conchal bowl element, which has been used by several surgeons although the results have not been published elsewhere. The author constructed the conchal bowl element in one of three patterns according to the amount of available cartilages: one block, two-pieces, or a cymba bowl element only. A total of 20 patients underwent auricular reconstruction using a costal cartilage framework between 2009 and 2012. The 8 earliest reconstructions were performed without a conchal bowl element and the latter 12 with a conchal bowl element. The patients were followed up for more than 1 year. The aesthetic results were scored by evaluating characteristics involving the stability of the crus helicis, the conchal definition, and the smoothness of the helical curve.ResultsThe ears reconstructed early without a conchal bowl element showed a shallow and one or two incompletely separated concha with an obliterated cymba conchal space. They also did not have a realistic or smooth curve of the helix because of an unstable crus helicis. However, ears reconstructed later with the concha bowl element showed a definite crus helicis, deep cymba conchal space, and smooth helical curve.ConclusionsThe construction of the conchal bowl element is simple, not time-consuming procedure. It is suggested that the conchal bowl element must be constructed and attached to the main framework for natural configuration of the reconstructed ear.

  7. The advantages of advanced computer-assisted diagnostics and three-dimensional preoperative planning on implant position in orbital reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jesper; Schreurs, Ruud; Dubois, Leander; Maal, Thomas J J; Gooris, Peter J J; Becking, Alfred G

    2018-02-26

    Advanced three-dimensional (3D) diagnostics and preoperative planning are the first steps in computer-assisted surgery (CAS). They are an integral part of the workflow, and allow the surgeon to adequately assess the fracture and to perform virtual surgery to find the optimal implant position. The goal of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and predictability of 3D diagnostics and preoperative virtual planning without intraoperative navigation in orbital reconstruction. In 10 cadaveric heads, 19 complex orbital fractures were created. First, all fractures were reconstructed without preoperative planning (control group) and at a later stage the reconstructions were repeated with the help of preoperative planning. Preformed titanium mesh plates were used for the reconstructions by two experienced oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The preoperative virtual planning was easily accessible for the surgeon during the reconstruction. Computed tomographic scans were obtained before and after creation of the orbital fractures and postoperatively. Using a paired t-test, implant positioning accuracy (translation and rotations) of both groups were evaluated by comparing the planned implant position with the position of the implant on the postoperative scan. Implant position improved significantly (P preoperative planning (Table 1). Pitch did not improve significantly (P = 0.78). The use of 3D diagnostics and preoperative planning without navigation in complex orbital wall fractures has a positive effect on implant position. This is due to a better assessment of the fracture, the possibility of virtual surgery and because the planning can be used as a virtual guide intraoperatively. The surgeon has more control in positioning the implant in relation to the rim and other bony landmarks. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Printed Materials for Simulation by Computed Tomography and Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, James J; Sarwani, Nabeel; Coleman, Melissa L; Fotos, Joseph S

    2017-06-01

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) printing allows for creation of custom models for clinical care, education, and simulation. Medical imaging, given the significant role it plays in both clinical diagnostics and procedures, remains an important area for such education and simulation. Unfortunately, the materials appropriate for use in simulation involving radiographic or ultrasound imaging remains poorly understood. Therefore, our study was intended to explore the characteristics of readily available 3D printing materials when visualized by computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound. Seven 3D printing materials were examined in standard shapes (cube, cylinder, triangular prism) with a selection of printing methods ("open," "whole," and "solid" forms). For CT imaging, these objects were suspended in a gelatin matrix molded to match a standard human CT phantom. For ultrasound imaging, the objects were placed in acrylic forms filled with a gelatin matrix. All images were examined using OsiriX software. Computed tomography imaging revealed marked variation in materials' Hounsfield units as well as patterning and artifact. The Hounsfield unit variations revealed a number of materials suitable for simulation various human tissues. Ultrasound imaging showed echogenicity in all materials, with some variability in shadowing and posterior wall visualization. We were able to demonstrate the potential utility for 3D printing in the creation of CT and ultrasound simulation models. The similar appearance of materials via ultrasound supports their broad utility for select tissue types, whereas the more variable appearance via CT suggests greater potential for simulating differing tissues but requiring multiple printer technologies to do so.

