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Sample records for thin-film pzt capacitors

  1. Effect of ultraviolet light on fatigue of lead zirconate titanate thin-film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Esayan, S.; Safari, A.; Ramesh, R.

    1994-07-01

    Fatigue of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin-film capacitors was studied under UV light (He-Cd laser, λ=325 nm). The remanent polarization of the PZT film capacitors increased upon light illumination. Fatigue resistance was also improved under UV light. During fatigue test, the change in polarization of PZT films upon UV light illumination increased gradually with cycling. These results were examined within the framework of the polarization screening model, which is suggested as an essential process for fatigue. This leads to a conclusion that more charged defects are involved in the fatigue process through internal screening of polarization.

  2. Interaction between depolarization effects, interface layer, and fatigue behavior in PZT thin film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, U.; Waser, R.

    2017-07-01

    The existence of non-ferroelectric regions in ferroelectric thin films evokes depolarization effects leading to a tilt of the P(E) hysteresis loop. The analysis of measured hysteresis of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films is used to determine a depolarization factor which contains quantitative information about interfacial layers as well as ferroelectrically passive zones in the bulk. The derived interfacial capacitance is smaller than that estimated from conventional extrapolation techniques. In addition, the concept of depolarization is used for the investigation of fatigue behavior of PZT thin films indicating that the mechanism of seed inhibition, which is responsible for the effect, occurs in the entire film.

  3. Dielectric response of capacitor structures based on PZT annealed at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenshchikov, Mikhail V., E-mail: Mikhailkamenshchikov@yandex.ru [Tver State University, 170002, Tver (Russian Federation); Solnyshkin, Alexander V. [Tver State University, 170002, Tver (Russian Federation); Pronin, Igor P. [Ioffe Institute, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-09

    Highlights: • Correlation of the microstructure of PZT films and dielectric response was found. • Difference of dielectric responses under low and high bias is caused by domains. • Internal fields is discussed on the basis of the space charges. • Dependences of PZT films characteristics on synthesis temperature are extremal. - Abstract: Dielectric response of thin-film capacitor structures of Pt/PZT/Pt deposited by the RF magnetron sputtering method and annealed at temperatures of 540–570 °C was investigated. It was found that dielectric properties of these structures depend on the synthesis temperature. Stability of a polarized state is considered on the basis of the analysis of hysteresis loops and capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics. The contribution of the domain mechanism in the dielectric response of the capacitor structure comprising a ferroelectric is discussed. Extreme dependences of electrophysical characteristics of PZT films on their synthesis temperature were observed. Correlation of dielectric properties with microstructure of these films is found out.

  4. PZT Thin-Film Micro Probe Device with Dual Top Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chuan

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-film actuators have been studied intensively for years because of their potential applications in many fields. In this dissertation, a PZT thin-film micro probe device is designed, fabricated, studied, and proven to be acceptable as an intracochlear acoustic actuator. The micro probe device takes the form of a cantilever with a PZT thin-film diaphragm at the tip of the probe. The tip portion of the probe will be implanted in cochlea later in animal tests to prove its feasibility in hearing rehabilitation. The contribution of the dissertation is three-fold. First, a dual top electrodes design, consisting of a center electrode and an outer electrode, is developed to improve actuation displacement of the PZT thin-film diaphragm. The improvement by the dual top electrodes design is studied via a finite element model. When the dimensions of the dual electrodes are optimized, the displacement of the PZT thin-film diaphragm increases about 30%. A PZT thin-film diaphragm with dual top electrodes is fabricated to prove the concept, and experimental results confirm the predictions from the finite element analyses. Moreover, the dual electrode design can accommodate presence of significant residual stresses in the PZT thin-film diaphragm by changing the phase difference between the two electrodes. Second, a PZT thin-film micro probe device is fabricated and tested. The fabrication process consists of PZT thin-film deposition and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The uniqueness of the fabrication process is an automatic dicing mechanism that allows a large number of probes to be released easily from the wafer. Moreover, the fabrication is very efficient, because the DRIE process will form the PZT thin-film diaphragm and the special dicing mechanism simultaneously. After the probes are fabricated, they are tested with various possible implantation depths (i.e., boundary conditions). Experimental results show that future implantation depths

  5. Properties of RF-Sputtered PZT Thin Films with Ti/Pt Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of annealing temperature and thin film thickness on properties of Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47O3 (PZT thin film deposited via radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique onto Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate was investigated. Average grain sizes of the PZT thin film were measured by atomic force microscope; their preferred orientation was studied through X-ray diffraction analysis. Average residual stress in the thin film was estimated according to the optimized Stoney formula, and impedance spectroscopy characterization was performed via an intelligent LCR measuring instrument. Average grain sizes of PZT thin films were 60 nm~90 nm and their average roughness was less than 2 nm. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, 600°C is the optimal annealing temperature to obtain the PZT thin film with better crystallization. Average residual stress showed that thermal mismatch was the decisive factor of residual stress in Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate; the residual stress in PZT thin film decreased as their thickness increased and increased with annealing temperature. The dielectric constant and loss angle tangent were extremely increased with the thickness of PZT thin films. The capacitance of the device can be adjusted according to the thickness of PZT thin films.

  6. Optimization of the low-temperature MOCVD process for PZT thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, C H; Choi, D J

    2000-01-01

    Pb(Zr sub X Ti sub 1 sub - sub X)O sub 3 (PZT) thin films of about 0.34 nm were successfully grown at a low temperature of 500 .deg. C by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition with a beta-diketonate complex of Pb(tmhd) sub 2 , zirconium t-butoxide, and titanium isopropoxide as source precursors. Ferroelectric capacitors of a Pt/PZT/Pt configuration were fabricated, and their structural and electrical properties were investigated as a function of the input Pb/(Zr+Ti) and Zr/(Zr+Ti) source ratios. The structure of the as-grown films at 500 .deg. C changed from tetragonal to pseudocubic with increasing the Zr/(Zr+Ti) ratio above an input Pb/(Zr+Ti) source ratio of 5.0 while a 2nd phase of ZrO sub 2 was only observed below Pb/(Zr+Ti) ratio of 5.0, regardless of the Zr/(Zr+Ti) ratio. The dielectric constant and loss of the PZT films were 150-1200 and 0.01-0.04 at 100 kHz, respectively, Leakage current densities decreased with increasing the Zr/(Zr+Ti) ratio. The process window for growing a single phase PZT is ve...

  7. Structure and properties of PZT thin films on strontium ruthenate and calcium ruthenate electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.-J.; Tsai, D.-S.

    2004-01-01

    PZT thin films have been prepared via metalorganic CVD (MOCVD) on four substrates of conducting oxides of ruthenates, SrRuO 3 /Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si(1 0 0), SrRuO 3 /SiO 2 /Si(1 0 0), CaRuO 3 /Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si(1 0 0), CaRuO 3 /SiO 2 /Si(1 0 0). The conducting ruthenate layers were also grown using MOCVD. Ferroelectric properties of polarization fatigue and leakage current density are measured. The internal strain of PZT thin crystal which is mainly constrained by the bottom electrode seems to be the decisive factor in ferroelectric properties. The internal strain of PZT is represented by its tetragonality ratio. The PZT thin film in the capacitor Au/PZT/SrRuO 3 /Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si, with the largest tetragonality ratio 1.026, exhibits an optimum combination of large polarization, less fatigue, and low leakage current density. Both SrRuO 3 and CaRuO 3 are good diffusion barriers to prevent interdiffusion of cations between the ferroelectric and the electrode. The slightly higher intermixing at the CaRuO 3 -to-Pt/Ti interface is owing to the high annealing temperature needed in CaRuO 3 synthesis

  8. Total-dose radiation-induced degradation of thin film ferroelectric capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwank, J.R.; Nasby, R.D.; Miller, S.L.; Rodgers, M.S.; Dressendorfer, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    Thin film PbZr y Ti 1-y O 3 (PZT) ferroelectric memories offer the potential for radiation-hardened, high-speed nonvolatile memories with good retention and fatigue properties. In this paper we explore in detail the radiation hardness of PZT ferroelectric capacitors. Ferroelectric capacitors were irradiated using x-ray and Co-60 sources to dose levels up to 16 Mrad(Si). The capacitors were characterized for their memory properties both before and after irradiation. The radiation hardness was process dependent. Three out of four processes resulted in capacitors that showed less than 30% radiation-induced degradation in retained polarization charge and remanent polarization after irradiating to 16 Mrad(Si). On the other hand, one of the processes showed significant radiation-induced degradation in retained polarization charge and remanent polarization at dose levels above 1 Mrad(Si). The decrease in retained polarization charge appears to be due to an alteration of the switching characteristics of the ferroelectric due to changes in the internal fields. The radiation-induced degradation is recoverable by a postirradiation biased anneal and can be prevented entirely if devices are cycled during irradiation. The authors have developed a model to simulate the observed degradation

  9. Microscopic local fatigue in PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B S; Wu, A; Vilarinho, P M

    2007-01-01

    The reduction in switchable polarization during fatigue largely limits the application of PZT thin films in ferroelectric nonvolatile memories. So, it is very important to understand the fatigue mechanism in PZT films, especially at a nanoscale level. In this paper, nanoscale fatigue properties in PZT thin films have been studied by piezoresponse force microscopy and local piezoloops. It has been found that a piezoloop obtained on a fatigued point exhibits a much more pinched shape and a local imprint phenomenon is observed after severe fatigue. Furthermore, the domain structure evolves from a simple single-peak profile to a complex fluctuant one. However, there is only some shift of the piezoloop when a unipolar field with the same amplitude is applied on the film. The available experimental data show that there exist obvious domain wall pinning and injection of electrons into the film during fatigue. Finally, a schematic illustration is suggested to explain the possible fatigue mechanism

  10. Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi-Il; Son, Jung Hwan; Hwang, Geon-Tae; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Ryu, Jungho; Koo, Min; Choi, Insung; Lee, Seung Hyun; Byun, Myunghwan; Wang, Zhong Lin; Lee, Keon Jae

    2014-04-23

    A highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator is demonstrated using a laser lift-off (LLO) process. The PZT thin film nanogenerator harvests the highest output performance of ∼200 V and ∼150 μA·cm(-2) from regular bending motions. Furthermore, power sources generated from a PZT thin film nanogenerator, driven by slight human finger bending motions, successfully operate over 100 LEDs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Nonlinear current-voltage behavior in PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Mi; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Zebin; Li, Shida; Zhang, Ping; Lan, Kuibo [Tianjin University, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin (China)

    2017-05-15

    In this paper, Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films were prepared by sol-gel synthesis and characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and current-voltage measurements. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to the outstanding ferroelectric and dielectric properties, the PZT films also have remarkably nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. Considering the contact of semi-conductive grains in the PZT films, a double Schottky barrier (DSB) model may be responsible for such phenomena. The test results show that with the decrease of annealing temperature and the increase of the film thickness, the threshold voltages (V{sub th}) increase obviously. The maximum V{sub th} value of 60.95 V and the minimum value of 6.9 V in our experiments were obtained from the five-layered samples annealed at 600 C and the two-layered samples annealed at 700 C, respectively. As a result, PZT thin film may lead to efficient switching and sensing devices. (orig.)

  12. Thin PZT-Based Ferroelectric Capacitors on Flexible Silicon for Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-04-24

    A flexible version of traditional thin lead zirconium titanate ((Pb1.1Zr0.48Ti0.52O3)-(PZT)) based ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) on silicon shows record performance in flexible arena. The thin PZT layer requires lower operational voltages to achieve coercive electric fields, reduces the sol-gel coating cycles required (i.e., more cost-effective), and, fabrication wise, is more suitable for further scaling of lateral dimensions to the nano-scale due to the larger feature size-to-depth aspect ratio (critical for ultra-high density non-volatile memory applications). Utilizing the inverse proportionality between substrate\\'s thickness and its flexibility, traditional PZT based FeRAM on silicon is transformed through a transfer-less manufacturable process into a flexible form that matches organic electronics\\' flexibility while preserving the superior performance of silicon CMOS electronics. Each memory cell in a FeRAM array consists of two main elements; a select/access transistor, and a storage ferroelectric capacitor. Flexible transistors on silicon have already been reported. In this work, we focus on the storage ferroelectric capacitors, and report, for the first time, its performance after transformation into a flexible version, and assess its key memory parameters while bent at 0.5 cm minimum bending radius.

  13. Effects of the top-electrode preparation method on the ferroelectric properties of Pt/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/Pt thin film capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Gu; Lee, Jae Gab; Kim, Sun Jae

    2006-01-01

    The deformation in the hysteresis loop of Pt/PZT/Pt thin-film capacitors due to deposition and patterning of the top electrode has been investigated. The PZT film was aged during the deposition of the top electrode and was positively poled during reactive ion etching (RIE). The PZT film having sputtered top electrode was very sensitive to the RIE process. The film with a thinner top electrode showed less initial switching polarization due to less compressive stress, but better fatigue characteristics due to an enhanced partial-switching region.

  14. Dielectric and acoustical high frequency characterisation of PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, Janine; Muralt, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 (PZT) is an interesting material for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications due to its high electromechanical coupling constant, which would enable fabrication of large bandwidth frequency filters. The major challenge of the PZT solid solution system is to overcome mechanical losses generally observed in PZT ceramics. To increase the understanding of these losses in textured thin films, thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBAR's) based on PZT thin films with compositions either in the tetragonal region or at the morphotropic phase boundary and (111) or {100} textures were fabricated and studied up to 2 GHz. The dielectric and elastic materials coefficients were extracted from impedance measurements at the resonance frequency. The dispersion of the dielectric constant was obtained from impedance measurements up to 2 GHz. The films with varying compositions, textures and deposition methods (sol-gel or sputtering) were compared in terms of dielectric and acoustical properties.

  15. Dielectric and acoustical high frequency characterisation of PZT thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Janine; Muralt, Paul

    2010-02-01

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) is an interesting material for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications due to its high electromechanical coupling constant, which would enable fabrication of large bandwidth frequency filters. The major challenge of the PZT solid solution system is to overcome mechanical losses generally observed in PZT ceramics. To increase the understanding of these losses in textured thin films, thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBAR's) based on PZT thin films with compositions either in the tetragonal region or at the morphotropic phase boundary and (111) or {100} textures were fabricated and studied up to 2 GHz. The dielectric and elastic materials coefficients were extracted from impedance measurements at the resonance frequency. The dispersion of the dielectric constant was obtained from impedance measurements up to 2 GHz. The films with varying compositions, textures and deposition methods (sol-gel or sputtering) were compared in terms of dielectric and acoustical properties.

  16. Comparison of the Thermal Degradation of Heavily Nb-Doped and Normal PZT Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong-Suong; Kang, YunSung; Kang, Inyoung; Lim, SeungMo; Shin, Seung-Joo; Lee, JungWon; Hur, Kang Heon

    2017-03-01

    The degradation of niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and two types of PZT thin films were investigated. Undoped PZT, two-step PZT, and heavily Nb-doped PZT (PNZT) around the morphotropic phase boundary were in situ deposited under optimum condition by RF-magnetron sputtering. All 2- [Formula: see text]-thick films had dense perovskite columnar grain structure and self-polarized (100) dominant orientation. PZT thin films were deposited on Pt/TiO x bottom electrode on Si wafer, and PNZT thin film was on Ir/TiW electrode with the help of orientation control. Sputtered PZT films formed on microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope and the degradation rates were compared at different temperatures. PNZT showed the best resistance to the thermal degradation, followed by two-step PZT. To clarify the effect of oxygen vacancies on the degradation of the film at high temperature, photoluminescence measurement was conducted, which confirmed that oxygen vacancy rate was the lowest in heavy PNZT. Nb-doping PZT thin films suppressed the oxygen deficit and made high imprint with self-polarization. This defect distribution and high internal field allowed PNZT thin film to make the piezoelectric sensors more stable and reliable at high temperature, such as reflow process of MEMS packaging.

  17. Dielectric and acoustical high frequency characterisation of PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, Janine; Muralt, Paul, E-mail: janine.conde@epfl.ch [Department of Materials Science, EPFL (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) is an interesting material for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications due to its high electromechanical coupling constant, which would enable fabrication of large bandwidth frequency filters. The major challenge of the PZT solid solution system is to overcome mechanical losses generally observed in PZT ceramics. To increase the understanding of these losses in textured thin films, thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBAR's) based on PZT thin films with compositions either in the tetragonal region or at the morphotropic phase boundary and (111) or {l_brace}100{r_brace} textures were fabricated and studied up to 2 GHz. The dielectric and elastic materials coefficients were extracted from impedance measurements at the resonance frequency. The dispersion of the dielectric constant was obtained from impedance measurements up to 2 GHz. The films with varying compositions, textures and deposition methods (sol-gel or sputtering) were compared in terms of dielectric and acoustical properties.

  18. Flexible PZT Thin Film Tactile Sensor for Biomedical Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jong Wu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of tactile sensors using the sol-gel process to deposit a PZT thin-film from 250 nm to 1 μm on a flexible stainless steel substrate. The PZT thin-film tactile sensor can be used to measure human pulses from several areas, including carotid, brachial, finger, ankle, radial artery, and the apical region. Flexible PZT tactile sensors can overcome the diverse topology of various human regions and sense the corresponding signals from human bodies. The measured arterial pulse waveform can be used to diagnose hypertension and cardiac failure in patients. The proposed sensors have several advantages, such as flexibility, reliability, high strain, low cost, simple fabrication, and low temperature processing. The PZT thin-film deposition process includes a pyrolysis process at 150 °C/500 °C for 10/5 min, followed by an annealing process at 650 °C for 10 min. Finally, the consistent pulse wave velocity (PWV was demonstrated based on human pulse measurements from apical to radial, brachial to radial, and radial to ankle. It is characterized that the sensitivity of our PZT-based tactile sensor was approximately 0.798 mV/g.

  19. Flexible PZT thin film tactile sensor for biomedical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hong-Jie; Tian, Wei-Cheng; Wu, Wen-Jong

    2013-04-25

    This paper presents the development of tactile sensors using the sol-gel process to deposit a PZT thin-film from 250 nm to 1 μm on a flexible stainless steel substrate. The PZT thin-film tactile sensor can be used to measure human pulses from several areas, including carotid, brachial, finger, ankle, radial artery, and the apical region. Flexible PZT tactile sensors can overcome the diverse topology of various human regions and sense the corresponding signals from human bodies. The measured arterial pulse waveform can be used to diagnose hypertension and cardiac failure in patients. The proposed sensors have several advantages, such as flexibility, reliability, high strain, low cost, simple fabrication, and low temperature processing. The PZT thin-film deposition process includes a pyrolysis process at 150 °C/500 °C for 10/5 min, followed by an annealing process at 650 °C for 10 min. Finally, the consistent pulse wave velocity (PWV) was demonstrated based on human pulse measurements from apical to radial, brachial to radial, and radial to ankle. It is characterized that the sensitivity of our PZT-based tactile sensor was approximately 0.798 mV/g.

  20. Fabrication and properties of SmFe2-PZT magnetoelectric thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Giouroudi, Ioanna

    2013-05-17

    Magnetoelectric (ME) thin film composites are attracting a continually increasing interest due to their unique features and potential applications in multifunctional microdevices and integrated units such as sensors, actuators and energy harvesting modules. By combining piezoelectric and highly magnetostrictive thin films, the potentialities of these materials increase. In this paper we report the fabrication of SmFe2 and PZT thin films and the investigation of their properties. First of all, a ~ 400 nm thin SmFe film was deposited on top of Si/SiO2 substrate by magnetron sputter deposition. Afterwards, a 140 nm Pt bottom electrode was sputtered on top of the SmFe film forming a bottom electrode. Spin coating was employed for the deposition of the 150 nm thin PZT layer. A PZT solution with 10 %Pb excess was utilized for this fabrication step. Finally, circular Pt top electrodes were sputtered as top electrodes. This paper focuses on the microstructure of the individual films characterized by X-Ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A piezoelectric evaluation system, aixPES, with TF2000E analyzer component was used for the electric hysteresis measurements of PZT thin films and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) was employed for the magnetic characterization of the SmFe. The developed thin films and the fabricated double layer SmFe-PZT exhibit both good ferromagnetic and piezoelectric responses which predict a promising ME composite structure. The quantitative chemical composition of the samples was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  1. Fabrication and properties of SmFe2-PZT magnetoelectric thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Giouroudi, Ioanna; Alnassar, Mohammed; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) thin film composites are attracting a continually increasing interest due to their unique features and potential applications in multifunctional microdevices and integrated units such as sensors, actuators and energy harvesting modules. By combining piezoelectric and highly magnetostrictive thin films, the potentialities of these materials increase. In this paper we report the fabrication of SmFe2 and PZT thin films and the investigation of their properties. First of all, a ~ 400 nm thin SmFe film was deposited on top of Si/SiO2 substrate by magnetron sputter deposition. Afterwards, a 140 nm Pt bottom electrode was sputtered on top of the SmFe film forming a bottom electrode. Spin coating was employed for the deposition of the 150 nm thin PZT layer. A PZT solution with 10 %Pb excess was utilized for this fabrication step. Finally, circular Pt top electrodes were sputtered as top electrodes. This paper focuses on the microstructure of the individual films characterized by X-Ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A piezoelectric evaluation system, aixPES, with TF2000E analyzer component was used for the electric hysteresis measurements of PZT thin films and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) was employed for the magnetic characterization of the SmFe. The developed thin films and the fabricated double layer SmFe-PZT exhibit both good ferromagnetic and piezoelectric responses which predict a promising ME composite structure. The quantitative chemical composition of the samples was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  2. Ferroelectric properties of PZT/BFO multilayer thin films prepared using the sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Lee, Sung-Gap; Lee, Young-Hie

    2012-01-05

    In this study, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/BiFeO3 [PZT/BFO] multilayer thin films were fabricated using the spin-coating method on a Pt(200 nm)/Ti(10 nm)/SiO2(100 nm)/p-Si(100) substrate alternately using BFO and PZT metal alkoxide solutions. The coating-and-heating procedure was repeated several times to form the multilayer thin films. All PZT/BFO multilayer thin films show a void-free, uniform grain structure without the presence of rosette structures. The relative dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the six-coated PZT/BFO [PZT/BFO-6] thin film were approximately 405 and 0.03%, respectively. As the number of coatings increased, the remanent polarization and coercive field increased. The values for the BFO-6 multilayer thin film were 41.3 C/cm2 and 15.1 MV/cm, respectively. The leakage current density of the BFO-6 multilayer thin film at 5 V was 2.52 × 10-7 A/cm2.

  3. Effects of Mn doping on the ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qi

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Mn doping on the ferroelectric properties of Pb(Zr 0.3 Ti 0.7 )O 3 (PZT) thin films on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates have been investigated. The composition of the PZT and Mn doping level are Pb(Zr 0.3 Ti 0.7 ) 1-x Mn x O 3 (x = 0,0.2,0.5,1,2,4 mol%). The PZT thin films doped with a small amount of Mn 2+ (x ≤ 1) showed almost no hysteretic fatigue up to 10 10 switching bipolar pulse cycles, coupled with excellent retention properties. However, excessive additions of manganese made the fatigue behaviour worse. We propose that the addition of small amounts of Mn is able to reduce the oxygen vacancy concentration due to the combination of Mn 2+ and oxygen vacancies in PZT films, forming Mn 4+ ions. The interfacial layer between the Pt electrode and PZT films and Mn-doped PZT (x = 4) was detected by measuring the dielectric constant of thin films of different thickness. However, this interfacial layer was not detected in Mn-doped PZT (x = 1). These observations support the concept of the preferential electromigration of oxygen vacancies into sites in planes parallel to the electrodes, which is probably responsible for the hysteretic fatigue

  4. Process induced poling and plasma induced damage of thin films PZT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Houwman, Evert Pieter; Salm, Cora; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Vergeer, Kurt; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2017-01-01

    This paper treats processing sequence induced changes on PZT. Two kinds of metal-PZT-metal capacitors are compared. The top surface and sidewall of PZT in one kind of capacitor is directly bombarded by energetic particles during ion milling process, whereas PZT in the other kind of capacitor is not.

  5. PZT Thin Film Piezoelectric Traveling Wave Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dexin; Zhang, Baoan; Yang, Genqing; Jiao, Jiwei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Weiyuan

    1995-01-01

    With the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), its various applications are attracting more and more attention. Among MEMS, micro motors, electrostatic and electromagnetic, are the typical and important ones. As an alternative approach, the piezoelectric traveling wave micro motor, based on thin film material and integrated circuit technologies, circumvents many of the drawbacks of the above mentioned two types of motors and displays distinct advantages. In this paper we report on a lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric thin film traveling wave motor. The PZT film with a thickness of 150 micrometers and a diameter of 8 mm was first deposited onto a metal substrate as the stator material. Then, eight sections were patterned to form the stator electrodes. The rotor had an 8 kHz frequency power supply. The rotation speed of the motor is 100 rpm. The relationship of the friction between the stator and the rotor and the structure of the rotor on rotation were also studied.

  6. Sputtered highly oriented PZT thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpat, Sriram S.

    Recently there has been an explosion of interest in the field of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). MEMS device technology has become critical in the growth of various fields like medical, automotive, chemical, and space technology. Among the many applications of ferroelectric thin films in MEMS devices, microfluidics is a field that has drawn considerable amount of research from bio-technology industries as well as chemical and semiconductor manufacturing industries. PZT thin films have been identified as best suited materials for micro-actuators and micro-sensors used in MEMS devices. A promising application for piezoelectric thin film based MEMS devices is disposable drug delivery systems that are capable of sensing biological parameters, mixing and delivering minute and precise amounts of drugs using micro-pumps or micro mixers. These devices call for low driving voltages, so that they can be battery operated. Improving the performance of the actuator material is critical in achieving battery operated disposal drug delivery systems. The device geometry and power consumption in MEMS devices largely depends upon the piezoelectric constant of the films, since they are most commonly used to convert electrical energy into a mechanical response of a membrane or cantilever and vice versa. Phenomenological calculation on the crystal orientation dependence of piezoelectric coefficients for PZT single crystal have reported a significant enhancement of the piezoelectric d33 constant by more than 3 times along [001] in the rhombohedral phase as compared to the conventionally used orientation PZT(111) since [111] is the along the spontaneous polarization direction. This could mean considerable improvement in the MEMS device performance and help drive the operating voltages lower. The motivation of this study is to investigate the crystal orientation dependence of both dielectric and piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films in order to select the appropriate

  7. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  8. Characterization of PZT thin films on metal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutschke, A.

    2008-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PbZr x Ti 1-x O 3 ,PZT) is one of the most applied ceramic materials because of its distinctive piezo- and ferroelectric properties. Prepared as thin films on flexible, metallic substrates it can be used for various applications as strain gauges, key switches, vibration dampers, microactuators and ultrasonic transducers. The aim of this work is to analyze the microstructure and the phase-content of PZT-thin films deposited on temperature- und acid-resistant hastelloy-sheets, to correlate the results with the ferroelectric and dielectric properties. It is demonstrated, that the specific variation of the microstructure can be achieved by different thermal treatments and the selective addition of Neodymium as dopant. Nd-doping leads to a shift of the maximum nucleation rate towards reduced temperatures and a decrease in the rate of growth compared to undoped films. The PZT-films are prepared by a sol-gel-process in fourfold multilayers with a composition near the morphotropic phase boundary, where the tetragonal und rhombohedral perovskite-phases coexist. The crystallisation in Nd-doped and undoped films takes place heterogeneously, preferentially at the interfaces and on the surface of the multilayered films as well as on the inner surface of pores within the films. For the first time, the Zr:Ti fluctuation phenomena emerging in sol-gel derived PZT films is related to the microstructure and the local phase content on a nanometer scale. In this connection it is proved, that long-distance Zr:Ti gradients arise preferentially before and during the crystallisation of the pyrochlore phase. During the following crystallisation of the perovskite phase, the crystallites grow across these gradients without modifying them. It is pointed out that the fluctuation in the Zr:Ti ratio has only minor influence on the amount of the tetragonal or rhombohedral distortion of the crystallites after the transition from the para- to the ferroelectric state due to

  9. Multiscale numerical study on ferroelectric nonlinear response of PZT thin films (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroki; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi

    2017-06-01

    PZT thin films have excellent performance in deformation precision and response speed, so it is used widely for actuators and sensors of Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS). Although PZT thin films outputs large piezoelectricity at morphotropic phase bounfary (MPB), it shows a complicated hysteresis behavior caused by domain switching and structural phase transition between tetragonal and rhombohedral. In general, PZT thin films have some characteristic crystal morphologies. Additionally mechanical strains occur by lattice mismatch with substrate. Therefore it is important for fabrication and performance improvement of PZT thin films to understand the relation between macroscopic hysteresis response and microstructural changes. In this study, a multiscale nonlinear finite element simulation was proposed for PZT thin films at morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) on the substrate. The homogenization theory was employed for scale-bridging between macrostructure and microstructure. Figure 1 shows the proposed multiscale nonlinear simulation [1-3] based on the homogenization theory. Macrostructure is a homogeneous structure to catch the whole behaviors of actuators and sensors. And microstructure is a periodic inhomogeneous structure consisting of domains and grains. Macrostructure and microstructure are connected perfectly by homogenization theory and are analyzed by finite element method. We utilized an incremental form of fundamental constitutive law in consideration with physical property change caused by domain switching and structural phase transition. The developed multiscale finite element method was applied to PZT thin films with lattice mismatch strain on the substrate, and the relation between the macroscopic hysteresis response and microscopic domain switching and structural phase transition were investigated. Especially, we discuss about the effect of crystal morphologies and lattice mismatch strain on hysteresis response.

  10. Preparation of PZT thin films on YBCO electrodes by KrF excimer laser ablation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurogi, H.; Yamagata, Y.; Ebihara, K.

    1998-01-01

    Pb(Zr X Ti 1-X )O 3 (PZT) films have excellent ferroelectric, optical, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric properties. We prepared PZT thin films by the excimer laser ablation technique. A pulsed KrF excimer laser (Lambda Physik LPX305icc, pulse duration of 25 ns, λ=248 nm, 850 mJ Max.) was used to ablate the bulk targets. We investigated the influence of bottom electrode materials on the characteristics of the PZT thin films prepared on Pt and YBCO underlayers. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the PZT films prepared with a laser fluence of 2 Jcm -2 on YBCO/MgO(100) substrate at a wide temperature range of 550-680 C have a perovskite (001) structure. At the same laser fluence, the PZT films prepared on Pt/MgO(100) substrate have a perovskite (001) structure only at 650 C. The polarization-electric field (P-E) characteristics and fatigue properties of PZT thin films were measured by the Sawyer-Tower circuit. The remnant polarization and coercive field have been found to be P r =15 μC cm -2 , 30 μC cm -2 and E c =200 kV cm -1 , 100 kV cm -1 for Au/PZT/Pt/MgO and Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO correspondingly. The remnant polarization of Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO thin film was reduced to one-half after about 10 8 cycles of switching. (orig.)

  11. Structure and electrical properties of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 deposited on textured Pt thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jongin; Song, Han Wook; Lee, Hee Chul; Lee, Won Jong; No, Kwangsoo

    2001-01-01

    The texturing of the bottom electrode plays a key role in the structure and electrical properties of Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) thin films. We fabricated Pt bottom electrodes having a different thickness on MgO single crystals at 600 o C by rf magnetron sputtering. As the thickness of platinum (Pt) thin film increased, the preferred orientation of Pt thin film changed from (200) to (111). PZT thin films were fabricated at 450 o C by electron cyclotron resonance-plasma enhanced metal organic chemical vapor deposition on the textured Pt thin films. The texturing of the bottom electrode caused drastic changes in the C--V characteristics, P--E characteristics, and fatigue characteristics of metal/ferroelectric material/metal (MFM) capacitors. The difference of the electrical properties between the PZT thin films having different texturing was discussed in terms-of the x--y alignment and the interface between electrode and PZT in MFM capacitors. copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  12. Effects of electrodes on the properties of sol-gel PZT based capacitors in FeRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Ming; Jia, Ze; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2009-05-01

    The effects of electrodes on the properties of capacitors applied in ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAM) are investigated in this work. Pt and Ir are used as bottom and top electrodes (BE and TE), respectively, in sol-gel Pb(Zr xTi 1-x)O 3 (PZT) based capacitors. Bottom electrodes are found to play a dominant role in the properties of PZT films and capacitors. Capacitors using Pt as bottom electrode have larger remnant polarization (2Pr) than those using Ir which may result from the different orientations of PZT films. The higher Schottky barrier, more dense film and smaller roughness are believed to be the reasons for the better leakage performance of capacitors using Pt as bottom electrodes. Different vacancies types and interface conditions are believed to be the main reasons for the better fatigue (less than 10% initial 2Pr loss after 10 11 fatigue cycles) and better imprint properties of TE/PZT/Ir capacitors. Top electrodes are found to have smaller impact on the properties of capacitors compared with bottom electrodes. A decrease in 2Pr is found when Ir is used as top electrode instead of Pt for PZT/Pt, which is believed to be caused by the stress resulting from lattice mismatch. The different thermal processes that top and bottom electrodes suffered are believed to be the reason for the different impacts they have on capacitors.

  13. Film-thickness and composition dependence of epitaxial thin-film PZT-based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh; Dekkers, Jan M.; Vu, Hung Ngoc; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The transverse piezoelectric coefficient e31,f and mass-sensitivity were measured on piezoelectric cantilevers based on epitaxial PZT thin-films with film-thicknesses ranging from 100 to 2000 nm. The highest values of e31,f and mass-sensitivity were observed at a film thickness of 500–750 nm, while

  14. Preparation of PZT thin films on YBCO electrodes by KrF excimer laser ablation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurogi, H; Yamagata, Y; Ebihara, K [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electr. Eng. and Comput. Sci.; Inoue, N [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Suizenji, 1-6-36, Kumamoto 862 (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Pb(Zr{sub X}Ti{sub 1-X})O{sub 3} (PZT) films have excellent ferroelectric, optical, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric properties. We prepared PZT thin films by the excimer laser ablation technique. A pulsed KrF excimer laser (Lambda Physik LPX305icc, pulse duration of 25 ns, {lambda}=248 nm, 850 mJ Max.) was used to ablate the bulk targets. We investigated the influence of bottom electrode materials on the characteristics of the PZT thin films prepared on Pt and YBCO underlayers. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the PZT films prepared with a laser fluence of 2 Jcm{sup -2} on YBCO/MgO(100) substrate at a wide temperature range of 550-680 C have a perovskite (001) structure. At the same laser fluence, the PZT films prepared on Pt/MgO(100) substrate have a perovskite (001) structure only at 650 C. The polarization-electric field (P-E) characteristics and fatigue properties of PZT thin films were measured by the Sawyer-Tower circuit. The remnant polarization and coercive field have been found to be P{sub r}=15 {mu}C cm{sup -2}, 30 {mu}C cm{sup -2} and E{sub c}=200 kV cm{sup -1}, 100 kV cm{sup -1} for Au/PZT/Pt/MgO and Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO correspondingly. The remnant polarization of Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO thin film was reduced to one-half after about 10{sup 8} cycles of switching. (orig.) 7 refs.

  15. Electrical characterization of thin film ferroelectric capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, M.P.J.; Reimann, K.; Klee, M.; Beelen, D.; Keur, W.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2006-01-01

    Tunable capacitors can be used to facilitate the reduction of components in wireless technologies. The tunability of the capacitors is caused by the sensitivity of the relative dielectric constant to a change in polarization with electric field. Thin film ferroelectric MIM capacitors on silicon

  16. Characterization of PZT thin films on metal substrates; Charakterisierung von PZT-Duennschichten auf Metallsubstraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutschke, A.

    2008-02-02

    Lead zirconate titanate (PbZr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}O{sub 3},PZT) is one of the most applied ceramic materials because of its distinctive piezo- and ferroelectric properties. Prepared as thin films on flexible, metallic substrates it can be used for various applications as strain gauges, key switches, vibration dampers, microactuators and ultrasonic transducers. The aim of this work is to analyze the microstructure and the phase-content of PZT-thin films deposited on temperature- und acid-resistant hastelloy-sheets, to correlate the results with the ferroelectric and dielectric properties. It is demonstrated, that the specific variation of the microstructure can be achieved by different thermal treatments and the selective addition of Neodymium as dopant. Nd-doping leads to a shift of the maximum nucleation rate towards reduced temperatures and a decrease in the rate of growth compared to undoped films. The PZT-films are prepared by a sol-gel-process in fourfold multilayers with a composition near the morphotropic phase boundary, where the tetragonal und rhombohedral perovskite-phases coexist. The crystallisation in Nd-doped and undoped films takes place heterogeneously, preferentially at the interfaces and on the surface of the multilayered films as well as on the inner surface of pores within the films. For the first time, the Zr:Ti fluctuation phenomena emerging in sol-gel derived PZT films is related to the microstructure and the local phase content on a nanometer scale. In this connection it is proved, that long-distance Zr:Ti gradients arise preferentially before and during the crystallisation of the pyrochlore phase. During the following crystallisation of the perovskite phase, the crystallites grow across these gradients without modifying them. It is pointed out that the fluctuation in the Zr:Ti ratio has only minor influence on the amount of the tetragonal or rhombohedral distortion of the crystallites after the transition from the para- to the ferroelectric

  17. Electro-Caloric Properties of BT/PZT Multilayer Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min-Su; Lee, Sung-Gap; Kim, Kyeong-Min

    2018-09-01

    In this study, Barium Titanate (BT)/Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) multilayer thin films were fabricated by the spin-coating method on Pt (200 nm)/Ti (10 nm) SiO2 (100 nm)/P-Si (100) substrates using BaTiO3 and Pb(Zr0.90Ti0.10)O3 metal alkoxide solutions. The coating and heating procedure was repeated several times to form the multilayer thin films. All of BT/PZT multilayer thin films show X-ray diffraction patterns typical to a polycrystalline perovskite structure and a uniform and void free grain microstructure. The thickness of the BT and PZT film by one-cycle of drying/sintering was approximately 50 nm and all of the films consisted of fine grains with a flat surface morphology. The electrocaloric properties of BT/PZT thin films were investigated by indirect estimation. The results showed that the temperature change ΔT can be calculated as a function of temperature using Maxwell's relation; the temperature change reaches a maximum value of ~1.85 °C at 135 °C under an applied electric field of 260 kV/cm.

  18. Study on oxidization of Ru and its application as electrode of PZT capacitor for FeRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Ze; Ren Tianling; Liu Tianzhi; Hu Hong; Zhang Zhigang; Xie Dan; Liu Litian

    2007-01-01

    Oxidization for Ru through anneal with plenteous oxygen atmosphere and its application as the top electrode of sol-gel PZT capacitor are investigated in this study. PZT capacitor with RuO 2 or oxygen-doped Ru as top electrode can be obtained from Ru/PZT/Pt capacitor through slow-rate anneal at 650 deg. C for 20 min in cannulation furnace. It has larger remanent polarization, better rectangle shape, better fatigue properties and lower leakage current than the other capacitors with PZT film prepared by the same process and different top electrodes in this study. Plenteous oxygen atmosphere and 650 deg. C in cannulation furnace are important conditions for the oxidation of Ru and renewed crystallization of PZT in this capacitor. Plenteous oxygen at interface can compensate the oxygen vacancies at PZT/electrode interface, which results in the above good characteristics

  19. Rough Electrode Creates Excess Capacitance in Thin-Film Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Solmaz; Cherry, Megan; Duijnstee, Elisabeth A; Le Corre, Vincent M; Qiu, Li; Hummelen, Jan C; Palasantzas, George; Koster, L Jan Anton

    2017-08-16

    The parallel-plate capacitor equation is widely used in contemporary material research for nanoscale applications and nanoelectronics. To apply this equation, flat and smooth electrodes are assumed for a capacitor. This essential assumption is often violated for thin-film capacitors because the formation of nanoscale roughness at the electrode interface is very probable for thin films grown via common deposition methods. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically show that the electrical capacitance of thin-film capacitors with realistic interface roughness is significantly larger than the value predicted by the parallel-plate capacitor equation. The degree of the deviation depends on the strength of the roughness, which is described by three roughness parameters for a self-affine fractal surface. By applying an extended parallel-plate capacitor equation that includes the roughness parameters of the electrode, we are able to calculate the excess capacitance of the electrode with weak roughness. Moreover, we introduce the roughness parameter limits for which the simple parallel-plate capacitor equation is sufficiently accurate for capacitors with one rough electrode. Our results imply that the interface roughness beyond the proposed limits cannot be dismissed unless the independence of the capacitance from the interface roughness is experimentally demonstrated. The practical protocols suggested in our work for the reliable use of the parallel-plate capacitor equation can be applied as general guidelines in various fields of interest.

  20. Phase and electrical properties of PZT thin films embedded with CuO nano-particles by a hybrid sol-gel route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreesattabud, Tharathip; Gibbons, Brady J.; Watcharapasorn, Anucha; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda

    2013-07-01

    Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 or PZT thin films embedded with CuO nano-particles were successfully prepared by a hybrid sol-gel process. In this process, CuO (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 wt. %) nanopowder was suspended in an organometallic solution of PZT, and then coated on platinised silicon substrate using a spin-coating technique. The influence of CuO nano-particles' dispersion on the phase of PZT thin films was investigated. XRD results showed a perovskite phase in all films. At the CuO concentration of 0.4-1 wt. %, a second phase was observed. The addition of CuO nano-particles affected the orientation of PZT thin films. The addition was also found to reduce the ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films. However, at 0.2 wt. % CuO concentration, the film exhibited good ferroelectric properties similar to those of PZT films. In addition, the fatigue retention properties of the PZT/CuO system was observed, and it showed 14% fatigue at 108 switching bipolar pulse cycles while the fatigue in PZT thin films was found to be 17% at the same switching bipolar pulse cycles.

  1. Characterization of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 thin films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on Ir-based electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee-Chul; Lee, Won-Jong

    2002-01-01

    Structural and electrical characteristics of Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 (PZT) ferroelectric thin films deposited on various Ir-based electrodes (Ir, IrO 2 , and Pt/IrO 2 ) using electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition were investigated. On the Ir electrode, stoichiometric PZT films with pure perovskite phase could be obtained over a very wide range of processing conditions. However, PZT films prepared on the IrO 2 electrode contain a large amount of PbO x phases and exhibited high Pb-excess composition. The deposition characteristics were dependent on the behavior of PbO molecules on the electrode surface. The PZT thin film capacitors prepared on the Ir bottom electrode showed different electrical properties depending on top electrode materials. The PZT capacitors with Ir, IrO 2 , and Pt top electrodes showed good leakage current characteristics, whereas those with the Ru top electrode showed a very high leakage current density. The PZT capacitor exhibited the best fatigue endurance with an IrO 2 top electrode. An Ir top electrode provided better fatigue endurance than a Pt top electrode. The PZT capacitor with an Ir-based electrode is thought to be attractive for the application to ferroelectric random access memory devices because of its wide processing window for a high-quality ferroelectric film and good polarization, fatigue, and leakage current characteristics

  2. Fatigue-resistant epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 capacitors on Pt electrode with ultra-thin SrTiO3 template layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Seiichi; Morimoto, Akiharu; Kawae, Takeshi; Kumeda, Minoru; Yamada, Satoru; Ohtsubo, Shigeru; Yonezawa, Yasuto

    2008-01-01

    Lead zirconate-titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) capacitors with Pt bottom electrodes were prepared on MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique employing SrTiO 3 (STO) template layer. Perovskite PZT thin films are prepared via stoichiometric target using the ultra-thin STO template layers while it is quite difficult to obtain the perovskite PZT on Pt electrode via stoichiometric target in PLD process. The PZT capacitor prepared with the STO template layer showed good hysteresis and leakage current characteristics, and it showed an excellent fatigue resistance. The ultra-thin STO template layers were characterized by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The effect of the STO template layer is discussed based on the viewpoint of the perovskite nucleation and diffusion of Pb and O atoms

  3. Lanthanide-Assisted Deposition of Strongly Electro-optic PZT Thin Films on Silicon: Toward Integrated Active Nanophotonic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J P; Smet, P F; Botterman, J; Bliznuk, V; Woestenborghs, W; Van Thourhout, D; Neyts, K; Beeckman, J

    2015-06-24

    The electro-optical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films depend strongly on the quality and crystallographic orientation of the thin films. We demonstrate a novel method to grow highly textured PZT thin films on silicon using the chemical solution deposition (CSD) process. We report the use of ultrathin (5-15 nm) lanthanide (La, Pr, Nd, Sm) based intermediate layers for obtaining preferentially (100) oriented PZT thin films. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate preferentially oriented intermediate Ln2O2CO3 layers providing an excellent lattice match with the PZT thin films grown on top. The XRD and scanning electron microscopy measurements reveal that the annealed layers are dense, uniform, crack-free and highly oriented (>99.8%) without apparent defects or secondary phases. The EDX and HRTEM characterization confirm that the template layers act as an efficient diffusion barrier and form a sharp interface between the substrate and the PZT. The electrical measurements indicate a dielectric constant of ∼650, low dielectric loss of ∼0.02, coercive field of 70 kV/cm, remnant polarization of 25 μC/cm(2), and large breakdown electric field of 1000 kV/cm. Finally, the effective electro-optic coefficients of the films are estimated with a spectroscopic ellipsometer measurement, considering the electric field induced variations in the phase reflectance ratio. The electro-optic measurements reveal excellent linear effective pockels coefficients of 110 to 240 pm/V, which makes the CSD deposited PZT thin film an ideal candidate for Si-based active integrated nanophotonic devices.

  4. Sputter deposition of PZT piezoelectric films on thin glass substrates for adjustable x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Rudeger H T; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N; Reid, Paul B; Schwartz, Daniel A; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2013-05-10

    Piezoelectric PbZr(0.52)Ti(0.48)O(3) (PZT) thin films deposited on thin glass substrates have been proposed for adjustable optics in future x-ray telescopes. The light weight of these x-ray optics enables large collecting areas, while the capability to correct mirror figure errors with the PZT thin film will allow much higher imaging resolution than possible with conventional lightweight optics. However, the low strain temperature and flexible nature of the thin glass complicate the use of chemical-solution deposition due to warping of the substrate at typical crystallization temperatures for the PZT. RF magnetron sputtering enabled preparation of PZT films with thicknesses up to 3 μm on Schott D263 glass substrates with much less deformation. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the films crystallized with the perovskite phase and showed no indication of secondary phases. Films with 1 cm(2) electrodes exhibited relative permittivity values near 1100 and loss tangents below 0.05. In addition, the remanent polarization was 26 μC/cm(2) with coercive fields of 33 kV/cm. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient was as high as -6.1±0.6 C/m(2). To assess influence functions for the x-ray optics application, the piezoelectrically induced deflection of individual cells was measured and compared with finite-element-analysis calculations. The good agreement between the results suggests that actuation of PZT thin films can control mirror figure errors to a precision of about 5 nm, allowing sub-arcsecond imaging.

  5. Investigation of optical pump on dielectric tunability in PZT/PT thin film by THz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jie; Luo, Chunya; Rao, Yunkun; Ling, Furi; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-07-11

    The dielectric spectra of single-layer PbTiO3 (PT), single-layer PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) and multilayer PZT/PT thin films under an external optical field were investigated at room temperature by time-domain terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Results showed that the real part of permittivity increased upon application of an external optical field, which could be interpreted as hardening of the soft mode and increasing of the damping coefficient and oscillator strength. Furthermore, the central mode was observed in the three films. Among the dielectric property of the three thin films studied, the tunability of the PZT/PT superlattice was the largest.

  6. Cross-sectional analysis of ferroelectric domains in PZT capacitors via piezoresponse force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J S [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang City (China); Zeng, H Z [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Kholkin, A L [Department of Ceramic and Glass Engineering and CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal)

    2007-11-21

    Ferroelectric domains have been investigated on the cross-section of Pb(Zr{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film capacitors by scanning probe microscopy. The static domain images on the cross-section were obtained by the lateral piezoresponse force microscopy (LPFM) method, in which the ac voltage used to induce the converse piezoelectric effect was applied between the conductive tip and the bottom electrode. The polarization component normal to the substrate could be characterized via both d{sub 33} and d{sub 15} piezoelectric coefficients, which resulted in a high resolution of LPFM images. After a variable dc bias was applied between the top and the bottom electrodes, the variations of domain image on the cross-section were recorded by the LPFM immediately. Upon the application of low bias, new domain sites appeared near the PZT/Pt interface opposite to the initial polarization. Forward stretch of new domains was facilitated under the dc field approaching the coercive field E{sub c}. Under a very high field (about three times of the E{sub c}), the sidewise expansion of columnar domains was observed. However, the domains were only partially switched even though a very high field was applied. The observed domain growth process indicated a lower energy barrier for nucleation compared with that of domain wall motion. Possible reasons for the incomplete switching are the substantial influences of the interface and depolarization in thin film capacitors.

  7. Influence of irradiation on the switching behavior in PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baturin, I.; Menou, N.; Shur, V.; Muller, C.; Kuznetsov, D.; Hodeau, J.-L.; Sternberg, A.

    2005-01-01

    Spatially nonuniform imprint behavior induced by X-ray synchrotron, electron and neutron irradiation has been investigated in sol-gel Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 thin films. The analysis of the switching current data reveals the strong influence of irradiation on the switching current shape. The obtained effects have been explained as a result of acceleration of the bulk screening process induced by irradiation. It was shown that the spatial distribution of the internal bias field is determined by the domain structure existing during irradiation. The changes in the structural characteristics during fatigue cycling have been reveled by high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on (1 1 1)-oriented PZT-based capacitors with a composition in the morphotropic region. From both ex situ and in situ measurements, microstructural changes with cyclic switching during fatigue have been evidenced and correlated with the evolution of the switching characteristics

  8. In situ X-ray diffraction studies on the piezoelectric response of PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydok, A., E-mail: davydok@mpie.de [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397 Marseille (France); Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Department Structure and Nano-/Micromechanics of Materials, D-40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Cornelius, T.W. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397 Marseille (France); Mocuta, C. [SOLEIL Synchrotron, DiffAbs beamline, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lima, E.C. [Universidade Federal do Tocantins, 77500-000 Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil); Araujo, E.B. [Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. Brasil, 56 Centro, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Thomas, O. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397 Marseille (France)

    2016-03-31

    Piezoelectric properties of randomly oriented self-polarized PbZr{sub 0.50}Ti{sub 0.50}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films were investigated using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Possibilities for investigating the piezoelectric effect using micro-sized hard X-ray beams are demonstrated and perspectives for future dynamical measurements on PZT samples with variety of compositions and thicknesses are given. Studies performed on the crystalline [100, 110] directions evidenced piezoelectric anisotropy. The piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} was calculated in terms of the lab reference frame (d{sub perp}) and found to be two times larger along the [100] direction than along the [110] direction. The absolute values for the d{sub perp} amount to 120 and 230 pm/V being in good agreement with experimental and theoretical values found in literature for bulk PZT ceramics. - Highlights: • We performed in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies on (PZT) thin films. • We discuss anisotropy of piezo effect in different crystallographic directions. • Perpendicular component Piezo coefficient of thin PZT layer is defined.

  9. Structural, dielectric and ferroelectric characterization of PZT thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo E.B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work ferroelectric thin films of PZT were prepared by the oxide precursor method, deposited on Pt/Si substrate. Films of 0.5 mm average thickness were obtained. Electrical and ferroelectric characterization were carried out in these films. The measured value of the dielectric constant for films was 455. Ferroelectricity was confirmed by Capacitance-Voltage (C-V characteristics and P-E hysteresis loops. Remanent polarization for films presented value around 5.0 µC/cm2 and a coercive field of 88.8 kV/cm.

  10. The influence of preferred orientation and poling temperature on the polarization switching current in PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Mi; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Zebin; Zhang, Ping [Tianjin University, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin (China); Lan, Kuibo [Tianjin University, School of Microelectronics, Tianjin (China)

    2017-07-15

    In this paper, Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films with different preferred orientation were prepared on platinized silicon substrates by a modified sol-gel method. Our results indicate that the polarization switching current in PZT thin films is dependent on preferred orientation and poling temperature. In our measurements, (111)-oriented PZT has a larger polarization switching current than randomly oriented PZT, and with the increase of the degree of (111) preferred orientation and the poling temperature, the polarization switching current gradually increase. Considering the contact of PZT thin film with electrodes, the space-charged limited conduction (SCLC) combined with domain switching mechanism may be responsible for such phenomena. By analyzing the conduction data, we found the interface-limited Schottky emission (ES) and bulk-limited Poole-Frenkel hopping (PF) are not suitable for our samples. (orig.)

  11. Pb(Zr,TiO3 (PZT Thin Film Sensors for Fully-Integrated, Passive Telemetric Transponders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard X. FU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The great potential of taking advantages of PZT in a single chip to achieve inexpensive, fully-integrated, passive telemetric transponders has been shown in this paper. The processes for the sputter deposition of Pb(Zr,TiO3 (PZT thin films from two different composite targets on both Si and c-plane sapphire substrates have been demonstrated. PZT thin films have been deposited by sputter technique. PZT films were deposited onto substrates (Si [(100 Cz wafer] and c-plane sapphire (0001//Ti//Pt followed by sputter-deposited Pt top electrodes. X-ray diffraction results showed that both sputtered PZT films were textured along the [110] direction. The degree of preference for the [110] direction was greater on sapphire substrate where the intensity of that peak is seen to be larger compared to the intensity one Si substrate. TEM data revealed that both sputtered PZT films were polycrystalline in nature. Selected area diffraction (SAD pattern showed that the degree of disorientation between the crystallites was smaller on sapphire substrate compared to on Si substrate, which confirmed the results from the XRD. The remnant polarization Pr on sapphire substrate was larger than on Si’s. The leakage current for the 11 % Pb target sputtered film was much less than 22 % Pb target sputtered film. The breakdown voltage on sapphire substrate was the best. However, for the 11 % Pb target sputtered film’s breakdown voltage was much higher than 22 % Pb target sputtered film.

  12. Characterization of PZT Capacitor Structures with Various Electrode Materials Processed In-Situ Using AN Automated, Rotating Elemental Target, Ion Beam Deposition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Kenneth Douglas

    Ferroelectric thin film capacitor structures containing lead zirconate titanate (PZT) as the dielectric, with the chemical formula Pb(rm Zr_{x }Ti_{1-x})O_3, were synthesized in-situ with an automated ion beam sputter deposition system. Platinum (Pt), conductive ruthenium oxide (RuO_2), and two types of Pt-RuO_2 hybrid electrodes were used as the electrode materials. The capacitor structures are characterized in terms of microstructure and electrical characteristics. Reduction or elimination of non-ferroelectric phases, that nucleate during PZT processing on Pt/TiO _2/MgO and RuO_2/MgO substrates, is achieved by reducing the thickness of the individually deposited layers and by interposing a buffer layer (~100-200A) of PbTiO _3 (PT) between the bottom electrode and the PZT film. Capacitor structures containing a Pt electrode exhibit poor fatigue resistance, irregardless of the PZT microstructure or the use of a PT buffer layer. From these results, and results from similar capacitors synthesized with sol-gel and laser ablation, PZT-based capacitor structures containing Pt electrodes are considered to be unsuitable for use in memory devices. Using a PT buffer layer, in capacitor structures containing RuO_2 top and bottom electrodes and polycrystalline, highly (101) oriented PZT, reduces or eliminates the nucleation of zirconium-titanium oxide, non-ferroelectric species at the bottom electrode interface during processing. This results in good fatigue resistance up to ~2times10^ {10} switching cycles. DC leakage current density vs. time measurements follow the Curie-von Schweidler law, J(t) ~ t^ {rm -n}. Identification of the high electric field current conduction mechanism is inconclusive. The good fatigue resistance, low dc leakage current, and excellent retention, qualifies the use of these capacitor structures in non-volatile random access (NVRAM) and dynamic random access (DRAM) memory devices. Excellent fatigue resistance (10% loss in remanent polarization up to

  13. Highly polarized single-c-domain single-crystal Pb(Mn,Nb)O(3)-PZT thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasa, Kiyotaka; Adachi, Hideaki; Nishida, Ken; Yamamoto, Takashi; Matsushima, Tomoaki; Kanno, Isaku; Kotera, Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    In-plane unstrained single-c-domain/single-crystal thin films of PZT-based ternary ferroelectric perovskite, ξPb(Mn,Nb)O3-(1 - ξ)PZT, were grown on SrRuO(3)/Pt/MgO substrates using magnetron sputtering followed by quenching. The sputtered unstrained thin films exhibit unique ferroelectric properties: high coercive field, Ec > 180 kV/cm, large remanent polarization, P(r) = 100 μC/cm(2), small relative dielectric constants, ε* = 100 to 150, high Curie temperature, Tc = ~600 °C, and bulk-like large transverse piezoelectric constants, e31,f = -12.0 C/m(2) for PZT(48/52) at ξ = 0.06. The unstrained thin films are an ideal structure to extract the bulk ferroelectric properties. Their micro-structures and ferroelectric properties are discussed in relation to the potential applications for piezoelectric MEMS. © 2012 IEEE

  14. Phase and Texture Evolution in Chemically Derived PZT Thin Films on Pt Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    function of heating rate. The FWHM of the Ill PZT texture components is sim 2978 Journal of the American Ceramic Society Mhin et al. Vol. 97, No. 9...Z39.18 ABSTRACT Phase and Texture Evolution in Chemically Derived PZT Thin Films on Pt Substrates Report Title The crystallization of lead zirconate...phase influencing texture evolution. The results suggest that PZT nucleates directly on Pt, which explains the observation of a more highly oriented

  15. Local Fatigue Evaluation in PZT Thin Films with Nanoparticles by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    B. S. Li

    2012-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films with the morphotropic phase boundary composition (Zr/Ti = 52/48) have been prepared using a modified diol-based sol-gel route by introducing 1–5 mol% barium titanate (BT) nanoseeds into the precursor solution on platinized silicon substrates (Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si). Macroscopic electric properties of PZT film with nanoparticle showed a significant improvement of ferroelectric properties. This work aims at the systematic study of the local switching polarizatio...

  16. Thin PZT-Based Ferroelectric Capacitors on Flexible Silicon for Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Zidan, Mohammed A.; Al-Nassar, Mohammed Y.; Hanna, Amir; Kosel, Jü rgen; Salama, Khaled N.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    A flexible version of traditional thin lead zirconium titanate ((Pb1.1Zr0.48Ti0.52O3)-(PZT)) based ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) on silicon shows record performance in flexible arena. The thin PZT layer requires lower operational

  17. Misfit strain dependence of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of clamped (001) epitaxial Pb(Zr0.52,Ti0.48)O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh D.; Dekkers, Matthijn; Houwman, Evert; Steenwelle, Ruud; Wan, Xin; Roelofs, Andreas; Schmitz-Kempen, Thorsten; Rijnders, Guus

    2011-12-01

    A study on the effects of the residual strain in Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin films on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is presented. Epitaxial (001)-oriented PZT thin film capacitors are sandwiched between SrRuO3 electrodes. The thin film stacks are grown on different substrate-buffer-layer combinations by pulsed laser deposition. Compressive or tensile strain caused by the difference in thermal expansion of the PZT film and substrate influences the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. All the PZT stacks show ferroelectric and piezoelectric behavior that is consistent with the theoretical model for strained thin films in the ferroelectric r-phase. We conclude that clamped (001) oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films strained by the substrate always show rotation of the polarization vector.

