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Sample records for thin electrode windows

  1. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  2. Metal-electrode-free Window-like Organic Solar Cells with p-Doped Carbon Nanotube Thin-film Electrodes

    Jeon, Il; Delacou, Clement; Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Maruyama, Shigeo; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Organic solar cells are flexible and inexpensive, and expected to have a wide range of applications. Many transparent organic solar cells have been reported and their success hinges on full transparency and high power conversion efficiency. Recently, carbon nanotubes and graphene, which meet these criteria, have been used in transparent conductive electrodes. However, their use in top electrodes has been limited by mechanical difficulties in fabrication and doping. Here, expensive metal top electrodes were replaced with high-performance, easy-to-transfer, aerosol-synthesized carbon nanotubes to produce transparent organic solar cells. The carbon nanotubes were p-doped by two new methods: HNO3 doping via ‘sandwich transfer’, and MoOx thermal doping via ‘bridge transfer’. Although both of the doping methods improved the performance of the carbon nanotubes and the photovoltaic performance of devices, sandwich transfer, which gave a 4.1% power conversion efficiency, was slightly more effective than bridge transfer, which produced a power conversion efficiency of 3.4%. Applying a thinner carbon nanotube film with 90% transparency decreased the efficiency to 3.7%, which was still high. Overall, the transparent solar cells had an efficiency of around 50% that of non-transparent metal-based solar cells (7.8%).

  3. Rigid thin windows for vacuum applications

    Meyer, Glenn Allyn; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Myers, Booth Richard; Chen, Hao-Lin; Wakalopulos, George

    1999-01-01

    A thin window that stands off atmospheric pressure is fabricated using photolithographic and wet chemical etching techniques and comprises at least two layers: an etch stop layer and a protective barrier layer. The window structure also comprises a series of support ribs running the width of the window. The windows are typically made of boron-doped silicon and silicon nitride and are useful in instruments such as electron beam guns and x-ray detectors. In an electron beam gun, the window does not impede the electrons and has demonstrated outstanding gun performance and survivability during the gun tube manufacturing process.

  4. Round window electrode insertion potentiates retention in the scala tympani.

    Connor, Stephen E J; Holland, N Julian; Agger, Andreas; Leong, Annabelle C; Varghese, Re Ajay; Jiang, Dan; Fitzgerald O'Connor, Alec

    2012-09-01

    The round window membrane (RWM)-intentioned approach is superior to the traditional bony cochleostomy (BC) approach in obtaining electrode placement within the scala tympani (ST). Cochlear implant outcome is influenced by several factors, including optimal placement and retention of the electrode array within the ST. The present study aimed to assess whether the RWM route is superior to a traditional BC for placement and retention of the electrode array in the ST. This was a prospective consecutive non-randomized comparison study. All patients were implanted with the Advanced Bionics 1J electrode array. The RWM approach (n = 32) was compared with a traditional BC group (n = 33). The outcome measure was the electrode position as judged within the scalar chambers at four points along the basal turn using postoperative computed tomography (CT). When the mean position scores were compared, the RWM-intentioned group had significantly more electrodes directed towards the ST compartment than the BC group (p scala vestibuli.

  5. Thin metal electrodes for semitransparent organic photovoltaics

    Lee, Kyusung

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate semitransparent organic photovoltaics (OPVs) based on thin metal electrodes and polymer photoactive layers consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester. The power conversion efficiency of a semitransparent OPV device comprising a 15-nm silver (Ag) rear electrode is 1.98% under AM 1.5-G illumination through the indium-tin-oxide side of the front anode at 100 mW/cm2 with 15.6% average transmittance of the entire cell in the visible wavelength range. As its thickness increases, a thin Ag electrode mainly influences the enhancement of the short circuit current density and fill factor. Its relatively low absorption intensity makes a Ag thin film a viable option for semitransparent electrodes compatible with organic layers. © 2013 ETRI.

  6. Thin Cryogenic X-ray Windows

    Niinikoski, T O; Davenport, M; Elias, N; Aune, S; Franz, J

    2009-01-01

    We describe the construction and tests of cryogenic X-ray windows of 47 mm diameter made of 15 ìm thick polypropylene foil glued on a UHV flange and supported with a strongback mesh machined by electro-erosion. These hermetic windows of the solar axion telescope of the CAST experiment at CERN withstand the static and dynamic pressures of the buffer gas that are normally below 130 mbar, but may reach 1.2 bar when the magnet quenches. They were tested at 60 K up to 3.5 bar static pressure without permanent deformation.

  7. Method for making thin carbon foam electrodes

    Pekala, Richard W.; Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Morrison, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.

  8. Amperometric Noise at Thin Film Band Electrodes

    Larsen, Simon T.; Heien, Michael L.; Taboryski, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Background current noise is often a significant limitation when using constant-potential amperometry for biosensor application such as amperometric recordings of transmitter release from single cells through exocytosis. In this paper, we fabricated thin-film electrodes of gold and conductive...

  9. Lithium battery electrodes with ultra-thin alumina coatings

    Se-Hee, Lee; George, Steven M.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Yoon Seok, Jung; Dillon, Anne C.

    2015-11-24

    Electrodes for lithium batteries are coated via an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings can be applied to the assembled electrodes, or in some cases to particles of electrode material prior to assembling the particles into an electrode. The coatings can be as thin as 2 .ANG.ngstroms thick. The coating provides for a stable electrode. Batteries containing the electrodes tend to exhibit high cycling capacities.

  10. Wrinkled Graphene–AgNWs Hybrid Electrodes for Smart Window

    Ki-Woo Jun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for stretchable electrodes for flexible and soft electronic devices. An electrode in such devices requires special functionalities to be twisted, bent, stretched, and deformed into variable shapes and also will need to have the capacity to be restored to the original state. In this study, we report uni- or bi-axially wrinkled graphene–silver nanowire hybrid electrodes comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD-grown graphene and silver nanowires. A CVD-grown graphene on a Cu-foil was transferred onto a biaxially pre-strained elastomer substrate and silver nanowires were sprayed on the transferred graphene surface. The pre-strained film was relaxed uni-(or bi-axially to produce a wrinkled structure. The bi-axially wrinkled graphene and silver nanowires hybrid electrodes were very suitable for high actuating performance of electro-active dielectric elastomers compared with the wrinkle-free case. Present results show that the optical transparency of the highly stretchable electrode can be successfully tuned by modulating input voltages.

  11. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    Ong, Hui-Yng; Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2015-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window

  12. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    Ong, Hui-Yng [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Engineering, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore 569830 (Singapore); Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong, E-mail: mgklau@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-09-28

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window.

  13. Toward Plastic Smart Windows: Optimization of Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes for the Synthesis of Electrochromic Devices on Polycarbonate Substrates.

    Laurenti, Marco; Bianco, Stefano; Castellino, Micaela; Garino, Nadia; Virga, Alessandro; Pirri, Candido F; Mandracci, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    Plastic smart windows are becoming one of the key elements in view of the fabrication of inexpensive, lightweight electrochromic (EC) devices to be integrated in the new generation of high-energy-efficiency buildings and automotive applications. However, fabricating electrochromic devices on polymer substrates requires a reduction of process temperature, so in this work we focus on the development of a completely room-temperature deposition process aimed at the preparation of ITO-coated polycarbonate (PC) structures acting as transparent and conductive plastic supports. Without providing any substrate heating or surface activation pretreatments of the polymer, different deposition conditions are used for growing indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films by the radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique. According to the characterization results, the set of optimal deposition parameters is selected to deposit ITO electrodes having high optical transmittance in the visible range (∼90%) together with low sheet resistance (∼8 ohm/sq). The as-prepared ITO/PC structures are then successfully tested as conductive supports for the fabrication of plastic smart windows. To this purpose, tungsten trioxide thin films are deposited by the reactive sputtering technique on the ITO/PC structures, and the resulting single electrode EC devices are characterized by chronoamperometric experiments and cyclic voltammetry. The fast switching response between colored and bleached states, together with the stability and reversibility of their electrochromic behavior after several cycling tests, are considered to be representative of the high quality of the EC film but especially of the ITO electrode. Indeed, even if no adhesion promoters, additional surface activation pretreatments, or substrate heating were used to promote the mechanical adhesion among the electrode and the PC surface, the observed EC response confirmed that the developed materials can be successfully employed for the

  14. Optically Transparent Thin-Film Electrode Chip for Spectroelectrochemical Sensing

    Branch, Shirmir D.; Lines, Amanda M.; Lynch, John A.; Bello, Job M.; Heineman, William R.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2017-07-03

    The electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical applications of an optically transparent thin film electrode chip are investigated. The working electrode is composed of indium tin oxide (ITO); the counter and quasi-reference electrodes are composed of platinum. The stability of the platinum quasi-reference electrode is modified by coating it with a planar, solid state Ag/AgCl layer. The Ag/AgCl reference is characterized with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Open circuit potential measurements indicate that the potential of the planar Ag/AgCl electrode varies a maximum of 20 mV over four days. Cyclic voltammetry measurements show that the electrode chip is comparable to a standard electrochemical cell. Randles-Sevcik analysis of 10 mM K3[Fe(CN)6] in 0.1 M KCl using the electrode chip shows a diffusion coefficient of 1.59 × 10-6 cm2/s, in comparison to the standard electrochemical cell value of 2.38 × 10-6 cm2/s. By using the electrode chip in an optically transparent thin layer electrode (OTTLE), the spectroelectrochemical modulation of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ florescence was demonstrated, achieving a detection limit of 36 nM.

  15. Application of Thinned-Skull Cranial Window to Mouse Cerebral Blood Flow Imaging Using Optical Microangiography

    Wang, Ruikang K.

    2014-01-01

    In vivo imaging of mouse brain vasculature typically requires applying skull window opening techniques: open-skull cranial window or thinned-skull cranial window. We report non-invasive 3D in vivo cerebral blood flow imaging of C57/BL mouse by the use of ultra-high sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) and Doppler optical microangiography (DOMAG) techniques to evaluate two cranial window types based on their procedures and ability to visualize surface pial vessel dynamics. Application of the thinned-skull technique is found to be effective in achieving high quality images for pial vessels for short-term imaging, and has advantages over the open-skull technique in available imaging area, surgical efficiency, and cerebral environment preservation. In summary, thinned-skull cranial window serves as a promising tool in studying hemodynamics in pial microvasculature using OMAG or other OCT blood flow imaging modalities. PMID:25426632

  16. Rough Electrode Creates Excess Capacitance in Thin-Film Capacitors.

    Torabi, Solmaz; Cherry, Megan; Duijnstee, Elisabeth A; Le Corre, Vincent M; Qiu, Li; Hummelen, Jan C; Palasantzas, George; Koster, L Jan Anton

    2017-08-16

    The parallel-plate capacitor equation is widely used in contemporary material research for nanoscale applications and nanoelectronics. To apply this equation, flat and smooth electrodes are assumed for a capacitor. This essential assumption is often violated for thin-film capacitors because the formation of nanoscale roughness at the electrode interface is very probable for thin films grown via common deposition methods. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically show that the electrical capacitance of thin-film capacitors with realistic interface roughness is significantly larger than the value predicted by the parallel-plate capacitor equation. The degree of the deviation depends on the strength of the roughness, which is described by three roughness parameters for a self-affine fractal surface. By applying an extended parallel-plate capacitor equation that includes the roughness parameters of the electrode, we are able to calculate the excess capacitance of the electrode with weak roughness. Moreover, we introduce the roughness parameter limits for which the simple parallel-plate capacitor equation is sufficiently accurate for capacitors with one rough electrode. Our results imply that the interface roughness beyond the proposed limits cannot be dismissed unless the independence of the capacitance from the interface roughness is experimentally demonstrated. The practical protocols suggested in our work for the reliable use of the parallel-plate capacitor equation can be applied as general guidelines in various fields of interest.

  17. Windows

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In natural ventilation systems fresh air is often provided through opening of windows. However, the knowledge of the performance of windows is rather limited. Computation of natural ventilation air flow through windows is most commonly made using discharge coefficients, that are regarded as being...... constant. The reported results show that the discharge coefficient for a window opening cannot be regarded as a constant and that it varies considerably with the size of the opening area, the window type and the temperature difference. Therefore, the use of a constant value can lead to serious errors...

  18. An environmental friendly electrode and extended cathodic potential window for anodic stripping voltammetry of zinc detection

    Dueraning, Anisah; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Limbut, Warakorn

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on a novel polyeriochrome black T (poly(EBT) modified electrode for use as an environmentally-friendly electrode material that extends the cathodic potential window and improves the sensitivity and repeatability to detect zinc in industrial wastewater. The poly(EBT) film on the GCE surface was fabricated by electropolymerization. The surface morphology and electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and anodic stripping voltammetry. Under optimal conditions, the poly(EBT)/GCE exhibited a high hydrogen overvoltage (extended cathodic potential window). It provided a high sensitivity, a wide linear range (1.0 to 400.0 μg L −1 ), a low detection limit (0.9 μg L −1 ), had excellent repeatability and good recoveries (95% to 105%). This proposed modified electrode was applied to the determination of zinc in wastewater samples, and the results were consistent with those of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analysis.

  19. Nanostructured manganese oxide thin films as electrode material for supercapacitors

    Xia, Hui; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, are alternative energy storage devices, particularly for applications requiring high power densities. Recently, manganese oxides have been extensively evaluated as electrode materials for supercapacitors due to their low cost, environmental benignity, and promising supercapacitive performance. In order to maximize the utilization of manganese oxides as the electrode material for the supercapacitors and improve their supercapacitive performance, the nanostructured manganese oxides have therefore been developed. This paper reviews the synthesis of the nanostructured manganese oxide thin films by different methods and the supercapacitive performance of different nanostructures.

  20. Carbon Nanotube Thin Films for Active Noise Cancellation, Solar Energy Harvesting, and Energy Storage in Building Windows

    Hu, Shan

    This research explores the application of carbon nanotube (CNT) films for active noise cancellation, solar energy harvesting and energy storage in building windows. The CNT-based components developed herein can be integrated into a solar-powered active noise control system for a building window. First, the use of a transparent acoustic transducer as both an invisible speaker for auxiliary audio playback and for active noise cancellation is accomplished in this work. Several challenges related to active noise cancellation in the window are addressed. These include secondary path estimation and directional cancellation of noise so as to preserve auxiliary audio and internal sounds while preventing transmission of external noise into the building. Solar energy can be harvested at a low rate of power over long durations while acoustic sound cancellation requires short durations of high power. A supercapacitor based energy storage system is therefore considered for the window. Using CNTs as electrode materials, two generations of flexible, thin, and fully solid-state supercapacitors are developed that can be integrated into the window frame. Both generations consist of carbon nanotube films coated on supporting substrates as electrodes and a solid-state polymer gel layer for the electrolyte. The first generation is a single-cell parallel-plate supercapacitor with a working voltage of 3 Volts. Its energy density is competitive with commercially available supercapacitors (which use liquid electrolyte). For many applications that will require higher working voltage, the second-generation multi-cell supercapacitor is developed. A six-cell device with a working voltage as high as 12 Volts is demonstrated here. Unlike the first generation's 3D structure, the second generation has a novel planar (2D) architecture, which makes it easy to integrate multiple cells into a thin and flexible supercapacitor. The multi-cell planar supercapacitor has energy density exceeding that of

  1. Percolation effects in supercapacitors with thin, transparent carbon nanotube electrodes.

    King, Paul J; Higgins, Thomas M; De, Sukanta; Nicoloso, Norbert; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2012-02-28

    We have explored the effects of percolation on the properties of supercapacitors with thin nanotube networks as electrodes. We find the equivalent series resistance, R(ESR), and volumetric capacitance, C(V), to be thickness independent for relatively thick electrodes. However, once the electrode thickness falls below a threshold thickness (∼100 nm for R(ESR) and ∼20 nm for C(V)), the properties of the electrode become thickness dependent. We show the thickness dependence of both R(ESR) and C(V) to be consistent with percolation theory. While this is expected for R(ESR), that the capacitance follows a percolation scaling law is not. This occurs because, for sparse networks, the capacitance is proportional to the fraction of nanotubes connected to the main network. This fraction, in turn, follows a percolation scaling law. This allows us to understand and quantify the limitations on the achievable capacitance for transparent supercapacitors. We find that supercapacitors with thickness independent R(ESR) and C(V) occupy a well-defined region of the Ragone plot. However, supercapacitors whose electrodes are limited by percolation occupy a long tail to lower values of energy and power density. For example, replacing electrodes with transparency of T = 80% with thinner networks displaying T = 97% will result in a 20-fold reduction of both power and energy density.

  2. Fluorine doped vanadium dioxide thin films for smart windows

    Kiri, Pragna; Warwick, Michael E.A.; Ridley, Ian; Binions, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Thermochromic fluorine doped thin films of vanadium dioxide were deposited from the aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition reaction of vanadyl acetylacetonate, ethanol and trifluoroacetic acid on glass substrates. The films were characterised with scanning electron microscopy, variable temperature Raman spectroscopy and variable temperature UV/Vis spectroscopy. The incorporation of fluorine in the films led to an increase in the visible transmittance of the films whilst retaining the thermochromic properties. This approach shows promise for improving the aesthetic properties of vanadium dioxide thin films.

  3. Thin, X-ray-Transparent Windows for Imaging Applications with a Pneumatically Pressurized Enclosure

    Shu Deming; Wang Jin; Preissner, Curt

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a novel thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 10 bar. The windows allow for x-ray access to fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions. The design of the window system and its experimental test results are presented in this paper, as well as its further development for in situ x-ray imaging applications in a high-pressure and high-temperature environment

  4. Ultrahigh PEMFC performance of a thin-film, dual-electrode assembly with tailored electrode morphology.

    Jung, Chi-Young; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Yi, Sung-Chul

    2014-02-01

    A dual-electrode membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells with enhanced polarization under zero relative humidity (RH) is fabricated by introducing a phase-separated morphology in an agglomerated catalyst layer of Pt/C (platinum on carbon black) and Nafion. In the catalyst layer, a sufficient level of phase separation is achieved by dispersing the Pt catalyst and the Nafion dispersion in a mixed-solvent system (propane-1,2,3-triol/1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone).The high polymer chain mobility results in improved water uptake and regular pore-size distribution with small pore diameters. The electrochemical performance of the dual-film electrode assembly with different levels of phase separation is compared to conventional electrode assemblies. As a result, good performance at 0 % RH is obtained because self-humidification is dramatically improved by attaching this dense and phase-separated catalytic overlayer onto the conventional catalyst layer. A MEA prepared using the thin-film, dual-layered electrode exhibits 39-fold increased RH stability and 28-fold improved start-up recovery time during the on-off operation relative to the conventional device. We demonstrate the successful operation of the dual-layered electrode comprised of discriminatively phase-separated agglomerates with an ultrahigh zero RH fuel-cell performance reaching over 95 % performance of a fully humidified MEA. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Catalytic EC′ reaction at a thin film modified electrode

    Gerbino, Leandro; Baruzzi, Ana M.; Iglesias, Rodrigo A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of cyclic voltammograms corresponding to a catalytic EC′ reaction taking place at a thin film modified electrode are performed by way of finite difference method. Besides considering the chemical kinetic occurring inside the thin film, the model takes into account the different diffusion coefficients for each species at each of the involved phases, i.e. the thin film layer and bulk solution. The theoretical formulation is given in terms of dimensionless model parameters but a brief discussion of each of these parameters and their relationship to experimental variables is presented. Special emphasis is given to the use of working curve characteristics to quantify diffusion coefficient, homogeneous kinetic constant and thickness of the thin layer in a real system. Validation of the model is made by comparison of experimental results corresponding to the electron charge transfer of Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ /Ru(NH 3 ) 6 2+ hemi-couple at a thin film of a cross-linked chitosan film containing an immobilized redox dye

  6. Characterization of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 thin films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on Ir-based electrodes

    Lee, Hee-Chul; Lee, Won-Jong

    2002-01-01

    Structural and electrical characteristics of Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 (PZT) ferroelectric thin films deposited on various Ir-based electrodes (Ir, IrO 2 , and Pt/IrO 2 ) using electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition were investigated. On the Ir electrode, stoichiometric PZT films with pure perovskite phase could be obtained over a very wide range of processing conditions. However, PZT films prepared on the IrO 2 electrode contain a large amount of PbO x phases and exhibited high Pb-excess composition. The deposition characteristics were dependent on the behavior of PbO molecules on the electrode surface. The PZT thin film capacitors prepared on the Ir bottom electrode showed different electrical properties depending on top electrode materials. The PZT capacitors with Ir, IrO 2 , and Pt top electrodes showed good leakage current characteristics, whereas those with the Ru top electrode showed a very high leakage current density. The PZT capacitor exhibited the best fatigue endurance with an IrO 2 top electrode. An Ir top electrode provided better fatigue endurance than a Pt top electrode. The PZT capacitor with an Ir-based electrode is thought to be attractive for the application to ferroelectric random access memory devices because of its wide processing window for a high-quality ferroelectric film and good polarization, fatigue, and leakage current characteristics

  7. A composite thin vacuum window for the CLAS photon tagger at Jefferson lab

    Matthews, S.K.; Crannell, Hall; O'Brien, J.T.; Sober, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    The construction of a thin vacuum window, currently in use on the CLAS photon tagging system at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, is described. A layer of woven Kevlar cloth supports a much thinner membrane of aluminized Mylar. Notable features of this particular window include its overall length (9.6 m), and the fact that the entire load is supported by the epoxy seal with no mechanical clamping around the edges. Results from a diverse program of materials testing, including a clear dependence of leak rate on relative humidity, are also reported

  8. A composite thin vacuum window for the CLAS photon tagger at Jefferson lab

    Matthews, S K; O'Brien, J T; Sober, D I

    1999-01-01

    The construction of a thin vacuum window, currently in use on the CLAS photon tagging system at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, is described. A layer of woven Kevlar cloth supports a much thinner membrane of aluminized Mylar. Notable features of this particular window include its overall length (9.6 m), and the fact that the entire load is supported by the epoxy seal with no mechanical clamping around the edges. Results from a diverse program of materials testing, including a clear dependence of leak rate on relative humidity, are also reported.

  9. Rhenium Alloys as Ductile Substrates for Diamond Thin-Film Electrodes.

    Halpern, Jeffrey M; Martin, Heidi B

    2014-02-01

    Molybdenum-rhenium (Mo/Re) and tungsten-rhenium (W/Re) alloys were investigated as substrates for thin-film, polycrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes. Traditional, carbide-forming metal substrates adhere strongly to diamond but lose their ductility during exposure to the high-temperature (1000°C) diamond, chemical vapor deposition environment. Boron-doped semi-metallic diamond was selectively deposited for up to 20 hours on one end of Mo/Re (47.5/52.5 wt.%) and W/Re (75/25 wt.%) alloy wires. Conformal diamond films on the alloys displayed grain sizes and Raman signatures similar to films grown on tungsten; in all cases, the morphology and Raman spectra were consistent with well-faceted, microcrystalline diamond with minimal sp 2 carbon content. Cyclic voltammograms of dopamine in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) showed the wide window and low baseline current of high-quality diamond electrodes. In addition, the films showed consistently well-defined, dopamine electrochemical redox activity. The Mo/Re substrate regions that were uncoated but still exposed to the diamond-growth environment remained substantially more flexible than tungsten in a bend-to-fracture rotation test, bending to the test maximum of 90° and not fracturing. The W/Re substrates fractured after a 27° bend, and the tungsten fractured after a 21° bend. Brittle, transgranular cleavage fracture surfaces were observed for tungsten and W/Re. A tension-induced fracture of the Mo/Re after the prior bend test showed a dimple fracture with a visible ductile core. Overall, the Mo/Re and W/Re alloys were suitable substrates for diamond growth. The Mo/Re alloy remained significantly more ductile than traditional tungsten substrates after diamond growth, and thus may be an attractive metal substrate for more ductile, thin-film diamond electrodes.

  10. Demand-type gas supply system for rocket borne thin-window proportional counters

    Acton, L. W.; Caravalho, R.; Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    A simple closed loop control system has been developed to maintain the gas pressure in thin-window proportional counters during rocket flights. This system permits convenient external control of detector pressure and system flushing rate. The control system is activated at launch with the sealing of a reference volume at the existing system pressure. Inflight control to plus or minus 2 torr at a working pressure of 760 torr has been achieved on six rocket flights.

  11. Digital simulation of anodic stripping voltammetry from thin film electrodes

    Magallanes, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is routinely applied to control of Cu(II) in heavy water in the primary cooling loop of the Nuclear Power Reactor. The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is a very well-known technique in electroanalytical chemistry. However, due to the complexity of the phenomena, it is practised with the fundamentals of empiric considerations. A geometric model for the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) from thin film electrodes which can be calculated by explicit digital simulation method is proposed as a possibility of solving the electrochemically reversible, cuasi-reversible and irreversible reactions under linear potential scan and multiple potential scans. (Until now the analytical mathematical method was applied to reversible reactions). All the results are compared with analytical solutions and experimental results and it permits to conclude that the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) can be studied with the simplicity and potentialities of explicit digital simulation methods. (M.E.L.) [es

  12. Information transfer using wearable thin electrotactile displays with microneedle electrodes

    Tezuka, Mayuko; Kitamura, Norihide; Miki, Norihisa

    2016-06-01

    Tactile sensation is considered as a promising information transfer tool that can replace or compensate for sight and hearing information. In this study, we developed a sheet-type electrotactile display with microneedle electrodes. This flexible and thin display is suitable for wearable applications. It can present tactile sensation to the skin at a low voltage by penetrating the stratum corneum with microneedles. As a proof-of-concept experiment of transferring information via tactile sensation, we first tried to convey signals of two patterns using a single display. Next, we attempted to use multiple displays and experimentally investigated the spatial resolution of the tactile sensation on the forearm. Finally, 3-bit information was successfully transferred by three devices attached to the forearm.

  13. Bilayered Oxide thin films for transparent electrode application

    Dutta, Titas; Narayan, Jagdish

    2008-10-01

    Ga doped ZnO films with electrical and optical properties comparable to indium tin oxide (ITO) is a promising candidate for transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) because of its superior stability in hydrogen environment, benign nature and relatively inexpensive supply. However, ZnO based TCO films suffer from low work function, which is a critical parameter for device applications. We report here the growth of a novel bilayered structure consisting of very thin (few monolayers) ITO, MoOx layer on Zn0.95Ga0.05O film for transparent electrode applications by using pulsed laser deposition technique at different temperatures and oxygen partial pressure. The characteristics of the ITO film and the heterostructure have been investigated in detail using XRD, TEM, XPS, and electrical and optical property measurements. It is envisaged that the overall transmittance and the resistivity are dictated by the thicker layer of ZnGa0.05O beneath the ITO layer. Hence, this study is aimed to improve the surface characteristics without affecting the overall transmittance and sheet resistance. This will enhance the transport of the carriers across the heterojunction in the device, thus, resulting in the increase in device efficiency.

  14. Ion transport and phase transformation in thin film intercalation electrodes

    Wunde, Fabian; Nowak, Susann; Muerter, Juliane; Hadjixenophontos, Efi; Berkemeier, Frank; Schmitz, Guido [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialwissenschaft

    2017-11-15

    Thin film battery electrodes of the olivine structure LiFePO{sub 4} and the spinel phase LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} are deposited through ion-beam sputtering. The intercalation kinetics is studied by cyclo-voltammetry using variation of the cycling rate over 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. The well-defined layer geometry allows a detailed quantitative analysis. It is shown that LiFePO{sub 4} clearly undergoes phase separation during intercalation, although the material is nano-confined and very high charging rates are applied. We present a modified Randles-Sevcik evaluation adapted to phase-separating systems. Both the charging current and the overpotential depend on the film thickness in a systematic way. The analysis yields evidence that the grain boundaries are important short circuit paths for fast transport. They increase the electrochemical active area with increasing layer thickness. Evidence is obtained that the grain boundaries in LiFePO{sub 4} have the character of an ion-conductor of vanishing electronic conductivity.

  15. Indium sulfide thin films as window layer in chemically deposited solar cells

    Lugo-Loredo, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Peña-Méndez, Y., E-mail: yolapm@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Calixto-Rodriguez, M. [Universidad Tecnológica Emiliano Zapata del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad Tecnológica No. 1, C.P. 62760 Emiliano Zapata, Morelos (Mexico); Messina-Fernández, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo” S/N, C.P. 63190 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Alvarez-Gallegos, A. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico); Vázquez-Dimas, A.; Hernández-García, T. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been synthesized by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrates using In(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} as indium precursor and thioacetamide as sulfur source. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the crystalline state of the as-prepared and the annealed films is β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Optical band gap values between 2.27 and 2.41 eV were obtained for these films. The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films are photosensitive with an electrical conductivity value in the range of 10{sup −3}–10{sup −7} (Ω cm){sup −1}, depending on the film preparation conditions. We have demonstrated that the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films obtained in this work are suitable candidates to be used as window layer in thin film solar cells. These films were integrated in SnO{sub 2}:F/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/PbS/C–Ag solar cell structures, which showed an open circuit voltage of 630 mV and a short circuit current density of 0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were deposited using the Chemical Bath Deposition technique. • A direct energy band gap between 2.41 to 2.27 eV was evaluated for the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films. • We made chemically deposited solar cells using the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films.

  16. Micromachined Dense Palladium Electrodes for Thin-film Solid Acid Fuel Cells

    Unnikrishnan, S.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis paves the way towards the microfabrication of a solid acid electrolyte based fuel cell (µSAFC), which has a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) consisting of a thin-film of water soluble electrolyte encapsulated between two dense palladium electrode membranes. This project work

  17. Binder-free manganese oxide/carbon nanomaterials thin film electrode for supercapacitors.

    Wang, Ning; Wu, Chuxin; Li, Jiaxin; Dong, Guofa; Guan, Lunhui

    2011-11-01

    A ternary thin film electrode was created by coating manganese oxide onto a network composed of single-walled carbon nanotubes and single-walled carbon nanohorns. The electrode exhibited a porous structure, which is a promising architecture for supercapacitors applications. The maximum specific capacitances of 357 F/g for total electrode at 1 A/g were achieved in 0.1 M Na(2)SO(4) aqueous solution.

  18. Advances in submerged arc, narrow-gap welding with strip electrodes and thin, dual-wire electrodes

    Nies, H.

    1990-01-01

    Container and tank construction for nuclear installations traditionally is one of the major applications of narrow-gap welding with the submerged arc technique. This type of welding presents one problem, namely to completely and reliably remove the welding slag from the deep and narrow gap. The research report in hand explains the variants of welding techniques that have been tested and describes the results obtained, which primarily are reduced occurrence of faults, i.e. enhanced reliability, and better welding economy. As an alternative to welding with thick wire electrodes, which is the standard method for the applications under review, a new technique has been conceived and extensively tested, which uses thin strip electrodes at longitudinal position in the gap. This submerged arc, dual-wire technique with thin electrodes is characterised by a significantly higher thermal efficiency compared to welding with thick wires, so that the same energy input yields better efficiency of metal deposition. (orig./MM) [de

  19. Roll-to-Roll sputtered ITO/Cu/ITO multilayer electrode for flexible, transparent thin film heaters and electrochromic applications.

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Mok; Ko, Eun-Hye; Kim, Tae-Ho; Nah, Yoon-Chae; Lee, Sang-Jin; Lee, Jae Heung; Kim, Han-Ki

    2016-09-22

    We fabricate high-performance, flexible, transparent electrochromic (EC) films and thin film heaters (TFHs) on an ITO/Cu/ITO (ICI) multilayer electrode prepared by continuous roll-to-roll (RTR) sputtering of ITO and Cu targets. The RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer on a 700 mm wide PET substrate at room temperature exhibits a sheet resistance of 11.8 Ω/square and optical transmittance of 73.9%, which are acceptable for the fabrication of flexible and transparent EC films and TFHs. The effect of the Cu interlayer thickness on the electrical and optical properties of the ICI multilayer was investigated in detail. The bending and cycling fatigue tests demonstrate that the RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer was more flexible than a single ITO film because of high strain failure of the Cu interlayer. The flexible and transparent EC films and TFHs fabricated on the ICI electrode show better performances than reference EC films and TFHs with a single ITO electrode. Therefore, the RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer is the best substitute for the conventional ITO film electrode in order to realize flexible, transparent, cost-effective and large-area EC devices and TFHs that can be used as flexible and smart windows.

  20. Bi-axially crumpled silver thin-film electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

    Low, Sze-Hsien; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2014-01-01

    Metal thin films, which have high conductivity, are much stiffer and may fracture at a much lower strain than dielectric elastomers. In order to fabricate compliant electrodes for use in dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs), metal thin films have been formed into either zigzag patterns or corrugations, which favour bending and only allow uniaxial DEA deformations. However, biaxially compliant electrodes are desired in order to maximize generated forces of DEA. In this paper, we present crumpled metal thin-film electrodes that are biaxially compliant and have full area coverage over the dielectric elastomer. These crumpled metal thin-film electrodes are more stretchable than flat metal thin films; they remain conductive beyond 110% radial strain. Also, crumpling reduced the stiffening effect of metal thin films on the soft elastomer. As such, DEAs using crumpled metal thin-film electrodes managed to attain relatively high actuated area strains of up to 128% at 1.8 kV (102 Vμm −1 ). (paper)

  1. Electrode size and boundary condition independent measurement of the effective piezoelectric coefficient of thin films

    M. Stewart

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the piezoelectric coefficient of thin films using interferometry is hindered by bending contributions. Using finite element analysis (FEA simulations, we show that the Lefki and Dormans approximations using either single or double-beam measurements cannot be used with finite top electrode sizes. We introduce a novel method for characterising piezoelectric thin films which uses a differential measurement over the discontinuity at the electrode edge as an internal reference, thereby eliminating bending contributions. This step height is shown to be electrode size and boundary condition independent. An analytical expression is derived which gives good agreement with FEA predictions of the step height.

  2. Thin-film electroencephalographic electrodes using multi-walled carbon nanotubes are effective for neurosurgery.

    Awara, Kousuke; Kitai, Ryuhei; Isozaki, Makoto; Neishi, Hiroyuki; Kikuta, Kenichiro; Fushisato, Naoki; Kawamoto, Akira

    2014-12-15

    Intraoperative morphological and functional monitoring is essential for safe neurosurgery. Functional monitoring is based on electroencephalography (EEG), which uses silver electrodes. However, these electrodes generate metal artifacts as silver blocks X-rays, creating white radial lines on computed tomography (CT) images during surgery. Thick electrodes interfere with surgical procedures. Thus, thinner and lighter electrodes are ideal for intraoperative use. The authors developed thin brain electrodes using carbon nanotubes that were formed into thin sheets and connected to electrical wires. The nanotube sheets were soft and fitted the curve of the head very well. When attached to the head using paste, the impedance of the newly developed electrodes was 5 kΩ or lower, which was similar to that of conventional metal electrodes. These electrodes can be used in combination with intraoperative CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or cerebral angiography. Somatosensory-evoked potentials, auditory brainstem responses, and visually evoked potentials were clearly identified in ten volunteers. The electrodes, without any artifacts that distort images, did not interfere with X-rays, CT, or MR images. They also did not cause skin damage. Carbon nanotube electrodes may be ideal for neurosurgery.

  3. Modified lead titanate thin films for pyroelectric infrared detectors on gold electrodes

    Ahmed, Moinuddin; Butler, Donald P.

    2015-07-01

    Pyroelectric infrared detectors provide the advantage of both a wide spectral response and dynamic range, which also has enabled systems to be developed with reduced size, weight and power consumption. This paper demonstrates the deposition of lead zirconium titanate (PZT) and lead calcium titanate (PCT) thin films for uncooled pyroelectric detectors with the utilization of gold electrodes. The modified lead titanate thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on gold electrodes. The PZT and PCT thins films deposited and annealed at temperatures of 650 °C and 550 °C respectively demonstrated the best pyroelectric performance in this work. The thin films displayed a pyroelectric effect that increased with temperature. Poling of the thin films was carried out for a fixed time periods and fixed dc bias voltages at elevated temperature in order to increase the pyroelectric coefficient by establishing a spontaneous polarization of the thin films. Poling caused the pyroelectric current to increase one order of magnitude.

  4. Titanyl phthalocyanine ambipolar thin film transistors making use of carbon nanotube electrodes

    Coppedè, Nicola; Valitova, Irina; Mahvash, Farzaneh; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Ranzieri, Paolo; Iannotta, Salvatore; Santato, Clara; Martel, Richard; Cicoira, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    The capability of efficiently injecting charge carriers into organic films and finely tuning their morphology and structure is crucial to improve the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). In this work, we investigate OTFTs employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the source-drain electrodes and, as the organic semiconductor, thin films of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) grown by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SuMBD). While CNT electrodes have shown an unprecedented ability to improve charge injection in OTFTs, SuMBD is an effective technique to tune film morphology and structure. Varying the substrate temperature during deposition, we were able to grow both amorphous (low substrate temperature) and polycrystalline (high substrate temperature) films of TiOPc. Regardless of the film morphology and structure, CNT electrodes led to superior charge injection and transport performance with respect to benchmark Au electrodes. Vacuum annealing of polycrystalline TiOPc films with CNT electrodes yielded ambipolar OTFTs.

  5. Titanyl phthalocyanine ambipolar thin film transistors making use of carbon nanotube electrodes

    Coppedè, Nicola; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Ranzieri, Paolo; Iannotta, Salvatore; Valitova, Irina; Cicoira, Fabio; Mahvash, Farzaneh; Santato, Clara; Martel, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The capability of efficiently injecting charge carriers into organic films and finely tuning their morphology and structure is crucial to improve the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). In this work, we investigate OTFTs employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the source-drain electrodes and, as the organic semiconductor, thin films of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) grown by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SuMBD). While CNT electrodes have shown an unprecedented ability to improve charge injection in OTFTs, SuMBD is an effective technique to tune film morphology and structure. Varying the substrate temperature during deposition, we were able to grow both amorphous (low substrate temperature) and polycrystalline (high substrate temperature) films of TiOPc. Regardless of the film morphology and structure, CNT electrodes led to superior charge injection and transport performance with respect to benchmark Au electrodes. Vacuum annealing of polycrystalline TiOPc films with CNT electrodes yielded ambipolar OTFTs. (paper)

  6. Optimized electrode coverage of membrane actuators based on epitaxial PZT thin films

    Nguyen, M D; Dekkers, M; Blank, D H A; Rijnders, G; Nazeer, H

    2013-01-01

    This research presents an optimization of piezoelectric membrane actuators by maximizing the actuator displacement. Membrane actuators based on epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 thin films grown on all-oxide electrodes and buffer layers using silicon technology were fabricated. Electrode coverage was found to be an important factor in the actuation displacement of the piezoelectric membranes. The optimum electrode coverage for maximum displacement was theoretically determined to be 39%, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. Dependences of membrane displacement and optimum electrode coverage on membrane diameter and PZT-film/Si-device-layer thickness ratio have also been investigated. (paper)

  7. Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to vary their throughput of visible light and solar energy by the application of an electrical voltage and are able to provide energy efficiency and indoor comfort in buildings. Section 1 explains why this technology is important and timely by first outlining today's precarious situation concerning increasing energy use and associated effects on the world's climate, and this section also underscores the great importance of enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings by letting them function more in harmony with the environment—particularly its varying temperature—than is possible with current mainstream technologies. This same chapter also surveys recent work on the energy savings and other benefits that are possible with EC-based technologies. Section 2 then provides some notes on the history of the EC effect and its applications. Section 3 presents a generic design for the oxide-based EC devices that are most in focus for present-day applications and research. This design includes five superimposed layers with a centrally-positioned electrolyte connecting two oxide films—at least one of which having EC properties—and with transparent electrical conductors surrounding the three-layer structure in the middle. It is emphasized that this construction can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested as optical absorption. Also discussed are six well known hurdles for the implementation of these EC devices, as well as a number of practical constructions of EC-based smart windows. Section 4 is an in-depth discussion of various aspects of EC oxides. It begins with a literature survey for 2007–2013, which updates earlier reviews, and is followed by a general discussion of optical and electronic effects and, specifically, on charge transfer absorption in tungsten oxide. Ionic effects are then treated with foci on the inherent nanoporosity of the important EC oxides and on the

  8. Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-08-01

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to vary their throughput of visible light and solar energy by the application of an electrical voltage and are able to provide energy efficiency and indoor comfort in buildings. Section 1 explains why this technology is important and timely by first outlining today's precarious situation concerning increasing energy use and associated effects on the world's climate, and this section also underscores the great importance of enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings by letting them function more in harmony with the environment—particularly its varying temperature—than is possible with current mainstream technologies. This same chapter also surveys recent work on the energy savings and other benefits that are possible with EC-based technologies. Section 2 then provides some notes on the history of the EC effect and its applications. Section 3 presents a generic design for the oxide-based EC devices that are most in focus for present-day applications and research. This design includes five superimposed layers with a centrally-positioned electrolyte connecting two oxide films—at least one of which having EC properties—and with transparent electrical conductors surrounding the three-layer structure in the middle. It is emphasized that this construction can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested as optical absorption. Also discussed are six well known hurdles for the implementation of these EC devices, as well as a number of practical constructions of EC-based smart windows. Section 4 is an in-depth discussion of various aspects of EC oxides. It begins with a literature survey for 2007–2013, which updates earlier reviews, and is followed by a general discussion of optical and electronic effects and, specifically, on charge transfer absorption in tungsten oxide. Ionic effects are then treated with foci on the inherent nanoporosity of the important EC oxides and on the

  9. Mechanical Safety Subcommittee Guideline for Design of Thin Windows Regarding Roark’s Edge Condition Coefficient

    Ader, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Voirin, E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); McGee, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Nobrega, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-06-15

    An error was found in an edge stress coefficient used to calculate stresses in thin windows. This error is present in “Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain” 7th and 8th Edition. The 6th Edition is correct. This guideline specially discusses a major difference in regards to a coefficient used in calculating the edge stress in “Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain” 6th Edition compared to the 7th and 8th Editions. In Chapter 10: Flat Plates under “Circular plates under distributed load producing large deflections,” Case 3, which is “Fixed and held. Uniform pressure q over entire plate.” The coefficient for a fixed edge condition in the 6th Edition1 K4 = 0.476 while in the 7th and 8th Edition2, the coefficient is 1.73 which is significant difference.

  10. Fundamentals of vanadium dioxide thin films as possible components of intelligent windows

    Wu, Z. P.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the research on the vanadium dioxide thin film, which can be used as intelligent windows, is reviewed, including the basic properties of V2, energy band structure, model of electronic energy and the origin of metal-to-insulator transition (MIT. Finally, the problems existing in the research and the possibility of application for VO2, as an intelligent thermochromic window are briefly discussed.

    En este artículo se revisan las investigaciones realizadas en películas delgadas de dióxido de vanadio que pueden ser usadas en componentes de ventanas inteligentes, incluyendo las propiedades básicas del VO2, tales como su estructura de bandas, modelo energético de tipo electrónico y el origen del fenómeno de la transición: metal-aislador (MIT en la literatura inglesa que constituye la base de las aplicaciones de estas películas. Finalmente, los problemas que hay en la investigación actual de este tipo de películas, así como sus posibles aplicaciones en ventanas inteligentes de tipo termocrómico, se discuten brevemente.

  11. Build-up of a liquid hydrogen target with extremely thin windows

    Jaeckle, V.G.

    1992-06-01

    Small hydrogen targets with only a few cubic millimeters of liquid have many advantages in experiments on accelerators with phase-space cooled particle beams. In order to achieve good suppression of systematic errors by secondary reactions in the target and in the target windows, the thickness of the foil window for a 1 mm target may only be 0.3 μm. A pressure difference of 200 mbar permits the use of such thin foils (with a diameter of 6 mm). A purely mechanical pressure control unit was built, which consists of soft bellows and a loading weight. The pressure difference from a vacuum, which is in the bellows, is set by the weight on the bellows. The working parameters were chosen so that deuterium, nitrogen and oxygen can be used. The pressure variations in the cell are only ± 2.5 mbar. A mixing of gaseous and liquid hydrogen in the target cell and the formation of bubbles due to free convection can be prevented. A quiet volume of liquid hydrogen free of bubbles was obtained. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Stability enhancement of an electrically tunable colloidal photonic crystal using modified electrodes with a large electrochemical potential window

    Shim, HongShik [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gyun Shin, Chang; Heo, Chul-Joon; Jeon, Seog-Jin; Jin, Haishun; Woo Kim, Jung; Jin, YongWan; Lee, SangYoon; Gyu Han, Moon, E-mail: moongyu.han@samsung.com, E-mail: jinklee@snu.ac.kr [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Joohyun; Lee, Jin-Kyu, E-mail: moongyu.han@samsung.com, E-mail: jinklee@snu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-03

    The color tuning behavior and switching stability of an electrically tunable colloidal photonic crystal system were studied with particular focus on the electrochemical aspects. Photonic color tuning of the colloidal arrays composed of monodisperse particles dispersed in water was achieved using external electric field through lattice constant manipulation. However, the number of effective color tuning cycle was limited due to generation of unwanted ions by electrolysis of the water medium during electrical switching. By introducing larger electrochemical potential window electrodes, such as conductive diamond-like carbon or boron-doped diamond, the switching stability was appreciably enhanced through reducing the number of ions generated.

  13. Performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with thin film catalyst electrodes

    Chun, Young Gab; Kim, Chang Soo; Peck, Dong Hyun; Shin, Dong Ryul [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    In order to develop a kW-class polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), several electrodes have been fabricated by different catalyst layer preparation procedures and evaluated based on the cell performance. Conventional carbon paper and carbon cloth electrodes were fabricated using a ptfe-bonded Pt/C electrol catalyst by coating and rolling methods. Thin-film catalyst/ionomer composite layers were also formed on the membrane by direct coating and transfer printing techniques. The performance evaluation with catalyst layer preparation methods was carried out using a large or small electrode single cell. Conventional and thin film membrane and electrode assemblies (MEAs) with small electrode area showed a performance of 350 and 650 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.6 V, respectively. The performance of direct coated thin film catalyst layer with 300 cm{sup 2} MEAs was higher than those of the conventional and transfer printing technique MEAs. The influence of some characteristic parameters of the thin film electrode on electrochemical performance was examined. Various other aspects of overall operation of PEMFC stacks were also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Facile green synthesis of silver nanodendrite/cellulose acetate thin film electrodes for flexible supercapacitors.