  9. Mid-term follow-up of patients with transposition of the great arteries after atrial inversion operation using two- and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel, Mark A.; Weinberg, Paul M.; Hubbard, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Background: Older patients with transposition of the great arteries who have undergone an atrial inversion procedure (ATRIAL-INV) are difficult to image by echocardiography. The surgical baffles are spatially complex. Objective: To test the hypothesis that two- and three-dimensional MRI can elucidate the spatially complex anatomy in this patient population. Materials and methods; Twelve patients with ATRIAL-INV, ages 16±4.5 years, underwent routine T1-weighted spin-echo axial imaging to obtain a full cardiac volumetric data set. Postprocessing created three-dimensional shaded surface displays and allowed for multiplanar reconstruction. Routine transthoracic echocardiography was available on all patients. Results: Three-dimensional reconstruction enabled complete spatial conceptualization of the venous pathways, and allowed for precise localization of a narrowed region in the upper limb of the systemic venous pathway found in two patients. This was subsequently confirmed on angiography. Routine MRI was able to image the full extent of the venous pathways in all 12 patients. Routine transthoracic echocardiography was able to visualize proximal portions of the venous pathways in eight (67%), the distal upper limb in five (42%), and the distal lower limb in four (33%) patients, and it was able to visualize the outflow tracts in all patients. Conclusion: Three-dimensional reconstruction adds important spatial information, which can be especially important in stenotic regions. Routine MRI is superior to transthoracic echocardiography in delineation of the systemic and pulmonary venous pathway anatomy of ATRIAL-INV patients at mid-term follow-up. Although transesophageal echocardiography is an option, it is more invasive. (orig.)

  10. Differential diagnosis of lung carcinoma with three-dimensional quantitative molecular vibrational imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Hammoudi, Ahmad A.; Li, Fuhai; Thrall, Michael J.; Cagle, Philip T.; Chen, Yuanxin; Yang, Jian; Xia, Xiaofeng; Fan, Yubo; Massoud, Yehia; Wang, Zhiyong; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2012-06-01

    The advent of molecularly targeted therapies requires effective identification of the various cell types of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). Currently, cell type diagnosis is performed using small biopsies or cytology specimens that are often insufficient for molecular testing after morphologic analysis. Thus, the ability to rapidly recognize different cancer cell types, with minimal tissue consumption, would accelerate diagnosis and preserve tissue samples for subsequent molecular testing in targeted therapy. We report a label-free molecular vibrational imaging framework enabling three-dimensional (3-D) image acquisition and quantitative analysis of cellular structures for identification of NSCLC cell types. This diagnostic imaging system employs superpixel-based 3-D nuclear segmentation for extracting such disease-related features as nuclear shape, volume, and cell-cell distance. These features are used to characterize cancer cell types using machine learning. Using fresh unstained tissue samples derived from cell lines grown in a mouse model, the platform showed greater than 97% accuracy for diagnosis of NSCLC cell types within a few minutes. As an adjunct to subsequent histology tests, our novel system would allow fast delineation of cancer cell types with minimum tissue consumption, potentially facilitating on-the-spot diagnosis, while preserving specimens for additional tests. Furthermore, 3-D measurements of cellular structure permit evaluation closer to the native state of cells, creating an alternative to traditional 2-D histology specimen evaluation, potentially increasing accuracy in diagnosing cell type of lung carcinomas.