  18. Measurement of effective piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films for energy harvesting application with interdigitated electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Nachiappan; Mazzalai, Andrea; Muralt, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Interdigitated electrode (IDE) systems with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films play an increasingly important role for two reasons: first, such a configuration generates higher voltages than parallel plate capacitor-type electrode (PPE) structures, and second, the application of an electric field leads to a compressive stress component in addition to the overall stress state, unlike a PPE structure, which results in tensile stress component. Because ceramics tend to crack at relatively moderate tensile stresses, this means that IDEs have a lower risk of cracking than PPEs. For these reasons, IDE systems are ideal for energy harvesting of vibration energy, and for actuators. Systematic investigations of PZT films with IDE systems have not yet been undertaken. In this work, we present results on the evaluation of the in-plane piezoelectric coefficients with IDE systems. Additionally, we also propose a simple and measurable figure of merit (FOM) to analyze and evaluate the relevant piezoelectric parameter for harvesting efficiency without the need to fabricate the energy harvesting device. Idealized effective coefficients e(IDE) and h(IDE) are derived, showing its composite nature with about one-third contribution of the transverse effect, and about two-thirds contribution of the longitudinal effect in the case of a PZT film deposited on a (100)-oriented silicon wafer with the in-plane electric field along one of the Si directions. Randomly oriented 1-μm-thick PZT 53/47 film deposited by a sol-gel technique, was evaluated and yielded an effective coefficient e(IDE) of 15 C·m(-2). Our FOM is the product between effective e and h coefficient representing twice the electrical energy density stored in the piezoelectric film per unit strain deformation (both for IDE and PPE systems). Assuming homogeneous fields between the fingers, and neglecting the contribution from below the electrode fingers, the FOM for IDE structures with larger electrode gap is derived to be

  19. Advantages of PZT thick film for MEMS sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Lou-Moller, R.; Hansen, K.

    2010-01-01

    For all MEMS devices a high coupling between the mechanical and electrical domain is desired. Figures of merit describing the coupling are important for comparing different piezoelectric materials. The existing figures of merit are discussed and a new figure of merit is introduced for a fair comp....... Improved figure of merit is reached in the piezoelectric PZT thick film, TF2100CIP, by using cold isostatic pressure in the PZT preparation process. The porosity of TF2100 is decreased 38%, hence, allowing an increase of charge sensitivity for MEMS sensors of 59%....... thin film and PZT thick film. It is shown that MEMS sensors with the PZT thick film TF2100 from InSensor A/S have potential for significant higher voltage sensitivities compared to PZT thin film base MEMS sensors when the total thickness of the MEMS cantilever, beam, bridge or membrane is high...

  20. Enhanced fatigue characteristics of sol-gel derived PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Donghyun; Pak, Jaemoon; Nam, Kuangwoo; Park, Gwangweo

    2008-01-01

    Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) thin films with Zr/Ti ratio of 52:48 were deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates using the sol-gel method. Since the conditions of heat-treatment play a great role in film growth, post-annealing processes were conducted under different environments. After standard processing, films were annealed at 600 deg. C in three different atmosphere-air, O 2 and a two-step process conducted in air for 30 min and then in O 2 ambient, all done for 10 min. Through electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, we found that all films were crack-free and highly (1 1 1) oriented. Hysteresis measurements showed a generally large polarization value. The fatigue properties differ drastically for all processes, showing an abnormal behaviour near the end of the measurement. The hysteresis loops before and after 1 x 10 10 switching cycles have been slightly changed in both shape and magnitude. Such abnormality and fatigue-free property is an unusual result for PZT films prepared on conventional Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates

  1. Optical and electro-optic anisotropy of epitaxial PZT thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minmin; Du, Zehui; Jing, Lin; Yoong Tok, Alfred Iing; Tong Teo, Edwin Hang

    2015-07-01

    Strong optical and electro-optic (EO) anisotropy has been investigated in ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.48Ti0.52)O3 thin films epitaxially grown on Nb-SrTiO3 (001), (011), and (111) substrates using magnetron sputtering. The refractive index, electro-optic, and ferroelectric properties of the samples demonstrate the significant dependence on the growth orientation. The linear electro-optic coefficients of the (001), (011), and (111)-oriented PZT thin films were 270.8, 198.8, and 125.7 pm/V, respectively. Such remarkable anisotropic EO behaviors have been explained according to the structure correlation between the orientation dependent distribution, spontaneous polarization, epitaxial strain, and domain pattern.

  2. Design and fabrication of aspherical bimorph PZT optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, T C; Yeh, Z C; Perng, S Y; Wang, D J; Kuan, C K; Chen, J R; Chen, C T

    2001-01-01

    Bimorph piezoelectric optics with a third-order-polynomial surface is designed and a prototype is fabricated as active optics. Two pairs of silicon (Si) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic are bonded as Si-PZT-PZT-Si together with a multi-electrode or thin film resistor coating used as the control electrode between Si and PZT and metallic films as grounding between the interface of PZT ceramics. A linear voltage is applied to the bimorph PZT optics by probing the control electrodes from a two-channel controllable power supplier. In doing so, the optics surface can achieve a desired third-order-polynomial surface. Reducing hysteresis and creep in bimorph PZT X-ray optics is the only feasible way by inserting an appropriate capacitor in series with bimorph PZT optics to significantly reduce both effects.

  3. Design, Modeling and Optimization of a Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor based on a Thin-Film PZT Membrane Containing Nanocrystalline Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid MOHAMMADI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper fabrication of a 0-3 ceramic/ceramic composite lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin film has been presented and then a pressure sensor based on multilayer thin-film PZT diaphragm contain of Lead Zirconate Titanate nanocrystalline powders was designed, modeled and optimized. Dynamics characteristics of this multilayer diaphragm have been investigated by ANSYS® FE software. By this simulation the effective parameters of the multilayer PZT diaphragm for improving the performance of a pressure sensor in different ranges of pressure are optimized. The optimized thickness ratio of PZT layer to SiO2 was given in the paper to obtain the maximum deflection of the multilayer thin-film PZT diaphragm. A 0-3 ceramic/ceramic composite lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 film has been developed to fabricate the pressure sensor by a hybrid sol gel process. PZT nanopowders fabricated via conventional sol gel method and uniformly dispersed in PZT precursor solution by an attrition mill. XRD analysis shows that perovskite structure would be formed due to the presence of a significant amount of ceramic nanopowders. This texture has a good effect on piezoelectric properties of perovskite structure. The film forms a strongly bonded network and less shrinkage occurs, so the films do not crack during process. Also the aspect ratio through this process would be increased. SEM micrographs indicated that PZT films were uniform, crack free and have a composite microstructure and a piezoelectric coefficient d31 of -40 pC.N-1 and d33 ranged from 50pm.N-1 to 60pm.N-1.

  4. Deposition of highly (111)-oriented PZT thin films by using metal organic chemical deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, K H; Choi, D K; Seong, W K; Kim, J D

    1999-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films have been grown on Pt/Ta/SiNx/Si substrates by using metal organic chemical vapor deposition with Pb(C sub 2 H sub 5) sub 4 , Zr(O-t-C sub 4 H sub 9) sub 4 , and Ti(O-i-C sub 3 H sub 7) sub 4 as source materials and O sub 2 as an oxidizing gas. The Zr fraction in the thin films was controlled by varying the flow rate of the Zr source material. The crystal structure and the electrical properties were investigated as functions of the composition. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that at a certain range of Zr fraction, highly (111)-oriented PZT thin films with no pyrochlore phases were deposited. On the other hand, at low Zr fractions, there were peaks from Pb-oxide phases. At high Zr fractions, peaks from pyrochlore phase were seen. The films also showed good electrical properties, such as a high dielectric constant of more than 1200 and a low coercive voltage of 1.35 V.

  5. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films and their applications for integrated capacitors, piezoelectric ultrasound transducers and piezoelectric switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, M; Boots, H; Kumar, B; Heesch, C van; Mauczok, R; Keur, W; Wild, M de; Esch, H van; Roest, A L; Reimann, K; Leuken, L van; Wunnicke, O; Zhao, J; Schmitz, G; Mienkina, M; Mleczko, M; Tiggelman, M

    2010-01-01

    Ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films are gaining more and more importance for the integration of high performance devices in small modules. High-K 'Integrated Discretes' devices have been developed, which are based on thin film ferroelectric capacitors integrated together with resistors and ESD protection diodes in a small Si-based chip-scale package. Making use of ferroelectric thin films with relative permittivity of 950-1600 and stacking processes of capacitors, extremely high capacitance densities of 20-520 nF/mm 2 , high breakdown voltages up to 140 V and lifetimes of more than 10 years at operating voltages of 5 V and 85 deg. C are achieved. Thin film high-density capacitors play also an important role as tunable capacitors for applications such as tuneable matching circuits for RF sections of mobile phones. The performance of thin film tuneable capacitors at frequencies between 1 MHz and 1 GHz is investigated. Finally thin film piezoelectric ultrasound transducers, processed in Si- related processes, are attractive for medical imaging, since they enable large bandwidth (>100%), high frequency operation and have the potential to integrate electronics. With these piezoelectric thin film ultrasound transducers real time ultrasound images have been realized. Finally, piezoelectric thin films are used to manufacture galvanic MEMS switches. A model for the quasi-static mechanical behaviour is presented and compared with measurements.

  6. Ferroelectricity, Piezoelectricity, and Dielectricity of 0.06PMnN-0.94PZT(45/55 Thin Film on Silicon Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high piezoelectricity and high quality factor ferroelectric thin films are important for electromechanical applications especially the micro electromechanical system (MEMS. The ternary compound ferroelectric thin films 0.06Pb(Mn1/3, Nb2/3O3 + 0.94Pb(Zr0.45, Ti0.55O3 (0.06PMnN-0.94PZT(45/55 were deposited on silicon(100 substrates by RF magnetron sputtering method considering that Mn and Nb doping will improve PZT properties in this research. For comparison, nondoped PZT(45/55 films were also deposited. The results show that both of thin films show polycrystal structures with the main (111 and (101 orientations. The transverse piezoelectric coefficients are e31,eff=−4.03 C/m2 and e31,eff=-3.5 C/m2, respectively. These thin films exhibit classical ferroelectricity, in which the coercive electric field intensities are 2Ec=147.31 kV/cm and 2Ec=135.44 kV/cm, and the saturation polarization Ps=30.86 μC/cm2 and Ps=17.74 μC/cm2, and the remnant polarization Pr=20.44 μC/cm2 and Pr=9.87 μC/cm2, respectively. Moreover, the dielectric constants and loss are εr=681 and D=5% and εr=537 and D=4.3%, respectively. In conclusion, 0.06PMnN-0.94PZT(45/55 thin films act better than nondoped films, even though their dielectric constants are higher. Their excellent ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, and high power and energy storage property, especially the easy fabrication, integration realizable, and potentially high quality factor, make this kind of thin films available for the realistic applications.

  7. Effect of B-site cation stoichiometry on electrical fatigue of RuO2//Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3//RuO2 capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shareef, H.N.; Tuttle, B.A.; Warren, W.L.; Headley, T.J.; Dimos, D.; Voigt, J.A.; Nasby, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    There have been numerous reports that Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 (PZT) thin-film capacitors with RuO 2 electrodes and compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary exhibit minimal decrease in switched polarization with electric-field cycling. We show that the fatigue performance of RuO 2 //PZT//RuO 2 capacitors strongly depends on PZT film composition. Specifically, we demonstrate that the rate of polarization fatigue increases with increasing Ti content for PZT thin films of tetragonal crystal symmetry deposited on RuO 2 electrodes. As the Ti content of the PZT films increased, the film gain morphology changed from columnar to granular and the volume percent of a fluorite-type second phase decreased. These microstructural trends and the possibility that the electrode material acts as a sink for oxygen vacancies are discussed to explain the fatigue dependence on B-site cation ratio for PZT films with RuO 2 electrodes. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. Piezoelectric response of a PZT thin film to magnetic fields from permanent magnet and coil combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiffard, B.; Seveno, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the magnetically induced electric field E 3 in Pb(Zr0.57Ti0.43)O3 (PZT) thin films, when they are subjected to both dynamic magnetic induction (magnitude B ac at 45 kHz) and static magnetic induction ( B dc) generated by a coil and a single permanent magnet, respectively. It is found that highest sensitivity to B dc——is achieved for the thin film with largest effective electrode. This magnetoelectric (ME) effect is interpreted in terms of coupling between eddy current-induced Lorentz forces (stress) in the electrodes of PZT and piezoelectricity. Such coupling was evidenced by convenient modelling of experimental variations of electric field magnitude with both B ac and B dc induction magnitudes, providing imperfect open circuit condition was considered. Phase angle of E 3 versus B dc could also be modelled. At last, the results show that similar to multilayered piezoelectric-magnetostrictive composite film, a PZT thin film made with a simple manufacturing process can behave as a static or dynamic magnetic field sensor. In this latter case, a large ME voltage coefficient of under B dc = 0.3 T was found. All these results may provide promising low-cost magnetic energy harvesting applications with microsized systems.

  9. Ferroelectric Thin-Film Capacitors and Piezoelectric Switches for Mobile Communication Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klee, Mareike; van Esch, Harry; Keur, Wilco; Kumar, Biju; van Leuken-Peters, Linda; Liu, Jin; Mauczok, Rüdiger; Neumann, Kai; Reimann, Klaus; Renders, Christel; Roest, Aarnoud L.; Tiggelman, M.P.J.; de Wild, Marco; Wunnicke, Olaf; Zhao, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Thin-film ferroelectric capacitors have been integrated with resistors and active functions such as ESD protection into small, miniaturized modules, which enable a board space saving of up to 80%. With the optimum materials and processes, integrated capacitors with capacitance densities of up to 100

  10. The memory characteristics of submicron feature-size PZT capacitors with PtOx top electrode by using dry-etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.-K.; Wang, C.-C.; Wu, T.-B.

    2007-01-01

    Dry etching and its effect on the characteristics of submicron feature-size PbZr 1-x Ti x O 3 (PZT) capacitors with PtO x top electrode were investigated. The photoresist (PR)-masked PtO x films were etched by an Ar/(20%)Cl 2 /O 2 helicon wave plasma. A fence-free pattern with a significantly high etch rate and sidewall slope was obtained by the addition of O 2 into the etching gas mixture, due to the chemical instability of PtO x and the formation of a PtO 2 passivation layer to suppress redeposition of the etch by-products on the etched surface. The patterned PtO x electrode can be further used as a hard mask for etching the PZT film, subsequently, with the gas mixture of Ar, CF 4 and O 2 . A high etching rate of PZT and a good etching selectivity to PtO x can be obtained at 30% O 2 addition into the Ar/(50%)CF 4 plasma. The etched capacitors have a steep, 72 0 , sidewall angle with a clean surface. Moreover, the addition of O 2 into the etching gas can well preserve the properties and the fatigue endurance of PtO x /PZT capacitors

  11. Residual stress and Young's modulus of pulsed laser deposited PZT thin films: Effect of thin film composition and crystal direction of Si cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Abelmann, Leon; Sardan Sukas, Ö.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the residual stress and Young's modulus of Pb(ZrxTi1 - x)O3 (PZT) thin films with a (110) preferred orientation and a composition x ranging from 0.2 to 0.8. The films are grown by pulsed laser deposition on silicon cantilevers aligned along the <110> and <100> silicon crystal

  12. Thin film barium strontium titanate capacitors for tunable RF front-end applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of intensive electrical characterization, modeling and the design of hardware with thin film tunable capacitors, i.e., dielectric varactors, has been presented and discussed. Especially the quality factor Q and the tuning ratio of the tunable capacitors have been studied,

  13. PLD of X7R for thin film capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Takanori; Matsumoto, Noriyuki; Nishida, Minoru; Araki, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Thin film capacitors with a thickness of 200 nm were prepared on SrTiO 3 (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) single crystal substrates at a temperature of 973 K by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using a KrF excimer laser in an O 2 -O 3 atmosphere with a gas pressure of 1 Pa using an X7R sintered target. As a result, perovskite BaTiO 3 solid solution films were obtained. In the X7R thin films on (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) SrTiO 3 , only diffraction peaks with strong intensities from BaTiO 3 (1 0 0) and (1 1 0), respectively, were observed. X7R films on SrTiO 3 (1 1 1) were grown epitaxially oriented to the crystal plane direction of the substrate by inserting an initial homoepitaxial SrTiO 3 layer with a thickness of 4 nm. The X7R/SrTiO 3 film capacitors yielded a large volumetric efficiency of 50 μF/mm 3 and a temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) of -1.3% to 1.3% which satisfies the EIA standard specifications for X7R

  14. Determination of the Young's modulus of pulsed laser deposited epitaxial PZT thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2011-01-01

    We determined the Young’s modulus of pulsed laser deposited epitaxially grown PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) thin films on microcantilevers by measuring the difference in cantilever resonance frequency before and after deposition. By carefully optimizing the accuracy of this technique, we were able to show

  15. Improvement in ferroelectric properties of Pt/PZT/Pt capacitors etched as a function of Ar/O2 gas mixing ratio into Cl2/CF4 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kyu-Tae; Koo, Seong-Mo; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Il

    2004-01-01

    In this work, to investigate improvement of the damage using oxygen containing plasma, we etched PZT films as a function of Ar (x%)/O 2 (y%) gas mixing ratio in Cl 2 (56%)/CF 4 (14%) plasma (where the sum of x and y is 30). The maximum etch rate of the PZT thin films was 146 nm/min for Ar (30%)/O 2 (0%) added into the Cl 2 /CF 4 plasma. After the etching, the plasma-induced damages were characterized in terms of hysteresis curves, leakage current, switching polarization and retention capacity as a function of the gas mixing ratio. When the ferroelectric properties of PZT films were etched as a function of O 2 and Ar and the gas mixing ratios were compared, the value of remnant polarization in O 2 (30%) added Cl 2 /CF 4 plasma is higher than that in Ar (30%). The results showed that after the etching the charges accumulated by oxygen vacancies prevented further domain switching at the top electrode-ferroelectric interface and created leakage current because of modification of the interfacial Schottky barrier during the etching process. The physical damage to the near surface and the crystal structure of the etched PZT thin films was evaluated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The remnant polarization, leakage current, retention and fatigue properties are improved with increasing O 2 content. From XRD results, the improvement in the ferroelectric properties of PZT capacitors etched in O 2 containing plasma was consistent with the increased intensities of the (100) and (200) peaks

  16. Reliability of vibration energy harvesters of metal-based PZT thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujiura, Y.; Suwa, E.; Kurokawa, F.; Hida, H.; Kanno, I.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the reliability of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs) of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films on metal foil cantilevers. The PZT thin films were directly deposited onto the Pt-coated stainless-steel (SS430) cantilevers by rf-magnetron sputtering, and we observed their aging behavior of power generation characteristics under the resonance vibration condition for three days. During the aging measurement, there was neither fatigue failure nor degradation of dielectric properties in our PVEHs (length: 13 mm, width: 5.0 mm, thickness: 104 μm) even under a large excitation acceleration of 25 m/s2. However, we observed clear degradation of the generated electric voltage depending on excitation acceleration. The decay rate of the output voltage was 5% from the start of the measurement at 25 m/s2. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient (e31,f) also degraded with almost the same decay rate as that of the output voltage; this indicates that the degradation of output voltage was mainly caused by that of piezoelectric properties. From the decay curves, the output powers are estimated to degrade 7% at 15 m/s2 and 36% at 25 m/s2 if we continue to excite the PVEHs for 30 years.

  17. Reliability of vibration energy harvesters of metal-based PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujiura, Y; Suwa, E; Kurokawa, F; Hida, H; Kanno, I

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the reliability of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs) of Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) thin films on metal foil cantilevers. The PZT thin films were directly deposited onto the Pt-coated stainless-steel (SS430) cantilevers by rf-magnetron sputtering, and we observed their aging behavior of power generation characteristics under the resonance vibration condition for three days. During the aging measurement, there was neither fatigue failure nor degradation of dielectric properties in our PVEHs (length: 13 mm, width: 5.0 mm, thickness: 104 μm) even under a large excitation acceleration of 25 m/s 2 . However, we observed clear degradation of the generated electric voltage depending on excitation acceleration. The decay rate of the output voltage was 5% from the start of the measurement at 25 m/s 2 . The transverse piezoelectric coefficient (e 31,f ) also degraded with almost the same decay rate as that of the output voltage; this indicates that the degradation of output voltage was mainly caused by that of piezoelectric properties. From the decay curves, the output powers are estimated to degrade 7% at 15 m/s 2 and 36% at 25 m/s 2 if we continue to excite the PVEHs for 30 years

  18. Humidity and polarity influence on MIM PZT capacitor degradation and breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiahui; Salm, Cora; Houwman, Evert; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Nguyen, Minh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability study on unpackaged metal-PZT-metal capacitors. Both ramped voltage stress (RVS) and time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) measurements show that environmental humidity dramatically worsens the PZT reliability. Visible breakdown spots on the surface of PZT

  19. Piezoelectric response of a PZT thin film to magnetic fields from permanent magnet and coil combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiffard, B.; Seveno, R. [Universite de Nantes, Lunam Universite, IETR UMR CNRS 6164, Nantes (France)

    2014-07-10

    In this study, we report the magnetically induced electric field E{sub 3} in Pb(Zr{sub 0.57}Ti{sub 0.43})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films, when they are subjected to both dynamic magnetic induction (magnitude B{sub ac} at 45 kHz) and static magnetic induction (B{sub dc}) generated by a coil and a single permanent magnet, respectively. It is found that highest sensitivity to B{sub dc} - Δ vertical stroke E{sub 3} vertical stroke ΔB{sub dc} - is achieved for the thin film with largest effective electrode. This magnetoelectric (ME) effect is interpreted in terms of coupling between eddy current-induced Lorentz forces (stress) in the electrodes of PZT and piezoelectricity. Such coupling was evidenced by convenient modelling of experimental variations of electric field magnitude with both B{sub ac} and B{sub dc} induction magnitudes, providing imperfect open circuit condition was considered. Phase angle of E{sub 3} versus B{sub dc} could also be modelled. At last, the results show that similar to multilayered piezoelectric-magnetostrictive composite film, a PZT thin film made with a simple manufacturing process can behave as a static or dynamic magnetic field sensor. In this latter case, a large ME voltage coefficient of α = vertical stroke E{sub 3} vertical stroke /B{sub ac} = 3.55 V/cm Oe under B{sub dc} = 0.3 T was found. All these results may provide promising low-cost magnetic energy harvesting applications with microsized systems. (orig.)

  20. Ferroelectric properties of bilayer structured Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/SrBi2Ta2O9 (PZT/SBT) thin films on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenqi; Li Aidong; Shao Qiyue; Xia Yidong; Wu Di; Liu Zhiguo; Ming Naiben

    2008-01-01

    Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) thin films with large remanent polarization and SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 (SBT) thin films with excellent fatigue-resisting characteristic have been widely studied for non-volatile random access memories, respectively. To combine these two advantages , bilayered Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 /SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 (PZT/SBT) thin films were fabricated on Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Si substrates by chemical solution deposition method. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the diffraction peaks of PZT/SBT thin films were completely composed of PZT and SBT, and no other secondary phase was observed. The electrical properties of the bilayered structure PZT/SBT films have been investigated in comparison with pure PZT and SBT films. PZT/SBT bilayered thin films showed larger remanent polarization (2P r ) of 18.37 μC/cm 2 than pure SBT and less polarization fatigue up to 1 x 10 9 switching cycles than pure PZT. These results indicated that this bilayered structure of PZT/SBT is a promising material combination for ferroelectric memory applications

  1. Dielectric relaxation of barium strontium titanate and application to thin films for DRAM capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniecki, John David

    This thesis examines the issues associated with incorporating the high dielectric constant material Barium Strontium Titanate (BSTO) in to the storage capacitor of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM). The research is focused on two areas: characterizing and understanding the factors that control charge retention in BSTO thin films and modifying the electrical properties using ion implantation. The dielectric relaxation of BSTO thin films deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is investigated in the time and frequency domains. It is shown that the frequency dispersion of the complex capacitance of BSTO thin films can be understood in terms of a power-law frequency dependence from 1mHz to 20GHz. From the correspondence between the time and frequency domain measurements, it is concluded that the power-law relaxation currents extend back to the nano second regime of DRAM operation. The temperature, field, and annealing dependence of the dielectric relaxation currents are also investigated and mechanisms for the observed power law relaxation are explored. An equivalent circuit model of a high dielectric constant thin film capacitor is developed based on the electrical measurements and implemented in PSPICE. Excellent agreement is found between the experimental and simulated electrical characteristics showing the utility of the equivalent circuit model in simulating the electrical properties of high dielectric constant thin films. Using the equivalent circuit model, it is shown that the greatest charge loss due to dielectric relaxation occurs during the first read after a refresh time following a write to the opposite logic state for a capacitor that has been written to the same logic state for a long time (opposite state write charge loss). A theoretical closed form expression that is a function of three material parameters is developed which estimates the opposite state write charge loss due to dielectric relaxation. Using the closed form

  2. Optimized electrode coverage of membrane actuators based on epitaxial PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, M D; Dekkers, M; Blank, D H A; Rijnders, G; Nazeer, H

    2013-01-01

    This research presents an optimization of piezoelectric membrane actuators by maximizing the actuator displacement. Membrane actuators based on epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 thin films grown on all-oxide electrodes and buffer layers using silicon technology were fabricated. Electrode coverage was found to be an important factor in the actuation displacement of the piezoelectric membranes. The optimum electrode coverage for maximum displacement was theoretically determined to be 39%, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. Dependences of membrane displacement and optimum electrode coverage on membrane diameter and PZT-film/Si-device-layer thickness ratio have also been investigated. (paper)

  3. Polyvinylidene fluoride film as a capacitor dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dematos, H. V.

    1981-01-01

    Thin strips of polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF) with vacuum deposited electrodes were made into capacitors by conventional winding and fabrication techniques. These devices were used to identify and evaluate the performance characteristics offered by the PVDF in metallized film capacitors. Variations in capacitor parameters with temperature and frequence were evaluated and compared with other dielectric films. Their impact on capacitor applications is discussed.

  4. Thermal Vapor Deposition and Characterization of Polymer-Ceramic Nanoparticle Thin Films and Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagoshi, Joel A.

    Research on alternative energies has become an area of increased interest due to economic and environmental concerns. Green energy sources, such as ocean, wind, and solar power, are subject to predictable and unpredictable generation intermittencies which cause instability in the electrical grid. This problem could be solved through the use of short term energy storage devices. Capacitors made from composite polymer:nanoparticle thin films have been shown to be an economically viable option. Through thermal vapor deposition, we fabricated dielectric thin films composed of the polymer polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) and the ceramic nanoparticle titanium dioxide (TiO2). Fully understanding the deposition process required an investigation of electrode and dielectric film deposition. Film composition can be controlled by the mass ratio of PVDF:TiO2 prior to deposition. An analysis of the relationship between the ratio of PVDF:TiO2 before and after deposition will improve our understanding of this novel deposition method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used to analyze film atomic concentrations. The results indicate a broad distribution of deposited TiO2 concentrations with the highest deposited amount at an initial mass concentration of 17% TiO2. The nanoparticle dispersion throughout the film is analyzed through atomic force microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Images from these two techniques confirm uniform TiO2 dispersion with cluster size less than 300 nm. These results, combined with spectroscopic analysis, verify control over the deposition process. Capacitors were fabricated using gold parallel plates with PVDF:TiO 2 dielectrics. These capacitors were analyzed using the atomic force microscope and a capacohmeter. Atomic force microscope images confirm that our gold films are acceptably smooth. Preliminary capacohmeter measurements indicate capacitance values of 6 nF and break down voltages of 2.4 V

  5. Compositional dependence of the Young's modulus and piezoelectric coefficient of (110)-oriented pulsed laser deposited PZT thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Sardan Sukas, Ö.; Abelmann, Leon; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we report on the compositional dependence of the mechanical and piezoelectric properties of Pb(ZrₓTi₿₋ₓ)O₃ (PZT) thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). These films grow epitaxially on silicon with a (110) preferred orientation and have excellent piezoelectric

  6. High energy density capacitors fabricated by thin film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T W; Johnson, G W; Wagner, A V.

    1999-01-01

    Low energy density in conventional capacitors severely limits efforts to miniaturize power electronics and imposes design limitations on electronics in general. We have successfully applied physical vapor deposition technology to greatly increase capacitor energy density. The high dielectric breakdown strength we have achieved in alumina thin films allows high energy density to be achieved with this moderately low dielectric constant material. The small temperature dependence of the dielectric constant, and the high reliability, high resistivity, and low dielectric loss of Al 2 O 3 , make it even more appealing. We have constructed single dielectric layer thin film capacitors and shown that they can be stacked to form multilayered structures with no loss in yield for a given capacitance. Control of film growth morphology is critical for achieving the smooth, high quality interfaces between metal and dielectric necessary for device operation at high electric fields. Most importantly, high rate deposition with extremely low particle generation is essential for achieving high energy storage at a reasonable cost. This has been achieved by reactive magnetron sputtering in which the reaction to form the dielectric oxide has been confined to the deposition surface. By this technique we have achieved a yield of over 50% for 1 cm 2 devices with an energy density of 14 J per cubic centimeter of Al 2 O 3 dielectric material in 1.2 kV, 4 nF devices. By further reducing defect density and increasing the dielectric constant of the material, we will be able to increase capacitance and construct high energy density devices to meet the requirements of applications in power electronics

  7. Evaluation of unencapsulated ceramic monolithic and MOS thin-film capacitors (25 to 3000C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nance, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Several commercial monolithic ceramic and thin-film MOS chip capacitors were evaluated for use in high temperature (300 0 C) geothermal instrumentation. Characteristics of the commonly used dielectric materials (NPO, X7R, BX) and temperature dependence of the insulation resistance are briefly discussed. Some ceramic capacitors with NPO dielectric materials had insulation resistances above 10 megohms at 300 0 C and less than 2% change in capacitance from 25 0 C to 300 0 C, while the X7R and BX dielectric materials exhibited insulation resistances below 10 megohm and changes in capacitance greater then 50%. The thin-film capacitors showed good stability at 300 0 C. However, during aging, bonds and bond pads presented a problem causing intermittently open circuits for some of the devices

  8. The effect of Nb doping on ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films prepared from polymeric precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, E.C.F.; Simoes, A.Z.; Cilense, M.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Pure and Nb doped PbZr 0.4 Ti 0.6 O 3 thin films was prepared by the polymeric precursor method and deposited by spin coating on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si (100) substrates and annealed at 700 deg. C. The films are oriented in (1 1 0) and (1 0 0) direction. The electric properties of PZT thin films show strong dependence of the crystallographic orientation. The P-E hysteresis loops for the thin film with composition PbZr 0.39 Ti 0.6 Nb 0.1 O 3 showed good saturation, with values for coercive field (E c ) equal to 60 KV cm -1 and for remanent polarization (P r ) equal to 20 μC cm -2 . The measured dielectric constant (ε) is 1084 for this film. These results show good potential for application in FERAM

  9. Characterization of Pb(Zr, Ti)O sub 3 thin films prepared by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition using a solid delivery system

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, J C; Hwang, C S; Kim, H J; Lee, J M

    1999-01-01

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O sub 3 (PZT) thin films were deposited on Pt/SiO sub 2 /Si substrates by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition technique using a solid delivery system to improve the reproducibility of the deposition. The self-regulation mechanism, controlling the Pb-content of the film, was observed to work above a substrate temperature of 620 .deg. C. Even with the self-regulation mechanism, PZT films having low leakage current were obtained only when the molar mixing ratio of the input precursors was 1PZT/Pt capacitor was Schottky emission with a barrier height of 1.36 eV.

  10. 4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as a conducting diffusion barrier layer for integrating ferroelectric capacitor on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, X.H.; Guo, J.X.; Zhang, L.; Jia, D.M.; Qi, C.G.; Zhou, Y.; Li, X.H.; Shi, J.B.; Fu, Y.J.; Wang, Y.L.; Lou, J.Z.; Ma, L.X.; Zhao, H.D.; Liu, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 4-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film is first used as the conducting barrier layer. • No obvious interdiffusion/reaction can be found from the LSCO/PZT/LSCO/Nb–Ni/Si. • The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties. • Ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal to fabricate silicon-based FRAM. - Abstract: We have successfully integrated La 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 /PbZr 0.4 Ti 0.6 O 3 /La 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 (LSCO/PZT/LSCO) capacitors on silicon substrate using a ∼4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as the conducting diffusion barrier layer. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms that the Nb–Ni film is still amorphous after fabrication of the capacitors, and the interfaces related to Nb–Ni are clean and sharp without any findable interdiffusion/reaction. The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties, such as large remanent polarization of ∼22.1 μC/cm 2 , small coercive voltage of ∼1.27 V, good fatigue-resistance, and small pulse width dependence, implying that ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal as the conducting diffusion barrier layer to fabricate high-density silicon-based ferroelectric random access memories

  11. 4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as a conducting diffusion barrier layer for integrating ferroelectric capacitor on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, X.H. [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Hebei 071002 (China); College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Guo, J.X.; Zhang, L.; Jia, D.M.; Qi, C.G.; Zhou, Y.; Li, X.H.; Shi, J.B.; Fu, Y.J.; Wang, Y.L.; Lou, J.Z. [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Hebei 071002 (China); Ma, L.X. [Department of Physics, Blinn College, Bryan, TX 77805 (United States); Zhao, H.D. [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Liu, B.T., E-mail: btliu@hbu.cn [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Hebei 071002 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • 4-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film is first used as the conducting barrier layer. • No obvious interdiffusion/reaction can be found from the LSCO/PZT/LSCO/Nb–Ni/Si. • The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties. • Ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal to fabricate silicon-based FRAM. - Abstract: We have successfully integrated La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3}/PbZr{sub 0.4}Ti{sub 0.6}O{sub 3}/La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} (LSCO/PZT/LSCO) capacitors on silicon substrate using a ∼4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as the conducting diffusion barrier layer. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms that the Nb–Ni film is still amorphous after fabrication of the capacitors, and the interfaces related to Nb–Ni are clean and sharp without any findable interdiffusion/reaction. The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties, such as large remanent polarization of ∼22.1 μC/cm{sup 2}, small coercive voltage of ∼1.27 V, good fatigue-resistance, and small pulse width dependence, implying that ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal as the conducting diffusion barrier layer to fabricate high-density silicon-based ferroelectric random access memories.

  12. Characterization of Bi and Fe co-doped PZT capacitors for FeRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jeffrey S; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Wada, Satoshi; Chatterjee, Abhijit

    2010-08-01

    Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) has been in mass production for over 15 years. Higher polarization ferroelectric materials are needed for future devices which can operate above about 100 °C. With this goal in mind, co-doping of thin Pb(Zr 40 ,Ti 60 )O 3 (PZT) films with 1 at.% Bi and 1 at.% Fe was examined in order to enhance the ferroelectric properties as well as characterize the doped material. The XRD patterns of PZT-5% BiFeO 3 (BF) and PZT 140-nm thick films showed (111) orientation on (111) platinized Si wafers and a 30 °C increase in the tetragonal to cubic phase transition temperature, often called the Curie temperature, from 350 to 380 °C with co-doping, indicating that Bi and Fe are substituting into the PZT lattice. Raman spectra revealed decreased band intensity with Bi and Fe co-doping of PZT compared to PZT. Polarization hysteresis loops show similar values of remanent polarization, but square-shaped voltage pulse-measured net polarization values of PZT-BF were higher and showed higher endurance to repeated cycling up to 10 10 cycles. It is proposed that Bi and Fe are both in the +3 oxidation state and substituting into the perovskite A and B sites, respectively. Substitution of Bi and Fe into the PZT lattice likely creates defect dipoles, which increase the net polarization when measured by the short voltage pulse positive-up-negative-down (PUND) method.

  13. Photoinduced changes in the fatigue behavior of SrBi2Ta2O9 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimos, D.; Al-Shareef, H.N.; Warren, W.L.; Tuttle, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 (SBT) thin films can be made to exhibit significant polarization fatigue by electric-field cycling under broad-band, optical illumination. Photoinduced fatigue is also observed for Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) thin-film capacitors with (La,Sr)CoO 3 (LSCO) electrodes. These results demonstrate that both the Pt/SBT/Pt and the LSCO/PZT/LSCO systems are susceptible to fatigue effects, which are attributed primarily to pinning of domain walls due to charge trapping. Capacitors that have been fatigued under illumination can be fully rejuvinated by applying a dc saturating bias with light or by electric-field cycling without light, which indicates an intrinsic, field-assisted recovery mechanism. We suggest that fatigue is essentially a competition between domain wall pinning and unpinning and that domain pinning is not necessarily absent in these nominally fatigue-free systems, but rather these systems are ones in which unpinning occurs at least as rapidly as any pinning. In both cases, the extent of photoinduced fatigue decreases with increased cycling voltage, indicating the relative importance of field-assisted unpinning. Finally, the observation of photoinduced fatigue implies that increased injection rates, potentially due to oxygen vacancy accumulation, may account for the electrode dependence on fatigue in PZT thin films

  14. Preparation of PZT/YBCO/YAlO heterostructure thin films by KrF excimer laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebihara, Kenji; Kurogi, Hiromitsu; Yamagata, Yukihiko; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Grishin, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The perovskite oxide YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) and Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 (PZT) thin films have been deposited for superconducting-ferroelectric devices. KrF excimer laser ablation technique was used at the deposition conditions of 200--600 mTorr O 2 , 2-3J/cm 2 and 5--10 Hz operation frequency. Heterostructures of PZT-YBCO-YAlO 3 :Nd show the zero resistivity critical temperature of 82 K and excellent ferroelectric properties of remnant polarization 32 microC/cm 2 , coercive force of 80 kV/cm and dielectric constant 800. Cycling fatigue characteristics and leakage current are also discussed

  15. Mechanical and dielectric characterization of lead zirconate titanate(PZT)/polyurethane(PU) thin film composite for energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubakr, S.; Rguiti, M.; Hajjaji, A.; Eddiai, A.; Courtois, C.; d'Astorg, S.

    2014-04-01

    The Lead Zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic is known by its piezoelectric feature, but also by its stiffness, the use of a composite based on a polyurethane (PU) matrix charged by a piezoelectric material, enable to generate a large deformation of the material, therefore harvesting more energy. This new material will provide a competitive alternative and low cost manufacturing technology of autonomous systems (smart clothes, car seat, boat sail, flag ...). A thin film of the PZT/PU composite was prepared using up to 80 vol. % of ceramic. Due to the dielectric nature of the PZT, inclusions of this one in a PU matrix raises the permittivity of the composite, on other hand this latter seems to decline at high frequencies.

  16. Capacitor Property and Leakage Current Mechanism of ZrO2 Thin Dielectric Films Prepared by Anodic Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijyo, Masahiro; Onozuka, Tomotake; Shinkai, Satoko; Sasaki, Katsutaka; Yamane, Misao; Abe, Yoshio

    2003-07-01

    Polycrystalline ZrO2 thin film capacitors were prepared by anodizing sputter-deposited Zr films. Electrical measurements are performed for the parallel-plate anodized capacitors with an Al-ZrO2-Zr (metal-insulator-metal) structure, and a high capacitance density (0.6 μF/cm2) and a low dielectric loss of nearly 1% are obtained for a very thin-oxide capacitor anodized at 10 V. In addition, the leakage current density of this capacitor is about 1.8 × 10-8 A/cm2 at an applied voltage of 5 V. However, the leakage current is somewhat larger than that of a low-loss HfO2 capacitor. The leakage current density (J) of ZrO2 capacitors as a function of applied electric field (E) was investigated for several capacitors with different oxide thicknesses, by plotting \\ln(J) vs E1/2 curves. As a result, it is revealed that the conduction mechanism is due to the Poole-Frenkel effect, irrespective of the oxide thickness.

  17. Influence of plasma pressure on the growth characteristics and ferroelectric properties of sputter-deposited PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, A.; Maity, T.; Bysakh, S.; Seal, A.; Sen, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    PZT thin films of thickness (320-1040) nm were synthesized on Si/SiO 2 /Ti/Pt multilayered substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The influence of plasma pressure in the range of (0.24-4.9) Pa, during deposition, on the structural, electrical and ferroelectric properties of the PZT films was systematically studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were employed for structural study. Nano-probe Energy Dispersive (EDX) line scanning was employed to investigate the elemental distribution across the film-bottom electrode interface. I-V characteristics and polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis loop of the films were measured. The study reveals that the plasma pressure has a strong influence on the evolution and texture of the ferroelectric perovskite phase and microstructure of the films. At an optimum plasma pressure of 4.1 Pa, PZT films are grown with 93% perovskite phase with (1 1 1) preferred orientation and uniform granular microstructure. These films show a saturation polarization of 67 μC/cm 2 , remnant polarization of 30 μC/cm 2 and coercive field of 28 kV/cm which, according to the literature, seem to be suitable for device applications. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study shows that at a plasma pressure of 4.1 Pa, the PZT/bottom Pt interface is sharp and no amorphous interlayer is formed at the interface. At a higher plasma pressure of 4.9 Pa, poor I-V and P-E hysteresis loop are observed which are interpreted as due to an amorphous interlayer at the film-bottom electrode interface which is possibly enriched in Pb, Zr, O and Pt.

  18. Piezoelectric PZT thin films on flexible copper-coated polymer films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchaneck, G.; Volkonskiy, O.; Gerlach, G.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Dejneka, Alexandr; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Kiselev, D.; Bdikin, I.; Kholkin, A.

    636/637, - (2010), s. 392-397 ISSN 0255-5476 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/09/J017; GA AV ČR KJB100100703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : plasma jet deposition * PZT * kapton® film substrate * piezoresponse force microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  19. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial PZT films and devices on silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the integration of lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films into piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based on silicon is studied. In these structures, all epitaxial oxide layers (thin film/electrode/buffer-layer(s)) were deposited by pulsed laser

  20. Effect of La and W dopants on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films prepared by sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Mi; Zhang, Zebin; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    La or W-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films (PLZT or PZTW) were prepared on platinized silicon substrates by sol-gel process. The effects of La or W dopant on the phase development, microstructure, dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of films were studied. For PLZT films, the optimum doping concentration was found to be 2 mol%. While for PZTW films, the dielectric and ferroelectric properties were found to be improved as the doping concentration increased. The fatigue properties of PLZT and PZTW thin films were also investigated, the results showed that A- or B-site donor doping could improve the fatigue properties of PZT thin films. The theory of oxygen vacancy was used to explain the performance improvement caused by donor doping. (orig.)

  1. Effect of La and W dopants on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films prepared by sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mi; Zhang, Zebin; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    La or W-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films (PLZT or PZTW) were prepared on platinized silicon substrates by sol-gel process. The effects of La or W dopant on the phase development, microstructure, dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of films were studied. For PLZT films, the optimum doping concentration was found to be 2 mol%. While for PZTW films, the dielectric and ferroelectric properties were found to be improved as the doping concentration increased. The fatigue properties of PLZT and PZTW thin films were also investigated, the results showed that A- or B-site donor doping could improve the fatigue properties of PZT thin films. The theory of oxygen vacancy was used to explain the performance improvement caused by donor doping.

  2. Defect enhanced optic and electro-optic properties of lead zirconate titanate thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Zhu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pb(Zr1-xTixO3 (PZT thin films near phase morphotropic phase boundary were deposited on (Pb0.86La0.14TiO3-coated glass by radio frequency sputtering. A retrieved analysis shows that the lattice parameters of the as-grown PZT thin films were similar to that of monoclinic PZT structure. Moreover, the PZT thin films possessed refractive index as high as 2.504 in TE model and 2.431 in TM model. The as-grown PZT thin film had one strong absorption peak at 632.6 nm, which attributed to lead deficiency by quantitative XPS analysis. From the attractive properties achieved, electro-optic and photovoltaic characteristic of the films were carried out.

  3. Mems-based pzt/pzt bimorph thick film vibration energy harvester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We describe fabrication and characterization of a significantly improved version of a MEMS-based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass. The main advantage of bimorph vibration energy harvesters is that strain energy is not lost in mechanical...... support materials since only PZT is strained, and thus it has a potential for significantly higher output power. An improved process scheme for the energy harvester resulted in a robust fabrication process with a record high fabrication yield of 98.6%. Moreover, the robust fabrication process allowed...... a high pressure treatment of the screen printed PZT thick films prior to sintering, improving the PZT thick film performance and harvester power output reaches 37.1 μW at 1 g....

  4. Investigation of Top/bottom Electrode and Diffusion Barrier Layer for PZT thick film MEMS Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Lou-Møller, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work screen printed piezoelectric Ferroperm PZ26 lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick film is used for two MEMS devices. A test structure is used to investigate several aspects regarding bottom and top electrodes. 450 nm ZrO2 thin film is found to be an insufficient diffusion barrier layer...... for thick film PZT sintered at 850degC. E-beam evaporated Al and Pt is patterned on PZT with a lift-off process with a line width down to 3 mum. The roughness of the PZT is found to have a strong influence on the conductance of the top electrode....

  5. Size effects on structural and dielectric properties of PZT thin films at compositions around the morpho tropic phase boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Elton Carvalho; Araujo, Eudes Borges; Souza Filho, Antonio Gomes de; Bdikin, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The demand for portability in consumer electronics has motivated the understanding of size effects on ferroelectric thin films. The actual comprehension of these effects in ferroelectrics is unsatisfactory, since the polarization interacts more strongly than other order parameters such as strain and charge. As a result, extrinsic effects are produced if these variables are uncontrolled and problems such as ferroelectric paraelectric phase transition at nanometers scale remains an unsolved issue. In the present work, the effects of thickness and compositional fractions on the structural and dielectric properties of PbZr 1-x Ti x O 3 (PZT) thin films were studied at a composition around the morphotropic phase boundary (x = 0.50). For this purpose, thin films with different thicknesses and different PbO excess were deposited on Si(100) and Pt=T iO 2 =SiO 2 =Si substrates by a chemical method and crystallized in electric furnace at 700 deg C for 1 hour. The effects of substrate, pyrolysis temperature and excess lead addition in the films are reported. For films with 10 mol% PbO in excess, the pyrolysis in the regime of 300 deg C for 30 minutes was observed to yield PZT pyrochlore free thin films deposited on Pt=T iO 2 =SiO 2 =Si substrate. Out this condition, the transformation from amorphous to the pyrochlore metastable phase is kinetically more favorable that a transformation to the perovskite phase, which is thermodynamically stable. Rietveld refinements based on X-ray diffraction results showed that films present a purely tetragonal phase and that this phase does not change when the film thickness decreases. The dielectric permittivity measurements showed a monoclinic → tetragonal phase transition at 198K. Results showed that the dielectric permittivity (ε) increases continuously from 257 to 463, while the thickness of the PZT films increases from 200 to 710 nm. These results suggests that interface pinning centers can be the responsible mechanism by

  6. Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate for Thin-Film Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mamazza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available New apparatus and a new process for the sputter deposition of modified barium titanate thin-films were developed. Films were deposited at temperatures up to 900 °C from a Ba0.96Ca0.04Ti0.82Zr0.18O3 (BCZTO target directly onto Si, Ni and Pt surfaces and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Film texture and crystallinity were found to depend on both deposition temperature and substrate: above 600 °C, the as-deposited films consisted of well-facetted crystallites with the cubic perovskite structure. A strongly textured Pt (111 underlayer enhanced the (001 orientation of BCZTO films deposited at 900 °C, 10 mtorr pressure and 10% oxygen in argon. Similar films deposited onto a Pt (111 textured film at 700 °C and directly onto (100 Si wafers showed relatively larger (011 and diminished intensity (00ℓ diffraction peaks. Sputter ambients containing oxygen caused the Ni underlayers to oxidize even at 700 °C: Raising the process temperature produced more diffraction peaks of NiO with increased intensities. Thin-film capacitors were fabricated using ~500 nm thick BCZTO dielectrics and both Pt and Ni top and bottom electrodes. Small signal capacitance measurements were carried out to determine capacitance and parallel resistance at low frequencies and from these data, the relative permittivity (er and resistivity (r of the dielectric films were calculated; values ranged from ~50 to >2,000, and from ~104 to ~1010 Ω∙cm, respectively.

  7. Comparison of lead zirconate titanate thin films on ruthenium oxide and platinum electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Reaney, I.M.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution and bright- and dark-field transmission electron microscopy are used to characterize and compare the interface structures and microstructure of PZT/RuO 2 /SiO 2 /Si and PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si ferroelectric thin films, with a view to understanding the improved fatigue characteristics of PZT thin films with RuO 2 electrodes. The RuO 2 /PZT interface consists of a curved pseudoperiodic minimal surface. The interface is chemically sharp with virtually no intermixing of RuO 2 and PZT, as evidenced by the atomic resolution images as well as energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A nanocrystalline pyrochlore phase Pb 2 ZrTiO 7-x (x ≠ 1) was found on the top surface of the PZT layer. The PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si thin film was well-crystallized and showed sharp interfaces throughout. Possible reasons for the improved fatigue characteristics of PZT/RuO 2 /SiO 2 /Si thin films are discussed. 13 refs; 7 figs

  8. Comparison of lead zirconate titanate thin films on ruthenium oxide and platinum electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L A; Reaney, I M

    1994-12-31

    High-resolution and bright- and dark-field transmission electron microscopy are used to characterize and compare the interface structures and microstructure of PZT/RuO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si and PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si ferroelectric thin films, with a view to understanding the improved fatigue characteristics of PZT thin films with RuO{sub 2} electrodes. The RuO{sub 2}/PZT interface consists of a curved pseudoperiodic minimal surface. The interface is chemically sharp with virtually no intermixing of RuO{sub 2} and PZT, as evidenced by the atomic resolution images as well as energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A nanocrystalline pyrochlore phase Pb{sub 2}ZrTiO{sub 7-x} (x {ne} 1) was found on the top surface of the PZT layer. The PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si thin film was well-crystallized and showed sharp interfaces throughout. Possible reasons for the improved fatigue characteristics of PZT/RuO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si thin films are discussed. 13 refs; 7 figs.

  9. On-Orbit Demonstration of a Lithium-Ion Capacitor and Thin-Film Multijunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukita, Akio; Takahashi, Masato; Shimazaki, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Yuki; Sakai, Tomohiko; Toyota, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yu; Murashima, Mio; Uno, Masatoshi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes an on-orbit demonstration of the Next-generation Small Satellite Instrument for Electric power systems (NESSIE) on which an aluminum- laminated lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) and a lightweight solar panel called KKM-PNL, which has space solar sheets using thin-film multijunction solar cells, were installed. The flight data examined in this paper covers a period of 143 days from launch. We verified the integrity of an LIC constructed using a simple and lightweight mounting method: no significant capacitance reduction was observed. We also confirmed that inverted metamorphic multijunction triple-junction thin-film solar cells used for evaluation were healthy at 143 days after launch, because their degradation almost matched the degradation predictions for dual-junction thin-film solar cells.

  10. Characteristics of Au/PZT/TiO2/Nitride/Si structure capacitors with ICP nitride treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Hyung Seob; Kim, Tae Ho; Jeon, Chang Bae; Lee, Jae Gab; Kim, Ji Young

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of PZT/TiO 2 ferroelectric gate stack capacitors with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) nitridation were investigated for field effect transistor (FET)-type Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM) applications. If a high accumulation capacitance is to be had, the ICP nitridation time needs to be optimized. While a short ICP treatment time results in thermal oxide growth due to lack of nitrogen, a long nitridation time causes a nitride layer which is too thick. Au/PZT(200 nm)/TiO 2 (40 nm)/Nitride/Si (MeFINS) structure capacitors show a memory window (ΔV) of 1.6 V under ±3-V operation while Au/PZT(200 nm)/TiO 2 (40 nm)/Si (MeFIS) capacitors without nitride treatment exhibit a small memory window of 0.6 V. At the same time, the capacitance of the MeFINS device is almost twice that of the MeFIS capacitor. This result implies that the ICP nitride treatment suppresses the formation of a low dielectric constant interfacial SiO x layer and alleviates the series capacitance problem

  11. Characterization of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)--indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, K.; Sayer, M.; Laursen, T.; Whitton, J.L.; Pascual, R.; Johnson, D.J.; Amm, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the interface between ultrathin sputtered lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films and a conductive electrode (indium tin oxide-ITO) is investigated. Structural and compositional changes at the PZT-ITO interface have been examined by surface analysis and depth profiling techniques of glancing angle x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering (RBS), SIMS, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). Studies indicate significant interdiffusion of lead into the underlying ITP layer and glass substrate with a large amount of residual stress at the interface. Influence of such compositional deviations at the interface is correlated to an observed thickness dependence in the dielectric properties of PZT films

  12. Effect of Pb content and solution concentration of Pb{sub x}TiO{sub 3} seed layer on (100)-texture and ferroelectric/dielectric behavior of PZT (52/48) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Jian; Batra, Vaishali; Han, Hui; Kotru, Sushma, E-mail: skotru@eng.ua.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Pandey, Raghvendar K. [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The effect of Pb content and solution concentration of lead titanate (Pb{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) seed layer on the texture and electric properties of Pb{sub 1.1}(Zr{sub 0.52},Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films was investigated. A variety of seed layers (y Pb{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) with varying solution concentration (y = 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 M) and Pb content (x = 1.0, 1.05, 1.1, and 1.2) was deposited on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates using chemical-solution deposition method. PZT films were then deposited on these seed layers using the same process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the seed layers confirm change in crystal structure with variation in the solution properties. XRD studies of PZT films deposited on seed layers demonstrate that the seed layer helps in enhancing (100)-texture and suppressing (111)-texture. It was observed that PZT films prepared on seed layers with lower solution concentrations results in highly (100)-textured films, which further helps to improve the electric properties. The polarization and dielectric constant of the PZT films were seen to increase while the coercive field decreased with increase in (100)-texture. Irrespective of the seed layer solution concentration, higher Pb content in the seed layer deteriorates the PZT film properties. Ninety-five percent to ninety-six percent (100)-texture was obtained from thin PZT films deposited on seed layers of 0.02 M solution concentration with 1.05 and 1.10 Pb contents, which is higher than the values reported for thick PZT films. Optimization of both Pb content and solution concentration of the seed layer is a promising route to achieve highly (100)-textured PZT films with improved electric properties.

  13. Charge retention characteristics of (Bi,La)4Ti3O12 capacitors : comparison with Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, J. G.; Kim, D. J.; So, Y. W.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the retention characteristics of (Bi,La) 4 Ti 3 O 12 (BLT) capacitors with Pt electrodes and compared them with Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) capacitors in the same- and opposite-state retentions. Polarization relaxations in short-time regime (t < 100 s) were well described by a power-law decay function, but the polarization relaxation of BLT was more significant than that of PZT. We discuss the difference in the relaxation process of polarization in conjunction with film microstructures and magnitudes of polarization for BLT and PZT. In long-time opposite-state retention, BLT capacitors showed much better characteristics than PZT. For both BLT and PZT, the opposite-state retention loss was governed by the development of an internal field during retention. For BLT capacitors, internal field development was much weaker than for PZT after retention, resulting in a good opposite-state retention. Structural and electrical properties are discussed in conjunction with the retention characteristics of the materials.

  14. Influence of processing parameters on PZT thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Oliver; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2005-01-01

    We have studied influence of processing parameters on the microstructure and ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based thick films in the range of 5-25 μm. PZT and 2% La-doped PZT thick films were processed using a modified sol-gel process. In this process, PZT- and La-doped PZT powders were first prepared via sol-gel. These powders were calcined and then used with respective sols to form a slurry. Slurry composition was optimized to spin-coat thick films on platinized Si substrate (Si/SiO 2 /Ti/Pt). Spinning rate, acceleration and slurry deposition techniques were optimized to form thick films with uniform thickness and without any cracking. Increasing solids loading was found to enhance the surface smoothness of the film and decrease porosity. Films were tested for their electrical properties and ferroelectric fatigue response. The maximum polarization obtained was 40 μC/cm 2 at 250 kV/cm for PZT thick film and 30 μC/cm 2 at 450 kV/cm for La-doped PZT thick film. After 10 9 cycles of fatiguing at 35 kHz, La-doped PZT showed better resistance for ferroelectric fatigue compared with un-doped PZT films

  15. Screen printed PZT/PZT thick film bimorph MEMS cantilever device for vibration energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We present a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass. Most piezoelectric energy harvesting devices use a cantilever beam of a non piezoelectric material as support beneath or in-between the piezoelectric...... elements. We show experimental results from two types PZT/PZT harvesting devices, one where the Pb(ZrxTi1−x)O3 (PZT) thick films are high pressure treated during the fabrication and the other where the treatment is omitted. We find that with the high pressure treatment prior to PZT sintering, the films...

  16. Pt/Pb(Zr, Ti)O3/Pt capacitor with excellent fatigue properties prepared by sol-gel process applied to FeRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Ze; Ren Tianling; Zhang Zhigang; Liu Tianzhi; Wen Xinyi; Hu Hong; Shao Tianqi; Xie Dan; Liu Litian

    2006-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film is prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrate by proposed processes based on the sol-gel method and rapid thermal anneal (RTA). The ratio of Zr/Ti in the PZT film is 40/60. The PZT film has a mixture of perovskite orientations in which the (110) orientation is dominant. The Pt/PZT/Pt capacitor has remanent polarization of approximately 28.8 μC cm -2 and coercive voltage of approximately 0.76 V at 3 V voltage amplitude. The Pt/PZT/Pt capacitor has excellent fatigue properties. Switch polarizations decrease to 93.1% after 6 x 10 12 switch cycles. The excellent fatigue properties result from the ameliorations of PZT/Pt interface conditions, restraining Pb volatilization and the directions of crystal domains in the RTA process. Some electric properties of the PZT capacitor proposed are contrasted with those of PZT capacitors with a different anneal process in the preparation

  17. PZT piezoelectric films on glass for Gen-X imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2010-09-01

    The proposed adaptive optics system for the Gen-X telescope uses piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films deposited on flexible glass substrates. The low softening transition of the glass substrates imposes several processing challenges that require the development of new approaches to deposit high quality PZT thin films. Synthesis and optimization of chemical solution deposited 1 μm thick films of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 on small area (1 in2) and large area (16 in2) Pt/Ti/glass substrates has been performed. In order to avoid warping of the glass at temperatures typically used to crystallize PZT films ({700°C), a lower temperature, two-step crystallization process was employed. An {80 nm thick seed layer of PbZr0.30Ti0.70O3 was deposited to promote the growth of the perovskite phase. After the deposition of the seed layer, the films were annealed in a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) furnace at 550°C for 3 minutes to nucleate the perovskite phase. This was followed by isothermal annealing at 550°C for 1 hour to complete crystallization. For the subsequent PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 layers, the same RTA protocol was performed, with the isothermal crystallization implemented following the deposition of three PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 spin-coated layers. Over the frequency range of 1 kHz to 100 kHz, films exhibit relative permittivity values near 800 with loss tangents below 0.07. Hysteresis loops show low levels of imprint with coercive fields of 40-50 kV/cm in the forward direction and 50-70 kV/cm in the reverse direction. The remanent polarization varied from 25-35 μC/cm2 and e31,f values were approximately -5.0 C/m2. In scaling up the growth procedure to large area films, where warping becomes more pronounced due to the increased size of the substrate, the pyrolysis and crystallization conditions were performed in a box furnace to improve the temperature uniformity. By depositing films on both sides of the glass substrate, the tensile stresses are balanced, providing a

  18. Thermally tunable VO2-SiO2 nanocomposite thin-film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yifei; Narayanachari, K. V. L. V.; Wan, Chenghao; Sun, Xing; Wang, Haiyan; Cooley, Kayla A.; Mohney, Suzanne E.; White, Doug; Duwel, Amy; Kats, Mikhail A.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2018-03-01

    We present a study of co-sputtered VO2-SiO2 nanocomposite dielectric thin-film media possessing continuous temperature tunability of the dielectric constant. The smooth thermal tunability is a result of the insulator-metal transition in the VO2 inclusions dispersed within an insulating matrix. We present a detailed comparison of the dielectric characteristics of this nanocomposite with those of a VO2 control layer and of VO2/SiO2 laminate multilayers of comparable overall thickness. We demonstrated a nanocomposite capacitor that has a thermal capacitance tunability of ˜60% between 25 °C and 100 °C at 1 MHz, with low leakage current. Such thermally tunable capacitors could find potential use in applications such as sensing, thermal cloaks, and phase-change energy storage devices.