    Devarayan, Kesavan; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Suhk

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we present a highly efficient and economical solution called as 'in situ hydrogenation' for preparation of highly conductive thin film electrode based on silver nanodendrites. The silver nanodendrite (AgND)/cellulose acetate (CA) thin film electrodes exhibited sheet resistance ranging from 0.32ohm/sq to 122.1ohm/sq which could be controlled by changing the concentration of both silver and polymer. In addition, these electrodes exhibited outstanding toughness during the bending test. Further, these thin film electrodes have great potential for scale-up with an average weight of 3mg/cm 2 and can be also combined with active nanomaterials such as multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to fabricate AgND/CA/MWCNTs thin film for high-performance flexible supercapacitor electrode. The AgND/CA/MWCNTs electrodes exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 237F/g at a current density of 0.3A/g. After 1000 cycles, the AgND/MWCNT/CA exhibited a decrease of 16.0% of specific capacitance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polarization Induced Changes in LSM Thin Film Electrode Composition Observed by In Operando Raman Spectroscopy and TOF-SIMS

    McIntyre, Melissa D.; Walker, Robert; Traulsen, Marie Lund

    2015-01-01

    an applied potential.1-3 The presented work explores the polarisation induced changes in LSM electrode composition by utilizing in operando Raman spectroscopy and post mortem ToF-SIMS depth profiling on LSM thin film model electrodes fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on YSZ substrates with a thin (200 nm...... recorded through the LSM thin film electrodes and revealed distinct compositional changes throughout the electrodes (Figure 2). The electrode elements and impurities separated into distinct layers that were more pronounced for the stronger applied polarisations. The mechanism behind this separation...

  16. Rotational electrical impedance tomography using electrodes with limited surface coverage provides window for multimodal sensing

    Lehti-Polojärvi, Mari; Koskela, Olli; Seppänen, Aku; Figueiras, Edite; Hyttinen, Jari

    2018-02-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging method that could become a valuable tool in multimodal applications. One challenge in simultaneous multimodal imaging is that typically the EIT electrodes cover a large portion of the object surface. This paper investigates the feasibility of rotational EIT (rEIT) in applications where electrodes cover only a limited angle of the surface of the object. In the studied rEIT, the object is rotated a full 360° during a set of measurements to increase the information content of the data. We call this approach limited angle full revolution rEIT (LAFR-rEIT). We test LAFR-rEIT setups in two-dimensional geometries with computational and experimental data. We use up to 256 rotational measurement positions, which requires a new way to solve the forward and inverse problem of rEIT. For this, we provide a modification, available for EIDORS, in the supplementary material. The computational results demonstrate that LAFR-rEIT with eight electrodes produce the same image quality as conventional 16-electrode rEIT, when data from an adequate number of rotational measurement positions are used. Both computational and experimental results indicate that the novel LAFR-rEIT provides good EIT with setups with limited surface coverage and a small number of electrodes.

  17. Microcrystalline silicon carbide alloys prepared with HWCVD as highly transparent and conductive window layers for thin film solar cells

    Finger, F.; Astakhov, O.; Bronger, T.; Carius, R.; Chen, T.; Dasgupta, A.; Gordijn, A.; Houben, L.; Huang, Y.; Klein, S.; Luysberg, M.; Wang, H.; Xiao, L.

    2009-01-01

    Crystalline silicon carbide alloys have a very high potential as transparent conductive window layers in thin-film solar cells provided they can be prepared in thin-film form and at compatible deposition temperatures. The low-temperature deposition of such material in microcrystalline form (μc-Si:C:H) was realized by use of monomethylsilane precursor gas diluted in hydrogen with the Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition process. A wide range of deposition parameters has been investigated and the structural, electronic and optical properties of the μc-SiC:H thin films have been studied. The material, which is strongly n-type from unintentional doping, has been used as window layer in n-side illuminated microcrystalline silicon solar cells. High short-circuit current densities are obtained due to the high transparency of the material resulting in a maximum solar cell conversion efficiency of 9.2%.

  18. Investigations on the effects of electrode materials on the device characteristics of ferroelectric memory thin film transistors fabricated on flexible substrates

    Yang, Ji-Hee; Yun, Da-Jeong; Seo, Gi-Ho; Kim, Seong-Min; Yoon, Myung-Han; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2018-03-01

    For flexible memory device applications, we propose memory thin-film transistors using an organic ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] gate insulator and an amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) active channel. The effects of electrode materials and their deposition methods on the characteristics of memory devices exploiting the ferroelectric field effect were investigated for the proposed ferroelectric memory thin-film transistors (Fe-MTFTs) at flat and bending states. It was found that the plasma-induced sputtering deposition and mechanical brittleness of the indium-tin oxide (ITO) markedly degraded the ferroelectric-field-effect-driven memory window and bending characteristics of the Fe-MTFTs. The replacement of ITO electrodes with metal aluminum (Al) electrodes prepared by plasma-free thermal evaporation greatly enhanced the memory device characteristics even under bending conditions owing to their mechanical ductility. Furthermore, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was introduced to achieve robust bending performance under extreme mechanical stress. The Fe-MTFTs using PEDOT:PSS source/drain electrodes were successfully fabricated and showed the potential for use as flexible memory devices. The suitable choice of electrode materials employed for the Fe-MTFTs is concluded to be one of the most important control parameters for highly functional flexible Fe-MTFTs.

  19. Roll-to-Roll Production of Transparent Silver-Nanofiber-Network Electrodes for Flexible Electrochromic Smart Windows.

    Lin, Sen; Bai, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haiyang; Wang, Haolun; Song, Jianan; Huang, Kai; Wang, Chang; Wang, Ning; Li, Bo; Lei, Ming; Wu, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Electrochromic smart windows (ECSWs) are considered as the most promising alternative to traditional dimming devices. However, the electrode technology in ECSWs remains stagnant, wherein inflexible indium tin oxide and fluorine-doped tin oxide are the main materials being used. Although various complicated production methods, such as high-temperature calcination and sputtering, have been reported, the mass production of flexible and transparent electrodes remains challenging. Here, a nonheated roll-to-roll process is developed for the continuous production of flexible, extralarge, and transparent silver nanofiber (AgNF) network electrodes. The optical and mechanical properties, as well as the electrical conductivity of these products (i.e., 12 Ω sq -1 at 95% transmittance) are comparable with those AgNF networks produced via high-temperature sintering. Moreover, the as-prepared AgNF network is successfully assembled into an A4-sized ECSW with short switching time, good coloration efficiency, and flexibility. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Contact Resistance Reduction of ZnO Thin Film Transistors (TFTs) with Saw-Shaped Electrode

    Park, Woojin

    2018-05-15

    We report a saw-shaped electrode architecture ZnO thin film transistor (TFT) for effectively increase channel width. Such a saw-shaped electrode has ~2 times longer contact line at the contact metal/ZnO channel junction. We experimentally observed an enhancement in the output drive current by 50% and reduction in the contact resistance by over 50%, when compared to a typical shaped electrode ZnO TFT consuming the same chip area. This performance enhancement is attributed to extension of channel width. This technique can contribute to device performance enhancement and especially reduction in the contact resistance which is a serious challenge.

  1. Thin, Flexible Supercapacitors Made from Carbon Nanofiber Electrodes Decorated at Room Temperature with Manganese Oxide Nanosheets

    Nataraj, S. K.; Song, Q.; Al-Muhtaseb, S. A.; Dutton, S. E.; Zhang, Q.; Sivaniah, E.

    2013-01-01

    We report the fabrication and electrochemical performance of a flexible thin film supercapacitor with a novel nanostructured composite electrode. The electrode was prepared by in situ coprecipitation of two-dimensional (2D) MnO2 nanosheets at room temperature in the presence of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). The highest specific capacitance of 142 F/g was achieved for CNFs-MnO2 electrodes in sandwiched assembly with PVA-H4SiW12O40nH2O polyelectrolyte separator. Peer Reviewed

  2. Thin, Flexible Supercapacitors Made from Carbon Nanofiber Electrodes Decorated at Room Temperature with Manganese Oxide Nanosheets

    S. K. Nataraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication and electrochemical performance of a flexible thin film supercapacitor with a novel nanostructured composite electrode. The electrode was prepared by in situ coprecipitation of two-dimensional (2D MnO2 nanosheets at room temperature in the presence of carbon nanofibers (CNFs. The highest specific capacitance of 142 F/g was achieved for CNFs-MnO2 electrodes in sandwiched assembly with PVA-H4SiW12O40·nH2O polyelectrolyte separator.

  3. Self-positioned thin Pb-alloy base electrode Josephson junction

    Kuroda, K.; Sato, K.

    1986-01-01

    A self-positioned thin (SPOT) Pb-alloy base electrode Josephson junction is developed. In this junction, a 50-nm thick Pb-alloy base electrode is restricted within the junction region on an Nb underlayer using a self-alignment technique. The grain size reduction and the base electrode area restriction greatly improve thermal cycling stability, where the thermal cycling tests of 4000 proposed junctions (5 x 5 μm 2 ) showed no failures after 4000 cycles. In addition, the elimination of insulator layer stress on the Pb-alloy base electrode rectifies the problem of size effect on current density. The Nb underlayers also serve to isolate the Pb-alloy base electrodes from the resistors

  4. PZT Thin-Film Micro Probe Device with Dual Top Electrodes

    Luo, Chuan

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-film actuators have been studied intensively for years because of their potential applications in many fields. In this dissertation, a PZT thin-film micro probe device is designed, fabricated, studied, and proven to be acceptable as an intracochlear acoustic actuator. The micro probe device takes the form of a cantilever with a PZT thin-film diaphragm at the tip of the probe. The tip portion of the probe will be implanted in cochlea later in animal tests to prove its feasibility in hearing rehabilitation. The contribution of the dissertation is three-fold. First, a dual top electrodes design, consisting of a center electrode and an outer electrode, is developed to improve actuation displacement of the PZT thin-film diaphragm. The improvement by the dual top electrodes design is studied via a finite element model. When the dimensions of the dual electrodes are optimized, the displacement of the PZT thin-film diaphragm increases about 30%. A PZT thin-film diaphragm with dual top electrodes is fabricated to prove the concept, and experimental results confirm the predictions from the finite element analyses. Moreover, the dual electrode design can accommodate presence of significant residual stresses in the PZT thin-film diaphragm by changing the phase difference between the two electrodes. Second, a PZT thin-film micro probe device is fabricated and tested. The fabrication process consists of PZT thin-film deposition and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The uniqueness of the fabrication process is an automatic dicing mechanism that allows a large number of probes to be released easily from the wafer. Moreover, the fabrication is very efficient, because the DRIE process will form the PZT thin-film diaphragm and the special dicing mechanism simultaneously. After the probes are fabricated, they are tested with various possible implantation depths (i.e., boundary conditions). Experimental results show that future implantation depths

  5. Effect of top electrode material on radiation-induced degradation of ferroelectric thin film structures

    Brewer, Steven J.; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Deng, Carmen Z.; Callaway, Connor P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Paul, McKinley K. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Woodward Academy, College Park, Georgia 30337 (United States); Fisher, Kenzie J. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Riverwood International Charter School, Atlanta, Georgia 30328 (United States); Guerrier, Jonathon E.; Jones, Jacob L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Rudy, Ryan Q.; Polcawich, Ronald G. [Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); Glaser, Evan R.; Cress, Cory D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-07-14

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the dielectric and piezoelectric responses of Pb[Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}]O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film stacks were investigated for structures with conductive oxide (IrO{sub 2}) and metallic (Pt) top electrodes. The samples showed, generally, degradation of various key dielectric, ferroelectric, and electromechanical responses when exposed to 2.5 Mrad (Si) {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. However, the low-field, relative dielectric permittivity, ε{sub r}, remained largely unaffected by irradiation in samples with both types of electrodes. Samples with Pt top electrodes showed substantial degradation of the remanent polarization and overall piezoelectric response, as well as pinching of the polarization hysteresis curves and creation of multiple peaks in the permittivity-electric field curves post irradiation. The samples with oxide electrodes, however, were largely impervious to the same radiation dose, with less than 5% change in any of the functional characteristics. The results suggest a radiation-induced change in the defect population or defect energy in PZT with metallic top electrodes, which substantially affects motion of internal interfaces such as domain walls. Additionally, the differences observed for stacks with different electrode materials implicate the ferroelectric–electrode interface as either the predominant source of radiation-induced effects (Pt electrodes) or the site of healing for radiation-induced defects (IrO{sub 2} electrodes).

  6. Optical properties of vanadium dioxide thin film as a windows thermochromic coating

    Wu, Z. P.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of vanadium dioxide (VO2 thin film have been studied for the potential application of intelligent windows. The results show that VO2 film deposited on sapphire substrates exhibits good thermochromic effects, its IR transmittance changes 60% before and after phase transition, and has less thickness dependence than UV transmittance. Doping can significantly reduce transition temperature, such as to 30°C for 1.5% Mo doped VO2.

    Se han investigado las propiedades ópticas del dióxido de vanadio (VO2 aplicado como películas delgadas para posibles aplicaciones en ventanas inteligentes. Cuando el VO2 se deposita sobre sustratos de zafiro da lugar a efectos termocrómicos considerables; así, su transmitancia en el infrarrojo cambia en un 60 % después de la transición de fase del dióxido de vanadio, teniendo una dependencia menor con el espesor que la transmitancia en el ultravioleta. El efecto de aditivos sobre estas películas de dioxido de vanadio da lugar a una disminución de la temperatura de dicha transición responsable del efecto termocrómico, de manera que se produce a 30°C con el 1,5 % de adición de Mo.

  7. Scalable Fabrication of Integrated Nanophotonic Circuits on Arrays of Thin Single Crystal Diamond Membrane Windows.

    Piracha, Afaq H; Rath, Patrik; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Kühn, Stefan; Pernice, Wolfram H P; Prawer, Steven

    2016-05-11

    Diamond has emerged as a promising platform for nanophotonic, optical, and quantum technologies. High-quality, single crystalline substrates of acceptable size are a prerequisite to meet the demanding requirements on low-level impurities and low absorption loss when targeting large photonic circuits. Here, we describe a scalable fabrication method for single crystal diamond membrane windows that achieves three major goals with one fabrication method: providing high quality diamond, as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy; achieving homogeneously thin membranes, enabled by ion implantation; and providing compatibility with established planar fabrication via lithography and vertical etching. On such suspended diamond membranes we demonstrate a suite of photonic components as building blocks for nanophotonic circuits. Monolithic grating couplers are used to efficiently couple light between photonic circuits and optical fibers. In waveguide coupled optical ring resonators, we find loaded quality factors up to 66 000 at a wavelength of 1560 nm, corresponding to propagation loss below 7.2 dB/cm. Our approach holds promise for the scalable implementation of future diamond quantum photonic technologies and all-diamond photonic metrology tools.

  8. Annealing Effect on the Photoelectrochemical Properties of BiVO_4 Thin Film Electrodes

    Siti Nur Farhana Mohd Nasir; Mohd Asri Mat Teridi; Mehdi Ebadi; Sagu, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO_4) thin film electrodes were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin oxide via aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD). Annealing and without annealing effect of thin films were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) and current voltage measurement. All BiVO_4 thin films showed an anodic photocurrent. The sample of BiVO_4 annealed at 400 degree Celsius exhibited the highest photocurrent density of 0.44 mAcm"-"2 vs. Ag/ AgCl at 1.23 V. (author)

  9. Ready fabrication of thin-film electrodes from building nanocrystals for micro-supercapacitors.

    Chen, Zheng; Weng, Ding; Wang, Xiaolei; Cheng, Yanhua; Wang, Ge; Lu, Yunfeng

    2012-04-18

    Thin-film pseudocapacitor electrodes with ultrafast lithium storage kinetics, high capacitance and excellent cycling stability were fabricated from monodispersed TiO(2) building nanocrystals, providing a novel approach towards next-generation micro-supercapacitor applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  10. Thin-layer voltammetry of soluble species on screen-printed electrodes: proof of concept.

    Botasini, S; Martí, A C; Méndez, E

    2016-10-17

    Thin-layer diffusion conditions were accomplished on screen-printed electrodes by placing a controlled-weight onto the cast solution and allowing for its natural spreading. The restricted diffusive conditions were assessed by cyclic voltammetry at low voltage scan rates and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The relationship between the weight exerted over the drop and the thin-layer thickness achieved was determined, in such a way that the simple experimental set-up designed for this work could be developed into a commercial device with variable control of the thin-layer conditions. The experimental results obtained resemble those reported for the voltammetric features of electroactive soluble species employing electrodes modified with carbon nanotubes or graphene layers, suggesting that the attainment of the benefits reported for these nanomaterials could be done simply by forcing the solution to spread over the screen-printed electrodic system to form a thin layer solution. The advantages of thin-layer voltammetry in the kinetic characterization of quasi-reversible and irreversible processes are highlighted.

  11. Transparent Wood Smart Windows: Polymer Electrochromic Devices Based on Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(Styrene Sulfonate) Electrodes.

    Lang, Augustus W; Li, Yuanyuan; De Keersmaecker, Michel; Shen, D Eric; Österholm, Anna M; Berglund, Lars; Reynolds, John R

    2018-03-09

    Transparent wood composites, with their high strength and toughness, thermal insulation, and excellent transmissivity, offer a route to replace glass for diffusely transmitting windows. Here, conjugated-polymer-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) that switch on-demand are demonstrated using transparent wood coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as a transparent conducting electrode. These ECDs exhibit a vibrant magenta-to-clear color change that results from a remarkably colorless bleached state. Furthermore, they require low energy and power inputs of 3 mWh m -2 at 2 W m -2 to switch due to a high coloration efficiency (590 cm 2  C -1 ) and low driving voltage (0.8 V). Each device component is processed with high-throughput methods, which highlights the opportunity to apply this approach to fabricate mechanically robust, energy-efficient smart windows on a large scale. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  12. Ultra-Thin Optically Transparent Carbon Electrodes Produced from Layers of Adsorbed Proteins

    Alharthi, Sarah A.; Benavidez, Tomas E.; Garcia, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a simple, versatile, and inexpensive procedure to prepare optically transparent carbon electrodes, using proteins as precursors. Upon adsorption, the protein-coated substrates were pyrolyzed under reductive conditions (5% H2) to form ultra-thin, conductive electrodes. Because proteins spontaneously adsorb to interfaces forming uniform layers, the proposed method does not require a precise control of the preparation conditions, specialized instrumentation, or expensive precursors. The resulting electrodes were characterized by a combination of electrochemical, optical, and spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-concept, the optically-transparent electrodes were also used as substrate for the development of an electrochemical glucose biosensor. The proposed films represent a convenient alternative to more sophisticated, and less available, carbon-based nanomaterials. Furthermore, these films could be formed on a variety of substrates, without classical limitations of size or shape. PMID:23421732

  13. Nanoporous MnO{sub x} thin-film electrodes synthesized by electrochemical lithiation/delithiation for supercapacitors

    Xia, Hui; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2011-02-15

    Nanoporous MnO{sub x} thin-film electrodes are synthesized using a combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and electrochemical lithiation/delithiation methods. A dense Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin-film deposited by PLD can transform into a nanoporous MnO{sub x} thin-film after electrochemical lithiation/delithiation. A nanoporous MnO{sub x} thin-film electrode exhibits significantly improved supercapacitive performance compared with an as-deposited Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin-film electrode. A MnO{sub x} thin-film finally transforms into a MnO{sub 2} thin-film through an electrochemical oxidation process during continuous cyclic voltammetry scanning. (author)

  14. Electrochemical Deposition of CdTe Semiconductor Thin Films for Solar Cell Application Using Two-Electrode and Three-Electrode Configurations: A Comparative Study

    O. K. Echendu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of CdTe semiconductor were electrochemically deposited using two-electrode and three-electrode configurations in potentiostatic mode for comparison. Cadmium sulphate and tellurium dioxide were used as cadmium and tellurium sources, respectively. The layers obtained using both configurations exhibit similar structural, optical, and electrical properties with no specific dependence on any particular electrode configuration used. These results indicate that electrochemical deposition (electrodeposition of CdTe and semiconductors in general can equally be carried out using two-electrode system as well as the conventional three-electrode system without compromising the essential qualities of the materials produced. The results also highlight the advantages of the two-electrode configuration in process simplification, cost reduction, and removal of a possible impurity source in the growth system, especially as the reference electrode ages.

  15. RF Magnetron Sputtering Deposited W/Ti Thin Film For Smart Window Applications

    Oksuz, Lutfi; Kiristi, Melek; Bozduman, Ferhat; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2014-10-01

    Electrochromic (EC) devices can change reversible and persistent their optical properties in the visible region (400-800 nm) upon charge insertion/extraction according to the applied voltage. A complementary type EC is a device containing two electrochromic layers, one of which is anodically colored such as vanadium oxide (V2 O5) while the other cathodically colored such as tungsten oxide (WO3) which is separated by an ionic conduction layer (electrolyte). The use of a solid electrolyte such as Nafion eliminates the need for containment of the liquid electrolyte, which simplifies the cell design, as well as improves safety and durability. In this work, the EC device was fabricated on a ITO/glass slide. The WO3-TiO2 thin film was deposited by reactive RF magnetron sputtering using a 2-in W/Ti (9:1%wt) target with purity of 99.9% in a mixture gas of argon and oxygen. As a counter electrode layer, V2O5 film was deposited on an ITO/glass substrate using V2O3 target with the same conditions of reactive RF magnetron sputtering. Modified Nafion was used as an electrolyte to complete EC device. The transmittance spectra of the complementary EC device was measured by optical spectrophotometry when a voltage of +/-3 V was applied to the EC device by computer controlled system. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Fig. 2). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) for EC device was performed by sweeping the potential between +/-3 V at a scan rate of 50 mV/s.

  16. PEDOT as a Flexible Organic Electrode for a Thin Film Acoustic Energy Harvester.

    Kim, Younghoon; Na, Jongbeom; Park, Chihyun; Shin, Haijin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2015-08-05

    An efficient thin film acoustic energy harvester was explored using flexible poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films as electrodes in an all-organic triboelectric generator (AO-TEG). A thin film AO-TEG structured as PEDOT/Kapton//PET/PEDOT was prepared by the solution casting polymerization(SCP) on the dielectric polymer films. As-prepared AO-TEG showed high flexibility and durability due to the strong adhesion between the electrodes and the dielectric polymer. The short-circuit current density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and maximum power density (Pw) reached 50 mA/m(2), 700 V, and 12.9 W/m(2) respectively. The output current density decreased with the increase in the electrode resistance (Re), but the energy loss in the organic electrodes was negligible. The AO-TEG could light up 180 LEDs instantaneously upon touching of the AO-TEG with a palm (∼120 N). With the flexible structure, the AO-TEG was worn as clothes and generated electricity to light LEDs upon regular human movement. Furthermore, the AO-TEG was applicable as a thin film acoustic energy harvester, which used music to generate electricity enough for powering of 5 LEDs. An AO-TEG with a PEDOT electrode (Re = 200 Ω) showed instantaneous peak-to-peak voltage generation of 11 V under a sound pressure level (SPL) of 90-100 dB. The harvested acoustic energy through the AO-TEG was 350 μJ from the 4 min playing of the same single song. This is the first demonstration of a flexible triboelectric generator (TEG) using an organic electrode for harvesting acoustic energy from ambient environment.

  17. Transparent electrode requirements for thin film solar cell modules

    Rowell, Michael W.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The transparent conductor (TC) layer in thin film solar cell modules has a significant impact on the power conversion efficiency. Reflection, absorption, resistive losses and lost active area either from the scribed interconnect region in monolithically integrated modules or from the shadow losses of a metal grid in standard modules typically reduce the efficiency by 10-25%. Here, we perform calculations to show that a competitive TC must have a transparency of at least 90% at a sheet resistance of less than 10 Ω/sq (conductivity/absorptivity ≥ 1 Ω -1) for monolithically integrated modules. For standard modules, losses are much lower and the performance of alternative lower cost TC materials may already be sufficient to replace conducting oxides in this geometry. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Cu2Sb thin film electrodes prepared by pulsed laser deposition f or lithium batteries

    Song, Seung-Wan; Reade, Ronald P.; Cairns, Elton J.; Vaughey, Jack T.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2003-08-01

    Thin films of Cu2Sb, prepared on stainless steel and copper substrates with a pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature, have been evaluated as electrodes in lithium cells. The electrodes operate by a lithium insertion/copper extrusion reaction mechanism, the reversibility of which is superior when copper substrates are used, particularly when electrochemical cycling is restricted to the voltage range 0.65-1.4 V vs. Li/Li+. The superior performance of Cu2Sb films on copper is attributed to the more active participation of the extruded copper in the functioning of the electrode. The continual and extensive extrusion of copper on cycling the cells leads to the isolation of Li3Sb particles and a consequent formation of Sb. Improved cycling stability of both types of electrodes was obtained when cells were cycled between 0.65 and 1.4 V. A low-capacity lithium-ion cell with Cu2Sb and LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrodes, laminated from powders, shows excellent cycling stability over the voltage range 3.15 - 2.2 V, the potential difference corresponding to approximately 0.65-1.4 V for the Cu2Sb electrode vs. Li/Li+. Chemical self-discharge of lithiated Cu2Sb electrodes by reaction with the electrolyte was severe when cells were allowed to relax on open circuit after reaching a lower voltage limit of 0.1 V. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formed on Cu2Sb electrodes after cells had been cycled between 1.4 and 0.65 V vs. Li/Li+ was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy; the SEI layer contributes to the large irreversible capacity loss on the initial cycle of these cells. The data contribute to a better understanding of the electrochemical behavior of intermetallic electrodes in rechargeable lithium batteries.

  19. Thermochromic VO2 thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering for smart window applications

    Fortier, Jean-Philippe

    "Smart" windows are a perfect innovative example of technology that reduces our energy dependence and our impact on the environment while saving on the economical point of view. With the use of vanadium dioxide (VO2), a thermochromic compound, and this, as a thin coating, it would in fact be possible to control the sun's transmission of infrared light (heat) as a function of the surrounding environment temperature. In other words, its optical behavior would allow a more effective management of heat exchanges between a living venue and the outdoor environment. However, this type of window is still in a developmental stage. First, the oxide's deposition is not simple in nature. Based on a conventional deposition technique called magnetron sputtering mainly used in the fenestration industry, several factors such as the oxygen concentration and the substrate temperature during deposition can affect the coating's thermochromic behavior, and this, by changing its composition and crystallinity. Other control parameters such as the deposition rate, the pressure in the sputtering chamber and the choice of substrate may also modify the film microstructure, thereby varying its optical and electrical properties. In addition, several issues still persist as to its commercial application. For starters, the material's structural transition, related to the change of its optical properties, only occurs around 68°C. In addition, its low transparency and natural greenish colour are not visually appealing. Then, to this day, the deposition temperature required to crystallize and form the thermochromic oxide remains an obstacle for a possible large-scale application. Ultimately, although the material's change in temperature has been shown to be advantageous in situations of varying climate, the existing corrective solutions to these issues generate a deterioration of the thermochromic behavior. With no practical expertise on the material, this project was undertaken with certain

  20. Near-infrared selective dynamic windows controlled by charge transfer impedance at the counter electrode.

    Pattathil, Praveen; Scarfiello, Riccardo; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Veramonti, Giulia; Sibillano, Teresa; Qualtieri, Antonio; Giannini, Cinzia; Cozzoli, P Davide; Manca, Michele

    2016-12-08

    Recent developments in the exploitation of transparent conductive oxide nanocrystals paved the way to the realization of a new class of electrochemical systems capable of selectively shielding the infrared heat loads carried by sunlight and prospected the blooming of a key enabling technology to be implemented in the next generation of "zero-energy" building envelopes. Here we report the fabrication of a set of electrochromic devices embodying an engineered nanostructured electrode made by high aspect-ratio tungsten oxide nanorods, which allow for selectively and dynamically controlling sunlight transmission over the near-infrared to visible range. Varying the intensity of applied voltage makes the spectral response of the device change across three different optical regimes, namely fully transparent, near-infrared only blocking and both visible and near-infrared blocking. It is demonstrated that the degree of reversible modulation of the thermal radiation entering the glazing element can approach a remarkable 85%, accompanied by only a modest reduction in the luminous transmittance.

  1. Future Power Production by LENR with Thin-Film Electrodes

    Miley, George H.; Hora, Heinz; Lipson, Andrei; Luo, Nie; Shrestha, P. Joshi

    2007-03-01

    PdD cluster reaction theory was recently proposed to explain a wide range of Low energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) experiments. If understood and optimized, cluster reactions could lead to a revolutionary new power source of nuclear energy. The route is two-fold. First, the excess heat must be obtained reproducibly and over extended run times. Second, the percentage of excess must be significantly (order of magnitude or more) higher than the 20-50% typically today. The thin film methods described here have proven to be quite reproducible, e.g. providing excess heat of 20-30% in nine consecutive runs of several weeks each. However, mechanical separation of the films occurs over long runs due to the severe mechanical stresses created.. Techniques to overcome these problems are possible using graded bonding techniques similar to that used in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Thus the remaining key issue is to increase the excess heat. The cluster model provides import insight into this. G. H. Miley, H. Hora, et al., 233rd Amer Chem Soc Meeting, Chicago, IL, March 25-29, 2007.

  2. Comparison of lead zirconate titanate thin films on ruthenium oxide and platinum electrodes

    Bursill, Les A.; Reaney, Ian M.; Vijay, Dilip P.; Desu, Seshu B.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution and bright- and dark-field transmission electron microscopy are used to characterize and compare the interface structures and microstructure of PZT/RuO2/SiO2/Si and PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si ferroelectric thin films, with a view to understanding the improved fatigue characteristics of PZT thin films with RuO2 electrodes. The RuO2/PZT interface consists of a curved pseudoperiodic minimal surface. The interface is chemically sharp with virtually no intermixing of RuO2 and PZT, as eviden...

  3. Layered Cu-based electrode for high-dielectric constant oxide thin film-based devices

    Fan, W.; Saha, S.; Carlisle, J.A.; Auciello, O.; Chang, R.P.H.; Ramesh, R.

    2003-01-01

    Ti-Al/Cu/Ta multilayered electrodes were fabricated on SiO 2 /Si substrates by ion beam sputtering deposition, to overcome the problems of Cu diffusion and oxidation encountered during the high dielectric constant (κ) materials integration. The Cu and Ta layers remained intact through the annealing in oxygen environment up to 600 deg. C. The thin oxide layer, formed on the Ti-Al surface, effectively prevented the oxygen penetration toward underneath layers. Complex oxide (Ba x Sr 1-x )TiO 3 (BST) thin films were grown on the layered Ti-Al/Cu/Ta electrodes using rf magnetron sputtering. The deposited BST films exhibited relatively high permittivity (150), low dielectric loss (0.007) at zero bias, and low leakage current -8 A/cm 2 at 100 kV/cm

  4. Transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors based on multilayer transparent source-drain electrodes

    Zhang, Nan; Hu, Yongsheng, E-mail: huyongsheng@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: liuxy@ciomp.ac.cn; Lin, Jie; Li, Yantao; Liu, Xingyuan, E-mail: huyongsheng@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: liuxy@ciomp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2016-08-08

    A fabrication method for transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors with transparent Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ag/Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (SAS) source and drain electrodes has been developed. A pentacene/N,N′-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic di-imide (PTCDI-C13) bilayer heterojunction is used as the active semiconductor. The electrodes are deposited by room temperature electron beam evaporation. The devices are fabricated without damaging the active layers. The SAS electrodes have high transmittance (82.5%) and low sheet resistance (8 Ω/sq). High performance devices with hole and electron mobilities of 0.3 cm{sup 2}/V s and 0.027 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively, and average visible range transmittance of 72% were obtained. These transistors have potential for transparent logic integrated circuit applications.

  5. The Effect of Round Window vs Cochleostomy Surgical Approaches on Cochlear Implant Electrode Position: A Flat-Panel Computed Tomography Study.

    Jiam, Nicole T; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Pearl, Monica S; Limb, Charles J

    2016-09-01

    The round window insertion (RWI) and cochleostomy approaches are the 2 most common surgical techniques used in cochlear implantation (CI). However, there is no consensus on which approach is ideal for electrode array insertion, in part because visualization of intracochlear electrode position is challenging, so postoperative assessment of intracochlear electrode contact is lacking. To measure and compare electrode array position between RWI and cochleostomy approaches for CI insertion. Retrospective case-comparison study of 17 CI users with Med-El standard-length electrode arrays who underwent flat-panel computed tomography scans after CI surgery at a tertiary referral center. The data was analyzed in October 2015. Flat-panel computed tomography scans were collected between January 1 and August 31, 2013, for 22 electrode arrays. The surgical technique was identified by a combination of operative notes and imaging. Eight cochleae underwent RWI and 14 cochleae underwent cochleostomy approaches anterior and inferior to the round window. Interscalar electrode position and electrode centroid distance to the osseous spiral lamina, lateral bony wall, and central axis of the modiolus. Nine participants were men, and 8, women; the mean age was 54.4 (range, 21-64) years. Electrode position was significantly closer to cochlear neural elements with RWI than cochleostomy approaches. Between the 2 surgical approaches, the RWI technique produced shorter distances between the electrode and the modiolus (mean difference, -0.33 [95% CI, -0.29 to -0.39] mm in the apical electrode; -1.42 [95% CI, -1.24 to -1.57] mm in the basal electrode). This difference, which was most prominent in the first third and latter third of the basal turn, decreased after the basal turn. The RWI approach was associated with an increased likelihood of perimodiolar placement. Opting to use RWI over cochleostomy approaches in CI candidates may position electrodes closer to cochlear neural substrates and

  6. Tracking metal ions with polypyrrole thin films adhesively bonded to diazonium-modified flexible ITO electrodes.

    Lo, Momath; Diaw, Abdou K D; Gningue-Sall, Diariatou; Aaron, Jean-Jacques; Oturan, Mehmet A; Chehimi, Mohamed M

    2018-05-09

    Adhesively bonded polypyrrole thin films doped with benzene sulfonic acid (BSA) were electrodeposited on aminobenzenediazonium-modified flexible ITO electrodes and further employed for the detection of Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Cd 2+ metal ions in aqueous medium. The aminophenyl (AP) adhesive layer was grafted to ITO by electroreduction of the in situ generated parent diazonium compound. Polypyrrole (PPy) thin films exhibited remarkable adhesion to aminophenyl (ITO-AP). The strongly adherent polypyrrole films exhibited excellent electroactivity in the doped state with BSA which itself served to chelate the metal ions in aqueous medium. The surface of the resulting, modified flexible electrode was characterized by XPS, SEM, and electrochemical methods. The ITO-AP-PPy electrodes were then used for the simultaneous detection of Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Pb 2+ by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The detection limits were 11.1, 8.95, and 0.99 nM for Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Pb 2+ , respectively. In addition, the modified electrodes displayed a good reproducibility, making them suitable for the determination of heavy metals in real wastewater samples.

  7. Nano-sized copper tungstate thin films as positive electrodes for rechargeable Li batteries

    Li Chilin; Fu Zhengwen

    2008-01-01

    Nano-sized CuWO 4 thin films have been fabricated by radio-frequency (R.F.) sputtering deposition, and are used as positive electrode with both LiClO 4 liquid electrolyte and LiPON solid electrolyte in rechargeable lithium batteries. An initial discharge capacity of 192 and 210 mAh/g is obtainable for CuWO 4 film electrode with and without coated LiPON in liquid electrolyte, respectively. An all-solid-state cell with Li/LiPON/CuWO 4 layers shows a high-volume rate capacity of 145 μAh/cm 2 μm in first discharge, and overcomes the unfavorable electrochemical degradation observed in liquid electrolyte system. A two-step reactive mechanism is investigated by both transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction techniques. Apart from the extrusion and injection of Cu 2+ /Cu 0 , additional capacity can be achieved by the reversible reactivity of (WO 4 ) 2- framework. The chemical diffusion coefficients of Li intercalation/deintercalation are estimated by cyclic voltammetry. Nano-CuWO 4 thin film is expected to be a promising positive electrode material for high-performance rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

  8. Amperometric detection and electrochemical oxidation of aliphatic amines and ammonia on silver-lead oxide thin-film electrodes

    Ge, Jisheng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-01-08

    This thesis comprises three parts: Electrocatalysis of anodic oxygen-transfer reactions: aliphatic amines at mixed Ag-Pb oxide thin-film electrodes; oxidation of ammonia at anodized Ag-Pb eutectic alloy electrodes; and temperature effects on oxidation of ethylamine, alanine, and aquated ammonia.

  9. Polarization Induced Changes in LSM Thin Film Electrode Composition Observed by In Operando Raman Spectroscopy and TOF-SIMS

    McIntyre, Melissa D.; Traulsen, Marie Lund; Norrman, Kion

    2015-01-01

    Polarization induced changes in LSM electrode composition were investigated by utilizing in operando Raman spectroscopy and post mortem TOF-SIMS depth profiling. Experiments were conducted on cells with 160 nm thick (La0.85Sr0.15)0.9MnO3±δ thin film electrodes in 10% O2 at 700 °C under various...

  10. Preparation and characterization of flexible asymmetric supercapacitors based on transition-metal-oxide nanowire/single-walled carbon nanotube hybrid thin-film electrodes.

    Chen, Po-Chiang; Shen, Guozhen; Shi, Yi; Chen, Haitian; Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-08-24

    In the work described in this paper, we have successfully fabricated flexible asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on transition-metal-oxide nanowire/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrid thin-film electrodes. These hybrid nanostructured films, with advantages of mechanical flexibility, uniform layered structures, and mesoporous surface morphology, were produced by using a filtration method. Here, manganese dioxide nanowire/SWNT hybrid films worked as the positive electrode, and indium oxide nanowire/SWNT hybrid films served as the negative electrode in a designed ASC. In our design, charges can be stored not only via electrochemical double-layer capacitance from SWNT films but also through a reversible faradic process from transition-metal-oxide nanowires. In addition, to obtain stable electrochemical behavior during charging/discharging cycles in a 2 V potential window, the mass balance between two electrodes has been optimized. Our optimized hybrid nanostructured ASCs exhibited a superior device performance with specific capacitance of 184 F/g, energy density of 25.5 Wh/kg, and columbic efficiency of approximately 90%. In addition, our ASCs exhibited a power density of 50.3 kW/kg, which is 10-fold higher than obtained in early reported ASC work. The high-performance hybrid nanostructured ASCs can find applications in conformal electrics, portable electronics, and electrical vehicles.

  11. Pt/AlPO{sub 4} nanocomposite thin-film electrodes for ethanol electrooxidation

    Oh, Yuhong; Kang, Joonhyeon; Nam, Seunghoon; Byun, Sujin [WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byungwoo, E-mail: byungwoo@snu.ac.kr [WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-16

    The enhanced catalytic properties toward ethanol electrooxidation on Pt/AlPO{sub 4} nanocomposite thin-film electrodes were investigated. The Pt/AlPO{sub 4} nanocomposites with various Al/Pt ratios (0.27, 0.57, and 0.96) were fabricated by a co-sputtering method. All of the Pt/AlPO{sub 4} nanocomposites showed a negative shift in the onset potential and a higher current density than those of pure Pt electrode for the electrooxidation of ethanol. Among the various Pt/AlPO{sub 4} nanocomposite thin-film electrodes, the electrode with an atomic ratio of Al to Pt of 0.57 showed the highest electrocatalytic activity for ethanol electrooxidation. The activation enthalpy for the optimum Pt/AlPO{sub 4} nanocomposite was approximately 0.05 eV lower than that of pure Pt. It is believed that the enhancement in catalytic activity is due to the electron-rich Pt resulting from the Fermi-energy difference between Pt and AlPO{sub 4}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enhanced ethanol electrooxidation on Pt/AlPO{sub 4} nanocomposites is investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Pt/AlPO{sub 4} exhibits higher current density and lower onset potential than pure Pt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The activation enthalpy for optimum Pt/AlPO{sub 4} electrode is {approx}0.05 eV lower than pure Pt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS shows electron-rich Pt due to Fermi-energy difference between Pt and AlPO{sub 4}.

  12. Optimization of a liquid hydrogen/deuterium target with extremely thin foil windows

    Nake, C.J.

    1993-09-01

    For external experiments at COSY a target of liquid hydrogen or deuterium has been developed, which is very small in order to take advantage of the excellent beam quality of COSY. Targets with thicknesses down to only mm's have been built and operate without bubbles. In order to make the effects of reactions in the windows much smaller than the target reactions, windows with a thickness of about 1.5 μm have been achieved. A novel system which stabilizes the pressure difference between the inside and the outside of the target cell to a small constant value under all target conditions is used. (orig.)

  13. Characterization of Optic Properties ZnO:Al Thin Film on Glass Substrate for Solar Cell Window

    Wiryoadi; Yunanto; Bambang Siswanto; Sri Sulamdari; Sudjatmoko

    2002-01-01

    It has been characterized a ZnO:Al thin film growth using sputtering technique for solar cell window. The aims of this research is to get a ZnO:Al thin film that can be used as a TCO (Transparent Conducting Oxide) on amorphous silicon solar cell. To get an optimum properties, deposition process has been done for various parameters, such as composition/concentration of Al, substrate temperature, gas pressure and deposition time. Based on experiments result, it is found that the optimum result was achieved at temperature 450 o C, gas pressure 6 x 10 -2 torr and time 1.5 hours. From optical properties (transmittance) measurements using UV-vis, it was found that the optimum results was achieved at temperature 450 o C. At this conditions, wave length (500 - 800) nm, the transmittance was (50 - 82) %, at pressure 6 x 10 -2 torr the transmittance was (50 - 80) % and at deposition time 1.5 hours was (49 - 81) %. For ZnO thin film, was at wave length (500 - 800) nm, the transmittance was (78 - 80) %. From micro structure analysis using SEM, it was found that the thickness layer of ZnO was 1.5 μm and 1.3 μm for ZnO: Al. While from surface morphology it was found that for ZnO thin layer the grains was distributed homogeneously, while for ZnO: Al the grains was distributed unhomogeneously. (author)

  14. Graphene-Decorated Nanocomposites for Printable Electrodes in Thin Wafer Devices

    Bakhshizadeh, N.; Sivoththaman, S.

    2017-12-01

    Printable electrodes that induce less stress and require lower curing temperatures compared to traditional screen-printed metal pastes are needed in thin wafer devices such as future solar cells, and in flexible electronics. The synthesis of nanocomposites by incorporating graphene nanopowders as well as silver nanowires into epoxy-based electrically conductive adhesives (ECA) is examined to improve electrical conductivity and to develop alternate printable electrode materials that induce less stress on the wafer. For the synthesized graphene and Ag nanowire-decorated ECA nanocomposites, the curing kinetics were studied by dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Thermogravimetric analysis on ECA, ECA-AG and ECA/graphene nanopowder nanocomposites showed that the temperatures for onset of decomposition are higher than their corresponding glass transition temperature ( T g) indicating an excellent thermal resistance. Printed ECA/Ag nanowire nanocomposites showed 90% higher electrical conductivity than ECA films, whereas the ECA/graphene nanocomposites increased the conductivity by over two orders of magnitude. Scanning electron microscopy results also revealed the effect of fillers morphology on the conductivity improvement and current transfer mechanisms in nanocomposites. Residual stress analysis performed on Si wafers showed that the ECA and nanocomposite printed wafers are subjected to much lower stress compared to those printed with metallic pastes. The observed parameters of low curing temperature, good thermal resistance, reasonably high conductivity, and low residual stress in the ECA/graphene nanocomposite makes this material a promising alternative in screen-printed electrode formation in thin substrates.

  15. Electroplating of electrical circuitry on optoelectronic windows for thin film solar cells on foil

    Hovestad, A.; Rendering, H.; Peter, M.; Meinders, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    In many flexible electronic devices transparent conductive oxide (TCO) window layers are used for current collection. The trade-off between the electrical resistance and optical transmission of TCOs results in power losses. Increasing the electrical conductivity by combining metallic grids with TCOs

  16. Improving electrochemical performance of flexible thin film electrodes with micropillar array structures

    Myllymaa, Sami; Myllymaa, Katja; Lappalainen, Reijo; Pirinen, Sami; Pakkanen, Tapani A; Pakkanen, Tuula T; Suvanto, Mika

    2012-01-01

    For reliable function, bioelectrodes require a stable, low-impedance contact with the target tissue. In biosignal monitoring applications, in which low ion current densities are recorded, it is important to minimize electrode contact impedances. Recently, several flexible electrode concepts have been introduced for single-patient use. These electrodes conform well on the patient skin enabling an artifact-free, low-noise recording. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer was used as an electrode substrate material. One half of the substrates were surface-patterned with micropillars produced by using micro-working robot-made mold inserts and a replica molding technique. The substrates were subsequently coated with thin films of titanium (Ti), copper (Cu), silver (Ag) or silver–silver chloride (Ag/AgCl). Electrical impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that the micropillar structure caused statistically significant reductions in impedance modulus and phase for each coating candidate. The relative effect was strongest for pure Ag, for which the values of the real part (Z′) and the imaginary part (Z″) decreased to less than one tenth of the original (smooth) values. However, Ag/AgCl, as expected, proved to be a superior electrode material. Coating with chloride drastically reduced the interfacial impedance compared to pure Ag. Further significant reduction was achieved by the micropillars, since the phase angle declined from 10–13° (for smooth samples, f < 50 Hz) to a value as low as 5°. Equivalent circuit modeling was used to obtain a better understanding of phenomena occurring at various electrode–electrolyte interfaces. The knowledge obtained in this study will be exploited in the further development of flexible electrodes and miniaturized biointerfaces with improved electrochemical characteristics. (paper)

  17. Magnetron sputtered TiN thin films toward enhanced performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Wei, Binbin

    2018-04-09

    Supercapacitors as a new type of energy storage devices bridging the gap between conventional capacitors and batteries have aroused widespread concern. Herein, binder-free titanium nitride (TiN) thin film electrodes for supercapacitors prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering technology are reported. The effect of N2 content on the supercapacitor performance is evaluated. A highest specific capacitance of 27.3 mF cm−2 at a current density of 1.0 mA cm−2, together with excellent cycling performance (98.2% capacitance retention after 20,000 cycles at 2.0 mA cm−2) is achieved in a 0.5 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. More importantly, a symmetric supercapacitor device assembled on the basis of TiN thin films can deliver a maximum energy density of 17.6 mWh cm−3 at a current density of 0.2 mA cm−2 and a maximum power density of 10.8 W cm−3 at a current density of 2 mA cm−2 with remarkable cycling stability. As a consequence, TiN thin films demonstrate great potential as promising supercapacitor electrode materials.