  11. Three-dimensional imaging of the developing mouse female reproductive organs with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Jason C.; Wang, Shang; Behringer, Richard R.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    Infertility is a known major health concern and is estimated to impact ~15% of couples in the U.S. The majority of failed pregnancies occur before or during implantation of the fertilized embryo into the uterus. Understanding the mechanisms regulating development by studying mouse reproductive organs could significantly contribute to an improved understanding of normal development of reproductive organs and developmental causes of infertility in humans. Towards this goal, we report a three-dimensional (3D) imaging study of the developing mouse reproductive organs (ovary, oviduct, and uterus) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). In our study, OCT was used for 3D imaging of reproductive organs without exogenous contrast agents and provides micro-scale spatial resolution. Experiments were conducted in vitro on mouse reproductive organs ranging from the embryonic day 14.5 to adult stages. Structural features of the ovary, oviduct, and uterus are presented. Additionally, a comparison with traditional histological analysis is illustrated. These results provide a basis for a wide range of infertility studies in mouse models. Through integration with traditional genetic and molecular biology approaches, this imaging method can improve understanding of ovary, oviduct, and uterus development and function, serving to further contribute to our understanding of fertility and infertility.

  12. Three-dimensional echo-planar cine imaging of cerebral blood supply using arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manoj; Mildner, Toralf; Schlumm, Torsten; Robertson, Scott Haile; Möller, Harald

    2016-12-01

    Echo-planar imaging (EPI) with CYlindrical Center-out spatiaL Encoding (EPICYCLE) is introduced as a novel hybrid three-dimensional (3D) EPI technique. Its suitability for the tracking of a short bolus created by pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) through the cerebral vasculature is demonstrated. EPICYCLE acquires two-dimensional planes of k-space along center-out trajectories. These "spokes" are rotated from shot to shot about a common axis to encode a k-space cylinder. To track a bolus of labeled blood, the same subset of evenly distributed spokes is acquired in a cine fashion after a short period of pCASL. This process is repeated for all subsets to fill the whole 3D k-space of each time frame. The passage of short pCASL boluses through the vasculature of a 3D imaging slab was successfully imaged using EPICYCLE. By choosing suitable sequence parameters, the impact of slab excitation on the bolus shape could be minimized. Parametric maps of signal amplitude, transit time, and bolus width reflected typical features of blood transport in large vessels. The EPICYCLE technique was successfully applied to track a short bolus of labeled arterial blood during its passage through the cerebral vasculature.

  13. Noninvasive three-dimensional live imaging methodology for the spindles at meiosis and mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing-gao; Huo, Tiancheng; Tian, Ning; Chen, Tianyuan; Wang, Chengming; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Fengying; Lu, Danyu; Chen, Dieyan; Ma, Wanyun; Sun, Jia-lin; Xue, Ping

    2013-05-01

    The spindle plays a crucial role in normal chromosome alignment and segregation during meiosis and mitosis. Studying spindles in living cells noninvasively is of great value in assisted reproduction technology (ART). Here, we present a novel spindle imaging methodology, full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). Without any dye labeling and fixation, we demonstrate the first successful application of FF-OCT to noninvasive three-dimensional (3-D) live imaging of the meiotic spindles within the mouse living oocytes at metaphase II as well as the mitotic spindles in the living zygotes at metaphase and telophase. By post-processing of the 3-D dataset obtained with FF-OCT, the important morphological and spatial parameters of the spindles, such as short and long axes, spatial localization, and the angle of meiotic spindle deviation from the first polar body in the oocyte were precisely measured with the spatial resolution of 0.7 μm. Our results reveal the potential of FF-OCT as an imaging tool capable of noninvasive 3-D live morphological analysis for spindles, which might be useful to ART related procedures and many other spindle related studies.

  14. Comparative analysis of facial morphology between Okinawa Islanders and mainland Japanese using three-dimensional images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazato, Eri; Yamaguchi, Kyoko; Fukase, Hitoshi; Ishida, Hajime; Kimura, Ryosuke