  19. Thickness dependence of the switching voltage in all-oxide ferroelectric thin-film capacitors prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cillessen, J.F.M.; Prins, M.W.J.; Wolf, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Thin-film ferroelectric capacitors consisting of PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 sandwiched between La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 electrodes have been deposited using pulsed laser deposition. The combination of oxidic perovskite-type materials results in capacitors with a coercive field (Ec) which is comparable with values for

  20. Interface depolarization field as common denominator of fatigue and size effect in Pb(Zr0.54Ti0.46)O3 ferroelectric thin film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouregba, R.; Sama, N.; Soyer, C.; Poullain, G.; Remiens, D.

    2010-05-01

    Dielectric, hysteresis and fatigue measurements are performed on Pb(Zr0.54Ti0.46)O3 (PZT) thin film capacitors with different thicknesses and different electrode configurations, using platinum and LaNiO3 conducting oxide. The data are compared with those collected in a previous work devoted to study of size effect by R. Bouregba et al., [J. Appl. Phys. 106, 044101 (2009)]. Deterioration of the ferroelectric properties, consecutive to fatigue cycling and thickness downscaling, presents very similar characteristics and allows drawing up a direct correlation between the two phenomena. Namely, interface depolarization field (Edep) resulting from interface chemistry is found to be the common denominator, fatigue phenomena is manifestation of strengthen of Edep in the course of time. Change in dielectric permittivity, in remnant and coercive values as well as in the shape of hysteresis loops are mediated by competition between degradation of dielectric properties of the interfaces and possible accumulation of interface space charge. It is proposed that presence in the band gap of trap energy levels with large time constant due to defects in small nonferroelectric regions at the electrode—PZT film interfaces ultimately governs the aging process. Size effect and aging process may be seen as two facets of the same underlying mechanism, the only difference lies in the observation time of the phenomena.

  1. Preparation of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 Thin Films on Glass Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Tsuyoshi; Akiyama, Masahiko; Ueda, Tomomasa; Onozuka, Yutaka; Hara, Yujiro; Suzuki, Kouji

    2000-09-01

    Lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin films were prepared on non-alkaline glass substrates widely used in liquid crystal display (LCD) devices, by plasma-assisted magnetron RF sputtering with an immersed coil. After preparation of the PZT thin film, the glass was available for use in LCD device processing. No mutual diffusion of the elements was recognized between the glass substrate and the bottom electrode. The PZT layer had a dense film structure with rectangular and columnar grains, and only its perovskite phase was crystalline. PZT thin films on a glass substrate had leakage current densities of about 10-8 A/cm2, acceptable hysteresis loop shapes with the remanent polarization (Pr) of 45 μC/cm2 and the coercive field (Ec) of 90 kV/cm. Ferroelectric properties on a glass substrate almost conform with those on a Si-based substrate.

  2. Stacking effect on the ferroelectric properties of PZT/PLZT multilayer thin films formed by photochemical metal-organic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeong-Ho; Park, Hyung-Ho; Hill, Ross H.

    2004-01-01

    The ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) multilayer films formed by photochemical metal-organic deposition (PMOD) using photosensitive precursors have been characterized. The substitution of La for Pb was reported to induce improved ferroelectric properties, especially fatigue resistance, through the reduction of oxygen vacancies. The relation between La-substitution and the ferroelectric properties was investigated by characterization of the effect of the order of stacking four ferroelectric layers of PZT or PLZT in the multilayer films 4-PZT, PZT/2-PLZT/PZT, PLZT/2-PZT/PLZT, and 4-PLZT. The films with the PLZT layer at the top and bottom showed an improvement in the fatigue resistance. It was revealed that defect dipole such as O vacancy was reduced at the ferroelectric/Pt interface by doping with La. Also, the bottom layer, just on Pt substrate had a significant influence on the surface microstructure and growth orientation of ferroelectric film

  3. Comparison of lead zirconate titanate thin films on ruthenium oxide and platinum electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Bursill, Les A.; Reaney, Ian M.; Vijay, Dilip P.; Desu, Seshu B.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution and bright- and dark-field transmission electron microscopy are used to characterize and compare the interface structures and microstructure of PZT/RuO2/SiO2/Si and PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si ferroelectric thin films, with a view to understanding the improved fatigue characteristics of PZT thin films with RuO2 electrodes. The RuO2/PZT interface consists of a curved pseudoperiodic minimal surface. The interface is chemically sharp with virtually no intermixing of RuO2 and PZT, as eviden...

  4. Effects of crystalline quality and electrode material on fatigue in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Johnson, L.; Safari, A.; Ramesh, R.; Sands, T.; Gilchrist, H.; Keramidas, V. G.

    1993-07-01

    Pb(Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))O3 (PZT)/Y1Ba2Cu3O(x) (YBCO) heterostructures were grown by pulsed laser deposition, in which PZT films were epitaxial, highly oriented, or polycrystalline. These PZT films were obtained by varying the deposition temperature from 550 to 760 C or by using various substrates such as SrTiO3 (100), MgO (100), and r-plane sapphire. PZT films with Pt top electrodes exhibited large fatigue with 35-50 percent loss of the remanent polarization after 10 exp 9 cycles, depending on the crystalline quality. Polycrystalline films showed better fatigue resistance than epitaxial or highly oriented films. However, PZT films with both top and bottom YBCO electrodes had significantly improved fatigue resistance for both epitaxial and polycrystalline films. Electrode material seems to be a more important parameter in fatigue than the crystalline quality of the PZT films.

  5. Fabrication of Pb (Zr, Ti) O3 Thin Film for Non-Volatile Memory Device Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mar Lar Win

    2011-12-01

    Ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate powder was composed of mainly the oxides of titanium, zirconium and lead. PZT powder was firstly prepared by thermal synthesis at different Zr/Ti ratios with various sintering temperatures. PZT thin film was fabricated on SiO2/Si substrate by using thermal evaporation method. Physical and elemental analysis were carried out by using SEM, EDX and XRD The ferroelectric properties and the switching behaviour of the PZT thin films were investigated. The ferroelectric properties and switching properties of the PZT thin film (near morphotropic phase boundary sintered at 800 C) could function as a nonvolatile memory.

  6. A fatigue test method for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films by using MEMS-based self-sensitive piezoelectric microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Maeda, R.; Itoh, T.

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, we propose a new method for the fatigue test of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films for MEMS devices by using self-sensitive piezoelectric microcantilevers developed in our previous study. We have deposited PZT thin films on SOI wafers and fabricated the microcantilevers through the MEMS microfabrication process. In the self-sensitive piezoelectric microcantilevers, the PZT thin films are separated in order to act as an actuator and a sensor. The fatigue characteristic of the PZT thin films can be evaluated by measuring the output voltage of the sensor as a function of time. When a sine wave of 20 Vpp and a dc bias of 10 V were applied to the PZT thin films for an actuator, the output voltage of the sensor fell down after 107 fatigue cycles. We have also investigated the influence of amplitude of the actuation sine wave and dc bias on the fatigue of the PZT thin films by using the proposed fatigue test method.

  7. A fatigue test method for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films by using MEMS-based self-sensitive piezoelectric microcantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T; Maeda, R; Itoh, T

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we propose a new method for the fatigue test of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films for MEMS devices by using self-sensitive piezoelectric microcantilevers developed in our previous study. We have deposited PZT thin films on SOI wafers and fabricated the microcantilevers through the MEMS microfabrication process. In the self-sensitive piezoelectric microcantilevers, the PZT thin films are separated in order to act as an actuator and a sensor. The fatigue characteristic of the PZT thin films can be evaluated by measuring the output voltage of the sensor as a function of time. When a sine wave of 20 V pp and a dc bias of 10 V were applied to the PZT thin films for an actuator, the output voltage of the sensor fell down after 10 7 fatigue cycles. We have also investigated the influence of amplitude of the actuation sine wave and dc bias on the fatigue of the PZT thin films by using the proposed fatigue test method

  8. Comparison of effective transverse piezoelectric coefficients e31,f of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films between direct and converse piezoelectric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujiura, Yuichi; Kawabe, Saneyuki; Kurokawa, Fumiya; Hida, Hirotaka; Kanno, Isaku

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficients (e31,f) of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films from both the direct and converse piezoelectric effects of unimorph cantilevers. (001) preferentially oriented polycrystalline PZT thin films and (001)/(100) epitaxial PZT thin films were deposited on (111)Pt/Ti/Si and (001)Pt/MgO substrates, respectively, by rf-magnetron sputtering, and their piezoelectric responses owing to intrinsic and extrinsic effects were examined. The direct and converse |e31,f| values of the polycrystalline PZT thin films were calculated as 6.4 and 11.5-15.0 C/m2, respectively, whereas those of the epitaxial PZT thin films were calculated as 3.4 and 4.6-4.8 C/m2, respectively. The large |e31,f| of the converse piezoelectric property of the polycrystalline PZT thin films is attributed to extrinsic piezoelectric effects. Furthermore, the polycrystalline PZT thin films show a clear nonlinear piezoelectric contribution, which is the same as the Rayleigh-like behavior reported in bulk PZT. In contrast, the epitaxial PZT thin films on the MgO substrate show a piezoelectric response owing to the intrinsic and linear extrinsic effects, and no nonlinear contribution was observed.

  9. Presentation and characterization of novel thick-film PZT microactuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalvet, Vincent; Habineza, Didace, E-mail: didace.habineza@femto-st.fr; Rakotondrabe, Micky; Clévy, Cédric

    2016-04-01

    We propose in this paper the characterization of a new generation of piezoelectric cantilevers called thick-films piezoelectric actuators. Based on the bonding and thinning process of a bulk PZT layer onto a silicon layer, these cantilevers can provide better static and dynamic performances compared to traditional piezocantilevers, additionally to the small dimensions.

  10. Precise measurement of the transverse piezoelectric coefficient for thin films on anisotropic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Doo-Man; Sato, Masashi; Kanno, Isaku

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a reliable measurement method for the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient for thin films especially on anisotropic substrate. This coefficient for piezoelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 (PZT) thin films was calculated by measuring the electric field-induced tip displacement of unimorph cantilevers composed of PZT thin films and Si substrates. We evaluated the reliability of the proposed measurement method by comparing it with numerical analysis and confirmed that the relative error of the piezoelectric coefficient (e 31,f ) was less than 1%. We prepared 16 different unimorph cantilevers composed of identical PZT films on different Si beam geometries that had various substrate thicknesses and cantilever widths. Although the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient e 31,f of PZT thin films ranged from −6.5 to −14 C/m 2 as a function of the applied voltage, the difference among the 16 samples with an applied voltage of 25 V was within 10%. These results demonstrate that the proposed measurement method has sufficient reliability and can be used to evaluate the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient e 31,f of thin films.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of MEMS-based PZT/PZT bimorph thick film vibration energy harvesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of a significantly improved version of a microelectromechanical system-based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass; the harvester is fabricated in a fully monolithic process. The main advantage...... yield of 98%. The robust fabrication process allowed a high pressure treatment of the screen printed PZT thick films prior to sintering. The high pressure treatment improved the PZT thick film performance and increased the harvester power output to 37.1 μW at 1 g root mean square acceleration. We also...... characterize the harvester performance when only one of the PZT layers is used while the other is left open or short circuit....

  12. An Auger electron spectroscopy study on the anodization process of high-quality thin-film capacitors made of hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noya, Atsushi; Sasaki, Katsutaka; Umezawa, Toshiji

    1989-01-01

    Formation process of the anodic oxide film of hafnium for use as a thin-film capacitor has been examined by the current-voltage characteristics of the anodization and the in-depth analysis of formed oxide using Auger electron spectroscopy. It is found that the oxide growth obeys three different rate laws such as the linear rate law at first and next the parabolic rate law during the constant current anodization, and then the reciprocal logarithmic rate law during the constant voltage anodization following after the constant current process. From the Auger electron spectroscopy analysis, it is found that the shape of the compositional depth profile of the grown oxide film varies associating with the rate law of oxidation obeyed. The variation of depth profile correlating with the rate law is discussed with respect to each elementary process such as the transport and/or the reaction of chemical species interpreted from the over-all behavior of anodization process. It is revealed that the stoichiometric film having an interface with sharp transition, which is favorable for obtaining excellent electrical properties of the capacitor, can be obtained under the condition that the phase-boundary reaction is the rate-determining step of the anodization. The constant voltage anodization process also satisfies such circumstances and therefore can be favorable method for preparing highquality thin-film capacitors. (author)

  13. Enhanced electrical properties in bilayered ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Long, WeiJie; Chen, YaQing; Guo, DongJie

    2013-03-01

    Sr2Bi4Ti5O18 (SBTi) single layered and Sr2Bi4Ti5O18/Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 (SBTi/PZT) bilayered thin films have been prepared on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). The related structural characterizations and electrical properties have been comparatively investigated. X-ray diffraction reveals that both films have crystallized into perovskite phases and scanning electron microscopy shows the sharp interfaces. Both films show well-saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops, however, compared with the single layered SBTi films, the SBTi/PZT bilayered films have significantly increased remnant polarization ( P r) and decreased coercive field ( E c), with the applied field of 260 kV/cm. The measured P r and E c of SBTi and SBTi/PZT films were 7.9 μC/cm2, 88.1 kV/cm and 13.0 μC/cm2, 51.2 kV/cm, respectively. In addition, both films showed good fatigue-free characteristics, the switchable polarization decreased by 9% and 11% of the initial values after 2.2×109 switching cycles for the SBTi single layered films and the SBTi/PZT bilayered films, respectively. Our results may provide some guidelines for further optimization of multilayered ferroelectric thin films.

  14. Effects of post-deposition oxygen annealing on tuning properties of Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 thin-film capacitors for microwave integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.R.; Lai, P.T.; Li, G.Q.; Li, B.; Peng, J.B.; Lo, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    Barium strontium titanate (BST) thin-films deposited on a SiO 2 /Si substrate by argon ion-beam sputtering technique were annealed at 400, 500 and 600 deg. C in oxygen for 30 min, respectively, and were used to fabricate integrated parallel-plate capacitors by standard integrated-circuit technology. These capacitors can achieve tunability greater than 60% at an applied dc voltage of 2 V and a frequency of 100 kHz at room temperature. Considering tunability, loss factor and hysteresis effect, the BST thin-film annealed at 500 deg. C is superior for making tunable microwave integrated capacitors. The effects of annealing treatment in oxygen on the tuning properties of the thin-film capacitors are analyzed, and the results indicate that the tunability is strongly dependent on both oxygen vacancies and negatively charged oxygen, trapped at the grain boundary and/or at the electrode/dielectric interface

  15. Role of dual-laser ablation in controlling the Pb depletion in epitaxial growth of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films with enhanced surface quality and ferroelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Devajyoti; Hyde, Robert; Mukherjee, Pritish; Srikanth, Hariharan; Witanachchi, Sarath

    2012-03-01

    Pb depletion in Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin films has remained as a major setback in the growth of defect-free PZT thin films by pulsed laser ablation techniques. At low excimer (KrF) laser fluences, the high volatility of Pb in PZT leads to non-congruent target ablation and, consequently, non-stoichiometric films, whereas, at high laser fluences, the inherent ejection of molten droplets from the target leads to particulate laden films, which is undesirable in heterostructure growth. To overcome these issues, a dual-laser ablation (PLDDL) process that combines an excimer (KrF) laser and CO2 laser pulses was used to grow epitaxial PZT films on SrTiO3 (100) and MgO (100) substrates. Intensified-charge-coupled-detector (ICCD) images and optical emission spectroscopy of the laser-ablated plumes in PLDDL revealed a broader angular expansion and enhanced excitation of the ablated species as compared to those for single-laser ablation (PLDSL). This led to the growth of particulate-free PZT films with higher Pb content, better crystallinity, and lower surface roughness as compared to those deposited using PLDSL. For FE measurements, PZT capacitors were fabricated in situ using the latticed-matched metallic oxide, La0.7Sr0.3MnO3, as the top and bottom electrodes. PZT films deposited using PLDDL exhibited enhanced polarization for all driving voltages as compared to those deposited using PLDSL. A highest remanent polarization (Pr) of ˜91 μC/cm2 and low coercive field of ˜40 kV/cm was recorded at 9 V driving voltage. Fatigue characterization revealed that PZT films deposited using PLDDL showed unchanging polarization, even after 109 switching cycles.

  16. Performance of magnetoelectric PZT/Ni multiferroic system for energy harvesting application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Reema; Tomar, Monika; Kumar, Ashok; Gupta, Vinay

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT) thin films has been probed for possible energy harvesting applications. Single phase PZT thin films have been deposited on nickel substrate (PZT/Ni) using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The effect of PLD process parameters on the ME coupling coefficient in the prepared systems has been investigated. The as grown PZT films on Ni substrate were found to be polycrystalline with improved ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. The electrical switching behavior of the PZT thin films were verified using capacitance voltage measurements, where well defined butterfly loops were obtained. The ME coupling coefficient was estimated to be in the range of 94.5 V cm-1 Oe-1-130.5 V cm-1 Oe-1 for PZT/Ni system, which is large enough for harnessing electromagnetic energy for subsequent applications.

  17. Adhesion strength of lead zirconate titanate sol-gel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berfield, Thomas A., E-mail: tom.berfield@louisville.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Kitey, Rajesh [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur (India); Kandula, Soma S. [Intel Corporation, Portland, OR (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The adhesion strength between a thin film and substrate is often the critical parameter that controls the initiation as well as the mode of film failure. In this work, a laser-based spallation method is used to determine the adhesion strength of “as deposited” lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sol-gel thin films on the two functionally different substrates. For the first case, PZT sol-gel film is deposited onto bare Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates via spin casting. The extremely high adhesion strength between the film and the substrate necessitated an additional platinum mass superlayer to be deposited on top of the PZT film in order to induce interfacial failure. For the superlayer film system, a hybrid experimental/numerical method is employed for determining the substrate/film interfacial strength, quantified to be in the range of 460–480 MPa. A second substrate variation with lower adhesion strength is also prepared by applying a self-assembled octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS) monolayer to the Si/SiO{sub 2} substrate prior to the film deposition. For the monolayer-coated substrate case, the adhesion strength is observed to be significantly lower (54.7 MPa) when compared to the earlier case. - Highlights: • A non-contact laser spallation method is used to determine PZT film adhesion. • A mediated self-assembled monolayer is shown to greatly reduce interface strength. • Adhesion strength for even well-bonded thin films was found using a superlayer.

  18. Study on optimizing ultrasonic irradiation period for thick polycrystalline PZT film by hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kanako; Isobe, Gaku; Bornmann, Peter; Hemsel, Tobias; Morita, Takeshi

    2013-04-01

    The hydrothermal method utilizes a solution-based chemical reaction to synthesize piezoelectric thin films and powders. This method has a number of advantages, such as low-temperature synthesis, and high purity and high quality of the product. In order to promote hydrothermal reactions, we developed an ultrasonic assisted hydrothermal method and confirmed that it produces dense and thick lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) films. In the hydrothermal method, a crystal growth process follows the nucleation process. In this study, we verified that ultrasonic irradiation is effective for the nucleation process, and there is an optimum irradiation period to obtain thicker PZT films. With this optimization, a 9.2-μm-thick PZT polycrystalline film was obtained in a single deposition process. For this film, ultrasonic irradiation was carried out from the beginning of the reaction for 18 h, followed by a 6 h deposition without ultrasonic irradiation. These results indicate that the ultrasonic irradiation mainly promotes the nucleation process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Thin film circuits for future applications. Pt. 2. Evaporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haug, G; Houska, K H; Schmidt, H J; Sprengel, H P; Wohak, K

    1976-06-01

    Investigations of thin film diffusion processes and reactions with encapsulation materials resulted in improved long term stability of evaporated NiCr resistors, SiO capacitors and NiCr/Au conductors for thin film circuits. Stable NiCr resistor networks can be formed on ceramic substrates, and SiO capacitors of good quality can be deposited on the new very smooth ceramic substrates. The knowledge of the influence of evaporation parameters make the production of SiO capacitors with definite properties and good reproducibility possible. The range of capacitance of tantalum thin film circuits can be extended by integration with evaporated SiO capacitors.

  20. Piezoelectric characterization of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films deposited on metal foil substrates by dip coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Hirotaka; Hamamura, Tomohiro; Nishi, Takahito; Tan, Goon; Umegaki, Toshihito; Kanno, Isaku

    2017-10-01

    We fabricated the piezoelectric bimorphs composed of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films on metal foil substrates. To efficiently inexpensively manufacture piezoelectric bimorphs with high flexibility, 1.2-µm-thick PZT thin films were directly deposited on both surfaces of 10- and 20-µm-thick bare stainless-steel (SS) foil substrates by dip coating with a sol-gel solution. We confirmed that the PZT thin films deposited on the SS foil substrates at 500 °C or above have polycrystalline perovskite structures and the measured relative dielectric constant and dielectric loss were 323-420 and 0.12-0.17, respectively. The PZT bimorphs were demonstrated by comparing the displacements of the cantilever specimens driven by single- and double-side PZT thin films on the SS foil substrates under the same applied voltage. We characterized the piezoelectric properties of the PZT bimorphs and the calculated their piezoelectric coefficient |e 31,f| to be 0.3-0.7 C/m2.

  1. PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film based self-charging power cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yujing; Xue, Xinyu; Cui, Chunxiao; He, Bin; Nie, Yuxin; Deng, Ping; Lin Wang, Zhong

    2014-03-14

    A novel PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film has been proposed and used as a piezoseparator in self-charging power cells (SCPCs). The structure, composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT), provides a high piezoelectric output, because PZT in this nanocomposite film can improve the piezopotential compared to the pure PVDF film. The SCPC based on this nanocomposite film can be efficiently charged up by the mechanical deformation in the absence of an external power source. The charge capacity of the PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film based SCPC in 240 s is ∼0.010 μA h, higher than that of a pure PVDF film based SCPC (∼0.004 μA h). This is the first demonstration of using PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film as a piezoseparator for SCPC, and is an important step for the practical applications of SCPC for harvesting and storing mechanical energy.

  2. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong; Shin, Young-Han

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr0.48Ti0.52O3 (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue.

  3. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong; Shin, Young-Han

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr 0.48 Ti 0.52 O 3 (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue

  4. Magnetoelectric properties of magnetic/ferroelectric multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung-Ok; Eum, You-Jeong; Koo, Chang-Young; Lee, Hee-Young [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung-Min [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Ryu, Jung-Ho [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic/ferroelectric multilayer thin films using PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) and two different magnetic materials, i.e., Terfenol-D and CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CuFO) layers, were fabricated, and their magnetoelectric (ME) coupling behavior was investigated. The PZT layer was first coated onto Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate by sol-gel spin coating method. Pt layer, which served as an electrode and a diffusion barrier, was grown on the PZT layer by using the ion-beam sputtering method. The ME voltage coefficients were calculated from the ME voltage data measured utilizing a magnetoelectric test system. The Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT films were found to show a higher in-plane ME voltage coefficient than that the CuFO/Pt/PZT films due primarily to the higher magnetostriction coefficient of Terfenol-D.

  5. Enhanced dielectric constant and fatigue-resistance of PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 capacitor with magnetic intermetallic FePt top electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B. T.; Zhao, J. W.; Li, X. H.; Zhou, Y.; Bian, F.; Wang, X. Y.; Zhao, Q. X.; Wang, Y. L.; Guo, Q. L.; Wang, L. X.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2010-06-01

    Both FePt/PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3(PZT)/Pt and Pt/PZT/Pt ferroelectric capacitors have been fabricated on Si substrates. It is found that up to 109 switching cycles, the FePt/PZT/Pt capacitor, measured at 50 kHz, with polarization decreased by 57%, is superior to the Pt/PZT/Pt capacitor by 82%, indicating that an intermetallic FePt top electrode can also improve the fatigue-resistance of a PZT capacitor. Maximum dielectric constants are 980 and 770 for PZT capacitors with FePt and Pt, respectively. This is attributed to the interface effect between PZT film and the top electrode since the interfacial capacitance of FePt/PZT is 3.5 times as large as that of Pt/PZT interface.

  6. Preparation of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 Thin Films by Plasma-Assisted Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Tsuyoshi; Akiyama, Masahiko; Ueda, Tomomasa; Onozuka, Yutaka; Suzuki, Kouji

    1999-09-01

    A novel plasma-assisted RF magnetron sputtering system with an immersed coil antenna between a target and a substrate was applied for preparing Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films. The antenna enabled the generation of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) independently of the target RF source. The plasma assisted by the antenna resulted in the changes of ion fluxes and these energy distributions irradiating to the substrate. The crystalline phase of the deposited PZT thin films was occupied by the perovskite phase depending on the antenna power. In addition, a high deposition rate, modified uniformity of film thickness, and a dense film structure with large columnar grains were obtained as a result of effects of the assisted plasma. The application of the plasma-assisted sputtering method may enable the preparation of PZT thin films that haveexcellent properties.

  7. Tailoring the light absorption of Ag-PZT thin films by controlling the growth of hexagonal- and cubic-phase Ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Wang, Zongrong; Ma, Ning; Du, Piyi

    2017-12-01

    PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin films containing hexagonal and cubic Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of various sizes were prepared using the sol-gel technique. During the aging process, Ag ions were photo-reduced to form hexagonal Ag NPs. These NPs were uniform in size, and their uniformity was maintained in the thin films during the heat treatment process. Both the total volume and average size of the hexagonal Ag NPs increased with an increasing Ag ion concentration from 0.02 to 0.08 mol l-1. Meanwhile, the remaining Ag ions were reduced to form unstable Ag-Pb alloy particles with Pb ions during the early heating stage. During subsequent heat treatment, these alloys decomposed to form cubic Ag NPs in the thin films. The absorption range of the thin films, quantified as the full width at half maximum in the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum, expanded from 6.3 × 1013 Hz (390-425 nm) to 8.4 × 1013 Hz (383-429 nm) as the Ag NPs/PZT ratio increased from 0.2 to 0.8. This work provides an effective way to broaden the absorption range and enhance the optical properties of such films.

  8. Tailoring the light absorption of Ag-PZT thin films by controlling the growth of hexagonal- and cubic-phase Ag nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Tao; Wang, Zongrong; Ma, Ning; Du, Piyi [Zhejiang University, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-12-15

    PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} thin films containing hexagonal and cubic Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of various sizes were prepared using the sol-gel technique. During the aging process, Ag ions were photo-reduced to form hexagonal Ag NPs. These NPs were uniform in size, and their uniformity was maintained in the thin films during the heat treatment process. Both the total volume and average size of the hexagonal Ag NPs increased with an increasing Ag ion concentration from 0.02 to 0.08 mol l{sup -1}. Meanwhile, the remaining Ag ions were reduced to form unstable Ag-Pb alloy particles with Pb ions during the early heating stage. During subsequent heat treatment, these alloys decomposed to form cubic Ag NPs in the thin films. The absorption range of the thin films, quantified as the full width at half maximum in the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum, expanded from 6.3 x 10{sup 13} Hz (390-425 nm) to 8.4 x 10{sup 13} Hz (383-429 nm) as the Ag NPs/PZT ratio increased from 0.2 to 0.8. This work provides an effective way to broaden the absorption range and enhance the optical properties of such films. (orig.)

  9. Wafer-scale growth of highly textured piezoelectric thin films by pulsed laser deposition for micro-scale sensors and actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M. D.; Tiggelaar, R.; Aukes, T.; Rijnders, G.; Roelof, G.

    2017-11-01

    Piezoelectric lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin films were deposited on 4-inch (111)Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(001) wafers using large-area pulsed laser deposition (PLD). This study was focused on the homogeneity in film thickness, microstructure, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of PZT thin films. The results indicated that the highly textured (001)-oriented PZT thin films with wafer-scale thickness homogeneity (990 nm ± 0.8%) were obtained. The films were fabricated into piezoelectric cantilevers through a MEMS microfabrication process. The measured longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d 33f = 210 pm/V ± 1.6%) and piezoelectric transverse coefficient (e 31f = -18.8 C/m2 ± 2.8%) were high and homogeneity across wafers. The high piezoelectric properties on Si wafers will extend industrial application of PZT thin films and further development of piezoMEMS.

  10. Modulation of magnetic coercivity in Ni thin films by reversible control of strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wen-Chin, E-mail: wclin@ntnu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chia-Wei; Ting, Yi-Chieh; Lo, Fang-Yuh [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Chern, Ming-Yau [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the magnetoelectric control of magnetic thin films. (111)-textured Pd/Ni/Pd thin films were prepared on mica/lead zirconium titanate (PZT) substrates for the investigation. The reversible modulation of magnetic coercivity in Ni films was observed through the electric-voltage-controlled strain variation from the PZT substrate. For 14 nm Ni film, the applied electric field of ±350 V/m led to ±0.5% strain variation of PZT, which was transferred to ±0.4% strain variation of Pd/Ni/Pd thin films on mica, and resulted in ∓17 Oe (∓5% of the preliminary magnetic coercivity). The reversible modulation of magnetic coercivity is supposed to be caused by the voltage-controlled strain through the magneto-elastic effect. - Highlights: • The magnetoelectric control of the magnetic coercivity of Pd/Ni/Pd thin films was demonstrated. • The ±0.4% strain variation of 14 nm Ni thin films resulted in ±17 Oe change of H{sub c}. • The reversible modulation of H{sub c} is supposed to be caused by the magneto-elastic effect.

  11. Building a Better Capacitor with Thin-Film Atomic Layer Deposition Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Christopher [North Seattle College, WA (United States)

    2015-08-28

    The goal of this research is to determine procedures for creating ultra-high capacity supercapacitors by using nanofabrication techniques and high k-value dielectrics. One way to potentially solve the problem of climate change is to switch the source of energy to a source that doesn’t release many tons of greenhouse gases, gases which cause global warming, into the Earth’s atmosphere. These trap in more heat from the Sun’s solar energy and cause global temperatures to rise. Atomic layer deposition will be used to create a uniform thin-film of dielectric to greatly enhance the abilities of our capacitors and will build them on the nanoscale.

  12. Piezoelectric MEMS: Ferroelectric thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Isaku

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have attracted attention as next-generation functional microdevices. Typical applications of piezoelectric MEMS are micropumps for inkjet heads or micro-gyrosensors, which are composed of piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films and have already been commercialized. In addition, piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs), which are regarded as one of the key devices for Internet of Things (IoT)-related technologies, are promising future applications of piezoelectric MEMS. Significant features of piezoelectric MEMS are their simple structure and high energy conversion efficiency between mechanical and electrical domains even on the microscale. The device performance strongly depends on the function of the piezoelectric thin films, especially on their transverse piezoelectric properties, indicating that the deposition of high-quality piezoelectric thin films is a crucial technology for piezoelectric MEMS. On the other hand, although the difficulty in measuring the precise piezoelectric coefficients of thin films is a serious obstacle in the research and development of piezoelectric thin films, a simple unimorph cantilever measurement method has been proposed to obtain precise values of the direct or converse transverse piezoelectric coefficient of thin films, and recently this method has become to be the standardized testing method. In this article, I will introduce fundamental technologies of piezoelectric thin films and related microdevices, especially focusing on the deposition of PZT thin films and evaluation methods for their transverse piezoelectric properties.

  13. Multi-photon vertical cross-sectional imaging with a dynamically-balanced thin-film PZT z-axis microactuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongsoo; Duan, Xiyu; Li, Haijun; Wang, Thomas D; Oldham, Kenn R

    2017-10-01

    Use of a thin-film piezoelectric microactuator for axial scanning during multi-photon vertical cross-sectional imaging is described. The actuator uses thin-film lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) to generate upward displacement of a central mirror platform, micro-machined from a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer to dimensions compatible with endoscopic imaging instruments. Device modeling in this paper focuses on existence of frequencies near device resonance producing vertical motion with minimal off-axis tilt even in the presence of multiple vibration modes and non-uniformity in fabrication outcomes. Operation near rear resonance permits large stroke lengths at low voltages relative to other vertical microactuators. Highly uniform vertical motion of the mirror platform is a key requirement for vertical cross-sectional imaging in the remote scan architecture being used for multi-photon instrument prototyping. The stage is installed in a benchtop testbed in combination with an electrostatic mirror that performs in-plane scanning. Vertical sectional images are acquired from 15 μm diameter beads and excised mouse colon tissue.

  14. Modified lead titanate thin films for pyroelectric infrared detectors on gold electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Moinuddin; Butler, Donald P.

    2015-07-01

    Pyroelectric infrared detectors provide the advantage of both a wide spectral response and dynamic range, which also has enabled systems to be developed with reduced size, weight and power consumption. This paper demonstrates the deposition of lead zirconium titanate (PZT) and lead calcium titanate (PCT) thin films for uncooled pyroelectric detectors with the utilization of gold electrodes. The modified lead titanate thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on gold electrodes. The PZT and PCT thins films deposited and annealed at temperatures of 650 °C and 550 °C respectively demonstrated the best pyroelectric performance in this work. The thin films displayed a pyroelectric effect that increased with temperature. Poling of the thin films was carried out for a fixed time periods and fixed dc bias voltages at elevated temperature in order to increase the pyroelectric coefficient by establishing a spontaneous polarization of the thin films. Poling caused the pyroelectric current to increase one order of magnitude.

  15. Combined effect of preferential orientation and Zr/Ti atomic ratio on electrical properties of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Wen; Li Jingfeng; Chu Xiangcheng; Gui Zhilun; Li Longtu

    2004-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate [Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 , PZT] thin films with various compositions, whose Zr/Ti ratio were varied as 40/60, 48/52, 47/53, and 60/40, were deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates by sol-gel method. A seeding layer was introduced between the PZT layer and the bottom electrode to control the texture of overlaid PZT thin films. A single perovskite PZT thin film with absolute (100) texture was obtained, when lead oxide was used as the seeding crystal, whereas titanium dioxide resulted in highly [111]-oriented PZT films. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT films with different preferential orientations were evaluated systemically as a function of composition. The maximums of relative dielectric constant were obtained in the morphotropic phase boundary region for both (100)- and (111)-textured PZT films. The ferroelectric properties also greatly depend on films' texture and composition. The intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to dielectric and ferroelectric properties were discussed

  16. Inkjet-printed thin film radio-frequency capacitors based on sol-gel derived alumina dielectric ink

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2017-05-03

    There has been significant interest in printing radio frequency passives, however the dissipation factor of printed dielectric materials has limited the quality factor achievable. Al2O3 is one of the best and widely implemented dielectrics for RF passive electronics. The ability to spatially pattern high quality Al2O3 thin films using, for example, inkjet printing would tremendously simplify the incumbent fabrication processes – significantly reducing cost and allowing for the development of large area electronics. To-date, particle based Al2O3 inks have been explored as dielectrics, although several drawbacks including nozzle clogging and grain boundary formation in the films hinder progress. In this work, a particle free Al2O3 ink is developed and demonstrated in RF capacitors. Fluid and jetting properties are explored, along with control of ink spreading and coffee ring suppression. The liquid ink is heated to 400 °C decomposing to smooth Al2O3 films ~120 nm thick, with roughness of <2 nm. Metal-insulator-metal capacitors, show high capacitance density >450 pF/mm2, and quality factors of ~200. The devices have high break down voltages, >25 V, with extremely low leakage currents, <2×10−9 A/cm2 at 1 MV/cm. The capacitors compare well with similar Al2O3 devices fabricated by atomic layer deposition.

  17. Phase transition shift in lead-excess PZT films under UV illumination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deyneka, Alexander; Suchaneck, G.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Gerlach, G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 67, - (2004), s. 173-180 ISSN 1058-4587 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP202/02/D078; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB1010301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : PZT thin films * phase transition * ellipsometry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.427, year: 2004

  18. Fabrication and Characteristics of High Capacitance Al Thin Films Capacitor Using a Polymer Inhibitor Bath in Electroless Plating Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Lae; Lee, Jung-Woo; Lee, Chang-Hyoung; Choi, Hyung-Seon; Kim, Sung-Su; Song, Young Il; Park, Chan; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2015-10-01

    An aluminum (Al) thin film capacitor was fabricated for a high capacitance capacitor using electrochemical etching, barrier-type anodizing, and electroless Ni-P plating. In this study, we focused on the bottom-up filling of Ni-P electrodes on Al2O3/Al with etched tunnels. The Al tunnel pits were irregularly distributed on the Al foil, diameters were in the range of about 0.5~1 μm, the depth of the tunnel pits was approximately 35~40 μm, and the complex structure was made full filled hard metal. To control the plating rate, the experiment was performed by adding polyethyleneimine (PEI, C2H5N), a high molecular substance. PEI forms a cross-link at the etching tunnel inlet, playing the role of delaying the inlet plating. When the PEI solution bath was used after activation, the Ni-P layer was deposited selectively on the bottoms of the tunnels. The characteristics were analyzed by adding the PEI addition quantity rate of 100~600 mg/L into the DI water. The capacitance of the Ni-P/Al2O3 (650~700 nm)/Al film was measured at 1 kHz using an impedance/gain phase analyzer. For the plane film without etch tunnels the capacitance was 12.5 nF/cm2 and for the etch film with Ni-P bottom-up filling the capacitance was 92 nF/cm2. These results illustrate a remarkable maximization of capacitance for thin film metal capacitors.

  19. The thickness effect of Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 buffer layer in PbZr0.58Ti0.42O3/Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 (PZT/BLT) multilayered ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianjun; Li Ping; Zhang Guojun; Yu Jun; Wu Yunyi; Wen Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    A series of PbZr 0.58 Ti 0.42 O 3 (PZT) thin films with various Bi 3.25 La 0.75 Ti 3 O 12 (BLT) buffer layer thicknesses were deposited on Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /p-Si(100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The X-ray diffraction measurements of PZT film and PZT/BLT multilayered films illustrate that the pure PZT film shows (111) preferential orientation, and the PZT/BLT films show (110) preferential orientation with increasing thickness of the BLT layer. There are no obvious diffraction peaks for the BLT buffer layer in the multilayered films, for interaction effect between the bottom BLT and top PZT films during annealing at the same time. From the surface images of field-emission scanning electron microscope, there are the maximum number of largest-size grains in PZT/BLT(30 nm) film among all the samples. The growth direction and grain size have significant effects on ferroelectric properties of the multilayered films. The fatigue characteristics of PZT and PZT/BLT films suggest that 30-nm-thick BLT is just an effective buffer layer enough to alleviate the accumulation of oxygen vacancies near the PZT/BLT interface. The comparison of these results with that of PZT/Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /p-Si(100) basic structured film suggests that the buffer layer with an appropriate thickness can improve the ferroelectric properties of multilayered films greatly.

  20. Pulsed laser deposited Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films with excellent piezoelectric and mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    We present for the first time the combined measured piezoelectric and mechanical properties of epitaxial, (110) oriented Pb(ZrxTi1-x) (PZT) thin films grown on microfabricated silicon cantilevers using pulsed laser deposition (PLD, x=0.4, 0.52, 0.6 and 0.8). The grown PZT thin films develop a strong

  1. Dynamics of space and polarization charges of ferroelectric thin films measured by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y.J.; Lee, J.H.; Jo, W.

    2006-01-01

    Retention behavior and local hysteresis characteristics in Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) thin films on Pt electrodes have been investigated by electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). A sol-gel method is used to synthesize PZT thin films and drying conditions are carefully explored over a wide range of temperature. Decay and retention mechanisms of single-poled and reverse-poled regions of the ferroelectric thin films are explained by space charge redistribution. Trapping behavior of space charges is dependent on the nature of interface between ferroelectric thin films and bottom electrodes. Local measurement of polarization-electric field curves by EFM shows inhomogeneous space charge entrapment

  2. Effect of elastic compliances and higher order Landau coefficients on the phase diagram of single domain epitaxial Pb(Zr,TiO3 (PZT thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mtebwa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the qualitative study of the influence of both elastic compliances and higher order terms of Landau free energy potential on the phase diagram of Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5O3 thin films by using a single domain Landau theory. Although the impact of elastic compliances and higher order terms of the Landau free energy potential on the phase diagram of ferroelectric thin films are known, the sensitivity of the phase diagram of PZT thin film on these parameters have not been reported. It is demonstrated that, while values of elastic compliances affect the positions of the phase boundaries including phase transition temperature of the cubic phase; higher order terms can potentially introduce an a1a2-phase previously predicted in PbTiO3 phase diagram.

  3. Tuning electro-optic susceptibity via strain engineering in artificial PZT multilayer films for high-performance broadband modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minmin; Du, Zehui; Li, Hongling; Chen, Bensong; Jing, Lin; Tay, Roland Ying Jie; Lin, Jinjun; Tsang, Siu Hon; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    2017-12-01

    A series of Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 multilayer films alternatively stacked by Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 and Pb(Zr0.35Ti0.65)O3 layers have been deposited on corning glass by magnetron sputtering. The films demonstrate pure perovskite structure and good crystallinity. A large tetragonality (c/a) of ∼1.061 and a shift of ∼0.08 eV for optical bandgap were investigated at layer engineered films. In addition, these samples exhibited a wild tunable electro-optic behavior from tens to ∼250.2 pm/V, as well as fast switching time of down to a few microseconds. The giant EO coefficient was attribute the strain-polarization coupling effect and also comparable to that of epitaxial (001) single crystal PZT thin films. The combination of high transparency, large EO effect, fast switching time, and huge phase transition temperature in PZT-based thin films show the potential on electro-optics from laser to information telecommunication.

  4. Electrical Properties of Thin-Film Capacitors Fabricated Using High Temperature Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mamazza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Simple thin-film capacitor stacks were fabricated from sputter-deposited doped barium titanate dielectric films with sputtered Pt and/or Ni electrodes and characterized electrically. Here, we report small signal, low frequency capacitance and parallel resistance data measured as a function of applied DC bias, polarization versus applied electric field strength and DC load/unload experiments. These capacitors exhibited significant leakage (in the range 8–210 μA/cm2 and dielectric loss. Measured breakdown strength for the sputtered doped barium titanate films was in the range 200 kV/cm −2 MV/cm. For all devices tested, we observed clear evidence for dielectric saturation at applied electric field strengths above 100 kV/cm: saturated polarization was in the range 8–15 μC/cm2. When cycled under DC conditions, the maximum energy density measured for any of the capacitors tested here was ~4.7 × 10−2 W-h/liter based on the volume of the dielectric material only. This corresponds to a specific energy of ~8 × 10−3 W-h/kg, again calculated on a dielectric-only basis. These results are compared to those reported by other authors and a simple theoretical treatment provided that quantifies the maximum energy that can be stored in these and similar devices as a function of dielectric strength and saturation polarization. Finally, a predictive model is developed to provide guidance on how to tailor the relative permittivities of high-k dielectrics in order to optimize their energy storage capacities.

  5. Highly Oriented Growth of Piezoelectric Thin Films on Silicon Using Two-Dimensional Nanosheets as Growth Template Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh D; Yuan, Huiyu; Houwman, Evert P; Dekkers, Matthijn; Koster, Gertjan; Ten Elshof, Johan E; Rijnders, Guus

    2016-11-16

    Ca 2 Nb 3 O 10 (CNOns) and Ti 0.87 O 2 (TiOns) metal oxide nanosheets (ns) are used as a buffer layer for epitaxial growth of piezoelectric capacitor stacks on Si and Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si (Pt/Si) substrates. Highly (001)- and (110)-oriented Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) films are achieved by utilizing CNOns and TiOns, respectively. The piezoelectric capacitors are characterized by polarization and piezoelectric hysteresis loops and by fatigue measurements. The devices fabricated with SrRuO 3 top and bottom electrodes directly on nanosheets/Si have ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties well comparable with devices that use more conventional oxide buffer layers (stacks) such as YSZ, CeO 2 /YSZ, or SrTiO 3 on Si. The devices grown on nanosheets/Pt/Si with Pt top electrodes show significantly improved polarization fatigue properties over those of similar devices grown directly on Pt/Si. The differences in properties are ascribed to differences in the crystalline structures and the density of the films. These results show a route toward the fabrication of single crystal piezoelectric thin films and devices with high quality, long-lifetime piezoelectric capacitor structures on nonperovskite and even noncrystalline substrates such as glass or polished metal surfaces.

  6. Materials science and integration bases for fabrication of (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 thin film capacitors with layered Cu-based electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Kabius, B.; Hiller, J. M.; Saha, S.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Chang, R. P. H.; Ramesh, R.

    2003-11-01

    The synthesis and fundamental material properties of layered TiAl/Cu/Ta electrodes were investigated to achieve the integration of Cu electrodes with high-dielectric constant (κ) oxide thin films for application to the fabrication of high-frequency devices. The Ta layer is an excellent diffusion barrier to inhibit deleterious Cu diffusion into the Si substrate, while the TiAl layer provides an excellent barrier against oxygen diffusion into the Cu layer to inhibit Cu oxidation during the growth of the high-κ layer in an oxygen atmosphere. Polycrystalline (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 (BST) thin films were grown on the Cu-based bottom electrode by rf magnetron sputtering at temperatures in the range 400-600 °C in oxygen, to investigate the performance of BST/Cu-based capacitors. Characterization of the Cu-based layered structure using surface analytical methods showed that two amorphous oxide layers were formed on both sides of the TiAl barrier, such that the oxide layer on the free surface of the TiAl layer correlates with TiAlOx, while the oxide layer at the TiAl/Cu interface is an Al2O3-rich layer. This double amorphous barrier layer structure effectively prevents oxygen penetration towards the underlying Cu and Ta layers. The TiAlOx interfacial layer, which has a relatively low dielectric constant compared with BST, reduced the total capacitance of the BST thin film capacitors. In addition, the layered electrode-oxide interface roughening observed during the growth of BST films at high temperature, due to copper grain growth, resulted in large dielectric loss on the fabricated BST capacitors. These problems were solved by growing the BST layer at 450 °C followed by a rapid thermal annealing at 700 °C. This process significantly reduced the thickness of the TiAlOx layer and interface roughness resulting in BST capacitors exhibiting properties suitable for the fabrication of high-performance high-frequency devices. In summary, relatively high dielectric constant (280), low

  7. Materials science and integration bases for fabrication of (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 thin film capacitors with layered Cu-based electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, W.; Kabius, B.; Hiller, J.M.; Saha, S.; Carlisle, J.A.; Auciello, O.; Chang, R.P.H.; Ramesh, R.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis and fundamental material properties of layered TiAl/Cu/Ta electrodes were investigated to achieve the integration of Cu electrodes with high-dielectric constant (κ) oxide thin films for application to the fabrication of high-frequency devices. The Ta layer is an excellent diffusion barrier to inhibit deleterious Cu diffusion into the Si substrate, while the TiAl layer provides an excellent barrier against oxygen diffusion into the Cu layer to inhibit Cu oxidation during the growth of the high-κ layer in an oxygen atmosphere. Polycrystalline (Ba x Sr 1-x )TiO 3 (BST) thin films were grown on the Cu-based bottom electrode by rf magnetron sputtering at temperatures in the range 400-600 deg. C in oxygen, to investigate the performance of BST/Cu-based capacitors. Characterization of the Cu-based layered structure using surface analytical methods showed that two amorphous oxide layers were formed on both sides of the TiAl barrier, such that the oxide layer on the free surface of the TiAl layer correlates with TiAlO x , while the oxide layer at the TiAl/Cu interface is an Al 2 O 3 -rich layer. This double amorphous barrier layer structure effectively prevents oxygen penetration towards the underlying Cu and Ta layers. The TiAlO x interfacial layer, which has a relatively low dielectric constant compared with BST, reduced the total capacitance of the BST thin film capacitors. In addition, the layered electrode-oxide interface roughening observed during the growth of BST films at high temperature, due to copper grain growth, resulted in large dielectric loss on the fabricated BST capacitors. These problems were solved by growing the BST layer at 450 deg. C followed by a rapid thermal annealing at 700 deg. C. This process significantly reduced the thickness of the TiAlO x layer and interface roughness resulting in BST capacitors exhibiting properties suitable for the fabrication of high-performance high-frequency devices. In summary, relatively high

  8. Ellipsometric investigations of the refractive index depth profile in PZT thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deineka, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Suchaneck, G.; Gerlach, G.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 188, č. 4 (2001), s. 1549-1552 ISSN 0031-8965 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015; GA ČR GA202/00/1425 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : PZT films * optical investigations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.025, year: 2001

  9. Magnetoelectric coupling in layered LSMO/PZT nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leufke, Philipp M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiferroic thin film composites with electric field-effect driven magnetoelectric (ME) coupling offer the possibility to reversibly tune magnetic properties in materials intended for device applications. The structural and functional versatility of such artificial heterostructures makes them attractive not only for various data processing, storage and sensor applications but also for studying the fundamental ME coupling mechanisms. La 1-x Sr x MnO 3 (LSMO)/PbZr y Ti 1-y O 3 (PZT) is an ideal choice for such a composite, combining the unrivaled ferroelectric (FE) properties of PZT with the multiple electronic and magnetic phenomena exhibited by the mixed valency manganite LSMO. The main physical feature used in realization of the LSMO/PZT ME composites is a striking sensitivity of LSMO magnetism to the charge carrier density. Here, the low-doping region is of particular interest, where the competition between the fundamental magnetic coupling mechanisms, Double-Exchange (DE) versus Superexchange (SE), is most distinctive. In the present work an unconventional sputtering technique - the Large-Distance Magnetron Sputtering (LDMS) method - has been established, which allowed for epitaxial deposition of these heterostructures with highest crystallinity and markedly smooth interfaces, necessary for effective field-effect control of magnetism. The large target-substrate distance effectively suppressed the destructive oxygen ion bombardment, inherently connected with oxide sputtering, and yielded an outstanding lateral uniformity of the film stack. The latter was vital for the fabrication of large capacitor structures of several square millimeter area that were required for detecting the ME coupling in a Superconductive Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer. The growth of LSMO on various single crystalline substrates was mastered by exploring a vast deposition parameter space, encompassing Radio Frequency (RF) and Direct Current (DC) sputtering. Commensurately

  10. Magnetoelectric coupling in layered LSMO/PZT nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leufke, Philipp M.

    2014-01-29

    Multiferroic thin film composites with electric field-effect driven magnetoelectric (ME) coupling offer the possibility to reversibly tune magnetic properties in materials intended for device applications. The structural and functional versatility of such artificial heterostructures makes them attractive not only for various data processing, storage and sensor applications but also for studying the fundamental ME coupling mechanisms. La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO)/PbZr{sub y}Ti{sub 1-y}O{sub 3} (PZT) is an ideal choice for such a composite, combining the unrivaled ferroelectric (FE) properties of PZT with the multiple electronic and magnetic phenomena exhibited by the mixed valency manganite LSMO. The main physical feature used in realization of the LSMO/PZT ME composites is a striking sensitivity of LSMO magnetism to the charge carrier density. Here, the low-doping region is of particular interest, where the competition between the fundamental magnetic coupling mechanisms, Double-Exchange (DE) versus Superexchange (SE), is most distinctive. In the present work an unconventional sputtering technique - the Large-Distance Magnetron Sputtering (LDMS) method - has been established, which allowed for epitaxial deposition of these heterostructures with highest crystallinity and markedly smooth interfaces, necessary for effective field-effect control of magnetism. The large target-substrate distance effectively suppressed the destructive oxygen ion bombardment, inherently connected with oxide sputtering, and yielded an outstanding lateral uniformity of the film stack. The latter was vital for the fabrication of large capacitor structures of several square millimeter area that were required for detecting the ME coupling in a Superconductive Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer. The growth of LSMO on various single crystalline substrates was mastered by exploring a vast deposition parameter space, encompassing Radio Frequency (RF) and Direct Current (DC

  11. Very high frequency (beyond 100 MHz) PZT kerfless linear arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Da-Wei; Zhou, Qifa; Geng, Xuecang; Liu, Chang-Geng; Djuth, Frank; Shung, K Kirk

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and measurements of very high frequency kerfless linear arrays prepared from PZT film and PZT bulk material. A 12-microm PZT thick film fabricated from PZT-5H powder/solution composite and a piece of 15-microm PZT-5H sheet were used to fabricate 32-element kerfless high-frequency linear arrays with photolithography. The PZT thick film was prepared by spin-coating of PZT sol-gel composite solution. The thin PZT-5H sheet sample was prepared by lapping a PZT-5H ceramic with a precision lapping machine. The measured results of the 2 arrays were compared. The PZT film array had a center frequency of 120 MHz, a bandwidth of 60% with a parylene matching layer, and an insertion loss of 41 dB. The PZT ceramic sheet array was found to have a center frequency of 128 MHz with a poorer bandwidth (40% with a parylene matching layer) but a better sensitivity (28 dB insertion loss).

  12. Generation of localized strain in a thin film piezoelectric to control individual magnetoelectric heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Jizhai; Liang, Cheng-Yen; Sepulveda, Abdon; Carman, Gregory P.; Lynch, Christopher S., E-mail: cslynch@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Ihlefeld, Jon F. [Electronic, Optical, and Nano Materials Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Experimental results demonstrate the ability of a surface electrode pattern to produce sufficient in-plane strain in a PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film clamped by a Si substrate to control magnetism in a 1000 nm diameter Ni ring. The electrode pattern and the Ni ring/PZT thin film heterostructure were designed using a finite element based micromagnetics code. The magnetoelectric heterostructures were fabricated on the PZT film using e-beam lithography and characterized using magnetic force microscopy. Application of voltage to the electrodes moved one of the “onion” state domain walls. This method enables the development of complex architectures incorporating strain-mediated multiferroic devices.

  13. Investigation of top electrode for PZT thick films based MEMS sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Pedersen, Thomas; Kristiansen, Paw T.

    2010-01-01

    In this work processing of screen printed piezoelectric PZT thick films on silicon substrates is investigated for use in future MEMS devices. E-beam evaporated Al and Pt are patterned on PZT as a top electrode using a lift-off process with a line width down to 3 mu m. Three test structures are used...... to investigate the optimal thickness of the top electrode, the degradation of the piezoelectric properties of the PZT film in absence of a diffusion barrier layer and finally how to fabricate electrical interconnects down the edge of the PZT thick film. The roughness of the PZT is found to have a strong...... influence on the conductance of the top electrode influencing the optimal top electrode thickness. A 100 nm thick top electrode on the PZT thick film with a surface roughness of 273 nm has a 4.5 times higher resistance compared to a similar wire on a planar SiO2 surface which has a surface roughness of less...

  14. Transverse piezoelectric coefficient measurement of flexible lead zirconate titanate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufay, T.; Guiffard, B.; Seveno, R. [LUNAM Université, Université de Nantes, IETR (Institut d' Électronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes), UMR CNRS 6164, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Thomas, J.-C. [LUNAM Université, Université de Nantes-École Centrale Nantes, GeM (Institut de Recherche en Génie Civil et Ingénierie Mécanique), UMR CNRS 6183, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2015-05-28

    Highly flexible lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT), thin films have been realized by modified sol-gel process. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 31} was determined from the tip displacement of bending-mode actuators made of PZT cantilever deposited onto bare or RuO{sub 2} coated aluminium substrate (16 μm thick). The influence of the thickness of ruthenium dioxide RuO{sub 2} and PZT layers was investigated for Pb(Zr{sub 0.57}Ti{sub 0.43})O{sub 3}. The modification of Zr/Ti ratio from 40/60 to 60/40 was done for 3 μm thick PZT thin films onto aluminium (Al) and Al/RuO{sub 2} substrates. A laser vibrometer was used to measure the beam displacement under controlled electric field. The experimental results were fitted in order to find the piezoelectric coefficient. Very large tip deflections of about 1 mm under low voltage (∼8 V) were measured for every cantilevers at the resonance frequency (∼180 Hz). For a given Zr/Ti ratio of 58/42, it was found that the addition of a 40 nm thick RuO{sub 2} interfacial layer between the aluminium substrate and the PZT layer induces a remarkable increase of the d{sub 31} coefficient by a factor of 2.7, thus corresponding to a maximal d{sub 31} value of 33 pC/N. These results make the recently developed PZT/Al thin films very attractive for both low frequency bending mode actuating applications and vibrating energy harvesting.

  15. Screen printed PZT/PZT thick film bimorph MEMS cantilever device for vibration energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, R.; Lei, A.; Christiansen, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a MEMS-based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass. The most common piezoelectric energy harvesting devices utilize a cantilever beam of a non piezoelectric material as support beneath or in-between the piezoelectric material...

  16. Reduction of etching damage in lead-zirconate-titanate thin films with inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Il

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we etched lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) films with various additive gases (O 2 and Ar) in Cl 2 /CF 4 plasmas, while mixing ratio was fixed at 8/2. After the etching, the plasma induced damages are characterized in terms of hysteresis curves, leakage current, retention properties, and switching polarization. When the electrical properties of PZT etched in O 2 or Ar added to Cl 2 /CF 4 were compared, the value of remanent polarization in O 2 added to Cl 2 /CF 4 plasma is higher than that in Ar added plasma. The maximum etch rate of the PZT thin films was 145 nm/min for 30% Ar added Cl 2 /CF 4 gas having mixing ratio of 8/2 and 110 nm/min for 10% O 2 added to that same gas mixture. In order to recover the ferroelectric properties of the PZT thin films after etching, we annealed the etched PZT thin films at 550 deg. C in an O 2 atmosphere for 10 min. From the hysteresis curves, leakage current, retention property, and switching polarization, the reduction of the etching damage and the recovery via the annealing turned out to be more effective when O 2 was added to Cl 2 /CF 4 than Ar. X-ray diffraction showed that the structural damage was lower when O 2 was added to Cl 2 /CF 4 and the improvement in the ferroelectric properties of the annealed samples was consistent with the increased intensities of the (100) and the (200) PZT peaks

  17. Study of mechanical-magnetic and electromagnetic properties of PZT/Ni film systems by a novel bulge technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Q.; Zhou, W.; Ding, J.; Xiao, M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Key Laboratory of Film Materials and Devices of Science and Technology Department of Hunan Province, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Yu, Z.J.; Xu, H. [State Key Lab for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Mao, W.G., E-mail: ssamao@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Key Laboratory of Film Materials and Devices of Science and Technology Department of Hunan Province, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Pei, Y.M.; Li, F.X. [State Key Lab for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Feng, X. [AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fang, D.N., E-mail: fangdn@pku.edu.cn [State Key Lab for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Advanced Structure Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-02-01

    A novel multiple functional bulge apparatus was designed to study the mechanical-electronic-magnetic characteristics of electromagnetic materials. The elastic modulus difference effect of Ni thin film was observed and it was about 22.16% in the demagnetized and magnetization saturated states. The mechanical-magnetic behaviors of Ni and lead-titanate zirconate (PZT)/Ni films were in-situ measured by using the new bulge systems, respectively. The evolutions of three key material properties in hysteresis loop including saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercive field were discussed in detail, respectively. The mechanisms of mechanical-magnetic coupled behaviors of Ni and PZT/Ni films were analyzed with the aid of the competitive relationship of stress and magnetization. Similarly, the electronic-magnetic characteristics of PZT/Ni films were in-situ measured by using this experimental system. The evolution of saturated magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercive field Kerr signals were discussed with the magneto-elastic anisotropy energy point. In this paper, a suitable mechanical-electronic-magnetic bulge measurement system was established, which would provide a good choice for further understanding the multi field coupling characteristics of electromagnetic film materials. - Highlights: • A novel bulge apparatus was designed to study electromagnetic materials. • The mechanical-magnetic features of Ni film were studied by this new apparatus. • The ΔE effect of Ni film was observed and analyzed. • The mechanical electronic-magnetic characteristics of PZT/Ni film were discussed.