  18. Structure and properties of PZT thin films on strontium ruthenate and calcium ruthenate electrodes

    Wu, T.-J.; Tsai, D.-S.

    2004-01-01

    PZT thin films have been prepared via metalorganic CVD (MOCVD) on four substrates of conducting oxides of ruthenates, SrRuO 3 /Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si(1 0 0), SrRuO 3 /SiO 2 /Si(1 0 0), CaRuO 3 /Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si(1 0 0), CaRuO 3 /SiO 2 /Si(1 0 0). The conducting ruthenate layers were also grown using MOCVD. Ferroelectric properties of polarization fatigue and leakage current density are measured. The internal strain of PZT thin crystal which is mainly constrained by the bottom electrode seems to be the decisive factor in ferroelectric properties. The internal strain of PZT is represented by its tetragonality ratio. The PZT thin film in the capacitor Au/PZT/SrRuO 3 /Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si, with the largest tetragonality ratio 1.026, exhibits an optimum combination of large polarization, less fatigue, and low leakage current density. Both SrRuO 3 and CaRuO 3 are good diffusion barriers to prevent interdiffusion of cations between the ferroelectric and the electrode. The slightly higher intermixing at the CaRuO 3 -to-Pt/Ti interface is owing to the high annealing temperature needed in CaRuO 3 synthesis

  19. Magnetron sputtered TiN thin films toward enhanced performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Wei, Binbin; Liang, Hanfeng; Zhang, Dongfang; Qi, Zhengbing; Shen, Hao; Wang, Zhoucheng

    2018-01-01

    Supercapacitors as a new type of energy storage devices bridging the gap between conventional capacitors and batteries have aroused widespread concern. Herein, binder-free titanium nitride (TiN) thin film electrodes for supercapacitors prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering technology are reported. The effect of N2 content on the supercapacitor performance is evaluated. A highest specific capacitance of 27.3 mF cm−2 at a current density of 1.0 mA cm−2, together with excellent cycling performance (98.2% capacitance retention after 20,000 cycles at 2.0 mA cm−2) is achieved in a 0.5 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. More importantly, a symmetric supercapacitor device assembled on the basis of TiN thin films can deliver a maximum energy density of 17.6 mWh cm−3 at a current density of 0.2 mA cm−2 and a maximum power density of 10.8 W cm−3 at a current density of 2 mA cm−2 with remarkable cycling stability. As a consequence, TiN thin films demonstrate great potential as promising supercapacitor electrode materials.

  20. Transparent and flexible electrodes and supercapacitors using polyaniline/single-walled carbon nanotube composite thin films

    Ge, Jun; Cheng, Guanghui; Chen, Liwei

    2011-08-01

    Large-scale transparent and flexible electronic devices have been pursued for potential applications such as those in touch sensors and display technologies. These applications require that the power source of these devices must also comply with transparent and flexible features. Here we present transparent and flexible supercapacitors assembled from polyaniline (PANI)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite thin film electrodes. The ultrathin, optically homogeneous and transparent, electrically conducting films of the PANI/SWNT composite show a large specific capacitance due to combined double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance mechanisms. A supercapacitor assembled using electrodes with a SWNT density of 10.0 µg cm-2 and 59 wt% PANI gives a specific capacitance of 55.0 F g-1 at a current density of 2.6 A g-1, showing its possibility for transparent and flexible energy storage.

  1. Microstructure of thin film platinum electrodes on yttrium stabilized zirconia prepared by sputter deposition

    Toghan, Arafat, E-mail: arafat.toghan@pci.uni-hannover.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz University of Hannover, Callinstrasse 3-3a, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Khodari, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena, 83523 (Egypt); Steinbach, F.; Imbihl, R. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz University of Hannover, Callinstrasse 3-3a, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    (111) oriented thin film Pt electrodes were prepared on single crystals of yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by sputter deposition of platinum. The electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by profilometry. SEM images of the as-sputtered platinum film show a compact amorphous Pt film covering uniformly the substrate. Upon annealing at 1123 K, gaps and pores at the interface develop leading to a partial dewetting of the Pt film. Increasing the annealing temperature to 1373 K transforms the polycrystalline Pt film into single crystalline grains exhibiting a (111) orientation towards the substrate.

  2. 12-inch x-ray image intensifier with thin metal input window

    Obata, Yoshiharu; Anno, Hidero; Harao, Norio [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1982-08-01

    Borosilicate glass has been used for X-ray input window of image intensifiers (I.I.) up to now. Now two new types of 12-inch metal I.I., RT12301C and RT12302C, have been developed. They use convex 1-mm aluminum (instead of 5-mm borosilicate glass) for the input window. Adopting a high-performance penta-electronic lens and a new type of light guide CsI film, these intensifiers have greatly improved contrast, quantum detection efficiency (QDE) and resolution capability. In spite of low dosage, image quality equivalent to that in the conventional direct radiograph is obtained through combined use of the new-type 12-inch metal I.I. with 0.3-mm small-focal-spot X-ray tube. Great contribution to digital radiography is expected of this I.I.

  3. Examining the validity of Stoney-equation for in-situ stress measurements in thin film electrodes using a large-deformation finite-element procedure

    Wen, Jici; Wei, Yujie; Cheng, Yang-Tse

    2018-05-01

    During the lithiation and delithiation of a thin film electrode, stress in the electrode is deduced from the curvature change of the film using the Stoney equation. The accuracy of such a measurement is conditioned on the assumptions that (a) the mechanical properties of the electrode remain unchanged during lithiation and (b) small deformation holds. Here, we demonstrate that the change in elastic properties can influence the measurement of the stress in thin film electrodes. We consider the coupling between diffusion and deformation during lithiation and delithiation of thin film electrodes and implement the constitutive behavior in a finite-deformation finite element procedure. We demonstrate that both the variation in elastic properties in thin film electrodes and finite-deformation during lithiation and delithiation would challenge the applicability of the Stoney-equation for in-situ stress measurements of thin film electrodes.

  4. Current distribution effects in AC impedance spectroscopy of electroceramic point contact and thin film model electrodes

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Jacobsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    the primary current distribution to the DC current distribution restricted to the Three-Phase-Boundary (TPB) zone introduces an error in the determination of the reaction resistance, Rreac = Z(freq. → 0) − Z(freq. → ∞). The error is estimated for different width of the effective TPB zone and a rule of thumb...... regarding its significance is provided. The associated characteristic impedance spectrum shape change is simulated and its origin discussed. Furthermore, the characteristic shape of impedance spectra of thin electroceramic film electrodes with lateral ohmic resistance is studied as a function...

  5. S Sensors: Fumarate-Based fcu-MOF Thin Film Grown on a Capacitive Interdigitated Electrode

    Yassine, Omar

    2016-10-31

    Herein we report the fabrication of an advanced sensor for the detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at room temperature, using thin films of rare-earth metal (RE)-based metal-organic framework (MOF) with underlying fcu topology. This unique MOF-based sensor is made via the insitu growth of fumarate-based fcu-MOF (fum-fcu-MOF) thin film on a capacitive interdigitated electrode. The sensor showed a remarkable detection sensitivity for H2S at concentrations down to 100ppb, with the lower detection limit around 5ppb. The fum-fcu-MOF sensor exhibits a highly desirable detection selectivity towards H2S vs. CH4, NO2, H2, and C7H8 as well as an outstanding H2S sensing stability as compared to other reported MOFs. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Probing-models for interdigitated electrode systems with ferroelectric thin films

    Nguyen, Cuong H.; Nigon, Robin; Raeder, Trygve M.; Hanke, Ulrik; Halvorsen, Einar; Muralt, Paul

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a new method to characterize ferroelectric thin films with interdigitated electrodes is presented. To obtain accurate properties, all parasitic contributions should be subtracted from the measurement results and accurate models for the ferroelectric film are required. Hence, we introduce a phenomenological model for the parasitic capacitance. Moreover, two common analytical models based on conformal transformations are compared and used to calculate the capacitance and the electric field. With a thin film approximation, new simplified electric field and capacitance formulas are derived. By using these formulas, more consistent CV, PV and stress-field loops for samples with different geometries are obtained. In addition, an inhomogeneous distribution of the permittivity due to the non-uniform electric field is modelled by finite element simulation in an iterative way. We observed that this inhomogeneous distribution can be treated as a homogeneous one with an effective value of the permittivity.

  7. Investigation of nanoporous platinum thin films fabricated by reactive sputtering: Application as micro-SOFC electrode

    Jung, WooChul; Kim, Jae Jin; Tuller, Harry L.

    2015-02-01

    Highly porous Pt thin films, with nano-scale porosity, were fabricated by reactive sputtering. The strategy involved deposition of thin film PtOx at room temperature, followed by the subsequent decomposition of the oxide by rapid heat treatment. The resulting films exhibited percolating Pt networks infiltrated with interconnected nanosized pores, critical for superior solid oxide fuel cell cathode performance. This approach is particularly attractive for micro-fabricated solid oxide fuel cells, since it enables fabrication of the entire cell stack (anode/electrolyte/cathode) within the sputtering chamber, without breaking vacuum. In this work, the morphological, crystallographic and chemical properties of the porous electrode were systematically varied by control of deposition conditions. Oxygen reduction reaction kinetics were investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, demonstrating the critical role of nano-pores in achieving satisfactory micro-SOFC cathode performance.

  8. Comparison of lead zirconate titanate thin films on ruthenium oxide and platinum electrodes

    Bursill, L.A.; Reaney, I.M.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution and bright- and dark-field transmission electron microscopy are used to characterize and compare the interface structures and microstructure of PZT/RuO 2 /SiO 2 /Si and PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si ferroelectric thin films, with a view to understanding the improved fatigue characteristics of PZT thin films with RuO 2 electrodes. The RuO 2 /PZT interface consists of a curved pseudoperiodic minimal surface. The interface is chemically sharp with virtually no intermixing of RuO 2 and PZT, as evidenced by the atomic resolution images as well as energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A nanocrystalline pyrochlore phase Pb 2 ZrTiO 7-x (x ≠ 1) was found on the top surface of the PZT layer. The PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si thin film was well-crystallized and showed sharp interfaces throughout. Possible reasons for the improved fatigue characteristics of PZT/RuO 2 /SiO 2 /Si thin films are discussed. 13 refs; 7 figs

  9. Comparison of lead zirconate titanate thin films on ruthenium oxide and platinum electrodes

    Bursill, L A; Reaney, I M

    1994-12-31

    High-resolution and bright- and dark-field transmission electron microscopy are used to characterize and compare the interface structures and microstructure of PZT/RuO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si and PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si ferroelectric thin films, with a view to understanding the improved fatigue characteristics of PZT thin films with RuO{sub 2} electrodes. The RuO{sub 2}/PZT interface consists of a curved pseudoperiodic minimal surface. The interface is chemically sharp with virtually no intermixing of RuO{sub 2} and PZT, as evidenced by the atomic resolution images as well as energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A nanocrystalline pyrochlore phase Pb{sub 2}ZrTiO{sub 7-x} (x {ne} 1) was found on the top surface of the PZT layer. The PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si thin film was well-crystallized and showed sharp interfaces throughout. Possible reasons for the improved fatigue characteristics of PZT/RuO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si thin films are discussed. 13 refs; 7 figs.

  10. Clean graphene electrodes on organic thin-film devices via orthogonal fluorinated chemistry.

    Beck, Jonathan H; Barton, Robert A; Cox, Marshall P; Alexandrou, Konstantinos; Petrone, Nicholas; Olivieri, Giorgia; Yang, Shyuan; Hone, James; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2015-04-08

    Graphene is a promising flexible, highly transparent, and elementally abundant electrode for organic electronics. Typical methods utilized to transfer large-area films of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on metal catalysts are not compatible with organic thin-films, limiting the integration of graphene into organic optoelectronic devices. This article describes a graphene transfer process onto chemically sensitive organic semiconductor thin-films. The process incorporates an elastomeric stamp with a fluorinated polymer release layer that can be removed, post-transfer, via a fluorinated solvent; neither fluorinated material adversely affects the organic semiconductor materials. We used Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy to show that chemical vapor deposition graphene can be successfully transferred without inducing defects in the graphene film. To demonstrate our transfer method's compatibility with organic semiconductors, we fabricate three classes of organic thin-film devices: graphene field effect transistors without additional cleaning processes, transparent organic light-emitting diodes, and transparent small-molecule organic photovoltaic devices. These experiments demonstrate the potential of hybrid graphene/organic devices in which graphene is deposited directly onto underlying organic thin-film structures.

  11. Preparation of TiO2-based nanotubes/nanoparticles composite thin film electrodes for their electron transport properties

    Zhao, Wanyu; Fu, Wuyou; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Bala, Hari; Wang, Xiaodong; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying

    2015-01-01

    The composite thin film electrodes were prepared with one-dimensional (1D) TiO 2 -B nanotubes (NTs) and zero-dimensional TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) based on different weight ratios. The electron transport properties of the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes applied for dye-sensitized solar cells had been investigated systematically. The results indicated that although the amount of dye adsorption decreased slightly, the devices with the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes could obtain higher open-circuit voltage and overall conversion efficiency compared to devices with pure TiO 2 NPs electrodes by rational tuning the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs and TiO 2 NPs. When the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs in the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes increased, the density of states and recombination rate decreased. The 1D structure of TiO 2 -B NTs can provide direct paths for electron transport, resulting in higher electron lifetime, electron diffusion coefficient and electron diffusion length. The composite thin film electrodes possess the merits of the rapid electron transport of TiO 2 -B NTs and the high surface area of TiO 2 NPs, which has great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices. - Highlights: • The composite thin film electrodes (CTFEs) were prepared with nanotubes and nanoparticles. • The CTFEs possess the rapid electron transport and high surface area. • The CTFEs exhibit lower recombination rate and longer electron life time. • The CTFEs have great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices

  12. Influence of thin film thickness of working electrodes on photovoltaic characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Lai Yeong-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of the influence of thin film thickness of working electrodes on the photovoltaic characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films, with the thickness from 7.67 to 24.3 μm, were used to fabricate the working electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. A TiO2 film was coated on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO conductive glass substrate and then sintered in a high-temperature furnace. On the other hand, platinum (Pt solution was coated onto an FTO substrate for the fabrication of the counter electrode of a DSSC. The working electrode immersed in a dye, the counter electrode, and the electrolyte were assembled to complete a sandwich-structure DSSC. The material analysis of the TiO2 films of DSSCs was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, while the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs were measured by an AM-1.5 sunlight simulator. The light transmittance characteristics of the TiO2 working electrode depend on the TiO2 film thickness. The thin film thickness of the working electrode also affects the light absorption of a dye and results in the photovoltaic characteristics of the DSSC, including open-circuited voltage (VOC, short-circuited current density (JSC, fill factor, and photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

  13. Improved stability of titanium based boron-doped chemical vapor deposited diamond thin-film electrode by modifying titanium substrate surface

    Lim, P.Y.; Lin, F.Y.; Shih, H.C.; Ralchenko, V.G.; Varnin, V.P.; Pleskov, Yu.V.; Hsu, S.F.; Chou, S.S.; Hsu, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    The film quality and electrochemical properties of BDD (boron-doped diamond) thin films grown by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition technique on titanium substrates that had been subjected to a range of pre-treatment processes were evaluated. The pre-roughened Ti-substrates are shown to support more adherent BDD films. It is evident that acid-etching the Ti-substrate involves surface hydrogenation that enhances nucleation and formation of diamond thereon. The prepared BDD film exhibits wide potential window and electrochemical reversibility. It also demonstrated a better long-term electrochemical stability based on the low variation in voltametric background current upon the exposing of the electrodes to repeated cycles of electrochemical metal deposition/stripping process

  14. Graphene-based electrodes for enhanced organic thin film transistors based on pentacene.

    Basu, Sarbani; Lee, Mu Chen; Wang, Yeong-Her

    2014-08-21

    This paper presents 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) and pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with monolayer graphene source-drain (S-D) electrodes. The electrodes are patterned using conventional photolithographic techniques combined with reactive ion etching. The monolayer graphene film grown by chemical vapor deposition on Cu foil was transferred on a Si dioxide surface using a polymer-supported transfer method to fabricate bottom-gate, bottom-contact OTFTs. The pentacene OTFTs with graphene S-D contacts exhibited superior performance with a mobility of 0.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an on-off ratio of 10(5) compared with OTFTs with Au-based S-D contacts, which had a mobility of 0.01 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an on-off ratio of 10(3). The crystallinity, grain size, and microscopic defects (or the number of layers of graphene films) of the TIPS-pentacene/pentacene films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The feasibility of using graphene as an S-D electrode in OTFTs provides an alternative material with high carrier injection efficiency, chemical stability, and excellent interface properties with organic semiconductors, thus exhibiting improved device performance of C-based electronic OTFTs at a reduced cost.

  15. Energy harvesting using ionic electro-active polymer thin films with Ag-based electrodes

    Anand, S V; Arvind, K; Bharath, P; Roy Mahapatra, D

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we employ the phenomenon of bending deformation induced transport of cations via the polymer chains in the thickness direction of an electro-active polymer (EAP)–metal composite thin film for mechanical energy harvesting. While EAPs have been applied in the past in actuators and artificial muscles, promising applications of such materials in hydrodynamic and vibratory energy harvesting are reported in this paper. For this, functionalization of EAPs with metal electrodes is the key factor in improving the energy harvesting efficiency. Unlike Pt-based electrodes, Ag-based electrodes have been deposited on an EAP membrane made of Nafion. The developed ionic metal polymer composite (IPMC) membrane is subjected to a dynamic bending load, hydrodynamically, and evaluated for the voltage generated against an external electrical load. An increase of a few orders of magnitude has been observed in the harvested energy density and power density in air, deionized water and in electrolyte solutions with varying concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) as compared to Pt-based IPMC performances reported in the published literature. This will have potential applications in hydrodynamic and residual environmental energy harvesting to power sensors and actuators based on micro-and nano-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) for biomedical, aerospace and oceanic applications

  16. Design of Rose Bengal/FTO optical thin film system as a novel nonlinear media for infrared blocking windows

    S.M. El-Bashir

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal (RB is a new organic semiconductor with the highly stable layer, was deposited on highly cleaned conductive glass substrate known as (FTO glass with different thickness in the range from 80 to 292 nm. XRD showed an entirely amorphous structure of the studied film thicknesses. The observed peaks are the indexed peaks for FTO layer. Spectrophotometric data as transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance were used for the analysis the optical constant of RB/FTO optical thin film system. Refractive index was calculated using Fresnel’s equation with the aid of reflectance and absorption index. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and dissipation factor were discussed and analyzed according to the applied optical theories. Nonlinear parameters such as third order nonlinear optical susceptibility and the nonlinear refractive index were calculated based on the linear refractive index of the applications of this material in nonlinear media. The results showed that Rose Bengal is a proving material for wide scale optoelectronic applications such as infrared blocking windows. Keywords: Rose Bengal, Dielectric parameters, Linear/nonlinear optics, Dye/FTO, IR blocking windows

  17. Mechanistic interaction study of thin oxide dielectric with conducting organic electrode

    Sharma, Himani; Sethi, Kanika; Raj, P. Markondeya; Gerhardt, R.A.; Tummala, Rao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thin film-oxide dielectric-organic electrode interface studies for investigating the leakage mechanism. ► XPS to elucidate chemical-structural changes on dielectric oxide surface. ► Correlates structural characterization data with capacitor leakage current and impedance spectroscopy characteristics. - Abstract: This paper aims at understanding the interaction of intrinsic conducting polymer, PEDT, with ALD-deposited Al 2 O 3 and thermally oxidized Ta 2 O 5 dielectrics, and the underlying mechanisms for increase in leakage currents in PEDT-based capacitors. Conducting polymers offer several advantages as electrodes for high surface area capacitors because of their lower resistance, self-healing and enhanced conformality. However, capacitors with in situ polymerized PEDT show poor electrical properties that are attributed to the interfacial interaction between the organic electrode and the oxide dielectric. This study focuses on characterizing these interactions. A combination of compositional, structural and electrical characterization techniques was applied to polymer-solid-state-capacitor to understand the interfacial chemical behavior and dielectric property deterioration of alumina and tantalum-oxide films. XPS and impedance studies were employed to understand the stiochiometric and compositional changes that occur in the dielectric film on interaction with in situ deposited PEDT. Based on the observations from several complimentary techniques, it is concluded that tantalum-pentoxide has more resistance towards chemical interaction with in situ polymerized PEDT. The thermally oxidized Ta 2 O 5 -PEDT system showed leakage current of 280 nA μF −1 at 3 V with a breakdown voltage of 30 V. On the other hand, Al 2 O 3 -PEDT capacitor showed leakage current of 50 μA μF −1 and a breakdown voltage of 40 V. The study reports direct evidence for the mechanism of resistivity drop in alumina dielectric with in situ polymerized PEDT electrode.

  18. Modification of Patterned Nanoporous Gold Thin Film Electrodes via Electro-annealing and Electrochemical Etching

    Dorofeeva, Tatiana

    Nanostructured materials have had a major impact on various fields, including medicine, catalysis, and energy storage, for the major part due to unique phenomena that arise at nanoscale. For this reason, there is a sustained need for new nanostructured materials, techniques to pattern them, and methods to precisely control their nanostructure. To that end, the primary focus of this dissertation is to demonstrate novel techniques to fabricate and tailor the morphology of a class of nanoporous metals, obtained by a process known as dealloying. In this process, while the less noble constituent of an alloy is chemically dissolved, surface-diffusion of the more noble constituent leads to self-assembly of a bicontinuous ligament network with characteristic porosity of ˜70% and ligament diameter of 10s of nanometers. As a model material produced by dealloying, this work employ nanoporous gold (np-Au), which has attracted significant attention of desirable features, such as high effective surface area, electrical conductivity, well-defined thiol-based surface modification strategies, microfabrication-compatibility, and biocompatibility. The most commonly method used to modify the morphology of np-Au is thermal treatment, where the enhanced diffusivity of the surface atoms leads to ligament (and consequently pore) coarsening. This method, however, is not conducive to modifying the morphology of thin films at specific locations on the film, which is necessary for creating devices that may need to contain different morphologies on a single device. In addition, coarsening attained by thermal treatment also leads to an undesirable reduction in effective surface area. In response to these challenges, this work demonstrates two different techniques that enables in situ modification of np-Au thin film electrodes obtained by sputter-deposition of a precursors silver-rich gold-silver alloy. The first method, referred to as electro-annealing, is achieved by injecting electrical

  19. Transparent and conductive electrodes by large-scale nano-structuring of noble metal thin-films

    Linnet, Jes; Runge Walther, Anders; Wolff, Christian

    2018-01-01

    grid, and nano-wire thin-films. The indium and carbon films do not match the chemical stability nor the electrical performance of the noble metals, and many metal films are not uniform in material distribution leading to significant surface roughness and randomized transmission haze. We demonstrate...... solution-processed masks for physical vapor-deposited metal electrodes consisting of hexagonally ordered aperture arrays with scalable aperture-size and spacing in an otherwise homogeneous noble metal thin-film that may exhibit better electrical performance than carbon nanotube-based thin-films...... for equivalent optical transparency. The fabricated electrodes are characterized optically and electrically by measuring transmittance and sheet resistance. The presented methods yield large-scale reproducible results. Experimentally realized thin-films with very low sheet resistance, Rsh = 2.01 ± 0.14 Ω...

  20. Physical characterization of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors with direct-contact asymmetric graphene electrode

    Jaewook Jeong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High performance a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs are fabricated using an asymmetric graphene drain electrode structure. A-IGZO TFTs (channel length = 3 μm were successfully demonstrated with a saturation field-effect mobility of 6.6 cm2/Vs without additional processes between the graphene and a-IGZO layer. The graphene/a-IGZO junction exhibits Schottky characteristics and the contact property is affected not only by the Schottky barrier but also by the parasitic resistance from the depletion region under the graphene electrode. Therefore, to utilize the graphene layer as S/D electrodes for a-IGZO TFTs, an asymmetric electrode is essential, which can be easily applied to the conventional pixel electrode structure.

  1. Preparation of PZT thin films on YBCO electrodes by KrF excimer laser ablation technique

    Kurogi, H.; Yamagata, Y.; Ebihara, K.

    1998-01-01

    Pb(Zr X Ti 1-X )O 3 (PZT) films have excellent ferroelectric, optical, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric properties. We prepared PZT thin films by the excimer laser ablation technique. A pulsed KrF excimer laser (Lambda Physik LPX305icc, pulse duration of 25 ns, λ=248 nm, 850 mJ Max.) was used to ablate the bulk targets. We investigated the influence of bottom electrode materials on the characteristics of the PZT thin films prepared on Pt and YBCO underlayers. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the PZT films prepared with a laser fluence of 2 Jcm -2 on YBCO/MgO(100) substrate at a wide temperature range of 550-680 C have a perovskite (001) structure. At the same laser fluence, the PZT films prepared on Pt/MgO(100) substrate have a perovskite (001) structure only at 650 C. The polarization-electric field (P-E) characteristics and fatigue properties of PZT thin films were measured by the Sawyer-Tower circuit. The remnant polarization and coercive field have been found to be P r =15 μC cm -2 , 30 μC cm -2 and E c =200 kV cm -1 , 100 kV cm -1 for Au/PZT/Pt/MgO and Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO correspondingly. The remnant polarization of Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO thin film was reduced to one-half after about 10 8 cycles of switching. (orig.)

  2. Preparation of PZT thin films on YBCO electrodes by KrF excimer laser ablation technique

    Kurogi, H; Yamagata, Y; Ebihara, K [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electr. Eng. and Comput. Sci.; Inoue, N [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Suizenji, 1-6-36, Kumamoto 862 (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Pb(Zr{sub X}Ti{sub 1-X})O{sub 3} (PZT) films have excellent ferroelectric, optical, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric properties. We prepared PZT thin films by the excimer laser ablation technique. A pulsed KrF excimer laser (Lambda Physik LPX305icc, pulse duration of 25 ns, {lambda}=248 nm, 850 mJ Max.) was used to ablate the bulk targets. We investigated the influence of bottom electrode materials on the characteristics of the PZT thin films prepared on Pt and YBCO underlayers. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the PZT films prepared with a laser fluence of 2 Jcm{sup -2} on YBCO/MgO(100) substrate at a wide temperature range of 550-680 C have a perovskite (001) structure. At the same laser fluence, the PZT films prepared on Pt/MgO(100) substrate have a perovskite (001) structure only at 650 C. The polarization-electric field (P-E) characteristics and fatigue properties of PZT thin films were measured by the Sawyer-Tower circuit. The remnant polarization and coercive field have been found to be P{sub r}=15 {mu}C cm{sup -2}, 30 {mu}C cm{sup -2} and E{sub c}=200 kV cm{sup -1}, 100 kV cm{sup -1} for Au/PZT/Pt/MgO and Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO correspondingly. The remnant polarization of Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO thin film was reduced to one-half after about 10{sup 8} cycles of switching. (orig.) 7 refs.

  3. Effect of Tin Electrode (Sn, Electrode Distance and Thin Layer Size of Zinc Phthalocyanine (ZnPc to Resistance Changes With Ozone Exposure

    Agustina Mogi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effect of tin electrode distances and the thickness of a thin layer of ZnPc (Zinc phtyalocyanine toward changes in resistance with ozone exposure. Tin deposition on the glass surface was conducted using spraying method. The reaction between ozone and ZnPc produces electrical properties that can be read through the resistance value of the multimeter. Based on this study, it was investigated that the smaller a distance between the electrode and the thicker deposition of ZnPc lead to the less resistance. This showed that a thin layer of the conductivity increases along with the longer exposure to ozone gas. The movement of electrons with the hole was free.

  4. Chemically fabricated LiFePO{sub 4} thin film electrode for transparent batteries and electrochromic devices

    Béléké, Alexis B. [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, M.H. Wong Building, 3610 rue University, Montréal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Faure, Cyril [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Röder, Manuel [Center for Applied Electrochemistry, Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research, Neunerplatz 2, 97083 Würzburg (Germany); Hovington, Pierre [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Posset, Uwe [Center for Applied Electrochemistry, Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research, Neunerplatz 2, 97083 Würzburg (Germany); Guerfi, Abdelbast [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Zaghib, Karim, E-mail: zaghib.karim@ireq.ca [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Simplified diagram of the novel sol-gel approach of preparation of colorless and transparent LiFePO{sub 4} thin film electrode. - Highlights: • Novel sol-gel synthesis of colorless LFP thin film electrode for transparent Li-ion battery. • High performance of the electrode at various current densities: 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 μA/cm{sup 2}. • LFP nanoparticles exhibit an excellent electro-activity. • Colorless LFP thin film shows a transmittance above 80% versus FTO. • Higher transmittance of LFP electrode a potential candidate for electrochromic devices. - Abstract: We report a new sol-gel approach of synthesis of LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) thin film and its application as cathode materials for transparent Li-ion battery in half-cell configuration. LFP thin films were obtained from an alcoholic colloidal suspension of iron acetylacetonate (Fe(AcAc){sub 3}) and aqueous lithium dihydrogen phosphate (LiH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) deposited on fluorine tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, followed by heating at 450 °C under nitrogen gas for 1 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that the LFP films have an orthorhombic crystal system with space group Pnma (62). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows spherical LFP nanoparticles aggregates homogenously deposited all over the surface of FTO substrate containing 3-D open pores. The electrochemical behaviors of thin film vs Li/Li{sup +} cell were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The cycle life was evaluated by running 1000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 20 μA/cm{sup 2}. The transmission spectra reveal 85–90% of transparency versus FTO as reference, which makes it a potential candidate as a complementary electrode in electrochromic devices (ECDs).

  5. Transparent and flexible supercapacitors with single walled carbon nanotube thin film electrodes.

    Yuksel, Recep; Sarioba, Zeynep; Cirpan, Ali; Hiralal, Pritesh; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2014-09-10

    We describe a simple process for the fabrication of transparent and flexible, solid-state supercapacitors. Symmetric electrodes made up of binder-free single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin films were deposited onto polydimethylsiloxane substrates by vacuum filtration followed by a stamping method, and solid-state supercapacitor devices were assembled using a gel electrolyte. An optical transmittance of 82% was found for 0.02 mg of SWCNTs, and a specific capacitance of 22.2 F/g was obtained. The power density can reach to 41.5 kW · kg(-1) and shows good capacity retention (94%) upon cycling over 500 times. Fabricated supercapacitors will be relevant for the realization of transparent and flexible devices with energy storage capabilities, displays and touch screens in particular.

  6. Electroplating of CdTe Thin Films from Cadmium Sulphate Precursor and Comparison of Layers Grown by 3-Electrode and 2-Electrode Systems

    Imyhamy M. Dharmadasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of CdTe thin films was carried out from the late 1970s using the cadmium sulphate precursor. The solar energy group at Sheffield Hallam University has carried out a comprehensive study of CdTe thin films electroplated using cadmium sulfate, cadmium nitrate and cadmium chloride precursors, in order to select the best electrolyte. Some of these results have been published elsewhere, and this manuscript presents the summary of the results obtained on CdTe layers grown from cadmium sulphate precursor. In addition, this research program has been exploring the ways of eliminating the reference electrode, since this is a possible source of detrimental impurities, such as K+ and Ag+ for CdS/CdTe solar cells. This paper compares the results obtained from CdTe layers grown by three-electrode (3E and two-electrode (2E systems for their material properties and performance in CdS/CdTe devices. Thin films were characterized using a wide range of analytical techniques for their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. These layers have also been used in device structures; glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/Au and CdTe from both methods have produced solar cells to date with efficiencies in the region of 5%–13%. Comprehensive work carried out to date produced comparable and superior devices fabricated from materials grown using 2E system.

  7. Voltammetry of Vitamin B12 on a thin self-assembled monolayer modified electrode

    Yang Nianjun; Wan Qijin; Wang, Xiaoxia

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 showed three reduction waves at a thin self-assembled monolayer of mercaptoacetic acid modified gold electrode at 0.21, 0.16, -0.41 V in a 0.01 mol l -1 HCl solution at a scan rate of 100 mV s -1 . The overall electrode reaction followed an ECE mechanism, leading to a total two-electron exchange. The predominant Co(III) form was reduced directly at 0.21 V by a one-electron transfer accomplished by CN - cleavage into the cyanocob(II)alamin. The latter species then equilibrated with the base-off B 12r , which was immediately reduced into B 12s at 0.16 V. The wave at -0.41 V might be a catalytic hydrogen wave. The cathodic peak currents at 0.21 V were controlled by the diffusion of Vitamin B 12 . On the base of its diffusion behavior, the semi-derivate voltammetric method for the detection of Vitamin B 12 was presented. The semi-derivate voltammetric peak current of the wave at 0.21 V was linear with the content of Vitamin B 12 in the range of 4.0 x 10 -9 to 4.0 x 10 -5 mol l -1 . The detection limit was 1.0 x 10 -9 mol l -1 . The proposed method was applied successfully to determine the content of Vitamin B 12 in pharmaceutical preparations

  8. Silicon-based thin films as bottom electrodes in chalcogenide nonvolatile memories

    Lee, Seung-Yun [IT Convergence and Components Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seungyun@etri.re.kr; Yoon, Sung-Min; Choi, Kyu-Jeong; Lee, Nam-Yeal; Park, Young-Sam; Ryu, Sang-Ouk; Yu, Byoung-Gon; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Heung [IT Convergence and Components Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-31

    The effect of the electrical resistivity of a silicon-germanium (SiGe) thin film on the phase transition in a GeSbTe (GST) chalcogenide alloy and the manufacturing aspect of the fabrication process of a chalcogenide memory device employing the SiGe film as bottom electrodes were investigated. While p-type SiGe bottom electrodes were formed using in situ doping techniques, n-type ones could be made in a different manner where phosphorus atoms diffused from highly doped silicon underlayers to undoped SiGe films. The p-n heterojunction did not form between the p-type GST and n-type SiGe layers, and the semiconduction type of the SiGe alloys did not influence the memory device switching. It was confirmed that an optimum resistivity value existed for memory operation in spite of proportionality of Joule heating to electrical resistivity. The very high resistivity of the SiGe film had no effect on the reduction of reset current, which might result from the resistance decrease of the SiGe alloy at high temperatures.

  9. Lithium-Ion (de)insertion reaction of Germanium thin-film electrodes : an electrochemical and in situ XRD study

    Baggetto, L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Germanium is a promising negative electrode candidate for lithium-ion thin-film batteries because of its very high theoretical storage capacity. When assuming full conversion of the material into the room-temperature equilibrium lithium saturated germanium phase, a theoretical capacity of or of

  10. Mechanical measurements on lithium phosphorous oxynitride coated silicon thin film electrodes for lithium-ion batteries during lithiation and delithiation

    Al-Obeidi, Ahmed, E-mail: alobeidi@mit.edu; Thompson, Carl V., E-mail: reiner.moenig@kit.edu, E-mail: cthomp@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kramer, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.kramer@kit.edu; Mönig, Reiner, E-mail: reiner.moenig@kit.edu, E-mail: cthomp@mit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Ulm for Electrochemical Energy Storage (HIU), Helmholtzstraße 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Boles, Steven T., E-mail: steven.t.boles@polyu.edu.hk [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 11 Yuk Choi Rd, Hung Hom (Hong Kong)

    2016-08-15

    The development of large stresses during lithiation and delithiation drives mechanical and chemical degradation processes (cracking and electrolyte decomposition) in thin film silicon anodes that complicate the study of normal electrochemical and mechanical processes. To reduce these effects, lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) coatings were applied to silicon thin film electrodes. Applying a LiPON coating has two purposes. First, the coating acts as a stable artificial solid electrolyte interphase. Second, it limits mechanical degradation by retaining the electrode's planar morphology during cycling. The development of stress in LiPON-coated electrodes was monitored using substrate curvature measurements. LiPON-coated electrodes displayed highly reproducible cycle-to-cycle behavior, unlike uncoated electrodes which had poorer coulombic efficiency and exhibited a continual loss in stress magnitude with continued cycling due to film fracture. The improved mechanical stability of the coated silicon electrodes allowed for a better investigation of rate effects and variations of mechanical properties during electrochemical cycling.

  11. Functionalization of indium-tin-oxide electrodes by laser-nanostructured gold thin films for biosensing applications

    Grochowska, Katarzyna, E-mail: kgrochowska@imp.gda.pl [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Siuzdak, Katarzyna [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Karczewski, Jakub [Solid State Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza St, 80-233, Gdańsk (Poland); Śliwiński, Gerard [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ITO electrodes modified by NP arrays prepared by laser dewetting of thin Au films. • Enhanced activity, linear response and high sensitivity towards glucose. • Promising biosensor material AuNP-modified ITO of improved performance. - Abstract: The production and properties of the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes functionalized by Au nanoparticle (NP) arrays of a relatively large area formed by pulsed laser nanostructuring of thin gold films are reported and discussed. The SEM inspection of modified electrodes reveals the presence of the nearly spherical and disc-shaped particles of dimensions in the range of 40–120 nm. The NP-array geometry can be controlled by selection of the laser processing conditions. It is shown that particle size and packing density of the array are important factors which determine the electrode performance. In the case of NP-modified electrodes the peak current corresponding to the glucose direct oxidation process shows rise with increasing glucose concentration markedly higher comparing to the reference Au disc electrode. The detection limit reaches 12 μM and linear response of the sensor is observed from 0.1 to 47 mM that covers the normal physiological range of the blood sugar detection.

  12. Electrical Properties of Al, Ag, Cu, Ti and SS Thin Film for Electrode of Solar Cell

    Bambang Siswanto; Wirjoadi; Sudjatmoko; Tjipto Sujitno

    2003-01-01

    The Al, Ag, Cu, Ti and SS materials were deposited on the surface of glass substrate using plasma DC sputtering technique. The deposition process was done with the following plasma parameters : deposition time, gas pressure and substrate temperature with the aim to obtain a good conductance of thin films. Variation of substrate deposition time was 1 - 15 minutes, gas pressure was 5x10 -2 - 7x10 -2 torr and of temperature was 100 - 300 o C. The resistance measurement has been done by four points probes and the conductivity was calculated using mathematic formulation. It was obtained that the minimum resistance in the order of R = 0.07 Ω, was found at Ag materials and this was obtained at the following plasma parameters : deposition time 15 minutes, gas pressure 6x10 -2 torr and temperature 300 o C, while, the resistance of : Cu, Al, Ti and SS materials were R = 0.13 Ω, R = 450 Ω, R = 633 Ω, R = 911 Ω respectively, It could be concluded that the Ag thin film has a minimum resistance, high conductivity compared to the other materials Al, Cu, Ti and SS. Ag is therefore the suitable material for applying as electrode of solar cell. (author)

  13. Prediction of transmittance spectra for transparent composite electrodes with ultra-thin metal layers

    Zhao, Zhao; Alford, T. L., E-mail: TA@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Khorasani, Arash Elhami [ON Semiconductor Corp., Phoenix, Arizona 85005 (United States); Theodore, N. D. [CHD-Fab, Freescale Semiconductor Inc., Tempe, Arizona 85224 (United States); Dhar, A. [Intel Corp., 2501 NW 229th Ave, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)

    2015-11-28

    Recent interest in indium-free transparent composite-electrodes (TCEs) has motivated theoretical and experimental efforts to better understand and enhance their electrical and optical properties. Various tools have been developed to calculate the optical transmittance of multilayer thin-film structures based on the transfer-matrix method. However, the factors that affect the accuracy of these calculations have not been investigated very much. In this study, two sets of TCEs, TiO{sub 2}/Au/TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/Ag/TiO{sub 2}, were fabricated to study the factors that affect the accuracy of transmittance predictions. We found that the predicted transmittance can deviate significantly from measured transmittance for TCEs that have ultra-thin plasmonic metal layers. The ultrathin metal layer in the TCE is typically discontinuous. When light interacts with the metallic islands in this discontinuous layer, localized surface plasmons are generated. This causes extra light absorption, which then leads to the actual transmittance being lower than the predicted transmittance.

  14. Electrode patterning of ITO thin films by high repetition rate fiber laser

    Lin, H.K., E-mail: HKLin@mail.npust.edu.tw; Hsu, W.C.

    2014-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are deposited on glass substrates using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. As-deposited ITO thin film was 100 nm in thickness and a transmittance of ITO film on glass substrate was 79% at 550 nm. Conductive electrodes are then patterned on the ITO films using a high repetition rate fiber laser system followed by a wet chemical etching process. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the patterned samples are evaluated by means of a four-point probe technique, spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the samples annealed with a pulse repetition rate of 150 kHz or 400 kHz have a low sheet resistivity of 21 Ω/□ and a high optical transmittance of 90%. In addition, it is shown that a higher pulse repetition rate reduces both the residual stress and the surface roughness of the patterned specimens. Therefore, the present results suggest that a pulse repetition rate of 400 kHz represents the optimal processing condition for the patterning of crack-free ITO-coated glass substrates with good electrical and optical properties.

  15. Atomic layer deposition of absorbing thin films on nanostructured electrodes for short-wavelength infrared photosensing

    Xu, Jixian; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Fan, Fengjia; Sargent, Edward H., E-mail: ted.sargent@utoronto.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Kinge, Sachin [Advanced Technology, Materials and Research, Research and Development, Hoge Wei 33- Toyota Technical Centre, B-1930 Zaventem (Belgium)

    2015-10-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), prized for its high-quality thin-film formation in the absence of high temperature or high vacuum, has become an industry standard for the large-area deposition of a wide array of oxide materials. Recently, it has shown promise in the formation of nanocrystalline sulfide films. Here, we demonstrate the viability of ALD lead sulfide for photodetection. Leveraging the conformal capabilities of ALD, we enhance the absorption without compromising the extraction efficiency in the absorbing layer by utilizing a ZnO nanowire electrode. The nanowires are first coated with a thin shunt-preventing TiO{sub 2} layer, followed by an infrared-active ALD PbS layer for photosensing. The ALD PbS photodetector exhibits a peak responsivity of 10{sup −2} A W{sup −1} and a shot-derived specific detectivity of 3 × 10{sup 9} Jones at 1530 nm wavelength.

  16. Performance evaluation of symmetric supercapacitor based on cobalt hydroxide [Co(OH)2] thin film electrodes

    Jagadale, A.D.; Kumbhar, V.S.; Dhawale, D.S.; Lokhande, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, we have successfully assembled symmetric supercapacitor device based on cobalt hydroxide [Co(OH) 2 ] thin film electrodes using 1 M KOH as an electrolyte. Initially, potentiodynamic electrodeposition method is employed for the preparation of Co(OH) 2 thin films onto stainless steel substrate. These films are characterized for structural and morphological elucidations using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The XRD reveals formation of β-Co(OH) 2 material with hexagonal crystal structure. The SEM images show formation of nanoflakes like microstructure with average flake width 100 nm. Electrochemical characterizations of Co(OH) 2 based symmetric supercapacitor cell are carried out using cyclic voltammetry, charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. In the performance evaluation the maximum values of specific capacitance, specific energy and specific power are encountered as 44 F g −1 , 3.96 Wh kg −1 and 42 kW kg −1 . The value of equivalent series resistance (ESR) is estimated as 2.3 Ω using EIS

  17. Electrode patterning of ITO thin films by high repetition rate fiber laser

    Lin, H.K.; Hsu, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are deposited on glass substrates using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. As-deposited ITO thin film was 100 nm in thickness and a transmittance of ITO film on glass substrate was 79% at 550 nm. Conductive electrodes are then patterned on the ITO films using a high repetition rate fiber laser system followed by a wet chemical etching process. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the patterned samples are evaluated by means of a four-point probe technique, spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the samples annealed with a pulse repetition rate of 150 kHz or 400 kHz have a low sheet resistivity of 21 Ω/□ and a high optical transmittance of 90%. In addition, it is shown that a higher pulse repetition rate reduces both the residual stress and the surface roughness of the patterned specimens. Therefore, the present results suggest that a pulse repetition rate of 400 kHz represents the optimal processing condition for the patterning of crack-free ITO-coated glass substrates with good electrical and optical properties.

  18. Thin layer spectroelectrochemical studies of pertechnetate reduction on the gold electrodes in acidic media

    Chotkowski, M.; Czerwiński, A.

    2014-01-01

    The electroreduction of pertechnetate ions has been examined in sulfuric acid solutions (0.5 M ÷ 4 M H 2 SO 4 ) using rotating disc electrodes (Au-RDE) and optically transparent thin layer spectroelectrochemical cells (Au/RVC-OTTLE). Soluble Tc(III,IV) species with absorption bands at 502 nm were found to be formed during the reduction of TcO 4 − . The hydrodynamic experiments (Au-RDE) have shown the influence of the acidity of the solution on the activation energy of the electroreduction of the pertechnetate ions to technetium(III,IV) species. The value of the activation energy calculated for limiting current was found to increase from 12.6 ± 1.1 kJ mol −1 for 4 M H 2 SO 4 to 20.1 ± 0.8 kJ mol −1 for 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 . Such an effect suggests an influence of the acid concentration on the structure of obtained products, which are soluble or insoluble Tc species. Thin layer spectroelectrochemical experiments allowed calculation of the redox standard potentials for Tc 2 O 2 3+ /TcO(OH) (aq) system which was found to be equal to 0.255 V vs. Ag,AgCl (KClsat.)

  19. Spray pyrolysed Ru:TiO2 thin film electrodes prepared for electrochemical supercapacitor

    Fugare, B. Y.; Thakur, A. V.; Kore, R. M.; Lokhande, B. J.