    2014-01-01

    Differences in facial height and breadth between Okinawa Islanders and mainland Japanese have been reported in previous craniometric and somatometric studies. This study using three-dimensional (3D) images aimed to identify more detailed characteristics of facial morphology in each population. Using a hand-held 3D scanner, we obtained 60 facial surface images each from Okinawa Islanders and mainland Japanese. Twenty-one landmarks were plotted on a computer and 27 measurements of distances and angles between the landmarks were taken. Statistical analyses such as t test, principal component analysis (PCA), regression analysis, and discriminant analysis were performed to identify sex and regional differences, the patterns of facial features, factors explaining the facial patterns, and other features. Okinawa Islanders showed lower facial and nasal heights than mainland Japanese. Furthermore, we identified larger protrusions of the glabella and nasal root in Okinawa Islanders than in mainland Japanese. In the PCA, we observed components of facial shape patterns. These components mainly represented facial size (PC1), facial depth (PC2), the prominence of the glabella and nasal root (PC3), and facial breadth (PC4). We identified that the population difference is strongly associated with PC3. This study quantitatively identified differences in the facial morphology between Okinawa Islanders and mainland Japanese using 3D digital images, with special emphases on the differences in the nasal height and the prominence of the glabella and nasal root. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Monitoring Prostate Tumor Growth in an Orthotopic Mouse Model Using Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (CaP is the most commonly diagnosed and the second leading cause of death from cancer in males in USA. Prostate orthotopic mouse model has been widely used to study human CaP in preclinical settings. Measurement of changes in tumor size obtained from noninvasive diagnostic images is a standard method for monitoring responses to anticancer modalities. This article reports for the first time the usage of a three-dimensional (3D ultrasound system equipped with photoacoustic (PA imaging in monitoring longitudinal prostate tumor growth in a PC-3 orthotopic NODSCID mouse model (n = 8. Two-dimensional and 3D modes of ultrasound show great ability in accurately depicting the size and shape of prostate tumors. PA function on two-dimensional and 3D images showed average oxygen saturation and average hemoglobin concentration of the tumor. Results showed a good fit in representative exponential tumor growth curves (n = 3; r2 = 0.948, 0.955, and 0.953, respectively and a good correlation of tumor volume measurements performed in vivo with autopsy (n = 8, r = 0.95, P < .001. The application of 3D ultrasound imaging proved to be a useful imaging modality in monitoring tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse model, with advantages such as high contrast, uncomplicated protocols, economical equipment, and nonharmfulness to animals. PA mode also enabled display of blood oxygenation surrounding the tumor and tumor vasculature and angiogenesis, making 3D ultrasound imaging an ideal tool for preclinical cancer research.

  16. Accuracy and precision of integumental linear dimensions in a three-dimensional facial imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hwan; Jung, Woo-Young; Seo, Yu-Jin; Kim, Kyung-A; Park, Ki-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objective A recently developed facial scanning method uses three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging with a light-emitting diode. Such scanning enables surface data to be captured in high-resolution color and at relatively fast speeds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and precision of 3D images obtained using the Morpheus 3D® scanner (Morpheus Co., Seoul, Korea). Methods The sample comprised 30 subjects aged 24-34 years (mean 29.0 ± 2.5 years). To test the correlation between direct and 3D image measurements, 21 landmarks were labeled on the face of each subject. Sixteen direct measurements were obtained twice using digital calipers; the same measurements were then made on two sets of 3D facial images. The mean values of measurements obtained from both methods were compared. To investigate the precision, a comparison was made between two sets of measurements taken with each method. Results When comparing the variables from both methods, five of the 16 possible anthropometric variables were found to be significantly different. However, in 12 of the 16 cases, the mean difference was under 1 mm. The average value of the differences for all variables was 0.75 mm. Precision was high in both methods, with error magnitudes under 0.5 mm. Conclusions 3D scanning images have high levels of precision and fairly good congruence with traditional anthropometry methods, with mean differences of less than 1 mm. 3D surface imaging using the Morpheus 3D® scanner is therefore a clinically acceptable method of recording facial integumental data. PMID:26023538

  17. The cisternal segment of the abducens nerve in man: three-dimensional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Alpay E-mail: aalkan@inonu.edu.tr; Sigirci, Ahmet; Ozveren, M. Faik; Kutlu, Ramazan; Altinok, Tayfun; Onal, Cagatay; Sarac, Kaya