  18. Multilayer thin films with compositional PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3/Bi1.5Zn1.0Nb1.5O7 layers for tunable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shihui; Li, Lingxia; Zhang, Weifeng; Sun, Zheng; Dong, Helei

    2015-01-01

    The dielectric properties and tunability of multilayer thin films with compositional PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3/Bi1.5Zn1.0Nb1.5O7 (PZT/BZN) layers (PPBLs) fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate have been investigated. Dielectric measurements indicate that the PZT/BZN bilayer thin films exhibit medium dielectric constant of about 490, low loss tangent of 0.017, and superior tunable dielectric properties (tunability = 49.7% at 500 kV/cm) at a PZT/BZN thickness ratio of 3, while the largest figure of merit is obtained as 51.8. The thickness effect is discussed with a series connection model of bilayer capacitors, and the calculated dielectric constant and loss tangent are obtained. Furthermore, five kinds of thin–film samples comprising single bilayers, two, three, four and five PPBLs were also elaborated with the final same thickness. The four PPBLs show the largest dielectric constant of ~538 and tunability of 53.3% at a maximum applied bias field of 500 kV/cm and the lowest loss tangent of ~0.015, while the largest figure of merit is 65.6. The results indicate that four PPBLs are excellent candidates for applications of tunable devices. PMID:25960043

  19. PMN-PT-PZT composite films for high frequency ultrasonic transducer applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Benjauthrit, Vatcharee; Zheng, Fan; Chen, Rumin; Huang, Yuhong; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2012-06-01

    We have successfully fabricated x (0.65PMN-0.35PT)-(1 - x )PZT ( x PMN-PT-(1 - x )PZT), where x is 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9, thick films with a thickness of approximately 9 µm on platinized silicon substrate by employing a composite sol-gel technique. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy revealed that these films are dense and creak-free with well-crystallized perovskite phase in the whole composition range. The dielectric constant can be controllably adjusted by using different compositions. Higher PZT content of x PMN-PT-(1 - x )PZT films show better ferroelectric properties. A representative 0.9PMN-PT-0.1PZT thick film transducer is built. It has 200 MHz center frequency with a -6 dB bandwidth of 38% (76 MHz). The measured two-way insertion loss is 65 dB.

  20. Electric and ferroelectric properties of PZT/BLT multilayer films prepared by photochemical metal-organic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeong-Ho; Lee, Hong-Sub; Park, Hyung-Ho; Hill, Ross H.; Hwang, Yun Taek

    2009-01-01

    The electric and ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lanthanum-substituted bismuth titanate (BLT) multilayer films prepared using photosensitive precursors were characterized. The electric and ferroelectric properties were investigated by studying the effect of the stacking order of four ferroelectric layers of PZT or BLT in 4-PZT, PZT/2-BLT/PZT, BLT/2-PZT/BLT, and 4-BLT multilayer films. The remnant polarization values of the 4-BLT and BLT/2-PZT/BLT multilayer films were 12 and 17 μC/cm 2, respectively. Improved ferroelectric properties of the PZT/BLT multilayer films were obtained by using a PZT intermediate layer. The films which contained a BLT layer on the Pt substrate had improved leakage currents of approximately two orders of magnitude and enhanced fatigue resistances compared to the films with a PZT layer on the Pt substrate. These improvements are due to the reduced number of defects and space charges near the Pt electrodes. The PZT/BLT multilayer films prepared by photochemical metal-organic deposition (PMOD) possessed enhanced electric and ferroelectric properties, and allow direct patterning to fabricate micro-patterned systems without dry etching.

  1. Electric and ferroelectric properties of PZT/BLT multilayer films prepared by photochemical metal-organic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeong-Ho; Lee, Hong-Sub; Park, Hyung-Ho; Hill, Ross H.; Hwang, Yun Taek

    2009-01-01

    The electric and ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lanthanum-substituted bismuth titanate (BLT) multilayer films prepared using photosensitive precursors were characterized. The electric and ferroelectric properties were investigated by studying the effect of the stacking order of four ferroelectric layers of PZT or BLT in 4-PZT, PZT/2-BLT/PZT, BLT/2-PZT/BLT, and 4-BLT multilayer films. The remnant polarization values of the 4-BLT and BLT/2-PZT/BLT multilayer films were 12 and 17 μC/cm 2 , respectively. Improved ferroelectric properties of the PZT/BLT multilayer films were obtained by using a PZT intermediate layer. The films which contained a BLT layer on the Pt substrate had improved leakage currents of approximately two orders of magnitude and enhanced fatigue resistances compared to the films with a PZT layer on the Pt substrate. These improvements are due to the reduced number of defects and space charges near the Pt electrodes. The PZT/BLT multilayer films prepared by photochemical metal-organic deposition (PMOD) possessed enhanced electric and ferroelectric properties, and allow direct patterning to fabricate micro-patterned systems without dry etching.

  2. Oxygen vacancy as fatigue evidence of La0.5Sr0.5CoO3/PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3/La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B. T.; Chen, J. E.; Sun, J.; Wei, D. Y.; Chen, J. H.; Li, X. H.; Bian, F.; Zhou, Y.; Guo, J. X.; Zhao, Q. X.; Guan, L.; Wang, Y. L.; Guo, Q. L.; Ma, L. X.

    2010-09-01

    La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (LSCO) films grown on SrTiO3 substrates, cooled at reduced oxygen pressures, ranging from 8×104 to 1×10-4 Pa, from the depostion temperature, are used as the bottom electrodes of PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 (PZT) capacitors to study the impact of oxygen stoichiometry of the LSCO bottom electrodes on the structural and physical properties of LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitors. It is found that the tetragonality, polarization and fatigue-resistance of PZT films decrease with the decrease of the cooling oxygen pressure. Almost 60% polarization degradation occurs for the PZT capacitor with the LSCO bottom electrode cooled in 1×10-4 Pa oxygen up to 1010 switching cycles, indicating that the oxygen vacancy of the bottom electrode can result in fatigue of the LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor.

  3. PMN-PT–PZT composite films for high frequency ultrasonic transducer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Benjauthrit, Vatcharee; Zheng, Fan; Chen, Rumin; Huang, Yuhong; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully fabricated x(0.65PMN-0.35PT)–(1 − x)PZT (xPMN-PT–(1 − x)PZT), where x is 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9, thick films with a thickness of approximately 9 µm on platinized silicon substrate by employing a composite sol–gel technique. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy revealed that these films are dense and creak-free with well-crystallized perovskite phase in the whole composition range. The dielectric constant can be controllably adjusted by using different compositions. Higher PZT content of xPMN-PT–(1 − x)PZT films show better ferroelectric properties. A representative 0.9PMN-PT–0.1PZT thick film transducer is built. It has 200 MHz center frequency with a −6 dB bandwidth of 38% (76 MHz). The measured two-way insertion loss is 65 dB. PMID:23750072

  4. Pulsed laser deposition of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films maintaining a post-CMOS compatible thermal budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, A.; Pantel, D.; Hanemann, T.

    2017-09-01

    Integration of lead zirconate titanate (Pb[Zrx,Ti1-x]O3 - PZT) thin films on complementary metal-oxide semiconductor substrates (CMOS) is difficult due to the usually high crystallization temperature of the piezoelectric perovskite PZT phase, which harms the CMOS circuits. In this work, a wafer-scale pulsed laser deposition tool was used to grow 1 μm thick PZT thin films on 150 mm diameter silicon wafers. Three different routes towards a post-CMOS compatible deposition process were investigated, maintaining a post-CMOS compatible thermal budget limit of 445 °C for 1 h (or 420 °C for 6 h). By crystallizing the perovskite LaNiO3 seed layer at 445 °C, the PZT deposition temperature can be lowered to below 400 °C, yielding a transverse piezoelectric coefficient e31,f of -9.3 C/m2. With the same procedure, applying a slightly higher PZT deposition temperature of 420 °C, an e31,f of -10.3 C/m2 can be reached. The low leakage current density of below 3 × 10-6 A/cm2 at 200 kV/cm allows for application of the post-CMOS compatible PZT thin films in low power micro-electro-mechanical-systems actuators.

  5. Texture control and seeded nucleation of nanosize structures of ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralt, Paul

    2006-09-01

    An overview is given on nucleation phenomena of Pb(Zr ,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films on Pt(111)-based substrates. Emphasis is given on in situ growth methods, particularly in situ reactive sputtering from three metallic targets. Growth of PZT thin films is discussed from the point of view of the PbOx-TiO2 phase diagram, PbO vapor pressure, and classical nucleation theory. The role of thin TiO2 affinity layers and spots is explained in the frame of this theory. Activation energies for desorption and chemisorption are adapted to comply with the fact that nucleation rates on TiO2 are much larger than the ones on bare Pt(111). The model reproduces well the PbO surface flux from bare Pt(111) to the affinity spots in the case of PbTiO3 nucleation and the reversed tendency in the case of PZT 40/60 nucleation, explaining experimental observations. The critical size of nuclei was calculated to contain 8-10unit cells for PbTiO3/Pt nucleation and 14-17 for PZT/Pt nucleation.

  6. Structural and dielectric characterization of sputtered Tantalum Titanium Oxide thin films for high temperature capacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouahi, A., E-mail: rouahi_ahlem@yahoo.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, G2Elab, F-38000 (France); Laboratoire Matériaux Organisation et Propriétés (LMOP), Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Challali, F. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux (LSPM)-CNRS-UPR3407, Université Paris13, 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, 93430, Villetaneuse (France); Dakhlaoui, I. [Laboratoire Matériaux Organisation et Propriétés (LMOP), Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Vallée, C. [CNRS, LTM, CEA-LETI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Salimy, S. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN) UMR CNRS 6502, Université de Nantes, 2, rue de la Houssinière, B.P. 32229, 44322, Nantes, Cedex 3 (France); Jomni, F.; Yangui, B. [Laboratoire Matériaux Organisation et Propriétés (LMOP), Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Besland, M.P.; Goullet, A. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN) UMR CNRS 6502, Université de Nantes, 2, rue de la Houssinière, B.P. 32229, 44322, Nantes, Cedex 3 (France); Sylvestre, A. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, G2Elab, F-38000 (France)

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the dielectric properties of metal-oxide-metal capacitors based on Tantalum Titanium Oxide (TiTaO) thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on aluminum bottom electrode are investigated. The structure of the films was characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The dielectric properties of TiTaO thin films were studied by complex impedance spectroscopy over a wide frequency range (10{sup -2} - to 10{sup 5} Hz) and temperatures in -50 °C to 325 °C range. The contributions of different phases, phases’ boundaries and conductivity effect were highlighted by Cole – Cole diagram (ε” versus ε’). Two relaxation processes have been identified in the electric modulus plot. A first relaxation process appears at low temperature with activation energy of 0.37 eV and it is related to the motion of Ti{sup 4+} (Skanavi’s model). A second relaxation process at high temperature is related to Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars relaxation with activation energy of 0.41 eV. - Highlights: • Titanium Tantalum Oxide thin films are grown on Aluminum substrate. • The existence of phases was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. • Conductivity effect appears in Cole-Cole plot. • At low temperatures, a relaxation phenomenon obeys to Skanavi’s model. • Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars polarization is processed at high temperatures.

  7. Ferroelectric capped magnetization in multiferroic PZT/LSMO tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org; Shukla, A. K. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012 (India); Barrionuevo, D.; Ortega, N.; Katiyar, Ram S. [Department of Physics and Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931-3343 (United States); Shannigrahi, Santiranjan [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering - IMRE, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Scott, J. F. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 ST (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-30

    Self-poled ultra-thin ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) (5 and 7 nm) films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on ferromagnetic La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) (30 nm) to check the effect of polar capping on magnetization for ferroelectric tunnel junction devices. PZT/LSMO heterostructures with thick polar PZT (7 nm) capping show nearly 100% enhancement in magnetization compared with thin polar PZT (5 nm) films, probably due to excess hole transfer from the ferroelectric to the ferromagnetic layers. Core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed the presence of larger Mn 3s exchange splitting and higher Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ion ratio in the LSMO with 7 nm polar capping.

  8. Improvement of the fatigue and the ferroelectric properties of PZT films through a LSCO seed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Sofia A.S., E-mail: sofiarodrigues@fisica.uminho.pt; Silva, José P.B.; Khodorov, Anatoli; Martín-Sánchez, Javier; Pereira, M.; Gomes, M.J.M.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: • Pulsed laser deposited PZT thin films. • Seed layer effect on the structural and ferroelectric properties of the PZT films. • The stability of P{sub r} was improved with the introduction of the LSCO layer. -- Abstract: The ability to optimizate the preparation of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) films on platinized Si substrate by pulsed laser deposition was demonstrated. The effect of the modification of the interface film/electrode through the use of a (La,Sr)CoO{sub 3} (LSCO) seed layer on the remnant polarization, fatigue endurance and stress in PZT films was studied. An improvement on the ferroelectric properties was found with the using of the LSCO layer. A remnant polarization (P{sub r}) of 19.8 μC/cm{sup 2} and 4.4 μC/cm{sup 2} for films with and without the LSCO layer were found. In the same way the polarization fatigue decreases significantly after deposition of the LSCO layer between the film and substrate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed a different growth process in the films. Current–voltage (I–V) measurements showed that the use of LSCO seed layer improves the leakage current and, on the other hand the conduction mechanisms in the film without LSCO, after the fatigue test, was found to be changed from Schottky to Poole–Frenkel. The trap activation energy (about 0.14 eV) determined from Poole–Frenkel mode agrees well with the energy level of oxygen vacancies. The films stresses were estimated by XRD in order to explain the improvement on the structure and consequentially ferroelectric properties of the films. The model proposed by Dawber and Scott was found to be in agreement with our experimental data, which seems to predict that the oxygen vacancies play an important role on fatigue.

  9. MEMS-based thick film PZT vibrational energy harvester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Thyssen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We present a MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvester with an integrated proof mass. We have developed a process that allows fabrication of high performance silicon based energy harvesters with a yield higher than 90%. The process comprises a KOH etch using a mechan......We present a MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvester with an integrated proof mass. We have developed a process that allows fabrication of high performance silicon based energy harvesters with a yield higher than 90%. The process comprises a KOH etch using...... a mechanical front side protection of an SOI wafer with screen printed PZT thick film. The fabricated harvester device produces 14.0 μW with an optimal resistive load of 100 kΩ from 1g (g=9.81 m s-2) input acceleration at its resonant frequency of 235 Hz....

  10. Ga+ implantation in a PZT film during focused ion beam micro-machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollschlaeger, Nicole; Oesterle, Werner; Haeusler, Ines; Stewart, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the impact of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) machining parameters on the thickness of the damaged layer within a thin film PZT. Therefore, different Ga + - ion doses and ion energies were applied to a standard PZT film (80/20 lead zirconium titanate) under two beam incidence angles (90 and 1 ). The thicknesses of the corresponding Ga + -implanted layers were then determined by cross-sectional TEM in combination with energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) line-scans and correlated with polarisation hysteresis loops. The results show a decrease of Ga + -implanted layer thickness with decreasing inclination angle, whereas ion energy and ion dose could be correlated with gallium concentration in the implanted layers. Under the most unfavorable conditions the depth of the affected zone was 26 nm, it was only 2 nm for the most favorable conditions. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Improvement in fatigue property for a PZT ferroelectric film device with SRO electrode film prepared by chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, H.; Miwa, Y.; Suzuki, H.

    2007-01-01

    PZT films with (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) orientation were prepared by spin coating using the chemical solution deposition (CSD) method on an SRO/Si or a Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrate. The remnant polarization and the saturation polarization of the PZT/SRO/Si film were 21 and 35 μC/cm 2 , and those of the PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si film were 20 and 31 μC/cm 2 . The remnant polarization of the PZT/SRO/Si film maintained more than 10 8 switching cycles, and the fatigue property was observed for the PZT film fabricated on the Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si electrode

  12. Morphology-dependent photo-induced polarization recovery in ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. Y.; Liu, G.; Sando, D.; Nagarajan, V.; Seidel, J.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate photo-induced ferroelectric domain switching in a series of Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (PZT/LSMO) bilayer thin films with varying surface morphologies by piezoresponse force microscopy under light illumination. We demonstrate that reverse poled ferroelectric regions can be almost fully recovered under laser irradiation of the PZT layer and that the recovery process is dependent on the surface morphology on the nanometer scale. The recovery process is well described by the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model, and the evolution speed is controlled by light intensity, sample thickness, and initial write voltage. Our findings shed light on optical control of the domain structure in ferroelectric thin films with different surface morphologies.

  13. Engineering Nanoscale Multiferroic Composites for Memory Applications with Atomic Layer Deposition of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Diana

    This work focuses on the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) for lead zirconate titanate, Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O 3 (PZT). Leveraging the surface-reaction controlled process based on alternating self-limiting surface reactions, PZT can be synthesized not only with elemental precision to realize the desired composition (Zr/Ti = 52/48) but also with outstanding conformality. The latter enables the integration of PZT with a ferromagnetic phase to realize multiferroism (MF) and magnetoelectric (ME) effect. Since PZT is one of the best known ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials due the large displacements of the Pb ions at the morphotropic phase boundary, PZT based MF composites could lead to stronger ME coupling through strain coupling at the interface. Specifically, ALD PZT thin films were synthesized by using beta-diketonate metalorganic precursors Pb(TMHD)2, Zr(TMHD)4, and Ti(O.i-Pr) 2(TMHD)2 and H2O. The number of local cycles and global cycles were regulated to achieve the desired stoichiometry and thickness, respectively. ALD of PZT was studied to obtain (100) textured PZT on Pt (111) oriented platinized silicon substrates. In order to attain a highly oriented PZT thin film, a (100) textured PbTiO3 seed layer was required because PZT orientation is governed by nucleation. MF nanocomposites were engineered using ALD PZT thin films to achieve controlled complex nanoscale structures, enabling porosity to be studied as a new additional parameter for nanocomposite architectures to enhance ME effect. Specifically, 3--6 nm-thick ALD PZT thin films were deposited to uniformly coat the walls of mesoporous cobalt ferrite (CFO) template. The PZT/CFO nanocomposites were electrically poled ex-situ and the change in magnetic moment was measured. The inverse magnetoelectric coupling coefficient, a, was determined to be 85.6 Oe-cm/mV. The in-plane results show no significant change in magnetization (1--4%) as a function of electric field, which was expected due to the effect

  14. Imprint and oxygen deficiency in (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 thin-film capacitors with La-Sr-Co-O electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Ramesh, R.; Keramidas, V.G.; Warren, W.L.; Pike, G.E.; Evans, J.T. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    La-Sr-Co-O/Pb-La-Zr-Ti-O/La-Sr-Co-O thin-film capacitors have been grown in various oxygen ambients by pulsed laser deposition. As the oxygen ambient became more reducing, the capacitors developed more voltage asymmetry in hysteresis loops and a more preferred polarization state directed towards the top electrode. PLZT capacitors cooled in a fully oxidizing atmosphere (i.e., 1 atm oxygen pressure) exhibited nominally symmetric hysteresis loops and also showed little imprint both with and without fully saturating bias fields. We find that ambient oxygen pressure is an important process parameter and the imprint behavior is closely related with ambient oxygen induced effects such as oxygen vacancies, its related defect-dipole complexes and trapping of free charges. The different imprint behavior under negative and positive bias also suggests that the dipolar-defect complexes tend to cause imprint in PLZT capacitors

  15. Misfit strain-film thickness phase diagrams and related electromechanical properties of epitaxial ultra-thin lead zirconate titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Q.Y.; Mahjoub, R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Alpay, S.P. [Materials Science and Engineering Program and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Nagarajan, V., E-mail: nagarajan@unsw.edu.au [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The phase stability of ultra-thin (0 0 1) oriented ferroelectric PbZr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} (PZT) epitaxial thin films as a function of the film composition, film thickness, and the misfit strain is analyzed using a non-linear Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire thermodynamic model taking into account the electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. The theoretical formalism incorporates the role of the depolarization field as well as the possibility of the relaxation of in-plane strains via the formation of microstructural features such as misfit dislocations at the growth temperature and ferroelastic polydomain patterns below the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transformation temperature. Film thickness-misfit strain phase diagrams are developed for PZT films with four different compositions (x = 1, 0.9, 0.8 and 0.7) as a function of the film thickness. The results show that the so-called rotational r-phase appears in a very narrow range of misfit strain and thickness of the film. Furthermore, the in-plane and out-of-plane dielectric permittivities {epsilon}{sub 11} and {epsilon}{sub 33}, as well as the out-of-plane piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 33} for the PZT thin films, are computed as a function of misfit strain, taking into account substrate-induced clamping. The model reveals that previously predicted ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients due to misfit-strain-induced phase transitions are practically achievable only in an extremely narrow range of film thickness, composition and misfit strain parameter space. We also show that the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial ferroelectric films can be tailored through strain engineering and microstructural optimization.

  16. ZnO Thin Film Electronics for More than Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jose Israel

    Zinc oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) are investigated in this work for large-area electronic applications outside of display technology. A constant pressure, constant flow, showerhead, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process has been developed to fabricate high mobility TFTs and circuits on rigid and flexible substrates at 200 °C. ZnO films and resulting devices prepared by PEALD and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) have been compared. Both PEALD and PLD ZnO films result in densely packed, polycrystalline ZnO thin films that were used to make high performance devices. PEALD ZnO TFTs deposited at 300 °C have a field-effect mobility of ˜ 40 cm2/V-s (and > 20 cm2/V-S deposited at 200 °C). PLD ZnO TFTs, annealed at 400 °C, have a field-effect mobility of > 60 cm2/V-s (and up to 100 cm2/V-s). Devices, prepared by either technique, show high gamma-ray radiation tolerance of up to 100 Mrad(SiO2) with only a small radiation-induced threshold voltage shift (VT ˜ -1.5 V). Electrical biasing during irradiation showed no enhanced radiation-induced effects. The study of the radiation effects as a function of material stack thicknesses revealed the majority of the radiation-induced charge collection happens at the semiconductor-passivation interface. A simple sheet-charge model at that interface can describe the radiation-induced charge in ZnO TFTs. By taking advantage of the substrate-agnostic process provided by PEALD, due to its low-temperature and excellent conformal coatings, ZnO electronics were monolithically integrated with thin-film complex oxides. Application-based examples where ZnO electronics provide added functionality to complex oxide-based devices are presented. In particular, the integration of arrayed lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 or PZT) thin films with ZnO electronics for microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) and deformable mirrors is demonstrated. ZnO switches can provide voltage to PZT capacitors with fast charging and slow

  17. Elaboration of strontium ruthenium oxide thin films on metal substrates by chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seveno, R.; Braud, A.; Gundel, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the structural interface between a metal substrate and a lead zirconate titanate (Pb(ZrTi)O 3 , PZT) ferroelectric thin film, the elaboration of strontium ruthenium oxide (SrRuO 3 ) by chemical solution deposition is studied. The SrRuO 3 thin films were realized by multiple spin-coating technique and the temperature of the rapid thermal annealing process was optimized. The crystallization behavior was examined by X-ray diffraction; surface analyses using scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope techniques showed the influence of the SrRuO 3 layer at the interface PZT/metal on the morphology of the ferroelectric thin film. From the electrical measurements, a coercive electric field around 25 kV/cm and a remanent polarization of approximately 30 μC/cm were found

  18. Super miniaturization of film capacitor dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavene, B.

    1981-01-01

    The alignment of the stable electrical characteristics of film capacitors in the physical dimensions of ceramic and tantalum capacitors are discussed. The reliability of polycarbonate and mylar capacitors are described with respect to their compatibility with military specifications. Graphic illustrations are presented which show electrical and physical comparisons of film, ceramic, and tantalum capacitors. The major focus is on volumetric efficiency, weight reduction, and electrical stability.

  19. Facile chemical synthesis of nanoporous layered δ-MnO{sub 2} thin film for high-performance flexible electrochemical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yu; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Xionghua; Zheng, Yanfeng [The Key Laboratory of Low-Carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen, Zhenxing, E-mail: chenzx65@mail.sysu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Low-Carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Layered δ-MnO{sub 2} thin films with a three-dimensional nanostructure are successfully fabricated on stainless steel foil substrates for flexible electrochemical capacitors by a facile and effective chemical bath deposition technology from ethanol and potassium permanganate solution at 15 °C. The as-prepared thin films display nanoporous morphology and a water contact angle of 20°. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses reveal that the thin films are composed of δ-MnO{sub 2}. Electrochemical data demonstrate that the δ-MnO{sub 2} thin film electrodes can deliver a high special capacitance of 447 F/g at 2 mV/s, and provide a good capacitance retention ratio of 87% after 1000 continuous cycles at 10 mV/s in 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Compressive and tensile bending tests show that the as-prepared electrodes can steadily work over a wide range of applied curvatures between −2.5 cm{sup −1} (tension) and 2.5 cm{sup −1} (compression). Only a small decrease in special capacitance (0.9% at a curvature of 2.5 cm{sup −1} under compressive strain, or 1.2% at a curvature of −2.5 cm{sup −1} under tensile strain) is observed even after bending for 200 cycles, indicating the excellent mechanical flexibility and electrochemical stability of the δ-MnO{sub 2} thin film electrodes.

  20. Stress effects in ferroelectric perovskite thin-films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zednik, Ricardo Johann

    The exciting class of ferroelectric materials presents the engineer with an array of unique properties that offer promise in a variety of applications; these applications include infra-red detectors ("night-vision imaging", pyroelectricity), micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS, piezoelectricity), and non-volatile memory (NVM, ferroelectricity). Realizing these modern devices often requires perovskite-based ferroelectric films thinner than 100 nm. Two such technologically important material systems are (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST), for tunable dielectric devices employed in wireless communications, and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), for ferroelectric non-volatile memory (FeRAM). In general, the material behavior is strongly influenced by the mechanical boundary conditions imposed by the substrate and surrounding layers and may vary considerably from the known bulk behavior. A better mechanistic understanding of these effects is essential for harnessing the full potential of ferroelectric thin-films and further optimizing existing devices. Both materials share a common crystal structure and similar properties, but face unique challenges due to the design parameters of these different applications. Tunable devices often require very low dielectric loss as well as large dielectric tunability. Present results show that the dielectric response of BST thin-films can either resemble a dipole-relaxor or follow the accepted empirical Universal Relaxation Law (Curie-von Schweidler), depending on temperature. These behaviors in a single ferroelectric thin-film system are often thought to be mutually exclusive. In state-of-the-art high density FeRAM, the ferroelectric polarization is at least as important as the dielectric response. It was found that these properties are significantly affected by moderate biaxial tensile and compressive stresses which reversibly alter the ferroelastic domain populations of PZT at room temperature. The 90-degree domain wall motion observed by high resolution

  1. Micro-machined high-frequency (80 MHz) PZT thick film linear arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qifa; Wu, Dawei; Liu, Changgeng; Zhu, Benpeng; Djuth, Frank; Shung, K

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the development of a micromachined high-frequency linear array using PZT piezoelectric thick films. The linear array has 32 elements with an element width of 24 μm and an element length of 4 mm. Array elements were fabricated by deep reactive ion etching of PZT thick films, which were prepared from spin-coating of PZT sol-gel composite. Detailed fabrication processes, especially PZT thick film etching conditions and a novel transferring-and-etching method, are presented and discussed. Array designs were evaluated by simulation. Experimental measurements show that the array had a center frequency of 80 MHz and a fractional bandwidth (-6 dB) of 60%. An insertion loss of -41 dB and adjacent element crosstalk of -21 dB were found at the center frequency.

  2. Electrical characterization of MIM capacitor comprises an adamantane film at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Rajanish N., E-mail: rajanisht@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomical Sciences, Central University of Himachal Pradesh, Dharmshala 176206 Kangra, H.P. India (India); Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1Hisakata, Tempaku-Ku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Yoshimura, Masamichi [Department of Physics and Astronomical Sciences, Central University of Himachal Pradesh, Dharmshala 176206 Kangra, H.P. India (India)

    2016-06-15

    We fabricated a new metal-insulator-metal capacitor at room temperature, comprising a ∼90 nm thin low–k adamantane film on a Si substrate. The surface morphology of deposited organic film was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, which is confirmed that the adamantane thin film was uniformly distributed on the Si surface. The adamantane film exhibits a low leakage current density of 7.4 x 10{sup −7} A/cm{sup 2} at 13.5 V, better capacitance density of 2.14 fF/μm{sup 2} at 100 KHz.

  3. Ga{sup +} implantation in a PZT film during focused ion beam micro-machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollschlaeger, Nicole; Oesterle, Werner; Haeusler, Ines [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Stewart, Mark [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington Middlesex TW 11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the impact of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) machining parameters on the thickness of the damaged layer within a thin film PZT. Therefore, different Ga{sup +}- ion doses and ion energies were applied to a standard PZT film (80/20 lead zirconium titanate) under two beam incidence angles (90 and 1 ). The thicknesses of the corresponding Ga{sup +}-implanted layers were then determined by cross-sectional TEM in combination with energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) line-scans and correlated with polarisation hysteresis loops. The results show a decrease of Ga{sup +}-implanted layer thickness with decreasing inclination angle, whereas ion energy and ion dose could be correlated with gallium concentration in the implanted layers. Under the most unfavorable conditions the depth of the affected zone was 26 nm, it was only 2 nm for the most favorable conditions. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Comparison of chemical solution deposition systems for the fabrication of lead zirconate titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, F.; Daglish, M.; Kemmitt, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ferroelectric thin films of lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 (PZT) were prepared from five chemical solution deposition (CSD) systems, namely methoxyethanol, citrate, diol, acetic acid and triethanolamine. Physical characteristics of the solutions, processing parameters and physical and electrical properties of the films were used to assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different chemical systems. All the CSD systems decomposed to produce single phase perovskite PZT at temperatures above 650 deg C. Thin film deposition was influenced by the specific characteristics of each system such as wetting on the substrate and viscosity. Distinct precursor effects on the thin film crystallinity and electrical performance were revealed. The diol route yielded films with the highest crystallite size, highest permittivity and lowest loss tangent. The relative permittivity exhibited by films made by the other routes were 25% to 35% lower at equivalent thicknesses. Copyright (2001) The Australian Ceramic Society

  5. Fatigue mechanism verified using photovoltaic properties of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming; Li, Wei; Li, Junning; Wang, Shaolan; Li, Yaqi; Peng, Biaolin; Huang, Haitao; Lou, Xiaojie

    2017-03-01

    The photovoltaic effect and its evolution during electrical fatigue in Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin films have been investigated. It is found that the photovoltaic effect of the as-grown PZT thin film is highly affected by the asymmetric Schottky barriers, which can be tuned by applying an external electric field. During fatigue processes, both open-circuit voltage (Voc) and short-circuit current (Jsc) decrease considerably with the increase of the number of electrical cycles. This phenomenon could be ascribed to the degradation of the interfacial layer between the thin film and the electrode induced by highly energetic charge carriers injected from the electrode during bipolar cycling. Our work sheds light on the physical mechanism of both ferroelectric photovoltaics and polarization fatigue in thin-film ferroelectrics.

  6. Improving yield of PZT piezoelectric devices on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2012-10-01

    The proposed SMART-X telescope includes adaptive optics systems that use piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films deposited on flexible glass substrates. Several processing constraints are imposed by current designs: the crystallization temperature must be kept below 550 °C, the total stress in the film must be minimized, and the yield on 1 cm2 actuator elements should be work, RF magnetron sputtering was used to deposit films since chemical solution deposition (CSD) led to warping of large area flexible glass substrates. A PZT 52/48 film that wasdeposited at 4 mTorr and annealed at 550 °C for 24 hours showed no detectable levels of either PbO or pyrochlore second phases. Large area electrodes (1cm x 1 cm) were deposited on 4" glass substrates. Initially, the yield of the devices was low, however, two methods were employed to increase the yield to near 100 %. The first method included a more rigorous cleaning to improve the continuity of the Pt bottom electrode. The second method was to apply 3 V DC across the capacitor structure to burn out regions of defective PZT. The result of this latter method essentially removed conducting filaments in the PZT but left the bulk of the material undamaged. By combining these two methods, the yield on the large area electrodes improved from < 10% to nearly 100%.

  7. Elaboration of strontium ruthenium oxide thin films on metal substrates by chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seveno, R. [Universite de Nantes, Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique (IREENA), 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)]. E-mail: raynald.seveno@univ-nantes.fr; Braud, A. [Universite de Nantes, Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique (IREENA), 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Gundel, H.W. [Universite de Nantes, Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique (IREENA), 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2005-12-22

    In order to improve the structural interface between a metal substrate and a lead zirconate titanate (Pb(ZrTi)O{sub 3}, PZT) ferroelectric thin film, the elaboration of strontium ruthenium oxide (SrRuO{sub 3}) by chemical solution deposition is studied. The SrRuO{sub 3} thin films were realized by multiple spin-coating technique and the temperature of the rapid thermal annealing process was optimized. The crystallization behavior was examined by X-ray diffraction; surface analyses using scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope techniques showed the influence of the SrRuO{sub 3} layer at the interface PZT/metal on the morphology of the ferroelectric thin film. From the electrical measurements, a coercive electric field around 25 kV/cm and a remanent polarization of approximately 30 {mu}C/cm were found.

  8. An easy way to measure accurately the direct magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of thin film devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullain, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.poullain@ensicaen.fr; More-Chevalier, Joris; Cibert, Christophe; Bouregba, Rachid

    2017-01-15

    Tb{sub x}Dy{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}/Pt/Pb(Zr{sub x}, Ti{sub 1−x})O{sub 3} thin films were grown on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate by multi-target sputtering. The magnetoelectric voltage coefficient α{sup Η}{sub ΜΕ} was determined at room temperature using a lock-in amplifier. By adding, in series in the circuit, a capacitor of the same value as that of the device under test, we were able to demonstrate that the magnetoelectric device behaves as a voltage source. Furthermore, a simple way to subtract the stray voltage arising from the flow of eddy currents in the measurement set-up, is proposed. This allows the easy and accurate determination of the true magnetoelectric voltage coefficient. A large α{sup Η}{sub ΜΕ} of 8.3 V/cm. Oe was thus obtained for a Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT thin film device, without DC magnetic field nor mechanical resonance. - Highlights: • Magnetoelectric device behaves as a voltage source. • A simple way to subtract eddy currents during the measurement, is proposed.

  9. Effect of polarization fatigue on the Rayleigh coefficients of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films: Experimental evidence and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, X. J.; Zhang, H. J.; Luo, Z. D.; Zhang, F. P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Q. D.; Fang, A. P.; Dkhil, B.; Zhang, M.; Ren, X. B.; He, H. L.

    2014-09-01

    The effect of polarization fatigue on the Rayleigh coefficients of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film was systematically investigated. It was found that electrical fatigue strongly affects the Rayleigh behaviour of the PZT film. Both the reversible and irreversible Rayleigh coefficients decrease with increasing the number of switching cycles. This phenomenon is attributed to the growth of an interfacial degraded layer between the electrode and the film during electrical cycling. The methodology used in this work could serve as an alternative way for evaluating the fatigue endurance and degradation in dielectric properties of ferroelectric thin-film devices during applications.

  10. Crystallization behavior and domain structure in textured Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films by different annealing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.; Jiang, S.W.; Li, Y.R.; Zhu, J.; Zhang, Y.; Wei, X.H.; Zeng, H.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Amorphous Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) thin films were prepared on the Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature. After rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and conventional furnace annealing (CFA) at different temperatures, the films were transformed into polycrystalline PZT thin films with (111) and (100) orientation, respectively. The phase formation and ferroelectric domains correlated with different orientation were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction and piezoresponse force microscopy. The results showed that the perovskite PZT crystal with [111] orientation hetero-nucleated preferentially on top of the PtPb intermetallic phase at the PZT/Pt interface during RTA process. It is of interest to find that the domain self-organized into a structure with rounded shape at the early stage of crystallization. While the nucleation of the films treated by CFA dominantly homo-nucleated, thus the (100) orientation grains with minimum surface energy were easy to grow. The texture effects on ferroelectric properties of PZT films were also discussed in relation to the domain structure

  11. Synthesis, Structural, Optical and Dielectric Properties of Nanostructured 0-3 PZT/PVDF Composite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, S; Kennedy, L John; Basha, S K Khadheer; Padmanabhan, R

    2018-07-01

    Nanostructured PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) powder was synthesized at 500 °C-800 °C using sol-gel route. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis confirmed the formation of perovskite structure. The sample heat treated at 800 °C alone showed the formation of morphotropic phase boundary with coexistence of tetragonal and rhombohedral phase. The PZT powder and PVDF were used in 0-3 connectivity to form the PZT/PVDF composite film using solvent casting method. The composite films containing 10%, 50%, 70% and 80% volume fraction of PZT in PVDF were fabricated. The XRD spectra validated that the PZT structure remains unaltered in the composites and was not affected by the presence of PVDF. The scanning electron microscopy images show good degree of dispersion of PZT in PVDF matrix and the formation of pores at higher PZT loading. The quantitative analysis of elements and their composition were confirmed from energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The optical band gap of the PVDF film is 3.3 eV and the band gap decreased with increase in volume fraction of PZT fillers. The FTIR spectra showed the bands corresponding to different phases of PVDF (α, β, γ) and perovskite phase of PZT. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that PZT/PVDF composite films showed better thermal stability than the pure PVDF film and hydrophobicity. The dielectric constant was measured at frequency ranging from 1 Hz to 6 MHz and for temperature ranging from room temperature to 150 °C. The composite with 50% PZT filler loading shows the maximum dielectric constant at the studied frequency and temperature range with flexibility.

  12. Electrical Properties of a Thin Anodized Capacitor Made of Y-Doped Al Alloy Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Tomotake; Sasaki, Hayato; Mikuni, Naohiro; Shinkai, Satoko; Sasaki, Katsutaka; Yamane, Misao; Abe, Yoshio

    2005-09-01

    We have prepared an Al-Y anodized capacitor using sputter-deposited Al-Y alloy film with 5 at. % Y atoms, and evaluated the capacitor properties and the leakage current properties before and after heat treatment. In addition, the characterization of Al-Y anodized films was examined by X-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. As a result, it is revealed that the thermal stability of an Al-Y anodized capacitor is superior to that of a pure Al anodized capacitor because of its excellent passive nature, and the loss properties can be improved by increasing the heat treatment temperature in air because of the reduction of the equivalent series resistance. Furthermore, it is clarified that the cause of the short-circuited state observed at 550°C is the formation of a narrow capillary-like conduction path of metallic Al atoms as a result of the interdiffusion of Al.

  13. Piezoelectric response and electrical properties of Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 thin films: The role of imprint and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, T. W.; Mocuta, C.; Escoubas, S.; Merabet, A.; Texier, M.; Lima, E. C.; Araujo, E. B.; Kholkin, A. L.; Thomas, O.

    2017-10-01

    The compositional dependence of the piezoelectric properties of self-polarized PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) thin films deposited on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates (x = 0.47, 0.49 and 0.50) was investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electrical measurements. The latter evidenced an imprint effect in the studied PZT films, which is pronounced for films with the composition of x = 0.50 and tends to disappear for x = 0.47. These findings were confirmed by in situ X-ray diffraction along the crystalline [100] and [110] directions of the films with different compositions revealing asymmetric butterfly loops of the piezoelectric strain as a function of the electric field; the asymmetry is more pronounced for the PZT film with a composition of x = 0.50, thus indicating a higher built-in electric field. The enhancement of the dielectric permittivity and the effective piezoelectric coefficient at compositions around the morphotropic phase boundary were interpreted in terms of the polarization rotation mechanism and the monoclinic phase in the studied PZT thin films.

  14. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric responses of (110) and (001)-oriented epitaxial Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} thin films on all-oxide layers buffered silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Hien Thu [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Minh Duc, E-mail: minh.nguyen@itims.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Inorganic Materials Science (IMS), MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); SolMateS B.V., Drienerlolaan 5, Building 6, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Houwman, Evert; Boota, Muhammad [Inorganic Materials Science (IMS), MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Dekkers, Matthijn [SolMateS B.V., Drienerlolaan 5, Building 6, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Vu, Hung Ngoc [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Rijnders, Guus [Inorganic Materials Science (IMS), MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The cross sections show a very dense structure in the (001)-oriented films (c,d), while an open columnar growth structure is observed in the case of the (110)-oriented films (a,b). The (110)-oriented PZT films show a significantly larger longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33{sub ,f}), but smaller transverse piezoelectric coefficient (d31{sub ,f}) than the (001) oriented films. - Highlights: • We fabricate all-oxide, epitaxial piezoelectric PZT thin films on Si. • The orientation of the films can be controlled by changing the buffer layer stack. • The coherence of the in-plane orientation of the grains and grain boundaries affects the ferroelectric properties. • Good cycling stability of the ferroelectric properties of (001)-oriented PZT thin films. The (110)-oriented PZT thin films show a larger d33{sub ,f} but smaller d31{sub ,f} than the (001)-oriented films. - Abstract: Epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films were fabricated on silicon substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Depending on the buffer layers and perovskite oxide electrodes, epitaxial films with different orientations were grown. (110)-oriented PZT/SrRuO{sub 3} (and PZT/LaNiO{sub 3}) films were obtained on YSZ-buffered Si substrates, while (001)-oriented PZT/SrRuO{sub 3} (and PZT/LaNiO{sub 3}) were fabricated with an extra CeO{sub 2} buffer layer (CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/Si). There is no effect of the electrode material on the properties of the films. The initial remnant polarizations in the (001)-oriented films are higher than those of (110)-oriented films, but it increases to the value of the (001) films upon cycling. The longitudinal piezoelectric d33{sub ,f} coefficients of the (110) films are larger than those of the (001) films, whereas the transverse piezoelectric d31{sub ,f} coefficients in the (110)-films are less than those in the (001)-oriented films. The difference is ascribed to the lower density (connectivity between

  15. Preparation and switching kinetics of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 thin films deposited by reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hase, Takashi; Shiosaki, Tadashi

    1991-01-01

    Ferroelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 [PZT] thin films have been prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si and Pt/SiO 2 /Si substrates using the reactive sputtering method with a metal composite target. The (111)-oriented PZT (80/20) thin films with a perovskite structure have been obtained at a substrate temperature of 595degC on highly (111)-oriented Pt films formed on SiO 2 /Si substrates. When an 8 V pulse sequence was applied to a 265 nm-thick film with an electrode area of 50 x 50 μm 2 , the switching time and the switched charge density measured were 20 ns and 10 μC/cm 2 , respectively. The switching time was strongly dependent on the electrode area. (author)

  16. Domain Engineered Magnetoelectric Thin Films for High Sensitivity Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    band gap of highly textured PZT thin films. The deposition process variables were - argon and oxygen flows, chamber pressure, RF power (DC Bias...needed another parameter to equate with the number of unknowns in the resultant model equations. From Figure 24, electronic polarizability affects the... Polarizability and Optical dielectric response of a thin.film , ., ,__~--~---\\- 000 01’ "󈧶 Ots Tncnt.re"’°l Effective Polarizability = Reddy

  17. Structural and Electrical Characteristics of Metal-Ferroelectric Pb1.1(Zr0.40Ti0.60O3-Insulator (ZnO-Silicon Capacitors for Nonvolatile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Krishnamoorthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS thin-film structures using Pb1.1Zr0.40Ti0.60O3 (PZT as the ferroelectric layer and zinc oxide (ZnO as the insulator layer were fabricated on n-type (100 Si substrate. Pb1.1Zr0.40Ti0.60O3 and ZnO thin films were prepared on Si by the sol-gel route and thermal deposition method, respectively. On the optimized PZT (140 nm and ZnO (40 nm films were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM. From AFM data the root mean square (r.m.s. roughness of the film surface is 13.11 nm. The leakage current density of ZnO/n-Si (MIS structure was as low as 1.8 × 10−8 A/cm2 at 2.5 V. The capacitance versus voltage (C-V characteristics of the annealed ZnO/Si (MIS diode indicated the good interface properties and no hysteresis was observed. Au/PZT (140 nm/ZnO (40 nm/Si (100 leakage-current density was about 5.7 × 10−8 A/cm2 at positive bias voltage of 3 V. The large memory window width in C-V (capacitance-voltage curve of Au/PZT/ZnO/Si capacitor was about 2.9 V under ±12 V which thus possibly enables nonvolatile applications. The memory window as a function of temperature was also discussed.

  18. Oxygen tracer studies of ferroelectric fatigue in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloss, Lawrence F.; McIntyre, Paul C.; Hendrix, Bryan C.; Bilodeau, Steven M.; Roeder, Jeffrey F.; Gilbert, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Long-range oxygen motion has been observed in Pt/Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 /Ir thin-film structures after electrical fatigue cycling at room temperature. Through an exchange anneal, isotopic 18 O was incorporated as a tracer into bare Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) films, allowing secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements of the tracer profile evolution as a function of the number of polarization reversals. Observation of 18 O tracer redistribution during voltage cycling, which is presumably mediated by oxygen vacancy motion, was found to be strongly dependent upon the thermal history of the film. However, there was no strong correlation between the extent of 18 O tracer redistribution and the extent of polarization suppression induced by voltage cycling. Our results suggest that oxygen vacancy motion plays, at most, a secondary role in ferroelectric fatigue of PZT thin films

  19. The Effects of Postprocessing on Physical and Solution Deposition of Complex Oxide Thin Films for Tunable Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    BST film capacitor devices were fabricated using physical and chemical solution deposition techniques. The typical dielectric constant of the...electrode loss, and the parallel resistor- capacitor circuit represents the capacitance and the dielectric loss, assuming lead inductance is...Thin barium strontium titanate (BST) films are being developed as dielectric film for use in tunable radio frequency (RF)/microwave applications. Thin

  20. Investigation of optical and electrical properties of Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 thin films on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafadaryan, Eugenia; Aghamalyan, Natella; Nikogosyan, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Pb(Zr 1-x Ti x )O 3 (PZT) polycrystalline thin films were prepared by sol-gel and pulsed laser deposition techniques on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si (Pt) and SrRuO 3 /LaAlO 3 (SRO/LAO) substrates. Infrared reflectivity spectroscopy with oblique (45deg) light incidence revealed both the 3LO (688cm -1 ) phonon lineshape asymmetry decrease with increasing in thickness and the thinner, disordered boundary layer at the SRO/PZT interface independently of the film preparation method. The fatigue properties of PZT films were studied for various crystallographic orientations. It was observed that in the 52/48 PZT/SRO/LAO film, when the field is applied along the (001) direction, excellent fatigue resistance is obtained. (author)

  1. Far-infrared properties of sol-gel derived PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin films on Pt-coated substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafadaryan, E A; Hovsepyan, R K; Khachaturova, A A; Aghamalyan, N R; Shirinyan, G O; Manukyan, A L; Vardanyan, R S; Hayrapetyan, A G; Grigoryan, S G; Vardanyan, E S

    2003-01-01

    Polycrystalline tetragonal PbZr 0.52 Ti 0.48 O 3 (PZT) thin films have been deposited on the nickel and (111) platinum coated (110) sapphire substrates by the sol-gel method. Optical properties of the PZT thin films were studied using far-infrared reflectivity spectroscopy in the 200-10 000 cm -1 frequency range at 300 K. The frequency dependence of the optical characteristics (σ, ε, -Im ε -1 ) of the films were calculated by the Kramers-Kronig transformation of the reflectivity spectra and analysed by the Drude-Lorentz model. The frequency dependence of the optical conductivity, σ(ω), of the PZT films deposited on platinum coated sapphire is well described by the free-carrier term and an overdamped mid-infrared component. Sapphire/Pt/PZT structures reveal semiconductor properties (effective carrier concentration N/m* is up to 10 20 cm -3 , plasma minimum is located near 3000 cm -1 ). This effect can be related to the favourable influence of the platinum electrode on the charge carrier density at Pt/PZT contact and formation of the interfacial conductive layer

  2. Chemical mechanical polishing of BTO thin film for vertical sidewall patterning of high-density memory capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam-Hoon; Ko, Pil-Ju; Seo, Yong-Jin; Lee, Woo-Sun

    2006-01-01

    Most high-k materials cannot to be etched easily. Problems such as low etch rate, poor sidewall angle, plasma damage, and process complexity have emerged in high-density DRAM fabrication. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) by the damascene process has been used to pattern high-k materials for high-density capacitor. Barium titanate (BTO) thin film, a typical high-k material, was polished with three types of silica slurry having different pH values. Sufficient removal rate with adequate selectivity to realize the pattern mask of tetra-ethyl ortho-silicate (TEOS) film for the vertical sidewall angle was obtained. The changes of X-ray diffraction pattern and dielectric constant by CMP process were negligible. Planarization was also achieved for the subsequent multilevel processes. Our new CMP approach will provide a guideline for effective patterning of high-k materials by CMP

  3. Thin-film composite materials as a dielectric layer for flexible metal-insulator-metal capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Jitendra N; Meena, Jagan Singh; Wu, Chung-Shu; Tiwari, Rajanish N; Chu, Min-Ching; Chang, Feng-Chih; Ko, Fu-Hsiang

    2010-09-24

    A new organic-organic nanoscale composite thin-film (NCTF) dielectric has been synthesized by solution deposition of 1-bromoadamantane and triblock copolymer (Pluronic P123, BASF, EO20-PO70-EO20), in which the precursor solution has been achieved with organic additives. We have used a sol-gel process to make a metal-insulator-metal capacitor (MIM) comprising a nanoscale (10 nm-thick) thin-film on a flexible polyimide (PI) substrate at room temperature. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope revealed that the deposited NCTFs were crack-free, uniform, highly resistant to moisture absorption, and well adhered on the Au-Cr/PI. The electrical properties of 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF were characterized by dielectric constant, capacitance, and leakage current measurements. The 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF on the PI substrate showed a low leakage current density of 5.5 x 10(-11) A cm(-2) and good capacitance of 2.4 fF at 1 MHz. In addition, the calculated dielectric constant of 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF was 1.9, making them suitable candidates for use in future flexible electronic devices as a stable intermetal dielectric. The electrical insulating properties of 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF have been improved due to the optimized dipole moments of the van der Waals interactions.

  4. A low-frequency MEMS piezoelectric energy harvester with a rectangular hole based on bulk PZT film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yingwei; Li, Guimiao; Yi, Zhiran; Liu, Jingquan; Yang, Bin

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a high performance piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) with a rectangular hole to work at low-frequency. This PEH used thinned bulk PZT film on flexible phosphor bronze, and its structure included piezoelectric layer, supporting layer and proof mass to reduce the resonant frequency of the device. Here, thinned bulk PZT thick film was used as piezoelectric layer due to its high piezoelectric coefficient. A Phosphor bronze was deployed as supporting layer because it had better flexibility compared to silicon and could work under high acceleration ambient with good durability. The maximum open-circuit voltage of the PEH was 15.7 V at low resonant frequency of 34.3 Hz when the input vibration acceleration was 1.5 g (g = 9.81 m/s2). Moreover, the maximum output power, the output power density and the actually current at the same acceleration were 216.66 μW, 1713.58 μW/cm3 and 170 μA, respectively, when the optimal matched resistance of 60 kΩ was connected. The fabricated PEH scavenged the vibration energy of the vacuum compression pump and generated the maximum output voltage of 1.19 V.

  5. Piezoelectric coefficients of multilayer Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muensit, S. [Prince of Songkla University, Department of Physics, Songkhla (Thailand); NANOTEC Center of Excellence at Prince of Songkhla University, Songkhla (Thailand); Sukwisut, P.; Khaenamkeaw, P. [Prince of Songkla University, Department of Physics, Songkhla (Thailand); Lang, S.B. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Chemical Engineering, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2008-08-15

    Sol-gel techniques were used to prepare thin films of Pb(Zr{sub x},Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} (PZT) with three different Zr/Ti ratios and a graded PZT film with three different compositional layers. A Michelson interferometer was used to measure the thickness strains due to an applied ac electric field. Effective d{sub 33} piezoelectric strain coefficients were computed from the experimental data. Interfacial pinning caused these coefficients to differ from the true ones. They were corrected for the pinning using both an analytical model and finite-element analysis. The corrected coefficients of the PZT(52/48) sample were in excellent agreement with values of bulk materials. The coefficients of the multilayer sample were very low, probably due to insufficient poling or domain switching. (orig.)

  6. Preparation of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films on Pt/RuO2 double electrode by a new sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.; Choi, Y.; Kim, C.; Oh, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) thin film on Pt/RuO 2 double electrode was successfully prepared by using new alkoxide endash alkanolamine, sol-gel method. It was observed that the use of Pt/RuO 2 double electrode reduced leakage current, resulting in a marked improvement in the leakage characteristics and more reliable capacitors. Typical P-E hysteresis behavior was observed even at low applied voltage of 5 V, manifesting greatly improved remanance and coercivity. Fatigue and breakdown characteristic, measured at 5 V, showed stable behavior and no degradation in polarization was observed up to 10 11 cycles.copyright 1997 Materials Research Society

  7. Fabrication of In(0.75)Zn(1.5)Sn(1.0) (IZTO) Thin-Film Transistors Using Solution-Processable Materials and PZT Inkjet-Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai-Kuang; Liuand, Chao-Te; Lee, Wen-Hsi

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Thin Film Transistors (TFTs) have been studied widely because of potential applications in low cost, low-temperature process and flexible displays. They can be fabricated by easy processes based on solution methods. But the mobility of organic TFTs is lower and the threshold voltage is higher than amorphous Si TFTs. In order to enhance the channel mobility and satisfy with the requirement of low-cost fabrication, we prepare a low-cost, mask-free, reduced material wastage, deposited technology using transparent, directly printable, air-stable semiconductor slurries and dielectric solutions. In our investigations, we attempt to obtain a high performance and low-cost TFT via preparing materials, designing device structure, and using PZT inkjet-printing technology. A stable and non-precipitated metal oxide ink with appropriate doping was prepared for the fabrication of an InxZn1.5Sn1.0 (IZTO) by PZT inkjet-printing. The soluble direct-printing process is a powerful tool for material research and implies that the printable materials and the printing technology enable the use of all-printed low-cost flexible displays and other transparent electronic applications. Transparent materials including dielectric PVP, conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) and active IZTO were employed into the fabrication of our PZT inkjet-printing process. After annealed at 180 °C, The experimental all-printed TFT exhibit the carrier mobility of 0.194 cm2/Vs, sub-threshold slope of 20 V/decade, and the threshold voltage of 5 V, initially. All-inkjet-printed films have great transparency, potentially in transparent electronics and the transmittance pattern in visible part of the spectrum (400–700 nm) is over 80%.

  8. Texture variations in sol-gel derived PZT films on substrates with platinum metallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Cobianu, C.

    1994-01-01

    Metalorganic precursor solutions of composition Zr : Ti = 0.53 : 0.47 were used to spin-cast PZT layers on sputtered Pt films. After annealing at temperatures of 550 °C - 800 °C, the PZT films of tetragonal perovskite structure reproducibly showed different textures and surface morphologies,

  9. Preparation and switching kinetics of Pb(Zr, Ti)O sub 3 thin films deposited by reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hase, Takashi; Shiosaki, Tadashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-09-01

    Ferroelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films have been prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si and Pt/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates using the reactive sputtering method with a metal composite target. The (111)-oriented PZT (80/20) thin films with a perovskite structure have been obtained at a substrate temperature of 595degC on highly (111)-oriented Pt films formed on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. When an 8 V pulse sequence was applied to a 265 nm-thick film with an electrode area of 50 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2}, the switching time and the switched charge density measured were 20 ns and 10 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The switching time was strongly dependent on the electrode area. (author).

  10. Nonlinear dielectric thin films for high-power electric storage with energy density comparable with electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kui; Chen, Shuting; Rahimabady, Mojtaba; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Yu, Shuhui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Sritharan, Thirumany; Lu, Li

    2011-09-01

    Although batteries possess high energy storage density, their output power is limited by the slow movement of charge carriers, and thus capacitors are often required to deliver high power output. Dielectric capacitors have high power density with fast discharge rate, but their energy density is typically much lower than electrochemical supercapacitors. Increasing the energy density of dielectric materials is highly desired to extend their applications in many emerging power system applications. In this paper, we review the mechanisms and major characteristics of electric energy storage with electrochemical supercapacitors and dielectric capacitors. Three types of in-house-produced ferroic nonlinear dielectric thin film materials with high energy density are described, including (Pb(0.97)La(0.02))(Zr(0.90)Sn(0.05)Ti(0.05))O(3) (PLZST) antiferroelectric ceramic thin films, Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)PbTiO(3) (PZN-PMN-PT) relaxor ferroelectric ceramic thin films, and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based polymer blend thin films. The results showed that these thin film materials are promising for electric storage with outstandingly high power density and fairly high energy density, comparable with electrochemical supercapacitors.

  11. Cellulose Triacetate Dielectric Films For Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Jow, T. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Cellulose triacetate investigated for use as dielectric material in high-energy-density capacitors for pulsed-electrical-power systems. Films of cellulose triacetate metalized on one or both sides for use as substrates for electrodes and/or as dielectrics between electrodes in capacitors. Used without metalization as simple dielectric films. Advantages include high breakdown strength and self-healing capability.

  12. Epitaxial growth of metallic buffer layer structure and c-axis oriented Pb(Mn1/3,Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin film on Si for high performance piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Pham Ngoc; Yoshida, Shinya; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of a metallic buffer layer structure, (100) SrRuO3 (SRO)/(100) Pt/(100) Ir/(100) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layers for the epitaxial growth of a c-axis oriented Pb(Mn1/3,Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PMnN-PZT) thin film on a (100) Si wafer for piezoelectric micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) application. The stacking layers were epitaxially grown on a Si substrate under the optimal deposition condition. A crack-free PMnN-PZT epitaxial thin films was obtained at a thickness up to at least 1.7 µm, which is enough for MEMS applications. The unimorph MEMS cantilevers based on the PMnN-PZT thin film were fabricated and characterized. As a result, the PMnN-PZT thin film exhibited -10 to -12 C/m2 as a piezoelectric coefficient e 31,f and ˜250 as a dielectric constants ɛr. The resultant FOM for piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (pMUT) is higher than those of general PZT and AlN thin films. This structure has a potential to provide high-performance pMUTs.

  13. Dependence of e31,f on polar axis texture for tetragonal Pb(Zrx,Ti1-x)O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Charles B.; Ehara, Yoshitaka; Oshima, Naoya; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2014-09-01

    It was shown by Ouyang et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 152901 (2005)] that the piezoelectric e31,f coefficient is largest parallel to the spontaneous polarization in tetragonal PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) films. However, the expected piezoelectric data are typically calculated from phenomenological constants derived from data on ceramic PZT. In this work, the dependence of e31,f on c-axis texture fraction, f001, for {001}PZT thin films was measured by growing films with systematically changed f001 using CaF2, MgO, SrTiO3, and Si substrates. An approximately linear increase in e31,f with f001 was observed for compositions up to 43 mol. % Zr, and 100% c-domain properties were extrapolated. It was demonstrated that c-axis PZT films can achieve e31,f exceeding -12 C/m2 for many tetragonal compositions. The energy harvesting figure of merit, e31,f2/ɛr, for c-axis PZT films surpassed 0.8 C2/m4. This is larger than the figure of merit of gradient-free PZT films grown on Si substrates by a factor of four.

  14. Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties of PZT Composite Thick Films with Variable Solution to Powder Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dawei; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, Koping Kirk; Bharadwaja, Srowthi N; Zhang, Dongshe; Zheng, Haixing

    2009-05-08

    The use of PZT films in sliver-mode high-frequency ultrasonic transducers applications requires thick, dense, and crack-free films with excellent piezoelectric and dielectric properties. In this work, PZT composite solutions were used to deposit PZT films >10 μm in thickness. It was found that the functional properties depend strongly on the mass ratio of PZT sol-gel solution to PZT powder in the composite solution. Both the remanent polarization, P(r), and transverse piezoelectric coefficient, e(31,) (f), increase with increasing proportion of the sol-gel solution in the precursor. Films prepared using a solution-to-powder mass ratio of 0.5 have a remanent polarization of 8 μC/cm(2), a dielectric constant of 450 (at 1 kHz), and e(31,) (f) = -2.8 C/m(2). Increasing the solution-to-powder mass ratio to 6, the films were found to have remanent polarizations as large as 37 μC/cm(2), a dielectric constant of 1250 (at 1 kHz) and e(31,) (f) = -5.8 C/m(2).