    2018-04-01

    Ru doped TiO2 thin films are prepared by using 0.06 M aqueous solution of potassium titanium oxalate (pto), and 0.005 M aqueous solution of ruthenium tri chloride (RuCl3) precursors. The deposition was carried on stainless steel (SS) by using well known ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique (USPT) at 723° K by maintaining the spray rate 12 cc/min and compressed air flow rate 10 Lmin-1. Prepared Ru:TiO2 thin films were characterized by structurally, morphologically and electrochemically. Deposited RuO2 shows amorphous structure and TiO2 shows tetragonal crystal structure with rutile as prominent phase at very low decomposition temperature. SEM micrographs of RuO2 exhibits porous, interconnected, spherical grains type morphology and TiO2 shows porous, nanorods and nanoplates like morphology and also Ru doped TiO2 shows porous, spherical, granular and nanorods type morphology. The electrochemical cyclic voltammetery shows mixed capacitive behavior. The achieved highest value of specific capacitance 2692 F/g was Ru doped TiO2 electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4.

  20. Atomic layer deposition of absorbing thin films on nanostructured electrodes for short-wavelength infrared photosensing

    Xu, Jixian; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Fan, Fengjia; Sargent, Edward H.; Kinge, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), prized for its high-quality thin-film formation in the absence of high temperature or high vacuum, has become an industry standard for the large-area deposition of a wide array of oxide materials. Recently, it has shown promise in the formation of nanocrystalline sulfide films. Here, we demonstrate the viability of ALD lead sulfide for photodetection. Leveraging the conformal capabilities of ALD, we enhance the absorption without compromising the extraction efficiency in the absorbing layer by utilizing a ZnO nanowire electrode. The nanowires are first coated with a thin shunt-preventing TiO 2 layer, followed by an infrared-active ALD PbS layer for photosensing. The ALD PbS photodetector exhibits a peak responsivity of 10 −2  A W −1 and a shot-derived specific detectivity of 3 × 10 9  Jones at 1530 nm wavelength

  1. Measurement of effective piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films for energy harvesting application with interdigitated electrodes.

    Chidambaram, Nachiappan; Mazzalai, Andrea; Muralt, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Interdigitated electrode (IDE) systems with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films play an increasingly important role for two reasons: first, such a configuration generates higher voltages than parallel plate capacitor-type electrode (PPE) structures, and second, the application of an electric field leads to a compressive stress component in addition to the overall stress state, unlike a PPE structure, which results in tensile stress component. Because ceramics tend to crack at relatively moderate tensile stresses, this means that IDEs have a lower risk of cracking than PPEs. For these reasons, IDE systems are ideal for energy harvesting of vibration energy, and for actuators. Systematic investigations of PZT films with IDE systems have not yet been undertaken. In this work, we present results on the evaluation of the in-plane piezoelectric coefficients with IDE systems. Additionally, we also propose a simple and measurable figure of merit (FOM) to analyze and evaluate the relevant piezoelectric parameter for harvesting efficiency without the need to fabricate the energy harvesting device. Idealized effective coefficients e(IDE) and h(IDE) are derived, showing its composite nature with about one-third contribution of the transverse effect, and about two-thirds contribution of the longitudinal effect in the case of a PZT film deposited on a (100)-oriented silicon wafer with the in-plane electric field along one of the Si directions. Randomly oriented 1-μm-thick PZT 53/47 film deposited by a sol-gel technique, was evaluated and yielded an effective coefficient e(IDE) of 15 C·m(-2). Our FOM is the product between effective e and h coefficient representing twice the electrical energy density stored in the piezoelectric film per unit strain deformation (both for IDE and PPE systems). Assuming homogeneous fields between the fingers, and neglecting the contribution from below the electrode fingers, the FOM for IDE structures with larger electrode gap is derived to be

  2. Fabrication of flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal films using conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes

    Kim, Yang-Bae; Park, Sucheol; Hong, Jin-Who

    2009-01-01

    Conducting polymers exhibit good mechanical and interfacial compatibility with plastic substrates. We prepared an optimized coating formulation based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl acrylate and fabricated a transparent electrode on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate. The surface resistances and transmittance of the prepared thin films were 500-600 Ω/□ and 87% at 500 nm, respectively. To evaluate the performance of the conducting polymer electrode, we fabricated a five-layer flexible polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) device as a PET-PEDOT-PDLC-PEDOT-PET flexible film. The prepared PDLC device exhibited a low driving voltage (15 VAC), high contrast ratio (60:1), and high transmittance in the ON state (60%), characteristics that are comparable with those of conventional PDLC film based on indium tin oxide electrodes. The fabrication of conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes in this study showed that such films can be used as a substitute for an indium tin oxide electrode, which further enhances the flexibility of PDLC film

  3. In and Ga Codoped ZnO Film as a Front Electrode for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Duy Phong Pham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Doped ZnO thin films have attracted much attention in the research community as front-contact transparent conducting electrodes in thin film silicon solar cells. The prerequisite in both low resistivity and high transmittance in visible and near-infrared region for hydrogenated microcrystalline or amorphous/microcrystalline tandem thin film silicon solar cells has promoted further improvements of this material. In this work, we propose the combination of major Ga and minor In impurities codoped in ZnO film (IGZO to improve the film optoelectronic properties. A wide range of Ga and In contents in sputtering targets was explored to find optimum optical and electrical properties of deposited films. The results show that an appropriate combination of In and Ga atoms in ZnO material, followed by in-air thermal annealing process, can enhance the crystallization, conductivity, and transmittance of IGZO thin films, which can be well used as front-contact electrodes in thin film silicon solar cells.

  4. Combustion synthesized indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film for source/drain electrodes in all solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors

    Tue, Phan Trong; Inoue, Satoshi; Takamura, Yuzuru; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    We report combustion solution synthesized (SCS) indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film, which is a well-known transparent conductive oxide, for source/drain (S/D) electrodes in solution-processed amorphous zirconium-indium-zinc-oxide TFT. A redox-based combustion synthetic approach is applied to ITO thin film using acetylacetone as a fuel and metal nitrate as oxidizer. The structural and electrical properties of SCS-ITO precursor solution and thin films were systematically investigated with changes in tin concentration, indium metal precursors, and annealing conditions such as temperature, time, and ambient. It was found that at optimal conditions the SCS-ITO thin film exhibited high crystalline quality, atomically smooth surface (RMS ∝ 4.1 Aa), and low electrical resistivity (4.2 x 10 -4 Ω cm). The TFT using SCS-ITO film as the S/D electrodes showed excellent electrical properties with negligible hysteresis. The obtained ''on/off'' current ratio, subthreshold swing factor, subthreshold voltage, and field-effect mobility were 5 x 10 7 , 0.43 V/decade, 0.7 V, and 2.1 cm 2 /V s, respectively. The performance and stability of the SCS-ITO TFT are comparable to those of the sputtered-ITO TFT, emphasizing that the SCS-ITO film is a promising candidate for totally solution-processed oxide TFTs. (orig.)

  5. Study of the Carrier-Aided Thin Film Electrode Array Design for Cochlear Insertion

    Yuchen Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The micro-fabricated thin film electrode array (TFEA has been a promising design for cochlear implants (CIs because of its cost-effectiveness and fabrication precision. The latest polymer-based cochlear TFEAs have faced difficulties for cochlear insertion due to the lack of structural stiffness. To stiffen the TFEA, dissolvable stiffening materials, TFEAs with different structures, and TFEAs with commercial CIs as carriers have been invested. In this work, the concept of enhancing a Parylene TFEA with Kapton tape as a simpler carrier for cochlear insertion has been proved to be feasible. The bending stiffness of the Kapton-aided TFEA was characterized with an analytical model, a finite element model, and a cantilever bending experiment, respectively. While the Kapton tape increased the bending stiffness of the Parylene TFEA by 103 times, the 6-μm-thick TFEA with a similar Young’s modulus, as a polyimide, in turn significantly increased the bending stiffness of the 170-μm-thick Kapton carrier by 60%. This result indicated that even the TFEA is ultra-flexible and that its bending stiffness should not be neglected in the design or selection of its carrier.

  6. Patterning of metallic electrodes on flexible substrates for organic thin-film transistors using a laser thermal printing method

    Chen, Kun-Tso; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Ho, Jeng-Rong; Chen, Chih-Kant; Liu, Sung-Ho; Liao, Jin-Long; Cheng, Hua-Chi

    2011-01-01

    We report on a laser thermal printing method for transferring patterned metallic thin films on flexible plastic substrates using a pulsed CO 2 laser. Aluminium and silver line patterns, with micrometre scale resolution on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates, are shown. The printed electrodes demonstrate good conductivity and fulfil the properties for bottom-contact organic thin-film transistors. In addition to providing the energy for transferring the film, the absorption of laser light results in a rise in the temperature of the film and the substrate. This also further anneals the film and softens the plastic substrate. Consequently, it is possible to obtain a film with better surface morphology and with its film thickness implanted in part into the plastic surface. This implantation reveals excellent characteristics in adhesion and flexure resistance. Being feasible to various substrates and executable at ambient temperatures renders this approach a potential alternative for patterning metallic electrodes.

  7. Screen-printed carbon electrode modified on its surface with amorphous carbon nitride thin film: Electrochemical and morphological study

    Ghamouss, F. [Universite de Nantes, UMR 6006-CNRS, FR-2465-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Analyse isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes (LAIEM) (France); Tessier, P.-Y. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Djouadi, A. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Besland, M.-P. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Boujtita, M. [Universite de Nantes, UMR 6006-CNRS, FR-2465-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Analyse isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes (LAIEM) (France)]. E-mail: mohammed.boujtita@univ-nantes.fr

    2007-04-20

    The surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was modified by using amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN {sub x}) thin film deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Scanning electron microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were used to characterise respectively the morphology and the chemical structure of the a-CN {sub x} modified electrodes. The incorporation of nitrogen in the amorphous carbon network was demonstrated by X ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The a-CN {sub x} layers were deposited on both carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE) and silicon (Si) substrates. A comparative study showed that the nature of substrate, i.e. SPCE and Si, has a significant effect on both the surface morphology of deposited a-CN {sub x} film and their electrochemical properties. The improvement of the electrochemical reactivity of SPCE after a-CN {sub x} film deposition was highlighted both by comparing the shapes of voltammograms and calculating the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant.

  8. Effect of multi-layered bottom electrodes on the orientation of strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films

    Bhaskaran, M. [Microelectronics and Materials Technology Centre, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)], E-mail: madhu.bhaskaran@gmail.com; Sriram, S. [Microelectronics and Materials Technology Centre, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Mitchell, D.R.G.; Short, K.T. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), PMB 1, Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Holland, A.S. [Microelectronics and Materials Technology Centre, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)

    2008-09-30

    This article discusses the results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of piezoelectric strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PSZT) thin films deposited on multi-layer coatings on silicon. The films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on a metal coated substrate. The aim was to exploit the pronounced piezoelectric effect that is theoretically expected normal to the substrate. This work highlighted the influence that the bottom electrode architecture exerts on the final crystalline orientation of the deposited thin films. A number of bottom electrode architectures were used, with the uppermost metal layer on which PSZT was deposited being gold or platinum. The XRD analysis revealed that the unit cell of the PSZT thin films deposited on gold and on platinum were deformed, relative to expected unit cell dimensions. Experimental results have been used to estimate the unit cell parameters. The XRD results were then indexed based on these unit cell parameters. The choice and the thickness of the intermediate adhesion layers influenced the relative intensity, and in some cases, the presence of perovskite peaks. In some cases, undesirable reactions between the bottom electrode layers were observed, and layer architectures to overcome these reactions are also discussed.

  9. Pulsed voltage deposited lead selenide thin film as efficient counter electrode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    Jin, Bin Bin [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Industry, Shaanxi Institute of Technology, Xi’an 710300 (China); Wang, Ye Feng [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Wang, Xue Qing [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zeng, Jing Hui, E-mail: jhzeng@ustc.edu [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • PbSe thin film is deposited on FTO glass by a pulse voltage electrodeposition method. • The thin film is used as counter electrode (CE) in quantum dot-sensitized solar cell. • Superior electrocatalytic activity and stability in the polysulfide electrolyte is received. • The narrow band gap characteristics and p-type conductivity enhances the cell efficiency. • An efficiency of 4.67% is received for the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells. - Abstract: Lead selenide (PbSe) thin films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a facile one-step pulse voltage electrodeposition method, and used as counter electrode (CE) in CdS/CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). A power conversion efficiency of 4.67% is received for the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells, which is much better than that of 2.39% received using Pt CEs. The enhanced performance is attributed to the extended absorption in the near infrared region, superior electrocatalytic activity and p-type conductivity with a reflection of the incident light at the back electrode in addition. The physical and chemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), reflectance spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization measurements. The present work provides a facile pathway to an efficient CE in the QDSSCs.

  10. Characteristics of sputtered Al-doped ZnO films for transparent electrodes of organic thin-film transistor

    Park, Yong Seob; Kim, Han-Ki

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films were deposited with various RF powers at room temperature by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. The electrical properties of the AZO film were improved with the increasing RF power. These results can be explained by the improvement of the crystallinity in the AZO film. We fabricated the organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) of the bottom gate structure using pentacene active and poly-4-vinyl phenol gate dielectric layers on the indium tin oxide gate electrode, and estimated the device properties of the OTFTs including drain current-drain voltage (I D -V D ), drain current-gate voltage (I D -V G ), threshold voltage (V T ), on/off ratio and field effect mobility. The AZO film that grown at 160 W RF power exhibited low resistivity (1.54 x 10 -3 Ω.cm), high crystallinity and uniform surface morphology. The pentacene thin-film transistor using the AZO film that's fabricated at 160 W RF power exhibited good device performance such as the mobility of 0.94 cm 2 /V s and the on/off ratio of ∼ 10 5 . Consequently, the performance of the OTFT such as larger field-effect carrier mobility was determined the conductivity of the AZO source/drain (S/D) electrode. AZO films prepared at room temperature by the sputtering method are suitable for the S/D electrodes in the OTFTs.

  11. A chip-type thin-layer electrochemical cell coupled with capillary electrophoresis for online separation of electrode reaction products

    He, Jian-Bo, E-mail: jbhe@hfut.edu.cn; Cui, Ting; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Deng, Ning

    2013-07-05

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new coupling of thin-layer electrolysis with capillary electrophoresis (CE). •Rapid electrolysis, direct sampling followed by online CE separation. •At least 13 products of quercetin oxidation were separated. •Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were determined from CE peak areas. -- Abstract: A coupling technique of thin-layer electrolysis with high-performance capillary electrophoresis/UV–vis technique(EC/HPCE/UV–vis) is developed for online separation and determination of electrode reaction products. A chip-type thin-layer electrolytic (CTE) cell was designed and fabricated, which contains a capillary channel and a background electrolyte reservoir, allowing rapid electrolysis, direct sampling and online electrophoretic separation. This chip-type setup was characterized based on an electrophoresis expression of Nernst equation that was applied to the redox equilibrium of o-tolidine at different potentials. The utility of the method was demonstrated by separating and determining the electro-oxidation products of quercetin in different pH media. Two main products were always found in the studied time, potential and pH ranges. The variety of products increased not only with increasing potential but also with increasing pH value, and in total, at least 13 products were observed in the electropherograms. This work illustrates a novel example of capillary electrophoresis used online with thin-layer electrolysis to separate and detect electrode reaction products.

  12. A chip-type thin-layer electrochemical cell coupled with capillary electrophoresis for online separation of electrode reaction products

    He, Jian-Bo; Cui, Ting; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Deng, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new coupling of thin-layer electrolysis with capillary electrophoresis (CE). •Rapid electrolysis, direct sampling followed by online CE separation. •At least 13 products of quercetin oxidation were separated. •Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were determined from CE peak areas. -- Abstract: A coupling technique of thin-layer electrolysis with high-performance capillary electrophoresis/UV–vis technique(EC/HPCE/UV–vis) is developed for online separation and determination of electrode reaction products. A chip-type thin-layer electrolytic (CTE) cell was designed and fabricated, which contains a capillary channel and a background electrolyte reservoir, allowing rapid electrolysis, direct sampling and online electrophoretic separation. This chip-type setup was characterized based on an electrophoresis expression of Nernst equation that was applied to the redox equilibrium of o-tolidine at different potentials. The utility of the method was demonstrated by separating and determining the electro-oxidation products of quercetin in different pH media. Two main products were always found in the studied time, potential and pH ranges. The variety of products increased not only with increasing potential but also with increasing pH value, and in total, at least 13 products were observed in the electropherograms. This work illustrates a novel example of capillary electrophoresis used online with thin-layer electrolysis to separate and detect electrode reaction products

  13. Development of molecular precursors for deposition of indium sulphide thin film electrodes for photoelectrochemical applications.

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali; Peiris, T A Nirmal; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Arifin, Zainudin; Mazhar, Muhammad; Lo, K M; McKee, Vickie

    2013-08-14

    Symmetrical and unsymmetrical dithiocarbamato pyridine solvated and non-solvated complexes of indium(III) with the general formula [In(S2CNRR')3]·n(py) [where py = pyridine; R,R' = Cy, n = 2 (1); R,R' = (i)Pr, n = 1.5 (2); NRR' = Pip, n = 0.5 (3) and R = Bz, R' = Me, n = 0 (4)] have been synthesized. The compositions, structures and properties of these complexes have been studied by means of microanalysis, IR and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, X-ray single crystal and thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses. The applicability of these complexes as single source precursors (SSPs) for the deposition of β-In2S3 thin films on fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) at temperatures of 300, 350 and 400 °C is studied. All films have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) for the detection of phase and stoichiometry of the deposit. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal that precursors (1)-(4), irrespective of different metal ligand design, generate comparable morphologies of β-In2S3 thin films at different temperatures. Direct band gap energies of 2.2 eV have been estimated from the UV-vis spectroscopy for the β-In2S3 films fabricated from precursors (1) and (4). The photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of β-In2S3 were confirmed by recording the current-voltage plots under light and dark conditions. The plots showed anodic photocurrent densities of 1.25 and 0.65 mA cm(-2) at 0.23 V vs. Ag/AgCl for the β-In2S3 films made at 400 and 350 °C from the precursors (1) and (4), respectively. The photoelectrochemical performance indicates that the newly synthesised precursors are highly useful in fabricating β-In2S3 electrodes for solar energy harvesting and optoelectronic application.

  14. Preparation of Li4Ti5O12 electrode thin films by a mist CVD process with aqueous precursor solution

    Kiyoharu Tadanaga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spinel Li4Ti5O12 thin films were prepared by a mist CVD process, using an aqueous solution of lithium nitrate and a water-soluble titanium lactate complex as the source of Li and Ti, respectively. In this process, mist particles ultrasonically atomized from a source aqueous solution were transferred by nitrogen gas to a heating substrate to prepare thin films. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that thin films obtained by this process were dense and smooth, and thin films with a thickness of about 500 nm were obtained. In the X-ray diffraction analysis, formation of Li4Ti5O12 spinel phase was confirmed in the obtained thin film sintered at 700 °C for 4 h. The cell with the thin films as an electrode exhibited a capacity of about 110 mAh g−1, and the cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles.

  15. High conductivity and transparent aluminum-based multi-layer source/drain electrodes for thin film transistors

    Yao, Rihui; Zhang, Hongke; Fang, Zhiqiang; Ning, Honglong; Zheng, Zeke; Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaochen; Cai, Wei; Lu, Xubing; Peng, Junbiao

    2018-02-01

    In this study, high conductivity and transparent multi-layer (AZO/Al/AZO-/Al/AZO) source/drain (S/D) electrodes for thin film transistors were fabricated via conventional physical vapor deposition approaches, without toxic elements or further thermal annealing process. The 68 nm-thick multi-layer films with excellent optical properties (transparency: 82.64%), good electrical properties (resistivity: 6.64  ×  10-5 Ω m, work function: 3.95 eV), and superior surface roughness (R q   =  0.757 nm with scanning area of 5  ×  5 µm2) were fabricated as the S/D electrodes. Significantly, comprehensive performances of AZO films are enhanced by the insertion of ultra-thin Al layers. The optimal transparent TFT with this multi-layer S/D electrodes exhibited a decent electrical performance with a saturation mobility (µ sat) of 3.2 cm2 V-1 s-1, an I on/I off ratio of 1.59  ×  106, a subthreshold swing of 1.05 V/decade. The contact resistance of AZO/Al/AZO/Al/AZO multi-layer electrodes is as low as 0.29 MΩ. Moreover, the average visible light transmittance of the unpatterned multi-layers constituting a whole transparent TFT could reach 72.5%. The high conductivity and transparent multi-layer S/D electrodes for transparent TFTs possessed great potential for the applications of the green and transparent displays industry.

  16. Understanding Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  17. New method for characterizing electron mediators in microbial systems using a thin-layer twin-working electrode cell.

    Hassan, Md Mahamudul; Cheng, Ka Yu; Ho, Goen; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2017-01-15

    Microbial biofilms are significant ecosystems where the existence of redox gradients drive electron transfer often via soluble electron mediators. This study describes the use of two interfacing working electrodes (WEs) to simulate redox gradients within close proximity (250µm) for the detection and quantification of electron mediators. By using a common counter and reference electrode, the potentials of the two WEs were independently controlled to maintain a suitable "voltage window", which enabled simultaneous oxidation and reduction of electron mediators as evidenced by the concurrent anodic and cathodic currents, respectively. To validate the method, the electrochemical properties of different mediators (hexacyanoferrate, HCF, riboflavin, RF) were characterized by stepwise shifting the "voltage window" (ranging between 25 and 200mV) within a range of potentials after steady equilibrium current of both WEs was established. The resulting differences in electrical currents between the two WEs were recorded across a defined potential spectrum (between -1V and +0.5V vs. Ag/AgCl). Results indicated that the technique enabled identification (by the distinct peak locations at the potential scale) and quantification (by the peak of current) of the mediators for individual species as well as in an aqueous mixture. It enabled a precise determination of mid-potentials of the externally added mediators (HCF, RF) and mediators produced by pyocyanin-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (WACC 91) culture. The twin working electrode described is particularly suitable for studying mediator-dependent microbial electron transfer processes or simulating redox gradients as they exist in microbial biofilms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrochemical reactivity at graphitic micro-domains on polycrystalline boron doped diamond thin-films electrodes

    Mahe, E. [LI2C CNRS/UMR 7612, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Universite Pierre-et-Marie Curie - case courrier 51, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Devilliers, D. [LI2C CNRS/UMR 7612, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Universite Pierre-et-Marie Curie - case courrier 51, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Comninellis, Ch. [Unite de Genie Electrochimique, Institut de sciences des procedes chimiques et biologiques, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    This paper deals with the electrochemical reactivity of boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. A comparative study has been carried out to show the influence of the presence of graphitic micro-domains upon the surface of these films. Those graphitic domains are sometimes present on as-grown boron doped diamond electrodes. The effect of doping a pure Csp{sup 3} diamond electrode is established by highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) abrasion onto the diamond surface. In order to establish the effect of doping on a pure Csp{sup 3} diamond electrode, the amount of graphitic domains was increased by means of HOPG crystals grafted onto the BDD surface. Indeed that method allows the enrichment of the Csp{sup 2} contribution of the electrode. The presence of graphitic domains can be correlatively associated with the presence of kinetically active redox sites. The electrochemical reactivity of boron doped diamond electrodes shows a distribution of kinetic constants on the whole surface of the electrode corresponding to different active sites. In this paper, we have studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy the kinetics parameters of the ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple in KCl electrolyte. A method is proposed to diagnose the presence of graphitic domains on diamond electrodes, and an electrochemical 'pulse cleaning' procedure is proposed to remove them.

  19. Electrochemical reactivity at graphitic micro-domains on polycrystalline boron doped diamond thin-films electrodes

    Mahe, E.; Devilliers, D.; Comninellis, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the electrochemical reactivity of boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. A comparative study has been carried out to show the influence of the presence of graphitic micro-domains upon the surface of these films. Those graphitic domains are sometimes present on as-grown boron doped diamond electrodes. The effect of doping a pure Csp 3 diamond electrode is established by highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) abrasion onto the diamond surface. In order to establish the effect of doping on a pure Csp 3 diamond electrode, the amount of graphitic domains was increased by means of HOPG crystals grafted onto the BDD surface. Indeed that method allows the enrichment of the Csp 2 contribution of the electrode. The presence of graphitic domains can be correlatively associated with the presence of kinetically active redox sites. The electrochemical reactivity of boron doped diamond electrodes shows a distribution of kinetic constants on the whole surface of the electrode corresponding to different active sites. In this paper, we have studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy the kinetics parameters of the ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple in KCl electrolyte. A method is proposed to diagnose the presence of graphitic domains on diamond electrodes, and an electrochemical 'pulse cleaning' procedure is proposed to remove them

  20. Effect of Source/Drain Electrodes on the Electrical Properties of Silicon–Tin Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    Xianzhe Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high definition displays have become a trend for the current flat plane displays. In this study, the contact properties of amorphous silicon–tin oxide thin-film transistors (a-STO TFTs employed with source/drain (S/D electrodes were analyzed. Ohmic contact with a good device performance was achieved when a-STO was matched with indium-tin-oxide (ITO or Mo electrodes. The acceptor-like densities of trap states (DOS of a-STO TFTs were further investigated by using low-frequency capacitance–voltage (C–V characteristics to understand the impact of the electrode on the device performance. The reason of the distinct electrical performances of the devices with ITO and Mo contacts was attributed to different DOS caused by the generation of local defect states near the electrodes, which distorted the electric field distribution and formed an electrical potential barrier hindering the flow of electrons. It is of significant importance for circuit designers to design reliable integrated circuits with SnO2-based devices applied in flat panel displays.

  1. Effects of the top-electrode preparation method on the ferroelectric properties of Pt/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/Pt thin film capacitors

    Lee, Eun Gu; Lee, Jae Gab; Kim, Sun Jae

    2006-01-01

    The deformation in the hysteresis loop of Pt/PZT/Pt thin-film capacitors due to deposition and patterning of the top electrode has been investigated. The PZT film was aged during the deposition of the top electrode and was positively poled during reactive ion etching (RIE). The PZT film having sputtered top electrode was very sensitive to the RIE process. The film with a thinner top electrode showed less initial switching polarization due to less compressive stress, but better fatigue characteristics due to an enhanced partial-switching region.

  2. Study of electrochemical properties of thin film materials obtained using plasma technologies for production of electrodes for pacemakers

    Obrezkov, O I; Vinogradov, V P; Krauz, V I; Mozgrin, D V; Guseva, I A; Andreev, E S; Zverev, A A; Starostin, A L

    2016-01-01

    Studies of thin film materials (TFM) as coatings of tips of pacemaker electrodes implanted into the human heart have been performed. TFM coatings were deposited in vacuum by arc magnetron discharge plasma, by pulsed discharge of “Plasma Focus”, and by electron beam evaporation. Simulation of electric charge transfer to the heart in physiological blood- imitator solution and determination of electrochemical properties of the coatings were carried out. TFM of highly developed surface of contact with tissue was produced by argon plasma spraying of titanium powder with subsequent coating by titanium nitride in vacuum arc assisted by Ti ion implantation. The TFM coatings of pacemaker electrode have passed necessary clinical tests and were used in medical practice. They provide low voltage myocardium stimulation thresholds within the required operating time. (paper)

  3. Stress and piezoelectric properties of aluminum nitride thin films deposited onto metal electrodes by pulsed direct current reactive sputtering

    Dubois, Marc-Alexandre; Muralt, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Polycrystalline aluminum nitride thin films were deposited onto platinum, aluminum, and titanium electrodes by reactive magnetron sputtering in the pulsed direct current mode. The films exhibited all a columnar microstructure and a c-axis texture. The built-in stress and the piezoelectric properties of these films were studied as a function of both the processing conditions and the electrode material. Stress was found to be very much dependent on the growth conditions, and values ranging from strong compression to high tension were observed. The piezoelectric d 33,f coefficient was shown to rely on substrate quality and ionic bombardment: The nucleation surface must be stable with regard to the nitrogen plasma and present a hexagonal symmetry and, on the other hand, enough energy must be delivered to the growing film through ionic bombardment. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  4. Ultra-thin solution-based coating of molybdenum oxide on multiwall carbon nanotubes for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Shakir, Imran

    2014-02-01

    Uniform and conformal coating of ultrathin molybdenum oxide (MoO 3) thin film onto conducting MWCNTs was successfully synthesized through a facile, nontoxic and generally applicable precipitation method, followed by a simple heat treatment. The ultrathin MoO3 coating enables a fast and reversible redox reaction which improves the specific capacitance by utilizing the maximum number of active sites for the redox reaction, while the high porosity of the MWCNTs facilitates ion migration in the electrolyte and shorten the ion diffusion path. The ultrathin MoO3 coated MWCNTs electrodes show a very high specific capacitance of 1145 Fg -1 in 2 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution when 5 nm thick MoO3 was considered alone despite the low weight percentage of the MoO3 (16wt%). Furthermore, the ultrathin MoO3 coated MWCNTs supercapacitor electrodes exhibited excellent cycling performance of > 97% capacitance retention over 1000 cycles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Spectroelectrochemical study of the adsorption of acetate anions at gold single crystal and thin-film electrodes

    Berna, Antonio; Delgado, Jose Manuel; Orts, Jose Manuel; Rodes, Antonio; Feliu, Juan Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Acetate adsorption at gold electrodes is studied in perchloric acid solutions by cyclic voltammetry and in-situ infrared spectroscopy. External reflection measurements, performed with gold single crystal electrodes, are combined with Surface Enhanced Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy experiments under attenuated total reflection conditions (ATR-SEIRAS) carried out with sputtered gold thin-film electrodes. Theoretical harmonic IR frequencies of acetate species adsorbed with different geometries on Au clusters with (1 1 1), (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) orientations have been obtained from B3LYP/LANL2DZ, 6-31 + G* calculations. The theoretical and experimental results confirm that, irrespective of the surface crystallographic orientation, bonding of acetate to the surface involves the two oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group, with the OCO plane perpendicular to the metal surface. DFT calculations reveal also that the total charge of the metal cluster-acetate supermolecule has small effect on the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed acetate species. Both the external and the internal reflection measurements show the co-adsorption of acetate and perchlorate anions. Step-scan measurements carried out with the gold thin-film electrodes have allowed the monitoring of the time-dependent behaviour of perchlorate, acetate and water bands in potential step experiments. Acetate adsorption under those conditions is shown to involve perchlorate desorption and to follow a Langmuir-type kinetics. The step-scan spectra also show the rise and decay of transient water structures with parallel time-dependent shifts of the background intensity in the infrared spectra

  6. Dynamics of rotating and vibrating thin hemispherical shell with mass and damping imperfections and parametrically driven by discrete electrodes

    Shatalov, M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Shatalov2_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 22572 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Shatalov2_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 DYNAMICS OF ROTATING... AND VIBRATING THIN HEMISPHERICAL SHELL WITH MASS AND DAMPING IMPERFECTIONS AND PARAMETRICALLY DRIVEN BY DISCRETE ELECTRODES Michael Shatalov1,2 and Charlotta Coetzee2 1Sensor Science and Technology (SST) of CSIR Material Science and Manufacturing (MSM...

  7. Insights on Capacitive Interdigitated Electrodes Coated with MOF Thin Films: Humidity and VOCs Sensing as a Case Study

    Sapsanis, Christos

    2015-07-24

    A prototypical metal-organic framework (MOF), a 2D periodic porous structure based on the assembly of copper ions and benzene dicarboxylate (bdc) ligands (Cu(bdc)·xH2O), was grown successfully as a thin film on interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). IDEs have been used for achieving planar CMOS-compatible low-cost capacitive sensing structures for the detection of humidity and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Accordingly, the resultant IDEs coated with the Cu(bdc)·xH2O thin film was evaluated, for the first time, as a capacitive sensor for gas sensing applications. A fully automated setup, using LabVIEW interfaces to experiment conduction and data acquisition, was developed in order to measure the associated gas sensing performance.

  8. Deposition Time and Thermal Cycles of Fabricating Thin-wall Steel Parts by Double Electrode GMAW Based Additive Manufacturing

    Yang Dongqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deposition time for fabricating the thin-wall part as well as the peak temperature of the substrate during the process was analyzed in the double electrode gas metal arc welding (DE-GMAW based additive manufacturing (AM. The total deposition time and the interlayer idle time of the manufacturing process decreased with the increasing of the bypass current under the same interlayer temperature and the same deposition rate. The thermal cycling curves illustrated that the peak temperature of the substrate was lower in the DE-GMAW base AM under the same conditions. When depositing the thin-wall parts, the DE-GMAW based AM can reduce the heat input to the substrate and improve the fabrication efficiency, compared with the GMAW based AM.

  9. Microwave-assisted low temperature fabrication of ZnO thin film electrodes for solar energy harvesting

    Nirmal Peiris, T.A.; Sagu, Jagdeep S.; Hazim Yusof, Y.; Upul Wijayantha, K.G., E-mail: U.Wijayantha@lboro.ac.uk

    2015-09-01

    Metallic Zn thin films were electrodeposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates and oxidized under air by conventional radiant and microwave post-annealing methods to obtain ZnO thin film electrodes. The temperature of each post-annealing method was varied systematically and the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of electrodes was evaluated. The best photocurrent density achieved by the conventional radiant annealing method at 425 °C for 15 min was 93 μA cm{sup −2} at 1.23 V vs. NHE and the electrode showed an incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 28.2%. X-ray diffractogram of this electrode showed that the oxidation of Zn to ZnO was not completed during the radiant annealing process as evident by the presence of metallic Zn in the electrode. For the electrode oxidized from Zn to ZnO under microwave irradiation, a photocurrent of 130 μA cm{sup −2} at 1.23 V vs. NHE and IPCE of 35.6% was observed after annealing for just 3 min, during which the temperature reached 250 °C. The photocurrent was 40% higher for the microwave annealed sample; this increase was attributed to higher surface area by preserving the nanostructure, confirmed by SEM surface topographical analysis, and better conversion yields to crystalline ZnO. Overall, it was demonstrated that oxidation of Zn to ZnO can be accomplished by microwave annealing five times faster than that of conventional annealing, thus resulting in a ~ 75% power saving. This study shows that microwave processing of materials offers significant economic and performance advantages for industrial scale up. - Highlights: • Conversion of Zn to ZnO by microwave and radiant annealing was conducted. • Microwave conversion was 5 times faster compared to radiant annealing. • Photoelectrochemical performance of microwave annealed ZnO was 40% higher. • Microwave annealing results in a 75% energy saving.

  10. Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes with Modified Surfaces

    Yu, Yuan; Zhou, Yanli; Wu, Liangzhuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2012-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films, as one kind of electrode materials, are superior to conventional carbon-based materials including carbon paste, porous carbon, glassy carbon (GC), carbon nanotubes in terms of high stability, wide potential window, low background current, and good biocompatibility. Electrochemical biosensor based on BDD electrodes have attracted extensive interests due to the superior properties of BDD electrodes and the merits of biosensors, such as specificity, sensitiv...

  11. Properties of RF-Sputtered PZT Thin Films with Ti/Pt Electrodes

    Cui Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of annealing temperature and thin film thickness on properties of Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47O3 (PZT thin film deposited via radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique onto Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate was investigated. Average grain sizes of the PZT thin film were measured by atomic force microscope; their preferred orientation was studied through X-ray diffraction analysis. Average residual stress in the thin film was estimated according to the optimized Stoney formula, and impedance spectroscopy characterization was performed via an intelligent LCR measuring instrument. Average grain sizes of PZT thin films were 60 nm~90 nm and their average roughness was less than 2 nm. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, 600°C is the optimal annealing temperature to obtain the PZT thin film with better crystallization. Average residual stress showed that thermal mismatch was the decisive factor of residual stress in Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate; the residual stress in PZT thin film decreased as their thickness increased and increased with annealing temperature. The dielectric constant and loss angle tangent were extremely increased with the thickness of PZT thin films. The capacitance of the device can be adjusted according to the thickness of PZT thin films.

  12. Preferential growth and enhanced dielectric properties of Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films with preannealed Pt bottom electrode

    Zhu Xiaohong; Ren Yinjuan; Zhang Caiyun; Zhu Jiliang; Zhu Jianguo; Xiao Dingquan; Defaÿ, Emmanuel; Aïd, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 (BST) thin films, about 100 nm in thickness, were prepared on unannealed and 700 °C-preannealed Pt bottom electrodes by the ion beam sputtering and post-deposition annealing method. It was found that the preannealed Pt layer has a more compact structure, making it not only a bottom electrode but also a good template for high-quality BST thin film growth. The BST films deposited on preannealed Pt bottom electrodes showed (0 0 l)-preferred orientation, dense and uniform microstructure with no intermediate phase formed at the film/electrode interface, and thus enhanced dielectric properties. As a result, the typical relative dielectric constant and tunability (under a dc electric field of 1 MV cm −1 ) reach 180 and 50.1%, respectively, for the BST thin films with preannealed Pt bottom electrodes, which are significantly higher than those (166 and 41.3%, respectively) for the BST thin films deposited on unannealed Pt bottom electrodes. (paper)

  13. Preferential growth and enhanced dielectric properties of Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films with preannealed Pt bottom electrode

    Zhu, Xiaohong; Defaÿ, Emmanuel; Aïd, Marc; Ren, Yinjuan; Zhang, Caiyun; Zhu, Jiliang; Zhu, Jianguo; Xiao, Dingquan

    2013-03-01

    Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (BST) thin films, about 100 nm in thickness, were prepared on unannealed and 700 °C-preannealed Pt bottom electrodes by the ion beam sputtering and post-deposition annealing method. It was found that the preannealed Pt layer has a more compact structure, making it not only a bottom electrode but also a good template for high-quality BST thin film growth. The BST films deposited on preannealed Pt bottom electrodes showed (0 0 l)-preferred orientation, dense and uniform microstructure with no intermediate phase formed at the film/electrode interface, and thus enhanced dielectric properties. As a result, the typical relative dielectric constant and tunability (under a dc electric field of 1 MV cm-1) reach 180 and 50.1%, respectively, for the BST thin films with preannealed Pt bottom electrodes, which are significantly higher than those (166 and 41.3%, respectively) for the BST thin films deposited on unannealed Pt bottom electrodes.

  14. Activated carbon/manganese dioxide hybrid electrodes for high performance thin film supercapacitors

    Jang, Yunseok; Jo, Jeongdai; Jang, Hyunjung; Kim, Inyoung; Kang, Dongwoo; Kim, Kwang-Young

    2014-06-01

    We combine the activated carbon (AC) and the manganese dioxide (MnO2) in a AC/MnO2 hybrid electrode to overcome the low capacitance of activated carbon and MnO2 by exploiting the large surface area of AC and the fast reversible redox reaction of MnO2. An aqueous permanganate (MnO4 -) is converted to MnO2 on the surface of the AC electrode by dipping the AC electrode into an aqueous permanganate solution. The AC/MnO2 hybrid electrode is found to display superior specific capacitance of 290 F/g. This shows that supercapacitors classified as electric double layer capacitors and pseudocapacitors can be combined together.

  15. Electrical conductivity dependence of thin metallic films of Au and Pd as a top electrode in capacitor applications

    Nazarpour, S.; Langenberg, E.; Jambois, O.; Ferrater, C.; Garcia-Cuenca, M.V.; Polo, M.C.; Varela, M.

    2009-01-01

    Electrical conductivity dependence of thin metallic films of Au and Pd over the different perovskites was investigated. It is found from electrical properties that crystallographic growth orientation of Au and Pd thin layers attained from X-ray diffraction results indicate the slop of current (I)-voltage (V) plots. Besides, surface morphology and topography was considered using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy, respectively. Obtained results showed the Stranski-Krastanov growth of the Pd and Au. Indeed, diminishing of the root-mean-square roughness of Pd/BiMnO 3 /SrTiO 3 following by Au deposition should be concerned due to growth of Au onto the crack-like parts of the substrate. These crack-like parts appeared due to parasitic phases of the Bi-Mn-O system mainly Mn 3 O 4 (l 0 l) and Mn 3 O 4 (0 0 4 l). The different response in the electrical properties of heterostructures suggests that electrical conductance of the Au and Pd thin metallic films have the crystallographic orientation dependence. Furthermore, polycrystallinity of the thin metallic films are desired in electrode applications due to increase the conductivity of the metallic layers.

  16. Enhancement of the electrical characteristics of thin-film transistors with indium-zinc-tin oxide/Ag/indium-zinc-tin oxide multilayer electrodes

    Oh, Dohyun; Yun, Dong Yeol; Cho, Woon-Jo; Kim, Tae Whan

    2014-08-01

    Transparent indium-zinc-tin oxide (IZTO)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were fabricated on glass substrates using a tilted dual-target radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system. The IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes exhibited a high optical transmittance in a visible region. The threshold voltage, the mobility, and the on/off-current ratio of the TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were enhanced in comparison with those of the TFTs with ITO electrodes. The source/drain contact resistance of the IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes was smaller than that of the IZTO TFTs with ITO electrodes, resulting in enhancement of their electrical characteristics.

  17. Area-Selective ZnO Thin Film Deposition on Variable Microgap Electrodes and Their Impact on UV Sensing

    Q. Humayun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO thin films were deposited on patterned gold electrodes using the sol-gel spin coating technique. Conventional photolithography process was used to obtain the variable microgaps of 30 and 43 μm in butterfly topology by using zero-gap chrome mask. The structural, morphological, and electrical properties of the deposited thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and Keithley SourceMeter, respectively. The current-voltage (I-V characterization was performed to investigate the effect of UV light on the fabricated devices. The ZnO fabricated sensors showed a photo to dark current (Iph/Id ratios of 6.26 for 30 μm and 5.28 for 43 μm gap electrodes spacing, respectively. Dynamic responses of both fabricated sensors were observed till 1V with good reproducibility. At the applied voltage of 1 V, the response time was observed to be 4.817 s and 3.704 s while the recovery time was observed to be 0.3738 s and 0.2891 s for 30 and 43 μm gaps, respectively. The signal detection at low operating voltages suggested that the fabricated sensors could be used for miniaturized devices with low power consumption.

  18. Metal ion analysis in contaminated water samples using anodic stripping voltammetry and a nanocrystalline diamond thin-film electrode

    Sonthalia, Prerna; McGaw, Elizabeth; Show, Yoshiyuki; Swain, Greg M.

    2004-01-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond thin-film electrodes were employed for the detection and quantification of Ag (I), Cu (II), Pb (II), Cd (II), and Zn (II) in several contaminated water samples using anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV). Diamond is an alternate electrode that possesses many of the same attributes as Hg and, therefore, appears to be a viable material for this electroanalytical measurement. The nanocrystalline form has been found to perform slightly better than the more conventional microcrystalline form of diamond in this application. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPASV) was used to detect these metal ions in lake water, well water, tap water, wastewater treatment sludge, and soil. The electrochemical results were compared with data from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) and or atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) measurements of the same samples. Diamond is shown to function well in this electroanalytical application, providing a wide linear dynamic range, a low limit of quantitation, excellent response precision, and good response accuracy. For the analysis of Pb (II), bare diamond provided a response nearly identical to that obtained with a Hg-coated glassy carbon electrode

  19. Influence of aluminum nitride interlayers on crystal orientation and piezoelectric property of aluminum nitride thin films prepared on titanium electrodes

    Kamohara, Toshihiro; Akiyama, Morito; Ueno, Naohiro; Nonaka, Kazuhiro; Kuwano, Noriyuki

    2007-01-01

    Highly c-axis-oriented aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films have been prepared on titanium (Ti) bottom electrodes by using AlN interlayers. The AlN interlayers were deposited between Ti electrodes and silicon (Si) substrates, such as AlN/Ti/AlN/Si. The crystallinity and crystal orientation of the AlN films and Ti electrodes strongly depended on the thickness of the AlN interlayers. Although the sputtering conditions were the same, the X-ray diffraction intensity of AlN (0002) and Ti (0002) planes drastically increased, and the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the X-ray rocking curves decreased from 5.1 o to 2.6 o and from 3.3 o to 2.0 o , respectively. Furthermore, the piezoelectric constant d 33 of the AlN films was significantly improved from - 0.2 to - 4.5 pC/N

  20. Reduced contact resistance of a-IGZO thin film transistors with inkjet-printed silver electrodes

    Chen, Jianqiu; Ning, Honglong; Fang, Zhiqiang; Tao, Ruiqiang; Yang, Caigui; Zhou, Yicong; Yao, Rihui; Xu, Miao; Wang, Lei; Peng, Junbiao

    2018-04-01

    In this study, high performance amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O (a-IGZO) TFTs were successfully fabricated with inkjet-printed silver source-drain electrodes. The results showed that increased channel thickness has an improving trend in the properties of TFTs due to the decreased contact resistance. Compared with sputtered silver TFTs, devices with printed silver electrodes were more sensitive to the thickness of active layer. Furthermore, the devices with optimized active layer showed high performances with a maximum saturation mobility of 8.73 cm2 · V‑1 · S‑1 and an average saturation mobility of 6.97 cm2 · V‑1 · S‑1, I on/I off ratio more than 107 and subthreshold swing of 0.28 V/decade, which were comparable with the analogous devices with sputtered electrodes.

  1. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-02-01

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials.

  2. Reduction of methanol crossover by thin cracked metal barriers at the interface between membrane and electrode in direct methanol fuel cells

    Kim, Sungjun; Jang, Segeun; Kim, Sang Moon; Ahn, Chi-Yeong; Hwang, Wonchan; Cho, Yong-Hun; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choi, Mansoo

    2017-09-01

    This work reports the successful reduction in methanol crossover by creating a thin cracked metal barrier at the interface between a Nafion® membrane and an electrode in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The cracks are generated by simple mechanical stretching of a metal deposited Nafion® membrane as a result of the elastic mismatch between the two attached surfaces. The cracked metal barriers with varying strains (∼0.5 and ∼1.0) are investigated and successfully incorporated into the DMFC. Remarkably, the membrane electrode assembly with the thin metal crack exhibits comparable ohmic resistance as well as reduction of methanol crossover, which enhanced the device performance.