    2004-09-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to identify the abducens nerve in its cisternal segment by using three-dimensional turbo spin echo T2-weighted image (3DT2-TSE). The abducens nerve may arise from the medullopontine sulcus by one singular or two separated rootlets. Material and methods: We studied 285 patients (150 males, 135 females, age range: 9-72 years, mean age: 33.3{+-}14.4) referred to MR imaging of the inner ear, internal auditory canal and brainstem. All 3D T2-TSE studies were performed with a 1.5 T MR system. Imaging parameters used for 3DT2-TSE sequence were TR:4000, TE:150, and 0.70 mm slice thickness. A field of view of 160 mm and 256x256 matrix were used. The double rootlets of the abducens nerve and contralateral abducens nerves and their relationships with anatomical structures were searched in the subarachnoid space. Results: We identified 540 of 570 abducens nerves (94.7%) in its complete cisternal course with certainty. Seventy-two cases (25.2%) in the present study had double rootlets of the abducens nerve. In 59 of these cases (34 on the right side and 25 on the left) presented with unilateral double rootlets of the abducens. Thirteen cases presented with bilateral double rootlets of the abducens (4.5%). Conclusion: An abducens nerve arising by two separate rootlets is not a rare variation. The detection of this anatomical variation by preoperative MR imaging is important to avoid partial damage of the nerve during surgical procedures. The 3DT2-TSE as a noninvasive technique makes it possible to obtain extremely high-quality images of microstructures as cranial nerves and surrounding vessels in the cerebellopontine cistern. Therefore, preoperative MR imaging should be performed to detect anatomical variations of abducens nerve and to reduce the chance of operative injuries.

  18. Three-dimensional image registration as a tool for forensic odontology: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar; Bennamoun, Mohammed

    2013-09-01

    Frequently, human dentition is utilized for victim identification. This report introduces a new human identification technique based on the principle of 3-dimensional (3D) image registration of the dentition. With the aid of a dry human skull, postmortem (PM) and antemortem (AM) scenarios were assumed. The skull in its initial state composed the PM scenario. Virtual 3D PM images were reconstructed from medical CT images. The AM scenario was achieved by reconstructing the missing hard and soft tissues of the skull by dental waxes. Virtual 3D AM images were obtained by laser surface scanning. The virtual PM and AM images were registered at 2 levels: arch level and tooth level. At arch level, the deviation between the 2 images was 0.147 mm for the maxilla and 0.166 mm for the mandible. At tooth level, the deviation average ranged from 0.077 to 0.237 mm. Qualitatively, even image fit was observed for the arches, intact teeth, and teeth with minimal deficiencies. As the tooth defect increased, the alignment discrepancy increased. It is concluded that 3D image registration ensured an accurate superimposition of the 3D images and can be used as a robust tool for forensic identification.

  19. Three-dimensional reconstructions come to life--interactive 3D PDF animations in functional morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas van de Kamp

    Full Text Available Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements due to precise form closure. We illustrate the function of an individual screw-and-nut type hip joint and proceed to the complex movements of the entire insect attaining a defence position. This posture is achieved by a specific cascade of movements: Head and legs interlock mutually and with specific features of thorax and the first abdominal ventrite, presumably to increase the mechanical stability of the beetle and to maintain the defence position with minimal muscle activity. The deterministic interaction of accurately fitting body parts follows a defined sequence, which resembles a piece of engineering.

  20. Depth Perception and the History of Three-Dimensional Art: Who Produced the First Stereoscopic Images?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kevin R

    2017-01-01

    The history of the expression of three-dimensional structure in art can be traced from the use of occlusion in Palaeolithic cave paintings, through the use of shadow in classical art, to the development of perspective during the Renaissance. However, the history of the use of stereoscopic techniques is controversial. Although the first undisputed stereoscopic images were presented by Wheatstone in 1838, it has been claimed that two sketches by Jacopo Chimenti da Empoli (c. 1600) can be to be fused to yield an impression of stereoscopic depth, while others suggest that Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa is the world's first stereogram. Here, we report the first quantitative study of perceived depth in these works, in addition to more recent works by Salvador Dalí. To control for the contribution of monocular depth cues, ratings of the magnitude and coherence of depth were recorded for both stereoscopic and pseudoscopic presentations, with a genuine contribution of stereoscopic cues revealed by a difference between these scores. Although effects were clear for Wheatstone and Dalí's images, no such effects could be found for works produced earlier. As such, we have no evidence to reject the conventional view that the first producer of stereoscopic imagery was Sir Charles Wheatstone.