  15. Electrode contacts on ferroelectric Pb(Zr x Ti1−x )O3 and SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films and their influence on fatigue properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J. J.; Thio, C. L.; Desu, Seshu B.

    1995-01-01

    The degradation (fatigue) of dielectric properties of ferroelectric Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O-3 (PZT) and SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films during cycling was investigated. PZT and SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films were fabricated by metalorganic decomposition and pulsed laser deposition, respectively. Samples with electrodes of platinum (Pt) and ruthenium oxide (RuO2) were studied. The interfacial capacitance (if any) at the Pt/PZT, RuO2/PZT, and Pt/SrBi2Ta2O9 interfaces was determined from the thickness dependence of low-fiel...

  16. Electrostatically assisted fabrication of silver-dielectric core/shell nanoparticles thin film capacitor with uniform metal nanoparticle distribution and controlled spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Niitsoo, Olivia; Couzis, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    An electrostatically-assisted strategy for fabrication of thin film composite capacitors with controllable dielectric constant (k) has been developed. The capacitor is composed of metal-dielectric core/shell nanoparticle (silver/silica, Ag@SiO2) multilayer films, and a backfilling polymer. Compared with the simple metal particle-polymer mixtures where the metal nanoparticles (NP) are randomly dispersed in the polymer matrix, the metal volume fraction in our capacitor was significantly increased, owing to the densely packed NP multilayers formed by the electrostatically assisted assembly process. Moreover, the insulating layer of silica shell provides a potential barrier that reduces the tunneling current between neighboring Ag cores, endowing the core/shell nanocomposites with a stable and relatively high dielectric constant (k) and low dielectric loss (D). Our work also shows that the thickness of the SiO2 shell plays a dominant role in controlling the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites. Control over metal NP separation distance was realized not only by variation the shell thickness of the core/shell NPs but also by introducing a high k nanoparticle, barium strontium titanate (BST) of relatively smaller size (∼8nm) compared to 80-160nm of the core/shell Ag@SiO2 NPs. The BST assemble between the Ag@SiO2 and fill the void space between the closely packed core/shell NPs leading to significant enhancement of the dielectric constant. This electrostatically assisted assembly method is promising for generating multilayer films of a large variety of NPs over large areas at low cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Timing A Pulsed Thin Film Pyroelectric Generator For Maximum Power Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.N.; Hanrahan, B.M.; Neville, C.J.; Jankowski, N.R

    2016-01-01

    Pyroelectric thermal-to-electric energy conversion is accomplished by a cyclic process of thermally-inducing polarization changes in the material under an applied electric field. The pyroelectric MEMS device investigated consisted of a thin film PZT capacitor with platinum bottom and iridium oxide top electrodes. Electric fields between 1-20 kV/cm with a 30% duty cycle and frequencies from 0.1 - 100 Hz were tested with a modulated continuous wave IR laser with a duty cycle of 20% creating temperature swings from 0.15 - 26 °C on the pyroelectric receiver. The net output power of the device was highly sensitive to the phase delay between the laser power and the applied electric field. A thermal model was developed to predict and explain the power loss associated with finite charge and discharge times. Excellent agreement was achieved between the theoretical model and the experiment results for the measured power density versus phase delay. Limitations on the charging and discharging rates result in reduced power and lower efficiency due to a reduced net work per cycle. (paper)

  18. Broadband dielectric characterization of sapphire/TiOx/Ba₀.₃Sr₀.₇TiO₃ (111)-oriented thin films for the realization of a tunable interdigitated capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalem, Areski; Ponchel, Freddy; Remiens, Denis; Legier, Jean-Francois; Lasri, Tuami

    2013-05-01

    A complete microwave characterization up to 67 GHz using specific coplanar waveguides was performed to determine the dielectric properties (permittivity, losses, and tunability) of sapphire/TiOx/Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3 (BST) (111)-oriented thin films. To that end, BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on sapphire (0001) substrate. To control the preferred (111) orientation, a TiOx buffer layer was deposited on sapphire. According to the detailed knowledge of the material properties, it has been possible to conceive, fabricate, and test interdigitated capacitors, the basic element for future microwave tunable applications. Retention of capacitive behavior up to 67 GHz and a tunability of 32% at 67 GHz at an applied voltage of 30 V (150 kV/cm) were observed. The Q-factor remains greater than 30 over the entire frequency band. The possibility of a complete characterization of the material for the realization of high-performance interdigitated capacitors opens the door to microwave device fabrication.

  19. Determination of the Steady State Leakage Current in Structures with Ferroelectric Ceramic Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornyi, Yu. V.; Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Steady state leakage currents have been investigated in capacitor structures with ferroelectric solgel films of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) formed on silicon substrates with a lower Pt electrode. It is established that Pt/PZT/Hg structures, regardless of the PZT film thickness, are characterized by the presence of a rectifying contact similar to p-n junction. The steady state leakage current in the forward direction increases with a decrease in the film thickness and is determined by the ferroelectric bulk conductivity.

  20. Temperature dependent mechanical property of PZT film: an investigation by nanoindentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Li

    Full Text Available Load-depth curves of an unpoled Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT film composite as a function of temperature were measured by nanoindentation technique. Its reduce modulus and hardness were calculated by the typical Oliver-Pharr method. Then the true modulus and hardness of the PZT film were assessed by decoupling the influence of substrate using methods proposed by Zhou et al. and Korsunsky et al., respectively. Results show that the indentation depth and modulus increase, but the hardness decreases at elevated temperature. The increasing of indentation depth and the decreasing of hardness are thought to be caused by the decreasing of the critical stress needed to excite dislocation initiation at high temperature. The increasing of true modulus is attributed to the reducing of recoverable indentation depth induced by back-switched domains. The influence of residual stress on the indentation behavior of PZT film composite was also investigated by measuring its load-depth curves with pre-load strains.

  1. Temperature dependent mechanical property of PZT film: an investigation by nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingwei; Feng, Shangming; Wu, Wenping; Li, Faxin

    2015-01-01

    Load-depth curves of an unpoled Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) film composite as a function of temperature were measured by nanoindentation technique. Its reduce modulus and hardness were calculated by the typical Oliver-Pharr method. Then the true modulus and hardness of the PZT film were assessed by decoupling the influence of substrate using methods proposed by Zhou et al. and Korsunsky et al., respectively. Results show that the indentation depth and modulus increase, but the hardness decreases at elevated temperature. The increasing of indentation depth and the decreasing of hardness are thought to be caused by the decreasing of the critical stress needed to excite dislocation initiation at high temperature. The increasing of true modulus is attributed to the reducing of recoverable indentation depth induced by back-switched domains. The influence of residual stress on the indentation behavior of PZT film composite was also investigated by measuring its load-depth curves with pre-load strains.

  2. PZT thin film actuated elastic fin micromotor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M A; Muralt, P

    1998-01-01

    A piezoelectric elastic fin micromotor based on a PbZr(0.53 )Ti(0.47)O(3) thin film driving a micromachined silicon membrane was fabricated and studied. The stator was characterized by interferometry, and a laser set-up was used to measure the angular velocity and acceleration of the motor. The torque, the output power, and the efficiency of the device were extracted from these measurements. Values up to 1020 rpm and 0.94 microNm were observed for the velocity and the torque, respectively, which would be sufficient for a wristwatch application. The present version exhibited an efficiency of 0.17%, which could theoretically be increased to 4.8%

  3. A Humidity-Dependent Lifetime Derating Factor for DC Film Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    accelerated testing of film capacitors under different humidity conditions, enabling a more justified lifetime prediction of film capacitors for DC-link applications under specific climatic environments. The analysis of the testing results and the detailed discussion on the derating factor with different......Film capacitors are widely assumed to have superior reliability performance than Aluminum electrolytic capacitors in DC-link design of power electronic converters. However, the assumption needs to be critically judged especially for applications under high humidity environments. This paper proposes...... a humidity-dependent lifetime derating factor for a type of plastic-boxed metallized DC film capacitors. It overcomes the limitation that the humidity impact is not considered in the state-of-the-art DC film capacitor lifetime models. The lifetime derating factor is obtained based on a total of 8,700 hours...

  4. A three-degree-of-freedom thin-film PZT-actuated microactuator with large out-of-plane displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongsoo; Qiu, Zhen; Rhee, Choong-Ho; Wang, Thomas; Oldham, Kenn

    2014-07-01

    A novel three degree-of-freedom microactuator based on thin-film lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) is described with its detailed structural model. Its central rectangular-shaped mirror platform, also referred to as the stage, is actuated by four symmetric PZT bending legs such that each leg provides vertical translation for one corner of the stage. It has been developed to support real-time in vivo vertical cross-sectional imaging with a dual axes confocal endomicroscope for early cancer detection, having large displacements in three axes (z, θ x , θ y ) and a relatively high bandwidth in the z-axis direction. Prototype microactuators closely meet the performance requirements for this application; in the out-of-plane (z-axis) direction, it has shown more than 177 μ m of displacement and about 84 Hz of structural natural frequency, when two diagonal legs are actuated at 14V. With all four legs, another prototype of the same design with lighter stage mass has achieved more than 430 μ m of out-of-plane displacement at 15V and about 200 Hz of bandwidth. The former design has shown approximately 6.4° and 2.9° of stage tilting about the x-axis and y-axis, respectively, at 14V. This paper also presents a modeling technique that uses experimental data to account for the effects of fabrication uncertainties in residual stress and structural dimensions. The presented model predicts the static motion of the stage within an average absolute error of 14.6 μ m, which approaches the desired imaging resolution, 5 μ m, and also reasonably anticipates the structural dynamic behavior of the stage. The refined model will support development of a future trajectory tracking controller for the system.

  5. Thermal stability of pulsed laser deposited iridium oxide thin films at low oxygen atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yansheng; Wang, Chuanbin; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2013-11-01

    Iridium oxide (IrO2) thin films have been regarded as a leading candidate for bottom electrode and diffusion barrier of ferroelectric capacitors, some process related issues need to be considered before integrating ferroelectric capacitors into memory cells. This paper presents the thermal stability of pulsed laser deposited IrO2 thin films at low oxygen atmosphere. Emphasis was given on the effect of post-deposition annealing temperature at different oxygen pressure (PO2) on the crystal structure, surface morphology, electrical resistivity, carrier concentration and mobility of IrO2 thin films. The results showed that the thermal stability of IrO2 thin films was strongly dependent on the oxygen pressure and annealing temperature. IrO2 thin films can stably exist below 923 K at PO2 = 1 Pa, which had a higher stability than the previous reported results. The surface morphology of IrO2 thin films depended on PO2 and annealing temperature, showing a flat and uniform surface for the annealed films. Electrical properties were found to be sensitive to both the annealing temperature and oxygen pressure. The room-temperature resistivity of IrO2 thin films with a value of 49-58 μΩ cm increased with annealing temperature at PO2 = 1 Pa. The thermal stability of IrO2 thin films as a function of oxygen pressure and annealing temperature was almost consistent with thermodynamic calculation.

  6. Direct observation of fatigue in epitaxially grown Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films using second harmonic piezoresponse force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, Nishit M.; Hong, Seungbum; Lee, Ho Nyung; Katiyar, Ram. S.

    2011-08-01

    Here, we present a direct observation of fatigue phenomena in epitaxially grown Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 (PZT) thin films using second harmonic piezoresponse force microscopy (SH-PFM). We observed strong correlation between the SH-PFM amplitude and phase signals with the remnant piezoresponse at different switching cycles. The SH-PFM results indicate that the average fraction of switchable domains decreases globally and the phase delays of polarization switching differ locally. In addition, we found that the fatigue developed uniformly over the whole area without developing region-by-region suppression of switchable polarization as in polycrystalline PZT thin films.

  7. Electrodynamic properties of porous PZT-Pt films at terahertz frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komandin, Gennady A.; Porodinkov, Oleg E.; Spektor, Igor E.; Volkov, Alexander A. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vorotilov, Konstantin A.; Seregin, Dmitry S.; Sigov, Alexander S. [Moscow Technological University (MIREA), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Electrodynamics of Si-SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-Pt-PZT heterostructures is studied in the frequency range from 5 to 5000 cm{sup -1} by monochromatic BWO (backward wave oscillator) and infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy techniques to derive the dielectric characteristics of the sol-gel porous ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.48}Ti{sub 0.52}O{sub 3} films. Broad frequency band dielectric response of PZT films with different density is constructed using the oscillator dispersion models. The main contribution to the film permittivity is found to form at frequencies below 100 cm{sup -1} depending strongly and non-linearly on the film medium density. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Electroresistance Effect in Gold Thin Film Induced by Ionic-Liquid-Gated Electric Double Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakayama, Hiroyasu; Ye, Jianting; Ohtani, Takashi; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Ando, Kazuya; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Eiji

    Electroresistance effect was detected in a metallic thin film using ionic-liquid-gated electric-double-layer transistors (EDLTs). We observed reversible modulation of the electric resistance of a Au thin film. In this system, we found that an electric double layer works as a nanogap capacitor with

  9. Room temperature ferroelectricity in continuous croconic acid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xuanyuan; Lu, Haidong; Yin, Yuewei; Ahmadi, Zahra; Costa, Paulo S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Zhang, Xiaozhe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Department of Physics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xiao; Yu, Le; Cheng, Xuemei [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010 (United States); DiChiara, Anthony D. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Gruverman, Alexei, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Enders, Axel, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Xu, Xiaoshan, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-09-05

    Ferroelectricity at room temperature has been demonstrated in nanometer-thin quasi 2D croconic acid thin films, by the polarization hysteresis loop measurements in macroscopic capacitor geometry, along with observation and manipulation of the nanoscale domain structure by piezoresponse force microscopy. The fabrication of continuous thin films of the hydrogen-bonded croconic acid was achieved by the suppression of the thermal decomposition using low evaporation temperatures in high vacuum, combined with growth conditions far from thermal equilibrium. For nominal coverages ≥20 nm, quasi 2D and polycrystalline films, with an average grain size of 50–100 nm and 3.5 nm roughness, can be obtained. Spontaneous ferroelectric domain structures of the thin films have been observed and appear to correlate with the grain patterns. The application of this solvent-free growth protocol may be a key to the development of flexible organic ferroelectric thin films for electronic applications.

  10. Temperature dependence of PZT film optical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deineka, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Suchaneck, G.; Gerlach, G.

    11-12, - (2001), s. 352-354 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1425; GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : refractive index profile * PZT film * temperature dependence of optical properties Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  11. Experimental investigation into the effect of substrate clamping on the piezoelectric behaviour of thick-film PZT elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torah, R N; Beeby, S P; White, N M [Department of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-07

    This paper details an experimental investigation of the clamping effect associated with thick-film piezoelectric elements printed on a substrate. The clamping effect reduces the measured piezoelectric coefficient, d{sub 33}, of the film. This reduction is due to the influence of the d{sub 31} component in the film when a deformation of the structure occurs, by either the direct or indirect piezoelectric effect. Theoretical analysis shows a reduction in the measured d{sub 33} of 62%, i.e. a standard bulk lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-5H sample with a manufacturer specified d{sub 33} of 593pC/N would fall to 227.8pC/N. To confirm this effect, the d{sub 33} coefficients of five thin bulk PZT-5H samples of 220 {mu}m thickness were measured before and after their attachment to a metallized 96% alumina substrate. The experimental results show a reduction in d{sub 33} of 74% from 529pC/N to 139pC/N. The theoretical analysis was then applied to existing University of Southampton thick-film devices. It is estimated that the measured d{sub 33} value of 131pC/N of the thick-film devices is the equivalent of an unconstrained d{sub 33} of 345pC/N.

  12. Highly Oriented Growth of Piezoelectric Thin Films on Silicon using Two-Dimensional Nanosheets as Growth Template Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh; Yuan, H.; Houwman, Evert Pieter; Dekkers, Jan M.; Koster, Gertjan; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Ca2Nb3O10 (CNOns) and Ti0.87O2 (TiOns) metal oxide nanosheets (ns) are used as a buffer layer for epitaxial growth of piezoelectric capacitor stacks on Si and Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si (Pt/Si) substrates. Highly (001)- and (110)-oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films are achieved by utilizing CNOns and TiOns,

  13. PREFACE: Proceedings Symposium G of E-MRS Spring Meeting on Fundamentals and Technology of Multifunctional Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Oxide materials exhibit a large variety of functional properties that are useful in a plethora of applications. Symposium G focused on oxide thin films that include dielectric or switching properties. Its program mirrored very well the strong worldwide search for high-K thin films for gate, memory, and on-chip capacitors, as well as the emerging field of functional thin films for MEMS. A complete session was devoted to the colossal effect of dielectric response in (Ca,Cu)TiO3, representing the major European research groups in this field. A comprehensive overview on this phenomenon was given by D Sinclair J Wolfman presented the latest results on CCTO thin films obtained by wafer scale pulsed laser deposition. A Loidl showed the analytical power of dielectric spectroscopy when covering the complete frequency range from 1-1012 Hz, i.e. from space charge to phonon contributions at the example of CCTO. Another session was devoted to applications in non-volatile memories, covering various effects including ferroelectric and resistive switching, the complex behavior of oxide tunnel junctions (H Kohlstedt), the possibility to manipulate the magnetic state of a 2d-electron gas by the polarization of an adjacent ferroelectric gate (I Stolitchnov). Latest advancements in ALD processing for high-K thin films in dynamic RAM were reported by S Ramanathan. The advancement of piezoelectric PZT thin film MEMS devices was well documented by outstanding talks on their developments in industry (M Klee, F Tyholdt), new possibilities in GHz filters (T Matshushima), advancements in sol-gel processing (B Tuttle, H Suzuki), and low temperature integration approaches by UV light curing (S Trolier-McKinstry). Recent advances in incipient ferroelectric thin films and nano composites for tunable capacitors in microwave applications were present by A Vorobiev and T Yamada. Integrated electro-optics is another field to be conquered by thin film structures. The impressive progress made in this

  14. Nanoscale characterization and local piezoelectric properties of lead-free KNN-LT-LS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazari, M; Safari, A [Glenn Howatt Electroceramics Laboratories, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers-The state University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Choi, T; Cheong, S-W [Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers-The state University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2010-01-20

    We report the observation of domain structure and piezoelectric properties of pure and Mn-doped (K{sub 0.44},Na{sub 0.52},Li{sub 0.04})(Nb{sub 0.84},Ta{sub 0.1},Sb{sub 0.06})O{sub 3} (KNN-LT-LS) thin films on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. It is revealed that, using piezoresponse force microscopy, ferroelectric domain structure in such 500 nm thin films comprised of primarily 180{sup 0} domains. This was in accordance with the tetragonal structure of the films, confirmed by relative permittivity measurements and x-ray diffraction patterns. Effective piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}) of the films were calculated using piezoelectric displacement curves and shown to be {approx}53 pm V{sup -1} for pure KNN-LT-LS thin films. This value is among the highest values reported for an epitaxial lead-free thin film and shows a great potential for KNN-LT-LS to serve as an alternative to PZT thin films in future applications.

  15. Nanoscale characterization and local piezoelectric properties of lead-free KNN-LT-LS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, M.; Choi, T.; Cheong, S.-W.; Safari, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the observation of domain structure and piezoelectric properties of pure and Mn-doped (K0.44,Na0.52,Li0.04)(Nb0.84,Ta0.1,Sb0.06)O3 (KNN-LT-LS) thin films on SrTiO3 substrates. It is revealed that, using piezoresponse force microscopy, ferroelectric domain structure in such 500 nm thin films comprised of primarily 180° domains. This was in accordance with the tetragonal structure of the films, confirmed by relative permittivity measurements and x-ray diffraction patterns. Effective piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of the films were calculated using piezoelectric displacement curves and shown to be ~53 pm V-1 for pure KNN-LT-LS thin films. This value is among the highest values reported for an epitaxial lead-free thin film and shows a great potential for KNN-LT-LS to serve as an alternative to PZT thin films in future applications.

  16. Comparative study of effects of Mo and W dopants on the ferroelectric property of Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Wang Shijie; Lu Li; Shu Chang; Song Wendong; Wu Ping

    2008-01-01

    Pb(Zr 0.3 Ti 0.7 )O 3 thin films, respectively, doped with 1 mol% W and 1 mol% Mo have been deposited on the LaNiO 3 bottom electrodes using pulse laser deposition. The x-ray diffraction analyses revealed that both dopants induced (1 1 0) orientation of the perovskite structures. Compared with the undoped PZT films, the doped PZT films showed smoother and denser surfaces. The XPS measurements indicated that W possessed a valence state of +6 in the PZTW films, but Mo showed mixed valence states of +4 and +6. The hysteresis loops and fatigue results of the undoped, the W-doped (PZTW) and the Mo-doped PZT (PZTM) films were obtained. While both the two doped films revealed better fatigue behaviour than undoped PZT, the PZTW film had a slow fatigue rate in comparison with the PZTM film, which is consistent with our previous theoretical predictions

  17. Conformal Thin Film Packaging for SiC Sensor Circuits in Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Karnick, David A.; Ponchak, George E.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation sputtered silicon carbide annealed at 300 C for one hour is used as a conformal thin film package. A RF magnetron sputterer was used to deposit 500 nm silicon carbide films on gold metal structures on alumina wafers. To determine the reliability and resistance to immersion in harsh environments, samples were submerged in gold etchant for 24 hours, in BOE for 24 hours, and in an O2 plasma etch for one hour. The adhesion strength of the thin film was measured by a pull test before and after the chemical immersion, which indicated that the film has an adhesion strength better than 10(exp 8) N/m2; this is similar to the adhesion of the gold layer to the alumina wafer. MIM capacitors are used to determine the dielectric constant, which is dependent on the SiC anneal temperature. Finally, to demonstrate that the SiC, conformal, thin film may be used to package RF circuits and sensors, an LC resonator circuit was fabricated and tested with and without the conformal SiC thin film packaging. The results indicate that the SiC coating adds no appreciable degradation to the circuits RF performance. Index Terms Sputter, silicon carbide, MIM capacitors, LC resonators, gold etchants, BOE, O2 plasma

  18. Reversible pyroelectric and photogalvanic current in epitaxial Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Esayan, S.; Prohaska, J.; Safari, A.

    1994-01-01

    The pyroelectric and photogalvanic effects have been studied in epitaxial Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin films. Photoinduced currents, which were completely reversible by electrical voltage, were observed. The photoinduced currents exhibited transient and steady state components. The transient component, in turn, consisted of two components with fast (<1 s) and slow (˜hours) relaxation times. The mechanisms of the photoinduced currents in PZT films and their possible applications in nondestructive readout ferroelectric memory are discussed.

  19. Electric field mapping inside metallized film capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Achton; Popok, Vladimir; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    (s) they suffered from accelerated testing. We have prepared film capacitors for analysis by micro-sectioning and verified the quality of the preparation procedure using optical and atomic force microscopy. The potential distribution in the layer structure (alternating 7 µm thick dielectric and 50-100 nm thick...... and durability and serves as verification that failure- and degradation mechanisms remain the same at different stress levels during accelerated testing. In this work we have used Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to analyze metallized film capacitors with the purpose of determining the degradation mechanism...... metal) of a new capacitor was used as reference. KPFM measurements on the degraded capacitors showed a change in contact potential difference from -0.61V on the reference capacitor to 3.2V on the degraded ones, indicating that corrosion of the metallization had happened. Studies also showed that some...

  20. Effect of the Crystal Structure on the Electrical Properties of Thin-Film PZT Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delimova, L. A.; Gushchina, E. V.; Zaitseva, N. V.; Seregin, D. S.; Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    A new method of two-stage crystallization of lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) films using a seed sublayer with a low excess lead content has been proposed and realized. A seed layer with a strong texture of perovskite Pe(111) grains is formed from a solution with a lead excess of 0-5 wt %; the fast growth of the grains is provided by the deposition of the main film from a solution with high lead content. As a result, a strong Pe(111) texture with complete suppression of the Pe(100) orientation forms. An analysis of current-voltage dependences of the transient currents and the distributions of the local conductivity measured by the contact AFM method reveals two various mechanisms of current percolation that are determined by traps in the bulk and at the perovskite grain interfaces.

  1. Investigation of Top/Bottom electrode and Diffusion Barrier Layer for PZT Thick Film MEMS Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Pedersen, Thomas; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2008-01-01

    Top and bottom electrodes for screen printed piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate, Pb(ZrxTi1 - x)O3 (PZT) thick film are investigated with respect to future MEMS devices. Down to 100 nm thick E-beam evaporated Al and Pt films are patterned as top electrodes on the PZT using a lift-off process...... with a line width down to 3 μ m. A 700 nm thick ZrO2 layer as insolating diffusion barrier layer is found to be insufficient as barrier layer for PZT on a silicon substrate sintered at 850°C. EDX shows diffusion of Si into the PZT layer....

  2. Ellipsometry non-destructive technique for PZT thin films investigations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deineka, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Soukup, Ladislav

    11-12, - (2000), s. 329-331 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : PZT * J.A. Wollam spectral ellipsometer * refractive index depth profiels Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  3. Far infrared and Raman response in tetragonal PZT ceramic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buixaderas, E.; Kadlec, C.; Vanek, P.; Drnovsek, S.; Ursic, H.; Malic, B.

    2015-07-01

    PbZr{sub 0}.38Ti{sub 0}.62O{sub 3} and PbZr{sub 0}.36Ti{sub 0}.64{sub O}3 thick films deposited by screen printing on (0 0 0 1) single crystal sapphire substrates and prepared at two different sintering temperatures, were studied by Fourier-transform infrared reflectivity, time-domain TH{sub z} transmission spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The dielectric response is discussed using the Lichtenecker model to account for the porosity of the films and to obtain the dense bulk dielectric functions. Results are compared with bulk tetragonal PZT 42/58 ceramics. The dynamic response in the films is dominated by an overdamped lead-based vibration in the TH{sub z} range, as known in PZT, but its evaluated dielectric contribution is affected by the porosity and roughness of the surface. (Author)

  4. Improved Dielectric Films For Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Lewis, Carol R.; Cygan, Peter J.; Jow, T. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Dielectric films made from blends of some commercially available high-dielectric-constant cyanoresins with each other and with cellulose triacetate (CTA) have both high dielectric constants and high breakdown strengths. Dielectric constants as high as 16.2. Films used to produce high-energy-density capacitors.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Pb(Zr., Ti.)O-Pb(Nb/, Zn/)O Thin Film Cantilevers for Energy Harvesting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Fuentes-Fernandez, E. M. A.

    2012-01-18

    A complete analysis of the morphology, crystallographic orientation, and resulting electrical properties of Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47) Pb(Nb1/3, Zn2/3)O3 (PZT-PZN) thin films, as well as the electrical behavior when integrated in a cantilever for energy harvesting applications, is presented. The PZT-PZN films were deposited using sol-gel methods. We report that using 20% excess Pb, a nucleation layer of PbTiO3 (PT), and a fast ramp rate provides large grains, as well as denser films. The PZT-PZN is deposited on a stack of TiO2/PECVD SiO2/Si3N4/thermal SiO2/Poly-Si/Si. This stack is designed to allow wet-etching the poly-Si layer to release the cantilever structures. It was also found that the introduction of the poly-Si layer results in larger grains in the PZT-PZN film. PZT-PZN films with a dielectric constant of 3200 and maximum polarization of 30 μC/cm2 were obtained. The fabricated cantilever devices produced ~300–400 mV peak-to-peak depending on the cantilever design. Experimental results are compared with simulations.

  6. Quantitative measurement of piezoelectric coefficient of thin film using a scanning evanescent microwave microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenli; Luo, Zhenlin; Liu, Chihui; Wu, Wenbin; Gao, Chen; Lu, Yalin

    2008-06-01

    This article describes a new approach to quantitatively measure the piezoelectric coefficients of thin films at the microscopic level using a scanning evanescent microwave microscope. This technique can resolve 10 pm deformation caused by the piezoelectric effect and has the advantages of high scanning speed, large scanning area, submicron spatial resolution, and a simultaneous accessibility to many other related properties. Results from the test measurements on the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient of PZT thin film agree well with those from other techniques listed in literatures.

  7. A spherically-shaped PZT thin film ultrasonic transducer with an acoustic impedance gradient matching layer based on a micromachined periodically structured flexible substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Liu, Wei-Fan

    2013-10-09

    This paper presents the microfabrication of an acoustic impedance gradient matching layer on a spherically-shaped piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer. The acoustic matching layer can be designed to achieve higher acoustic energy transmission and operating bandwidth. Also included in this paper are a theoretical analysis of the device design and a micromachining technique to produce the novel transducer. Based on a design of a lead titanium zirconium (PZT) micropillar array, the constructed gradient acoustic matching layer has much better acoustic transmission efficiency within a 20-50 MHz operation range compared to a matching layer with a conventional quarter-wavelength thickness Parylene deposition. To construct the transducer, periodic microcavities are built on a flexible copper sheet, and then the sheet forms a designed curvature with a ball shaping. After PZT slurry deposition, the constructed PZT micropillar array is released onto a curved thin PZT layer. Following Parylene conformal coating on the processed PZT micropillars, the PZT micropillars and the surrounding Parylene comprise a matching layer with gradient acoustic impedance. By using the proposed technique, the fabricated transducer achieves a center frequency of 26 MHz and a -6 dB bandwidth of approximately 65%.

  8. Bulk dielectric and magnetic properties of PFW-PZT ceramics: absence of magnetically switched-off polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, M; Kamba, S; Savinov, M; Maryško, M; Frait, Z; Vaněk, P; Tomczyk, M; Vilarinho, P M

    2010-11-10

    We investigated ceramics samples of solid solutions of [PbFe(2/3)W(1/3)O(3)](x)-[PbZr(0.53)Ti(0.47)O(3)](1 - x) (PFW(x)-PZT(1 - x), x = 0.2 and 0.3) by means of broad-band dielectric spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and SQUID magnetometry. We did not confirm the observations of Kumar et al (2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 382204), who reported on reversible suppression of ferroelectric polarization in polycrystalline PFW(x)-PZT(1 - x) thin films for magnetic fields above 0.5 T. We did not observe any change of ferroelectric polarization with external magnetic fields up to 3.2 T. Pirc et al (2009 Phys. Rev. B 79 214114) developed a theory explaining the reported large magnetoelectric effect in PFW(x)-PZT(1 - x), taking into account relaxor magnetic and relaxor ferroelectric properties of the system. Our data revealed classical ferroelectric properties below 525 K and 485 K in samples with x = 0.2 and 0.3, respectively. Moreover, paramagnetic behavior was observed down to 4.5 K instead of previously reported relaxor magnetic behavior. It seems that the reported switching-off of ferroelectric polarization in PFW(x)-PZT(1 - x) thin films is not an intrinsic property, but probably an effect of electrodes, interlayers, grain boundaries or second phases presented in polycrystalline thin films.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of Pb(Zr 0.53,Ti 0.47)O 3-Pb(Nb 1/3,Zn 2/3)O 3 thin films on cantilever stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Fuentes-Fernandez, E. M A

    2010-11-18

    0.9Pb(Zr 0.53,Ti 0.47)O 3-0.1Pb(Zn 1/3,Nb 2/3)O 3 (PZT-PZN) thin films and integrated cantilevers have been fabricated. The PZT-PZN films were deposited on SiO 2/Si or SiO 2/Si 3N 4/SiO 2/poly-Si/Si membranes capped with a sol-gel-derived ZrO 2 buffer layer. It is found that the membrane layer stack, lead content, existence of a template layer of PbTiO 3 (PT), and ramp rate during film crystallization are critical for obtaining large-grained, single-phase PZT-PZN films on the ZrO 2 surface. By controlling these parameters, the electrical properties of the PZT-PZN films, their microstructure, and phase purity were significantly improved. PZT-PZN films with a dielectric constant of 700 to 920 were obtained, depending on the underlying stack structure. © 2010 TMS.

  10. Fatigue-free lead zirconate titanate-based capacitors for nonvolatile memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannigrahi, S. R.; Jang, Hyun M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based capacitors has been a long time goal of ferroelectric random access memories (FRAM). However, PZT-based perovskites with common platinum (Pt) electrodes have suffered from a significant reduction of the remanent polarization (P r ) after a certain number of read/write cycles (electrical fatigue). We now report the development of fatigue-free lanthanum-modified PZT capacitors using common Pt electrodes. The capacitors fabricated at 580 o C by applying a PZT seed layer exhibited fatigue-free behavior up to 6.5 x 10 10 switching cycles, a quite stable charge retention profile with time, and comparatively high P r values, all of which assure their suitability for practical FRAM applications. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  11. Towards in-situ tem analysis of PLD Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin film membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardan Sukas, Ö.; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, Meint J.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; van Zalk, M.; Abelmann, Leon

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel technique for fabricating Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) chips for investigating structural and piezoelectric properties of Pulse Laser Deposited (PLD) Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT) thin films is presented. The method involves silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer

  12. Low fatigue lead zirconate titanate-based capacitors modified by manganese for nonvolatile memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q.; Whatmore, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of Mn doping on the ferroelectric properties of Pb(Zr 0.3 Ti 0.7 )O 3 (PZT) thin films on substrates Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si. Small amount of Mn-doped (≤1 mol%) PZT (PMZT) showed almost no hysteretic fatigue up to 10 10 switching bipolar pulse cycles, coupled with excellent retention properties. We present evidence that while a low permittivity interfacial layer forms between the Pt electrode and PZT films, this does not occur in PMZT. We propose that Mn dopants are able to reduce oxygen vacancy mobility in PZT films and Mn 2+ ions consume the oxygen vacancies generated during repeated switching, forming Mn 4+ ions. These mechanisms are probably responsible for their low observed fatigue characteristics

  13. Effect of La doping on crystalline orientation, microstructure and dielectric properties of PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wencai; Li, Qi; Wang, Xing [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China). School of Mechanical Engineering; Yin, Zhifu [Jilin Univ., Changchun (China). Faculty of the School of Mechanical Science and Engineering; Zou, Helin [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China). Key Lab. for Micro/Nano Systems and Technology

    2017-11-01

    Lanthanum (La)-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) thin films with doping concentration from 0 to 5 at.-% have been fabricated by sol-gel methods to investigate the effects of La doping on crystalline orientation, microstructure and dielectric properties of the modified films. The characterization of PLZT thin films were performed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and precision impedance analysis. XRD analysis showed that PLZT films with La doping concentration below 4 at.-% exhibited (100) preferred orientation. SEM results indicated that PLZT films presented dense and columnar microstructures when La doping concentration was less than 3 at.-%, while the others showed columnar microstructures only at the bottom of the cross section. The maximum dielectric constant (1502.59 at 100 Hz) was obtained in a 2 at.-% La-doped film, which increased by 53.9 % compared with undoped film. Without introducing a seed layer, (100) oriented PLZT thin films were prepared by using conventional heat treatment process and adjusting La doping concentration.

  14. Enhanced off-resonance magnetoelectric response in laser annealed PZT thick film grown on magnetostrictive amorphous metal substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palneedi, Haribabu [Materials Interface Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Functional Ceramics Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Maurya, Deepam; Priya, Shashank [Bio-inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Kim, Gi-Yeop; Choi, Si-Young, E-mail: youngchoi@kims.re.kr [Materials Modeling and Characterization Department, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Suk-Joong L. [Materials Interface Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Ho [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jungho, E-mail: jhryu@kims.re.kr [Functional Ceramics Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-06

    A highly dense, 4 μm-thick Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) film is deposited on amorphous magnetostrictive Metglas foil (FeBSi) by granule spray in vacuum process at room temperature, followed by its localized annealing with a continuous-wave 560 nm ytterbium fiber laser radiation. This longer-wavelength laser radiation is able to anneal the whole of thick PZT film layer without any deteriorative effects, such as chemical reaction and/or atomic diffusion, at the interface and crystallization of amorphous Metglas substrate. Greatly enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the annealed PZT are attributed to its better crystallinity and grain growth induced by laser irradiation. As a result, a colossal off-resonance magnetoelectric (ME) voltage coefficient that is two orders of magnitude larger than previously reported output from PZT/Metglas film-composites is achieved. The present work addresses the problems involved in the fabrication of PZT/Metglas film-composites and opens up emerging possibilities in employing piezoelectric materials with low thermal budget substrates (suitable for integrated electronics) and designing laminate composites for ME based devices.

  15. Low fatigue lead zirconate titanate-based capacitors modified by manganese for nonvolatile memories

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi; Whatmore, Roger W.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of Mn doping on the ferroelectric properties of Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 (PZT) thin films on substrates Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si. Small amount of Mn-doped (≤1 mol%) PZT (PMZT) showed almost no hysteretic fatigue up to 1010 switching bipolar pulse cycles, coupled with excellent retention properties. We present evidence that while a low permittivity interfacial layer forms between the Pt electrode and PZT films, this does not occur in PMZT. We propose that Mn dopants are able to r...

  16. Design and characteristics of L-C thin films filter at microwave frequency band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Sung; Min, Bok-Ki; Song, Jae-Sung

    2005-12-01

    Multifunction corresponding to multimedia age has furthermore required high integration to the devices at microwave band, so more evolution for multi-layer integration like system on chip(SoC) becomes to be necessary. In wireless mobile communication, portable mobile phones grew up to a huge market. Microwave devices have played an important role in the wireless communication systems. One challenge in the implementation of circuit integration is in the design of micro wave band pass filter with thin film MOM capacitor and spiral inductor. In this paper, Cu and TaO thin film with RF sputtering was deposited for inductor and capacitor on the SiO II/Si(100) substrate. MIM capacitor and spiral inductor was fabricated for L-C band pass filter by sputtering and lift-off. We are analyzed and designed thin films L-C passive components for band pass filter at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz, an important devices for mobile communication. Based on the high-Q values of passive components, MIM capacitor and spiral inductors for L-C band pass filter, a low insertion loss of L-C passive components can be realized with a minimized chip area. The insertion loss was 3 dB for a 1.8 GHz filter, and was 5 dB for a 900 MHz filter. This paper also discusses a theoretical analysis and practical design to L-C band pass filter.

  17. Resistivity behavior of optimized PbTiO3 thin films prepared by spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaya, Z.; Wahid, M. H.; Rozana, M. D.; Alrokayan, S. A. H.; Khan, H. A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Th is study presents the resistivity behavior of PbTiO3 thin films which were prepared towards metal-insulator-metal capacitor device fabrication. The PbTiO3 thin films were prepared through sol-gel spin coating method that involved various deposition parameters that is (1) different molar concentration of PbTiO3 solutions, (2) various additional PbAc-content in PbTiO3 solutions, and (3) various annealing temperature on PbTiO3 thin films. Hence, an electrical measurement of current versus voltage was done to determine the resistivity behavior of PbTiO3 thin films.

  18. Micro-fabricated flexible PZT cantilever using d33 mode for energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunok; Park, Jongcheol; Park, Jae Yeong

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a micro-fabricated flexible and curled PZT [Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3] cantilever using d33 piezoelectric mode for vibration based energy harvesting applications. The proposed cantilever based energy harvester consists of polyimide, PZT thin film, and inter-digitated IrOx electrodes. The flexible cantilever was formed using bulk-micromachining on a silicon wafer to integrate it with ICs. The d33 piezoelectric mode was applied to achieve a large output voltage by using inter-digitated electrodes, and the PZT thin film on polyimide layer has a remnant polarization and coercive filed of approximately 2 P r = 47.9 μC/cm2 and 2 E c = 78.8 kV/cm, respectively. The relative dielectric constant was 900. The fabricated micro-electromechanical systems energy harvester generated output voltages of 1.2 V and output power of 117 nW at its optimal resistive load of 6.6 MΩ from its resonant frequency of 97.8 Hz with an acceleration of 5 m/s2.

  19. Highly c-axis-oriented monocrystalline Pb(Zr, Ti)O₃ thin films on si wafer prepared by fast cooling immediately after sputter deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shinya; Hanzawa, Hiroaki; Wasa, Kiyotaka; Esashi, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Shuji

    2014-09-01

    We successfully developed sputter deposition technology to obtain a highly c-axis-oriented monocrystalline Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) thin film on a Si wafer by fast cooling (~-180°C/min) of the substrate after deposition. The c-axis orientation ratio of a fast-cooled film was about 90%, whereas that of a slow-cooled (~-40°C/min) film was only 10%. The c-axis-oriented monocrystalline Pb(Zr0.5, Ti0.5)O3 films showed reasonably large piezoelectric coefficients, e(31,f) = ~-11 C/m(2), with remarkably small dielectric constants, ϵ(r) = ~220. As a result, an excellent figure of merit (FOM) was obtained for piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) such as a piezoelectric gyroscope. This c-axis orientation technology on Si will extend industrial applications of PZT-based thin films and contribute further to the development of piezoelectric MEMS.

  20. In-Plane Impedance Spectroscopy measurements in Vanadium Dioxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Juan; Patino, Edgar; Schmidt, Rainer; Sharoni, Amos; Gomez, Maria; Schuller, Ivan

    2012-02-01

    In plane Impedance Spectroscopy measurements have been done in Vanadium Dioxide thin films in the range of 100 Hz to 1 MHz. Our measurements allows distinguishing between the resistive and capacitive response of the Vanadium Dioxide films across the metal-insulator transition. A non ideal RC behavior was found in our thin films from room temperature up to 334 K. Around the MIT, an increase of the total capacitance is observed. A capacitor-network model is able to reproduce the capacitance changes across the MIT. Above the MIT, the system behaves like a metal as expected, and a modified equivalent circuit is necessary to describe the impedance data adequately.

  1. Microwave Characterization of Ba-Substituted PZT and ZnO Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierno, Davide; Dekkers, Matthijn; Wittendorp, Paul; Sun, Xiao; Bayer, Samuel C; King, Seth T; Van Elshocht, Sven; Heyns, Marc; Radu, Iuliana P; Adelmann, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    The microwave dielectric properties of (Ba 0.1 Pb 0.9 )(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (BPZT) and ZnO thin films with thicknesses below were investigated. No significant dielectric relaxation was observed for both BPZT and ZnO up to 30 GHz. The intrinsic dielectric constant of BPZT was as high as 980 at 30 GHz. The absence of strong dielectric dispersion and loss peaks in the studied frequency range can be linked to the small grain diameters in these ultrathin films.

  2. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on texture development in lead zirconate titanate thin films processed from metalorganic precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, Jarrod L.; Liedl, Gerald L.; Slamovich, Elliott B.

    1999-01-01

    Metalorganic liquid precursors were used to examine the effects of processing atmosphere on texture development in oriented Pb(Zr 0.60 Ti 0.40 )O 3 thin films. After removal of organic ligands via pyrolysis, the films were heated at 25 degree sign C/min in a 5% H 2 /Ar atmosphere until a switching temperature, after which the atmosphere was switched to pure oxygen. The films were heated to a maximum temperature of 650 degree sign C with switching temperatures ranging from 450 to 600 degree sign C. The degree of (111) orientation in the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films increased with increasing switching temperature, resulting in highly textured (111) PZT films. These results suggest that atmosphere control plays a significant role in texture development during rapid thermal processing. (c) 1999 Materials Research Society

  3. Fabrication and characterization of metal-ferroelectric (PbZr0.6Ti0.4O3)-insulator (La2O3)-semiconductor capacitors for nonvolatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Trevor Pi-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Shih, Wen-Chieh; Yang, Chin-Chieh; Lee, Joseph Ya-Min; Shye, Der-Chi; Lu, Jong-Hong

    2009-03-01

    Metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor thin-film capacitors with Pb(Zr0.6,Ti0.4)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric layer and high-k lanthanum oxide (La2O3) insulator layer were fabricated. The outdiffusion of atoms between La2O3 and silicon was examined by the secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy. The size of memory window as a function of PZT annealing temperature was discussed. The maximum memory window saturated to 0.7 V, which is close to the theoretical memory window ΔW ≈2dfEc≈0.8 V with higher annealing temperatures above 700 °C. The memory window starts to decrease due to charge injection when the sweep voltage is higher than 5 V at 600 °C-annealed samples. The C-V flatband voltage shift (ΔVFB) as a function of charge injection was characterized in this work. An energy band diagram of the Al/PZT//La2O3/p-Si system was proposed to explain the memory window and the flatband voltage shift.

  4. Dielectric properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered Al2O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna, S.; Mohan Rao, G.; Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Ganesan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) thin films were sputter deposited over well-cleaned glass and Si substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering under various oxygen gas pressures and sputtering powers. The composition of the films was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an optimal O/Al atomic ratio of 1.59 was obtained at a reactive gas pressure of 0.03 Pa and sputtering power of 70 W. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the films were amorphous until 550 °C. The surface morphology of the films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and the as-deposited films were found to be smooth. The topography of the as-deposited and annealed films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and a progressive increase in the rms roughness of the films from 3.2 nm to 4.53 nm was also observed with increase in the annealing temperature. Al-Al 2 O 3 -Al thin film capacitors were then fabricated on glass substrates to study the effect of temperature and frequency on the dielectric property of the films. Temperature coefficient of capacitance, AC conductivity and activation energy were determined and the results are discussed. - Highlights: ► Al 2 O 3 thin films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. ► The films were found to be amorphous up to annealing temperature of 550 C. ► An increase in rms roughness of the films was observed with annealing. ► Al-Al 2 O 3 -Al thin film capacitors were fabricated and dielectric constant was 7.5. ► The activation energy decreased with increase in frequency.

  5. Epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films for a MEMS application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Minh D; Vu, Hung N; Blank, Dave H A; Rijnders, Guus

    2011-01-01

    This research presents the deposition and device fabrication of epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) thin films for applications in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). A piezoelectric micro-membrane is described as an example. Using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique and the MEMS microfabrication process, the piezo-membranes with diameters ranging from 200 to 500 μm were obtained. The displacement of piezo-membranes increased from 5.1 to 17.5 nm V −1 with a piezoelectric-membrane diameter in the range of 200–500 μm. Furthermore, the effect of PZT film-thickness on the mechanical properties has been investigated. By using the conductive-oxide SrRuO 3 (SRO) layers as the electrodes, the degradation of both ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is prevented up to 10 10 switching cycles

  6. Enhanced polarization and dielectric properties of Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, N.; Kumar, Ashok; Katiyar, R. S.

    2008-10-01

    We report the fabrication of PbZr0.57Ti0.43O3 (PZT) thin films with preferential growth along (111) and random crystalline orientation on the platinized silicon substrates using pulsed laser deposition technique. X-ray diffraction patterns and surface morphology indicate increase in grain size and nucleation, which support better perovskite matrix with increase in annealing temperature. We observed large dielectric constant (˜4000) and enhanced remanent polarization 70 μC/cm2 at room temperature attributed to grain growth and intermetallic Pt-Pb transient phase. Frequency dependent polarization showed minor reduction in polarization above 10 kHz frequencies. Normalized fatigue characteristic of PZT thin films showed minimal 25% degradation in remanent polarization after 109 cycles, which may be useful for memory devices. ac conductivity spectra illustrated that anomaly near the phase transition temperature with activation energy (Ea˜0.60-0.75 eV) supports the intrinsic nature of ferroelectric phase transition.

  7. In situ 2D diffraction as a tool to characterize ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamidy, N. I.; Kovacova, V.; Bernasconi, A.; Le Rhun, G.; Vaxelaire, N.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper the application of 2D x-ray diffraction (XRD2) as a technique to characterize in situ during electrical cycling the properties of a ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin film is discussed. XRD2 is one type of XRD on which a 2D detector is used instead of a point detector. This technique enables simultaneous recording of many sample information in a much shorter time compared to conventional XRD. The discussion is focused especially on the data processing technique of the huge data acquired. The methodology to calculate an effective piezoelectric coefficient, analyze the phase and texture, and estimate the domain size and shape is described in this paper. This methodology is then applied to a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition (i.e. Pb[Zr0.52Ti0.48]O3) with a preferred orientation of (1 0 0). The in situ XRD2 characterization was conducted in the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. Since a high-energy beam with vertical resolution as small as 100 nm was used, a cross-sectional scan of the sample was performed over the entire thickness of the film. From these experimental results, a better understanding on the piezoelectricity phenomena in PZT thin film at MPB composition were achieved, providing original feedback between the elaboration processes and functional properties of the film.

  8. Hydrothermally synthesized PZT film grown in highly concentrated KOH solution with large electromechanical coupling coefficient for resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Lee, Kuan-Yi

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a study of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films hydrothermally grown on a dome-shaped titanium diaphragm. Few articles in the literature address the implementation of hydrothermal PZT films on curved-diaphragm substrates for resonators. In this study, a 50-μm-thick titanium sheet is embossed using balls of designed dimensions to shape a dome-shaped cavity array. Through single-process hydrothermal synthesis, PZT films are grown on both sides of the processed titanium diaphragm with good adhesion and uniformity. The hydrothermal synthesis process involves a high concentration of potassium hydroxide solution and excess amounts of lead acetate and zirconium oxychloride octahydrate. Varied deposition times and temperatures of PZT films are investigated. The grown films are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The 10-μm-thick PZT dome-shaped resonators with 60- and 20-μm-thick supporting layers are implemented and further tested. Results for both resonators indicate that large electromechanical coupling coefficients and a series resonance of 95 MHz from 14 MHz can be attained. The device is connected to a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for analysis of oscillator applications. The oscillator reaches a Q value of 6300 in air. The resonator exhibits a better sensing stability when loaded with water when compared with air.

  9. Electrical response of Pt/Ru/PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3/Pt capacitor as function of lead precursor excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, Ibrahima; Le Rhun, Gwenael; Renault, Olivier; Defay, Emmanuel; Barrett, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the influence of the surface microstructure and chemistry of sol-gel grown PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) on the electrical performance of PZT-based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors as a function of Pb precursor excess. Using surface-sensitive, quantitative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we confirm the presence of ZrOx surface phase. Low Pb excess gives rise to a discontinuous layer of ZrOx on a (100) textured PZT film with a wide band gap reducing the capacitance of PZT-based MIMs whereas the breakdown field is enhanced. At high Pb excess, the nanostructures disappear while the PZT grain size increases and the film texture becomes (111). Concomitantly, the capacitance density is enhanced by 8.7%, and both the loss tangent and breakdown field are reduced by 20 and 25%, respectively. The role of the low permittivity, dielectric interface layer on capacitance and breakdown is discussed.

  10. Triaxial MEMS accelerometer with screen printed PZT thick film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Almind, Ninia Sejersen; Brodersen, Simon Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    . In this work integration of a screen printed piezoelectric PZT thick film with silicon MEMS technology is shown. A high bandwidth triaxial accelerometer has been designed, fabricated and characterized. The voltage sensitivity is 0.31 mV/g in the vertical direction, 0.062 mV/g in the horizontal direction...

  11. Reliability assessment for metallized film pulse capacitors with accelerated degradation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianyin; Liu Fang; Xi Wenjun; He Shaobo; Wei Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    The high energy density self-healing metallized film pulse capacitor has been applied to all kinds of laser facilities for their power conditioning systems, whose reliability is straightforward affected by the reliability level of capacitors. Reliability analysis of highly reliable devices, such as metallized film capacitors, is a challenge due to cost and time restriction. Accelerated degradation test provides a way to predict its life cost and time effectively. A model and analyses for accelerated degradation data of metallized film capacitors are described. Also described is a method for estimating the distribution of failure time. The estimation values of the unknown parameters in this model are 9.066 9 x 10 -8 and 0.022 1. Both the failure probability density function (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF) can be presented by this degradation failure model. Based on these estimation values and the PDF/CDF, the reliability model of the metallized film capacitors is obtained. According to the reliability model, the probability of the capacitors surviving to 20 000 shot is 0.972 4. (authors)

  12. Optimization of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin film by pulsed laser deposition for spin injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Sourabh, E-mail: sourabhjain@ee.iitb.ac.in [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India); Sharma, Himanshu [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India); Kumar Shukla, Amit [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India); Tomy, C.V. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India); Palkar, V.R.; Tulapurkar, Ashwin [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India)

    2014-09-01

    We have investigated low temperature magnetic properties of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) thin films on SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) substrate deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). We observed a large change in the Curie temperature T{sub C} when the LSMO film thickness is reduced from 4 nm (T{sub C}∼280 K) to 2 nm (T{sub C} ∼100 K), which is a result of high strain present at the STO–LSMO interface. The presence of the strain is confirmed by a grazing angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique where a particular peak is shifted away from the bulk peak position as we decrease the thickness. In a LSMO/Pb[Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1−y}]O{sub 3} (PZT)/LSMO magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), these LSMO thin films can be used for spin injection into the tunnel barrier. Here spin current can be manipulated by changing the strain present at the LSMO–PZT interface by using piezoelectric properties of PZT.

  13. New fabrication of high-frequency (100-MHz) ultrasound PZT film kerfless linear array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Benpeng; Chan, Ngai Yui; Dai, Jiyan; Shung, K Kirk; Takeuchi, Shinichi; Zhou, Qifa

    2013-04-01

    The paper describes the design, fabrication, and measurements of a high-frequency ultrasound kerfless linear array prepared from hydrothermal lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick film. The 15-μm hydrothermal PZT thick film with an area of 1 × 1 cm, obtained through a self-separation process from Ti substrate, was used to fabricate a 32-element 100-MHz kerfless linear array with photolithography. The bandwidth at -6 dB without matching layer, insertion loss around center frequency, and crosstalk between adjacent elements were measured to be 39%, -30 dB, and -15 dB, respectively.

  14. Large area deposition of Pb(Zr,Ti)O.sub.3./sub. thin films for piezoelectric MEMS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchaneck, G.; Vidyarthi, V.S.; Reibold, M.; Deyneka, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Gerlach, G.; Hartung, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2008), s. 17-20 ISSN 1385-3449 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ferroelectric thin films * PZT * high resolution transmission electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.990, year: 2008

  15. Quantum-dot size and thin-film dielectric constant: precision measurement and disparity with simple models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinolds, Darcy D W; Brown, Patrick R; Harris, Daniel K; Bulovic, Vladimir; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2015-01-14

    We study the dielectric constant of lead sulfide quantum dot (QD) films as a function of the volume fraction of QDs by varying the QD size and keeping the ligand constant. We create a reliable QD sizing curve using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), thin-film SAXS to extract a pair-distribution function for QD spacing, and a stacked-capacitor geometry to measure the capacitance of the thin film. Our data support a reduced dielectric constant in nanoparticles.

  16. Polarization fatigue resistance of Ca-doped Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films prepared by the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, T.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, C.; Dong, X.W.; Xia, Y.D.; Zhu, J.S.; Liu, J.-M.

    2008-01-01

    The ferroelectric and polarization fatigue characteristics of Pb 1-x Ca x (Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PCZT) thin films prepared using the sol-gel method were studied. The Ca-doping slightly suppresses the ferroelectricity of Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) because of the quantum paraelectric behavior of CaTiO 3 . Compared with PZT thin films, the PCZT (x=0.2) thin films show enhanced fatigue resistance at room temperature, further emphasized by the almost fatigue-free behavior at 100 K. The temperature-dependent dc-conductivity suggests a decrease of the oxygen vacancy density by almost 20 times and a slightly declined activation energy U for oxygen vacancies, upon increasing of the Ca-doping content from 0.0 to 0.2. It is argued that the improved fatigue endurance is ascribed to the decreasing density of oxygen vacancies due to the Ca-doping, although the lowered activation energy of oxygen vacancies is unfavorable. (orig.)

  17. Enhanced dielectric and electrical properties of annealed PVDF thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, A. N.; Rozana, M. D.; Wahid, M. H. M.; Mahmood, M. K. A.; Sarip, M. N.; Habibah, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Poly (vinylideneflouride) (PVDF) thin films were annealed at various annealing temperatures ranging from 70°C to 170°C. This study demonstrates that PVDF thin films annealed at temperature of 70°C (AN70) showed significant enhancement in their dielectric constant (14) at frequency of 1 kHz in comparison to un-annealed PVDF (UN-PVDF), dielectric constant (10) at the same measured frequency. As the annealing temperature was increased from 90°C (AN90) to 150°C (AN150), the dielectric constant value of PVDF thin films was observed to decrease gradually to 11. AN70 also revealed low tangent loss (tan δ) value at similar frequency. With respect to its resistivity properties, the values were found to increase from 1.98×104 Ω.cm to 3.24×104 Ω.cm for AN70 and UN-PVDF films respectively. The improved in dielectric constant, with low tangent loss and high resistivity value suggests that 70°C is the favorable annealing temperature for PVDF thin films. Hence, AN70 is a promising film to be utilized for application in electronic devices such as low frequency capacitor.

  18. Effect of interfacial layers on dielectric properties in very thin SrBi2Ta2O9 capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Bum-Ki; Isobe, Chiharu; Hironaka, Katsuyuki; Hishikawa, Shinichi

    2001-01-01

    The effect of interfacial layers on the dielectric properties in very thin SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 (SBT) capacitors has been investigated using static measurements. Total permittivity (ε t ) decreased as the film thickness was reduced in both Pt/SBT/Pt and Ir/SBT/Pt capacitors. The contribution of the interfacial capacitance (C int ) and bulk capacitance to the total capacitance indicates that C int of the Ir/SBT/Pt structure was lower than that of the Pt/SBT/Pt structure, while the bulk permittivity (ε b ) was essentially the same. The dispersion of all capacitors followed the power law, while the Ir/SBT/Pt capacitor showed a larger dispersion of C int . These results suggest that the Pt/SBT/Pt capacitor is preferred for obtaining the high performance with less effect of the interfacial layers on the dielectric properties. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  19. Degradation testing and failure analysis of DC film capacitors under high humidity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Nielsen, Dennis Achton; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Metallized polypropylene film capacitors are widely used for high-voltage DC-link applications in power electronic converters. They generally have better reliability performance compared to aluminum electrolytic capacitors under electro-thermal stresses within specifications. However......, the degradation of the film capacitors is a concern in applications exposed to high humidity environments. This paper investigates the degradation of a type of plastic-boxed metallized DC film capacitors under different humidity conditions based on a total of 8700 h of accelerated testing and also post failure...... of interest is also presented. The study enables a better understanding of the humidity-related failure mechanisms and reliability performance of DC film capacitors for power electronics applications....

  20. Thermal recrystallization of physical vapor deposition based germanium thin films on bulk silicon (100)

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2013-08-16

    We demonstrate a simple, low-cost, and scalable process for obtaining uniform, smooth surfaced, high quality mono-crystalline germanium (100) thin films on silicon (100). The germanium thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate using plasma-assisted sputtering based physical vapor deposition. They were crystallized by annealing at various temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 1100 °C. We report that the best quality germanium thin films are obtained above the melting point of germanium (937 °C), thus offering a method for in-situ Czochralski process. We show well-behaved high-κ /metal gate metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using this film. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Graphene-Based Flexible and Transparent Tunable Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Baoyuan; Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzheng; Liu, Aihua; Gao, Shoubao; Zhang, Chao; Qiu, Hengwei; Li, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    We report a kind of electric field tunable transparent and flexible capacitor with the structure of graphene-Bi1.5MgNb1.5O7 (BMN)-graphene. The graphene films with low sheet resistance were grown by chemical vapor deposition. The BMN thin films were fabricated on graphene by using laser molecular beam epitaxy technology. Compared to BMN films grown on Au, the samples on graphene substrates show better quality in terms of crystallinity, surface morphology, leakage current, and loss tangent. By transferring another graphene layer, we fabricated flexible and transparent capacitors with the structure of graphene-BMN-graphene. The capacitors show a large dielectric constant of 113 with high dielectric tunability of ~40.7 % at a bias field of 1.0 MV/cm. Also, the capacitor can work stably in the high bending condition with curvature radii as low as 10 mm. This flexible film capacitor has a high optical transparency of ~90 % in the visible light region, demonstrating their potential application for a wide range of flexible electronic devices.