  3. Lipase immobilized on nanostructured cerium oxide thin film coated on transparent conducting oxide electrode for butyrin sensing

    Panky, Sreedevi; Thandavan, Kavitha; Sivalingam, Durgajanani; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Jeyaprakash, Beri Gopalakrishnan; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique with cerium nitrate salt, Ce(NO 3 ) 3 ·6H 2 O as precursor. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film prepared using spray pyrolysis technique acts as the TCO film and hence the bare electrode. The structural, morphological and elemental characterizations of the films were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) respectively. The diffraction peak positions in XRD confirmed the formation of highly crystalline ceria with cubic structure and FE-SEM images showed uniform adherent films with granular morphology. The band gaps of CeO 2 and TCO were found to be 3.2 eV and 2.6 eV respectively. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO 2 /TCO film to form the lipase/nano-CeO 2 /TCO bioelectrode. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, with lipase/nano-CeO 2 /TCO as working electrode and tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33–1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 μM with sharp response time of 5 s and a shelf life of about 6 weeks. -- Graphical abstract: Nanostructured cerium oxide thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film acts as the TCO film and hence the working electrode. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO 2 /TCO film and hence the lipase/nano-CeO 2 /TCO bioelectrode has been fabricated. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33–1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 μM with sharp response time of 5 s and a shelf life of about 6

  4. Lipase immobilized on nanostructured cerium oxide thin film coated on transparent conducting oxide electrode for butyrin sensing

    Panky, Sreedevi; Thandavan, Kavitha [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Sivalingam, Durgajanani [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Jeyaprakash, Beri Gopalakrishnan [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru, E-mail: rjbosco@ece.sastra.edu [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-01-15

    Nanostructured cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique with cerium nitrate salt, Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O as precursor. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film prepared using spray pyrolysis technique acts as the TCO film and hence the bare electrode. The structural, morphological and elemental characterizations of the films were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) respectively. The diffraction peak positions in XRD confirmed the formation of highly crystalline ceria with cubic structure and FE-SEM images showed uniform adherent films with granular morphology. The band gaps of CeO{sub 2} and TCO were found to be 3.2 eV and 2.6 eV respectively. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO{sub 2}/TCO film to form the lipase/nano-CeO{sub 2}/TCO bioelectrode. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, with lipase/nano-CeO{sub 2}/TCO as working electrode and tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33-1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 {mu}M with sharp response time of 5 s and a shelf life of about 6 weeks. -- Graphical abstract: Nanostructured cerium oxide thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film acts as the TCO film and hence the working electrode. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO{sub 2}/TCO film and hence the lipase/nano-CeO{sub 2}/TCO bioelectrode has been fabricated. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33-1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 {mu}M with sharp

  5. All-organic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light-valves integrated with electroactive anthraquinone-2-sulfonate-doped polypyrrole thin films as driving electrodes

    Wang, Pen-Cheng; Yu, Jing-Yu; Li, Kuan-Hsun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fabrication of flexible semi-transparent all-polymer electrodes under ambient conditions without using a CVD system. → Characterization of the above electrodes based on anthraquinone-2-sulfonate-doped polypyrrole thin films. → Demonstration of all-organic liquid crystal light-valves with polypyrrole thin films as the driving electrodes. - Abstract: All-organic PDLC (polymer-dispersed liquid crystal) light-valves using all-polymer conductive substrates containing thin films of polypyrrole doped with anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQSA - ) as the driving electrodes were fabricated in this study. The all-polymer conductive substrates were prepared under ambient conditions by in situ depositing polypyrrole thin films on blank flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate), or PET, substrates from aqueous media in which oxidative polymerization of pyrrole was taking place. The obtained flexible all-polymer conductive substrates were semi-transparent with cohesive coatings of AQSA - doped polypyrrole thin films (thickness ∼55 nm). The all-polymer flexible conductive substrates had sheet resistivity ∼40 kΩ □ -1 and T% transparency against air ∼78% at 600 nm. The light-valves fabricated using the above all-polymer conductive substrates showed ∼50% transparency against air at 600 nm when 4 V μm -1 electric field was applied.

  6. Contact Resistance Reduction of ZnO Thin Film Transistors (TFTs) with Saw-Shaped Electrode

    Park, Woojin; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Min, Jungwook; Lee, Sang Kyung; Lee, Byoung Hun; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    an enhancement in the output drive current by 50% and reduction in the contact resistance by over 50%, when compared to a typical shaped electrode ZnO TFT consuming the same chip area. This performance enhancement is attributed to extension of channel width

  7. Heparin molecularly imprinted polymer thin flm on gold electrode by plasma-induced graft polymerization for label-free biosensor.

    Orihara, Kouhei; Hikichi, Atsushi; Arita, Tomohiko; Muguruma, Hitoshi; Yoshimi, Yasuo

    2018-03-20

    Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is an important biomaterial having biological and therapeutic functionalities such as anticoagulation, regeneration, and protein stabilization. This study addresses a label-free quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor for heparin detection based on a macromolecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as an artificial recognition element. We demonstrate the novel strategy for MIP in the form of thin film on a gold (Au) electrode with the plasma-induced graft polymerization (PIP) technique. The procedure of PIP is as follows: (i) Hexamethyldisiloxane plasma-polymerized thin film (PPF) as a pre-coating scaffold of active species for PIP (post-polymerization) is deposited on an Au electrode. (ii) The PPF/Au electrode is soaked in an water solution containing heparin (template), (2-(methacryloxy)-ethyl)trimethylammonium chloride acrylamide (functional monomer), acrylamide, and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (crosslinker). Double bonds of monomer and crosslinker attacked by residually active species in pre-coating PPF cause radical chain reaction. Consequently, a growing polymer network of 20 nm thickness of PIP-MIP thin film is formed and grafted on the PPF/Au surface. (iii) The PIP-MIP/PPF/Au is washed by sodium chloride solution so as to remove the template. Non-imprinted polymer (NIP) is carried out like the same procedure without a template. The AFM, XPS, and QCM measurements show that the PIP process facilitates macromolecularly surface imprinting of template heparin where the template is easily removed and is rapidly rebound to PIP-MIP without a diffusional barrier. The heparin-PIP-MIP specifically binds to heparin compared with heparin analog chondroitin sulfate C (selective factor: 4.0) and a detectable range of heparin in the presence of CS (0.1 wt%) was 0.001-0.1 wt%. The PIP-NIP does not show selectivity between them. The evaluated binding kinetics are association (k a  = 350 ± 100 M -1  s -1

  8. Effect of heat treatments and window layer processing on the characteristics of CuInGaSe{sub 2} thin film solar cells

    Ramanathan, K.; Contreras, M.A.; Tuttle, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Interaction between chemical bath deposited CdS and ZnO window layers are a focus of this paper. Low temperature anneals were used to follow the changes at the interface. Optical absorption spectra show that CdS and ZnO intermix upon annealing. When applied to ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe{sub 2} thin film solar cells, changes in the short and long wavelength response were observed. The latter is attributed to an increase in the energy gap of the absorber by diffusion of S. The interdiffusion is shown to increase the short wavelength collection, and hence the current density of the devices. Photoluminescence data provides some indication of the quality of the interface.

  9. Effect of electrode type in the resistive switching behaviour of TiO2 thin films

    Hernández-Rodríguez, E; Zapata-Torres, M; Márquez-Herrera, A; Zaleta-Alejandre, E; Meléndez-Lira, M; Cruz, W de la

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the electrode/active layer on the electric-field-induced resistance-switching phenomena of TiO 2 -based metal-oxide-metal devices (MOM) is studied. TiO 2 active layers were fabricated by the reactive rf-sputtering technique and devices were made by sandwiching between several metal electrodes. Three different MOM devices were made, according with the junction type formed between the electrode and the TiO 2 active layer, those where Ohmic-Ohmic, Ohmic-Schottky and Schottky-Schottky. The junction type was tested by electrical I-V measurements. It was found that MOM devices made with the Ohmic-Ohmic combination did not show any resistive switching behaviour in contrast with devices made with Ohmic-Schottky and Schottky-Schottky combinations. From a detailed analysis of the I-V curves it was found that transport characteristics are Ohmic for the low-resistance state for all the contacts combinations of the MOM devices, whereas in the high-resistance state it depends on contact combinations and can be identified as Ohmic, Schottky and Poole-Frenkel type. These conduction mechanisms in the low- and high-resistance states suggest that formation and rupture of conducting filaments through the film oxide is the mechanism responsible for the resistance switching.

  10. A thin film approach for SiC-derived graphene as an on-chip electrode for supercapacitors

    Ahmed, Mohsin; Khawaja, Mohamad; Notarianni, Marco; Wang, Bei; Goding, Dayle; Gupta, Bharati; Boeckl, John J.; Takshi, Arash; Motta, Nunzio; Saddow, Stephen E.; Iacopi, Francesca

    2015-10-01

    We designed a nickel-assisted process to obtain graphene with sheet resistance as low as 80 Ω square-1 from silicon carbide films on Si wafers with highly enhanced surface area. The silicon carbide film acts as both a template and source of graphitic carbon, while, simultaneously, the nickel induces porosity on the surface of the film by forming silicides during the annealing process which are subsequently removed. As stand-alone electrodes in supercapacitors, these transfer-free graphene-on-chip samples show a typical double-layer supercapacitive behaviour with gravimetric capacitance of up to 65 F g-1. This work is the first attempt to produce graphene with high surface area from silicon carbide thin films for energy storage at the wafer-level and may open numerous opportunities for on-chip integrated energy storage applications.

  11. A thin film approach for SiC-derived graphene as an on-chip electrode for supercapacitors

    Ahmed, Mohsin; Wang, Bei; Goding, Dayle; Iacopi, Francesca; Khawaja, Mohamad; Notarianni, Marco; Takshi, Arash; Saddow, Stephen E; Gupta, Bharati; Motta, Nunzio; Boeckl, John J

    2015-01-01

    We designed a nickel-assisted process to obtain graphene with sheet resistance as low as 80 Ω square −1 from silicon carbide films on Si wafers with highly enhanced surface area. The silicon carbide film acts as both a template and source of graphitic carbon, while, simultaneously, the nickel induces porosity on the surface of the film by forming silicides during the annealing process which are subsequently removed. As stand-alone electrodes in supercapacitors, these transfer-free graphene-on-chip samples show a typical double-layer supercapacitive behaviour with gravimetric capacitance of up to 65 F g −1 . This work is the first attempt to produce graphene with high surface area from silicon carbide thin films for energy storage at the wafer-level and may open numerous opportunities for on-chip integrated energy storage applications. (paper)

  12. Wrinkle-free graphene electrodes in zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors for large area applications

    Lee, Se-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hee; Park, Byeong-Ju; Park, Jozeph; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Yoon, Soon-Gil

    2017-02-01

    Wrinkle-free graphene was used to form the source-drain electrodes in thin film transistors based on a zinc tin oxide (ZTO) semiconductor. A 10 nm thick titanium adhesion layer was applied prior to transferring a conductive graphene film on top of it by chemical detachment. The formation of an interlayer oxide between titanium and graphene allows the achievement of uniform surface roughness over the entire substrate area. The resulting devices were thermally treated in ambient air, and a substantial decrease in field effect mobility is observed with increasing annealing temperature. The increase in electrical resistivity of the graphene film at higher annealing temperatures may have some influence, however the growth of the oxide interlayer at the ZTO/Ti boundary is suggested to be most influential, thereby inducing relatively high contact resistance.

  13. Transparent and conductive electrodes by large-scale nanostructuring of noble metal thin-films

    Linnet, Jes; Runge Walther, Anders; Wolff, Christian

    grid, and nano-wire thin-films [1]. The indium and carbon films do not match the chemical stability nor the electrical performance of the noble metals, and many metal films are not uniform in material distribution leading to significant surface roughness and randomized transmission haze. We demonstrate...

  14. Thin film electrodes for Li-ion batteries prepared in-situ at lower temperatures

    Přidal, Jiří; Prachařová, Jarmila; Jakubec, Ivo; Bludská, Jana; Studnička, Václav

    11-12, - (2002), s. 386-389 ISSN 0447-6441 Grant - others:NATO(XX) SfP972523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : Thin films * magnetron sputtering * Li- ion batteries Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  15. On the Preparation and Testing of Fuel Cell Catalysts Using the Thin Film Rotating Disk Electrode Method.

    Inaba, Masanori; Quinson, Jonathan; Bucher, Jan Rudolf; Arenz, Matthias

    2018-03-16

    We present a step-by-step tutorial to prepare proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts, consisting of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) supported on a high surface area carbon, and to test their performance in thin film rotating disk electrode (TF-RDE) measurements. The TF-RDE methodology is widely used for catalyst screening; nevertheless, the measured performance sometimes considerably differs among research groups. These uncertainties impede the advancement of new catalyst materials and, consequently, several authors discussed possible best practice methods and the importance of benchmarking. The visual tutorial highlights possible pitfalls in the TF-RDE testing of Pt/C catalysts. A synthesis and testing protocol to assess standard Pt/C catalysts is introduced that can be used together with polycrystalline Pt disks as benchmark catalysts. In particular, this study highlights how the properties of the catalyst film on the glassy carbon (GC) electrode influence the measured performance in TF-RDE testing. To obtain thin, homogeneous catalyst films, not only the catalyst preparation, but also the ink deposition and drying procedures are essential. It is demonstrated that an adjustment of the ink's pH might be necessary, and how simple control measurements can be used to check film quality. Once reproducible TF-RDE measurements are obtained, determining the Pt loading on the catalyst support (expressed as Pt wt%) and the electrochemical surface area is necessary to normalize the determined reaction rates to either surface area or Pt mass. For the surface area determination, so-called CO stripping, or the determination of the hydrogen underpotential deposition (Hupd) charge, are standard. For the determination of the Pt loading, a straightforward and cheap procedure using digestion in aqua regia with subsequent conversion of Pt(IV) to Pt(II) and UV-vis measurements is introduced.

  16. Highly transparent front electrodes with metal fingers for p-i-n thin-film silicon solar cells

    Moulin Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical and electrical properties of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs, traditionally used in thin-film silicon (TF-Si solar cells as front-electrode materials, are interlinked, such that an increase in TCO transparency is generally achieved at the cost of reduced lateral conductance. Combining a highly transparent TCO front electrode of moderate conductance with metal fingers to support charge collection is a well-established technique in wafer-based technologies or for TF-Si solar cells in the substrate (n-i-p configuration. Here, we extend this concept to TF-Si solar cells in the superstrate (p-i-n configuration. The metal fingers are used in conjunction with a millimeter-scale textured foil, attached to the glass superstrate, which provides an antireflective and retroreflective effect; the latter effect mitigates the shadowing losses induced by the metal fingers. As a result, a substantial increase in power conversion efficiency, from 8.7% to 9.1%, is achieved for 1-μm-thick microcrystalline silicon solar cells deposited on a highly transparent thermally treated aluminum-doped zinc oxide layer combined with silver fingers, compared to cells deposited on a state-of-the-art zinc oxide layer.

  17. Facile Synthesis of Ultralong and Thin Copper Nanowires and Its Application to High-Performance Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    Wang, Yaxiong; Liu, Ping; Zeng, Baoqing; Liu, Liming; Yang, Jianjun

    2018-03-01

    A hydrothermal method for synthesizing ultralong and thin copper nanowires (CuNWs) with average diameter of 35 nm and average length of 100 μm is demonstrated in this paper. The concerning raw materials include copric (II) chloride dihydrate (CuCl2·2H2O), octadecylamine (ODA), and ascorbic acid, which are all very cheap and nontoxic. The effect of different reaction time and different molar ratios to the reaction products were researched. The CuNWs prepared by the hydrothermal method were applied to fabricate CuNW transparent conductive electrode (TCE), which exhibited excellent conductivity-transmittance performance with low sheet resistance of 26.23 Ω /\\square and high transparency at 550 nm of 89.06% (excluding Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate). The electrode fabrication process was carried out at room temperature, and there was no need for post-treatment. In order to decrease roughness and protect CuNW TCEs against being oxidized, we fabricated CuNW/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) hybrid TCEs (HTCEs) using PMMA solution. The CuNW/PMMA HTCEs exhibited low surface roughness and chemical stability as compared with CuNW TCEs.

  18. Chemical synthesis of α-La{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film as an advanced electrode material for supercapacitor application

    Patil, S.J.; Kumbhar, V.S.; Patil, B.H.; Bulakhe, R.N.; Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com

    2014-10-25

    Highlights: • The simple, chemical method used for synthesis of lanthanum sulphide thin films. • The lanthanum sulphide thin film surface exhibited porous microstructure. • The lanthanum sulphide thin film electrode is used for supercapacitor application. - Abstract: α-La{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films have been synthesized for the first time by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and used for supercapacitor application. These films are characterized for crystal structure, surface morphology and wettability studies using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements. The electrochemical supercapacitive performance of α-La{sub 2}S{sub 3} electrode is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. From the electrochemical study, it is seen that α-La{sub 2}S{sub 3} electrode delivers high specific capacitance of 256 F g{sup −1} at scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1} with cycling stability of 85% over 1000 cycles. Such La{sub 2}S{sub 3} electrode has great application in supercapacitor device for energy storage.

  19. Comparison of Ultrasonic Welding and Thermal Bonding for the Integration of Thin Film Metal Electrodes in Injection Molded Polymeric Lab-on-Chip Systems for Electrochemistry

    Matteucci, Marco; Heiskanen, Arto; Zor, Kinga

    2016-01-01

    We compare ultrasonic welding (UW) and thermal bonding (TB) for the integration of embedded thin-film gold electrodes for electrochemical applications in injection molded (IM) microfluidic chips. The UW bonded chips showed a significantly superior electrochemical performance compared to the ones ...

  20. Efficiency enhancement using a Zn1- x Ge x -O thin film as an n-type window layer in Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Nishi, Yuki; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2016-05-01

    Efficiency enhancement was achieved in Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a zinc-germanium-oxide (Zn1- x Ge x -O) thin film as the n-type window layer and a p-type Na-doped Cu2O (Cu2O:Na) sheet prepared by thermally oxidizing Cu sheets. The Ge content (x) dependence of the obtained photovoltaic properties of the heterojunction solar cells is mainly explained by the conduction band discontinuity that results from the electron affinity difference between Zn1- x Ge x -O and Cu2O:Na. The optimal value of x in Zn1- x Ge x -O thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition was observed to be 0.62. An efficiency of 8.1% was obtained in a MgF2/Al-doped ZnO/Zn0.38Ge0.62-O/Cu2O:Na heterojunction solar cell.

  1. Impedance analysis of DNA and DNA-drug interactions on thin mercury film electrodes

    Hasoň, Stanislav; Dvořák, Jakub; Jelen, František; Vetterl, Vladimír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2002), s. 167-179 ISSN 1040-8347 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4004901; GA AV ČR IAA4004002; GA AV ČR IBS5004107 Grant - others:GA FRVŠ(XC) G40583; GA FRVŠ(XC) F40564 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : electrochemical impedance spectroscopy * intercalators * DNA at electrode surface Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.074, year: 2002

  2. Photoelectrocatalytic Degradation of Sodium Oxalate by TiO2/Ti Thin Film Electrode

    Chen-Yu Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytically active TiO2 thin film was deposited on the titanium substrate plate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD method, and the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate was investigated by TiO2 thin film reactor prepared in this study with additional electric potential at 365 nm irradiation. The batch system was chosen in this experiment, and the controlled parameters were pH, different supporting electrolytes, applied additional potential, and different electrolyte solutions that were examined and discussed. The experimental results revealed that the additional applied potential in photocatalytic reaction could prohibit recombination of electron/hole pairs, but the photoelectrocatalytic effect was decreased when the applied electric potential was over 0.25 V. Among the electrolyte solutions added, sodium sulfate improved the photoelectrocatalytic effect most significantly. At last, the better photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate occurred at pH 3 when comparing the pH influence.

  3. Fatigue-resistant epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 capacitors on Pt electrode with ultra-thin SrTiO3 template layers

    Takahara, Seiichi; Morimoto, Akiharu; Kawae, Takeshi; Kumeda, Minoru; Yamada, Satoru; Ohtsubo, Shigeru; Yonezawa, Yasuto

    2008-01-01

    Lead zirconate-titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) capacitors with Pt bottom electrodes were prepared on MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique employing SrTiO 3 (STO) template layer. Perovskite PZT thin films are prepared via stoichiometric target using the ultra-thin STO template layers while it is quite difficult to obtain the perovskite PZT on Pt electrode via stoichiometric target in PLD process. The PZT capacitor prepared with the STO template layer showed good hysteresis and leakage current characteristics, and it showed an excellent fatigue resistance. The ultra-thin STO template layers were characterized by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The effect of the STO template layer is discussed based on the viewpoint of the perovskite nucleation and diffusion of Pb and O atoms

  4. Title: Using Alignment and 2D Network Simulations to Study Charge Transport Through Doped ZnO Nanowire Thin Film Electrodes

    Phadke, Sujay

    2011-09-30

    Factors affecting charge transport through ZnO nanowire mat films were studied by aligning ZnO nanowires on substrates and coupling experimental measurements with 2D nanowire network simulations. Gallium doped ZnO nanowires were aligned on thermally oxidized silicon wafer by shearing a nanowire dispersion in ethanol. Sheet resistances of nanowire thin films that had current flowing parallel to nanowire alignment direction were compared to thin films that had current flowing perpendicular to nanowire alignment direction. Perpendicular devices showed ∼5 fold greater sheet resistance than parallel devices supporting the hypothesis that aligning nanowires would increase conductivity of ZnO nanowire electrodes. 2-D nanowire network simulations of thin films showed that the device sheet resistance was dominated by inter-wire contact resistance. For a given resistivity of ZnO nanowires, the thin film electrodes would have the lowest possible sheet resistance if the inter-wire contact resistance was one order of magnitude lower than the single nanowire resistance. Simulations suggest that the conductivity of such thin film devices could be further enhanced by using longer nanowires. Solution processed Gallium doped ZnO nanowires are aligned on substrates using an innovative shear coating technique. Nanowire alignment has shown improvement in ZnO nanowire transparent electrode conductivity. 2D network simulations in conjunction with electrical measurements have revealed different regimes of operation of nanowire thin films and provided a guideline for improving electrical performance of nanowire electrodes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. LiFePO_4_−_xN_y thin-film electrodes coated on carbon fiber-modified current collectors for pseudocapacitors

    Chiu, Kuo-Feng; Su, Shih-Hsuan; Leu, Hoang-Jyh; Huang, Wei-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    LiFePO_4_−_xN_y thin films were sputter-deposited on micron carbon fibers (MCFs) under a gas mixture of N_2/Ar/H_2 as electrode materials in pseudocapacitors. The MCFs were fabricated by thermal chemical vapor deposition on stainless steel substrates as current collectors. Various amounts of N_2 were introduced by controlling the flow ratios of N_2 to Ar/H_2. The LiFePO_4_−_xN_y thin films coated on the surfaces of MCFs were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of the LiFePO_4_−_xN_y thin films were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge processes. The LiFePO_4_−_xN_y thin-film electrode deposited under the optimal N_2 contents exhibited a high specific capacitance of 722 F/g at 1 A/g. Even at a current of 20 A/g, the electrode delivered a capacitance of 298 F/g. The pseudocapacitors using LiFePO_4_−_xN_y thin-film electrodes showed no significant capacitance fading after 1000 cycles at 1 A/g. The results indicated that nitrogen doping improved the electrochemical performances of LiFePO_4, demonstrating the potential of LiFePO_4_−_xN_y as an active material in pseudocapacitors. - Highlights: • LiFePO_4_−_xN_y thin films were sputter-deposited on micron carbon fibers (MCFs). • MCFs only act as a three-dimensional current collector in this system. • The pseudocapacitor exhibits a high specific capacitance.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of platinum thin film as top electrodes for multifunctional layer devices by PLD

    Coy, L.E.; Ventura, J.; Ferrater, C.; Langenberg, E.; Polo, M.C.; Garcia-Cuenca, M.V.; Varela, M.

    2010-01-01

    Platinum thin films were grown onto (001) oriented SrTiO 3 substrates by means of the pulsed laser deposition technique. Structural and morphological characterizations were performed using XRD and AFM. The influence of substrate temperature and deposition rate was analyzed on the crystallographic properties of the film. As a result, an increment in the crystallinity of the film due to the change on the temperature was observed. On the other hand, Pt films showed a granular morphology and its roughness was related to the fluence and low deposition temperature. Finally their electrical properties were analyzed and discussed as a function of the previous morphological results.

  7. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO_2) thin films

    Nordin, N.; Azizah, N.; Hashim, U.

    2016-01-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO_2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  8. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films

    Nordin, N.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.

    2016-07-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  9. 3D Graphene Functionalized by Covalent Organic Framework Thin Film as Capacitive Electrode in Alkaline Media.

    Zha, Zeqi; Xu, Lirong; Wang, Zhikui; Li, Xiaoguang; Pan, Qinmin; Hu, Pingan; Lei, Shengbin

    2015-08-19

    To harness the electroactivity of anthraquinone as an electrode material, a great recent effort have been invested to composite anthraquinone with carbon materials to improve the conductivity. Here we report on a noncovalent way to modify three-dimensional graphene with anthraquinone moieties through on-surface synthesis of two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks. We incorporate 2,6-diamino-anthraquinone moieties into COF through Schiff-base reaction with benzene-1,3,5-tricarbaldehyde. The synthesized COF -graphene composite exhibits large specific capacitance of 31.7 mF/cm(2). Long-term galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling experiments revealed a decrease of capacitance, which was attributed to the loss of COF materials and electrostatic repulsion accumulated during charge-discharge circles which result in the poor electrical conductivity between 2D COF layers.

  10. Nanostructured Cu2O thin film electrodes prepared by electrodeposition for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Bijani, S.; Gabas, M.; Martinez, L.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.; Morales, J.; Sanchez, L.

    2007-01-01

    Uniform films of Cu 2 O with thickness below 1 μm were prepared from a Cu(II) lactate solution. The deposits were compact and of high purity with the particle size varying from 60 to 400 nm. They were tested as electrodes in lithium batteries and their electrochemical response was consistent with the Cu 2 O + 2e - + 2Li + ↔ 2Cu + Li 2 O reaction. Nevertheless, the reversibility of this reaction was dependent on thickness. Kinetic factors associated with the poor electronic conductivity of Cu 2 O could account for the relevance of the influence of film thickness. The thinnest film, about 300 nm thick, exhibited the best electrochemical performance by sustaining a specific capacity as high as 350 Ah kg -1

  11. Windows Azure

    Johnson, Bruce; Chambers, James; Garber, Danny; Malik, Jamal; Fazio, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A collection of five must-have Azure titles, from some of the biggest names in the field Available individually, but at a discounted rate for the collection, this bundle of five e-books covers key developer and IT topics of Windows Azure, including ASP.NET, mobile services, web sites, data storage, and the hybrid cloud. A host of Microsoft employees and MPVs come together to cover the biggest challenges that professionals face when working with Windows Azure. The e-books included are as follows: Windows Azure and ASP.NET MVC MigrationWindows Azure Mobile ServicesWindows Azure Web SitesWindows

  12. Photoreactive and Metal-Platable Copolymer Inks for High-Throughput, Room-Temperature Printing of Flexible Metal Electrodes for Thin-Film Electronics.

    Yu, You; Xiao, Xiang; Zhang, Yaokang; Li, Kan; Yan, Casey; Wei, Xiaoling; Chen, Lina; Zhen, Hongyu; Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Shengdong; Zheng, Zijian

    2016-06-01

    Photoreactive and metal-platable copolymer inks are reported for the first time to allow high-throughput printing of high-performance flexible electrodes at room temperature. This new copolymer ink accommodates various types of printing technologies, such as soft lithography molding, screen printing, and inkjet printing. Electronic devices including resistors, sensors, solar cells, and thin-film transistors fabricated with these printed electrodes show excellent electrical performance and mechanical flexibility. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Gate voltage and drain current stress instabilities in amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors with an asymmetric graphene electrode

    Joonwoo Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The gate voltage and drain current stress instabilities in amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs having an asymmetric graphene electrode structure are studied. A large positive shift in the threshold voltage, which is well fitted to a stretched-exponential equation, and an increase in the subthreshold slope are observed when drain current stress is applied. This is due to an increase in temperature caused by power dissipation in the graphene/a-IGZO contact region, in addition to the channel region, which is different from the behavior in a-IGZO TFTs with a conventional transparent electrode.

  14. Window Stories

    Hauge, Bettina

    This research project has investigated 17 households in Germany (cities and rural areas). The main aim was to learn about the significance of the window to these people: What they think of their windows, how, when and why they use them in their everyday life, if they have a favorite window and wh...

  15. Application of thin film mercury electrodes and solid amalgam electrodes in electrochemical analysis of the nucleic acids components: detection of the two-dimensional phase transients of adenosine

    Hasoň, Stanislav; Vetterl, Vladimír

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 63, 1-2 (2004), s. 37-41 ISSN 1567-5394 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB4004305; GA AV ČR IBS5004107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : mercury film electrodes * solid amalgam electrodes * roughness Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.261, year: 2004

  16. Improving Performance of CIGS Solar Cells by Annealing ITO Thin Films Electrodes

    Chuan Lung Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO thin films were grown on glass substrates by direct current (DC reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Annealing at the optimal temperature can considerably improve the composition, structure, optical properties, and electrical properties of the ITO film. An ITO sample with a favorable crystalline structure was obtained by annealing in fixed oxygen/argon ratio of 0.03 at 400°C for 30 min. The carrier concentration, mobility, resistivity, band gap, transmission in the visible-light region, and transmission in the near-IR regions of the ITO sample were -1.6E+20 cm−3, 2.7E+01 cm2/Vs, 1.4E-03 Ohm-cm, 3.2 eV, 89.1%, and 94.7%, respectively. Thus, annealing improved the average transmissions (400–1200 nm of the ITO film by 16.36%. Moreover, annealing a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS solar cell at 400°C for 30 min in air improved its efficiency by 18.75%. The characteristics of annealing ITO films importantly affect the structural, morphological, electrical, and optical properties of ITO films that are used in solar cells.

  17. Simultaneous Automatic Electrochemical Detection of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Lead Ions in Environmental Samples Using a Thin-Film Mercury Electrode and an Artificial Neural Network

    Jiri Kudr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II, Cu(II and Pb(II ion quantification, while Zn(II did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933.

  18. Discharge amplified photo-emission from ultra-thin films applied to tuning work function of transparent electrodes in organic opto-electronic devices

    Gentle, A.R.; Smith, G.B.; Watkins, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    A novel photoemission technique utilising localised discharge amplification of photo-yield is reported. It enables fast, accurate measurement of work function and ionisation potential for ultra-thin buffer layers vacuum deposited onto single and multilayer transparent conducting electrodes for organic solar cells and OLED's. Work function in most traditional transparent electrodes has to be raised to maximise charge transfer while high transmittance and high conductance must be retained. Results are presented for a range of metal oxide buffers, which achieve this goal. This compact photo-yield spectroscopy tool with its fast turn-around has been a valuable development aid since ionisation potential can vary significantly as deposition conditions change slightly, and as ultra-thin films grow. It has also been useful in tracking the impact of different post deposition cleaning treatments along with some storage and transport protocols, which can adversely reduce ionisation potential and hence subsequent device performance.

  19. Comparison of Ultrasonic Welding and Thermal Bonding for the Integration of Thin Film Metal Electrodes in Injection Molded Polymeric Lab-on-Chip Systems for Electrochemistry

    Marco Matteucci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We compare ultrasonic welding (UW and thermal bonding (TB for the integration of embedded thin-film gold electrodes for electrochemical applications in injection molded (IM microfluidic chips. The UW bonded chips showed a significantly superior electrochemical performance compared to the ones obtained using TB. Parameters such as metal thickness of electrodes, depth of electrode embedding, delivered power, and height of energy directors (for UW, as well as pressure and temperature (for TB, were systematically studied to evaluate the two bonding methods and requirements for optimal electrochemical performance. The presented technology is intended for easy and effective integration of polymeric Lab-on-Chip systems to encourage their use in research, commercialization and education.

  20. Layer-by-layer assembled polyaniline nanofiber/multiwall carbon nanotube thin film electrodes for high-power and high-energy storage applications.

    Hyder, Md Nasim; Lee, Seung Woo; Cebeci, Fevzi Ç; Schmidt, Daniel J; Shao-Horn, Yang; Hammond, Paula T

    2011-11-22

    Thin film electrodes of polyaniline (PANi) nanofibers and functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are created by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly for microbatteries or -electrochemical capacitors. Highly stable cationic PANi nanofibers, synthesized from the rapid aqueous phase polymerization of aniline, are assembled with carboxylic acid functionalized MWNT into LbL films. The pH-dependent surface charge of PANi nanofibers and MWNTs allows the system to behave like weak polyelectrolytes with controllable LbL film thickness and morphology by varying the number of bilayers. The LbL-PANi/MWNT films consist of a nanoscale interpenetrating network structure with well developed nanopores that yield excellent electrochemical performance for energy storage applications. These LbL-PANi/MWNT films in lithium cell can store high volumetric capacitance (~238 ± 32 F/cm(3)) and high volumetric capacity (~210 mAh/cm(3)). In addition, rate-dependent galvanostatic tests show LbL-PANi/MWNT films can deliver both high power and high energy density (~220 Wh/L(electrode) at ~100 kW/L(electrode)) and could be promising positive electrode materials for thin film microbatteries or electrochemical capacitors. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. Exfoliated thin Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanosheets supported on WO{sub 3} electrode for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Ma, Ying; Jia, Yulong; Wang, Lina [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis & Selective Oxidation, and National Engineering Research Center for Fine Petrochemical Intermediates, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Min [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis & Selective Oxidation, and National Engineering Research Center for Fine Petrochemical Intermediates, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Bi, Yingpu, E-mail: yingpubi@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis & Selective Oxidation, and National Engineering Research Center for Fine Petrochemical Intermediates, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Qi, Yanxing, E-mail: qiyx@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis & Selective Oxidation, and National Engineering Research Center for Fine Petrochemical Intermediates, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Thin Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanosheets were prepared by microwave assisted ultrasonic separation. • The thin Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanosheets could be more favorable to charge shift and separation. • The WO{sub 3}/thin Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} exhibits superior photoelectric activity than WO{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} film. • The efficient photoelectric property results from facilitated charge separation. - Abstract: Thin Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanosheets are obtained by a microwave-assisted ultrasonic separation process. After exfoliation, the thinner and uniform nanosheets with a thickness of about 10 nm were obtained. The exfoliated nanosheets would provide many amazing functionalities such as high electron mobility and quantum Hall effects. Therefore, thin Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} supported on WO{sub 3} electrode (WO{sub 3}/thin Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}) exhibits facilitated charge separation than pure WO{sub 3} film and the un-exfoliated Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanosheets supported on WO{sub 3} electrode (WO{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}). As a result, WO{sub 3}/thin Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} shows remarkably stable photocurrent density of 2.2 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.8 V{sub SCE} in 0.1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} which is higher than that of that of WO{sub 3} (1.1 mA/cm{sup 2}) and WO{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} (1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}).

  2. A computation study on the interplay between surface morphology and electrochemical performance of patterned thin film electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    Gur, Sourav; Frantziskonis, George N.; Aifantis, Katerina E.

    2017-08-01

    Recent experiments illustrate that the morphology of the electrode surface impacts the voltage - capacity curves and long term cycling performance of Li-ion batteries. The present study systematically explores the role of the electrode surface morphology and uncertainties in the reactions that occur during electrochemical cycling, by performing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). This allows encoding of the inherent stochasticity at discrete microscale reaction events over the deterministic mean field reaction dynamics that occur in Li-ion cells. The electrodes are taken to be dense thin films whose surfaces are patterned with conical, trapezoidal, dome-shaped, or pillar-shaped structures. It is shown that the inherent perturbations in the reactions together with the characteristics of the electrode surface configuration can significantly improve battery performance, mainly because patterned surfaces, as opposed to flat surfaces, result in a smaller voltage drop. The most efficient pattern was the trapezoidal, which is consistent with experimental evidence on Si patterned electrodes.

  3. Uniform thin film electrode made of low-temperature-sinterable silver nanoparticles: optimized extent of ligand exchange from oleylamine to acrylic acid

    Lee, Yung Jong; Kim, Na Rae; Lee, Changsoo; Lee, Hyuck Mo, E-mail: hmlee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Lowering the sintering temperature of nanoparticles in the electrode deposition process holds both academic and industrial interest because of the potential applications of such electrodes in polymer devices and flexible electronics. In addition, achieving uniform electrode formation after ligand exchange is equally important as lowering the sintering temperature. Here, we report a simple chemical treatment by the addition of ligand-exchanging interfaces to lower the sintering temperature; we also determine the optimum extent of ligand exchange for crack-free electrode formation. First, we investigated the structural change of Ag thin films with respect to the concentration of acrylic acid (AA) solutions. Second, we used thermal analysis to evaluate the effects of changes in the sintering temperature. We observed that the resulting conductivity of the Ag patterns was only one order of magnitude lower than that of bulk Ag when the patterns were sintered at 150 °C. The simple chemical treatment developed in this work for solution-processed Ag electrode formation can be adopted for flexible electronics, which would eliminate the need for vacuum and high-temperature processes.

  4. Gold nanoparticles embedded electropolymerized thin film of pyrimidine derivative on glassy carbon electrode for highly sensitive detection of l-cysteine.

    Kannan, Ayyadurai; Sevvel, Ranganathan

    2017-09-01

    This paper demonstrates the fabrication of novel gold nanoparticles incorporated poly (4-amino-6-hydroxy-2-mercaptopyrimidine) (Nano-Au/Poly-AHMP) film modified glassy carbon electrode and it is employed for highly sensitive detection of l-cysteine (CYS). The modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). SEM images of modified electrode revealed the homogeneous distribution of gold nanoparticles on poly (4-amino-6-hydroxy-2-mercaptopyrimidine) thin film modified glassy carbon electrode. The modified electrode was successfully utilized for highly selective and sensitive determination of l-cysteine at physiological pH7.0. The present electrochemical sensor successfully resolved the voltammetric signals of ascorbic acid (AA) and l-cysteine with peak separation of 0.510V. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of larger peak separation between AA and CYS. Wide linear concentration ranges (2μM-500μM), low detection limit (0.020μM), an excellent reproducibility and stability are achieved for cysteine sensing with this Nano-Au/Poly-AHMP/GCE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct Inkjet Printing of Silver Source/Drain Electrodes on an Amorphous InGaZnO Layer for Thin-Film Transistors

    Honglong Ning

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Printing technologies for thin-film transistors (TFTs have recently attracted much interest owing to their eco-friendliness, direct patterning, low cost, and roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. Lower production costs could result if electrodes fabricated by vacuum processes could be replaced by inkjet printing. However, poor interfacial contacts and/or serious diffusion between the active layer and the silver electrodes are still problematic for achieving amorphous indium–gallium–zinc–oxide (a-IGZO TFTs with good electrical performance. In this paper, silver (Ag source/drain electrodes were directly inkjet-printed on an amorphous a-IGZO layer to fabricate TFTs that exhibited a mobility of 0.29 cm2·V−1·s−1 and an on/off current ratio of over 105. To the best of our knowledge, this is a major improvement for bottom-gate top-contact a-IGZO TFTs with directly printed silver electrodes on a substrate with no pretreatment. This study presents a promising alternative method of fabricating electrodes of a-IGZO TFTs with desirable device performance.

  6. Direct Inkjet Printing of Silver Source/Drain Electrodes on an Amorphous InGaZnO Layer for Thin-Film Transistors.

    Ning, Honglong; Chen, Jianqiu; Fang, Zhiqiang; Tao, Ruiqiang; Cai, Wei; Yao, Rihui; Hu, Shiben; Zhu, Zhennan; Zhou, Yicong; Yang, Caigui; Peng, Junbiao

    2017-01-10

    Printing technologies for thin-film transistors (TFTs) have recently attracted much interest owing to their eco-friendliness, direct patterning, low cost, and roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. Lower production costs could result if electrodes fabricated by vacuum processes could be replaced by inkjet printing. However, poor interfacial contacts and/or serious diffusion between the active layer and the silver electrodes are still problematic for achieving amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs with good electrical performance. In this paper, silver (Ag) source/drain electrodes were directly inkjet-printed on an amorphous a-IGZO layer to fabricate TFTs that exhibited a mobility of 0.29 cm²·V -1 ·s -1 and an on/off current ratio of over 10⁵. To the best of our knowledge, this is a major improvement for bottom-gate top-contact a-IGZO TFTs with directly printed silver electrodes on a substrate with no pretreatment. This study presents a promising alternative method of fabricating electrodes of a-IGZO TFTs with desirable device performance.

  7. Stripping analysis of nanomolar perchlorate in drinking water with a voltammetric ion-selective electrode based on thin-layer liquid membrane.

    Kim, Yushin; Amemiya, Shigeru

    2008-08-01

    A highly sensitive analytical method is required for the assessment of nanomolar perchlorate contamination in drinking water as an emerging environmental problem. We developed the novel approach based on a voltammetric ion-selective electrode to enable the electrochemical detection of "redox-inactive" perchlorate at a nanomolar level without its electrolysis. The perchlorate-selective electrode is based on the submicrometer-thick plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membrane spin-coated on the poly(3-octylthiophene)-modified gold electrode. The liquid membrane serves as the first thin-layer cell for ion-transfer stripping voltammetry to give low detection limits of 0.2-0.5 nM perchlorate in deionized water, commercial bottled water, and tap water under a rotating electrode configuration. The detection limits are not only much lower than the action limit (approximately 246 nM) set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency but also are comparable to the detection limits of the most sensitive analytical methods for detecting perchlorate, that is, ion chromatography coupled with a suppressed conductivity detector (0.55 nM) or electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (0.20-0.25 nM). The mass transfer of perchlorate in the thin-layer liquid membrane and aqueous sample as well as its transfer at the interface between the two phases were studied experimentally and theoretically to achieve the low detection limits. The advantages of ion-transfer stripping voltammetry with a thin-layer liquid membrane against traditional ion-selective potentiometry are demonstrated in terms of a detection limit, a response time, and selectivity.

  8. Proper Installation of Replacement Windows | Efficient Windows

    Collaborative Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring

  9. Window Glazing Types | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  10. Window Frame Types | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  11. Performance Standards for Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  12. Benefits of Efficient Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  13. Assessing Window Replacement Options | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  14. Windows for New Construction | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  15. Window Operator Types | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  16. Electrochemical deposition of molybdenum sulfide thin films on conductive plastic substrates as platinum-free flexible counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Cheng, Chao-Kuang; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo, E-mail: jack_hsieh@mail.mcut.edu.tw

    2015-06-01

    In this study, pulsed electrochemical deposition (pulsed ECD) was used to deposit molybdenum sulfide (MoS{sub x}) thin films on indium tin oxide/polyethylene naphthalate (ITO/PEN) substrates as flexible counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The surface morphologies and elemental distributions of the prepared MoS{sub x} thin films were examined using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The chemical states and crystallinities of the prepared MoS{sub x} thin films were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The optical transmission (T (%)) properties of the prepared MoS{sub x} samples were determined by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Tafel-polarization measurements were performed to analyze the electrochemical properties and catalytic activities of the thin films for redox reactions. The FE-SEM results showed that the MoS{sub x} thin films were deposited uniformly on the ITO/PEN flexible substrates via the pulsed ECD method. The CV and Tafel-polarization curve measurements demonstrated that the deposited MoS{sub x} thin films exhibited excellent performances for the reduction of triiodide ions. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSC produced with the pulsed ECD MoS{sub x} thin-film CE was examined by a solar simulator. In combination with a dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with the MoS{sub x} flexible CE showed a PCE of 4.39% under an illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mW cm{sup −2}). Thus, we report that the MoS{sub x} thin films are active catalysts for triiodide reduction. The MoS{sub x} thin films are prepared at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and in a simple and rapid manner. This is an important practical contribution to the production of flexible low-cost thin-film CEs based on plastic substrates. The MoS{sub x

  17. Materials science and integration bases for fabrication of (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 thin film capacitors with layered Cu-based electrodes

    Fan, W.; Kabius, B.; Hiller, J. M.; Saha, S.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Chang, R. P. H.; Ramesh, R.