  1. Three-dimensional textural analysis of brain images reveals distributed grey-matter abnormalities in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeshan, Balaji [University of Sussex, Falmer, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); University of Sussex, Falmer, Department of Engineering and Design, Brighton (United Kingdom); Miles, Kenneth A.; Critchley, Hugo D. [University of Sussex, Falmer, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Young, Rupert C.D.; Chatwin, Christopher R. [University of Sussex, Falmer, Department of Engineering and Design, Brighton (United Kingdom); Gurling, Hugh M.D. [University College London, Department of Mental Health Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Three-dimensional (3-D) selective- and relative-scale texture analysis (TA) was applied to structural magnetic resonance (MR) brain images to quantify the presence of grey-matter (GM) and white-matter (WM) textural abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. Brain TA comprised volume filtration using the Laplacian of Gaussian filter to highlight fine, medium and coarse textures within GM and WM, followed by texture quantification. Relative TA (e.g. ratio of fine to medium) was also computed. T1-weighted MR whole-brain images from 32 participants with diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 22) were examined. Five patients possessed marker alleles (SZ8) associated with schizophrenia on chromosome 8 in the pericentriolar material 1 gene while the remaining five had not inherited any of the alleles (SZ0). Filtered fine GM texture (mean grey-level intensity; MGI) most significantly differentiated schizophrenic patients from controls (P = 0.0058; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.809, sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 70%). WM measurements did not distinguish the two groups. Filtered GM and WM textures (MGI) correlated with total GM and WM volume respectively. Medium-to-coarse GM entropy distinguished SZ0 from controls (P = 0.0069) while measures from SZ8 were intermediate between the two. 3-D TA of brain MR enables detection of subtle distributed morphological features associated with schizophrenia, determined partly by susceptibility genes. (orig.)

  2. Three-dimensional textural analysis of brain images reveals distributed grey-matter abnormalities in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeshan, Balaji; Miles, Kenneth A.; Critchley, Hugo D.; Young, Rupert C.D.; Chatwin, Christopher R.; Gurling, Hugh M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) selective- and relative-scale texture analysis (TA) was applied to structural magnetic resonance (MR) brain images to quantify the presence of grey-matter (GM) and white-matter (WM) textural abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. Brain TA comprised volume filtration using the Laplacian of Gaussian filter to highlight fine, medium and coarse textures within GM and WM, followed by texture quantification. Relative TA (e.g. ratio of fine to medium) was also computed. T1-weighted MR whole-brain images from 32 participants with diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 22) were examined. Five patients possessed marker alleles (SZ8) associated with schizophrenia on chromosome 8 in the pericentriolar material 1 gene while the remaining five had not inherited any of the alleles (SZ0). Filtered fine GM texture (mean grey-level intensity; MGI) most significantly differentiated schizophrenic patients from controls (P = 0.0058; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.809, sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 70%). WM measurements did not distinguish the two groups. Filtered GM and WM textures (MGI) correlated with total GM and WM volume respectively. Medium-to-coarse GM entropy distinguished SZ0 from controls (P = 0.0069) while measures from SZ8 were intermediate between the two. 3-D TA of brain MR enables detection of subtle distributed morphological features associated with schizophrenia, determined partly by susceptibility genes. (orig.)

  3. Three-dimensional imaging of vortex structure in a ferroelectric nanoparticle driven by an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, D; Liu, Z; Rolo, T Dos Santos; Harder, R; Balachandran, P V; Xue, D; Lookman, T; Fohtung, E

    2017-08-17

    Topologic