  2. High temperature polymer film dielectrics for aerospace power conditioning capacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkat, Narayanan, E-mail: venkats3@gmail.co [University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI), Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Dang, Thuy D. [Air Force Research Laboratory-Nanostructured and Biological Materials Branch (AFRL/RXBN) (United States); Bai Zongwu; McNier, Victor K. [University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI), Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); DeCerbo, Jennifer N. [Air Force Research Laboratory-Electrical Technology Branch (AFRL/RZPE), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Tsao, B.-H. [University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI), Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Stricker, Jeffery T. [Air Force Research Laboratory-Electrical Technology Branch (AFRL/RZPE), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Polymer dielectrics are the preferred materials of choice for capacitive energy-storage applications because of their potential for high dielectric breakdown strengths, low dissipation factors and good dielectric stability over a wide range of frequencies and temperatures, despite having inherently lower dielectric constants relative to ceramic dielectrics. They are also amenable to large area processing into films at a relatively lower cost. Air Force currently has a strong need for the development of compact capacitors which are thermally robust for operation in a variety of aerospace power conditioning applications. While such applications typically use polycarbonate (PC) dielectric films in wound capacitors for operation from -55 deg. C to 125 deg. C, future power electronic systems would require the use of polymer dielectrics that can reliably operate up to elevated temperatures in the range of 250-350 deg. C. The focus of this research is the generation and dielectric evaluation of metallized, thin free-standing films derived from high temperature polymer structures such as fluorinated polybenzoxazoles, post-functionalized fluorinated polyimides and fluorenyl polyesters incorporating diamond-like hydrocarbon units. The discussion is centered mainly on variable temperature dielectric measurements of film capacitance and dissipation factor and the effects of thermal cycling, up to a maximum temperature of 350 deg. C, on film dielectric performance. Initial studies clearly point to the dielectric stability of these films for high temperature power conditioning applications, as indicated by their relatively low temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) (approx2%) over the entire range of temperatures. Some of the films were also found to exhibit good dielectric breakdown strengths (up to 470 V/mum) and a film dissipation factor of the order of <0.003 (0.3%) at the frequency of interest (10 kHz) for the intended applications. The measured relative dielectric

  3. Electrical and ferroelectric properties of RF sputtered PZT/SBN on silicon for non-volatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Jha, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Rajat Kumar; Singh, B. R.

    2018-02-01

    We report the integration of multilayer ferroelectric film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and explore the electrical characteristics for its application as the gate of ferroelectric field effect transistor for non-volatile memories. PZT (Pb[Zr0.35Ti0.65]O3) and SBN (SrBi2Nb2O9) ferroelectric materials were selected for the stack fabrication due to their large polarization and fatigue free properties respectively. Electrical characterization has been carried out to obtain memory window, leakage current density, PUND and endurance characteristics. Fabricated multilayer ferroelectric film capacitor structure shows large memory window of 17.73 V and leakage current density of the order 10-6 A cm-2 for the voltage sweep of -30 to +30 V. This multilayer gate stack of PZT/SBN shows promising endurance property with no degradation in the remnant polarization for the read/write iteration cycles upto 108.

  4. Optimizing Pt/TiO2 templates for textured PZT growth and MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrepka, Daniel; Fox, Glenn; Sanchez, Luz; Polcawich, Ronald

    2013-03-01

    Crystallographic texture of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films strongly influences piezoelectric properties used in MEMS applications. Textured growth can be achieved by relying on crystal growth habit and can also be initiated by the use of a seed-layer heteroepitaxial template. Template choice and the process used to form it determine structural quality, ultimately influencing performance and reliability of MEMS PZT devices such as switches, filters, and actuators. This study focuses on how 111-textured PZT is generated by a combination of crystal habit and templating mechanisms that occur in the PZT/bottom-electrode stack. The sequence begins with 0001-textured Ti deposited on thermally grown SiO2 on a Si wafer. The Ti is converted to 100-textured TiO2 (rutile) through thermal oxidation. Then 111-textured Pt can be grown to act as a template for 111-textured PZT. Ti and Pt are deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. TiO2 and Pt film textures and structure were optimized by variation of sputtering deposition times, temperatures and power levels, and post-deposition anneal conditions. The relationship between Ti, TiO2, and Pt texture and their impact on PZT growth will be presented. Also affiliated with U.S. Army Research Lab, Adelphi, MD 20783, USA

  5. Strain quantification in epitaxial thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushley, M

    2008-01-01

    Strain arising in epitaxial thin films can be beneficial in some cases but devastating in others. By altering the lattice parameters, strain may give a thin film properties hitherto unseen in the bulk material. On the other hand, heavily strained systems are prone to develop lattice defects in order to relieve the strain, which can cause device failure or, at least, a decrease in functionality. Using convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), it is possible to determine local strains within a material. By comparing the results from CBED and HRTEM experiments, it is possible to gain a complete view of a material, including the strain and any lattice defects present. As well as looking at how the two experimental techniques differ from each other, I will also look at how results from different image analysis algorithms compare. Strain in Si/SiGe samples and BST/SRO/MgO capacitor structures will be discussed.

  6. Miniaturized and reconfigurable notch antenna based on a BST ferroelectric thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Hung Viet [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR), IUT Saint-Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22004 Saint-Brieuc (France); CEA-LETI, Minatec, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Benzerga, Ratiba, E-mail: ratiba.benzerga@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR), IUT Saint-Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22004 Saint-Brieuc (France); Borderon, Caroline [IETR, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes (France); Delaveaud, Christophe [CEA-LETI, Minatec, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sharaiha, Ala [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR), IUT Saint-Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22004 Saint-Brieuc (France); Renoud, Raphael [IETR, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes (France); Paven, Claire Le [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR), IUT Saint-Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22004 Saint-Brieuc (France); Pavy, Sabrina; Nadaud, Kevin; Gundel, Hartmut W. [IETR, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes (France)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • A miniature and agile antenna based on a BST MIM capacitor is simulated and made. • Mn{sup 2+} doped BST thin films are synthesized by chemical deposition and spin coating. • Permittivity and losses of the BST thin film are respectively 225 and 0.02 at 1 GHz. • A miniaturization rate of 70% is obtained with a MIM capacitance of 3.7 pF. • A frequency tunability of 14.5% and a tunability performance of 0.04 are measured. - Abstract: This work deals with the design, realization and characterization of a miniature and frequency agile antenna based on a ferroelectric Ba{sub 0,80}Sr{sub 0,20}TiO{sub 3} thin film. The notch antenna is loaded with a variable metal/insulator/metal (MIM) capacitor and is achieved by a monolithic method. The MIM capacitance is 3.7 pF, which results in a resonant frequency of 670 MHz compared to 2.25 GHz for the unloaded simulated antenna; the resulting miniaturization rate is 70%. The characterization of the antenna prototype shows a frequency tunable rate of 14.5% under an electric field of 375 kV/cm, with a tunability performance η = 0.04.

  7. Microstructure of pulsed-laser deposited PZT on polished and annealed MGO substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, S.L.; Coccia, L.G.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Boyd, I.W.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films of Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) have been grown by pulsed-laser-deposition (PLD) onto polished MgO substrates both with and without pre-annealing. The surface morphology of polished MgO substrates, which are widely used for deposition, is examined by AFM. Commercially available,

  8. Large displacement vertical translational actuator based on piezoelectric thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhen; Pulskamp, Jeffrey S; Lin, Xianke; Rhee, Choong-Ho; Wang, Thomas; Polcawich, Ronald G; Oldham, Kenn

    2010-07-01

    A novel vertical translational microactuator based on thin-film piezoelectric actuation is presented, using a set of four compound bend-up/bend-down unimorphs to produce translational motion of a moving platform or stage. The actuation material is a chemical-solution deposited lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin film. Prototype designs have shown as much as 120 μ m of static displacement, with 80-90 μ m displacements being typical, using four 920 μ m long by 70 μ m legs. Analytical models are presented that accurately describe nonlinear behavior in both static and dynamic operation of prototype stages when the dependence of piezoelectric coefficients on voltage is known. Resonance of the system is observed at a frequency of 200 Hz. The large displacement and high bandwidth of the actuators at low-voltage and low-power levels should make them useful to a variety of optical applications, including endoscopic microscopy.

  9. Effects of in-plane compressive stress on electrical properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin film capacitors prepared by on- and off-axis rf magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Young; Ahn, Kun Ho; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the structural and electrical properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 (BST) thin film capacitors with thicknesses ranging from 18 to 215 nm, which were prepared by on- and off-axis rf magnetron sputtering technique on Pt/SiO 2 /Si substrates. The deposition rate and cation composition ratios of the films were controlled to be the same regardless of the sputtering geometry. All the films show elongations in the out-of-plane lattice spacing, suggesting the presence of compressive stress with a smaller value by on-axis sputtering than by the off-axis system. There was no thickness dependence of the strain in the polycrystalline BST films. The BST films deposited using the on-axis system showed a higher bulk dielectric constant with a higher interfacial capacitance and a lower leakage current level than the films produced by the off-axis system. The strain effect was proposed to explain the correlations between the structural and electrical properties

  10. Dielectric properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanna, S. [Thin Film Center, Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 004 (India); Mohan Rao, G. [Department of Instrumentation, Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, 560 012 (India); Jayakumar, S., E-mail: s_jayakumar_99@yahoo.com [Thin Film Center, Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 004 (India); Kannan, M.D. [Thin Film Center, Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 004 (India); Ganesan, V. [Low Temperature Lab, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research (CSR), Indore, 452 017 (India)

    2012-01-31

    Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films were sputter deposited over well-cleaned glass and Si < 100 > substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering under various oxygen gas pressures and sputtering powers. The composition of the films was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an optimal O/Al atomic ratio of 1.59 was obtained at a reactive gas pressure of 0.03 Pa and sputtering power of 70 W. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the films were amorphous until 550 Degree-Sign C. The surface morphology of the films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and the as-deposited films were found to be smooth. The topography of the as-deposited and annealed films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and a progressive increase in the rms roughness of the films from 3.2 nm to 4.53 nm was also observed with increase in the annealing temperature. Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al thin film capacitors were then fabricated on glass substrates to study the effect of temperature and frequency on the dielectric property of the films. Temperature coefficient of capacitance, AC conductivity and activation energy were determined and the results are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films were found to be amorphous up to annealing temperature of 550 C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in rms roughness of the films was observed with annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al thin film capacitors were fabricated and dielectric constant was 7.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The activation energy decreased with increase in frequency.

  11. Damage-free patterning of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films for microelectromechanical systems via contact printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Aaron

    This thesis describes the utilization and optimization of the soft lithographic technique, microcontact printing, to additively pattern ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films for application in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). For this purpose, the solution wetting, pattern transfer, printing dynamics, stamp/substrate configurations, and processing damages were optimized for incorporation of PZT thin films into a bio-mass sensor application. This patterning technique transfers liquid ceramic precursors onto a device stack in a desired configuration either through pattern definition in the stamp, substrate or both surfaces. It was determined that for ideal transfer of the pattern from the stamp to the substrate surface, wetting between the solution and the printing surface is paramount. To this end, polyurethane-based stamp surfaces were shown to be wet uniformly by polar solutions. Patterned stamp surfaces revealed that printing from raised features onto flat substrates could be accomplished with a minimum feature size of 5 mum. Films patterned by printing as a function of thickness (0.1 to 1 mum) showed analogous functional properties to continuous films that were not patterned. Specifically, 1 mum thick PZT printed features had a relative permittivity of 1050 +/- 10 and a loss tangent of 2.0 +/- 0.4 % at 10 kHz; remanent polarization was 30 +/- 0.4 muC/cm 2 and the coercive field was 45 +/- 1 kV/cm; and a piezoelectric coefficient e31,f of -7 +/- 0.4 C/m2. No pinching in the minor hysteresis loops or splitting of the first order reversal curve (FORC) distributions was observed. Non-uniform distribution of the solution over the printed area becomes more problematic as feature size is decreased. This resulted in solutions printed from 5 mum wide raised features exhibiting a parabolic shape with sidewall angles of ˜ 1 degree. As an alternative, printing solutions from recesses in the stamp surface resulted in more uniform solution thickness

  12. A high power ZnO thin film piezoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Weiwei; Li, Tao; Li, Yutong; Qiu, Junwen; Ma, Xianjun; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A highly efficient and large area piezoelectric ZnO thin film nanogenerator (NG) was fabricated. The ZnO thin film was deposited onto a Si substrate by pulsed laser ablation at a substrate temperature of 500 °C. The deposited ZnO film exhibited a preferred c-axis orientation and a high piezoelectric value of 49.7 pm/V characterized using Piezoelectric Force Microscopy (PFM). Thin films of ZnO were patterned into rectangular power sources with dimensions of 0.5 × 0.5 cm2 with metallic top and bottom electrodes constructed via conventional semiconductor lithographic patterning processes. The NG units were subjected to periodic bending/unbending motions produced by mechanical impingement at a fixed frequency of 100 Hz at a pressure of 0.4 kg/cm2. The output electrical voltage, current density, and power density generated by one ZnO NG were recorded. Values of ∼95 mV, 35 μA cm-2 and 5.1 mW cm-2 were recorded. The level of power density is typical to that produced by a PZT NG on a flexible substrate. Higher energy NG sources can be easily created by adding more power units either in parallel or in series. The thin film ZnO NG technique is highly adaptable with current semiconductor processes, and as such, is easily integrated with signal collecting circuits that are compatible with mass production. A typical application would be using the power harvested from irregular human foot motions to either to operate blue LEDs directly or to drive a sensor network node in mille-power level without any external electric source and circuits.

  13. Polarization recovery in lead zirconate titanate thin films deposited on nanosheets-buffered Si (001)

    OpenAIRE

    Anuj Chopra; Muharrem Bayraktar; Maarten Nijland; Johan E. ten Elshof; Fred Bijkerk; Guus Rijnders

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue behavior of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) films is one of the deterrent factors that limits the use of these films in technological applications. Thus, understanding and minimization of the fatigue behavior is highly beneficial for fabricating reliable devices using PZT films. We have investigated the fatigue behavior of preferentially oriented PZT films deposited on nanosheets-buffered Si substrates using LaNiO3 bottom and top electrodes. The films show fatigue of up to 10% at 100 kHz, whereas n...

  14. Crystallization of sol-gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin films in argon and oxygen atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopic techniques are applied to reveal the mechanisms of crystallization of 75 nm thin films of ferroelectric lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT). Sol-gel methods, followed by pyrolysis at 350 deg C, were used to provide a common starting point after which a variety of rapid-thermal annealing (RTA) experiments in the temperature range 400-700 deg C were made in argon, oxygen and nitrogen/hydrogen atmospheres. The results are interpreted in terms of the crystal chemical analysis, which points out that partial pressure of oxygen and heating rate are important experimental parameters which must be controlled if ferroelectric perovskite-type Pb 2 ZrTiO 6 , rather than pyrochlore-type Pb 2 ZrTiO 6+x , where O < X < 1 or -1 < X < O, is to be obtained after the RTA step. Thus significant improvements in the crystallization of perovskite-type PZT were clearly demonstrated by using argon atmospheres for the RTA step. The results have significance for the production of high-quality ferroelectric thin films, with improved switching and fatigue characteristics, since even small amounts of the pyrochlore phase prove detrimental for these properties. 18 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  15. The effect of K and Na excess on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, C. W.; Y Lee, S.; Lee, H. J.; Ullah, A.; Bae, J. S.; Jeong, E. D.; Choi, J. S.; Park, B. H.; Kim, I. W.

    2009-11-01

    We have fabricated K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) thin films on Pt substrates by a chemical solution deposition method and investigated the effect of K and Na excess (0-30 mol%) on ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of KNN thin film. It was found that with increasing K and Na excess in a precursor solution from 0 to 30 mol%, the leakage current and ferroelectric properties were strongly affected. KNN thin film synthesized by using 20 mol% K and Na excess precursor solution exhibited a low leakage current density and well saturated ferroelectric P-E hysteresis loops. Moreover, the optimized KNN thin film had good fatigue resistance and a piezoelectric constant of 40 pm V-1, which is comparable to that of polycrystalline PZT thin films.

  16. The effect of K and Na excess on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, C W; Bae, J S; Jeong, E D; Lee, S Y; Lee, H J; Ullah, A; Kim, I W; Choi, J S; Park, B H

    2009-01-01

    We have fabricated K 0.5 Na 0.5 NbO 3 (KNN) thin films on Pt substrates by a chemical solution deposition method and investigated the effect of K and Na excess (0-30 mol%) on ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of KNN thin film. It was found that with increasing K and Na excess in a precursor solution from 0 to 30 mol%, the leakage current and ferroelectric properties were strongly affected. KNN thin film synthesized by using 20 mol% K and Na excess precursor solution exhibited a low leakage current density and well saturated ferroelectric P-E hysteresis loops. Moreover, the optimized KNN thin film had good fatigue resistance and a piezoelectric constant of 40 pm V -1 , which is comparable to that of polycrystalline PZT thin films.

  17. Electroresistance effect in gold thin film induced by ionic-liquid-gated electric double layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Hiroyasu; Ohtani, Takashi; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Ando, Kazuya; Saitoh, Eiji; Ye, Jianting; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Electroresistance effect was detected in a metallic thin film using ionic-liquid-gated electric-double-layer transistors (EDLTs). We observed reversible modulation of the electric resistance of a Au thin film. In this system, we found that an electric double layer works as a nanogap capacitor with 27 (-25) MV cm -1 of electric field by applying only 1.7 V of positive (negative) gate voltage. The experimental results indicate that the ionic-liquid-gated EDLT technique can be used for controlling the surface electronic states on metallic systems. (author)

  18. Influence of test capacitor features on piezoelectric and dielectric measurement of ferroelectric films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihong; Lau, Gih Keong; Zhu, Weiguang; Chao, Chen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents both theoretical and numerical analyses of the piezoelectric and dielectric responses of a highly idealized film-on-substrate system, namely, a polarized ferroelectric film perfectly bonded to an elastic silicon substrate. It shows that both effective dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the films change with the size and configuration of the test capacitor. There exists a critical electrode size that is smaller than the diameter of the commonly used substrate. The effective film properties converge to their respective constrained values as capacitor size increases to the critical size. If capacitor size is smaller than the critical size, the surface displacement at the top electrode deviates from the net thickness change in response to an applied voltage because the film is deformable at the film/substrate interface. The constrained properties of the films depend only on those of bulk ferroelectrics but are independent of film thickness and substrate properties. The finding of the critical capacitor size together with analytical expressions of the constrained properties makes it possible to realize consistent measurement of piezoelectric and dielectric properties of films. A surface scanning technique is recommended to measure the profile of piezoresponses of the film so that the constrained properties of the film can be identified accurately.

  19. Unraveling the Dynamics of Nanoscopically Confined PVME in Thin Films of a Miscible PVME/PS Blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Sherif; Szymoniak, Paulina; Radnik, Jörg; Schönhals, Andreas

    2017-10-25

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) was employed to investigate the glassy dynamics of thin films (7-200 nm) of a poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME)/polystyrene (PS) blend (50:50 wt %). For BDS measurements, nanostructured capacitors (NSCs) were employed, where films are allowed a free surface. This method was applied for film thicknesses up to 36 nm. For thicker films, samples were prepared between crossed electrode capacitors (CECs). The relaxation spectra of the films showed multiple processes. The first process was assigned to the α-relaxation of a bulklike layer. For films measured by NSCs, the rates of α-relaxation were higher compared to those of the bulk blend. This behavior was related to the PVME-rich free surface layer at the polymer/air interface. The second process was observed for all films measured by CECs (process X) and the 36 nm film measured by NSCs (process X2). This process was assigned to fluctuations of constraint PVME segments by PS. Its activation energy was found to be thickness-dependent because of the evidenced thickness dependency of the compositional heterogeneity. Finally, a third process with an activated temperature dependence was observed for all films measured by NSCs (process X1). It resembled the molecular fluctuations in an adsorbed layer found for thin films of pure PVME, and thus, it is assigned accordingly. This process undergoes an extra confinement because of frozen adsorbed PS segments at the polymer/substrate interface. To our knowledge, this is the first example where confinement-induced changes were observed by BDS for blend thin films.

  20. Structural and electrical properties of Ta2O5 thin films prepared by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dielectric constant and leakage current density of the Ta2O5 thin films increase with increasing powers of the UV- lamps. Effects of UV- lamp powers on the structural and electrical properties were discussed. Keywords. Chemical vapour deposition processes; oxides; dielectric material; MOS capacitor. 1. Introduction.

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of PZT Thick Films for Sensing and Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ching Kuo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Lead Zirconate Titanate oxide (PZT thick films with thicknesses of up to 10 μmwere developed using a modified sol-gel technique. Usually, the film thickness is less than1 μm by conventional sol-gel processing, while the electrical charge accumulation whichreveals the direct effect of piezoelectricity is proportional to the film thickness and thereforerestricted. Two approaches were adopted to conventional sol-gel processing – precursorconcentration modulation and rapid thermal annealing. A 10 μm thick film was successfullyfabricated by coating 16 times via this technique. The thickness of each coating layer wasabout 0.6 μm and the morphology of the film was dense with a crack-free area as large as 16mm2. In addition, the structure, surface morphology and physical properties werecharacterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomicforce microscopy (AFM and electrical performance. The dielectric constant and hysteresisloops were measured as electric characteristics. This study investigates the actuation andsensing performance of the vibrating structures with the piezoelectric thick film. Theactuation tests demonstrated that a 4 mm x 4 mm x 6.5 μm PZT film drove a 40 mm x 7 mmx 0.5 mm silicon beam as an actuator. Additionally, it generated an electrical signal of 60mVpp as a sensor, while vibration was input by a shaker. The frequencies of the first twomodes of the beam were compared with the theoretical values obtained by Euler-Bernoullibeam theory. The linearity of the actuation and sensing tests were also examined.

  2. Analytical Model of a PZT Thick-Film Triaxial Accelerometer for Optimum Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Almind, Ninia Sejersen; Brodersen, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    We present a mechanical model of a triaxial micro accelerometer design using PZT thick-film as the sensing material. The model is based on the full anisotropic material tensors and Eulers' beam equation using simplifying assumptions where the smaller stress contributions are ignored. The model...

  3. Characteristics of ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films having Pt/PtOx electrode barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwangbae; Rhee, Byung Roh; Lee, Chanku

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of the Pt/PtO x multilayer as an electrode barrier for Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT)-based ferroelectric random access memories. PtO x and Pt layers were prepared on polycrystalline-Si/SiO 2 /Si substrates by means of the sputtering method in Ar and O 2 ambience, and the Pb(Zr 0.53 Ti 0.47 )O 3 layer was prepared by the sol-gel method. A capacitor consisting of Pt/PtO x /PZT/PtO x /Pt/PtO x /poly-Si had a remanent polarization of 18 μC/cm 2 and a low coercive field of 32 kV/cm. The polarization fatigue behavior of test capacitors was improved as compared with that of Pt/PZT/Pt, which showed negligible fatigue loss of 15% after 10 11 switching repetitions with a frequency of 1 MHz. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  4. Biotemplated Synthesis of PZT Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    electromechanical coupling coefficient , Y is the Young’s modulus, and Ri is intrinsic resistance. The PZT nanowire- based film is taken to have negligible...robotic actuation, and bioMEMS. Lead zirconate titanate ( PZT ), in particular, has attracted significant attention, owing to its superior...electromechanical conversion performance. Yet, the ability to synthesize crystalline PZT nanowires with reproducible and well-controlled properties remains a

  5. Electro-mechanical properties of free standing micro- and nano-scale polymer-ceramic composites for energy density capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Paritosh; Borkar, Hitesh [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi, 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL) Campus, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, 110012 (India); Singh, B.P.; Singh, V.N. [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi, 110012 (India); Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi, 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL) Campus, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, 110012 (India)

    2015-11-05

    The integration of inorganic fillers in polymer matrix is useful for superior mechanical strength and functional properties of polymer-ceramic composites. We report the fabrication and characterization of polyvinylidene fluoride-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (PVDF-CFO) (wt% 80:20, respectively) and PVDF-Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3}–CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (PVDF-PZT-CFO) (wt% 80:10:10, respectively) free standing 50 μm thick ferroelectric-polymer-ceramic composites films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Raman spectra revealed the presence of major semi-crystalline β-PVDF along with α-phase which is responsible for ferroelectric nature in both the composite systems. Ferroelectric, dielectric and mechanical strength measurements were performed in order to evaluate the effects of CFO and PZT inorganic fillers in PVDF matrix. The inclusion of CFO and PZT micro-/nano-particles in PVDF polymer matrix improved the polarization behavior, dielectric properties and mechanical strength. The energy density was calculated by polarization-electric field hysteresis loop and found in the range of 6–8 J/cm{sup 3} may be useful for microelectronics. - Graphical abstract: Large area PVDF-PZT-CFO nano- and micro-composite films have been fabricated for high energy density storage flexible capacitor. Presence of nanocrystalline PZT and CFO particles in polymer matrix significantly enhanced their energy density capacity. - Highlights: • Physical interaction of cobalt iron oxide with polymer matrix results β-PVDF phase. • Evidence of Micro and Nano crystalline CFO and PZT fillers in polymer matrix. • The CFO and PZT fillers provide better mechanical strength to composite films. • PVDF-ceramic nanocomposites show low leakage behavior for high electric field.

  6. Determination of young's modulus of PZT and CO80Ni20 thin films by means of micromachined cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Abelmann, Leon; Tas, Niels Roelof; van Honschoten, J.W.; Siekman, Martin Herman; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a technique to determine the Young’s modulus and residual stress of thin films using a simple micromachined silicon cantilever as the test structure. An analytical relation was developed based on the shift in resonance frequency caused by the addition of a thin film on the

  7. Pulsed laser deposition of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin film on cobalt ferrite nano-seed layered Pt(111)/Si substrate: effect of oxygen pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaei, M.; Seyyed Ebrahimi, S. A.; Park, Yong Jun; Song, Seungwoo; Jang, Hyun Myung; Son, Junwoo; Baik, Sunggi

    2014-07-01

    The effect of oxygen pressure during pulsed laser deposition of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin films on CoFe2O4 nano-seed layered Pt(111)/Si substrate was investigated. The PZT film deposited at oxygen pressure lower than 25 mTorr is identified as both perovskite and pyrochlore phases and the films deposited at high oxygen pressure (50-100 mTorr) show the single-phase perovskite PZT that has a perfect (111)-orientation. In addition, the film deposited at PO2 of 50 mTorr has a uniform surface morphology, whereas the film deposited at PO2 of 100 mTorr has a non-uniform surface morphology and more incompacted columnar cross-section microstructure. The polarization of film deposited at 100 mTorr is higher than that deposited at 50 mTorr, but shift of the hysteresis loop along the electrical field axis in the film deposited at PO2 of 100 mTorr is larger than that of the film deposited at PO2 of 50 mTorr.

  8. Nitrogen-Doped Holey Graphene Film-Based Ultrafast Electrochemical Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinqin; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Ji; Hong, Jong-Dal; Shi, Gaoquan

    2016-08-17

    The commercialized aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) currently used for alternating current (AC) line-filtering are usually the largest components in the electronic circuits because of their low specific capacitances and bulky sizes. Herein, nitrogen-doped holey graphene (NHG) films were prepared by thermal annealing the composite films of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), graphene oxide (GO), and ferric oxide (Fe2O3) nanorods followed by chemical etching with hydrochloride acid. The typical electrochemical capacitor with NHG electrodes exhibited high areal and volumetric specific capacitances of 478 μF cm(-2) and 1.2 F cm(-3) at 120 Hz, ultrafast frequency response with a phase angle of -81.2° and a resistor-capacitor time constant of 203 μs at 120 Hz, as well as excellent cycling stability. Thus, it is promising to replace conventional AEC for AC line-filtering in miniaturized electronics.

  9. Characterization of the effective electrostriction coefficients in ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholkin, A. L.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Chauvy, P.-F.; Setter, N.

    2001-06-01

    Electromechanical properties of a number of ferroelectric films including PbZrxTi1-xO3(PZT), 0.9PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.1PbTiO3(PMN-PT), and SrBi2Ta2O9(SBT) are investigated using laser interferometry combined with conventional dielectric measurements. Effective electrostriction coefficients of the films, Qeff, are determined using a linearized electrostriction equation that couples longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient, d33, with the polarization and dielectric constant. It is shown that, in PZT films, electrostriction coefficients slightly increase with applied electric field, reflecting the weak contribution of non-180° domains to piezoelectric properties. In contrast, in PMN-PT and SBT films electrostriction coefficients are field independent, indicating the intrinsic nature of the piezoelectric response. The experimental values of Qeff are significantly smaller than those of corresponding bulk materials due to substrate clamping and possible size effects. Electrostriction coefficients of PZT layers are shown to depend strongly on the composition and preferred orientation of the grains. In particular, Qeff of (100) textured rhombohedral films (x=0.7) is significantly greater than that of (111) layers. Thus large anisotropy of the electrostrictive coefficients is responsible for recently observed large piezoelectric coefficients of (100) textured PZT films. Effective electrostriction coefficients obtained by laser interferometry allow evaluation of the electromechanical properties of ferroelectric films based solely on the dielectric parameters and thus are very useful in the design and fabrication of microsensors and microactuators.

  10. Effect of structural in-depth heterogeneities on electrical properties of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48) O3 thin films as revealed by nano-beam X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaxelaire, N.; Kovacova, V.; Bernasconi, A.; Le Rhun, G.; Alvarez-Murga, M.; Vaughan, G. B. M.; Defay, E.; Gergaud, P.

    2016-09-01

    A direct quantification of a structural in-depth composition in the lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films of morphotropic composition has been conducted using the newly available X-ray nano-pencil beam (i.e., beam size of 100 nm × 1 μm) diffraction approach. We tested two samples with different Zr/Ti chemical gradients. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a significant microstructural gradient between the rhombohedral and tetragonal phases through PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) films with a 100 nm in-depth resolution. The phase gradient extends over around 350 nm, and it is repeated through the PZT film three times, which corresponds to the number of thermal annealings. Moreover, this microstructural gradient is in agreement with the Zr/Ti chemical gradient observed by the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Indeed, the quantity of tetragonal phases rises in the Ti-rich zones as revealed by SIMS, and the quantity of rhombohedral phases rises in the Zr-rich zones. We also demonstrated a huge difference in the in-depth phase variation between the two tested samples. The gradient free sample still contains 4.7% of phase variation through the film and the amplified gradient contains 9.6% of phase variation through the film. Knowing that the gradient free sample shows better electric and piezoelectric coefficients, one can draw a correlation between the chemical composition, crystallographic homogeneity, and electro-mechanical properties of the film. The more close the film is to the morphotropic composition and the more it is crystallographically homogeneous, the higher the piezoelectric coefficients of the PZT are. Finally, the adequate knowledge of phase variation and its relation to the fabrication technique are crucial for the enhancement of the PZT electro-mechanical properties. Our methodology and findings open up new perspectives in establishing a relevant quantitative feedback to reach an ultimate electro-mechanical coupling in the sol-gel PZT thin films.

  11. Electrically and thermally activated ageing mechanisms in metallised polymer film capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yuen Pen

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation describes a combined computational and experimental study to understand the fundamental electrostatic, thermal, electromagnetic, and discharge related processes during the ageing of metallised polymer film capacitors. In the event of internal breakdowns, these capacitors are capable of 'self-healing' through a controlled isolation of defects on the electrode surfaces by mosaic patterning the electrode. The objective of this project is to develop viable computer models to unravel electrothermally activated ageing processes in capacitors. To provide the necessary validation to any capacitor models developed, our work is supported by comprehensive experiments including industrial standard accelerated life tests and associated breakdown damage analyses of tested capacitors. These have enabled an empirical identification of main factors affecting the reliability and lifetime of capacitors. Relevant raw data and the qualitative picture enabled by these data are crucial to the development and refinement of viable computational models of capacitors. Given the complexity of ageing processes, it is both very difficult and unnecessary to develop a one-for-all model that describes indiscriminately all relevant processes. The approach adapted in this work has been to prioritise key ageing processes and modularise each process with its own computer model. The overall picture of capacitor ageing can then be unravelled by integrating all modules together. For instance, the fine geometrical features of the electrode mosaic pattern and the capacitor's laminated structure have been assessed through a concept of field intensification using a 2D electrostatic finite element computation. With fine geometrical features accounted for by the field intensification concept, fast electric events in capacitors can be simulated using a simple equivalent circuit model. Similar assessment of heat transfer has led to an equally efficient modelling of thermal events in capacitors

  12. Upconversion photoluminescence of epitaxial Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} codoped ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} films on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang, E-mail: zhangy_acd@hotmail.com [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Kämpfe, Thomas [Institut für Angewandte Physik, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Bai, Gongxun [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Mietschke, Michael; Yuan, Feifei; Zopf, Michael [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Abel, Stefan [IBM Research GmbH, Saümerstrasse 4, 8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Eng, Lukas M. [Institut für Angewandte Physik, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Hühne, Ruben [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Fompeyrine, Jean [IBM Research GmbH, Saümerstrasse 4, 8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Ding, Fei, E-mail: f.ding@ifw-dresden.de [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Oliver G. [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer strasse 70, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2016-05-31

    Thin films of Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} codoped Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT:Yb/Er) have been epitaxially grown on the SrTiO{sub 3} buffered Si wafer by pulsed laser deposition. Strong upconversion photoluminescence was observed in the PZT:Yb/Er thin film. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, polar domains in the PZT:Yb/Er film can be reversibly switched with a phase change of 180°. Ferroelectric hysteresis loop shape with a well-saturated response was observed. The epitaxially grown lanthanide-doped PZT on silicon opens up a promising route to the integration of luminescent functional oxides on the silicon platform. - Highlights: • Epitaxial growth of Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} codoped Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} films on SrTiO{sub 3} buffered silicon • Upconversion emissions were obtained from the lanthanide ion doped thin films. • Saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops were observed. • Polar domains were switched by PFM with a phase change of 180°.

  13. Dielectric property study of poly(4-vinylphenol)-graphene oxide nanocomposite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Dhrubojyoti

    2018-05-01

    Thin film capacitor device having a sandwich structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass/polymer or polymer nanocomposite /silver has been fabricated and their dielectric and leakage current properties has been studied. The dielectric properties of the capacitors were characterized for frequencies ranging from 1 KHz to 1 MHz. 5 wt% Poly(4-vinylphenol)(PVPh)-Graphene (GO) nanocomposite exhibited an increase in dielectric constant to 5.6 and small rise in dielectric loss to around˜0.05 at 10 KHz w.r.t polymer. The DC conductivity measurements reveal rise of leakage current in nanocomposite.

  14. Ferroelectric properties of sandwich structured (Bi, La)4T3O12/Pb(Zr, Ti)O3/ (Bi, La)4Ti3O12 thin films on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Dinghua; Wakiya, Naoki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Mizutani, Nobuyasu

    2002-01-01

    Sandwich structured (Bi, La) 4 Ti 3 O 12 /Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 /(Bi, La) 4 Ti 3 O 12 thin films were fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates, with the intention of simultaneously utilizing the advantages of both (Bi, La) 4 Ti 3 O 12 (BLT) and Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 (PZT) thin films such as non-fatigue behaviours of BLT and good ferroelectric properties of PZT. Both BLT and PZT layers were prepared by a chemical solution deposition technique. The experiments demonstrated that the sandwich structure showed fatigue-free characteristics at least up to 10 10 switching bipolar pulse cycles under 8 V and excellent retention properties. The sandwich structured thin films also exhibited well-defined hysteresis loops with a remanent polarization (2P r ) of 8.8 μC cm -2 and a coercive field (E c ) of 47 kV cm -1 . The room-temperature dielectric constant and dissipation factor were 210 and 0.031, respectively, at a frequency of 100 kHz. These results suggest that this sandwich structure is a promising material combination for ferroelectric memory applications. (author)

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Pb(Zr𝟎.𝟓𝟑, Ti𝟎.𝟒𝟕)O𝟑-Pb(Nb𝟏/𝟑, Zn𝟐/𝟑)O𝟑 Thin Film Cantilevers for Energy Harvesting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Fuentes-Fernandez, E. M. A.; Debray-Mechtaly, W.; Quevedo-Lopez, M. A.; Gnade, B.; Leon-Salguero, E.; Shah, P.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    A complete analysis of the morphology, crystallographic orientation, and resulting electrical properties of Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47) Pb(Nb1/3, Zn2/3)O3 (PZT-PZN) thin films, as well as the electrical behavior when integrated in a cantilever for energy harvesting applications, is presented. The PZT-PZN films were deposited using sol-gel methods. We report that using 20% excess Pb, a nucleation layer of PbTiO3 (PT), and a fast ramp rate provides large grains, as well as denser films. The PZT-PZN is deposited on a stack of TiO2/PECVD SiO2/Si3N4/thermal SiO2/Poly-Si/Si. This stack is designed to allow wet-etching the poly-Si layer to release the cantilever structures. It was also found that the introduction of the poly-Si layer results in larger grains in the PZT-PZN film. PZT-PZN films with a dielectric constant of 3200 and maximum polarization of 30 μC/cm2 were obtained. The fabricated cantilever devices produced ~300–400 mV peak-to-peak depending on the cantilever design. Experimental results are compared with simulations.

  16. Enhancement of dielectric breakdown strengths in polymer film capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, M.; Mammone, R.J.; Lavene, B.; Rondeau, E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that breakdown voltages of wound, polymer film/metal foil capacitors have been dramatically increased by briefly exposing them (after they had been spirally wound) to a low pressure, low temperature gas plasma. Exposure of wound, polycarbonate-based capacitors to a 96%CF 4 /4%O 2 gas plasma for 4 minutes, for example, produced a 200% increase in breakdown voltage

  17. Thickness dependence of electrical properties in (0 0 1) oriented lead zirconate titanate films by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, T.J.; Lu, L.; Lai, M.O.; Soh, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Highly (0 0 1)-oriented Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) thin films with LaNiO 3 (LNO) bottom electrodes have been fabricated on amorphous TiN buffered Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis of the deposited PZT films with different thickness ranging from 25 to 850 nm was measured. Results showed that the coercive field increases with the film thickness scaling down. No P-E loops could be obtained for the film of thickness of 25 nm. The deterioration of ferroelectric property in the thinnest film was attributed to extrinsic effect other than intrinsic size effect. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics measurement showed the increase in leakage current of the PZT films with the decrease in the thickness of the films under the same bias voltage. At a high field regime, the leakage current of the PZT films of 25 nm thickness remained unchanged with increasing applied voltage. A totally depleted back-to-back Shottky barrier model was used to explain the effect of electrode interfaces on leakage current in the PZT films. It is believed that ferroelectric/electrode interfaces play an important role in the electrical properties of ferroelectric thin films with thickness at nanometer level

  18. Homogeneity analysis of high yield manufacturing process of mems-based pzt thick film vibrational energy harvesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Pedersen, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a high yield wafer scale fabrication of MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvesters aimed towards vibration sources with peak frequencies in the range of a few hundred Hz. By combining KOH etching with mechanical front side protection, SOI wafer...... to accurately define the thickness of the silicon part of the harvester and a silicon compatible PZT thick film screen-printing technique, we are able to fabricate energy harvesters on wafer scale with a yield higher than 90%. The characterization of the fabricated harvesters is focused towards the full wafer....../mass-production aspect; hence the analysis of uniformity in harvested power and resonant frequency....

  19. Micro-fabrication technology for piezoelectric film formation and its application to MEMS

    OpenAIRE

    一木, 正聡; 曹, 俊杰; 張, 麓〓; 王, 占杰; 前田, 龍太郎; Masaaki, ICHIKI; Jiunn Jye, TSAUR; Lulu, ZHANG; Zhang Jie, WANG; Ryutaro, MAEDA; 産業技術総合研究所; 産業技術総合研究所; 産業技術総合研究所; 東北大学; 産業技術総合研究所

    2005-01-01

    Technological problems for realization of Micro Electro-mechanical System (MEMS) are discussed and an introduction of smart materials (PZT) is encouraged. The film formation and micromaching technology are discussed in integration of PZT thin films into MEMS. Further developments are proposed on PZT micro sensors and actuators with special emphasis laid on exploration of new application fields of MEMS, such as scanning mirror. Internal stress is estimated and analyzed for the improvement of d...

  20. Crystallization of sol-gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin films in argon and oxygen atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L A [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Brooks, K G [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    Electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopic techniques are applied to reveal the mechanisms of crystallization of 75 nm thin films of ferroelectric lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT). Sol-gel methods, followed by pyrolysis at 350 deg C, were used to provide a common starting point after which a variety of rapid-thermal annealing (RTA) experiments in the temperature range 400-700 deg C were made in argon, oxygen and nitrogen/hydrogen atmospheres. The results are interpreted in terms of the crystal chemical analysis, which points out that partial pressure of oxygen and heating rate are important experimental parameters which must be controlled if ferroelectric perovskite-type Pb{sub 2}ZrTiO{sub 6}, rather than pyrochlore-type Pb{sub 2}ZrTiO{sub 6+x}, where O < X < 1 or -1 < X < O, is to be obtained after the RTA step. Thus significant improvements in the crystallization of perovskite-type PZT were clearly demonstrated by using argon atmospheres for the RTA step. The results have significance for the production of high-quality ferroelectric thin films, with improved switching and fatigue characteristics, since even small amounts of the pyrochlore phase prove detrimental for these properties. 18 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  1. Piezoelectric evaluation of ion beam etched Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films by piezoresponse force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, C.; Da Costa, A.; Desfeux, R.; Soyer, C.; Remiens, D.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of piezoelectric properties of Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) thin films after ion beam etching have been investigated at the nanoscale level by piezoelectric force microscopy. A comparison of the piezoelectric properties on etched and unetched films is realized. Piezoelectric contrasts imaging evidences a modification of the domain architecture at the film surface. Local piezoelectric hysteresis loops measurements on grains indicate that the coercive voltage for switching is much higher for the etched films (2.3 V) compared to the unetched ones (1.0 V) while the average piezoelectric activity is slightly lower. The results are explained in terms of grain-damaging during etching and domain-wall pinning

  2. Nano-structured variable capacitor based on P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakbita, I.; El-Hami, K.

    2018-02-01

    A newly organic capacitor was conceived with a variable capacitance using the inverse piezoelectric effect. The device consists of two parallel plates of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), known for their large surface area, high sensitivity and high electric conductivity, separated by a thin film of a dielectric layer of Polyinylidene fluoride and trifluoroehtylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) promising material for piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties. The obtained architecture is the CNT/PVDF-TrFE/CNT capacitor device. In this study, an ultra-thin film of P(VDF-TrFE) (54/46) with thickness of 20 nm was elaborated on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) by spin-coating. The morphology of the ultra-thin film and the mechanical behavior of CNT/P(VDF-TrFE)/CNT system were studied using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) combined with a lock-in amplifier in contact mode. All changes in applied voltage induce a change in thin film thickness according to the inverse piezoelectric effect that affect, consequently the capacitance. The results showed that the ratio of capacitance change ΔC to initial capacitance C0 is ΔC/C0=5%. This value is sufficient to use P(VDF-TrFE) as variable organic capacitor.

  3. A flexible, high-performance magnetoelectric heterostructure of (001) oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 film grown on Ni foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palneedi, Haribabu; Yeo, Hong Goo; Hwang, Geon-Tae; Annapureddy, Venkateswarlu; Kim, Jong-Woo; Choi, Jong-Jin; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Ryu, Jungho

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a flexible magnetoelectric (ME) heterostructure of PZT/Ni was fabricated by depositing a (001) oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) film on a thin, flexible Ni foil buffered with LaNiO3/HfO2. Excellent ferroelectric properties and large ME voltage coefficient of 3.2 V/cmṡOe were realized from the PZT/Ni heterostructure. The PZT/Ni composite's high performance was attributed to strong texturing of the PZT film, coupled with the compressive stress in the piezoelectric film. Besides, reduced substrate clamping in the PZT film due to the film on the foil structure and strong interfacial bonding in the PZT/LaNiO3/HfO2/Ni heterostructure could also have contributed to the high ME performance of PZT/Ni.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of BPO Film as Electrode for Using of FeRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin-Yi, Wen; Jun, Yu; Yun-Bo, Wang; Wen-Li, Zhou; Jun-Xiong, Gao; Xiao-Hui, Chu

    2008-01-01

    Conductive perovskite BaPbO3 (BPO) films as a potential electrode material of PZT capacitors used in ferroelectric random access memory are prepared by rf magnetron sputtering. An x-ray diffractometer and standard four probe method are employed to investigate the dependence of growth conditions on crystal structure and conductivity of BPO films. It is found that BPO films with perovskite phase can be obtained at substrate temperatures above 425° C, and the sample with the lowest resistivity is obtained at 450° C under pure argon atmosphere. Using this BPO film as electrode, ferroelectric properties of BPO/PZT/BPO and Pt/PZT/BPO sandwiched structures are evaluated. Their remanent polarization and coercive field are 36.6μC/cm 2 (81.3kV/cm) and 36.9μC/cm 2 (89.1 kV/cm), respectively. The coercive field of the former structure is lower than that of the latter, but remanent polarizations are almost the same. In addition, the results imply that BPO electrode is helpful to improve the fatigue resistance of PZT. The reasons are discussed. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  5. Thermal phase separation of ZrSiO4 thin films and frequency- dependent electrical characteristics of the Al/ZrSiO4/p-Si/Al MOS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, R.; Kaya, S.; Yilmaz, E.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the thermal phase separation and annealing optimization of ZrSiO4 thin films have been carried out. Following annealing optimization, the frequency-dependent electrical characteristics of the Al/ZrSiO4/p-Si/Al MOS capacitors were investigated in detail. The chemical evolution of the films under various annealing temperatures was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. The phase separation was determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The electrical parameters were determined via the capacitance–voltage (C–V), conductance–voltage (G/ω) and leakage-current–voltage (Ig–Vg ). The results demonstrate that zirconium silicate formations are present at 1000 °C annealing with the SiO2 interfacial layer. The film was in amorphous form after annealing at 250 °C. The tetragonal phases of ZrO2 were obtained after annealing at 500 °C. When the temperature approaches 750 °C, transitions from the tetragonal phase to the monoclinic phase were observed. The obtained XRD peaks after 1000 °C annealing matched the crystalline peaks of ZrSiO4. This means that the crystalline zirconium dioxide in the structure has been converted into a crystalline silicate phase. The interface states increased to 5.71 × 1010 and the number of border traps decreased to 7.18 × 1010 cm‑2 with the increasing temperature. These results indicate that an excellent ZrSiO4/Si interface has been fabricated. The order of the leakage current varied from 10‑9 Acm‑2 to 10‑6 Acm‑2. The MOS capacitor fabricated with the films annealed at 1000 °C shows better behavior in terms of its structural, chemical and electrical properties. Hence, detailed frequency-dependent electrical characteristics were performed for the ZrSiO4 thin film annealed at 1000 °C. Very slight capacitance variations were observed under the frequency variations. This shows that the density of frequency-dependent charges is very low at the ZrSiO4/Si interface. The

  6. Characterization of RF-spittered self-polarized PZT thin films for sensors arrays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchaneck, G.; Lin, W. M.; Koehler, R.; Sandner, T.; Gerlach, G.; Krawietz, R.; Pompe, W.; Deineka, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 66, - (2002), s. 473-478 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015; GA ČR GA202/00/1425 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : self-polarized PZT * polarization and refractive index profiles * IR sensor array Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2002

  7. Dynamics of ferroelectric nanodomains in BaTiO3 epitaxial thin films via piezoresponse force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsev, N A; Petraru, A; Kohlstedt, H; Waser, R; Bdikin, I K; Kiselev, D; Kholkin, A L

    2008-01-01

    Ferroelectric nanodomains were created in BaTiO 3 thin films by applying a voltage to a sharp conducting tip of a scanning force microscope (SFM). The films were epitaxially grown on SrRuO 3 -covered (001)-oriented SrTiO 3 substrates by a high-pressure sputtering. They appeared to be single-crystalline with the (001) crystallographic orientation relative to the substrate. Using the piezoresponse mode of the SFM to detect the out-of-plane film polarization, the domain sizes were measured as a function of the applied writing voltage and the pulse time. It was found that the time dependence of the domain diameter in a 60 nm thick BaTiO 3 film deviates significantly from the logarithmic law observed earlier in Pb(Zr 0.2 Ti 0.8 )O 3 (PZT) films. At a given writing time, the domain size increases nonlinearly with increasing applied voltage, in contrast to the linear behavior reported earlier for PZT films and LiNbO 3 single crystals. The dynamics of domain growth is analyzed theoretically taking into account the strong inhomogeneity of the external electric field in the film and the influence of the bottom electrode. It is shown that the observed writing time and voltage dependences of the domain size can be explained by the domain-wall creep in the presence of random-bond disorder

  8. Phase Composition of Samarium Niobate and Tantalate Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruncková, H.; Medvecký, Ľ.; Múdra, E.; Kovalčiková, A.; Ďurišin, J.; Šebek, M.; Girman, V.

    2017-12-01

    Samarium niobate SmNbO4 (SNO) and tantalate SmTaO4 (STO) thin films ( 100 nm) were prepared by sol-gel/spin-coating process on alumina substrates with PZT interlayer and annealing at 1000°C. The precursors of films were synthesized using Nb or Ta tartrate complexes. The improvement of the crystallinity of monoclinic M'-SmTaO4 phase via heating was observed through the coexistence of small amounts of tetragonal T-SmTa7O19 phase in STO precursor at 1000°C. The XRD results of SNO and STO films confirmed monoclinic M-SmNbO4 and M'-SmTaO4 phases, respectively, with traces of orthorhombic O-SmNbO4 (in SNO). In STO film, the single monoclinic M'-SmTaO4 phase was revealed. The surface morphology and topography of thin films were investigated by SEM and AFM analysis. STO film was smoother with roughness 3.2 nm in comparison with SNO (6.3 nm). In the microstructure of SNO film, small spherical ( 50 nm) and larger cuboidal particles ( 100 nm) of the SmNbO4 phase were observed. In STO, compact clusters composed of fine spherical SmTaO4 particles ( 20-50 nm) were found. Effect of samarium can contribute to the formation different polymorphs of these films for the application to environmental electrolytic thin film devices.

  9. Control of mechanical response of freestanding PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 films through texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debashish; Sanchez, Luz; Martin, Joel; Power, Brian; Isaacson, Steven; Polcawich, Ronald G.; Chasiotis, Ioannis

    2016-09-01

    The texture of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films plays a key role in their mechanical response and linearity in the stress vs. strain behavior. The open circuit mechanical properties of PZT films with controlled texture varying from 100% (001) to 100% (111) were quantified with the aid of direct strain measurements from freestanding thin film specimens. The texture was tuned using a highly {111}-textured Pt substrate and excess-Pb in the PbTiO3 seed layer. The mechanical and ferroelastic properties of 500 nm thick PZT (52/48) films were found to be strongly dependent on grain orientation: the lowest elastic modulus of 90 ± 2 GPa corresponded to pure (001) texture, and its value increased linearly with the percentage of (111) texture reaching 122 ± 3 GPa for pure (111) texture. These elastic modulus values were between those computed for transversely isotropic textured PZT films by using the soft and hard bulk PZT compliance coefficients. Pure (001) texture exhibited maximum non-linearity and ferroelastic domain switching, contrary to pure (111) texture that exhibited more linearity and the least amount of switching. A micromechanics model was employed to calculate the strain due to domain switching. The model fitted well the non-linearities in the experimental stress-strain curves of (001) and (111) textured PZT films, predicting 17% and 10% of switched 90° domains that initially were favorably aligned with the applied stress in (001) and (111) textured PZT films, respectively.

  10. Control of crystallographic texture and surface morphology of Pt/Tio2 templates for enhanced PZT thin film texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Austin J; Drawl, Bill; Fox, Glen R; Gibbons, Brady J; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Optimized processing conditions for Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si templating electrodes were investigated. These electrodes are used to obtain [111] textured thin film lead zirconate titanate (Pb[ZrxTi1-x ]O3 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) (PZT). Titanium deposited by dc magnetron sputtering yields [0001] texture on a thermally oxidized Si wafer. It was found that by optimizing deposition time, pressure, power, and the chamber pre-conditioning, the Ti texture could be maximized while maintaining low surface roughness. When oxidized, titanium yields [100]-oriented rutile. This seed layer has as low as a 4.6% lattice mismatch with [111] Pt; thus, it is possible to achieve strongly oriented [111] Pt. The quality of the orientation and surface roughness of the TiO2 and the Ti directly affect the achievable Pt texture and surface morphology. A transition between optimal crystallographic texture and the smoothest templating surface occurs at approximately 30 nm of original Ti thickness (45 nm TiO2). This corresponds to 0.5 nm (2 nm for TiO2) rms roughness as determined by atomic force microscopy and a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curve 0002 (200) peak of 5.5/spl degrees/ (3.1/spl degrees/ for TiO2). A Pb[Zr0.52Ti 0.48]O3 layer was deposited and shown to template from the textured Pt electrode, with a maximum [111] Lotgering factor of 87% and a minimum 111 FWHM of 2.4/spl degrees/ at approximately 30 nm of original Ti.

  11. The converse magnetoelectric coupling in asymmetric granule/matrix composite film with Ni/PZT component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Su, Ning-Ning; Cui, Wen-Li; Yan, Shi-Nong

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a type of asymmetric granule/matrix composite film is designed, where the Ni granule is dispersed in PZT matrix, meanwhile the top and bottom electrode is constituted by Au and SRO respectively. Predicted through the electrostatic screening model and mean field approximation, considerable electrostatic charge is induced on Ni granule surface by ferroelectric PZT polarization. Predicted through the spin splitting model and spherical shell approximation, both the magnetization and magnetic anisotropy of Ni granule are modulated by ferroelectric PZT polarization. As the volume fraction of Ni granule is increased, the electric modulation of magnetization and magnetic anisotropy is reduced and enhanced respectively. As the dimension of granule/matrix composite is varied, such modulation is retained. Due to the large area-volume ratio of nano-granule, this work benefits to realize the converse magnetoelectric coupling in nanoscale.

  12. Characterization of Kerfless Linear Arrays Based on PZT Thick Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawada, Tomasz; Bierregaard, Louise Moller; Ringgaard, Erling; Xu, Ruichao; Guizzetti, Michele; Levassort, Franck; Certon, Dominique

    2017-09-01

    Multielement transducers enabling novel cost-effective fabrication of imaging arrays for medical applications have been presented earlier. Due to the favorable low lateral coupling of the screen-printed PZT, the elements can be defined by the top electrode pattern only, leading to a kerfless design with low crosstalk between the elements. The thick-film-based linear arrays have proved to be compatible with a commercial ultrasonic scanner and to support linear array beamforming as well as phased array beamforming. The main objective of the presented work is to investigate the performance of the devices at the transducer level by extensive measurements of the test structures. The arrays have been characterized by several different measurement techniques. First, electrical impedance measurements on several elements in air and liquid have been conducted in order to support material parameter identification using the Krimholtz-Leedom-Matthaei model. It has been found that electromechanical coupling is at the level of 35%. The arrays have also been characterized by a pulse-echo system. The measured sensitivity is around -60 dB, and the fractional bandwidth is close to 60%, while the center frequency is about 12 MHz over the whole array. Finally, laser interferometry measurements have been conducted indicating very good displacement level as well as pressure. The in-depth characterization of the array structure has given insight into the performance parameters for the array based on PZT thick film, and the obtained information will be used to optimize the key parameters for the next generation of cost-effective arrays based on piezoelectric thick film.

  13. Polarizaton recovery in lead zirconate titanate thin films deposited on nanosheets-beffered Si (oo1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chopra, A.; Bayraktar, Muharrem; Nijland, Maarten; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Bijkerk, Frederik; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue behavior of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) films is one of the deterrent factors that limits the use of these films in technological applications. Thus, understanding and minimization of the fatigue behavior is highly beneficial for fabricating reliable devices using PZT films. We have investigated the

  14. Layer-by-layer assembled polyaniline nanofiber/multiwall carbon nanotube thin film electrodes for high-power and high-energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Md Nasim; Lee, Seung Woo; Cebeci, Fevzi Ç; Schmidt, Daniel J; Shao-Horn, Yang; Hammond, Paula T

    2011-11-22

    Thin film electrodes of polyaniline (PANi) nanofibers and functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are created by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly for microbatteries or -electrochemical capacitors. Highly stable cationic PANi nanofibers, synthesized from the rapid aqueous phase polymerization of aniline, are assembled with carboxylic acid functionalized MWNT into LbL films. The pH-dependent surface charge of PANi nanofibers and MWNTs allows the system to behave like weak polyelectrolytes with controllable LbL film thickness and morphology by varying the number of bilayers. The LbL-PANi/MWNT films consist of a nanoscale interpenetrating network structure with well developed nanopores that yield excellent electrochemical performance for energy storage applications. These LbL-PANi/MWNT films in lithium cell can store high volumetric capacitance (~238 ± 32 F/cm(3)) and high volumetric capacity (~210 mAh/cm(3)). In addition, rate-dependent galvanostatic tests show LbL-PANi/MWNT films can deliver both high power and high energy density (~220 Wh/L(electrode) at ~100 kW/L(electrode)) and could be promising positive electrode materials for thin film microbatteries or electrochemical capacitors. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Hardware Modifications to the US Army Research Laboratory’s Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) System for Optimization of Complex Oxide Thin Film Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    the total absorbance, or the fraction of radiation absorbed at the measured wavelength; is the calculated molar extinction coefficient for the...of PZT thin films by liquid delivery MOCVD. Integrated Ferroelectrics. 2002;46:125–131. 14. Hiskes R, Dicarolis SA, Jacowitz RD, Lu Z, Feigelson RS

  16. Degradation failure model of self-healing metallized film pulse capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Quan; Zhong Zheng; Zhou Jinglun; Zhao Jianyin; Wei Xiaofeng; Guo Liangfu; Zhou Pizhang; Li Yizheng; Chen Dehuai

    2004-01-01

    The high energy density self-healing metallized film pulse capacitor has been applied to all kinds of laser facilities for their power conditioning systems, whose reliability and expense are straightforwardly affected by the reliability level of the capacitors. Based on the related research in literature, this paper analyses the degradation mechanism of the capacitor, and presents a new degradation failure model--the Gauss-Poisson model. The Gauss-Poisson model divides degradation of capacitor into naturalness degradation and outburst one. Compared with traditional Weibull failure model, the new model is more precise in evaluating the lifetime of the capacitor, and the life tests for this model are simple in design, and lower in the cost of time or expense. The Gauss-Poisson model will be a fine and widely used degradation disable model. (author)

  17. Room temperature multiferroic properties of (Fe{sub x}, Sr{sub 1−x})TiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Kim, Cheolbok; Fang, Sheng-Po; Yoon, Yong-Kyu, E-mail: ykyoon@ece.ufl.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2014-09-08

    This letter reports the structural, dielectric, ferroelectric, and magnetic properties of Fe substituted SrTiO{sub 3} thin films in room temperature. The structural data obtained from x-ray diffraction indicates that (Fe{sub x},Sr{sub 1−x})TiO{sub 3}, the so called FST, transforms from pseudocubic to tetragonal structures with increase of the Fe content in SrTiO{sub 3} thin films, featuring the ferroelectricity, while vibrating sample magnetometer measurements show magnetic hysteresis loops for the samples with low iron contents indicating their ferromagnetism. The characterized ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism confirms strong multiferroitism of the single phase FST thin films in room temperature. Also, an FST thin film metal-insulator-metal multiferroic capacitor has been fabricated and characterized in microwave frequencies between 10 MHz and 5 GHz. A capacitor based on Fe{sub 0.1}Sr{sub 0.9}TiO{sub 3} with a thickness of 260 nm shows a high electric tunability of 18.6% at 10 V and a maximum magnetodielectric value of 1.37% at 0.4 mT with a loss tangent of 0.021 at 1 GHz. This high tuning and low loss makes this material as a good candidate for frequency agile microwave devices such as tunable filters, phase shifters, and antennas.