    2003-11-01

    The synthesis and fundamental material properties of layered TiAl/Cu/Ta electrodes were investigated to achieve the integration of Cu electrodes with high-dielectric constant (κ) oxide thin films for application to the fabrication of high-frequency devices. The Ta layer is an excellent diffusion barrier to inhibit deleterious Cu diffusion into the Si substrate, while the TiAl layer provides an excellent barrier against oxygen diffusion into the Cu layer to inhibit Cu oxidation during the growth of the high-κ layer in an oxygen atmosphere. Polycrystalline (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 (BST) thin films were grown on the Cu-based bottom electrode by rf magnetron sputtering at temperatures in the range 400-600 °C in oxygen, to investigate the performance of BST/Cu-based capacitors. Characterization of the Cu-based layered structure using surface analytical methods showed that two amorphous oxide layers were formed on both sides of the TiAl barrier, such that the oxide layer on the free surface of the TiAl layer correlates with TiAlOx, while the oxide layer at the TiAl/Cu interface is an Al2O3-rich layer. This double amorphous barrier layer structure effectively prevents oxygen penetration towards the underlying Cu and Ta layers. The TiAlOx interfacial layer, which has a relatively low dielectric constant compared with BST, reduced the total capacitance of the BST thin film capacitors. In addition, the layered electrode-oxide interface roughening observed during the growth of BST films at high temperature, due to copper grain growth, resulted in large dielectric loss on the fabricated BST capacitors. These problems were solved by growing the BST layer at 450 °C followed by a rapid thermal annealing at 700 °C. This process significantly reduced the thickness of the TiAlOx layer and interface roughness resulting in BST capacitors exhibiting properties suitable for the fabrication of high-performance high-frequency devices. In summary, relatively high dielectric constant (280), low

  18. Materials science and integration bases for fabrication of (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 thin film capacitors with layered Cu-based electrodes

    Fan, W.; Kabius, B.; Hiller, J.M.; Saha, S.; Carlisle, J.A.; Auciello, O.; Chang, R.P.H.; Ramesh, R.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis and fundamental material properties of layered TiAl/Cu/Ta electrodes were investigated to achieve the integration of Cu electrodes with high-dielectric constant (κ) oxide thin films for application to the fabrication of high-frequency devices. The Ta layer is an excellent diffusion barrier to inhibit deleterious Cu diffusion into the Si substrate, while the TiAl layer provides an excellent barrier against oxygen diffusion into the Cu layer to inhibit Cu oxidation during the growth of the high-κ layer in an oxygen atmosphere. Polycrystalline (Ba x Sr 1-x )TiO 3 (BST) thin films were grown on the Cu-based bottom electrode by rf magnetron sputtering at temperatures in the range 400-600 deg. C in oxygen, to investigate the performance of BST/Cu-based capacitors. Characterization of the Cu-based layered structure using surface analytical methods showed that two amorphous oxide layers were formed on both sides of the TiAl barrier, such that the oxide layer on the free surface of the TiAl layer correlates with TiAlO x , while the oxide layer at the TiAl/Cu interface is an Al 2 O 3 -rich layer. This double amorphous barrier layer structure effectively prevents oxygen penetration towards the underlying Cu and Ta layers. The TiAlO x interfacial layer, which has a relatively low dielectric constant compared with BST, reduced the total capacitance of the BST thin film capacitors. In addition, the layered electrode-oxide interface roughening observed during the growth of BST films at high temperature, due to copper grain growth, resulted in large dielectric loss on the fabricated BST capacitors. These problems were solved by growing the BST layer at 450 deg. C followed by a rapid thermal annealing at 700 deg. C. This process significantly reduced the thickness of the TiAlO x layer and interface roughness resulting in BST capacitors exhibiting properties suitable for the fabrication of high-performance high-frequency devices. In summary, relatively high

  19. A solid-state thin-film Ag/AgCl reference electrode coated with graphene oxide and its use in a pH sensor.

    Kim, Tae Yong; Hong, Sung A; Yang, Sung

    2015-03-17

    In this study, we describe a novel solid-state thin-film Ag/AgCl reference electrode (SSRE) that was coated with a protective layer of graphene oxide (GO). This layer was prepared by drop casting a solution of GO on the Ag/AgCl thin film. The potential differences exhibited by the SSRE were less than 2 mV for 26 days. The cyclic voltammograms of the SSRE were almost similar to those of a commercial reference electrode, while the diffusion coefficient of Fe(CN)63- as calculated from the cathodic peaks of the SSRE was 6.48 × 10-6 cm2/s. The SSRE was used in conjunction with a laboratory-made working electrode to determine its suitability for practical use. The average pH sensitivity of this combined sensor was 58.5 mV/pH in the acid-to-base direction; the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99. In addition, an integrated pH sensor that included the SSRE was packaged in a secure digital (SD) card and tested. The average sensitivity of the chip was 56.8 mV/pH, with the correlation coefficient being greater than 0.99. In addition, a pH sensing test was also performed by using a laboratory-made potentiometer, which showed a sensitivity of 55.4 mV/pH, with the correlation coefficient being greater than 0.99.

  20. Comparison of physical and electrical properties of GZO/ZnO buffer layer and GZO as source and drain electrodes of α-IGZO thin-film transistors

    Wu, Jia-Ling; Lin, Han-Yu; Su, Bo-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: chusy@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liu, Ssu-Yin [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Chiang; Wu, Chin-Jyi [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories, Hsinchu 310, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The electrodes of bi-layer GZO/ ZnO and single-layer GZO in α-IGZO TFT were compared. • The TFT performances of two different structures were systematically investigated. • The bi-layer GZO/100-nm ZnO S/D electrodes showed the better TFT device properties. - Abstract: In this research, top-gate bottom-contact thin-film transistors (TFTs) made with amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (α-IGZO) active layers were grown using the radio-frequency sputtering technique. Two kinds of source and drain (S/D) electrodes, namely bi-layer GZO/100-nm ZnO buffer layer/Corning 1737 and single-layer GZO/Corning 1737, used in the TFT devices and the electric characteristics of the devices were compared. To explain the differences in the TFT performances with these different S/D electrodes, X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and contact angles were measured. The α-IGZO TFT with the bi-layer GZO/100-nm ZnO buffer layer structure as S/D electrodes exhibited superior device performance compared to that of the TFT with a single-layer GZO structure, with a higher thin film density (5.94 g/cm{sup 3}), lower surface roughness (0.817 nm), and larger surface energy (62.07 mJ/m{sup 2}) and better adhesion properties of neighboring α-IGZO films. In addition, the mechanisms responsible for the GZO/100-nm ZnO buffer layer/Corning 1737 structure S/D electrodes improving the device characteristics were systematically investigated. The α-IGZO TFT saturation mobility, subthreshold voltage, on/off current ratio, and the trap density of the GZO/100-nm ZnO buffer layer/Corning 1737 S/D electrodes were 13.5 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} S{sup −1}, 0.43 V/decade, 3.56 × 10{sup 7}, and 5.65 × 10{sup 12} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, respectively, indicating the potential of this bi-layer structure to be applied to large-area flat-panel displays.

  1. Comparison of physical and electrical properties of GZO/ZnO buffer layer and GZO as source and drain electrodes of α-IGZO thin-film transistors

    Wu, Jia-Ling; Lin, Han-Yu; Su, Bo-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chu, Sheng-Yuan; Liu, Ssu-Yin; Chang, Chia-Chiang; Wu, Chin-Jyi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The electrodes of bi-layer GZO/ ZnO and single-layer GZO in α-IGZO TFT were compared. • The TFT performances of two different structures were systematically investigated. • The bi-layer GZO/100-nm ZnO S/D electrodes showed the better TFT device properties. - Abstract: In this research, top-gate bottom-contact thin-film transistors (TFTs) made with amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (α-IGZO) active layers were grown using the radio-frequency sputtering technique. Two kinds of source and drain (S/D) electrodes, namely bi-layer GZO/100-nm ZnO buffer layer/Corning 1737 and single-layer GZO/Corning 1737, used in the TFT devices and the electric characteristics of the devices were compared. To explain the differences in the TFT performances with these different S/D electrodes, X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and contact angles were measured. The α-IGZO TFT with the bi-layer GZO/100-nm ZnO buffer layer structure as S/D electrodes exhibited superior device performance compared to that of the TFT with a single-layer GZO structure, with a higher thin film density (5.94 g/cm 3 ), lower surface roughness (0.817 nm), and larger surface energy (62.07 mJ/m 2 ) and better adhesion properties of neighboring α-IGZO films. In addition, the mechanisms responsible for the GZO/100-nm ZnO buffer layer/Corning 1737 structure S/D electrodes improving the device characteristics were systematically investigated. The α-IGZO TFT saturation mobility, subthreshold voltage, on/off current ratio, and the trap density of the GZO/100-nm ZnO buffer layer/Corning 1737 S/D electrodes were 13.5 cm 2 V −1 S −1 , 0.43 V/decade, 3.56 × 10 7 , and 5.65 × 10 12 eV −1 cm −2 , respectively, indicating the potential of this bi-layer structure to be applied to large-area flat-panel displays

  2. Highly Conductive Transparent and Flexible Electrodes Including Double-Stacked Thin Metal Films for Transparent Flexible Electronics.

    Han, Jun Hee; Kim, Do-Hong; Jeong, Eun Gyo; Lee, Tae-Woo; Lee, Myung Keun; Park, Jeong Woo; Lee, Hoseung; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2017-05-17

    To keep pace with the era of transparent and deformable electronics, electrode functions should be improved. In this paper, an innovative structure is suggested to overcome the trade-off between optical and electrical properties that commonly arises with transparent electrodes. The structure of double-stacked metal films showed high conductivity (electronics are expected.

  3. Fabrication of TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin film electrodes for Li-ion micro-batteries by pulsed laser deposition

    Daramalla, V. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bengalore 560012 (India); Penki, Tirupathi Rao; Munichandraiah, N. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bengalore 560012 (India); Krupanidhi, S.B., E-mail: sbk@mrc.iisc.ernet.in [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bengalore 560012 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin film electrodes as anode material in Li-ion rechargeable micro-batteries are successfully demonstrated. The pulsed laser deposited TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin film electrode delivers high discharge specific capacity of 143 μAh μm{sup −1} cm{sup −2} at 50 μA cm{sup −2} current density, with 92% coulombic efficiency. The thin films are very stable in crystal structure, with good fast reversible reaction at average Li-insertion voltage 1.65 V. - Highlights: • TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. • TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} as anode thin films demonstrated successfully. • High discharge specific capacity with 92% coulombic efficiency. • Excellent crystal stability and good reversible reaction. - Abstract: Pulsed laser deposited TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin films are demonstrated as anode materials in rechargeable Li-ion micro-batteries. The monoclinic and chemically pure TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} films in different morphologies were successfully deposited at 750 °C. The single phase formation was confirmed by grazing incident X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The oxygen partial pressure during the deposition significantly influenced the properties of TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} films. The TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin films exhibited excellent stability with fast kinetics reversible reaction. The TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} films showed initial discharge specific capacity of 176, 143 μAh μm{sup −1} cm{sup −2} at 30, 50 μA cm{sup −2} current densities respectively with 92% coulombic efficiency in a non-aqueous electrolyte consisting of Li{sup +} ions. The high discharge specific capacity of TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin films may be attributed to nanometer grain size with high roughness which offers high surface area for Li-diffusion during charge and discharge

  4. Patterning Method for Silver Nanoparticle Electrodes in Fully Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistors Using Selectively Treated Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Fukuda, Kenjiro; Takeda, Yasunori; Kobayashi, Yu; Shimizu, Masahiro; Sekine, Tomohito; Kumaki, Daisuke; Kurihara, Masato; Sakamoto, Masatomi; Tokito, Shizuo

    2013-05-01

    Fully solution-processed organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) devices have been fabricated with simple patterning process at a relatively low process temperature of 100 °C. In the patterning process, a hydrophobic amorphous fluoropolymer material, which was used as the gate dielectric layer and the underlying base layer, was treated with an oxygen plasma to selectively change its surface wetting properties from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Silver source and drain electrodes were successfully formed in the treated areas with highly uniform line widths and without residues between the electrodes. Nonuniformities in the thickness of the silver electrodes originating from the “coffee-ring” effect were suppressed by optimizing the blend of solvents used with the silver nanoparticles, such that the printed electrodes are appropriate for bottom-gate OTFT devices. A fully solution-processed OTFT device using a polymer semiconductor material (PB16TTT) exhibited good electrical performance with no hysteresis in its transfer characteristics and with good linearity in its output characteristics. A relatively high carrier mobility of 0.14 cm2 V-1 s-1 and an on/off ratio of 1×105 were obtained with the fabricated TFT device.

  5. Improved performance of inkjet-printed Ag source/drain electrodes for organic thin-film transistors by overcoming the coffee ring effects

    Liu, Cheng-Fang; Lin, Yan; Lai, Wen-Yong; Huang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Inkjet printing is a promising technology for the scalable fabrication of organic electronics because of the material conservation and facile patterning as compared with other solution processing techniques. In this study, we have systematically investigated the cross-sectional profile control of silver (Ag) electrode via inkjet printing. A facile methodology for achieving inkjet-printed Ag source/drain with improved profiles is developed. It is demonstrated that the printing conditions such as substrate temperature, drop spacing and printing layers affect the magnitude of the droplet deposition and the rate of evaporation, which can be optimized to greatly reduce the coffee ring effects for improving the inkjet-printed electrode profiles. Ag source/drain electrodes with uniform profiles were successfully inkjet-printed and incorporated into organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). The resulting devices showed superior electrical performance than those without special treatments. It is noted to mention that the strategy for modulating the inkjet-printed Ag electrodes in this work does not demand the ink formulation or complicated steps, which is beneficial for scaling up the printing techniques for potential large-area/mass manufacturing.

  6. Process development of ITO source/drain electrode for the top-gate indium-gallium-zinc oxide transparent thin-film transistor

    Cheong, Woo-Seok; Yoon, Young-sun; Shin, Jae-Heon; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Chu, Hye Yong

    2009-01-01

    Indium-tin oxide (ITO) has been widely used as electrodes for LCDs and OLEDs. The applications are expanding to the transparent thin-film transistors (TTFT S ) for the versatile circuits or transparent displays. This paper is related with optimization of ITO source and drain electrode for TTFTs on glass substrates. For example, un-etched ITO remnants, which frequently found in the wet etching process, often originate from unsuitable ITO formation processes. In order to improve them, an ion beam deposition method is introduced, which uses for forming a seed layer before the main ITO deposition. We confirm that ITO films with seed layers are effective to obtain clean and smooth glass surfaces without un-etched ITO remnants, resulting in a good long-run electrical stability of the top-gate indium-gallium-zinc oxide-TTFT.

  7. Preparation of Carbon Nanotube/TiO2 Mesoporous Hybrid Photoanode with Iron Pyrite (FeS2) Thin Films Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Bayram Kilic; Sunay Turkdogan; Aykut Astam; Oguz Can Ozer; Mansur Asgin; Hulya Cebeci; Deniz Urk; Selin Pravadili Mucur

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/TiO2 mesoporous networks can be employed as a new alternative photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By using the MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous as photoanodes in DSSC, we demonstrate that the MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous photoanode is promising alternative to standard FTO/TiO2 mesoporous based DSSC due to larger specific surface area and high electrochemical activity. We also show that iron pyrite (FeS2) thin films can be used as an efficient counter electrode...

  8. Performance and impedance studies of thin, porous molybdenum and tungsten electrodes for the alkali metal thermoelectric converter

    Wheeler, B. L.; Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Lamb, J. L.; Loveland, M. E.; Bankston, C. P.; Cole, T.

    1988-01-01

    Columnar, porous, magnetron-sputtered molybdenum and tungsten films show optimum performance as alkali metal thermoelectric converter electrodes at thicknesses less than 1.0 micron when used with molybdenum or nickel current collector grids. Power densities of 0.40 W/sq cm for 0.5-micron molybdenum films at 1200 K and 0.35 W/sq cm for 0.5-micron tungsten films at 1180 K were obtained at electrode maturity after 40-90 h. Sheet resistances of magnetron sputter deposited films on sodium beta-double-prime-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) substrates were found to increase very steeply as thickness is decreased below about 0.3-double-prime 0.4-micron. The ac impedance data for these electrodes have been interpreted in terms of contributions from the bulk BASE and the porous electrode/BASE interface. Voltage profiles of operating electrodes show that the total electrode area, of electrodes with thickness less than 2.0 microns, is not utilized efficiently unless a fairly fine (about 1 x 1 mm) current collector grid is employed.

  9. Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes with Modified Surfaces

    Yuan Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron-doped diamond (BDD thin films, as one kind of electrode materials, are superior to conventional carbon-based materials including carbon paste, porous carbon, glassy carbon (GC, carbon nanotubes in terms of high stability, wide potential window, low background current, and good biocompatibility. Electrochemical biosensor based on BDD electrodes have attracted extensive interests due to the superior properties of BDD electrodes and the merits of biosensors, such as specificity, sensitivity, and fast response. Electrochemical reactions perform at the interface between electrolyte solutions and the electrodes surfaces, so the surface structures and properties of the BDD electrodes are important for electrochemical detection. In this paper, the recent advances of BDD electrodes with different surfaces including nanostructured surface and chemically modified surface, for the construction of various electrochemical biosensors, were described.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of p{sup +}-i-p{sup +} type organic thin film transistors with electrodes of highly doped polymer

    Tadaki, Daisuke [Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ma, Teng; Niwano, Michio, E-mail: niwano@riec.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Zhang, Jinyu; Iino, Shohei [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi [Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kimura, Yasuo [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Tokyo University of Technology, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982 (Japan); Rosenberg, Richard A. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) have been explored because of their advantageous features such as light-weight, flexible, and large-area. For more practical application of organic electronic devices, it is very important to realize OTFTs that are composed only of organic materials. In this paper, we have fabricated p{sup +}-i-p{sup +} type of OTFTs in which an intrinsic (i) regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) layer is used as the active layer and highly doped p-type (p{sup +}) P3HT is used as the source and drain electrodes. The 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F{sub 4}-TCNQ) was used as the p-type dopant. A fabricating method of p{sup +}-i-p{sup +} OTFTs has been developed by using SiO{sub 2} and aluminum films as capping layers for micro-scaled patterning of the p{sup +}-P3HT electrodes. The characteristics of the OTFTs were examined using the photoelectron spectroscopy and electrical measurements. We demonstrated that the fabricated p{sup +}-i-p{sup +} OTFTs work with carrier injection through a built-in potential at p{sup +}/i interfaces. We found that the p{sup +}-i-p{sup +} OTFTs exhibit better FET characteristics than the conventional P3HT-OTFT with metal (Au) electrodes, indicating that the influence of a carrier injection barrier at the interface between the electrode and the active layer was suppressed by replacing the metal electrodes with p{sup +}-P3HT layers.

  11. Water-soluble polyelectrolyte-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotube thin films for efficient counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Han, Jinkyu; Kim, Hyunju; Kim, Dong Young; Jo, Seong Mu; Jang, Sung-Yeon

    2010-06-22

    Water-soluble, polyelectrolyte-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), MWCNT-g-PSSNa, were synthesized using a "grafting to" route. MWCNT-g-PSSNa thin films fabricated by an electrostatic spray (e-spray) technique were used as the counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The e-sprayed MWCNT-g-PSSNa thin-film-based CEs (MWCNT-CE) were uniform over a large area, and the well-exfoliated MWCNTs formed highly interconnected network structures. The electrochemical catalytic activity of the MWCNT-CE at different thicknesses was investigated. The MWCNT-g-PSSNa thin film showed high efficiency as a CE in DSSCs. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSCs using the MWCNT-g-PSSNa thin-film-based CE (DSSC-MWCNT) was >6% at a CE film thickness of approximately 0.3 microm. The optimum PCE was >7% at a film thickness of approximately 1 microm, which is 20-50 times thinner than conventional carbon-based CE. The charge transfer resistance at the MWCNT-CE/electrolyte interface was 1.52 Omega cm(2) at a MWCNT-CE thickness of 0.31 microm, which is lower than that of a Pt-CE/electrolyte interface, 1.78 Omega cm(2). This highlights the potential for the low-cost CE fabrication of DSSCs using a facile deposition technique from an environmentally "friendly" solution at low temperatures.

  12. Potentiometric NO2 Sensors Based on Thin Stabilized Zirconia Electrolytes and Asymmetric (La0.8Sr0.2)0.95MnO3 Electrodes

    Zou, Jie; Zheng, Yangong; Li, Junliang; Zhan, Zhongliang; Jian, Jiawen

    2015-01-01

    Here we report on a new architecture for potentiometric NO2 sensors that features thin 8YSZ electrolytes sandwiched between two porous (La0.8Sr0.2)0.95MnO3 (LSM95) layers—one thick and the other thin—fabricated by the tape casting and co-firing techniques. Measurements of their sensing characteristics show that reducing the porosity of the supporting LSM95 reference electrodes can increase the response voltages. In the meanwhile, thin LSM95 layers perform better than Pt as the sensing electrode since the former can provide higher response voltages and better linear relationship between the sensitivities and the NO2 concentrations over 40–1000 ppm. The best linear coefficient can be as high as 0.99 with a sensitivity value of 52 mV/decade as obtained at 500 °C. Analysis of the sensing mechanism suggests that the gas phase reactions within the porous LSM95 layers are critically important in determining the response voltages. PMID:26205270

  13. Potentiometric NO2 Sensors Based on Thin Stabilized Zirconia Electrolytes and Asymmetric (La0.8Sr0.20.95MnO3 Electrodes

    Jie Zou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we report on a new architecture for potentiometric NO2 sensors that features thin 8YSZ electrolytes sandwiched between two porous (La0.8Sr0.20.95MnO3 (LSM95 layers—one thick and the other thin—fabricated by the tape casting and co-firing techniques. Measurements of their sensing characteristics show that reducing the porosity of the supporting LSM95 reference electrodes can increase the response voltages. In the meanwhile, thin LSM95 layers perform better than Pt as the sensing electrode since the former can provide higher response voltages and better linear relationship between the sensitivities and the NO2 concentrations over 40–1000 ppm. The best linear coefficient can be as high as 0.99 with a sensitivity value of 52 mV/decade as obtained at 500 °C. Analysis of the sensing mechanism suggests that the gas phase reactions within the porous LSM95 layers are critically important in determining the response voltages.

  14. Enhanced performance of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors using different metals for source/drain electrodes

    Pyo, Ju-Young; Cho, Won-Ju

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) with off-planed source/drain electrodes. We applied different metals for the source/drain electrodes with Ni and Ti to control the work function as high and low. When we measured the configuration of Ni to drain and source to Ti, the a-IGZO TFT showed increased driving current, decreased leakage current, a high on/off current ratio, low subthreshold swing, and high mobility. In addition, we conducted a reliability test with a gate bias stress test at various temperatures. The results of the reliability test showed the Ni drain and Ti drain had an equivalent effective energy barrier height. Thus, we confirmed that the proposed off-planed structure improved the electrical characteristics of the fabricated devices without any degradation of characteristics. Through the a-IGZO TFT with different source/drain electrode metal engineering, we realized high-performance TFTs for next-generation display devices.

  15. Investigation of Electrochemically Deposited and Chemically Reduced Platinum Nanostructured Thin Films as Counter Electrodes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Chih-Hung Tsai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrated that platinum (Pt counter electrodes (CEs fabricated using electrochemical deposition and chemical reduction can replace conventional high-temperature thermally decomposed Pt electrodes. In this study, Pt electrodes were fabricated using thermal decomposition, electrochemical deposition, and chemical reduction, and the influence of the different Pt counter electrodes on the efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was analyzed. The properties of the various Pt CEs were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. DSSCs with various Pt CEs were characterized using current density-voltage (J-V, incident photo-current conversion efficiency (IPCE, and EIS measurements. The results show that the power conversion efficiencies of these three types of DSSC devices were between 7.43% and 7.72%. The DSSCs based on the Pt electrode fabricated through electrochemical deposition exhibited the optimal power conversion efficiency. Because the processes of electrochemical deposition and chemical reduction do not require high-temperature sintering, these two methods are suitable for the fabrication of Pt on flexible plastic substrates.

  16. Vacuum-Assisted Low-Temperature Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin-Film Electrodes for High-Performance Transparent and Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Aytug, Tolga; Rager, Matthew S; Higgins, Wesley; Brown, Forrest G; Veith, Gabriel M; Rouleau, Christopher M; Wang, Hui; Hood, Zachary D; Mahurin, Shannon M; Mayes, Richard T; Joshi, Pooran C; Kuruganti, Teja

    2018-04-04

    Simple and easily integrated design of flexible and transparent electrode materials affixed to polymer-based substrates hold great promise to have a revolutionary impact on the functionality and performance of energy storage devices for many future consumer electronics. Among these applications are touch sensors, roll-up displays, photovoltaic cells, health monitors, wireless sensors, and wearable communication devices. Here, we report an environmentally friendly, simple, and versatile approach to produce optically transparent and mechanically flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor devices. These supercapacitors were constructed on tin-doped indium oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate substrates by intercalation of a polymer-based gel electrolyte between two reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin-film electrodes. The rGO electrodes were fabricated simply by drop-casting of graphene oxide (GO) films, followed by a novel low-temperature (≤250 °C) vacuum-assisted annealing approach for the in situ reduction of GO to rGO. A trade-off between the optical transparency and electrochemical performance is determined by the concentration of the GO in the initial dispersion, whereby the highest capacitance (∼650 μF cm -2 ) occurs at a relatively lower optical transmittance (24%). Notably, the all-solid-state supercapacitors demonstrated excellent mechanical flexibility with a capacity retention rate above 90% under various bending angles and cycles. These attributes underscore the potential of the present approach to provide a path toward the realization of thin-film-based supercapacitors as flexible and transparent energy storage devices for a variety of practical applications.

  17. A Solid-State Thin-Film Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode Coated with Graphene Oxide and Its Use in a pH Sensor

    Tae Yong Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe a novel solid-state thin-film Ag/AgCl reference electrode (SSRE that was coated with a protective layer of graphene oxide (GO. This layer was prepared by drop casting a solution of GO on the Ag/AgCl thin film. The potential differences exhibited by the SSRE were less than 2 mV for 26 days. The cyclic voltammograms of the SSRE were almost similar to those of a commercial reference electrode, while the diffusion coefficient of Fe(CN63− as calculated from the cathodic peaks of the SSRE was 6.48 × 10−6 cm2/s. The SSRE was used in conjunction with a laboratory-made working electrode to determine its suitability for practical use. The average pH sensitivity of this combined sensor was 58.5 mV/pH in the acid-to-base direction; the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99. In addition, an integrated pH sensor that included the SSRE was packaged in a secure digital (SD card and tested. The average sensitivity of the chip was 56.8 mV/pH, with the correlation coefficient being greater than 0.99. In addition, a pH sensing test was also performed by using a laboratory-made potentiometer, which showed a sensitivity of 55.4 mV/pH, with the correlation coefficient being greater than 0.99.

  18. Iridium Oxide-reduced Graphene Oxide Nanohybrid Thin Film Modified Screen-printed Electrodes as Disposable Electrochemical Paper Microfluidic pH Sensors.

    Yang, Jiang; Kwak, Tae-Joon; Zhang, Xiaodong; McClain, Robert; Chang, Woo-Jin; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2016-11-22

    A facile, controllable, inexpensive and green electrochemical synthesis of IrO2-graphene nanohybrid thin films is developed to fabricate an easy-to-use integrated paper microfluidic electrochemical pH sensor for resource-limited settings. Taking advantages from both pH meters and strips, the pH sensing platform is composed of hydrophobic barrier-patterned paper micropad (µPAD) using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), screen-printed electrode (SPE) modified with IrO2-graphene films and molded acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic holder. Repetitive cathodic potential cycling was employed for graphene oxide (GO) reduction which can completely remove electrochemically unstable oxygenated groups and generate a 2D defect-free homogeneous graphene thin film with excellent stability and electronic properties. A uniform and smooth IrO2 film in nanoscale grain size is anodically electrodeposited onto the graphene film, without any observable cracks. The resulting IrO2-RGO electrode showed slightly super-Nernstian responses from pH 2-12 in Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffers with good linearity, small hysteresis, low response time and reproducibility in different buffers, as well as low sensitivities to different interfering ionic species and dissolved oxygen. A simple portable digital pH meter is fabricated, whose signal is measured with a multimeter, using high input-impedance operational amplifier and consumer batteries. The pH values measured with the portable electrochemical paper-microfluidic pH sensors were consistent with those measured using a commercial laboratory pH meter with a glass electrode.

  19. A molecular theory of chemically modified electrodes with self-assembled redox polyelectrolye thin films: Reversible cyclic voltammetry

    Tagliazucchi, Mario; Calvo, Ernesto J. [INQUIMAE, DQIAyQF Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Szleifer, Igal [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2008-10-01

    A molecular theory of chemically modified electrodes is applied to study redox polyelectroyte modified electrodes. The molecular approach explicitly includes the size, shape, charge distribution, and conformations of all of the molecular species in the system as well as the chemical equilibria (redox and acid-base) and intermolecular interactions. An osmium pyridine-bipyridine complex covalently bound to poly(allyl-amine) backbone (PAH-Os) adsorbed onto mercapto-propane sulfonate (MPS) thiolated gold electrode is described. The potential and electrolyte composition dependent redox and nonredox capacitance can be calculated with the molecular theory in very good agreement with voltammetric experiments under reversible conditions without the use of freely adjustable parameter. Unlike existing phenomenological models the theory links the electrochemical behavior with the structure of the polymer layer. The theory predicts a highly inhomogeneous distribution of acid-base and redox states that strongly couples with the spatial arrangement of the molecular species in the nanometric redox film. (author)

  20. Characteristics of RuO2-SnO2 nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous electrode for thin film microsupercapacitors

    Kim, Han-Ki; Choi, Sun-Hee; Yoon, Young Soo; Chang, Sung-Yong; Ok, Young-Woo; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of RuO 2 -SnO 2 nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous electrode, grown by DC reactive sputtering, was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and transmission electron diffraction (TED) examination results showed that Sn and Ru metal cosputtered electrode in O 2 /Ar ambient have RuO 2 -SnO 2 nanocrystallines in an amorphous oxide matrix. It is shown that the cyclic voltammorgram (CV) result of the RuO 2 -SnO 2 nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous film in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 liquid electrolyte is similar to a bulk-type supercapacitor behavior with a specific capacitance of 62.2 mF/cm 2 μm. This suggests that the RuO 2 -SnO 2 nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous film can be employed in hybrid all-solid state energy storage devises as an electrode of supercapacitor

  1. Effects of crystalline quality and electrode material on fatigue in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin film capacitors

    Lee, J.; Johnson, L.; Safari, A.; Ramesh, R.; Sands, T.; Gilchrist, H.; Keramidas, V. G.

    1993-07-01

    Pb(Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))O3 (PZT)/Y1Ba2Cu3O(x) (YBCO) heterostructures were grown by pulsed laser deposition, in which PZT films were epitaxial, highly oriented, or polycrystalline. These PZT films were obtained by varying the deposition temperature from 550 to 760 C or by using various substrates such as SrTiO3 (100), MgO (100), and r-plane sapphire. PZT films with Pt top electrodes exhibited large fatigue with 35-50 percent loss of the remanent polarization after 10 exp 9 cycles, depending on the crystalline quality. Polycrystalline films showed better fatigue resistance than epitaxial or highly oriented films. However, PZT films with both top and bottom YBCO electrodes had significantly improved fatigue resistance for both epitaxial and polycrystalline films. Electrode material seems to be a more important parameter in fatigue than the crystalline quality of the PZT films.

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    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

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    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

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    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  7. Novel thin/tunable gas diffusion electrodes with ultra-low catalyst loading for hydrogen evolution reactions in proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cells

    Kang, Zhenye; Yang, Gaoqiang; Mo, Jingke; Li, Yifan; Yu, Shule; Cullen, David A.; Retterer, Scott T.; Toops, Todd J.; Bender, Guido; Pivovar, Bryan S.; Green, Johney B.; Zhang, Feng-Yuan

    2018-05-01

    Proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cells (PEMECs) have received great attention for hydrogen/oxygen production due to their high efficiencies even at low-temperature operation. Because of the high cost of noble platinum-group metal (PGM) catalysts (Ir, Ru, Pt, etc.) that are widely used in water splitting, a PEMEC with low catalyst loadings and high catalyst utilizations is strongly desired for its wide commercialization. In this study, the ultrafast and multiscale hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) phenomena in an operating PEMEC is in-situ observed for the first time. The visualization results reveal that the HER and hydrogen bubble nucleation mainly occur on catalyst layers at the rim of the pores of the thin/tunable liquid/gas diffusion layers (TT-LGDLs). This indicates that the catalyst material of the conventional catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) that is located in the middle area of the LGDL pore is underutilized/inactive. Based on this discovery, a novel thin and tunable gas diffusion electrode (GDE) with a Pt catalyst thickness of 15 nm and a total thickness of about 25 um has been proposed and developed by taking advantage of advanced micro/nano manufacturing. The novel thin GDEs are comprehensively characterized both ex-situ and in-situ, and exhibit excellent PEMEC performance. More importantly, they achieve catalyst mass activity of up to 58 times higher than conventional CCM at 1.6 V under the operating conditions of 80 degrees C and 1 atm. This study demonstrates a promising concept for PEMEC electrode development, and provides a direction of future catalyst designs and fabrications for electrochemical devices.

  8. In Situ Characterization of Ni and Ni/Fe Thin Film Electrodes for Oxygen Evolution in Alkaline Media by a Raman-Coupled Scanning Electrochemical Microscope Setup.

    Steimecke, Matthias; Seiffarth, Gerda; Bron, Michael

    2017-10-17

    We present a spectroelectrochemical setup, in which Raman microscopy is combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in order to provide both spectroscopic and electrochemical information on the very same location of an electrode at the same time. The setup is applied to a subject of high academic and practical interest, namely, the oxygen evolution reaction at Ni and Ni/Fe electrodes. It comprises a transparent substrate electrode, onto which Ni and Ni/Fe thin films are deposited. An ultramicroelectrode (UME) is placed closely above the substrate to obtain electrochemical information, while a Raman microscope probes the same sample spot from below. To obtain information on oxygen evolution activity and structural changes, increasingly positive potentials from 0.1 up to 0.7 V vs Hg|HgO|1 M KOH were applied to the Ni/Fe-electrodes in 0.1 M KOH solution. Evolved oxygen is detected by reduction at a Pt UME, allowing for the determination of onset potentials, while the substrate current, which is recorded in parallel, is due to both overlapping oxygen evolution and the oxidation of Ni(OH) 2 to NiOOH. An optimum of 15% Fe in Ni/Fe films with respect to oxygen evolution activity was determined. At the same time, the potential-dependent formation of γ-NiOOH characterized by the Raman double band at 475 and 557 cm -1 allows for the conclusion that a certain amount of disorder introduced by Fe atoms is necessary to obtain high oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity.

  9. Significant efficiency enhancement in thin film solar cells using laser beam-induced graphene transparent conductive electrodes

    Thekkekara, L. V.; Cai, Bouyan

    2018-01-01

    Thin film solar cells have been attractive for decades in advanced green technology platforms due to its possibilities to be integrated with buildings and on-chip applications. However, the bottleneck issues involved to consider the current solar cells as a major electricity source includes the lower efficiencies and cost-effectiveness. We numerically demonstrate the concept of the absorption enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells using the laser beam-induced graphene material...

  10. Wet-Chemical Surface Texturing of Sputter-Deposited ZnO:Al Films as Front Electrode for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Xia Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs play a major role as the front electrodes of thin-film silicon (Si solar cells, as they can provide optical scattering and hence improved photon absorption inside the devices. In this paper we report on the surface texturing of aluminium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al or AZO films for improved light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells. The AZO films are deposited onto soda-lime glass sheets via pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. Several promising AZO texturing methods are investigated using diluted hydrochloric (HCl and hydrofluoric acid (HF, through a two-step etching process. The developed texturing procedure combines the advantages of the HCl-induced craters and the smaller and jagged—but laterally more uniform—features created by HF etching. In the two-step process, the second etching step further enhances the optical haze, while simultaneously improving the uniformity of the texture features created by the HCl etch. The resulting AZO films show large haze values of above 40%, good scattering into large angles, and a surface angle distribution that is centred at around 30°, which is known from the literature to provide efficient light trapping for thin-film Si solar cells.

  11. Window shopping

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    'A large window for surprises' was how Gordon Kane of Michigan summarized the potential of the proposed 84-kilometre US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC). With George Trilling of Berkeley unable to attend this year's High Energy Physics Conference at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, from 8-10 October, Kane played a dual role - looking ahead to SSC physics, and summarizing the meeting

  12. PREFACE: INERA Workshop: Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films-functional Layers in "Smart windows" and Water Splitting Devices. Parallel session of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    2014-11-01

    The Special issue presents the papers for the INERA Workshop entitled "Transition Metal Oxides as Functional Layers in Smart windows and Water Splitting Devices", which was held in Varna, St. Konstantin and Elena, Bulgaria, from the 4th-6th September 2014. The Workshop is organized within the context of the INERA "Research and Innovation Capacity Strengthening of ISSP-BAS in Multifunctional Nanostructures", FP7 Project REGPOT 316309 program, European project of the Institute of Solid State Physics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. There were 42 participants at the workshop, 16 from Sweden, Germany, Romania and Hungary, 11 invited lecturers, and 28 young participants. There were researchers present from prestigious European laboratories which are leaders in the field of transition metal oxide thin film technologies. The event contributed to training young researchers in innovative thin film technologies, as well as thin films characterization techniques. The topics of the Workshop cover the field of technology and investigation of thin oxide films as functional layers in "Smart windows" and "Water splitting" devices. The topics are related to the application of novel technologies for the preparation of transition metal oxide films and the modification of chromogenic properties towards the improvement of electrochromic and termochromic device parameters for possible industrial deployment. The Workshop addressed the following topics: Metal oxide films-functional layers in energy efficient devices; Photocatalysts and chemical sensing; Novel thin film technologies and applications; Methods of thin films characterizations; From the 37 abstracts sent, 21 manuscripts were written and later refereed. We appreciate the comments from all the referees, and we are grateful for their valuable contributions. Guest Editors: Assoc. Prof. Dr.Tatyana Ivanova Prof. DSc Kostadinka Gesheva Prof. DSc Hassan Chamatti Assoc. Prof. Dr. Georgi Popkirov Workshop Organizing Committee Prof

  13. Imprint and oxygen deficiency in (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 thin-film capacitors with La-Sr-Co-O electrodes

    Lee, J.; Ramesh, R.; Keramidas, V.G.; Warren, W.L.; Pike, G.E.; Evans, J.T. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    La-Sr-Co-O/Pb-La-Zr-Ti-O/La-Sr-Co-O thin-film capacitors have been grown in various oxygen ambients by pulsed laser deposition. As the oxygen ambient became more reducing, the capacitors developed more voltage asymmetry in hysteresis loops and a more preferred polarization state directed towards the top electrode. PLZT capacitors cooled in a fully oxidizing atmosphere (i.e., 1 atm oxygen pressure) exhibited nominally symmetric hysteresis loops and also showed little imprint both with and without fully saturating bias fields. We find that ambient oxygen pressure is an important process parameter and the imprint behavior is closely related with ambient oxygen induced effects such as oxygen vacancies, its related defect-dipole complexes and trapping of free charges. The different imprint behavior under negative and positive bias also suggests that the dipolar-defect complexes tend to cause imprint in PLZT capacitors

  14. Morphology controllable time-dependent CoS nanoparticle thin films as efficient counter electrode for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    Reddy, Araveeti Eswar; Rao, S. Srinivasa; Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Anitha, Tarugu; Thulasi-Varma, Chebrolu Venkata; Punnoose, Dinah; Kim, Hee-Je

    2017-11-01

    Cobalt sulfide (CoS) agglomerated nanoparticle thin films obtained by a facile chemical bath method at different deposition times. The CoS counter electrode (CE) deposited at 3 h deposition time (CC-3h) based quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) achieves higher power conversion efficiency (η) of 3.67% than those of CC-2h (1.83%), CC-4h (2.52%), and Pt (1.48%) CEs, under one sun illumination (100 mW cm-2, AM 1.5 G). The electrochemical analysis revealed that CC-3h CE shows a smaller charge transfer resistance (9.22 Ω) at the CE/electrolyte interface than the CC-2h (23.34 Ω), CC-4h (19.73 Ω) and Pt (139.92 Ω) CEs, respectively.

  15. The direct determination, by differential pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry at the thin mercury-film electrode, of cadmium, lead and copper

    Lee, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the development and application of a voltammetric procedure for the direct, simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in three SAROC reference materials (carbonatite, magnesite, and quartz). The electrolyte was a mixture of 1 M ammonium chloride, 0,1 M citric acid, and 0,025 M ascorbic acid. No interferences were encountered from Fe(III), As(III), Sb(V), Tl(I), or In(III) at the concentrations present in the samples. Intermetallic interferences were eliminated by the use of thin mercury-film electrodes not less than 80nm thick. Limits of detection were determined by the degree to which the supporting electrolyte could be purified, and were estimated to be 10ng/g, 250ng/g, and 150ng/g for cadmium, lead, and copper respectively

  16. Transparent and conductive electrodes by large-scale nano-structuring of noble metal thin-films

    Linnet, Jes; Runge Walther, Anders; Wolff, Christian

    2018-01-01

    grid, and nano-wire thin-films. The indium and carbon films do not match the chemical stability nor the electrical performance of the noble metals, and many metal films are not uniform in material distribution leading to significant surface roughness and randomized transmission haze. We demonstrate...

  17. Insights on Capacitive Interdigitated Electrodes Coated with MOF Thin Films: Humidity and VOCs Sensing as a Case Study

    Sapsanis, Christos; Omran, Hesham; Chernikova, Valeriya; Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Buttner, Ulrich; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    have been used for achieving planar CMOS-compatible low-cost capacitive sensing structures for the detection of humidity and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Accordingly, the resultant IDEs coated with the Cu(bdc)·xH2O thin film was evaluated

  18. Strategic Windows

    Risberg, Annette; King, David R.; Meglio, Olimpia

    We examine the importance of speed and timing in acquisitions with a framework that identifies management considerations for three interrelated acquisition phases (selection, deal closure and integration) from an acquiring firm’s perspective. Using a process perspective, we pinpoint items within ...... acquisition phases that relate to speed. In particular, we present the idea of time-bounded strategic windows in acquisitions consistent with the notion of kairòs, where opportunities appear and must be pursued at the right time for success to occur....

  19. Window shopping

    Oz Shy

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  20. A buffer-layer/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer optimization for thin film amorphous silicon based solar cells

    Park, Jinjoo; Dao, Vinh Ai [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Chonghoon [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyeongsik [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minbum; Jung, Junhee [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Doyoung [School of Electricity and Electronics, Ulsan College West Campus, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Junsin, E-mail: yi@yurim.skku.ac.kr [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    Amorphous silicon based (a-Si:H-based) solar cells with a buffer-layer/boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiO{sub x}:H(p)) window-layer were fabricated and investigated. In the first part, in order to reduce the Schottky barrier height at the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer heterointerface, we have used buffer-layer/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) for the window-layer, in which boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H(p)) or boron doped microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H(p)) is introduced as a buffer layer between the a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) and FTO of the a-Si:H-based solar cells. The a-Si:H-based solar cell using a μc-Si:H(p) buffer-layer shows the highest efficiency compared to the optimized bufferless, and a-Si:H(p) buffer-layer in the a-Si:H-based solar cells. This highest performance was attributed not only to the lower absorption of the μc-Si:H(p) buffer-layer but also to the lower Schottky barrier height at the FTO/window-layer interface. Then, we present the dependence of the built-in potential (V{sub bi}) and blue response of the devices on the inversion of activation energy (ξ) of the a-SiO{sub x}:H(p), in the μc-Si:H(p)/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer. The enhancement of both V{sub bi} and blue response is observed, by increasing the value of ξ. The improvement of V{sub bi} and blue response can be ascribed to the enlargement of the optical gap of a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) films in the μc-Si:H(p)/a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer. Finally, the conversion efficiency was increased by 22.0%, by employing μc-Si:H(p) as a buffer-layer and raising the ξ of the a-SiO{sub x}:H(p), compared to the optimized bufferless case, with a 10 nm-thick a-SiO{sub x}:H(p) window-layer. - Highlights: • Low Schottky barrier height benefits fill factor, and open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}). • High band gap is beneficial for short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}). • Boron doped microcrystalline silicon is a suitable buffer-layer for

  1. Effects of specific adsorption of copper (II) ion on charge transfer reaction at the thin film LiMn2O4 electrode/aqueous electrolyte interface

    Nakayama, N.; Yamada, I.; Huang, Y.; Nozawa, T.; Iriyama, Y.; Abe, T.; Ogumi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a specific adsorption ion, copper (II) ion, on the kinetics of the charge transfer reaction at a LiMn 2 O 4 thin film electrode/aqueous solution (1 mol dm -3 LiNO 3 ) interface. The zeta potential of LiMn 2 O 4 particles showed a negative value in 1 x 10 -2 mol dm -3 LiNO 3 aqueous solution, while it was measured as positive in the presence of 1 x 10 -2 mol dm -3 Cu(NO 3 ) 2 in the solution. The presence of copper (II) ions in the solution increased the charge transfer resistance, and CV measurement revealed that the lithium insertion/extraction reaction was retarded by the presence of small amount of copper (II) ions. The activation energy for the charge transfer reaction in the solution with Cu(NO 3 ) 2 was estimated to be 35 kJ mol -1 , which was ca. 10 kJ mol -1 larger than that observed in the solution without Cu(NO 3 ) 2 . These results suggest that the interaction between the lithium ion and electrode surface is a factor in the kinetics of charge transfer reaction

  2. pH sensing in aqueous solutions using a MnO2 thin film electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode

    Cherchour, N.; Deslouis, C.; Messaoudi, B.; Pailleret, A.

    2011-01-01

    An electrolysis technique at a constant potential was used to develop a highly reproducible and fast elaboration method of adherent manganese dioxide thin films on a glassy carbon electrode from aqueous solutions containing sulfuric acid and manganese sulfate. The resulting films were found to have a nanostructured character presumably due rather to birnessite (δ-MnO 2 ) than to γ-MnO 2 , as suggested by their Raman and XRD signatures. They lead to modified electrodes that present an obvious although complex pH dependent potentiometric response. This sensor indeed showed a single slope non-Nernstian linear behaviour over the 1.5-12 pH range for increasing pH direction ('trace'), whereas a Nernstian two slopes linear behaviour was observed for decreasing pH direction ('re-trace'). Preliminary EIS experiments carried out at a pH value of 1.8 seem to reveal a sensitivity mechanism based on proton insertion process at least at highly acidic pH values.

  3. Mobility Enhancement in Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O Thin-Film Transistor by Induced Metallic in Nanoparticles and Cu Electrodes.

    Hu, Shiben; Ning, Honglong; Lu, Kuankuan; Fang, Zhiqiang; Li, Yuzhi; Yao, Rihui; Xu, Miao; Wang, Lei; Peng, Junbiao; Lu, Xubing

    2018-03-27

    In this work, we fabricated a high-mobility amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) based on alumina oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) passivation layer (PVL) and copper (Cu) source/drain electrodes (S/D). The mechanism of the high mobility for a-IGZO TFT was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The conductivity of the channel layer was significantly improved due to the formation of metallic In nanoparticles on the back channel during Al 2 O 3 PVL sputtering. In addition, Ar atmosphere annealing induced the Schottky contact formation between the Cu S/D and the channel layer caused by Cu diffusion. In conjunction with high conductivity channel and Schottky contact, the a-IGZO TFT based on Cu S/D and Al 2 O 3 PVL exhibited remarkable mobility of 33.5-220.1 cm 2 /Vs when channel length varies from 60 to 560 μ m. This work presents a feasible way to implement high mobility and Cu electrodes in a-IGZO TFT, simultaneously.