  18. RF magnetron sputtered La3+-modified PZT thin films: Perovskite phase stabilization and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ravindra; Goel, T.C.; Chandra, Sudhir

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we report the preparation of lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) thin films in pure perovskite phase by RF magnetron sputtering. Various deposition parameters such as target-to-substrate spacing, sputtering gas composition, deposition temperature, post-deposition annealing temperature and time have been optimized to obtain PLZT films in pure perovskite phase. The films prepared in pure argon at 100 W RF power without external substrate heating exhibit pure perovskite phase after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 700 deg. C for 5 min. The film prepared at 225 deg. C substrate temperature also exhibits pure perovskite phase after RTA at 700 deg. C for 2 min. SIMS depth profile performed on one of the pure perovskite films (RTA at 700 deg. C for 5 min) shows very good stoichiometric uniformity of all elements of PLZT. The surface morphology of the films was examined using SEM and AFM. The dielectric, ferroelectric and electrical properties of the pure perovskite films were also investigated in detail. The remanent polarization for the films annealed at 700 deg. C for 5 and 2 min were found to be 15 and 13.5 μC cm -2 , respectively. Both the films have high DC resistivity of the order of 10 11 Ω cm at the electric field of ∼80 kV cm -1

  19. Film of lignocellulosic carbon material for self-supporting electrodes in electric double-layer capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsubasa Funabashi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel thin, wood-based carbon material with heterogeneous pores, film of lignocellulosic carbon material (FLCM, was successfully fabricated by carbonizing softwood samples of Picea jezoensis (Jezo spruce. Simultaneous increase in the specific surface area of FLCM and its affinity for electrolyte solvents in an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC were achieved by the vacuum ultraviolet/ozone (VUV/O3 treatment. This treatment increased the specific surface area of FLCM by 50% over that of original FLCM. The results obtained in this study confirmed that FLCM is an appropriate self-supporting EDLC electrode material without any warps and cracks.

  20. Optimum Operating Conditions for PZT Actuators for Vibrotactile Wearables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetis, Irini; Matsouka, Dimitra; Vassiliadis, Savvas; Vossou, Clio; Siores, Elias

    2018-04-01

    Recently, vibrotactile wearables have received much attention in fields such as medicine, psychology, athletics and video gaming. The electrical components presently used to generate vibration are rigid; hence, the design and creation of ergonomical wearables are limited. Significant advances in piezoelectric components have led to the production of flexible actuators such as piezoceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film. To verify the functionality of PZT actuators for use in vibrotactile wearables, the factors influencing the electromechanical conversion were analysed and tested. This was achieved through theoretical and experimental analyses of a monomorph clamped-free structure for the PZT actuator. The research performed for this article is a three-step process. First, a theoretical analysis presents the equations governing the actuator. In addition, the eigenfrequency of the film was analysed preceding the experimental section. For this stage, by applying an electric voltage and varying the stimulating electrical characteristics (i.e., voltage, electrical waveform and frequency), the optimum operating conditions for a PZT film were determined. The tip displacement was measured referring to the mechanical energy converted from electrical energy. From the results obtained, an equation for the mechanical behaviour of PZT films as actuators was deduced. It was observed that the square waveform generated larger tip displacements. In conjunction with large voltage inputs at the predetermined eigenfrequency, the optimum operating conditions for the actuator were achieved. To conclude, PZT films can be adapted to assist designers in creating comfortable vibrotactile wearables.

  1. Applications of Silver Nanowires on Transparent Conducting Film and Electrode of Electrochemical Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Jun Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanowire has potential applications on transparent conducting film and electrode of electrochemical capacitor due to its excellent conductivity. Transparent conducting film (G-film was prepared by coating silver nanowires on glass substrate using Meyer rod method, which exhibited better performance than carbon nanotube and graphene. The conductivity of G-film can be improved by increasing sintering temperature. Electrode of electrochemical capacitor (I-film was fabricated through the same method with G-film on indium tin oxide (ITO. CV curves of I-film under different scanning rates had obvious redox peaks, which indicated that I-film exhibited excellent electrochemical pseudocapacitance performance and good reversibility during charge/discharge process. In addition, the specific capacitance of I-film was measured by galvanostatic charge/discharge experiments, indicating that I-film exhibits high special capacitance and excellent electrochemical stability.

  2. Optimization of Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47)O3 films for micropower generation using integrated cantilevers

    KAUST Repository

    Fuentes-Fernandez, E. M A; Baldenegro-Pé rez, Leonardo Aurelio; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Gnade, Bruce E.; Hande, Abhiman; Shah, Pradeep; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47)O 3 or PZT, thin films and integrated cantilevers have been fabricated for energy harvesting applications. The PZT films were deposited on PECVD SiO2/Si substrates with a sol-gel derived ZrO2 buffer layer

  3. Graphene-Based Flexible and Transparent Tunable Capacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Man, Baoyuan; Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzheng; Liu, Aihua; Gao, Shoubao; Zhang, Chao; Qiu, Hengwei; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    We report a kind of electric field tunable transparent and flexible capacitor with the structure of graphene-Bi1.5MgNb1.5O7 (BMN)-graphene. The graphene films with low sheet resistance were grown by chemical vapor deposition. The BMN thin films were fabricated on graphene by using laser molecular beam epitaxy technology. Compared to BMN films grown on Au, the samples on graphene substrates show better quality in terms of crystallinity, surface morphology, leakage current, and loss tangent. By...

  4. Magnetron sputtered TiN thin films toward enhanced performance supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Binbin

    2018-04-09

    Supercapacitors as a new type of energy storage devices bridging the gap between conventional capacitors and batteries have aroused widespread concern. Herein, binder-free titanium nitride (TiN) thin film electrodes for supercapacitors prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering technology are reported. The effect of N2 content on the supercapacitor performance is evaluated. A highest specific capacitance of 27.3 mF cm−2 at a current density of 1.0 mA cm−2, together with excellent cycling performance (98.2% capacitance retention after 20,000 cycles at 2.0 mA cm−2) is achieved in a 0.5 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. More importantly, a symmetric supercapacitor device assembled on the basis of TiN thin films can deliver a maximum energy density of 17.6 mWh cm−3 at a current density of 0.2 mA cm−2 and a maximum power density of 10.8 W cm−3 at a current density of 2 mA cm−2 with remarkable cycling stability. As a consequence, TiN thin films demonstrate great potential as promising supercapacitor electrode materials.

  5. Magnetron sputtered TiN thin films toward enhanced performance supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Binbin; Liang, Hanfeng; Zhang, Dongfang; Qi, Zhengbing; Shen, Hao; Wang, Zhoucheng

    2018-01-01

    Supercapacitors as a new type of energy storage devices bridging the gap between conventional capacitors and batteries have aroused widespread concern. Herein, binder-free titanium nitride (TiN) thin film electrodes for supercapacitors prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering technology are reported. The effect of N2 content on the supercapacitor performance is evaluated. A highest specific capacitance of 27.3 mF cm−2 at a current density of 1.0 mA cm−2, together with excellent cycling performance (98.2% capacitance retention after 20,000 cycles at 2.0 mA cm−2) is achieved in a 0.5 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. More importantly, a symmetric supercapacitor device assembled on the basis of TiN thin films can deliver a maximum energy density of 17.6 mWh cm−3 at a current density of 0.2 mA cm−2 and a maximum power density of 10.8 W cm−3 at a current density of 2 mA cm−2 with remarkable cycling stability. As a consequence, TiN thin films demonstrate great potential as promising supercapacitor electrode materials.

  6. Carbon activation process for increased surface accessibility in electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    2001-01-01

    A process for making carbon film or powder suitable for double capacitor electrodes having a capacitance of up to about 300 F/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. This is accomplished by treating in aqueous nitric acid for a period of about 5 to 15 minutes thin carbon films obtained by carbonizing carbon-containing polymeric material having a high degree of molecular directionality, such as polyimide film, then heating the treated carbon film in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a non-graphitizing temperature of at least 350.degree. C. for about 20 minutes, and repeating alternately the nitric acid step and the heating step from 7 to 10 times. Capacitors made with this carbon may find uses ranging from electronic devices to electric vehicle applications.

  7. Imprint behavior of piezoelectric PZT thin films deposited onto Cu-coated polymer substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchaneck, G.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Čada, Martin; Kiselev, D.A.; Bdikin, I.; Levin, A.A.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Kholkin, A. L.; Gerlach, G.; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 419, č. 1 (2011), s. 103-108 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/09/J017; GA AV ČR KAN301370701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : plasma deposition * PZT * imprint * piezoresponse force microscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.391, year: 2011

  8. Nanosheet controlled epitaxial growth of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin films on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, M.; Chopra, A.; Bijkerk, F.; Rijnders, G.

    2014-09-01

    Integration of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) films on glass substrates is of high importance for device applications. However, to make use of the superior ferro- and piezoelectric properties of PZT, well-oriented crystalline or epitaxial growth with control of the crystal orientation is a prerequisite. In this article, we report on epitaxial growth of PZT films with (100)- and (110)-orientation achieved by utilizing Ca2Nb3O10 (CNO) and Ti0.87O2 (TO) nanosheets as crystalline buffer layers. Fatigue measurements demonstrated stable ferroelectric properties of these films up to 5 × 109 cycles. (100)-oriented PZT films on CNO nanosheets show a large remnant polarization of 21 μC/cm2 that is the highest remnant polarization value compared to (110)-oriented and polycrystalline films reported in this work. A piezoelectric response of 98 pm/V is observed for (100)-oriented PZT film which is higher than the values reported in the literature on Si substrates.

  9. Improvement of Sol-Gel Derived PbZrxTi1-xO3 Film Properties Using Thermal Press Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Toshihiko; Kim, Joo-Nam; Tokumitsu, Eisuke; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2010-09-01

    A thermal press treatment was introduced in the sol-gel process of PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) thin films for the first time and the crystalline and electrical characteristics of the PZT films were investigated. The thermal press treatment was applied to the amorphous PZT gel film before crystallization annealing. It is found that the crystalline orientation and grain size of the PZT film fabricated with the thermal press treatment are different from those of the film fabricated by the conventional sol-gel process without the thermal press treatment, even though the crystallization conditions are exactly the same. It is demonstrated that the electrical properties, especially leakage current density and breakdown field, are significantly improved for the PZT film fabricated with the thermal press treatment. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the fatigue property is improved by introducing the thermal press treatment.

  10. Solid thin film materials for use in thin film charge-coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Solid thin films deposited by vacuum deposition were evaluated to ascertain their effectiveness for use in the manufacturing of charge-coupled devices (CCDs). Optical and electrical characteristics of tellurium and Bi 2 Te 3 solid thin films were obtained in order to design and to simulate successfully the operation of thin film (TF) CCDs. In this article some of the material differences between single-crystal material and the island-structured thin film used in TFCCDs are discussed. The electrical parameters were obtained and tabulated, e.g. the mobility, conductivity, dielectric constants, permittivity, lifetime of holes and electrons in the thin films and drift diffusion constants. The optical parameters were also measured and analyzed. After the design was complete, experimental TFCCDs were manufactured and were successfully operated utilizing the aforementioned solid thin films. (Auth.)

  11. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of MgO thin films on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vangelista, S; Mantovan, R; Lamperti, A; Tallarida, G; Kutrzeba-Kotowska, B; Spiga, S; Fanciulli, M

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) films have been grown by atomic layer deposition in the wide deposition temperature window of 80–350 °C by using bis(cyclopentadienyl)magnesium and H 2 O precursors. MgO thin films are deposited on both HF-last Si(1 0 0) and SiO 2 /Si substrates at a constant growth rate of ∼0.12 nm cycle −1 . The structural, morphological and chemical properties of the synthesized MgO thin films are investigated by x-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy measurements. MgO layers are characterized by sharp interface with the substrate and limited surface roughness, besides good chemical uniformity and polycrystalline structure for thickness above 7 nm. C–V measurements performed on Al/MgO/Si MOS capacitors, with MgO in the 4.6–11 nm thickness range, allow determining a dielectric constant (κ) ∼ 11. Co layers are grown by chemical vapour deposition in direct contact with MgO without vacuum-break (base pressure 10 −5 –10 −6  Pa). The as-grown Co/MgO stacks show sharp interfaces and no elements interdiffusion among layers. C–V and I–V measurements have been conducted on Co/MgO/Si MOS capacitors. The dielectric properties of MgO are not influenced by the further process of Co deposition. (paper)

  12. Thin-film photovoltaic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.N. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The high material and processing costs associated with single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon wafers that are commonly used in photovoltaic cells render these modules expensive. This presentation described thin-film solar cell technology as a promising alternative to silicon solar cell technology. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films along with copper, indium, gallium, and selenium (CIGS) thin films have become the leaders in this field. Their large optical absorption coefficient can be attributed to a direct energy gap that allows the use of thin layers (1-2 {mu}m) of active material. The efficiency of thin-film solar cell devices based on CIGS is 20 per cent, compared to 16.7 per cent for thin-film solar cell devices based on CdTe. IBM recently reported an efficiency of 9.7 per cent for a new type of inorganic thin-film solar cell based on a Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S, Se){sub 4} compound. The efficiency of an organic thin-film solar cell is 7.9 per cent. This presentation included a graph of PV device efficiencies and discussed technological advances in non-vacuum deposited, CIGS-based thin-film solar cells. 1 fig.

  13. Influence of Zr/Ti ratio and preferred orientation on polarization switching and domain configuration of Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Hyun; Lee, Jung Kun; Hong, Kug Sun

    2003-01-01

    The (100) and (111) oriented Pb(Zr 1-x Ti x )O 3 (PZT) thins films were prepared on Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Si(100) substrate using sol-gel process. The ferroelectric and dielectric properties were evaluated as a function of Zr/Ti ratio and the origin of their changes were discussed in terms of domain engineering. With increasing Zr/Ti ratio, the remnant polarization of the polar axis decreased from 23.87 to 10.66 μC/cm 2 and the difference of the saturated polarization between polar axis and non-polar axis increased systematically. The fatigue rate of PZT films was disproportional to Zr/Ti ratio. At a composition of x = 0.7, the remnant polarization decreased from 2P r = 30.82 μC/cm 2 to 26.60 μC/cm 2 after 6.9 x 10 10 cycles. The fatigue rate was also related to the direction of polarization reversal and the increased fatigue behavior was observed in polar axis. These results were discussed with the aid of the domain configuration and the switching current, which revealed the role of the internal stress on ferroelectric property of PZT films

  14. Polarization recovery in lead zirconate titanate thin films deposited on nanosheets-buffered Si (001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Anuj; Bayraktar, Muharrem; Nijland, Maarten; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Bijkerk, Fred; Rijnders, Guus

    2016-12-01

    Fatigue behavior of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) films is one of the deterrent factors that limits the use of these films in technological applications. Thus, understanding and minimization of the fatigue behavior is highly beneficial for fabricating reliable devices using PZT films. We have investigated the fatigue behavior of preferentially oriented PZT films deposited on nanosheets-buffered Si substrates using LaNiO3 bottom and top electrodes. The films show fatigue of up to 10% at 100 kHz, whereas no fatigue has been observed at 1 MHz. This frequency dependence of the fatigue behavior is found to be in accordance with Dawber-Scott fatigue model that explains the origin of the fatigue as migration of oxygen vacancies. Interestingly, a partial recovery of remnant polarization up to ˜97% of the maximum value is observed after 4×109 cycles which can be further extended to full recovery by increasing the applied electric field. This full recovery is qualitatively explained using kinetic approach as a manifestation of depinning of domains walls. The understanding of the fatigue behavior and polarization recovery that is explained in this paper can be highly useful in developing more reliable PZT devices.

  15. Influence of silicon orientation and cantilever undercut on the determination of Young's modulus of pulsed laser deposited PZT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    In this work we show for the first time that the effective in-plane Young’s modulus of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) thin films, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on dedicated single crystal silicon cantilevers, is independent of the in-plane orientation of cantilevers.

  16. Lithographically patterned thin activated carbon films as a new technology platform for on-chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Nitta, Naoki; Yushin, Gleb

    2013-08-27

    Continuous, smooth, visibly defect-free, lithographically patterned activated carbon films (ACFs) are prepared on the surface of silicon wafers. Depending on the synthesis conditions, porous ACFs can either remain attached to the initial substrate or be separated and transferred to another dense or porous substrate of interest. Tuning the activation conditions allows one to change the surface area and porosity of the produced carbon films. Here we utilize the developed thin ACF technology to produce prototypes of functional electrical double-layer capacitor devices. The synthesized thin carbon film electrodes demonstrated very high capacitance in excess of 510 F g(-1) (>390 F cm(-3)) at a slow cyclic voltammetry scan rate of 1 mV s(-1) and in excess of 325 F g(-1) (>250 F cm(-3)) in charge-discharge tests at an ultrahigh current density of 45,000 mA g(-1). Good stability was demonstrated after 10,000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. The high values of the specific and volumetric capacitances of the selected ACF electrodes as well as the capacity retention at high current densities demonstrated great potential of the proposed technology for the fabrication of various on-chip devices, such as micro-electrochemical capacitors.

  17. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  18. Homogeneity Analysis of a MEMS-based PZT Thick Film Vibration Energy Harvester Manufacturing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Borregaard, Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a homogeneity analysis of a high yield wafer scale fabrication of MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibration energy harvesters aimed towards vibration sources with peak vibrations in the range of around 300Hz. A wafer with a yield of 91% (41/45 devices) has been...

  19. Production and study of mixed Al-Al2O3 thin films for passive electronic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruniaux, B.

    1966-09-01

    A new vacuum deposition process, named reactive evaporation, is used to realize passive thin film circuits. Using aluminium, oxidized at various steps in its vapor phase, we obtain: - Al-Al 2 O 3 cermet resistors (R □ = 10000 Ω □ , CTR 2 O 3 capacitors (C □ = 60000 pf/cm 2 , tg δ [fr

  20. Effect of crystal structure on strontium titanate thin films and their dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampangkeaw, Satreerat

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3 or STO) has application in radio and microwave-frequency tunable capacitor devices particularly at low temperatures due to its high dielectric constant, low loss and the electric field tunability of its dielectric constant. The main goal of improving the performance in these devices is to increase the tunability and decrease the dielectric loss at the same time, especially at microwave frequencies. Thin films of STO however, show dramatic differences compared to the bulk. The dielectric constant of bulk STO increases nonlinearly from 300 at room temperature to 30000 at 4 K and the loss range is 10-3--10 -4. On the other hand. STO thin films, while showing a dielectric constant close to 300 at room temperature, typically reach a maximum between 1000 and 10000 in the 30 K to 100 K range before decreasing, and the high-loss range is 10-2--10-3. We have grown strontium titanate thin films using a pulsed laser deposition technique on substrates selected to have a small lattice mismatch between the film and substrate. Neodymium gallate (NdGaO3 or NGO) and lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3 or LAO) substrates were good candidates due to only 1--2% mismatching. Film capacitor devices were fabricated with 25 micron gap separation. 1.5 mm total gap length and an overall 1 x 2 mm dimension using standard lithography and gold metal evaporative techniques. Their nonlinear dielectric constant and loss tangent were measured at low frequencies and also at 2 GHz, and from room temperature down to 4 K. The resulting films show significant variations of dielectric properties with position on the substrates with respect to the deposition plume axis. In the presence of DC electric fields up to +/-4 V/mum, STO films show improved dielectric tunability and low loss in regions far from the plume axis. We found that the films grown on NCO have lower dielectric loss than those on LAO due to a closer match of the NCO lattice to that of STO. We investigated the possible

  1. Noise measurements on NbN thin films with a negative temperature resistance coefficient deposited on sapphire and on SiO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leroy, G.; Gest, J.; Vandamme, L.K.J.; Bourgeois, O.

    2007-01-01

    We characterize granular NbNx thin cermet films deposited on either sapphire substrate or on SiO2 and compare the 1/f noise at 300 K and 80 K. The films were characterized with an impedance analyzer from 20 Hz to 1 MHz and analyzed as a resistor R in parallel with a capacitor C. The calculated noise

  2. Nano-embossing technology on ferroelectric thin film Pb(Zr0.3,Ti0.7O3 for multi-bit storage application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Qian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we apply nano-embossing technique to form a stagger structure in ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate [Pb(Zr0.3, Ti0.7O3 (PZT] films and investigate the ferroelectric and electrical characterizations of the embossed and un-embossed regions, respectively, of the same films by using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM and Radiant Technologies Precision Material Analyzer. Attributed to the different layer thickness of the patterned ferroelectric thin film, two distinctive coercive voltages have been obtained, thereby, allowing for a single ferroelectric memory cell to contain more than one bit of data.

  3. Solar control on irradiated Ta2O2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydogan, N. D.; Zayim, E. Oe.

    2007-01-01

    Thin films consisting of Ta 2 O 5 have been used in industry in applications related to thin-film capacitors, optical waveguides, and antireflection coatings on solar cells. Ta 2 O 5 films are used for several special applications as highly refractive material and show different optical properties depending on the deposition methods. Sol-gel technique has been used for the preparation of Ta 2 O 5 thin films. Ta 2 O 5 thin films were prepared by sol-gel proses on glass substrates to obtain good quality films. These films were exposed to gamma radiation from Co-60 radioisotope. Ta 2 O 5 coated thin films were placed against the source and irradiated for 8 different gamma doses; between 0.35 and 21.00 kGy at room temperature. Energetic gamma ray can affect the samples and change its colour. On the other hand some of the Ta 2 O 5 coated thin films were irradiated with beta radiation from Sr-90 radioisotope. The effect of gamma irradiation on the solar properties of Ta 2 O 5 films is compared with that of beta irradiation. The solar properties of the irradiated thin films differ significantly from those of the unirradiated ones. After the irradiation of the samples transmittance and reflectance are measured for solar light between 300 and 2100 nm, by using Perkin Elmer Lambda 9 UV/VIS/NIR Spectrophotometer. Change in the direct solar transmittance, reflectance and absorptance with absorbed dose are determined. Using the optical properties, the redistribution of the absorbed component of the solar radiation and the shading coefficient (SC) are calculated as a function of the convective heat-transfer coefficient. Solar parameters are important for the determination of the shading coefficient. When the secondary internal heat transfer factor (qi), direct solar transmittance (□ e ), and solar factor (g) are known, it is possible to determine shading coefficient via the dose rates. The shading coefficient changes as the dose rate is increased. In this study, the shading

  4. Nanostructured manganese oxide thin films as electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, are alternative energy storage devices, particularly for applications requiring high power densities. Recently, manganese oxides have been extensively evaluated as electrode materials for supercapacitors due to their low cost, environmental benignity, and promising supercapacitive performance. In order to maximize the utilization of manganese oxides as the electrode material for the supercapacitors and improve their supercapacitive performance, the nanostructured manganese oxides have therefore been developed. This paper reviews the synthesis of the nanostructured manganese oxide thin films by different methods and the supercapacitive performance of different nanostructures.

  5. Difference in Thermal Degradation Behavior of ZrO2 and HfO2 Anodized Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijyo, Masahiro; Onozuka, Tomotake; Yoshida, Naoto; Shinkai, Satoko; Sasaki, Katsutaka; Yamane, Misao; Abe, Yoshio

    2004-09-01

    Microcrystalline ZrO2 and HfO2 thin film capacitors were prepared by anodizing sputter-deposited Zr and Hf films. The thermal degradation behavior of both anodized capacitors was clarified by the measurement of their capacitance properties and Auger depth profiles before and after heat treatment in air. As a result, it is confirmed that the heat-resistance property of the HfO2 anodized capacitor is superior to that of the ZrO2 capacitor. In addition, it is revealed that the thermal degradation of the ZrO2 anodized capacitor is caused by the diffusion of Zr atoms from the underlying layer into the ZrO2 anodized layer, while that of the HfO2 anodized capacitor is caused by the diffusion of oxygen atoms from the anodized layer into the underlying Hf layer.

  6. Sol-gel reaction stability studied: Influence in the formation temperature and properties of ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.; Vilarinho, P.M.; Kholkin, A.L.; Almeida, A.

    2009-01-01

    Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) sol-gel solutions were prepared based on distilled lead acetate precursor solutions. A detailed analysis of the distillation effect on the lead precursor and the final PZT solution were carried out by Infrared and Raman techniques. It was found that the increase in the number of distillation steps experienced by the lead precursor solutions removes the constitutional water and increases the lead acetate-2-methoxyethanol interconnectivity; thus improving stability and avoiding the aging effect of the resulting PZT solutions. The thermal decomposition process of the PZT solutions was analyzed based on the thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTA) measurements. It was found that as the number of distillation steps in the lead precursor solutions increases, the decomposition rate increases and the formation temperature of pure perovskite PZT films decreases. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to study the film phase formation. A pure perovskite phase at 500 deg. C was found by the XRD analysis after the second distillation step. Scanning electron microscope technique was used to carry out the microstructural analysis. Dense microstructure was found in all analyzed films and an incipient columnar grain growth was revealed in PZT films prepared based on lead precursor solution with more than three distillation steps. The dependence of the dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties on the number of distillation steps was revealed and a correlation between the distillation process, film microstructure properties and electrical performance was established

  7. Transparent Ferroelectric Capacitors on Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Sette

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We deposited transparent ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films on fused silica and contacted them via Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO transparent electrodes with an interdigitated electrode (IDE design. These layers, together with a TiO2 buffer layer on the fused silica substrate, are highly transparent (>60% in the visible optical range. Fully crystallized Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT films are dielectrically functional and exhibit a typical ferroelectric polarization loop with a remanent polarization of 15 μC/cm2. The permittivity value of 650, obtained with IDE AZO electrodes is equivalent to the one measured with Pt electrodes patterned with the same design, which proves the high quality of the developed transparent structures.

  8. Study on epoxy/BaTiO3 composite embedded capacitor films (ECFs) for organic substrate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Dong; Lee, Joo-Yeon; Hyun, Jin-Gul; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2004-01-01

    Embedded capacitor films (ECFs) were newly designed for high dielectric constant and low capacitance tolerance (less than ±5%) embedded capacitor fabrication for organic substrates. ECFs are transferable and B-stage films which can be coated on a releasing film. In terms of materials formulation, ECFs are composed of high dielectric constant BaTiO 3 (BT) powder, specially formulated epoxy resin, and latent curing agent. And in terms of coating process, a roll coating method is used for obtaining film thickness uniformity in a large area. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) thermal analysis was conducted to determine the optimum amount of curing agent, curing temperature, and curing time. Changes in the dielectric constant of epoxy/BaTiO 3 composite ECFs with BT particle sizes and contents were investigated. Dielectric constant of 90 was obtained using two different size BaTiO 3 powders mixture. Typically, capacitors of 12 μm thick film with 8 nF/cm 2 with less than ±5% capacitance tolerance and low leakage current (less than 10 -7 A/cm 2 at 10 V) were successfully demonstrated on PCBs using epoxy/BaTiO 3 composite embedded capacitor films

  9. Lead-free (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 thin films by pulsed laser deposition driving MEMS-based piezoelectric cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh; Dekkers, Jan M.; Houwman, Evert Pieter; Vu, H.T.; Vu, Hung N.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Thin film capacitors of the lead-free (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) with (100) orientation were grown on Pt/Ti/SiO2/SOI (silicon-on-insulator) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The films are pure phases and do not show other crystal orientations. The remnant polarization Pr, saturation polarization

  10. Fabrication and Evaluation of One-Axis Oriented Lead Zirconate Titanate Films Using Metal-Oxide Nanosheet Interface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemura, Yoshiki; Nagasaka, Kohei; Kiguchi, Takanori; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Nanosheet Ca2Nb3O20 (ns-CN) layers with pseudo-perovskite-type crystal configuration were applied on the surface of polycrystalline metal substrates to achieve preferential crystal orientation of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) films for the purpose of enhanced ferroelectricity comparable to that of epitaxial thin films. PZT films with tetragonal symmetry (Zr/Ti=0.40:0.60) were fabricated by chemical solution deposition (CSD) on ns-CN-buffered Inconel 625 and SUS 316L substrates, while ns-CN was applied on the the substrates by dip-coating. The preferential crystal growth on the ns-CN layer can be achieved by favorable lattice matching between (001)/(100)PZT and (001)ns-CN planes. The degree of (001) orientation was increased for PZT films on ns-CN/Inconel 625 and ns-CN/SUS 316L substrates, whereas randomly-oriented PZT films with a lower degree of (001) orientation were grown on bare and Inconel 625 films. Enhanced remanent polarization of 60 µC/cm2 was confirmed for the PZT films on ns-CN/metal substrates, ascribed to the preferential alignment of the polar [001] axis normal to the substrate surface, although it also suffered from higher coercive field above 500 kV/cm caused by PZT/metal interfacial reaction.

  11. A measuring system for mechanical characterization of thin films based on a compact in situ micro-tensile tester and SEM moiré method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanjie; Tang, Minjin; Xie, Huimin; Zhu, Ronghua; Luo, Qiang; Gu, Changzhi

    2013-01-01

    A measuring system for mechanical characterization of thin films based on a compact in situ micro-tensile tester and scanning electron microscope (SEM) moiré method is proposed. The load is exerted by the tensile tester and the full field strain is measured by SEM moiré method. The configuration of the tensile tester and the principle of SEM moiré method are introduced. In the tensile tester, a lever structure is designed to amplify the displacement imposed by lead–zirconate–titanate (PZT) actuator. The SEM moiré method is applied to measure the strain of the thin film, including both the average strain in the gage section and the local strain distribution at a specific region. As an application, the measuring system is applied to characterize the mechanical property of the free-standing aluminum thin film. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the system and its good application potential for mechanical behavior analysis of film-like materials. (paper)

  12. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  13. Fabrication of thermally evaporated Al thin film on cylindrical PET monofilament for wearable computing devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Kim, Eunju; Han, Jeong In

    2016-01-01

    During the initial development of wearable computing devices, the conductive fibers of Al thin film on cylindrical PET monofilament were fabricated by thermal evaporation. Their electrical current-voltage characteristics curves were excellent for incorporation into wearable devices such as fiber-based cylindrical capacitors or thin film transistors. Their surfaces were modified by UV exposure and dip coating of acryl or PVP to investigate the surface effect. The conductive fiber with PVP coating showed the best conductivities because the rough surface of the PET substrate transformed into a smooth surface. The conductivities of PET fiber with and without PVP were 6.81 × 103 Ω-1cm-1 and 5.62 × 103 Ω-1cm-1, respectively. In order to understand the deposition process of Al thin film on cylindrical PET, Al thin film on PET fiber was studied using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), conductivities and thickness measurements. Hillocks on the surface of conductive PET fibers were observed and investigated by AFM on the surface. Hillocks were formed and grown during Al thermal evaporation because of severe compressive strain and plastic deformation induced by large differences in thermal expansion between PET substrate and Al thin film. From the analysis of hillock size distribution, it turns out that hillocks grew not transversely but longitudinally. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Pyroelectricity of silicon-doped hafnium oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachalke, Sven; Schenk, Tony; Park, Min Hyuk; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas; Stöcker, Hartmut; Mehner, Erik; Meyer, Dirk C.

    2018-04-01

    Ferroelectricity in hafnium oxide thin films is known to be induced by various doping elements and in solid-solution with zirconia. While a wealth of studies is focused on their basic ferroelectric properties and memory applications, thorough studies of the related pyroelectric properties and their application potential are only rarely found. This work investigates the impact of Si doping on the phase composition and ferro- as well as pyroelectric properties of thin film capacitors. Dynamic hysteresis measurements and the field-free Sharp-Garn method were used to correlate the reported orthorhombic phase fractions with the remanent polarization and pyroelectric coefficient. Maximum values of 8.21 µC cm-2 and -46.2 µC K-1 m-2 for remanent polarization and pyroelectric coefficient were found for a Si content of 2.0 at%, respectively. Moreover, temperature-dependent measurements reveal nearly constant values for the pyroelectric coefficient and remanent polarization over the temperature range of 0 ° C to 170 ° C , which make the material a promising candidate for IR sensor and energy conversion applications beyond the commonly discussed use in memory applications.

  15. Polarization recovery in lead zirconate titanate thin films deposited on nanosheets-buffered Si (001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Chopra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue behavior of Pb(Zr,TiO3 (PZT films is one of the deterrent factors that limits the use of these films in technological applications. Thus, understanding and minimization of the fatigue behavior is highly beneficial for fabricating reliable devices using PZT films. We have investigated the fatigue behavior of preferentially oriented PZT films deposited on nanosheets-buffered Si substrates using LaNiO3 bottom and top electrodes. The films show fatigue of up to 10% at 100 kHz, whereas no fatigue has been observed at 1 MHz. This frequency dependence of the fatigue behavior is found to be in accordance with Dawber–Scott fatigue model that explains the origin of the fatigue as migration of oxygen vacancies. Interestingly, a partial recovery of remnant polarization up to ∼97% of the maximum value is observed after 4×109 cycles which can be further extended to full recovery by increasing the applied electric field. This full recovery is qualitatively explained using kinetic approach as a manifestation of depinning of domains walls. The understanding of the fatigue behavior and polarization recovery that is explained in this paper can be highly useful in developing more reliable PZT devices.

  16. Clamping effect on the piezoelectric responses of screen-printed low temperature PZT/Polymer films on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almusallam, A.; Yang, K.; Zhu, D.; Torah, R. N.; Komolafe, A.; Tudor, J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a new flexible lead zirconate titanate (PZT)/polymer composite material that can be screen-printed onto fabrics and flexible substrates, and investigates the clamping effect of these substrates on the characterization of the piezoelectric material. Experimental results showed that the optimum blend of PZT/polymer binder with a weight ratio of 12:1 provides a dielectric constant of 146. The measured value of the piezoelectric coefficient d33 was found to depend on the substrate used. Measured d33clp values of 70, 40, 36 pC N-1 were obtained from the optimum formulation printed on Polyester-cotton with an interface layer, Kapton and alumina substrates, respectively. The variation in the measured d33clp values occurs because of the effect of the mechanical boundary conditions of the substrate. The piezoelectric film is mechanically bonded to the surface of the substrate and this constrains the film in the plane of the substrate (the 1-direction). This constraint means that the perpendicular forces (applied in the 3-direction) used to measure d33 introduce a strain in the 1-direction that produces a charge of the opposite polarity to that induced by the d33 effect. This is due to the negative sign of the d31 coefficient and has the effect of reducing the measured d33 value. Theoretical and experimental investigations confirm a reduction of 13%, 50% and 55% in the estimated freestanding d33fs values (80 pC N-1) on Polyester-cotton, Kapton and alumina substrates, respectively. These results demonstrate the effect of the boundary conditions of the substrate/PZT interface on the piezoelectric response of the PZT/polymer film and in particular the reduced effect of fabric substrates due to their lowered stiffness.

  17. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  18. Negative capacitance in a ferroelectric capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif Islam; Chatterjee, Korok; Wang, Brian; Drapcho, Steven; You, Long; Serrao, Claudy; Bakaul, Saidur Rahman; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2015-02-01

    The Boltzmann distribution of electrons poses a fundamental barrier to lowering energy dissipation in conventional electronics, often termed as Boltzmann Tyranny. Negative capacitance in ferroelectric materials, which stems from the stored energy of a phase transition, could provide a solution, but a direct measurement of negative capacitance has so far been elusive. Here, we report the observation of negative capacitance in a thin, epitaxial ferroelectric film. When a voltage pulse is applied, the voltage across the ferroelectric capacitor is found to be decreasing with time--in exactly the opposite direction to which voltage for a regular capacitor should change. Analysis of this 'inductance'-like behaviour from a capacitor presents an unprecedented insight into the intrinsic energy profile of the ferroelectric material and could pave the way for completely new applications.

  19. Characterization system for research on energy storage capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, J. R.; Iyore, O. D.; Budime, C.; Gnade, B.; Vasselli, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this work a characterization system for high energy-density capacitors is described and demonstrated. Capacitors are being designed using thin-film technology in an attempt to achieve higher energy-density levels by operating the devices at a high voltage. These devices are fabricated from layers of 100 nm aluminum and a layer of polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene on a polyethylene naphthalate plastic substrate. The devices have been designed to store electrical charge at up to 200 V. Characterizations of these devices focus on the measurement of capacitance vs bias voltage and temperature, equivalent series resistance, and charge/discharge cycles. For the purpose of the characterization of these capacitors, an electronic charge/discharge interface was designed and tested.

  20. Frequency characteristics of the MIM thick film capacitors fabricated by laser micro-cladding electronic pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Yu; Li Xiangyou [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Sci and Tech, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zeng Xiaoyan [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Sci and Tech, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei (China)], E-mail: xyzeng@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2008-05-25

    With rapid development of the electronic industry, how to respond the market requests quickly, shorten R and D prototyping fabrication period, and reduce the cost of the electronic devices have become a challenge work, which need flexible manufacturing methods. In this work, two direct write processing methods, direct material deposition by microPen and Nd:YAG laser micro-cladding, are integrated with CAD/CAM technology for the hybrid fabrication of passive electronic components. Especially, the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) type thick film capacitors are fabricated on ceramic substrates by this method. A basic two-step procedure of laser micro-cladding electronic pastes (LMCEPs) process for the thick film pattern preparation is presented. For a better understanding of the MIM thick film capacitor characterization, equivalent circuit models at low-frequency and high-frequency domains are introduced, respectively. The frequency characteristics tests up to 1.8 GHz of capacitance stability, equivalent series resistance (ESR), equivalent series inductance (ESL) and impendence are performed, and the results show good DC voltage stability (<2.48%), good frequency stability (<2.6%) and low dissipation factor (<0.6%) of the MIM thick film capacitors, which may get application to megahertz regions. The further developments of the LMCEP process for fabricating MIM thick film capacitors are also investigated.

  1. Frequency characteristics of the MIM thick film capacitors fabricated by laser micro-cladding electronic pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yu; Li Xiangyou; Zeng Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    With rapid development of the electronic industry, how to respond the market requests quickly, shorten R and D prototyping fabrication period, and reduce the cost of the electronic devices have become a challenge work, which need flexible manufacturing methods. In this work, two direct write processing methods, direct material deposition by microPen and Nd:YAG laser micro-cladding, are integrated with CAD/CAM technology for the hybrid fabrication of passive electronic components. Especially, the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) type thick film capacitors are fabricated on ceramic substrates by this method. A basic two-step procedure of laser micro-cladding electronic pastes (LMCEPs) process for the thick film pattern preparation is presented. For a better understanding of the MIM thick film capacitor characterization, equivalent circuit models at low-frequency and high-frequency domains are introduced, respectively. The frequency characteristics tests up to 1.8 GHz of capacitance stability, equivalent series resistance (ESR), equivalent series inductance (ESL) and impendence are performed, and the results show good DC voltage stability (<2.48%), good frequency stability (<2.6%) and low dissipation factor (<0.6%) of the MIM thick film capacitors, which may get application to megahertz regions. The further developments of the LMCEP process for fabricating MIM thick film capacitors are also investigated

  2. Effects of Processing Temperatures of Nickel Plating on Capacitance Density of Alumina Film Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Myung-Sun; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Lee, Jeon-Kook

    2015-06-01

    We observed the effects of nickel plating temperatures for controlling the surface morphologies of the deposited nickel layers on the alumina nano-pores. The alumina nano-channels were filled with nickel at various processing temperatures of 60-90 degrees C. The electrical properties of the alumina film capacitors were changed with processing temperatures. The electroless nickel plating (ENP) at 60 degrees C improved the nickel penetration into the alumina nano-channels due to the reduced reaction rate. Nickel layers are uniformly formed on the high aspect ratio alumina pores. Due to the uniform nickel electrode, the capacitance density of the alumina film capacitors is improved by the low leakage current, dissipation factor and equivalent series resistance. Alumina film capacitors made by ENP at 60 degrees C had a high capacitance density of 160 nF/cm2.

  3. Thin Film Microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Thin film batteries are built layer by layer by vapor deposition. The resulting battery is formed of parallel plates, much as an ordinary battery construction, just much thinner. The figure (Fig. 1) shows an example of a thin film battery layout where films are deposited symmetrically onto both sides of a supporting substrate. The full stack of films is only 10 to 15 (micro)m thick, but including the support at least doubles the overall battery thickness. When the support is thin, the entire battery can be flexible. At least six companies have commercialized or are very close to commercializing such all-solid-state thin film batteries and market research predicts a growing market and a variety of applications including sensors, RFID tags, and smarter cards. In principle with a large deposition system, a thin film battery might cover a square meter, but in practice, most development is targeting individual cells with active areas less than 25 cm 2 . For very small battery areas, 2 , microfabrication processes have been developed. Typically the assembled batteries have capacities from 0.1 to 5 mAh. The operation of a thin film battery is depicted in the schematic diagram (Fig. 2). Very simply, when the battery is allowed to discharge, a Li + ion migrates from the anode to the cathode film by diffusing through the solid electrolyte. When the anode and cathode reactions are reversible, as for an intercalation compound or alloy, the battery can be recharged by reversing the current. The difference in the electrochemical potential of the lithium determines the cell voltage. Most of the thin films used in current commercial variations of this thin film battery are deposited in vacuum chambers by RF and DC magnetron sputtering and by thermal evaporation onto unheated substrates. In addition, many publications report exploring a variety of other physical and chemical vapor deposition processes, such as pulsed laser deposition, electron cyclotron resonance sputtering, and

  4. Direct Fabrication of Inkjet-Printed Dielectric Film for Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Cheng-Lin; Kao, Hsuan-ling; Wu, Yung-Hsien; Chang, Li-Chun; Cheng, Chun-Hu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an inkjet-printed dielectric film that used a polymer-based SU-8 ink was fabricated for use in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor. Thermal treatment of the inkjet-printed SU-8 polymer film affected its surface morphology, chemical structure, and surface wettability. A 20-min soft-bake at 60°C was applied to eliminate inkjet-printed bubbles and ripples. The ultraviolet-exposed SU-8 polymer film was crosslinked at temperatures between 120°C and 220°C and became disordered at 270°C, demonstrated using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A maximum SU-8 polymer film hard-bake temperature of 120°C was identified, and a printing process was subsequently employed because the appropriate water contact angle of the printed film was 79°. Under the appropriate inkjet printing conditions, the two-transmission-line method was used to extract the dielectric and electrical properties of the SU-8 polymer film, and the electrical behavior of the fabricated MIM capacitor was also characterized.

  5. Evaluation of Intrinsic Shear Piezoelectric Coefficient d15 of c-Axis Oriented Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Isaku; Akama, Kenji; Wasa, Kiyotaka; Kotera, Hidetoshi

    2009-09-01

    Piezoelectric shear strain was measured for c-axis oriented epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films. The PZT films, with a composition near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), were epitaxially grown on (001) MgO substrates and then microfabricated into a rectangular shape by wet etching of the films. Lateral electrodes were deposited on both sides of the PZT films, to apply an external electric field perpendicular to the polarization. A sinusoidal input voltage of 100 kHz was applied between the lateral electrodes, and in-plane shear vibration was measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer. In-plane displacement due to shear mode piezoelectric vibration was clearly observed and increased proportionally with the voltage. Finite element method (FEM) analysis was conducted to determine the horizontal electric field in the PZT film, and the piezoelectric coefficient d15 was calculated to be 440×10-12 m/V. The d15 of the PZT film represents the intrinsic shear piezoelectric effect, which is slightly smaller than that of bulk PZT, due to the absence of extrinsic effects such as longitudinal and transverse piezoelectric strain or domain rotation.

  6. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  7. Influence of crystal phases on electro-optic properties of epitaxially grown lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shin; Seki, Atsushi; Masuda, Yoichiro

    2010-02-01

    We describe here how we have improved the crystal qualities and controlled the crystal phase of the lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) film without changing the composition ratio using an oxygen-pressure crystallization process. A PLZT film deposited on a SrTiO3 substrate with the largest electro-optic (EO) coefficient of 498 pm/V has been achieved by controlling the crystal phase of the film. Additionally, a fatigue-free lead zirconate titanate (PZT) capacitor with platinum electrodes has been realized by reducing the oxygen vacancies in the films.

  8. Inkjet-printed thin film radio-frequency capacitors based on sol-gel derived alumina dielectric ink

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret; Maller, Robert; Vaseem, Mohammad; McLachlan, Martyn A.; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    passive electronics. The ability to spatially pattern high quality Al2O3 thin films using, for example, inkjet printing would tremendously simplify the incumbent fabrication processes – significantly reducing cost and allowing for the development of large

  9. Low-Cost Soil Moisture Profile Probe Using Thin-Film Capacitors and a Capacitive Touch Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kojima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is an important property for agriculture, but currently commercialized soil moisture sensors are too expensive for many farmers. The objective of this study is to develop a low-cost soil moisture sensor using capacitors on a film substrate and a capacitive touch integrated circuit. The performance of the sensor was evaluated in two field experiments: a grape field and a mizuna greenhouse field. The developed sensor captured dynamic changes in soil moisture at 10, 20, and 30 cm depth, with a period of 10–14 days required after sensor installation for the contact between capacitors and soil to settle down. The measured soil moisture showed the influence of individual sensor differences, and the influence masked minor differences of less than 0.05 m3·m−3 in the soil moisture at different locations. However, the developed sensor could detect large differences of more than 0.05 m3·m−3, as well as the different magnitude of changes, in soil moisture. The price of the developed sensor was reduced to 300 U.S. dollars and can be reduced even more by further improvements suggested in this study and by mass production. Therefore, the developed sensor will be made more affordable to farmers as it requires low financial investment, and it can be utilized for decision-making in irrigation.

  10. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  11. Multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films and nanodots grown on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Wook; Son, Jong Yeog

    2017-12-01

    Multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films and nanodots are deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates via a pulsed laser deposition technique, where the HOPG surface has a honeycomb lattice structure made of carbon atoms, similar to graphene. A graphene/BFO/HOPG capacitor exhibited multiferroic properties, namely ferroelectricity (a residual polarization of 26.8 μC/cm2) and ferromagnetism (a residual magnetization of 1.1 × 10-5 emu). The BFO thin film had high domain wall energies and demonstrated switching time of approximately 82 ns. An 8-nm BFO nanodot showed a typical piezoelectric hysteresis loop with an effective residual piezoelectric constant of approximately 110 pm/V and exhibited two clearly separated current curves depending on the ferroelectric polarization direction.

  12. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  13. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  14. Handbook of thin film technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    “Handbook of Thin Film Technology” covers all aspects of coatings preparation, characterization and applications. Different deposition techniques based on vacuum and plasma processes are presented. Methods of surface and thin film analysis including coating thickness, structural, optical, electrical, mechanical and magnetic properties of films are detailed described. The several applications of thin coatings and a special chapter focusing on nanoparticle-based films can be found in this handbook. A complete reference for students and professionals interested in the science and technology of thin films.

  15. Electrical conductivity dependence of thin metallic films of Au and Pd as a top electrode in capacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarpour, S.; Langenberg, E.; Jambois, O.; Ferrater, C.; Garcia-Cuenca, M.V.; Polo, M.C.; Varela, M.

    2009-01-01

    Electrical conductivity dependence of thin metallic films of Au and Pd over the different perovskites was investigated. It is found from electrical properties that crystallographic growth orientation of Au and Pd thin layers attained from X-ray diffraction results indicate the slop of current (I)-voltage (V) plots. Besides, surface morphology and topography was considered using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy, respectively. Obtained results showed the Stranski-Krastanov growth of the Pd and Au. Indeed, diminishing of the root-mean-square roughness of Pd/BiMnO 3 /SrTiO 3 following by Au deposition should be concerned due to growth of Au onto the crack-like parts of the substrate. These crack-like parts appeared due to parasitic phases of the Bi-Mn-O system mainly Mn 3 O 4 (l 0 l) and Mn 3 O 4 (0 0 4 l). The different response in the electrical properties of heterostructures suggests that electrical conductance of the Au and Pd thin metallic films have the crystallographic orientation dependence. Furthermore, polycrystallinity of the thin metallic films are desired in electrode applications due to increase the conductivity of the metallic layers.

  16. Evaluation of gamma and neutron irradiation effects on the properties of mica film capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Rajesh; Pandya, Arun

    2005-01-01

    We present an investigation of gamma and neutron radiation effects on mica film capacitors from an electrical point of view. We have studied quantitatively the effects of gamma and neutron irradiation on mica film capacitors of thickness, 20 and 40 μm (0.7874 and 1.5748 mil) with two different areas, 01 and 04 cm 2 . The capacitance has been measured at room temperature in the frequency range 100 Hz-10 MHz. Negligible change in the capacitance due to high gamma dose of 60 Co, 15 kGy at dose rate 0.25 kGy/h, has been observed. However, appreciable change in the capacitance has been observed due to low doses of fast neutrons (cumulative dose, 115 cGy) with flux ∼ 9.925 X 10 7 neutrons/cm 2 h from 252 Cf neutron source of fluence, 2.5 x 10 7 neutrons/s. We have also observed that the impact of gamma and neutron irradiation is more at frequencies higher than 10 kHz, These results show that the mica capacitors do not show any radiation response below 10 kHz. The study shows the radiation response of mica film capacitors to gamma and fast neutron radiations. Mica capacitors show low gamma radiation response in comparison to fast neutron radiation, because a total dose of kGy order has been given by gamma source and only few cGy dose has been given by fast neutron source. (author)

  17. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  18. Thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, Armin G.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid progress that is being made with inorganic thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies, both in the laboratory and in industry, is reviewed. While amorphous silicon based PV modules have been around for more than 20 years, recent industrial developments include the first polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass and the first tandem solar cells based on stacks of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films ('micromorph cells'). Significant thin-film PV production levels are also being set up for cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide.

  19. Process for forming thin film, heat treatment process of thin film sheet, and heat treatment apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a process for forming a magnetic thin film on a base film, a heat treatment process of a thin film sheet consisting of the base film and the magnetic thin film, and an apparatus for performing heat treatment of the thin film sheet. Tension applied to the thin film sheet is substantially equal to that applied to the base film when the magnetic thin film is formed thereon. Then, the thin film sheet is treated with heat. The thin film sheet is heated with a given temperature gradient to a reactive temperature at which heat shrinkage occurs, while the tension is being applied thereto. Thereafter, the thin film sheet to which the tension is still applied is cooled with substantially the same temperature gradient as applied in heating. The heat treatment apparatus has a film driving unit including a supply reel, a take-up reel, a drive source and guide rollers; a heating unit including heating plates, heater blocks and a temperature controller for heating the sheet to the reactive temperature; and a heat insulating unit including a thermostat and another temperature controller for maintaining the sheet at the nonreactive temperature which is slightly lower than the reactive temperature

  20. Nanosecond Characterization of Regional Domain Imprint from Fast Domain Switching Currents in Pb(Zr,Ti)O_3 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun Jiang; An-Quan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The traditional imprint characterization of ferroelectric thin films estimates imprint time dependence of the mean coercive voltage of all domains from a polarization-voltage hysteresis loop, which shows a semilogarithmic time dependence above an initial imprint time of τ_0 > 1 μs at room temperature. Below τ_0, the imprint effect is believed to be weak. In consideration of region-by-region domain reversal under a rising pulsed voltage with ordered coercive voltages increasing from zero up to the maximum applied voltage during capacitor charging time, we can estimate the imprinted coercive voltage of each domain from domain switching current transient separately with imprint time as short as 20 ns. In disagreement with the previous observations, all imprinted coercive voltages for the domains in Pt/Pb(Zr_0_._4Ti_0_._6)O_3/Pt thin-film capacitors show step-like increases at two characteristic times of 300 ns and 0.27s. The imprint effect is surprisingly strong enough even at shortened time down to 20 ns without any evidence of weakening. (paper)

  1. INVESTIGATION OF THE FREQUENCY-TEMPERATURE RELATIONSHIP OF THE DIELECTRIC PERMITTIVITY OF THE PZT PIEZOCERAMICS IN THE LOW FREQUENCY RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. ZOLOTAREVSKIY

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the frequency-temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of PZT piezoceramics in the low frequency range. Methodology. To obtain the frequency-temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of the PZT piezoceramics, a technique was used to determine the capacitance of the capacitor, between which plates the sample was placed. The value of the dielectric permittivity of the sample was calculated from the capacitor capacitance obtained. Findings. The frequency-temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of the PZT piezoceramics in the low frequency range has been obtained by the authors. The dielectric permittivity is not practically related to the frequency of the alternating voltage at a low temperature, with increasing in temperature its value increases and frequency relationship is observed. The temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of the PZT piezoceramics is satisfactorily described by the exponential functional dependence in the low-temperature range. The activation energy of the PZT piezoceramics polarization is determined from the graph of the dependence of the logarithm of the dielectric permittivity upon the inverse temperature. Different values of the activation energy for the two temperature regions prove on the existence of different mechanisms of the PZT piezoceramics polarization in the temperature range being investigated. Originality. The authors investigated the frequency-temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of the PZT piezoceramics in the low-frequency range. It is established that the temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of the PZT piezoceramics is satisfactorily described by an exponential functional relationship in the lowtemperature range. The activation energy of polarization is determined for two temperature sections. Practical value. The research results can be used to study the mechanism of polarization of

  2. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M.; Schultz, J.A.; Schmidt, H.K.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 Angstrom), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 Angstrom of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films

  3. Optimization of Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47)O3 films for micropower generation using integrated cantilevers

    KAUST Repository

    Fuentes-Fernandez, E. M A

    2011-09-01

    Lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47)O 3 or PZT, thin films and integrated cantilevers have been fabricated for energy harvesting applications. The PZT films were deposited on PECVD SiO2/Si substrates with a sol-gel derived ZrO2 buffer layer. It is found that lead content in the starting solution and ramp rate during film crystallization are critical to achieving large-grained films on the ZrO2 surface. The electrical properties of the PZT films were measured using metal-ferroelectric-metal and inter-digital electrode structures, and revealed substantial improvement in film properties by controlling the process conditions. Functional cantilevers are demonstrated using the optimized films with output of 1.4 V peak-to-peak at 1 kHz and 2.5 g. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of structure and properties of oxide electrode materials (Fe3O4, AZO, SRO) and their device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olga, Chichvarina

    Ferroelectric thin film capacitor heterostructures have attracted considerable attention in the last decade because of their potential applications in piezoelectric sensors, actuators, power generators and non-volatile memory devices. Strongly correlated all-perovskite oxide heterojunctions are of a particular interest, as their material properties (electronic, structural, magnetic and optical, etc.) can be tuned via doping, interface effect, applied electrical field, and formation of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), etc. The right selection of electrode material for this type of capacitor-like structures may modify and enhance the performance of a device, as the electrode/barrier layer interfaces can significantly influence its macroscopic properties. Although there is a number of reports on the effect of electrode interfaces on the properties of PZT capacitors deposited on SRO buffered STO substrate, very little is known about Fe3O4/PZT and AZO/PZT electrode interfaces. This thesis comprises two parts. In the first part we present a systematic study of the structural, transport, magnetic and optical properties of oxide thin films: AZO, Fe3O4 and SRO. These monolayers were fabricated via pulsed laser deposition technique on quartz, MgO and STO substrates respectively. The second part of this thesis elucidates the behaviour of these three oxides as electrode components in PZT/SRO/STO heteroepitaxial structures. The highlights of the work are summarized below: 1) Zinc-blende (ZB) phase of ZnO was predicted to possess higher values of conductivity and higher doping efficiency compared to its wurzite counterpart and thus has greater chances of facilitating the fabrication of ZnO-electrode-based devices. However, zinc-blende is a metastable phase, and it is challenging to obtain single-phase ZB. To tackle this challenge we tuned parameters such-as film thickness, substrate and annealing effect, and achieved a ZB phase of Ti-doped ZnO, ZB-(Zn1-xTix)O thin film. An

  5. A Reactive-Ion Etch for Patterning Piezoelectric Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok; Wild, Larry

    2003-01-01

    Reactive-ion etching (RIE) under conditions described below has been found to be a suitable means for patterning piezoelectric thin films made from such materials as PbZr(1-x)Ti(x)O3 or Ba(x)Sr(1.x)TiO3. In the original application for which this particular RIE process was developed, PbZr(1-x)Ti(x)O3 films 0.5 microns thick are to be sandwiched between Pt electrode layers 0.1 microns thick and Ir electrode layers 0.1 microns thick to form piezoelectric capacitor structures. Such structures are typical of piezoelectric actuators in advanced microelectromechanical systems now under development or planned to be developed in the near future. RIE of PbZr(1-x)Ti(x)O3 is usually considered to involve two major subprocesses: an ion-assisted- etching reaction, and a sputtering subprocess that removes reactive byproducts. RIE is favored over other etching techniques because it offers a potential for a high degree of anisotropy, high-resolution pattern definition, and good process control. However, conventional RIE is not ideal for patterning PbZr(1-x)Ti(x)O3 films at a thickness as great as that in the original intended application. In order to realize the potential benefits mentioned above, it is necessary to optimize process conditions . in particular, the composition of the etching gas and the values of such other process parameters as radio-frequency power, gas pressure, gas-flow rate, and duration of the process. Guidelines for determining optimum conditions can be obtained from experimental determination of etch rates as functions of these parameters. Etch-gas mixtures of BCl3 and Cl2, some also including Ar, have been found to offer a high degree of selectivity as needed for patterning of PbZr(1-x)Ti(x)O3 films on top of Ir electrode layers in thin-film capacitor structures. The selectivity is characterized by a ratio of approx.10:1 (rate of etching PbZr(1-x)Ti(x)O3 divided by rate of etching Ir and IrO(x)). At the time of reporting the information for this article

  6. DC magnetron sputtering prepared Ag-C thin film anode for thin film lithium ion microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Tu, J.P.; Shi, D.Q.; Huang, X.H.; Wu, H.M.; Yuan, Y.F.; Zhao, X.B.

    2007-01-01

    An Ag-C thin film was prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering, using pure silver and graphite as the targets. The microstructure and morphology of the deposited thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performances of the Ag-C thin film anode were investigated by means of discharge/charge and cyclic voltammogram (CV) tests in model cells. The electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) characteristics and the chemical diffusion coefficient, D Li of the Ag-C thin film electrode at different discharging states were discussed. It was believed that the excellent cycling performance of the Ag-C electrode was ascribed to the good conductivity of silver and the volume stability of the thin film

  7. Retention Characteristics of CBTi144 Thin Films Explained by Means of X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biasotto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available CaBi4Ti4O15 (CBTi144 thin films were grown on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates using a soft chemical solution and spin-coating method. Structure and morphology of the films were characterized by the X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman analysis, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The films present a single phase of layered-structured perovskite with polar axis orient. The a/b-axis orientation of the ferroelectric film is considered to be associated with the preferred orientation of the Pt bottom electrode. XPS measurements were employed to understand the nature of defects on the retention behavior of CBTi144 films. We have observed that the main source of retention-free characteristic of the capacitors is the oxygen environment in the CBTi144 lattice.

  8. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  9. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  10. Investigation of the RF pulse modulated plasma jet system during the deposition of Pb(Zr.sub.x./sub.Ti.sub.1-x./sub.)O.sub.3./sub. thin films on polymer substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubička, Zdeněk; Čada, Martin; Adámek, P.; Virostko, Petr; Olejníček, Jiří; Deyneka, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Jurek, Karel; Suchaneck, G.; Guenther, M.; Gerlach, G.; Boháč, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 200, - (2005), s. 940-946 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB1010302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : : PZT thin films * plasma jet * Langmuir probe * plasma impedance Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2005

  11. Magnetoelastic coupling in multilayered ferroelectric/ferromagnetic thin films: A quantitative evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiolerio, A., E-mail: alessandro.chiolerio@iit.it [Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129 Turin (Italy); Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, IT-10129 Turin (Italy); Quaglio, M. [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, IT-10129 Turin (Italy); Lamberti, A. [Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129 Turin (Italy); Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, IT-10129 Turin (Italy); Celegato, F. [Electromagnetism Division, INRIM, Strada delle Cacce 91, IT-10135 Turin (Italy); Balma, D.; Allia, P. [Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129 Turin (Italy)

    2012-08-01

    The electrical control of magnetization in a thin film, achieved by means of magnetoelastic coupling between a ferroelectric and a ferromagnetic layer represents an attractive way to implement magnetic information storage and processing within logical architectures known as Magnetic Quantum Cellular Automata (MQCA). Such systems have been addressed as multiferroics. We exploited cost-effective techniques to realize multi-layered multiferroic systems, such as sol-gel deposition and RF sputtering, introducing a specific technique to control the crystal structure and film roughness effect on the magnetic domain wall motion and reconfiguration, induced by magnetoelastic coupling, by evaluating the 2-dimensional statistical properties of enhanced MFM matrices. A RF sputtered 50-nm-thick Co layer on a Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ti/Pt/PbTiO{sub 3}/Pb(Zr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47})O{sub 3} substrate was realized, exploiting two differently engineered PZT nano-crystalline structures and the conditions leading to a favorable compromise in order to realize functional devices were elucidated.

  12. H and C NMR investigations of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin-film precursor solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assink, R.A.; Schwartz, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    Solvent reactions, ligand substitutions, and the oligomer/polymer backbone structure are important factors in the solution preparation of ceramic films. In this study the authors have used H and C NMR spectroscopy to characterize solvent and ligand effects in precursor solutions used for the deposition of ferroelectric PZT (lead zirconate titanate) thin films. Solutions were prepared by a sequential precursor addition method from carboxylate and alkoxide precursors of the three cations, and the solvent, acetic acid, methanol, and water. The results indicate that acetic acid was a key component in the solution preparation process. As observed previously for single metallic component systems, its presence resulted in esterification reactions, leading in the present case to the formation of methyl, isopropyl, and n-butyl acetates. Second, acetic acid functioned as a chemical modifier, or chelating agent, replacing essentially all of the alkoxy ligands of the original precursors. Since alkoxy replacement appeared to be complete, we may describe the PZT species formed in solution as oxo acetate in nature. Finally, the solvent and ligand behavior of a solution prepared by an inverted mixing order was compared to the behavior of the solution prepared by a sequential precursor addition. The spectra for the two solutions were similar, and only differences in the relative intensities of the ester and alcoholic resonances were observed. 29 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Thin Film Energy Storage Device with Spray‐Coated Sliver Paste Current Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Man Yoon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper challenges the fabrication of a thin film energy storage device on a flexible polymer substrate specifically by replacing most commonly used metal foil current collectors with coated current collectors. Mass‐manufacturable spray‐coating technology enables the fabrication of two different half‐cell electric double layer capacitors (EDLC with a spray‐coated silver paste current collector and a Ni foil current collector. The larger specific capacitances of the half‐cell EDLC with the spray‐coated silver current collector are obtained as 103.86 F/g and 76.8 F/g for scan rates of 10 mV/s and 500 mV/s, respectively. Further, even though the half‐cell EDLC with the spray‐coated current collector is heavier than that with the Ni foil current collector, smaller Warburg impedance and contact resistance are characterized from Nyquist plots. For the applied voltages ranging from −0.5 V to 0.5 V, the spray‐coated thin film energy storage device exhibits a better performance.

  14. Enhanced voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy in magnetic tunnel junctions with an MgO/PZT/MgO tunnel barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Diana; Li, Xiang; Wong, Kin; Zurbuchen, Mark A.; Robbennolt, Shauna; Yu, Guoqiang; Tolbert, Sarah; Kioussis, Nicholas; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Wang, Kang L.; Chang, Jane P.

    2016-03-01

    Compared with current-controlled magnetization switching in a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), electric field- or voltage-induced magnetization switching reduces the writing energy of the memory cell, which also results in increased memory density. In this work, an ultra-thin PZT film with high dielectric constant was integrated into the tunneling oxide layer to enhance the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect. The growth of MTJ stacks with an MgO/PZT/MgO tunnel barrier was performed using a combination of sputtering and atomic layer deposition techniques. The fabricated MTJs with the MgO/PZT/MgO barrier demonstrate a VCMA coefficient, which is ˜40% higher (19.8 ± 1.3 fJ/V m) than the control sample MTJs with an MgO barrier (14.3 ± 2.7 fJ/V m). The MTJs with the MgO/PZT/MgO barrier also possess a sizeable tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of more than 50% at room temperature, comparable to the control MTJs with an MgO barrier. The TMR and enhanced VCMA effect demonstrated simultaneously in this work make the MgO/PZT/MgO barrier-based MTJs potential candidates for future voltage-controlled, ultralow-power, and high-density magnetic random access memory devices.

  15. Nanocomposites with increased energy density through high aspect ratio PZT nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haixiong; Lin, Yirong; Andrews, Clark; Sodano, Henry A

    2011-01-07

    High energy storage plays an important role in the modern electric industry. Herein, we investigated the role of filler aspect ratio in nanocomposites for energy storage. Nanocomposites were synthesized using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) with two different aspect ratio (nanowires, nanorods) fillers at various volume fractions dispersed in a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix. The permittivity constants of composites containing nanowires (NWs) were higher than those with nanorods (NRs) at the same inclusion volume fraction. It was also indicated that the high frequency loss tangent of samples with PZT nanowires was smaller than for those with nanorods, demonstrating the high electrical energy storage efficiency of the PZT NW nanocomposite. The high aspect ratio PZT NWs showed a 77.8% increase in energy density over the lower aspect ratio PZT NRs, under an electric field of 15 kV mm(-1) and 50% volume fraction. The breakdown strength was found to decrease with the increasing volume fraction of PZT NWs, but to only change slightly from a volume fraction of around 20%-50%. The maximum calculated energy density of nanocomposites is as high as 1.158 J cm(-3) at 50% PZT NWs in PVDF. Since the breakdown strength is lower compared to a PVDF copolymer such as poly(vinylidene fluoride-tertrifluoroethylene-terchlorotrifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TreEE-CTFE) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) P(VDF-HFP), the energy density of the nanocomposite could be significantly increased through the use of PZT NWs and a polymer with greater breakdown strength. These results indicate that higher aspect ratio fillers show promising potential to improve the energy density of nanocomposites, leading to the development of advanced capacitors with high energy density.

  16. Photoinduced effects of ferroelectric domains in PbZr1-xTixO3 thin films as obtained by using piezoresponse force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Y. H.; Kim, C. H.; Hwang, H. J.; Cho, J. H.; Moon, H. B.; Bhang, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) has been used to investigate the photoinduced effect of ferroelectric domains in PbZr 1-x Ti x O 3 (PZT) thin films. In order to perform nondestructive visualization of the high-resolution domain structure, we optimized the imaging condition, such as applying a lower voltage than 1.0 Vpp (peak-to-peak voltage). In this study, domain changes were measured before and after illumination on the surface of PZT films by using an UV light emitting diode (LED) source (λ = 310 nm) with a focusing lens to investigate the influence of the photoinduced carriers on the ferroelectric polarization. In addition, to investigate the photoinduced effects on the domain distribution, we performed histogram of positive and negative domains before and after UV-light illumination. The illumination with UV light resulted in an increase of the positive domain of the out-of-plane mode. Also, a change in the out-of-plane domain distribution was observed before and after UV illumination. The relaxation of photoinduced changes was monitored by repeated scans within a time range of 20 ∼ 60 minutes.

  17. Processing/structure/property Relationships of Barium Strontium Titanate Thin Films for Dynamic Random Access Memory Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Jien

    The purpose of this study is to see the application feasibility of barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films on ultra large scale integration (ULSI) dynamic random access memory (DRAM) capacitors through the understanding of the relationships among processing, structure and electrical properties. Thin films of BST were deposited by multi-ion -beam reactive sputtering (MIBERS) technique and metallo -organic decomposition (MOD) method. The processing parameters such as Ba/Sr ratio, substrate temperature, annealing temperature and time, film thickness and doping concentration were correlated with the structure and electric properties of the films. Some effects of secondary low-energy oxygen ion bombardment were also examined. Microstructures of BST thin films could be classified into two types: (a) Type I structures, with multi-grains through the film thickness, for amorphous as-grown films after high temperature annealing, and (b) columnar structure (Type II) which remained even after high temperature annealing, for well-crystallized films deposited at high substrate temperatures. Type I films showed Curie-von Schweidler response, while Type II films showed Debted type behavior. Type I behavior may be attributed to the presence of a high density of disordered grain boundaries. Two types of current -voltage characteristics could be seen in non-bombarded films depending on the chemistry of the films (doped or undoped) and substrate temperature during deposition. Only the MIBERS films doped with high donor concentration and deposited at high substrate temperature showed space-charge -limited conduction (SCLC) with discrete shallow traps embedded in trap-distributed background at high electric field. All other non-bombarded films, including MOD films, showed trap-distributed SCLC behavior with a slope of {~}7.5-10 due to the presence of grain boundaries through film thickness or traps induced by unavoidable acceptor impurities in the films. Donor-doping could

  18. Fabrication of a capacitive relative humidity sensor using aluminum thin films deposited on etched printed circuit board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jacqueline Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A capacitive humidity-sensing device was created by thermal evaporation of 99.999% aluminum. The substrate used for the coating was etched double-sided printed circuit board. The etched printed circuit board serves as the dielectric of the capacitor while the aluminum thin films deposited on either side serve as the plates of the capacitor. The capacitance was measured before and after exposure to humidity. The device was then calibrated by comparing the readings of capacitance with that of the relative humidity sensor of the Vernier LabQuest2. It was found that there is a linear relationship between the capacitance and relative humidity given by the equation C=1.418RH+29.139 where C is the capacitance and RH is the relative humidity. The surface of the aluminum films is porous and it is through these pores that water is adsorbed and capillary condensation occurs, thereby causing the capacitance to change upon exposure to humidity.

  19. Influences of annealing temperature on characteristics of composite materials consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Jin Ho; Han, Jin Kyu; Cho, Sam Yeon; Bu, Sang Don

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis and the characterization of composite materials consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (CNT-PZT) in a film structure. The CNT-PZT films were prepared by using a sol-gel process, a spin-coating method and a rapid thermal annealing process. CNT bundles in 2-methoxyethanol solution were mixed with a 7-wt% PZT sol-gel solution. The CNT-PZT solution was deposited onto (111) Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates by spin-coating at 3000 rpm for 60 s and was then pyrolyzed. The samples were annealed at various temperatures in an oxygen atmosphere for crystallization. The morphological, structural and electrical properties of CNT-PZT composite films were studied with a field-emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and polarization-voltage hysteresis loops, respectively. We found that, during the annealing process, the thickness of CNT-PZT films dramatically decrease, especially in the range of 500 to 600 .deg. C, which may be related with the loss of CNTs in that temperature region due to burning. The CNTs also affect the orientation of and the number of defects in the PZT films, which change the ferroelectric properties of the films.

  20. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  1. Vented Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Michael Allen; Hosking, Terry Alan

    2006-04-11

    A technique of increasing the corona inception voltage (CIV), and thereby increasing the operating voltage, of film/foil capacitors is described. Intentional venting of the capacitor encapsulation improves the corona inception voltage by allowing internal voids to equilibrate with the ambient environment.

  2. Influence of PZT Coating Thickness and Electrical Pole Alignment on Microresonator Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janusas, Giedrius; Ponelyte, Sigita; Brunius, Alfredas; Guobiene, Asta; Vilkauskas, Andrius; Palevicius, Arvydas

    2016-11-10

    With increasing technical requirements in the design of microresonators, the development of new techniques for lightweight, simple, and inexpensive components becomes relevant. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is a powerful tool in the formation of these components, allowing a self-actuation or self-sensing capability. Different fabrication methods lead to the variation of the properties of the device itself. This research paper covers the fabrication of a novel PZT film and the investigations of its chemical, surface, and dynamic properties when film thickness is varied. A screen-printing technique was used for the formation of smooth films of 60 µm, 68 µm, and 25 µm thickness. A custom-made poling technique was applied to enhance the piezoelectric properties of the designed films. However, poling did not change any compositional or surface characteristics of the films; changes were only seen in the electrical ones. The results showed that a thinner poled PZT film having a chemical composition with the highest amount of copper and zirconium led to better electrical characteristics (generated voltage of 3.5 mV).

  3. Structural and electrical characteristics of highly textured oxidation-free Ru thin films by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, H.-Y.; Wang Yu; Chan, H.-L-W.; Choy, C.-L.; No, K.-S.

    2005-01-01

    Textured Ru thin films (∼120 nm) were deposited on Si and rolling-assisted biaxially textured Ni substrates by a DC magnetron sputtering technique with a two-step process. The biaxially textured pure Ni substrates with a thickness of 80 μm were fabricated by rolling followed by recrystallization. The alignments and the crystallinity of Ru films were analyzed by pole figures, as well as X-ray diffraction (θ - 2θ) analysis. The highly (0 0 2) oriented Ru films were fabricated on Si substrates, and four-fold symmetric Ru films on Ni(2 0 0) substrates. The resistivities of pure metallic Ru films were 20-80 μΩ cm for Ru on Si and 16-40 μΩ cm on Ni, respectively, which is sufficiently low to be used as a buffer layer in superconductor tapes or electrode materials in capacitor dielectrics

  4. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  5. The TDDB Characteristics of Ultra-Thin Gate Oxide MOS Capacitors under Constant Voltage Stress and Substrate Hot-Carrier Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The breakdown characteristics of ultra-thin gate oxide MOS capacitors fabricated in 65 nm CMOS technology under constant voltage stress and substrate hot-carrier injection are investigated. Compared to normal thick gate oxide, the degradation mechanism of time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB of ultra-thin gate oxide is found to be different. It is found that the gate current (Ig of ultra-thin gate oxide MOS capacitor is more likely to be induced not only by Fowler-Nordheim (F-N tunneling electrons, but also by electrons surmounting barrier and penetrating electrons in the condition of constant voltage stress. Moreover it is shown that the time to breakdown (tbd under substrate hot-carrier injection is far less than that under constant voltage stress when the failure criterion is defined as a hard breakdown according to the experimental results. The TDDB mechanism of ultra-thin gate oxide will be detailed. The differences in TDDB characteristics of MOS capacitors induced by constant voltage stress and substrate hot-carrier injection will be also discussed.

  6. Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the United States from 1994 to 2009. The project made many advances in thin-film PV technologies that allowed

  7. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  8. Effect of annealing temperature on the magnetoelectric properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Pt/Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} multilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, You Jeong; Hwang, Sung Ok; Koo, Chang Young; Lee, Jai Yeoul; Lee, Hee Young [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jung Ho [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Min [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}(CoFO)/Pt/Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) multilayer films were grown on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. A thin Pt layer was inserted between the ferrimagnetic and the ferroelectric layers in order to suppress diffusion at high temperatures and thereby to prevent possible interfacial reactions. The effect of annealing on the film's microstructure and multiferroic properties was then investigated using thin film stacks heat-treated at temperatures ranging from 550 to 650 .deg. C. The magnetoelectric coefficients were calculated from the magnetoelectric voltages measured using a magnetoelectric measurement system. The effect of annealing temperature on the magnetoelectric coupling in the CoFO/Pt/PZT multilayer thin film is discussed in detail.

  9. Suppression of slow capacitance relaxation phenomenon in Pt/Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3/Pt thin film ferroelectric structures by annealing in oxygen atmosphere

    KAUST Repository

    Altynnikov, A. G.; Gagarin, A. G.; Gaidukov, M. M.; Tumarkin, A. V.; Petrov, P. K.; Alford, N.; Kozyrev, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of oxygen annealing on the switching time of ferroelectric thin film capacitor structures Pt/Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3/Pt was investigated. The response of their capacitance on pulsed control voltages before and after annealing was experimentally

  10. Characterization of organic thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham; Evans, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Thin films based upon organic materials are at the heart of much of the revolution in modern technology, from advanced electronics, to optics to sensors to biomedical engineering. This volume in the Materials Characterization series introduces the major common types of analysis used in characterizing of thin films and the various appropriate characterization technologies for each. Materials such as Langmuir-Blodgett films and self-assembled monolayers are first introduced, followed by analysis of surface properties and the various characterization technologies used for such. Readers will find detailed information on: -Various spectroscopic approaches to characterization of organic thin films, including infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy -X-Ray diffraction techniques, High Resolution EELS studies, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy -Concise Summaries of major characterization technologies for organic thin films, including Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, and Tra...

  11. Relaxorlike dielectric behavior in Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zednik, Ricardo J.; McIntyre, Paul C.; Baniecki, John D.; Ishii, Masatoshi; Shioga, Takeshi; Kurihara, Kazuaki

    2007-03-01

    We present the results of a systematic dielectric study for sputter deposited barium strontium titanate thin film planar capacitors measured over a wide temperature range of 20-575K for frequencies between 1kHz and 1MHz. Our observations of dielectric loss peaks in the temperature and frequency domains cannot be understood in the typical framework of intrinsic phonon losses. We find that the accepted phenomenological Curie-von Schweidler dielectric behavior (universal relaxation law) in our barium strontium titanate films is only applicable over a narrow temperature range. An excellent fit to the Vogel-Fulcher expression suggests relaxorlike behavior in these films. The activation energy of the observed phenomenon suggests that oxygen ion motion play a role in the apparent relaxor behavior, although further experimental work is required to test this hypothesis.

  12. Electric-field modulation of ferromagnetism in hexagonal chromium telluride thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Ryota; Oikawa, Haruyoshi; Yamawaki, Kazuma; Kuroda, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    We report the electric-field modulation of magnetism of a hexagonal Cr 1-δ Te thin film. A gate voltage V G is ap-plied in the field effect capacitor (FEC) structure consisting of electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) of an ion liquid and a 2nm-thick Cr 1-δ Te layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and the magnetization of the layer is directly measured using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer in the both configurations with magnetic fields perpendicular or parallel to the film plane. As a result, we observe a clear change in the magnetization vs. magnetic field (M-H) curves by applying VG at a low temperature of 15 K in the perpendicular field configuration; the magnetization increases and the coercivity decreases by applying either positive or negative gate voltage. When the temperature is increased up to 160K, slightly lower than the Curie temperature, or the magnetization was measured in the in-plane field configuration, the magnetization increases similarly by applying either positive or negative gate voltage, but the amount of the increase becomes much smaller. A possible mechanism of the electric-field modulation is discussed in relation to the Cr vacancies in the Cr 1-δ Te layer. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Electric-field modulation of ferromagnetism in hexagonal chromium telluride thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Ryota; Oikawa, Haruyoshi; Yamawaki, Kazuma; Kuroda, Shinji [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    We report the electric-field modulation of magnetism of a hexagonal Cr{sub 1-δ}Te thin film. A gate voltage V{sub G} is ap-plied in the field effect capacitor (FEC) structure consisting of electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) of an ion liquid and a 2nm-thick Cr{sub 1-δ}Te layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and the magnetization of the layer is directly measured using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer in the both configurations with magnetic fields perpendicular or parallel to the film plane. As a result, we observe a clear change in the magnetization vs. magnetic field (M-H) curves by applying VG at a low temperature of 15 K in the perpendicular field configuration; the magnetization increases and the coercivity decreases by applying either positive or negative gate voltage. When the temperature is increased up to 160K, slightly lower than the Curie temperature, or the magnetization was measured in the in-plane field configuration, the magnetization increases similarly by applying either positive or negative gate voltage, but the amount of the increase becomes much smaller. A possible mechanism of the electric-field modulation is discussed in relation to the Cr vacancies in the Cr{sub 1-δ}Te layer. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Ion beam sputter deposited TiAlN films for metal-insulator-metal (Ba,Sr)TiO3 capacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.-Y.; Wang, S.-C.; Chen, J.-S.; Huang, J.-L.

    2008-01-01

    The present study evaluated the feasibility of TiAlN films deposited using the ion beam sputter deposition (IBSD) method for metal-insulator-metal (MIM) (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 (BST) capacitors. The BST films were crystallized at temperatures above 650 deg. C. TiAlN films deposited using the IBSD method were found having smooth surface and low electrical resistivity at high temperature conditions. TiAlN films showed a good diffusion barrier property against BST components. The J-E (current density-electric field) characteristics of Al/BST/TiAlN capacitors were good, with a high break down electric field of ± 2.5 MV/cm and a leakage current density of about 1 x 10 -5 A/cm 2 at an applied field of ± 0.5 MV/cm. Thermal stress and lateral oxidation that occurred at the interface damaged the capacitor stacking structure. Macro holes that dispersed on the films resulted in higher leakage current and inconsistent J-E characteristics. Vacuum annealing with lower heating rate and furnace cooling, and a Ti-Al adhesion layer between TiAlN and the SiO 2 /Si substrate can effectively minimize the stress effect. TiAlN film deposited using IBSD can be considered as a potential electrode and diffusion barrier material for MIM BST capacitors

  15. Enhanced dielectric properties of ZrO2 thin films prepared in nitrogen ambient by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J; Li, T L; Pan, B; Zhou, L; Liu, Z G

    2003-01-01

    ZrO 2 thin films were fabricated in O 2 ambient and in N 2 ambient by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed that films prepared at 400 deg. C remained amorphous. The dielectric properties of amorphous ZrO 2 films were investigated by measuring the capacitance-frequency characteristics of Pt/ZrO 2 /Pt capacitor structures. The dielectric constant of the films deposited in N 2 ambient was larger than that of the films deposited in O 2 ambient. The dielectric loss was lower for films prepared in N 2 ambient. Atom force microscopy investigation indicated that films deposited in N 2 ambient had smoother surface than films deposited in O 2 ambient. Capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics were studied. The equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of films with 6.6 nm physical thickness deposited in N 2 ambient is lower than that of films deposited in O 2 ambient. An EOT of 1.38 nm for the film deposited in N 2 ambient was obtained, while the leakage current density was 94.6 mA cm -2 . Therefore, ZrO 2 thins deposited in N 2 ambient have enhanced dielectric properties due to the incorporation of nitrogen which leads to the formation of Zr-doped nitride interfacial layer, and is suggested to be a potential material for alternative high-k (high dielectric constant) gate dielectric applications

  16. Nanodomain Engineering in Ferroelectric Capacitors with Graphene Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haidong; Wang, Bo; Li, Tao; Lipatov, Alexey; Lee, Hyungwoo; Rajapitamahuni, Anil; Xu, Ruijuan; Hong, Xia; Farokhipoor, Saeedeh; Martin, Lane W; Eom, Chang-Beom; Chen, Long-Qing; Sinitskii, Alexander; Gruverman, Alexei

    2016-10-12

    Polarization switching in ferroelectric capacitors is typically realized by application of an electrical bias to the capacitor electrodes and occurs via a complex process of domain structure reorganization. As the domain evolution in real devices is governed by the distribution of the nucleation centers, obtaining a domain structure of a desired configuration by electrical pulsing is challenging, if not impossible. Recent discovery of polarization reversal via the flexoelectric effect has opened a possibility for deterministic control of polarization in ferroelectric capacitors. In this paper, we demonstrate mechanical writing of arbitrary-shaped nanoscale domains in thin-film ferroelectric capacitors with graphene electrodes facilitated by a strain gradient induced by a tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM). A phase-field modeling prediction of a strong effect of graphene thickness on the threshold load required to initiate mechanical switching has been confirmed experimentally. Deliberate voltage-free domain writing represents a viable approach for development of functional devices based on domain topology and electronic properties of the domains and domain walls.

  17. Self-Limited Growth in Pentacene Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachmajer, Stefan; Jones, Andrew O F; Truger, Magdalena; Röthel, Christian; Salzmann, Ingo; Werzer, Oliver; Resel, Roland

    2017-04-05

    Pentacene is one of the most studied organic semiconducting materials. While many aspects of the film formation have already been identified in very thin films, this study provides new insight into the transition from the metastable thin-film phase to bulk phase polymorphs. This study focuses on the growth behavior of pentacene within thin films as a function of film thickness ranging from 20 to 300 nm. By employing various X-ray diffraction methods, combined with supporting atomic force microscopy investigations, one crystalline orientation for the thin-film phase is observed, while three differently tilted bulk phase orientations are found. First, bulk phase crystallites grow with their 00L planes parallel to the substrate surface; second, however, crystallites tilted by 0.75° with respect to the substrate are found, which clearly dominate the former in ratio; third, a different bulk phase polymorph with crystallites tilted by 21° is found. The transition from the thin-film phase to the bulk phase is rationalized by the nucleation of the latter at crystal facets of the thin-film-phase crystallites. This leads to a self-limiting growth of the thin-film phase and explains the thickness-dependent phase behavior observed in pentacene thin films, showing that a large amount of material is present in the bulk phase much earlier during the film growth than previously thought.

  18. Flexible graphene–PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wonho; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kahya, Orhan; Toh, Chee Tat; Özyilmaz, Barbaros

    2013-01-01

    We report the fabrication of a flexible graphene-based nonvolatile memory device using Pb(Zr 0.35 ,Ti 0.65 )O 3 (PZT) as the ferroelectric material. The graphene and PZT ferroelectric layers were deposited using chemical vapor deposition and sol–gel methods, respectively. Such PZT films show a high remnant polarization (P r ) of 30 μC cm −2 and a coercive voltage (V c ) of 3.5 V under a voltage loop over ±11 V. The graphene–PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory on a plastic substrate displayed an on/off current ratio of 6.7, a memory window of 6 V and reliable operation. In addition, the device showed one order of magnitude lower operation voltage range than organic-based ferroelectric nonvolatile memory after removing the anti-ferroelectric behavior incorporating an electrolyte solution. The devices showed robust operation in bent states of bending radii up to 9 mm and in cycling tests of 200 times. The devices exhibited remarkable mechanical properties and were readily integrated with plastic substrates for the production of flexible circuits. (paper)

  19. Flexible graphene-PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonho; Kahya, Orhan; Toh, Chee Tat; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2013-11-29

    We report the fabrication of a flexible graphene-based nonvolatile memory device using Pb(Zr0.35,Ti0.65)O3 (PZT) as the ferroelectric material. The graphene and PZT ferroelectric layers were deposited using chemical vapor deposition and sol–gel methods, respectively. Such PZT films show a high remnant polarization (Pr) of 30 μC cm−2 and a coercive voltage (Vc) of 3.5 V under a voltage loop over ±11 V. The graphene–PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory on a plastic substrate displayed an on/off current ratio of 6.7, a memory window of 6 V and reliable operation. In addition, the device showed one order of magnitude lower operation voltage range than organic-based ferroelectric nonvolatile memory after removing the anti-ferroelectric behavior incorporating an electrolyte solution. The devices showed robust operation in bent states of bending radii up to 9 mm and in cycling tests of 200 times. The devices exhibited remarkable mechanical properties and were readily integrated with plastic substrates for the production of flexible circuits.

  20. Generation of amorphous ceramic capacitor coatings on titanium using a continuous sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.G.; Walsh, M.A. III; Phillips, P.G.; Morris, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Thin amorphous films of ceramic capacitor materials were successfully deposited using sol-gel chemistry onto titanium wire using a continuous, computer controlled process. By repeatedly depositing and calcining very thin layers of material, smooth and even coats can be produced. Surface analyses revealed the layered nature of these thin coats, as well as the amorphous nature of the ceramic. The electrical properties of the better coatings, all composed of niobium, bismuth, zinc oxides, were then evaluated. copyright 1995 Materials Research Society

  1. Thin films for precision optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.F.; Maurici, N.; Castro, J.C. de

    1983-01-01

    The technology of producing dielectric and/or metallic thin films for high precision optical components is discussed. Computer programs were developed in order to calculate and register, graphically, reflectance and transmittance spectra of multi-layer films. The technology of vacuum evaporation of several materials was implemented in our thin-films laboratory; various films for optics were then developed. The possibility of first calculate film characteristics and then produce the film is of great advantage since it reduces the time required to produce a new type of film and also reduces the cost of the project. (C.L.B.) [pt

  2. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  3. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  4. Effect of solid content variations on PZT slip for tape casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Jian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead zirconate titanate (PZT particles with pure tetragonal structure were synthesized by solid-state reaction method and used for preparation of slurries with different solid contents (34–80 wt.%. Then, PZT thick films were fabricated by the nonaqueous tape casting method. It was shown that the slurry prepared from ball-milled particles exhibited better rheology properties than slurry from particles which were not ball-milled. Measurement of sedimentation volumes and zeta potentials indicated particle aggregation, resulting in weak stability of the slurries with high solid contents. The microstructure, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT sintered films were investigated in terms of solid contents. Ceramic films prepared from the slurry with solid contents of 73 wt.% had the optimal structure and properties. After poling at 200 °C with an applied field of 1.2 kV/cm, a d33 of 294 pC/N was achieved; typical ferroelectric properties were also observed with a Ps of 38 μC/cm2.

  5. Characterization of RuO sub 2 electrodes for ferroelectric thin films prepared by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition using Ru(C sub 1 sub 1 H sub 1 sub 9 O sub 2) sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J M; Shin, J C; Hwang, C S; Kim, H J; Suk, C G

    1999-01-01

    Pure and conducting RuO sub 2 thin films were deposited on Si substrates at 250 approx 450 .deg. C using Ru(C sub 1 sub 1 H sub 1 sub 9 O sub 2) sub 3 as a precursor by low-pressure metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). At a lower deposition temperature,smoother and denser RuO sub 2 thin films were deposited. The RuO sub 2 thin films, which were crack free, adhered well onto the substrates and showed very low resistivities around 45 approx 60 mu OMEGA cm. RuO sub 2 thin films on (Ba, Sr)/TiO sub 3 /Pt/SiO sub 2 /Si showed good properties, indicating that MOCVD RuO sub 2 thin films from Ru(C sub 1 sub 1 H sub 1 sub 9 O sub 2) sub 3 can be applied as electrodes of high-dielectric thin films for capacitors in ultra-large-scale DRAMs.

  6. Thin-Film Material Science and Processing | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin-Film Material Science and Processing Thin-Film Material Science and Processing Photo of a , a prime example of this research is thin-film photovoltaics (PV). Thin films are important because cadmium telluride thin film, showing from top to bottom: glass, transparent conducting oxide (thin layer

  7. Method of manufacturing a shapeable short-resistant capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ralph S.; Myers, John D.; Baney, William J.

    2013-04-02

    A method that employs a novel combination of conventional fabrication techniques provides a ceramic short-resistant capacitor that is bendable and/or shapeable to provide a multiple layer capacitor that is extremely compact and amenable to desirable geometries. The method allows thinner and more flexible ceramic capacitors to be made. The method includes forming a first thin metal layer on a substrate; depositing a thin, ceramic dielectric layer over the metal layer; depositing a second thin metal layer over the dielectric layer to form a capacitor exhibiting a benign failure mode; and separating the capacitor from the substrate. The method may also include bending the resulting capacitor into a serpentine arrangement with gaps between the layers that allow venting of evaporated electrode material in the event of a benign failure.

  8. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming

    2018-01-09

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  9. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  10. Effects of Thickness, Pulse Duration, and Size of Strip Electrode on Ferroelectric Electron Emission of Lead Zirconate Titanate Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Ren, Wei; Chen, Xiaofeng; Feng, Yujun; Shi, Peng; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2018-02-01

    Sol-gel-derived lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-film emitters with thickness up to 9.8 μm have been prepared on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si wafer via chemical solution deposition with/without polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) modification, and the relationship between the film thickness and electron emission investigated. Notable electron emission was observed on application of a trigger voltage of 120 V for PZT film with thickness of 1.1 μm. Increasing the film thickness decreased the threshold field to initiate electron emission for non-PVP-modified films. In contrast, the electron emission behavior of PVP-modified films did not show significant dependence on film thickness, probably due to their porous structure. The emission current increased with decreasing strip width and space between strips. Furthermore, it was observed that increasing the duration of the applied pulse increased the magnitude of the emission current. The stray field on the PZT film thickness was also calculated and found to increase with increasing ferroelectric sample thickness. The PZT emitters were found to be fatigue free up to 105 emission cycles. Saturated emission current of around 25 mA to 30 mA was achieved for the electrode pattern used in this work.

  11. Composition dependence of the ferroelectric properties of lanthanum-modified bismuth titanate thin films grown by using pulsed-laser deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, S D; Park, B H; Noh, T W

    2000-01-01

    Lanthanum-modified bismuth titanate, Bi sub 4 sub - sub x La sub x Ti sub 3 O sub 1 sub 2 (BLT), thin films with a La concentration of 0.25<=x<=1.00 were grown on Pt/Ti/SiO sub 2 /Si substrates by using pulsed-laser deposition. The BLT films showed well-saturated polarization-electric field curves whose remnant polarizations were 16.1 mu C/cm sup 2 , 27.8 mu C/cm sup 2 , 19.6 mu C/cm sup 2 , and 2.7 mu C/cm sup 2 , respectively, for x=0.25, 0.05, 0.75, and 1.00. The fatigue characteristics became better with increasing x up to 0.75. The Au/BLT/Pt capacitor with a La concentration of 0.50 showed an interesting dependence of the remanent polarization on the number of repetitive read/write cycles. On the other hand, the capacitor with a La concentration of 0.75 showed fatigue-free characteristics.

  12. Integration and High-Temperature Characterization of Ferroelectric Vanadium-Doped Bismuth Titanate Thin Films on Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Mattias; Khartsev, Sergiy; Östling, Mikael; Zetterling, Carl-Mikael

    2017-07-01

    4H-SiC electronics can operate at high temperature (HT), e.g., 300°C to 500°C, for extended times. Systems using sensors and amplifiers that operate at HT would benefit from microcontrollers which can also operate at HT. Microcontrollers require nonvolatile memory (NVM) for computer programs. In this work, we demonstrate the possibility of integrating ferroelectric vanadium-doped bismuth titanate (BiTV) thin films on 4H-SiC for HT memory applications, with BiTV ferroelectric capacitors providing memory functionality. Film deposition was achieved by laser ablation on Pt (111)/TiO2/4H-SiC substrates, with magnetron-sputtered Pt used as bottom electrode and thermally evaporated Au as upper contacts. Film characterization by x-ray diffraction analysis revealed predominately (117) orientation. P- E hysteresis loops measured at room temperature showed maximum 2 P r of 48 μC/cm2, large enough for wide read margins. P- E loops were measurable up to 450°C, with losses limiting measurements above 450°C. The phase-transition temperature was determined to be about 660°C from the discontinuity in dielectric permittivity, close to what is achieved for ceramics. These BiTV ferroelectric capacitors demonstrate potential for use in HT NVM applications for SiC digital electronics.

  13. Room Temperature Tunable Multiferroic Properties in Sol-Gel-Derived Nanocrystalline Sr(Ti1−xFexO3−δ Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Guang Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sr(Ti1−xFexO3−δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2 thin films were grown on Si(100 substrates with LaNiO3 buffer-layer by a sol-gel process. Influence of Fe substitution concentration on the structural, ferroelectric, and magnetic properties, as well as the leakage current behaviors of the Sr(Ti1−xFexO3−δ thin films, were investigated by using the X-ray diffractometer (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, the ferroelectric test system, and the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. After substituting a small amount of Ti ion with Fe, highly enhanced ferroelectric properties were obtained successfully in SrTi0.9Ti0.1O3−δ thin films, with a double remanent polarization (2Pr of 1.56, 1.95, and 9.14 μC·cm−2, respectively, for the samples were annealed in air, oxygen, and nitrogen atmospheres. The leakage current densities of the Fe-doped SrTiO3 thin films are about 10−6–10−5 A·cm−2 at an applied electric field of 100 kV·cm−1, and the conduction mechanism of the thin film capacitors with various Fe concentrations has been analyzed. The ferromagnetic properties of the Sr(Ti1−xFexO3−δ thin films have been investigated, which can be correlated to the mixed valence ions and the effects of the grain boundary. The present results revealed the multiferroic nature of the Sr(Ti1−xFexO3−δ thin films. The effect of the annealing environment on the room temperature magnetic and ferroelectric properties of Sr(Ti0.9Fe0.1O3−δ thin films were also discussed in detail.

  14. Ion beam sputter deposited TiAlN films for metal-insulator-metal (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} capacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.-Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, S.-C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Technology, No. 1, Nantai St, Yung-Kang City, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Huang, J.-L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jlh888@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2008-09-01

    The present study evaluated the feasibility of TiAlN films deposited using the ion beam sputter deposition (IBSD) method for metal-insulator-metal (MIM) (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} (BST) capacitors. The BST films were crystallized at temperatures above 650 deg. C. TiAlN films deposited using the IBSD method were found having smooth surface and low electrical resistivity at high temperature conditions. TiAlN films showed a good diffusion barrier property against BST components. The J-E (current density-electric field) characteristics of Al/BST/TiAlN capacitors were good, with a high break down electric field of {+-} 2.5 MV/cm and a leakage current density of about 1 x 10{sup -5} A/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of {+-} 0.5 MV/cm. Thermal stress and lateral oxidation that occurred at the interface damaged the capacitor stacking structure. Macro holes that dispersed on the films resulted in higher leakage current and inconsistent J-E characteristics. Vacuum annealing with lower heating rate and furnace cooling, and a Ti-Al adhesion layer between TiAlN and the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate can effectively minimize the stress effect. TiAlN film deposited using IBSD can be considered as a potential electrode and diffusion barrier material for MIM BST capacitors.

  15. Plasma polymerized high energy density dielectric films for capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    High energy density polymeric dielectric films were prepared by plasma polymerization of a variety of gaseous monomers. This technique gives thin, reproducible, pinhole free, conformable, adherent, and insoluble coatings and overcomes the processing problems found in the preparation of thin films with bulk polymers. Thus, devices are prepared completely in a vacuum environment. The plasma polymerized films prepared all showed dielectric strengths of greater than 1000 kV/cm and in some cases values of greater than 4000 kV/cm were observed. The dielectric loss of all films was generally less than 1% at frequencies below 10 kHz, but this value increased at higher frequencies. All films were self healing. The dielectric strength was a function of the polymerization technique, whereas the dielectric constant varied with the structure of the starting material. Because of the thin films used (thickness in the submicron range) surface smoothness of the metal electrodes was found to be critical in obtaining high dielectric strengths. High dielectric strength graft copolymers were also prepared. Plasma polymerized ethane was found to be thermally stable up to 150 C in the presence of air and 250 C in the absence of air. No glass transitions were observed for this material.

  16. A flexible organic active matrix circuit fabricated using novel organic thin film transistors and organic light-emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gutiérrez-Heredia, Gerardo

    2010-10-04

    We present an active matrix circuit fabricated on plastic (polyethylene naphthalene, PEN) and glass substrates using organic thin film transistors and organic capacitors to control organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The basic circuit is fabricated using two pentacene-based transistors and a capacitor using a novel aluminum oxide/parylene stack (Al2O3/ parylene) as the dielectric for both the transistor and the capacitor. We report that our circuit can deliver up to 15 μA to each OLED pixel. To achieve 200 cd m-2 of brightness a 10 μA current is needed; therefore, our approach can initially deliver 1.5× the required current to drive a single pixel. In contrast to parylene-only devices, the Al2O 3/parylene stack does not fail after stressing at a field of 1.7 MV cm-1 for >10 000 s, whereas \\'parylene only\\' devices show breakdown at approximately 1000 s. Details of the integration scheme are presented. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. A flexible organic active matrix circuit fabricated using novel organic thin film transistors and organic light-emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gutié rrez-Heredia, Gerardo; Gonzá lez, Luis A.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Gnade, Bruce E.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo

    2010-01-01

    We present an active matrix circuit fabricated on plastic (polyethylene naphthalene, PEN) and glass substrates using organic thin film transistors and organic capacitors to control organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The basic circuit is fabricated using two pentacene-based transistors and a capacitor using a novel aluminum oxide/parylene stack (Al2O3/ parylene) as the dielectric for both the transistor and the capacitor. We report that our circuit can deliver up to 15 μA to each OLED pixel. To achieve 200 cd m-2 of brightness a 10 μA current is needed; therefore, our approach can initially deliver 1.5× the required current to drive a single pixel. In contrast to parylene-only devices, the Al2O 3/parylene stack does not fail after stressing at a field of 1.7 MV cm-1 for >10 000 s, whereas 'parylene only' devices show breakdown at approximately 1000 s. Details of the integration scheme are presented. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Characterizations of photoconductivity of graphene oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiang-Kuo Chang-Jian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of photoresponse of a graphene oxide (GO thin film to a near infrared laser light were studied. Results showed the photocurrent in the GO thin film was cathodic, always flowing in an opposite direction to the initial current generated by the preset bias voltage that shows a fundamental discrepancy from the photocurrent in the reduced graphene oxide thin film. Light illumination on the GO thin film thus results in more free electrons that offset the initial current. By examining GO thin films reduced at different temperatures, the critical temperature for reversing the photocurrent from cathodic to anodic was found around 187°C. The dynamic photoresponse for the GO thin film was further characterized through the response time constants within the laser on and off durations, denoted as τon and τoff, respectively. τon for the GO thin film was comparable to the other carbon-based thin films such as carbon nanotubes and graphenes. τoff was, however, much larger than that of the other's. This discrepancy was attributable to the retardation of exciton recombination rate thanks to the existing oxygen functional groups and defects in the GO thin films.

  19. Development of neutron diffuse scattering analysis code by thin film and multilayer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyama, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    To research surface structure of thin film and multilayer film by neutron, a neutron diffuse scattering analysis code using DWBA (Distorted-Wave Bron Approximation) principle was developed. Subjects using this code contain the surface and interface properties of solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and gas/liquid, and metal, magnetism and polymer thin film and biomembran. The roughness of surface and interface of substance shows fractal self-similarity and its analytical model is based on DWBA theory by Sinha. The surface and interface properties by diffuse scattering are investigated on the basis of the theoretical model. The calculation values are proved to be agreed with the experimental values. On neutron diffuse scattering by thin film, roughness of surface of thin film, correlation function, neutron propagation by thin film, diffuse scattering by DWBA theory, measurement model, SDIFFF (neutron diffuse scattering analysis program by thin film) and simulation results are explained. On neutron diffuse scattering by multilayer film, roughness of multilayer film, principle of diffuse scattering, measurement method and simulation examples by MDIFF (neutron diffuse scattering analysis program by multilayer film) are explained. (S.Y.)To research surface structure of thin film and multilayer film by neutron, a neutron diffuse scattering analysis code using DWBA (Distorted-Wave Bron Approximation) principle was developed. Subjects using this code contain the surface and interface properties of solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and gas/liquid, and metal, magnetism and polymer thin film and biomembran. The roughness of surface and interface of substance shows fractal self-similarity and its analytical model is based on DWBA theory by Sinha. The surface and interface properties by diffuse scattering are investigated on the basis of the theoretical model. The calculation values are proved to be agreed with the experimental values. On neutron diffuse scattering

  20. Self-polarized PZT thin films:deposition, characterization and application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchanek, G.; Sandner, T.; Deyneka, Alexander; Gerlach, G.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 298, - (2004), s. 309-316 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/02/D078 Keywords : ferroelectric film * self-polarization * presence detector Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.517, year: 2004

  1. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  2. Green synthesis of CuxO nanoscale MOS capacitors processed at low temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shehri, Safeyah

    2017-01-10

    In this work, we employed two nontoxic green chemistry methods to develop solution-processed copper oxide CuxO thin films at low annealing temperature of 200 °C. The first aqueous precursor of CuxO was prepared by mixing the copper powder with spinach leaves extract, whereas the other solution was formulated using the water-based polyol reduction method of Cu(II) nitrate. The as-prepared precursors were then spun on SiO2/P+ Si substrates to form nanoscale Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors by which some valuable information about the CuxO semiconductor films and their interfaces with dielectric were acquired. Both fabricated MOS capacitors exhibited p-type polarity with negative flat-band voltages. However, the MOS based on spinach extract-CuxO films showed small hysteresis of 100 mV, which could be attributed to its large grain size that sequentially leads to smooth interface and less trap density.

  3. Green synthesis of CuxO nanoscale MOS capacitors processed at low temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shehri, Safeyah; Al-Senany, Norah; Altuwirqi, Reem; Bayahya, Amani; Alshammari, Fwzah Hamud; Wang, Zhenwei; Al-Jawhari, Hala

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we employed two nontoxic green chemistry methods to develop solution-processed copper oxide CuxO thin films at low annealing temperature of 200 °C. The first aqueous precursor of CuxO was prepared by mixing the copper powder with spinach leaves extract, whereas the other solution was formulated using the water-based polyol reduction method of Cu(II) nitrate. The as-prepared precursors were then spun on SiO2/P+ Si substrates to form nanoscale Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors by which some valuable information about the CuxO semiconductor films and their interfaces with dielectric were acquired. Both fabricated MOS capacitors exhibited p-type polarity with negative flat-band voltages. However, the MOS based on spinach extract-CuxO films showed small hysteresis of 100 mV, which could be attributed to its large grain size that sequentially leads to smooth interface and less trap density.

  4. Thin films for emerging applications v.16

    CERN Document Server

    Francombe, Maurice H

    1992-01-01

    Following in the long-standing tradition of excellence established by this serial, this volume provides a focused look at contemporary applications. High Tc superconducting thin films are discussed in terms of ion beam and sputtering deposition, vacuum evaporation, laser ablation, MOCVD, and other deposition processes in addition to their ultimate applications. Detailed treatment is also given to permanent magnet thin films, lateral diffusion and electromigration in metallic thin films, and fracture and cracking phenomena in thin films adhering to high-elongation substrates.

  5. Barium titanate nanocomposite capacitor FY09 year end report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Tyler E.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Chavez, Tom P.; Winter, Michael R.; Monson, Todd C.; Roesler, Alexander William; Fellows, Benjamin D.

    2009-11-01

    This late start RTBF project started the development of barium titanate (BTO)/glass nanocomposite capacitors for future and emerging energy storage applications. The long term goal of this work is to decrease the size, weight, and cost of ceramic capacitors while increasing their reliability. Ceramic-based nanocomposites have the potential to yield materials with enhanced permittivity, breakdown strength (BDS), and reduced strain, which can increase the energy density of capacitors and increase their shot life. Composites of BTO in glass will limit grain growth during device fabrication (preserving nanoparticle grain size and enhanced properties), resulting in devices with improved density, permittivity, BDS, and shot life. BTO will eliminate the issues associated with Pb toxicity and volatility as well as the variation in energy storage vs. temperature of PZT based devices. During the last six months of FY09 this work focused on developing syntheses for BTO nanoparticles and firing profiles for sintering BTO/glass composite capacitors.

  6. Interfaces and thin films physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Interfaces and Thin Film Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School France) is presented. The research program is focused on the thin films and on the interfaces of the amorphous semiconductor materials: silicon and silicon germanium, silicon-carbon and silicon-nitrogen alloys. In particular, the following topics are discussed: the basic processes and the kinetics of the reactive gas deposition, the amorphous materials manufacturing, the physico-chemical characterization of thin films and interfaces and the electron transport in amorphous semiconductors. The construction and optimization of experimental devices, as well as the activities concerning instrumentation, are also described [fr

  7. Impedance/modulus analysis of sol-gel Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saif, Alaeddin A.; Poopalan, P. [University Malaysia Perlis, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    Perovskite-structure-type sol-gel barium-strontium-titanate (BST) thin films with molar formula Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} (x = 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8) have been successfully fabricated as Al/BST/Pt capacitors. In order to study the role of the grain size in the conduction mechanisms, we present atomic force microscopy (AFM) results. The impedance and the electric modulus of Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} thin films have been analyzed in order to correlate the effect of the film regional processes on the conduction mechanism. The impedance and the electric modulus complex planes show three overlapping regions as response for the bulk, the grain boundary and the film/electrode interface mechanisms, and an equivalent circuit has been proposed for each mechanism. The conduction mechanism resulting from the bulk and the grain boundaries is discussed; the results show that the grain boundaries have less effect on the conduction mechanism than the bulk.

  8. A digital output piezoelectric accelerometer using a Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 thin film array electrically connected in series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T; Okada, H; Maeda, R; Itoh, T; Masuda, T

    2010-01-01

    A digital output piezoelectric accelerometer is proposed to realize an ultra-low power consumption wireless sensor node. The accelerometer has patterned piezoelectric thin films (piezoelectric plates) electrically connected in series accompanied by CMOS switches at the end of some of the piezoelectric plates. The connected piezoelectric plates amplify the output voltage without the use of amplifiers. The CMOS switches turn on when the output voltage of the piezoelectric plates is higher than the CMOS threshold voltage. The piezoelectric accelerometer converts the acceleration into a number of on-state CMOS switches, which can be called the digital output. The proposed digital output piezoelectric accelerometer, using Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 (PZT) thin films as the piezoelectric material, was fabricated through a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) microfabrication process. The output voltage was found to be amplified by the number of connected piezoelectric plates. The DC output voltage obtained by using an AC to DC conversion circuit is proportional to the number of connections. The results show the potential for realizing the proposed digital output piezoelectric accelerometer

  9. Buckling of Thin Films in Nano-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li L.A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of thin film buckling is important for life prediction of MEMS device which are damaged mainly by the delamination and buckling of thin films. In this paper the mechanical and thermal properties of compressed thin film titanium films with 150 nm thickness deposited on an organic glass substrate under mechanical and thermal loads were measured and characterized. In order to simulate the thin films which subjected to compound loads and the buckle modes the external uniaxial compression and thermal loading were subjected to the specimen by the symmetric loading device and the electrical film in this experiment. The temperature of the thin film deposited on substrate was measured using thermoelectric couple. The range of temperature accords with the temperature range of the MEMS. It is found that the size and number of the delamination and buckling of the film are depended upon the pre-fixed mechanical loading and thermal temperature. The thermal transient conduction and thermal stability of the film and substrate was studied with finite element method.

  10. Operating method of amorphous thin film semiconductor element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Koshiro; Ono, Masaharu; Hanabusa, Akira; Osawa, Michio; Arita, Takashi

    1988-05-31

    The existing technologies concerning amorphous thin film semiconductor elements are the technologies concerning the formation of either a thin film transistor or an amorphous Si solar cell on a substrate. In order to drive a thin film transistor for electronic equipment control by the output power of an amorphous Si solar cell, it has been obliged to drive the transistor weth an amorphous solar cell which was formed on a substrate different from that for the transistor. Accordingly, the space for the amorphous solar cell, which was formed on the different substrate, was additionally needed on the substrate for the thin film transistor. In order to solve the above problem, this invention proposes an operating method of an amorphous thin film semiconductor element that after forming an amorphous Si solar cell through lamination on the insulation coating film which covers the thin film transistor formed on the substrate, the thin film transistor is driven by the output power of this solar cell. The invention eliminates the above superfluous space and reduces the size of the amorphous thin film semiconductor element including the electric source. (3 figs)

  11. Multilayered films of cobalt oxyhydroxide nanowires/manganese oxide nanosheets for electrochemical capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Huajun [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry Synthesis Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering and AIBN, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Tang, Fengqiu; Mukherji, Aniruddh; Yan, Xiaoxia; Wang, Lianzhou (Max) Lu, Gao Qing [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering and AIBN, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Lim, Melvin [Division of Environmental and Water Resources Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore)

    2010-01-15

    Multilayered films of cobalt oxyhydroxide nanowires (CoOOHNW) and exfoliated manganese oxide nanosheet (MONS) are fabricated by potentiostatic deposition and electrostatic self-assembly on indium-tin oxide coated glass substrates. The morphology and chemical composition of these films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and the potential application as electrochemical supercapacitors are investigated using cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge measurements. These ITO/CoOOHNW/MONS multilayered film electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical capacitance properties, including high specific capacitance (507 F g{sup -1}) and long cycling durability (less 2% capacity loss after 5000 charge/discharge cycles). These characteristics indicate that these newly developed films may find important application for electrochemical capacitors. (author)

  12. Impact of crystallisation processes on depth profile formation in sol-gel PbZr.sub.0·52./sub.Ti.sub.0·48./sub.O.sub.3./sub. thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aulika, I.; Mergen, S.; Bencan, A.; Zhang, Q.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kosec, M.; Kundzins, K.; Demarchi, D.; Civera, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 1 (2013), s. 53-58 ISSN 1743-6753 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010517; GA ČR GAP108/12/1941 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : compositional and optical gradien * PZT * spectroscopic ellipsometry * crystallisation proces * sol-gel * XRD * thin films * depth profile * spectroscopic elipsometry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2013

  13. Temperature dependence of LRE-HRE-TM thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoyi; Cheng, Xiaomin; Lin, Gengqi; Li, Zhen; Huang, Zhixin; Jin, Fang; Wang, Xianran; Yang, Xiaofei

    2003-04-01

    Temperature dependence of the properties of RE-TM thin films is very important for MO recording. In this paper, we studied the temperature dependence of the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of the amorphous LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films and LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films. For LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films, the temperature dependence of the magnetization was investigated by using the mean field theory. The experimental and theoretical results matched very well. With the LRE substitution in HRE-TM thin film, the compensation temperature Tcomp decreased and the curie temperature Tc remained unchanged. Kerr rotation angle became larger and the saturation magnetization Ms at room temperature increased. For LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films, comparisons of the temperature dependences of the coercivities and Kerr rotation angles were made between isolated sublayers and couple-bilayered thin film.

  14. All-printed capacitors with continuous solution dispensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yang; Plötner, Matthias; Berndt, Andreas; Kumar, Amit; Voit, Brigitte; Pospiech, Doris; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim

    2017-09-01

    Printed electronics have been introduced into the commercial markets in recent years. Various printing technologies have emerged aiming to process printed electronic devices with low cost, environmental friendliness, and compatibility with large areas and flexible substrates. The aim of this study is to propose a continuous solution dispensing technology for processing all-printed thin-film capacitors on glass substrates using a leading-edge printing instrument. Among all printing technologies, this study provides concrete proof of the following outstanding advantages of this technology: high tolerance to inks, high throughput, low cost, and precise pattern transfers. Ag nanoparticle ink based on glycol ethers was used to print the electrodes. To obtain dielectric ink, a copolymer powder of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-benzoylphenyl methacrylate) containing crosslinkable side groups was dissolved in anisole. Various layouts were designed to support multiple electronic applications. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to investigate the all-printed capacitor layers formed using the proposed process. Additionally, the printed capacitors were electrically characterized under direct current and alternating current. The measured electrical properties of the printed capacitors were consistent with the theoretical results.

  15. Control of retention and fatigue-free characteristics in CaBi4Ti4O15 thin films prepared by chemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.Z.; Ramirez, M.A.; Gonzalez, A.H.M.; Riccardi, C.S.; Ries, A.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ferroelectric CaBi 4 Ti 4 O 15 (CBTi144) thin films were deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates by the polymeric precursor method. The films present a single phase of layered-structured perovskite with polar axis orientation after annealing at 700 deg. C for 2 h in static air and oxygen atmosphere. The a/b-axis orientation of the ferroelectric film is considered to be associated with the preferred orientation of the Pt bottom electrode. It is noted that the films annealed in static air showed good polarization fatigue characteristics at least up to 10 10 bipolar pulse cycles and excellent retention properties up to 10 4 s. On the other hand, oxygen atmosphere seems to be crucial in the decrease of both, fatigue and retention characteristics of the capacitors. Independently of the applied electric field, the retained switchable polarization approached a nearly steady-state value after a retention time of 10 s. - Graphical abstract: Fatigue of CBTi144 thin film obtained by polymeric precursor method

  16. MEMS Cantilever Sensor for THz Photoacoustic Chemical Sensing and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    texture for the preferential crystal formation of the PZT . Deposited by chemical solution deposition (sol-gel), a 1 μm thick PZT film was used as the...Potrepka, G. R. Fox, I. Takeuchi and R. G. Polcawich. "Improving PZT thin film texture through Pt metallization and seed layers," MRS Proceedings (1299... PZT thin film," Journal of the European Ceramic Society 24(6), pp. 993-997, 2004. [73] Q. Wang, X. Du, B. Xu and L. E. Cross. "Theoretical analysis

  17. Application-related properties of giant magnetostrictive thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.H.; Kim, H.J.; Na, S.M.; Suh, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to facilitate the utilization of giant magnetostrictive thin films in microdevices, application-related properties of these thin films, which include induced anisotropy, residual stress and corrosion properties, are investigated. A large induced anisotropy with an energy of 6x10 4 J/m 3 is formed in field-sputtered amorphous Sm-Fe-B thin films, resulting in a large magnetostriction anisotropy. Two components of residual stress, intrinsic compressive stress and tensile stress due to the difference of the thermal expansion coefficients between the substrate and thin film, are identified. The variation of residual stress with fabrication parameter and annealing temperature, and its influence on mechanical bending and magnetic properties are examined. Better corrosion properties are observed in Sm-Fe thin films than in Tb-Fe. Corrosion properties of Tb-Fe thin films, however, are much improved with the introduction of nitrogen to the thin films without deteriorating magnetostrictive properties

  18. Deposition of PZT Thin Films on Polymer Substrate by Means of Low Pressure Plasma Jet Systém

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deyneka, Alexander; Hubička, Zdeněk; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Čada, Martin; Virostko, Petr; Olejníček, Jiří; Suchaneck, G.; Gerlach, G.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 316, - (2005), s. 157-166 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB1010301; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/02/D078; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB1010302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ferroelectric thin films * spectral ellipsometry * hollow cathode sputtering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2005

  19. Nonlinear dielectric response in ferroelectric thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lente, M. H.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrical permittivity dependence on electric external bias field was investigated in PZT thin films. The results revealed the existence of two mechanisms contributing to the electrical permittivity. The first one was related to the domain reorientation, which was responsible for a strong no linear dielectric behavior, acting only during the poling process. The second mechanism was associated with the domain wall vibrations, which presented a reasonable linear electrical behavior with the applied bias field, contributing always to the permittivity independently of the poling state of the sample. The results also indicated that the gradual reduction of the permittivity with the increase of the bias field strength may be related to the gradual bending of the domain walls. It is believed that the domain wall bending induces a hardening and/or a thinning of the walls, thus reducing the electrical permittivity. A reinterpretation of the model proposed in the literature to explain the dielectric characteristics of ferroelectric materials at high electric field regime is proposed.

    Se ha estudiado la dependencia de la permitividad eléctrica con un campo bias externo en láminas delgadas de PZT. Los resultados revelaron la existencia de dos mecanismos que contribuyen a la permitividad eléctrica. El primero está relacionado con la reorientación de dominios, actúa sólo durante el proceso de polarización y es responsable de un comportamiento dieléctrico fuertemente no lineal. El segundo mecanismo se asocia a las vibraciones de las paredes de dominio, presentando un comportamiento eléctrico razonablemente lineal con el campo bias aplicado, contribuyendo siempre a la permitividad independientemente del estado de polarización de la muestra. Los resultados indicaron también que la reducción gradual de la permitividad con el aumento de la fuerza del campo bias podría estar relacionada con el “bending” gradual de las paredes de dominio

  20. A 2-D MEMS scanning mirror based on dynamic mixed mode excitation of a piezoelectric PZT thin film S-shaped actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kah How; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Lee, Chengkuo

    2011-07-18

    A novel dynamic excitation of an S-shaped PZT piezoelectric actuator, which is conceptualized by having two superimposed AC voltages, is characterized in this paper through the evaluation of the 2-D scanning characteristics of an integrated silicon micromirror. The device is micromachined from a SOI wafer with a 5 μm thick Si device layer and multilayers of Pt/Ti/PZT//Pt/Ti deposited as electrode and actuation materials. A large mirror (1.65 mm x 2mm) and an S-shaped PZT actuator are formed after the backside release process. Three modes of operation are investigated: bending, torsional and mixed. The resonant frequencies obtained for bending and torsional modes are 27Hz and 70Hz respectively. The maximum measured optical deflection angles obtained at 3Vpp are ± 38.9° and ± 2.1° respectively for bending and torsional modes. Various 2-D Lissajous patterns are demonstrated by superimposing two ac sinusoidal electrical signals