  4. Mobility Enhancement in Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O Thin-Film Transistor by Induced Metallic in Nanoparticles and Cu Electrodes

    Shiben Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we fabricated a high-mobility amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO thin-film transistor (TFT based on alumina oxide (Al 2 O 3 passivation layer (PVL and copper (Cu source/drain electrodes (S/D. The mechanism of the high mobility for a-IGZO TFT was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The conductivity of the channel layer was significantly improved due to the formation of metallic In nanoparticles on the back channel during Al 2 O 3 PVL sputtering. In addition, Ar atmosphere annealing induced the Schottky contact formation between the Cu S/D and the channel layer caused by Cu diffusion. In conjunction with high conductivity channel and Schottky contact, the a-IGZO TFT based on Cu S/D and Al 2 O 3 PVL exhibited remarkable mobility of 33.5–220.1 cm 2 /Vs when channel length varies from 60 to 560 μ m. This work presents a feasible way to implement high mobility and Cu electrodes in a-IGZO TFT, simultaneously.

  5. pH sensing in aqueous solutions using a MnO{sub 2} thin film electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode

    Cherchour, N. [Laboratoire de Technologie des Materiaux et Genie des Procedes (LTMGP), Departement de Genie des Procedes, Universite A. Mira, Route de Targa Ouzemmour, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); CNRS, UPR 15, Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques (LISE, case courrier 133), 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); UPMC Univ. Paris VI, UPR 15, Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques (LISE, case courrier 133), 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Deslouis, C. [CNRS, UPR 15, Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques (LISE, case courrier 133), 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); UPMC Univ. Paris VI, UPR 15, Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques (LISE, case courrier 133), 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Messaoudi, B. [Laboratoire de Technologie des Materiaux et Genie des Procedes (LTMGP), Departement de Genie des Procedes, Universite A. Mira, Route de Targa Ouzemmour, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); Pailleret, A., E-mail: alain.pailleret@upmc.fr [CNRS, UPR 15, Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques (LISE, case courrier 133), 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); UPMC Univ. Paris VI, UPR 15, Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques (LISE, case courrier 133), 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2011-11-30

    An electrolysis technique at a constant potential was used to develop a highly reproducible and fast elaboration method of adherent manganese dioxide thin films on a glassy carbon electrode from aqueous solutions containing sulfuric acid and manganese sulfate. The resulting films were found to have a nanostructured character presumably due rather to birnessite ({delta}-MnO{sub 2}) than to {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}, as suggested by their Raman and XRD signatures. They lead to modified electrodes that present an obvious although complex pH dependent potentiometric response. This sensor indeed showed a single slope non-Nernstian linear behaviour over the 1.5-12 pH range for increasing pH direction ('trace'), whereas a Nernstian two slopes linear behaviour was observed for decreasing pH direction ('re-trace'). Preliminary EIS experiments carried out at a pH value of 1.8 seem to reveal a sensitivity mechanism based on proton insertion process at least at highly acidic pH values.

  6. Nanostructured CuO thin film electrodes prepared by spray pyrolysis: a simple method for enhancing the electrochemical performance of CuO in lithium cells

    Morales, Julian; Sanchez, Luis; Martin, Francisco; Ramos-Barrado, Jose R.; Sanchez, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructured CuO thin films were prepared by using a spray pyrolysis method, copper acetate as precursor and stainless steel as substrate. The textural and structural properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SEM images revealed thorough coating of the substrate and thickness of 450-1250 nm; the average particle size as determined from the AFM images ranged from 30 to 160 nm. The XRD patterns revealed the formation of CuO alone and the XPS spectra confirmed the presence of Cu 2+ as the main oxidation state on the surface. The films were tested as electrodes in lithium cells and their electrochemical properties evaluated from galvanostatic and step potential electrochemical spectroscopy (SPES) measurements. The discharge STEP curves exhibited various peaks consistent with the processes CuO Cu 2 O Cu and with decomposition of the electrolyte, a reversible process in the light of the AFM images. The best electrode exhibited capacity values of 625 Ah kg -1 over more than 100 cycles. This value, which involves a CuO Cu reversible global reaction, is ca. 50% higher than that reported for bulk CuO. The nanosize of the particles and the good adherence of the active material to the substrate are thought to be the key factors accounting for the enhanced electrochemical activity found

  7. Crystallization of Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6 Thin Films on LaNiO3 Electrodes by RF Magnetron Reactive Sputtering

    Jong, Chao-An; Gan, Jon-Yiew

    2000-02-01

    Strontium barium niobium (Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6) (SBN) thin films are prepared on conductive-oxide LNO (LaNiO3) electrodes by the rf magnetron sputtering system. Instead of conventional furnace annealing, SBN thin films are crystallized by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) above 700°C for 5 min. The textured SBN films are crystallized with two orientations: one is the (001) or (310) direction, and the other is the (002) or (620) direction. Films compositions measured by the electron spectroscopy of chemical analysis (ESCA) quantitative analysis method show nearly the same stoichiometric ratio as the target. The depth profiles of SBN films and the target are examined by secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). The concentrations of the films are quite uniform. After being heat treated at 800°C for 5 min by RTA, La and Ni diffuse into the SBN film. The diffusion coefficient of La in SBN films is also calculated.

  8. High Performance Flexible Actuator of Urchin-Like ZnO Nanostructure/Polyvinylenefluoride Hybrid Thin Film with Graphene Electrodes for Acoustic Generator and Analyzer.

    Cheong, Oug Jae; Lee, James S; Kim, Jae Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2016-05-01

    A bass frequency response enhanced flexible polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based thin film acoustic actuator is successfully fabricated. High concentrations of various zinc oxide (ZnO) is embedded in PVDF matrix, enhancing the β phase content and the dielectric property of the composite thin film. ZnO acts as a nucleation agent for the crystallization of PVDF. A chemical vapor deposition grown graphene is used as electrodes, enabling high electron mobility for the distortion free acoustic signals. The frequency response of the fabricated acoustic actuator is studied as a function of the film thickness and filler content. The optimized film has a thickness of 80 μm with 30 wt% filler content and shows 72% and 42% frequency response enhancement in bass and midrange compared to the commercial PVDF, respectively. Also, the total harmonic distortion decreases to 82% and 74% in the bass and midrange regions, respectively. Furthermore, the composite film shows a promising potential for microphone applications. Most of all, it is demonstrated that acoustic actuator performance is strongly influenced by degree of PVDF crystalline. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Li4Ti5O12 thin-film electrodes by in-situ synthesis of lithium alkoxide for Li-ion microbatteries

    Mosa, J.; Aparicio, M.; Tadanaga, K.; Hayashi, A.; Tatsumisago, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable thin-film batteries have recently become the topic of widespread research for use as efficient energy storage devices. Spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 has been considered as one of the most prospective anode materials for Li-ion batteries because of its excellent reversibility and long cycle life. We report here the sol–gel synthesis and coating preparation of spinel thin-film Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 electrodes for Li-ion microbatteries using lithium ethoxide produced in situ that reacts with titanium alkoxide to produce the precursor solution without particle precipitation. This synthesis procedure reduces the thermal treatment to obtain a pure phase at only 700 °C and 15 minutes. The physical and structural characterization of the 300 nm Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 coatings shows a very homogeneous distribution of elements and a pure spinel phase. Galvanostatic discharge-charge tests indicate maximum discharge capacities of 152 mA h g −1 when the material is treated at 700 °C for 15 minutes

  10. Direct growth of metal-organic frameworks thin film arrays on glassy carbon electrode based on rapid conversion step mediated by copper clusters and hydroxide nanotubes for fabrication of a high performance non-enzymatic glucose sensing platform.

    Shahrokhian, Saeed; Khaki Sanati, Elnaz; Hosseini, Hadi

    2018-07-30

    The direct growth of self-supported metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) thin film can be considered as an effective strategy for fabrication of the advanced modified electrodes in sensors and biosensor applications. However, most of the fabricated MOFs-based sensors suffer from some drawbacks such as time consuming for synthesis of MOF and electrode making, need of a binder or an additive layer, need of expensive equipment and use of hazardous solvents. Here, a novel free-standing MOFs-based modified electrode was fabricated by the rapid direct growth of MOFs on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). In this method, direct growth of MOFs was occurred by the formation of vertically aligned arrays of Cu clusters and Cu(OH) 2 nanotubes, which can act as both mediator and positioning fixing factor for the rapid formation of self-supported MOFs on GCE surface. The effect of both chemically and electrochemically formed Cu(OH) 2 nanotubes on the morphological and electrochemical performance of the prepared MOFs were investigated. Due to the unique properties of the prepared MOFs thin film electrode such as uniform and vertically aligned structure, excellent stability, high electroactive surface area, and good availability to analyte and electrolyte diffusion, it was directly used as the electrode material for non-enzymatic electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Moreover, the potential utility of this sensing platform for the analytical determination of glucose concentration was evaluated by the amperometry technique. The results proved that the self-supported MOFs thin film on GCE is a promising electrode material for fabricating and designing non-enzymatic glucose sensors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Depositing bulk or micro-scale electrodes

    Shah, Kedar G.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Tolosa, Vanessa; Tooker, Angela C.; Sheth, Heeral J.; Felix, Sarah H.; Delima, Terri L.

    2016-11-01

    Thicker electrodes are provided on microelectronic device using thermo-compression bonding. A thin-film electrical conducting layer forms electrical conduits and bulk depositing provides an electrode layer on the thin-film electrical conducting layer. An insulating polymer layer encapsulates the electrically thin-film electrical conducting layer and the electrode layer. Some of the insulating layer is removed to expose the electrode layer.

  12. Top-Contact Pentacene-Based Organic Thin Film Transistor (OTFT) with N, N'-Bis(3-Methyl Phenyl)- N, N'-Diphenyl Benzidine (TPD)/Au Bilayer Source-Drain Electrode

    Borthakur, Tribeni; Sarma, Ranjit

    2018-01-01

    A top-contact Pentacene-based organic thin film transistor (OTFT) with N, N'-Bis (3-methyl phenyl)- N, N'-diphenyl benzidine (TPD)/Au bilayer source-drain electrode is reported. The devices with TPD/Au bilayer source-drain (S-D) electrodes show better performance than the single layer S-D electrode OTFT devices. The field-effect mobility of 4.13 cm2 v-1 s-1, the on-off ratio of 1.86 × 107, the threshold voltage of -4 v and the subthreshold slope of .27 v/decade, respectively, are obtained from the device with a TPD/Au bilayer source-drain electrode.

  13. Prototype solid-state electrochromic window devices

    Dao, L.H.; Nguyen, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses electrochromic smart windows which are prospective devices for the control of light transmission in response to the variation of brightness of the environment. The fabrication of electrochromic windows based on cathodically coloring transition metal oxides and anodically coloring conducting polymers are described. The device consists of gel or glassy polymer electrolytes sandwiches by a pair of transparent conducting glass coated respectively with a thin film of WO 3 or MoO 3 prepared by electrodeposition, and with a thin film of ploy(aniline) derivatives obtained by electropolymerization or solution casting. The electrochromic properties of the five-layer smart window devices are presented

  14. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films

    Nordin, N.; Azizah, N. [Institute of Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar Perlis (Malaysia); Hashim, U., E-mail: uda@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar Perlis (Malaysia); School of Microelctronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  15. Protein-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films for biosensor applications.

    Härtl, Andreas; Schmich, Evelyn; Garrido, Jose A; Hernando, Jorge; Catharino, Silvia C R; Walter, Stefan; Feulner, Peter; Kromka, Alexander; Steinmüller, Doris; Stutzmann, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Diamond exhibits several special properties, for example good biocompatibility and a large electrochemical potential window, that make it particularly suitable for biofunctionalization and biosensing. Here we show that proteins can be attached covalently to nanocrystalline diamond thin films. Moreover, we show that, although the biomolecules are immobilized at the surface, they are still fully functional and active. Hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films were modified by using a photochemical process to generate a surface layer of amino groups, to which proteins were covalently attached. We used green fluorescent protein to reveal the successful coupling directly. After functionalization of nanocrystalline diamond electrodes with the enzyme catalase, a direct electron transfer between the enzyme's redox centre and the diamond electrode was detected. Moreover, the modified electrode was found to be sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Because of its dual role as a substrate for biofunctionalization and as an electrode, nanocrystalline diamond is a very promising candidate for future biosensor applications.

  16. Influence of Oxygen Concentration on the Performance of Ultra-Thin RF Magnetron Sputter Deposited Indium Tin Oxide Films as a Top Electrode for Photovoltaic Devices

    Jephias Gwamuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity for substantial efficiency enhancements of thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H solar photovoltaic (PV cells using plasmonic absorbers requires ultra-thin transparent conducting oxide top electrodes with low resistivity and high transmittances in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fabricating ultra-thin indium tin oxide (ITO films (sub-50 nm using conventional methods has presented a number of challenges; however, a novel method involving chemical shaving of thicker (greater than 80 nm RF sputter deposited high-quality ITO films has been demonstrated. This study investigates the effect of oxygen concentration on the etch rates of RF sputter deposited ITO films to provide a detailed understanding of the interaction of all critical experimental parameters to help create even thinner layers to allow for more finely tune plasmonic resonances. ITO films were deposited on silicon substrates with a 98-nm, thermally grown oxide using RF magnetron sputtering with oxygen concentrations of 0, 0.4 and 1.0 sccm and annealed at 300 °C air ambient. Then the films were etched using a combination of water and hydrochloric and nitric acids for 1, 3, 5 and 8 min at room temperature. In-between each etching process cycle, the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, 4-point probe (electrical conductivity, and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. All the films were polycrystalline in nature and highly oriented along the (222 reflection. Ultra-thin ITO films with record low resistivity values (as low as 5.83 × 10−4 Ω·cm were obtained and high optical transparency is exhibited in the 300–1000 nm wavelength region for all the ITO films. The etch rate, preferred crystal lattice growth plane, d-spacing and lattice distortion were also observed to be highly dependent on the nature of growth environment for RF sputter deposited ITO films. The structural, electrical

  17. Cu-filled through-hole electrode for ZnS using high adhesive strength Ni–P thin film

    Okamoto, Naoki; Miyamoto, Megumi; Saito, Takeyasu; Kondo, Kazuo; Fukumoto, Takafumi; Hirota, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) and related materials are important for applications in ultraviolet light emitting diodes, cathode ray tubes, flat panel displays and infrared ray (IR) windows. In order to utilize these optoelectronics devices in electronic products, 3D-packaging as well as wafer level packaging (WLP) are needed. The two methods used to achieve this are physical vapor deposition (PVD) and conventional electroless deposition processes. However, both these methods have problems. Films made by PVD are not always of uniform thickness if the substrate is not flat. On the other hand, films made by conventional electroless deposition have weak adhesive strength to substrates. In order to overcome these limitations, we developed a new electroless deposition process to form nickel–phosphorus (Ni–P) films. This process combines catalyzation (Cu deposition) and electroless deposition processes. The films made using the new process show high adhesive strength in tensile tests and also very uniform thickness. In addition, conformal Cu filling of through-holes was achieved by using this new electroless deposition process.

  18. Characteristics of ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films having Pt/PtOx electrode barriers

    Lee, Kwangbae; Rhee, Byung Roh; Lee, Chanku

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of the Pt/PtO x multilayer as an electrode barrier for Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT)-based ferroelectric random access memories. PtO x and Pt layers were prepared on polycrystalline-Si/SiO 2 /Si substrates by means of the sputtering method in Ar and O 2 ambience, and the Pb(Zr 0.53 Ti 0.47 )O 3 layer was prepared by the sol-gel method. A capacitor consisting of Pt/PtO x /PZT/PtO x /Pt/PtO x /poly-Si had a remanent polarization of 18 μC/cm 2 and a low coercive field of 32 kV/cm. The polarization fatigue behavior of test capacitors was improved as compared with that of Pt/PZT/Pt, which showed negligible fatigue loss of 15% after 10 11 switching repetitions with a frequency of 1 MHz. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  19. AZO/Au/AZO tri-layer thin films for the very low resistivity transparent electrode applications

    Chu, Chien-Hsun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hung-Wei, E-mail: hwwu@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Computer and Communication, Kun Shan University, Tainan 71003, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jow-Lay [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • High-quality Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/Au/AZO transparent conducting oxide films. • AZO films (30 nm) made by RF sputtering; ion sputtering for Au film (5–20 nm). • Effects of Au thickness on optical and electrical properties were analyzed. • The resistivity of 9 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm and the transmittance of 86.2% of the multilayer films were obtained in this study. - Abstract: Aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO)/gold/AZO tri-layer structures with very low resistivity and high transmittance are prepared by simultaneous RF magnetron sputtering (for AZO) and ion sputtering (for Au). The properties of the tri-layer films are investigated at different Au layer thicknesses (5–20 nm). The effects of Au layer thickness and the role of Au on the transmission properties of the tri-layer films were investigated. The very low resistivity of 1.01 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm, mobility of 27.665 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, and carrier concentration of 4.563 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −3} were obtained at an Au layer thickness of 20 nm. The peak transmittance of 86.18% at 650-nm wavelength was obtained at an Au layer thickness of 8 nm. These results show the films to be a good candidate for high-quality electrode scheme in various display applications.

  20. Total inorganic arsenic detection in real water samples using anodic stripping voltammetry and a gold-coated diamond thin-film electrode.

    Song, Yang; Swain, Greg M

    2007-06-12

    An accurate method for total inorganic arsenic determination in real water samples was developed using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and a Au-coated boron-doped diamond thin-film electrode. Keys to the method are the use of a conducting diamond platform and solid phase extraction for sample preparation. In the method, the As(III) present in the sample is first detected by DPASV. The As(V) present is then reduced to As(III) by reaction with Na2SO3 and this is followed by a second detection of As(III) by DPASV. Interfering metal ions (e.g., Cu(II)) that cause decreased electrode response sensitivity for arsenic in real samples are removed by solid phase extraction as part of the sample preparation. For example, Cu(II) caused a 30% decrease in the As stripping peak current at a solution concentration ratio of 3:1 (Cu(II)/As(III)). This loss was mitigated by passage of the solution through a Chelex 100 cation exchange resin. After passage, only a 5% As stripping current response loss was seen. The effect of organic matter on the Au-coated diamond electrode response for As(III) was also evaluated. Humic acid at a 5 ppm concentration caused only a 9% decrease in the As stripping peak charge for Au-coated diamond. By comparison, a 50% response decrease was observed for Au foil. Clearly, the chemical properties of the diamond surface in the vicinity of the metal deposits inhibit molecular adsorption on at least some of the Au surface. The method provided reproducible and accurate results for total inorganic arsenic in two contaminated water samples provided by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The total inorganic As concentration in the two samples, quantified by the standard addition method, was 23.2+/-2.9 ppb for UV plant influent water and 16.4+/-0.9 ppb for Well 119 water (n=4). These values differed from the specified concentrations by less than 4%.

  1. Total inorganic arsenic detection in real water samples using anodic stripping voltammetry and a gold-coated diamond thin-film electrode

    Song Yang; Swain, Greg M.

    2007-01-01

    An accurate method for total inorganic arsenic determination in real water samples was developed using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and a Au-coated boron-doped diamond thin-film electrode. Keys to the method are the use of a conducting diamond platform and solid phase extraction for sample preparation. In the method, the As(III) present in the sample is first detected by DPASV. The As(V) present is then reduced to As(III) by reaction with Na 2 SO 3 and this is followed by a second detection of As(III) by DPASV. Interfering metal ions (e.g., Cu(II)) that cause decreased electrode response sensitivity for arsenic in real samples are removed by solid phase extraction as part of the sample preparation. For example, Cu(II) caused a 30% decrease in the As stripping peak current at a solution concentration ratio of 3:1 (Cu(II)/As(III)). This loss was mitigated by passage of the solution through a Chelex 100 cation exchange resin. After passage, only a 5% As stripping current response loss was seen. The effect of organic matter on the Au-coated diamond electrode response for As(III) was also evaluated. Humic acid at a 5 ppm concentration caused only a 9% decrease in the As stripping peak charge for Au-coated diamond. By comparison, a 50% response decrease was observed for Au foil. Clearly, the chemical properties of the diamond surface in the vicinity of the metal deposits inhibit molecular adsorption on at least some of the Au surface. The method provided reproducible and accurate results for total inorganic arsenic in two contaminated water samples provided by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The total inorganic As concentration in the two samples, quantified by the standard addition method, was 23.2 ± 2.9 ppb for UV plant influent water and 16.4 ± 0.9 ppb for Well 119 water (n = 4). These values differed from the specified concentrations by less than 4%

  2. Preparation and characterization of the titanium dioxide thin films used for pH electrode and procaine drug sensor by sol-gel method

    Liao Yihung; Chou, J.-C.

    2009-01-01

    We used titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) as the sensing layer of an ion selective pH sensor electrode, and as the substrate for a procaine drug sensitive membrane sensor. The TiO 2 thin films were prepared using sol-gel spin coating technology. We adopted the Ti(OC 4 H 9 ) 4 as the precursor, and added an ethanol solute to obtain the TiO 2 sol. The sol-gel was spun coated onto the indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. The drug sensitive membrane was coated on the TiO 2 film. We then measured the I DS -V G curves of the TiO 2 ion selective electrode (ISE) pH sensor in pH buffer solutions that had different pH concentrations using a Keithley 236 Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer instrument. The procaine concentration was measured from 10 -2 M to 10 -6 M with the drug sensitive membrane using a HP 34401A Digital Multimeter. We prepared the TiO 2 ISE pH sensor and obtained a high pH sensitivity of 58.73 mV/pH. Uniform TiO 2 films surface structures, with an average roughness (Ra) of 10.211 nm and root mean square roughness (Rms) of 13.01 nm were obtained. The drift effect of the titanium dioxide ion selective pH sensor electrode is 1.97 mV h -1 . The sensitivity of the procaine drug sensor is 55.03 mV pC -1 between 1.0 x 10 -2 mol L -1 and 1.0 x 10 -6 mol L -1 procaine concentrations. The detection limit is 5.0 x 10 -6 mol L -1 . The response time to reach 90% output voltage is 16 s. Forty seconds are required to reach 95% output voltage. The procaine drug sensor 1 x 10 -3 mol L -1 drift test is 3.64 mV h -1 and the variation in output voltage of the repeated measurement is less than 7.4 mV

  3. Electrode contacts on ferroelectric Pb(Zr x Ti1−x )O3 and SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films and their influence on fatigue properties

    Lee, J. J.; Thio, C. L.; Desu, Seshu B.

    1995-01-01

    The degradation (fatigue) of dielectric properties of ferroelectric Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O-3 (PZT) and SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films during cycling was investigated. PZT and SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films were fabricated by metalorganic decomposition and pulsed laser deposition, respectively. Samples with electrodes of platinum (Pt) and ruthenium oxide (RuO2) were studied. The interfacial capacitance (if any) at the Pt/PZT, RuO2/PZT, and Pt/SrBi2Ta2O9 interfaces was determined from the thickness dependence of low-fiel...

  4. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of (Pb, Sn)Te Thermoelectric Modules with Cu Electrodes Using a Thin-Film Sn Interlayer

    Chuang, T. H.; Lin, H. J.; Chuang, C. H.; Yeh, W. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    A (Pb, Sn)Te thermoelectric element plated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer has been joined with a Cu electrode coated with Ag and Sn thin films using a solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding method. This method allows the interfacial reaction between Ag and Sn such that Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds form at low temperature and are stable at high temperature. In this study, the bonding strength was about 6.6 MPa, and the specimens fractured along the interface between the (Pb, Sn)Te thermoelectric element and the Ni barrier layer. Pre-electroplating a film of Sn with a thickness of about 1 μm on the thermoelectric element and pre-heating at 250°C for 3 min ensures the adhesion between the thermoelectric material and the Ni barrier layer. The bonding strength is thus increased to a maximal value of 12.2 MPa, and most of the fractures occur inside the thermoelectric material. During the bonding process, not only the Ag3Sn intermetallics but also Cu6Sn5 forms at the Ag3Sn/Cu interface, which transforms into Cu3Sn with increases in the bonding temperature or bonding time.

  5. Controllable Synthesis of Atomically Thin Type-II Weyl Semimetal WTe2 Nanosheets: An Advanced Electrode Material for All-Solid-State Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Yu, Peng; Fu, Wei; Zeng, Qingsheng; Lin, Junhao; Yan, Cheng; Lai, Zhuangchai; Tang, Bijun; Suenaga, Kazu; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Compared with 2D S-based and Se-based transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), Te-based TMDs display much better electrical conductivities, which will be beneficial to enhance the capacitances in supercapacitors. However, to date, the reports about the applications of Te-based TMDs in supercapacitors are quite rare. Herein, the first supercapacitor example of the Te-based TMD is reported: the type-II Weyl semimetal 1Td WTe 2 . It is demonstrated that single crystals of 1Td WTe 2 can be exfoliated into the nanosheets with 2-7 layers by liquid-phase exfoliation, which are assembled into air-stable films and further all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors. The resulting supercapacitors deliver a mass capacitance of 221 F g -1 and a stack capacitance of 74 F cm -3 . Furthermore, they also show excellent volumetric energy and power densities of 0.01 Wh cm -3 and 83.6 W cm -3 , respectively, superior to the commercial 4V/500 µAh Li thin-film battery and the commercial 3V/300 µAh Al electrolytic capacitor, in association with outstanding mechanical flexibility and superior cycling stability (capacitance retention of ≈91% after 5500 cycles). These results indicate that the 1Td WTe 2 nanosheet is a promising flexible electrode material for high-performance energy storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Preparation of Carbon Nanotube/TiO2 Mesoporous Hybrid Photoanode with Iron Pyrite (FeS2) Thin Films Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Kilic, Bayram; Turkdogan, Sunay; Astam, Aykut; Ozer, Oguz Can; Asgin, Mansur; Cebeci, Hulya; Urk, Deniz; Mucur, Selin Pravadili

    2016-05-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/TiO2 mesoporous networks can be employed as a new alternative photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By using the MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous as photoanodes in DSSC, we demonstrate that the MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous photoanode is promising alternative to standard FTO/TiO2 mesoporous based DSSC due to larger specific surface area and high electrochemical activity. We also show that iron pyrite (FeS2) thin films can be used as an efficient counter electrode (CE), an alternative to the conventional high cost Pt based CE. We are able to synthesis FeS2 nanostructures utilizing a very cheap and easy hydrothermal growth route. MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous based DSSCs with FeS2 CE achieved a high solar conversion efficiency of 7.27% under 100 mW cm-2 (AM 1.5G 1-Sun) simulated solar irradiance which is considerably (slightly) higher than that of A-CNT/TiO2 mesoporous based DSSCs with Pt CE. Outstanding performance of the FeS2 CE makes it a very promising choice among the various CE materials used in the conventional DSSC and it is expected to be used more often to achieve higher photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies.

  7. Study of surface-modified PVP gate dielectric in organic thin film transistors with the nano-particle silver ink source/drain electrode.

    Yun, Ho-Jin; Ham, Yong-Hyun; Shin, Hong-Sik; Jeong, Kwang-Seok; Park, Jeong-Gyu; Choi, Deuk-Sung; Lee, Ga-Won

    2011-07-01

    We have fabricated the flexible pentacene based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with formulated poly[4-vinylphenol] (PVP) gate dielectrics treated by CF4/O2 plasma on poly[ethersulfones] (PES) substrate. The solution of gate dielectrics is made by adding methylated poly[melamine-co-formaldehyde] (MMF) to PVP. The PVP gate dielectric layer was cross linked at 90 degrees under UV ozone exposure. Source/drain electrodes are formed by micro contact printing (MCP) method using nano particle silver ink for the purposes of low cost and high throughput. The optimized OTFT shows the device performance with field effect mobility of the 0.88 cm2/V s, subthreshold slope of 2.2 V/decade, and on/off current ratios of 1.8 x 10(-6) at -40 V gate bias. We found that hydrophobic PVP gate dielectric surface can influence on the initial film morphologies of pentacene making dense, which is more important for high performance OTFTs than large grain size. Moreover, hydrophobic gate dielelctric surface reduces voids and -OH groups that interrupt the carrier transport in OTFTs.

  8. Numerical simulations for quantitative analysis of electrostatic interaction between atomic force microscopy probe and an embedded electrode within a thin dielectric: meshing optimization, sensitivity to potential distribution and impact of cantilever contribution

    Azib, M.; Baudoin, F.; Binaud, N.; Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Bugarin, F.; Segonds, S.; Teyssedre, G.

    2018-04-01

    Recent experimental results demonstrated that an electrostatic force distance curve (EFDC) can be used for space charge probing in thin dielectric layers. A main advantage of the method is claimed to be its sensitivity to charge localization, which, however, needs to be substantiated by numerical simulations. In this paper, we have developed a model which permits us to compute an EFDC accurately by using the most sophisticated and accurate geometry for the atomic force microscopy probe. To avoid simplifications and in order to reproduce experimental conditions, the EFDC has been simulated for a system constituted of a polarized electrode embedded in a thin dielectric layer (SiN x ). The individual contributions of forces on the tip and on the cantilever have been analyzed separately to account for possible artefacts. The EFDC sensitivity to potential distribution is studied through the change in electrode shape, namely the width and the depth. Finally, the numerical results have been compared with experimental data.

  9. Optimization of surface morphology and scattering properties of TCO/AIT textured glass front electrode for thin film solar cells

    Addonizio, M.L., E-mail: marialuisa.addonizio@enea.it; Fusco, L.; Antonaia, A.; Cominale, F.; Usatii, I.

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aluminium induced texture (AIT) method has been used for obtaining highly textured glass substrates. • The effect of wet etch step on morphological and optical properties has been analyzed. • The morphology features have been optimized in order to obtain the best scattering properties. • Different ZnO surface textures, depending on the underlying glass substrate structures, are obtained. • The effect of different glass texture on optical confinement has been tested in a-Si:H devices. - Abstract: Aluminium induced texture (AIT) method has been used for obtaining highly textured glass substrate suitable for silicon based thin film solar cell technology. Wet etch step parameters of AIT process have been varied and effect of different etchants and different etching times on morphological and optical properties has been analyzed. The resulting morphology features (shape, size distribution, inclination angle) have been optimized in order to obtain the best scattering properties. ZnO:Ga (GZO) films have been deposited by sputtering technique on AIT-processed glass. Two different ZnO surface morphologies have been obtained, strongly depending on the underlying glass substrate morphology induced by different etching times. Very rough and porous texture (σ{sub rms} ∼ 150 nm) was obtained on glass etched 2 min showing cauliflower-like structure, whereas a softer texture (σ{sub rms} ∼ 78 nm) was obtained on glass etched 7 min giving wider and smoother U-shaped craters. The effect of different glass textures on optical confinement has been tested in amorphous silicon based p-i-n devices. Devices fabricated on GZO/high textured glass showed a quantum efficiency enhancement due to both an effective light trapping phenomenon and an effective anti-reflective optical behaviour. Short etching time produce smaller cavities (<1 μm) with deep U-shape characterized by high roughness, high inclination angle and low autocorrelation

  10. Effect of deposition temperature on the properties of Al-doped ZnO films prepared by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering for transparent electrodes in thin-film solar cells

    Kim, Doo-Soo; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Shin, Beom-Ki; Moon, Kyeong-Ju; Son, Myoungwoo; Ham, Moon-Ho; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2012-10-01

    A simple but scalable approach to the production of surface-textured Al-doped ZnO(AZO) films for low-cost transparent electrode applications in thin-film solar cells is introduced in this study by combining pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with wet etching in sequence. First, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the AZO films prepared by a PDMS were investigated as functions of deposition temperature to obtain transparent electrode films that can be used as indium-free alternative to ITO electrodes. Increase in the deposition temperature to 230 °C accompanied the improvement in crystalline quality and doping efficiency, which enabled the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.16 × 10-4 Ω cm with the carrier concentration of 1.65 × 1021 cm-3 and Hall mobility of 11.3 cm2/V s. The wet etching of the films in a diluted HCl solution resulted in surface roughening via the formation of crater-like structures without significant degradation in the electrical properties, which is responsible for the enhanced light scattering capability required for anti-reflective electrodes in thin film solar cells.

  11. Development of a Novel Solid-State Sensor Electrode Based on Titanium Thin Film as an Indicator Electrode in Potentiometric and Conductometric Acid-Base Titration in Aqueous Solution

    Abu Ghalwa, Nasser

    2012-01-01

    A modified Ti/(SnO2 + Sb2O3) electrode was prepared by thermal deposition on titanium substrate and its use as indicator electrode to potentiometric and conductometric acid-base titration in aqueous solution at 298 K was developed. The E-pH curve is linear with slope of 0.0512 V/dec at 298 K. The standard potential of this electrode, E0, was determined with respect to the SCE as reference electrode. The recovery percentages for potentiometric and conductometric acid-base titration for acetic ...

  12. Windows server cookbook for Windows server 2003 and Windows 2000

    Allen, Robbie

    2005-01-01

    This practical reference guide offers hundreds of useful tasks for managing Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003, Microsoft's latest server. These concise, on-the-job solutions to common problems are certain to save you many hours of time searching through Microsoft documentation. Topics include files, event logs, security, DHCP, DNS, backup/restore, and more

  13. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  14. Characterization of RuO sub 2 electrodes for ferroelectric thin films prepared by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition using Ru(C sub 1 sub 1 H sub 1 sub 9 O sub 2) sub 3

    Lee, J M; Shin, J C; Hwang, C S; Kim, H J; Suk, C G

    1999-01-01

    Pure and conducting RuO sub 2 thin films were deposited on Si substrates at 250 approx 450 .deg. C using Ru(C sub 1 sub 1 H sub 1 sub 9 O sub 2) sub 3 as a precursor by low-pressure metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). At a lower deposition temperature,smoother and denser RuO sub 2 thin films were deposited. The RuO sub 2 thin films, which were crack free, adhered well onto the substrates and showed very low resistivities around 45 approx 60 mu OMEGA cm. RuO sub 2 thin films on (Ba, Sr)/TiO sub 3 /Pt/SiO sub 2 /Si showed good properties, indicating that MOCVD RuO sub 2 thin films from Ru(C sub 1 sub 1 H sub 1 sub 9 O sub 2) sub 3 can be applied as electrodes of high-dielectric thin films for capacitors in ultra-large-scale DRAMs.

  15. Low-Temperature Bonding of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 Thermoelectric Material with Cu Electrodes Using a Thin-Film In Interlayer

    Lin, Yan-Cheng; Yang, Chung-Lin; Huang, Jing-Yi; Jain, Chao-Chi; Hwang, Jen-Dong; Chu, Hsu-Shen; Chen, Sheng-Chi; Chuang, Tung-Han

    2016-09-01

    A Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 thermoelectric material electroplated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer was bonded with a Ag-coated Cu electrode at low temperatures of 448 K (175 °C) to 523 K (250 °C) using a 4- μm-thick In interlayer under an external pressure of 3 MPa. During the bonding process, the In thin film reacted with the Ag layer to form a double layer of Ag3In and Ag2In intermetallic compounds. No reaction occurred at the Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3/Ni interface, which resulted in low bonding strengths of about 3.2 MPa. The adhesion of the Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3/Ni interface was improved by precoating a 1- μm Sn film on the surface of the thermoelectric element and preheating it at 523 K (250 °C) for 3 minutes. In this case, the bonding strengths increased to a range of 9.1 to 11.5 MPa after bonding at 473 K (200 °C) for 5 to 60 minutes, and the shear-tested specimens fractured with cleavage characteristics in the interior of the thermoelectric material. The bonding at 448 K (175 °C) led to shear strengths ranging from 7.1 to 8.5 MPa for various bonding times between 5 and 60 minutes, which were further increased to the values of 10.4 to 11.7 MPa by increasing the bonding pressure to 9.8 MPa. The shear strengths of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3/Cu joints bonded with the optimized conditions of the modified solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding process changed only slightly after long-term exposure at 473 K (200 °C) for 1000 hours.

  16. Postbuckling behavior of windows subjected to synchrotron radiation x-rays

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.; Sharma, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses performed on two Be windows (250 and 100 μm thick) show that the additional postbuckling strength still exists after initial window buckling and this part can be used by a thin window design in the working stage. However, the load factor to complate failure is not as big as the load factor to failure of a uniformly compressed window (the case for a thick window where buckling stress is larger than yielding stress of the window material). That is, the load factor of a thin window to collapse is not as large as that of a thick window without buckling. Hence, unless there is a special need for a thin window, buckling of the windows in normal working stage should not be recommended. Although shakedown was not considered, a similar conclusion can be expected for that case

  17. Design Guidance for New Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  18. Selection Process for New Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  19. Selection Process for Replacement Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  20. Design Guidance for Replacement Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  1. Replacement Windows for Existing Homes Homes | Efficient Windows

    Collaborative Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring

  2. Proper Installation of New Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  3. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    Kurra, Narendra; Wang, Ruiqi; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid

  4. Compact UHV valve with field replaceable windows

    Johnson, E.D.; Freeman, J.; Powell, F.

    1991-01-01

    There are many applications in synchrotron radiation research where window valves can be usefully employed. Examples include gas cells for monochromator calibration, filters for high order light rejection, and as vacuum isolation elements between machine and experimental vacua. Often these devices are fairly expensive, and have only fixed (ie non-removable) windows. The development of a new type of seal technology by VAT for their series 01 valves provides a gate surface which is free from obstructions due to internal mechanical elements. This feature allows a threaded recess to be machined into the gate to receive a removable window frame which can carry standard size Luxel thin film windows. The combination of these features results in a DN 40 (2.75in. conflat flange) valve which provides a clear aperture of 21mm diameter for the window material. 8 refs., 2 figs

  5. Provide Views | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  6. Reduced Fading | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  7. EWC Members | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  8. Visible Transmittance | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  9. Gas Fills | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  10. EWC Membership | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  11. Reducing Condensation | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  12. Improved Comfort | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  13. Financing & Incentives | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  14. Tools & Resources | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  15. Books & Publications | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  16. Design Considerations | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  17. Enhancement of photocurrents due to the oxidation of water and organic compounds at BiZn2VO6 particulate thin film electrodes by treatment with a TiCl4 solution

    Liu Haimei; Imanishi, Akihito; Yang Wensheng; Nakato, Yoshihiro

    2010-01-01

    Photocurrents due to water oxidation at BiZn 2 VO 6 (E g 2.4 eV) particulate thin film electrodes were largely enhanced by pre-treatment with an aqueous TiCl 4 solution. Photocurrents for BiZn 2 VO 6 electrodes with no TiCl 4 treatment were also enhanced by the addition of organic compounds such as methanol and trimethyl amine to the aqueous electrolyte. Interestingly, such enhanced photocurrents by organic compounds were further enhanced by the TiCl 4 pre-treatment. EDAX and SEM investigations showed the formation of a flock-like TiO 2 overlayer on BiZn 2 VO 6 particles after the TiCl 4 treatment. The photocurrent enhancement by the TiCl 4 pre-treatment is thus mainly attributed to the necking effect of the flock-like TiO 2 overlayer, which facilitates the transport of photogenerated electrons within the BiZn 2 VO 6 particulate thin film electrode.

  18. Windows and doors

    1988-01-01

    A complete manual is presented on windows and doors for the housing contractor. In order to understand the role of windows and doors in a house's energy performance, an introduction explains the house as a system of components that can have effects on each other. Further chapters explain in detail the parts of a window, window types and RSI values; window servicing and repair; window replacement; parts of a door, door types and RSI values; door service and repair, including weatherstripping; door replacement; and how to ensure quality, service, and customer satisfaction. A glossary of terms is included. 61 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Windows 10 simplified

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 quickly and painlessly with this beginner's guide Windows 10 Simplified is your absolute beginner's guide to the ins and outs of Windows. Fully updated to cover Windows 10, this highly visual guide covers all the new features in addition to the basics, giving you a one-stop resource for complete Windows 10 mastery. Every page features step-by-step screen shots and plain-English instructions that walk you through everything you need to know, no matter how new you are to Windows. You'll master the basics as you learn how to navigate the user interface, work with files, create

  20. Windows 10 for dummies

    Rathbone, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The fast and easy way to get up and running with Windows 10 Windows 10 For Dummies covers the latest version of Windows and gets you up and running with the changes and new features you'll find in this updated operating system. Packed with time-saving tips to help you get the most out of the software, this helpful Windows 10 guide shows you how to manage Windows tasks like navigating the interface with a mouse or touchscreen, connecting to the web, and troubleshooting problems and making quick fixes. Assuming no prior knowledge of the software, Windows 10 For Dummies addresses the updates to

  1. Hydrothermally formed three-dimensional nanoporous Ni(OH)2 thin-film supercapacitors.

    Yang, Yang; Li, Lei; Ruan, Gedeng; Fei, Huilong; Xiang, Changsheng; Fan, Xiujun; Tour, James M

    2014-09-23

    A three-dimensional nanoporous Ni(OH)2 thin-film was hydrothermally converted from an anodically formed porous layer of nickel fluoride/oxide. The nanoporous Ni(OH)2 thin-films can be used as additive-free electrodes for energy storage. The nanoporous layer delivers a high capacitance of 1765 F g(-1) under three electrode testing. After assembly with porous activated carbon in asymmetric supercapacitor configurations, the devices deliver superior supercapacitive performances with capacitance of 192 F g(-1), energy density of 68 Wh kg(-1), and power density of 44 kW kg(-1). The wide working potential window (up to 1.6 V in 6 M aq KOH) and stable cyclability (∼90% capacitance retention over 10,000 cycles) make the thin-film ideal for practical supercapacitor devices.

  2. Development of a Novel Solid-State Sensor Electrode Based on Titanium Thin Film as an Indicator Electrode in Potentiometric and Conductometric Acid-Base Titration in Aqueous Solution

    Nasser Abu Ghalwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified Ti/(SnO2 + Sb2O3 electrode was prepared by thermal deposition on titanium substrate and its use as indicator electrode to potentiometric and conductometric acid-base titration in aqueous solution at 298 K was developed. The E-pH curve is linear with slope of 0.0512 V/dec at 298 K. The standard potential of this electrode, E0, was determined with respect to the SCE as reference electrode. The recovery percentages for potentiometric and conductometric acid-base titration for acetic acid against NaOH were calculated. The cell constant, specific conductance, and the molar conductance with dilution for some common electrolytes were measured.

  3. Transparent conductive zinc oxide basics and applications in thin film solar cells

    Klein, Andreas; Rech, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) belongs to the class of transparent conducting oxides which can be used as transparent electrodes in electronic devices or heated windows. In this book the material properties of, the deposition technologies for, and applications of zinc oxide in thin film solar cells are described in a comprehensive manner. Structural, morphological, optical and electronic properties of ZnO are treated in this review. The editors and authors of this book are specialists in deposition, analysis and fabrication of thin-film solar cells and especially of ZnO. This book is intended as an overview and a data collection for students, engineers and scientist.

  4. Schematic Window Methodology Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aim of this IRAD is to produce a generic launch window analyzer (SWM) that allows for large-scale rapid analysis of a launch window and orbit design trade space....

  5. Ellipsometry with phase and azimuth modulation: Investigation of the dielectric constant of thin films of Th and Ag deposited onto Au electrodes

    Chao, F; Costa, M

    1981-08-07

    Ellipsometry with phase and azimuth modulation was used to measure the variations with coverage in the dielectric constant epsilonsub(f) = epsilon/sub 1/ - iepsilon/sub 2/ of thin films of thallium and silver deposited onto polycrystalline gold electrodes. In the underpotential deposition (UPD) zone the epsilon/sub 2/ versus theta curves for both systems present maxima at theta approx. equal to 0.5 which are associated with points of inflexion on the epsilon/sub 1/ versus theta curves; these may correspond to a transition between two two-dimensional structures, one of which occurs for theta < 0.5 and the other for theta > 0.5. A change in the direction of the variations in epsilon/sub 1/ versus theta and epsilon/sub 2/ versus theta corresponds to the beginning of nucleation. It takes place at theta approx. equal to 1 for the Tl/sup +/ - Au system and at theta approx. equal to 0.5 for Ag/sup +/ - Au. For silver coverage, the more condensed two-dimensional structure seems to include metallic nuclei. When theta > 1, at the same coverage different values of epsilon/sub 1/ and epsilon/sub 2/ are observed according to the rate of deposition, i.e. according to the size of the crystallites. The limiting values of epsilonsub(f) are in good agreement with the values determined in vacuum and reported in the literature. For wavelengths lambda > 500 nm, the results are interpreted quantitatively through Drude relations assuming that both the surface density N of the free electrons and their relaxation time tau vary with theta. For Tl/sup +/ - Au the variation of N in the UPD zone corresponds to a residual charge q = 0.29 on the thallium adatom (..delta..N = 5.8 x 10/sup 22/ cm/sup -3/ for theta = 1), whereas for Ag/sup +/ - Au the residual charge on the adatom is negligible. For the thallium film the variation in tau implies an increase in the surface diffusivity with theta in the UPD zone and a decrease after the first monolayer. For the silver films the specularity of the

  6. Preparation of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films on Pt/RuO2 double electrode by a new sol-gel route

    Kim, S.; Choi, Y.; Kim, C.; Oh, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) thin film on Pt/RuO 2 double electrode was successfully prepared by using new alkoxide endash alkanolamine, sol-gel method. It was observed that the use of Pt/RuO 2 double electrode reduced leakage current, resulting in a marked improvement in the leakage characteristics and more reliable capacitors. Typical P-E hysteresis behavior was observed even at low applied voltage of 5 V, manifesting greatly improved remanance and coercivity. Fatigue and breakdown characteristic, measured at 5 V, showed stable behavior and no degradation in polarization was observed up to 10 11 cycles.copyright 1997 Materials Research Society

  7. Electrochemical behavior of LiCoO2 as aqueous lithium-ion battery electrodes

    Ruffo, Riccardo

    2009-02-01

    Despite the large number of studies on the behavior of LiCoO2 in organic electrolytes and its recent application as a positive electrode in rechargeable water battery prototypes, a little information is available about the lithium intercalation reaction in this layered compound in aqueous electrolytes. This work shows that LiCoO2 electrodes can be reversibly cycled in LiNO3 aqueous electrolytes for tens of cycles at remarkably high rates with impressive values specific capacity higher than 100 mAh/g, and with a coulomb efficiency greater than 99.7%. Stable and reproducible cycling measurements have been made using a simple cell design that can be easily applied to the study of other intercalation materials, assuming that they are stable in water and that their intercalation potential range matches the electrochemical stability window of the aqueous electrolyte. The experimental arrangement uses a three-electrode flooded cell in which another insertion compound acts as a reversible source and sink of lithium ions, i.e., as the counter electrode. A commercial reference electrode is also present. Both the working and the counter electrodes have been prepared as thin layers on a metallic substrate using the procedures typical for the study of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries in organic solvent electrolytes. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    Mapes, M.; Leonhardt, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    Large aperture, low mass, thin vacuum windows are required to minimize beam loss in the beam lines of particle accelerators as the products of nuclear collisions move from upstream targets to downstream detectors. This article describes the design, fabrication, testing, and operating experience of a large rectangular vacuum window, 122 cmx61 cm, and two circular windows of 91.4 and 96.5 cm diam. These window designs utilize a composite Kevlar 29 fabric and Mylar laminate as a window material with a typical combined thickness of 0.35 mm. Data for several material thicknesses are also presented. The windows are usually designed to withstand a pressure differential of two to three atmospheres to achieve the required factor of safety. These windows are typically used in the medium vacuum range of 10 -4 Torr. The equations used to predict the behavior of the window material will also be discussed

  9. Shielding Effectiveness of a Thin Film Window

    Johnson, Eric

    1998-01-01

    .... The predicted shielding effectiveness was 29 dB based on theoretical calculations. The error analysis of the shielding effectiveness showed that this predicted value was within the measurement error...

  10. A comparative study of the adsorption and oxidation of L-alanine and L-serine on Au(1 0 0), Au(1 1 1) and gold thin film electrodes in acid media

    Sandoval, Andrea P.; Orts, José Manuel; Rodes, Antonio; Feliu, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption and oxidation of L-alanine and L-serine at Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 0 0) single crystal and evaporated thin-film electrodes with preferential (1 1 1) orientation was studied in perchloric acid solutions. For this purpose, cyclic voltammetry experiments were combined with external reflection infrared spectroscopy (gold single crystals) and surface-enhanced infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy under attenuated total reflection conditions (ATR-SEIRAS) (gold thin films). In addition, theoretical harmonic vibrational frequencies, obtained from B3LYP/LANL2DZ, 6-31+G(d) calculations for the zwitterionic species adsorbed on Au clusters with (1 1 1) orientation, were used to interpret the experimental spectra. The optimized geometry obtained from DFT calculations for the corresponding zwitterion plus a water molecule, under the application of an external electric field of 0.01 a.u. corresponds to a bidentate asymmetrical bridge adsorption configuration. The absence of an adsorbate band for the asymmetric OCO stretching in the experimental infrared spectra confirms the bidentate bonding of the adsorbed zwitterion through the oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group irrespective of the crystallographic orientation of the electrode surface, the adsorbate coverage and the electrode potential. In addition to typical interfacial water bands associated to perchlorate anions, which are co-adsorbed in order to compensate the positive charge of the ammonium group, the ATR-SEIRA spectra also show bands around 2950 cm −1 that can be related to the formation of hydrogen bonds between interfacial water and the ammonium group of the adsorbed zwitterion. The voltammetric experiments have shown that, as in the case of platinum electrodes, L-serine oxidizes at lower potentials than L-alanine. Under these conditions, the in situ infrared experiments show the formation of carbon dioxide and adsorbed cyanide as oxidation products of L-serine. In the case of L-alanine, only

  11. Effect of deposition temperature on the properties of Al-doped ZnO films prepared by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering for transparent electrodes in thin-film solar cells

    Kim, Doo-Soo; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Shin, Beom-Ki; Moon, Kyeong-Ju [Information and Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Myoungwoo [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Moon-Ho [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woong [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Myoung, Jae-Min, E-mail: jmmyoung@yonsei.ac.kr [Information and Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface-textured AZO films were achieved by combining PDMS method with wet etching. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AZO film deposited at 230 Degree-Sign C by PDMS exhibited the best performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is due to the higher plasma density supplied from PDMS system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wet etching of the films produces a crater-like rough surface morphology. - Abstract: A simple but scalable approach to the production of surface-textured Al-doped ZnO(AZO) films for low-cost transparent electrode applications in thin-film solar cells is introduced in this study by combining pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with wet etching in sequence. First, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the AZO films prepared by a PDMS were investigated as functions of deposition temperature to obtain transparent electrode films that can be used as indium-free alternative to ITO electrodes. Increase in the deposition temperature to 230 Degree-Sign C accompanied the improvement in crystalline quality and doping efficiency, which enabled the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.16 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm with the carrier concentration of 1.65 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} and Hall mobility of 11.3 cm{sup 2}/V s. The wet etching of the films in a diluted HCl solution resulted in surface roughening via the formation of crater-like structures without significant degradation in the electrical properties, which is responsible for the enhanced light scattering capability required for anti-reflective electrodes in thin film solar cells.

  12. Effect of deposition temperature on the properties of Al-doped ZnO films prepared by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering for transparent electrodes in thin-film solar cells

    Kim, Doo-Soo; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Shin, Beom-Ki; Moon, Kyeong-Ju; Son, Myoungwoo; Ham, Moon-Ho; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Surface-textured AZO films were achieved by combining PDMS method with wet etching. ► The AZO film deposited at 230 °C by PDMS exhibited the best performance. ► It is due to the higher plasma density supplied from PDMS system. ► Wet etching of the films produces a crater-like rough surface morphology. - Abstract: A simple but scalable approach to the production of surface-textured Al-doped ZnO(AZO) films for low-cost transparent electrode applications in thin-film solar cells is introduced in this study by combining pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with wet etching in sequence. First, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the AZO films prepared by a PDMS were investigated as functions of deposition temperature to obtain transparent electrode films that can be used as indium-free alternative to ITO electrodes. Increase in the deposition temperature to 230 °C accompanied the improvement in crystalline quality and doping efficiency, which enabled the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.16 × 10 −4 Ω cm with the carrier concentration of 1.65 × 10 21 cm −3 and Hall mobility of 11.3 cm 2 /V s. The wet etching of the films in a diluted HCl solution resulted in surface roughening via the formation of crater-like structures without significant degradation in the electrical properties, which is responsible for the enhanced light scattering capability required for anti-reflective electrodes in thin film solar cells.

  13. Structural and electrical characterization of ultra-thin SrTiO3 tunnel barriers grown over YBa2Cu3O7 electrodes for the development of high Tc Josephson junctions.

    Félix, L Avilés; Sirena, M; Guzmán, L A Agüero; Sutter, J González; Vargas, S Pons; Steren, L B; Bernard, R; Trastoy, J; Villegas, J E; Briático, J; Bergeal, N; Lesueur, J; Faini, G

    2012-12-14

    The transport properties of ultra-thin SrTiO(3) (STO) layers grown over YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) electrodes were studied by conductive atomic force microscopy at the nano-scale. A very good control of the barrier thickness was achieved during the deposition process. A phenomenological approach was used to obtain critical parameters regarding the structural and electrical properties of the system. The STO layers present an energy barrier of 0.9 eV and an attenuation length of 0.23 nm, indicating very good insulating properties for the development of high-quality Josephson junctions.

  14. Structural and electrical characterization of ultra-thin SrTiO3 tunnel barriers grown over YBa2Cu3O7 electrodes for the development of high Tc Josephson junctions

    Avilés Félix, L; Sirena, M; Agüero Guzmán, L A; González Sutter, J; Pons Vargas, S; Steren, L B; Bernard, R; Trastoy, J; Villegas, J E; Briático, J; Bergeal, N; Lesueur, J; Faini, G

    2012-01-01

    The transport properties of ultra-thin SrTiO 3 (STO) layers grown over YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 electrodes were studied by conductive atomic force microscopy at the nano-scale. A very good control of the barrier thickness was achieved during the deposition process. A phenomenological approach was used to obtain critical parameters regarding the structural and electrical properties of the system. The STO layers present an energy barrier of 0.9 eV and an attenuation length of 0.23 nm, indicating very good insulating properties for the development of high-quality Josephson junctions. (paper)

  15. Window Selection Tool | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Louisville LA Lake Charles LA New Orleans LA Shreveport MA Boston MD Baltimore ME Portland MI Detroit MI Window Selection Tool will take you through a series of design conditions pertaining to your design and

  16. Windows for Intel Macs

    Ogasawara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  17. Windows® Internals

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  18. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  19. Advanced energy efficient windows

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large...... energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security...

  20. Accounting for Interference, Scattering, and Electrode Absorption to Make Accurate Internal Quantum Efficiency Measurements in Organic and Other Thin Solar Cells

    Burkhard, George F.; Hoke, Eric T.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Accurately measuring internal quantum efficiency requires knowledge of absorption in the active layer of a solar cell. The experimentally accessible total absorption includes significant contributions from the electrodes and other nonactive layers. We suggest a straightforward method for calculating the active layer contribution that minimizes error by subtracting optically-modeled electrode absorption from experimentally measured total absorption. (Figure Presented) © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Accounting for Interference, Scattering, and Electrode Absorption to Make Accurate Internal Quantum Efficiency Measurements in Organic and Other Thin Solar Cells

    Burkhard, George F.

    2010-05-31

    Accurately measuring internal quantum efficiency requires knowledge of absorption in the active layer of a solar cell. The experimentally accessible total absorption includes significant contributions from the electrodes and other nonactive layers. We suggest a straightforward method for calculating the active layer contribution that minimizes error by subtracting optically-modeled electrode absorption from experimentally measured total absorption. (Figure Presented) © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Radiation-transparent windows, method for imaging fluid transfers

    Shu, Deming [Darien, IL; Wang, Jin [Burr Ridge, IL

    2011-07-26

    A thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 40 bar is presented. The window allows for x-ray access to such phenomena as fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions.

  3. InP solar cell with window layer

    Jain, Raj K. (Inventor); Landis, Geoffrey A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention features a thin light transmissive layer of the ternary semiconductor indium aluminum arsenide (InAlAs) as a front surface passivation or 'window' layer for p-on-n InP solar cells. The window layers of the invention effectively reduce front surface recombination of the object semiconductors thereby increasing the efficiency of the cells.

  4. Electrode-Impregnable and Cross-Linkable Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) Triblock Polymer Electrolytes with High Ionic Conductivity and a Large Voltage Window for Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Han, Jae Hee; Lee, Jang Yong; Suh, Dong Hack; Hong, Young Taik; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2017-10-04

    We present cross-linkable precursor-type gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) that have large ionic liquid uptake capability, can easily penetrate electrodes, have high ion conductivity, and are mechanically strong as high-performance, flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors (SC). Our polymer precursors feature a hydrophilic-hydrophobic poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock main-chain structure and trifunctional silane end groups that can be multi-cross-linked with each other through a sol-gel process. The cross-linked solid-state electrolyte film with moderate IL content (200 wt %) shows a well-balanced combination of excellent ionic conductivity (5.0 × 10 -3 S cm -1 ) and good mechanical stability (maximum strain = 194%). Moreover, our polymer electrolytes have various advantages including high thermal stability (decomposition temperature > 330 °C) and the capability to impregnate electrodes to form an excellent electrode-electrolyte interface due to the very low viscosity of the precursors. By assembling our GPE-impregnated electrodes and solid-state GPE film, we demonstrate an all-solid-state SC that can operate at 3 V and provides an improved specific capacitance (112.3 F g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 ), better rate capability (64% capacity retention until 20 A g -1 ), and excellent cycle stability (95% capacitance decay over 10 000 charge/discharge cycles) compared with those of a reference SC using a conventional PEO electrolyte. Finally, flexible SCs with a high energy density (22.6 W h kg -1 at 1 A g -1 ) and an excellent flexibility (>93% capacitance retention after 5000 bending cycles) can successfully be obtained.

  5. Windows 8 secrets

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  6. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  7. Programming Windows Azure

    Krishnan, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Learn the nuts and bolts of cloud computing with Windows Azure, Microsoft's new Internet services platform. Written by a key member of the product development team, this book shows you how to build, deploy, host, and manage applications using Windows Azure's programming model and essential storage services. Chapters in Programming Windows Azure are organized to reflect the platform's buffet of services. The book's first half focuses on how to write and host application code on Windows Azure, while the second half explains all of the options you have for storing and accessing data on the plat

  8. Beginning Windows 8

    Halsey, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever. Beginning Windows 8 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes with it. From tips and tweaks to easy-to-follow guides and d

  9. Windows 8 tweaks

    Sinchak, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Acres of Windows 8 tweaks from a Microsoft MVP and creator of Tweaks.com! From a Microsoft MVP, who is also the savvy creator of Tweaks.com, comes this ultimate collection of Windows 8 workarounds. Steve Sinchak takes you way beyond default system settings, deep under the hood of Windows 8, down to the hidden gems that let you customize your Windows 8 system like you wouldn't believe. From helping you customize the appearance to setting up home networking, sharing media, and squeezing every ounce of performance out of the OS, this book delivers. Get ready to rock and roll with Wind

  10. Anodic oxidation of anthraquinone dye Alizarin Red S at Ti/BDD electrodes

    Sun Jianrui; Lu Haiyan [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Du Lili [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Lin Haibo, E-mail: lhb910@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li Hongdong, E-mail: hdli@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin-film electrode with high quality using industrially titanium plate (Ti/BDD) as substrate has been prepared and firstly used in the oxidation of anthraquinone dye Alizarin Red S (ARS) in wastewaters. The Ti/BDD electrodes are shown to have high concentration of sp{sup 3}-bonded carbon and wide electrochemical window. The results of the cyclic voltammetries show that BDD has unique properties such as high anodic stability and the production of active intermediates at the high potential. The oxidation regions of ARS and water are significantly separated at the Ti/BDD electrode, and the peak current increases linearly with increasing ARS concentration. The bulk electrolysis shows that removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color can be completely reached and the electrooxidation of ARS behaves as a mass-transfer-controlled process at the Ti/BDD electrode. It is demonstrated that the performances of the Ti/BDD electrode for anodic oxidation ARS have been significantly improved with respect to the traditional electrodes.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of natural dye and counter electrode thin films with different carbon materials for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Chang, Ho; Chen, Tien-Li; Kao, Mu-Jung; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chien, Shu-Hua; Jiang, Lii-Jenq

    2011-08-01

    This study aims to deal with the film of the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and the preparation, structure and characteristics of the extract of natural dye. This study adopts different commercial carbon materials such as black lead, carbon black and self-made TiO2-MWCNT compound nanoparticle as the film of the counter electrodes. Moreover, for the preparation of natural dyes, anthocyanins and chlorophyll dyes are extracted from mulberry and pomegranate respectively. Furthermore, the extracted anthocyanins and chlorophyll are blended into cocktail dye to complete the preparation of natural dye. Results show that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the single-layer TiO2-MWCNT counter electrode film and the cocktail dye of the DSSCs is 0.462%.

  12. Title: Using Alignment and 2D Network Simulations to Study Charge Transport Through Doped ZnO Nanowire Thin Film Electrodes

    Phadke, Sujay; Lee, Jung-Yong; West, Jack; Peumans, Peter; Salleo, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    of magnitude lower than the single nanowire resistance. Simulations suggest that the conductivity of such thin film devices could be further enhanced by using longer nanowires. Solution processed Gallium doped ZnO nanowires are aligned on substrates using

  13. Temperature Profile of IR Blocking Windows Used in Cryogenic X-Ray Spectrometers

    Friedrich, S.; Funk, T.; Drury, O.; Labov, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    Cryogenic high-resolution X-ray spectrometers are typically operated with thin IR blocking windows to reduce radiative heating of the detector while allowing good x-ray transmission. We have estimated the temperature profile of these IR blocking windows under typical operating conditions. We show that the temperature in the center of the window is raised due to radiation from the higher temperature stages. This can increase the infrared photon flux onto the detector, thereby increasing the IR noise and decreasing the cryostat hold time. The increased window temperature constrains the maximum window size and the number of windows required. We discuss the consequences for IR blocking window design

  14. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF IRON THIN FILM ELECTRODEPOSED ON A VITREOUS CARBON ELECTRODE IN AQUEOUS AND ORGANIC MEDIA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    A LOUNAS

    2010-06-01

    studied on a vitreous carbon electrode in various aqueous and organic media. The deposit of iron was studied by cyclic voltammetry; the quantity of iron deposited was determined by integration of the cathodic and anodic peaks of Fe (0 and Fe (II of the various media.

  15. Color Wheel Windows

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  16. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  17. Visual merchandising window display

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  18. Fabrication and Characterisation of Membrane-Based Gold Electrodes

    Bakmand, Tanya; Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a versatile, membrane based electrochemical sensor with thin film electrodes fabricated through Ebeam evaporation directly on porous materials (membranes). Here, the fabrication of the electrodes is described along with possible methods for integration in fluidic systems...

  19. Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide detection at NiO nanoporous thin film- electrodes prepared by physical vapor deposition at oblique angles

    Salazar, Pedro; Rico, Victor; González-Elipe, Agustín R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A non-enzymatic sensor for H 2 O 2 detection based on nickel thin film is reported. • Nanostructured nickel thin films are prepared by physical vapor deposition at oblique angles. • Main analytical parameters were obtained under optimal operation conditions. • Sensors depict an outstanding selectivity and a high stability. • Sensors are successfully used to determine H 2 O 2 in antiseptic solutions. - Abstract: In this work we report a non-enzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) detection based on nanostructured nickel thin films prepared by physical vapor deposition at oblique angles. Porous thin films deposited on ITO substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microcopy (SEMs), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical techniques such as Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Constant Potential Amperometry (CPA). The microstructure of the thin films consisted of inclined and separated Ni nanocolumns forming a porous thin layer of about 500 nm thickness. Prior to their use, the films surface was electrochemically modified and the chemical state studied by CV and XPS analysis. These techniques also showed that Ni 2+ /Ni 3+ species were involved in the electrochemical oxidation and detection of H 2 O 2 in alkaline medium. Main analytical parameters such as sensitivity (807 mA M −1 cm −2 ), limit of detection (3.22 μM) and linear range (0.011–2.4 mM) were obtained under optimal operation conditions. Sensors depicted an outstanding selectivity and a high stability and they were successfully used to determine H 2 O 2 concentration in commercial antiseptic solutions.

  20. GA microwave window development

    Moeller, C.P.; Kasugai, A.; Sakamoto, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1994-10-01

    The GA prototype distributed window was tested in a 32 mm diam. waveguide system at a power density suitable for a MW gyrotron, using the JAERI/Toshiba 110 GHz long pulse internal converter gyrotron in the JAERI test stand. The presence of the untilted distributed window had no adverse effect on the gyrotron operation. A pulse length of 10 times the calculated thermal equilibrium time (1/e time) of 30 msec was reached, and the window passed at least 750 pulses greater than 30 msec and 343 pulses greater than 60 msec. Beyond 100 msec, the window calorimetry reached steady state, allowing the window dissipation to be measured in a single pulse. The measured loss of 4.0% agrees both with the estimated loss, on which the stress calculations are based, and with the attenuation measured at low power in the HE 11 mode. After the end of the tests, the window was examined; no evidence of arcing air coating was found in the part of the window directly illuminated by the microwaves, although there was discoloration in a recess containing an optical diagnostic which outgassed, causing a local discharge to occur in that recess. Finally, there was no failure of the metal-sapphire joints during a total operating time of 50 seconds consisting of pulses longer than 30 msec

  1. Windows 8 simplified

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The easiest way for visual learners to get started with Windows 8 The popular Simplified series makes visual learning easier than ever, and with more than 360,000 copies sold, previous Windows editions are among the bestselling Visual books. This guide goes straight to the point with easy-to-follow, two-page tutorials for each task. With full-color screen shots and step-by-step directions, it gets beginners up and running on the newest version of Windows right away. Learn to work with the new interface and improved Internet Explorer, manage files, share your computer, and much more. Perfect fo

  2. Windows 95 Beslutningsguide

    Sørensen, Jens Otto

    1996-01-01

    Mange virksomheder der bruger pc'er står netop nu over for valget: Skal vi fortsætte med DOS/Windows 3.x som operativsystem, eller skal vi skifte til efterfølgeren Windows 95? Skal vi/kan vi skifte successivt, eller skal det være en "alt eller intet beslutning". Hvornår er det rigtige tidspunkt...... at skifte? Denne artikel vil forsøge at give en baggrundsviden om Windows 95, der kan hjælpe virksomhederne igennem denne beslutningsfase....

  3. Rails on Windows

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  4. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  5. Windows 7 resource kit

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  6. Characteristics of RuO{sub 2}-SnO{sub 2} nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous electrode for thin film microsupercapacitors

    Kim, Han-Ki [Core Technology Laboratory, Samsung SDI, 575 Shin-dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 442-391 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hanki1031.kim@samsung.com; Choi, Sun-Hee [Nano Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), PO Box 131 Choengryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Soo [Department of Advanced Fusion Technology (DAFT), Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Sung-Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Kwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Ok, Young-Woo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Kwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Tae-Yeon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Kwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-22

    The characteristics of RuO{sub 2}-SnO{sub 2} nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous electrode, grown by DC reactive sputtering, was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and transmission electron diffraction (TED) examination results showed that Sn and Ru metal cosputtered electrode in O{sub 2}/Ar ambient have RuO{sub 2}-SnO{sub 2} nanocrystallines in an amorphous oxide matrix. It is shown that the cyclic voltammorgram (CV) result of the RuO{sub 2}-SnO{sub 2} nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous film in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} liquid electrolyte is similar to a bulk-type supercapacitor behavior with a specific capacitance of 62.2 mF/cm{sup 2} {mu}m. This suggests that the RuO{sub 2}-SnO{sub 2} nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous film can be employed in hybrid all-solid state energy storage devises as an electrode of supercapacitor.

  7. Gate-bias and temperature dependence of charge transport in dinaphtho[2,3-b:2‧,3‧-d]thiophene thin-film transistors with MoO3/Au electrodes

    Shaari, Safizan; Naka, Shigeki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the gate-bias and temperature dependence of the voltage-current (V-I) characteristics of dinaphtho[2,3-b:2‧,3‧-d]thiophene with MoO3/Au electrodes. The insertion of the MoO3 layer significantly improved the device performance. The temperature dependent V-I characteristics were evaluated and could be well fitted by the Schottky thermionic emission model with barrier height under forward- and reverse-biased regimes in the ranges of 33-57 and 49-73 meV, respectively. However, at a gate voltage of 0 V, at which a small activation energy was obtained, we needed to consider another conduction mechanism at the grain boundary. From the obtained results, we concluded that two possible conduction mechanisms governed the charge injection at the metal electrode-organic semiconductor interface: the Schottky thermionic emission model and the conduction model in the organic thin-film layer and grain boundary.

  8. SAF for Windows

    Hansen, Timme

    2001-01-01

    SAF for Windows er et computerprogram til parametrisk konstruktion af translationsskaller. Skaloverfladernes tredimensionelle, facetterede form fremkommer ved en kombination af to todimensionelle formbestemmende kurver, som kan vælges og redigeres af brugeren. Programmet kan udfolde de genererede...

  9. Windows Security patch required

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  10. Delineating the conformal window

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  11. Ternary semitransparent organic solar cells with a laminated top electrode.

    Makha, Mohammed; Testa, Paolo; Anantharaman, Surendra Babu; Heier, Jakob; Jenatsch, Sandra; Leclaire, Nicolas; Tisserant, Jean-Nicolas; Véron, Anna C; Wang, Lei; Nüesch, Frank; Hany, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Tinted and colour-neutral semitransparent organic photovoltaic elements are of interest for building-integrated applications in windows, on glass roofs or on facades. We demonstrate a semitransparent organic photovoltaic cell with a dry-laminated top electrode that achieves a uniform average visible transmittance of 51% and a power conversion efficiency of 3%. The photo-active material is based on a majority blend composed of a visibly absorbing donor polymer and a fullerene acceptor, to which a selective near-infrared absorbing cyanine dye is added as a minority component. Our results show that organic ternary blends are attractive for the fabrication of semitransparent solar cells in general, because a guest component with a complementary absorption can compensate for the inevitably reduced current generation capability of a high-performing binary blend when applied as a thin, semitransparent film.

  12. Ultra-thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating on the acid-treated 0.3Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}⋅0.7LiMn{sub 0.60}Ni{sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} electrode for Li-ion batteries

    Choi, Mansoo [Battery Research Center, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Giyul [Dept. of Materials and Science Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Bong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Min [Battery Research Center, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Moo [Dept. of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Guoxiu [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Kim, Hyun-Soo, E-mail: hskim@keri.re.kr [Battery Research Center, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 642-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • 0.3Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}⋅0.7LiMn{sub 0.60}Ni{sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} composites were preconditioned by HNO{sub 3}. • The alumina thin film was directly coated on the electrode by an atomic layer deposition. • The acid-treated samples showed significantly higher discharge capacity. • The alumina-coated electrode showed the improved capacity retention ratio. - Abstract: The Li and Mn-rich layered composites represented by Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}–LiMO{sub 2} has been attracting great interests owing to its exceptional high capacity (⩾250 mA h g{sup −1}) and enhanced structural stability. In order to improve the initial coulombic efficiency and cyclability of the composites, the material has been activated by an acid-treatment and coated with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using an atomic layer deposition (ALD). The acid-treated electrode showed a higher discharge capacity than the as-prepared electrode. The alumina-coated electrode provided an improved specific capacity of the electrode but also cycling stability, when compared with the bare electrode. The electrode coated with the alumina could lead to a decrease in undesirable reactions, thereby acting as a stable protecting layer that could quickly transport Li{sup +} ions during charge and discharge process.

  13. A Cuprous Oxide Thin Film Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensor Using Differential Pulse Voltammetry and Other Voltammetry Methods and a Comparison to Different Thin Film Electrodes on the Detection of Glucose in an Alkaline Solution

    Yifan Dai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cuprous oxide (Cu2O thin layer served as the base for a non-enzymatic glucose sensor in an alkaline medium, 0.1 NaOH solution, with a linear range of 50–200 mg/dL using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV measurement. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS study confirmed the formation of the cuprous oxide layer on the thin gold film sensor prototype. Quantitative detection of glucose in both phosphate-buffered saline (PBS and undiluted human serum was carried out. Neither ascorbic acid nor uric acid, even at a relatively high concentration level (100 mg/dL in serum, interfered with the glucose detection, demonstrating the excellent selectivity of this non-enzymatic cuprous oxide thin layer-based glucose sensor. Chronoamperometry and single potential amperometric voltammetry were used to verify the measurements obtained by DPV, and the positive results validated that the detection of glucose in a 0.1 M NaOH alkaline medium by DPV measurement was effective. Nickel, platinum, and copper are commonly used metals for non-enzymatic glucose detection. The performance of these metal-based sensors for glucose detection using DPV were also evaluated. The cuprous oxide (Cu2O thin layer-based sensor showed the best sensitivity for glucose detection among the sensors evaluated.

  14. Revealing the effect of electrode materials on the performance of low-voltage pentacene thin film transistor by in-situ surface potential measurement

    Chen, Q L; Liu, Q C; Jin, H Y; Ouyang, M; Xie, W G

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of contact potential between Au, CuO x and Au-CuO x , and pentacene thin films by Kevin Probe microscopy Compared to the Au contact, although the injection barrier is lower for CuO x contact, the extraction barrier is higher, and the total contact resistance is only slightly smaller. The better performance of CuO x contact device results from the doping effect from the p-type CuO x . The introduction of additional Au top layer deposited on the thin CuO x layer lowersthe extraction barrier and facilitates better carrier transfer, which further reduces the contact resistance. Therefore, both the apparent mobility and channel mobility are the best in the device with Au-CuO x double layer contact. (paper)

  15. Nanoporous of W/WO{sub 3} thin film electrode grown by electrochemical anodization applied in the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of the basic red 51 used in hair dye

    Fraga, Luciano E.; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B., E-mail: fraga@iq.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IQ/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2011-07-01

    Self-organized W/WO{sub 3} nanoporous electrodes can be obtained by simple electrochemical anodization of W foil in 0.15 mol L{sup -1} NaF solution as the supporting electrolyte, applying a ramp potential of 0.2 V s{sup -1} until it reached 60 V, which was maintained for 2 h. The monoclinic form is majority in the highly ordered WO{sub 3} annealed at 450 deg C, obtaining a higher photoactivity when irradiated by visible light than by UV light. The electrode promotes complete discoloration of the investigated basic red 51 dye after 60 min of photoelectrocatalytic oxidation, on current density of 1.25 mA cm{sup -2} and irradiation on wavelength of 420-630 nm. In this condition it was obtained 63% of mineralization. Lower efficiency is obtained for the system irradiated by wavelength (280- 400 nm) when only 40% of total organic carbon removal is obtained and 120 min is required for complete discoloration. (author)

  16. Thin film rechargeable electrodes based on conductive blends of nanostructured olivine LiFePO4 and sucrose derived nanocarbons for lithium ion batteries.

    Praveen, P; Jyothsna, U; Nair, Priya; Ravi, Soumya; Balakrishnan, A; Subramanian, K R V; Nair, A Sreekumaran; Nair, V Shantikumar; Sivakumar, N

    2013-08-01

    The present study provides the first reports of a novel approach of electrophoretic co-deposition technique by which titanium foils are coated with LiFePO4-carbon nanocomposites synthesized by sol gel route and processed into high-surface area cathodes for lithium ion batteries. The study elucidates how sucrose additions as carbon source can affect the surface morphology and the redox reaction behaviors underlying these cathodes and thereby enhance the battery performance. The phase and morphological analysis were done using XRD and XPS where the LiFePO4 formed was confirmed to be a high purity orthorhombic system. From the analysis of the relevant electrochemical parameters using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, a 20% increment and 90% decrement in capacity and impedance values were observed respectively. The composite electrodes also exhibited a specific capacity of 130 mA h/g. It has been shown that cathodes based on such composite systems can allow significant room for improvement in the cycling performance at the electrode/electrolyte interface.

  17. High performance sapphire windows

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-02-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  18. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  19. The determination, by differential pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry at the thin mercury-film electrode, of cadmium and thallium in six NIMROC reference materials

    Lee, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    A previously reported procedure has been extended to include the determination of thallium. In samples where thallium occurred in the presence of relatively high concentrations of cadmium, the stripping peak for cadmium was first suppressed with non-ionic surface-active agent, Triton X-100. Cadmium and thallium were determined directly in six NIMROC reference materials without interference from iron(III), in a reducing electrolyte, which is also a complexing agent, consisting of 1 M ammonium chloride, 0,1 M citric acid, and 0,025 M ascorbic acid. Interelement interferences were eliminated by the use of a mercury-film electrode of adequate thickness. The limits of detection for cadmium were 10ng/g and those for thallium 20ng/g

  20. Windows 8.1 bible

    Boyce, Jim; Tidrow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Windows 8.1 coverage that goes above and beyond all competitors? Serving as an evolutionary update to Windows 8, Windows 8.1 provides critical changes to parts of Windows 8, such as greater customization of the interface and boot operations, return of a 'start button' that reveals apps, greater integration between the two interfaces, and updates to apps. Weighing in at nearly 1000 pages, Windows 8.1 Bible provides deeper Windows insight than any other book on the market. It's valuable for both professionals needing a guide to the nooks and crannies of Windows and regular users wanting a wide

  1. Windows Azure Platform

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2010-01-01

    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  2. Microsoft Windows Security Essentials

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    Windows security concepts and technologies for IT beginners IT security can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This full-color book, with a focus on the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, offers a clear and easy-to-understand approach to Windows security risks and attacks for newcomers to the world of IT. By paring down to just the essentials, beginners gain a solid foundation of security concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built. This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed,

  3. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  4. The Development of 6061-Aluminum Windows for the MICE Liquid Absorber

    Lau, W.; Yang, S.Q.; Green, M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Swanson, J.

    2005-01-01

    The thin windows for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) liquid Absorber will be fabricated from 6061-T6-aluminum. The absorber and vacuum vessel thin windows are 300-mm in diameter and are 180 mm thick at the center. The windows are designed for an internal burst pressure of 0.68 MPa (100 psig) when warm. The MICE experiment design calls for changeable windows on the absorber, so a bolted window design was adopted. Welded windows offer some potential advantages over bolted windows when they are on the absorber itself. This report describes the bolted window and its seal. This report also describes an alternate window that is welded directly to the absorber body. The welded window design presented permits the weld to be ground off and re-welded. This report presents a thermal FEA analysis of the window seal-weld, while the window is being welded. Finally, the results of a test of a welded-window are presented

  5. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-01-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions

  6. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  7. Windows and lighting program

    1990-06-01

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  8. Thin film thermocouples for in situ membrane electrode assembly temperature measurements in a polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane unit cell

    Ali, Syed Talat; Lebæk, Jesper; Nielsen, Lars Pleth

    2010-01-01

    m thick layer of TFTCs on 75 mu m thick Kapton foil. The Kapton foil was treated with in situ argon plasma etching to improve the adhesion between TFTCs and the Kapton substrate. The TFTCs were covered with a 7 mu m liquid Kapton layer using spin coating technique to protect them from environmental......This paper presents Type-T thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) fabricated on Kapton (polyimide) substrate for measuring the internal temperature of PBI(polybenzimidazole)-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC). Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to deposit a 2 mu...... degradation. This Kapton foil with deposited TFTCs was used as sealing inside a PBI (polybenzimidazole)-based single cell test rig, which enabled measurements of in situ temperature variations of the working fuel cell MEA. The performance of the TFTCs was promising with minimal interference to the operation...

  9. Thermo-mechanical failure criteria for x-ray windows and filters and comparison with experiments

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray windows are vacuum separators and are usually made of thin beryllium metal. Filters are provided upstream of the window to filter out the soft x-rays to protect the window from overheating and failing. The filters are made of thin carbon products or sometimes beryllium, the same material as the window. Because the window is a vacuum separator, understanding its potential structural failure under thermal load is very important. Current structural failure models for the brazed windows and filters under thermal stresses are not very accurate. Existing models have been carefully examined and found to be inconsistent with the actual failure modes of windows tested. Due to the thinness of the filter/window, the most likely failure mode is thermal buckling. In fact, recent synchrotron tests conducted in Japan on window failures bear out this position. In this paper, failure criteria for filters/windows are proposed, and analyses are performed and compared with the experimental results from various sources. A consistent result is found between the analysis and reported experiments. A series of additional analyses based on the proposed failure criteria is also carried out for filter and window designs for the third generation synchrotron beamline front ends. Comparative results are presented here

  10. Lower HVAC Costs | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  11. Increased Light & View | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  12. Condensation Resistance (CR) | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  13. Fact Sheets & Publications | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  14. State Fact Sheets | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  15. State Code Guides | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  16. Low Conductance Spacers | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  17. National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) | Efficient Windows

    Collaborative Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring

  18. Energy & Cost Savings | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  19. Provide Natural Light | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  20. Provide Fresh Air | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  1. Air Leakage (AL) | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  2. Liquid electrode

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  3. Spectroelectrochemical properties of ultra-thin indium tin oxide films under electric potential modulation

    Han, Xue, E-mail: x0han004@louisville.edu; Mendes, Sergio B., E-mail: sbmend01@louisville.edu

    2016-03-31

    In this work, the spectroscopic properties of ultra-thin ITO films are characterized under an applied electric potential modulation. To detect minute spectroscopic features, the ultra-thin ITO film was coated over an extremely sensitive single-mode integrated optical waveguide, which provided a long pathlength with more than adequate sensitivity for optical interrogation of the ultra-thin film. Experimental configurations with broadband light and several laser lines at different modulation schemes of an applied electric potential were utilized to elucidate the nature of intrinsic changes. The imaginary component of the refractive index (absorption coefficient) of the ultra-thin ITO film is unequivocally shown to have a dependence on the applied potential and the profile of this dependence changes substantially even for wavelengths inside a small spectral window (500–600 nm). The characterization technique and the data reported here can be crucial to several applications of the ITO material as a transparent conductive electrode, as for example in spectroelectrochemical investigations of surface-confined redox species. - Highlights: • Optical waveguides are applied for spectroscopic investigations of ultra-thin films. • Ultra-thin ITO films in aqueous environment are studied under potential modulation. • Unique spectroscopic features of ultra-thin ITO films are unambiguously observed.

  4. A methodology to enlarge narrow stability windows

    Araujo, Ewerton M.P.; Pastor, Jorge A.S.C.; Fontoura, Sergio A.B. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    The stability window in a wellbore design is defined by the difference between fracture pressure and collapse pressure. Deep water environments typically present narrow stability windows, because rocks have low strength due to under-compaction process. Often also, horizontal wells are drilled to obtain a better development of reservoirs placed in thin layers of sandstone. In this scenario, several challenges are faced when drilling in deep water. The traditional approach for predicting instabilities is to determine collapses and fractures at borehole wall. However, the initiation of rupture does not indicate that the borehole fails to perform its function as a wellbore. Thus, a methodology in which the stability window may be enlarged is desirable. This paper presents one practical analytical methodology that consists in allowing wellbore pressures smaller than the conventional collapse pressure, i.e., based upon failure on the borehole wall. This means that a collapse region (shear failure) will be developed around the borehole wall. This collapse region is pre-defined and to estimate its size is used a failure criterion. The aforementioned methodology is implemented in a user-friendly software, which can perform analyses of stress, pore pressure, formation failure, mud weight and mud salinity design for drilling in shale formations. Simulations of a wellbore drilling in a narrow stability window environment are performed to demonstrate the improvements of using the methodology. (author)

  5. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...... been an important driver for the development of new window solutions in Denmark, increasing the inner-surface temperature at the sealing of window panes. However, it will not stop complaints fromconsumers, as this temperature is calculated under standardized conditions. Increasing requirements...

  6. electrode array

    PROF EKWUEME

    A geoelectric investigation employing vertical electrical soundings (VES) using the Ajayi - Makinde Two-Electrode array and the ... arrangements used in electrical D.C. resistivity survey. These include ..... Refraction Tomography to Study the.

  7. Spray deposited CeO2–TiO2 counter electrode for electrochromic ...

    application in smart window technology. The technological requirement of smart windows includes the electrochromic working electrode and ion storage layer that should be optically passive after intercalation/deintercalation process. There are only few materials which are used as an optically passive counter electrode with ...

  8. Flexible Transparent Electrode of Hybrid Ag-Nanowire/Reduced-Graphene-Oxide Thin Film on PET Substrate Prepared Using H2/Ar Low-Damage Plasma

    Chi-Hsien Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ H2/Ar low-damage plasma treatment (H2/Ar-LDPT to reduce graphene oxide (GO coating on a polymer substrate—polyethylene terephthalate (PET—with the assistance of atomic hydrogen (Hα at low temperature of 70 °C. Four-point probing and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy demonstrate that the conductivity and transmittance can be controlled by varying the H2/Ar flow rate, treatment time, and radio-frequency (RF power. Optical emission spectroscopy reveals that the Hα intensity depends on these processing parameters, which influence the removal of oxidative functional groups (confirmed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to yield reduced GO (rGO. To further improve the conductivity while maintaining high transmittance, we introduce silver nanowires (AgNWs between rGO and a PET substrate to obtain a hybrid rGO/AgNWs/PET with a sheet resistance of ~100 Ω/sq and 81% transmittance. In addition, the hybrid rGO/AgNWs thin film also shows high flexibility and durability and is suitable for flexible and wearable electronics applications.

  9. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  10. Multi electrode semiconductors detectors

    Amendolia, S R; Bertolucci, Ennio; Bosisio, L; Bradaschia, C; Budinich, M; Fidecaro, F; Foà, L; Focardi, E; Giazotto, A; Giorgi, M A; Marrocchesi, P S; Menzione, A; Ristori, L; Rolandi, Luigi; Scribano, A; Stefanini, A; Vincelli, M L

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in this laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (3 refs).

  11. Multi electrode semiconductor detectors

    Amendolia, S.R.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Budinich, M.; Bradaschia, C.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in the laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (Auth.)

  12. Thermal, structural, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high power synchrotron x-ray beamlines

    Khounsary, A.M.; Phillips, W.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology have made it possible to produce thin free-standing diamond foils that can be used as the window material in high heat load, synchrotron beamlines. Numerical simulations suggest that these windows can offer an attractive and at times the only altemative to beryllium windows for use in third generation x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. Utilization, design, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high heat load x-ray beamlines are discussed, as are the microstructure characteristics bearing on diamond's performance in this role. Analytic and numerical results are also presented to provide a basis for the design and testing of such windows

  13. Low mass large aperture vacuum window development at CEBAF

    Keppel, C.

    1995-01-01

    Large aperture low mass vacuum windows are being developed for the HMS (High Momentum Spectrometer) and SOS (Short Orbit Spectrometer) spectrometers in Hall C at CEBAF. Because multiple scattering degrades the performance of a spectrometer it is important that the volume be evacuated and that the entrance and exit windows be as low mass as possible. The material used for such windows must be thin and light enough so as to have minimum effect of the beam, and at the same time, be thick and strong enough to operate reliably and safely. To achieve these goals, composite vacuum windows have been constructed of a thin sheet of Mylar with a reinforcing fabric. Reinforcing fabrics such as Kevlar and Spectra are available with tensile strengths significantly greater than that of Mylar. A thin layer of Myler remains necessary since the fabrics cannot achieve any sort of vacuum seal. The design, fabrication, testing, and operating experience with such composite windows for the Hall C spectrometers will be discussed

  14. Investigation of cooling methods and thickness considerations in the filter/window assembly for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.; Hahn, U.

    1993-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray windows are vacuum separators and are usually made of thin beryllium metal. Filters are provided upstream to absorb the soft x-rays so that the window can be protected from overheating, which could result in failure. The filters are made of thin carbon products or sometimes beryllium, the same material as the window. When the synchrotron x-rays pass through a filter or window, part of the photons will be absorbed by the filter or window. The absorbed photons cause heat to build up within the filter or window. Successful filter and window designs should effectively dissipate the heat generated by the absorbed photons and guarantee the safety of the filter and window. The cooling methods typically used in a filter or window design are conduction and radiation cooling or a combination of the two. The different cooling methods were first examined with regard to efficiency and effectiveness in different temperature ranges. Analysis results are presented for temperature distribution and corresponding thermal stresses in the filter and window. Another important issue to be resolved in designing a filter/window assembly is how to select the thickness of the filters and windows. This paper focuses on the criteria for choosing the thickness of a filter: whether it is better to use a few thick filters or a series of thin ones; how to determine the minimum/maximum thickness; and the difference in thickness considerations for the window versus the filter. Numerical investigations are presented

  15. Resistive switching near electrode interfaces: Estimations by a current model

    Schroeder, Herbert; Zurhelle, Alexander; Stemmer, Stefanie; Marchewka, Astrid; Waser, Rainer

    2013-02-01

    The growing resistive switching database is accompanied by many detailed mechanisms which often are pure hypotheses. Some of these suggested models can be verified by checking their predictions with the benchmarks of future memory cells. The valence change memory model assumes that the different resistances in ON and OFF states are made by changing the defect density profiles in a sheet near one working electrode during switching. The resulting different READ current densities in ON and OFF states were calculated by using an appropriate simulation model with variation of several important defect and material parameters of the metal/insulator (oxide)/metal thin film stack such as defect density and its profile change in density and thickness, height of the interface barrier, dielectric permittivity, applied voltage. The results were compared to the benchmarks and some memory windows of the varied parameters can be defined: The required ON state READ current density of 105 A/cm2 can only be achieved for barriers smaller than 0.7 eV and defect densities larger than 3 × 1020 cm-3. The required current ratio between ON and OFF states of at least 10 requests defect density reduction of approximately an order of magnitude in a sheet of several nanometers near the working electrode.

  16. Cermet electrode

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1988-08-30

    Disclosed is a cermet electrode consisting of metal particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or alloys or mixtures thereof immobilized by zirconia stabilized in cubic form which contains discrete deposits of about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof. The solid oxide electrode can be made by covering a substrate with particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixtures thereof, growing a stabilized zirconia solid oxide skeleton around the particles thereby immobilizing them, contacting the skeleton with a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, and heating the skeleton to a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. The electrode can also be made by preparing a slurry of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixture and a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, depositing the slurry on a substrate, heating the slurry to dryness, and growing a stabilized zirconia skeleton around the metal particles.

  17. Windows Home Server users guide

    Edney, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Windows Home Server brings the idea of centralized storage, backup and computer management out of the enterprise and into the home. Windows Home Server is built for people with multiple computers at home and helps to synchronize them, keep them updated, stream media between them, and back them up centrally. Built on a similar foundation as the Microsoft server operating products, it's essentially Small Business Server for the home.This book details how to install, configure, and use Windows Home Server and explains how to connect to and manage different clients such as Windows XP, Windows Vist

  18. Teach yourself visually Windows 10

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 visually with step-by-step instructions Teach Yourself VISUALLY Windows 10 is the visual learner's guide to the latest Windows upgrade. Completely updated to cover all the latest features, this book walks you step-by-step through over 150 essential Windows tasks. Using full color screen shots and clear instruction, you'll learn your way around the interface, set up user accounts, play media files, download photos from your camera, go online, set up email, and much more. You'll even learn how to customize Windows 10 to suit the way you work best, troubleshoot and repair common

  19. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  20. Invariant sets for Windows

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  1. Windows Azure Platform

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2011-01-01

    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  2. Windows Azure web sites

    Chambers, James

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense guide to maintaining websites in Windows Azure If you're looking for a straightforward, practical guide to get Azure websites up and running, then this is the book for you. This to-the-point guide provides you with the tools you need to move and maintain a website in the cloud. You'll discover the features that most affect developers and learn how they can be leveraged to work to your advantage. Accompanying projects enhance your learning experience and help you to walk away with a thorough understanding of Azure's supported technologies, site deployment, and manageme

  3. Handbook on Windows and Energy

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    The handbook on windows and energy is a general description of windows with the main focus put on the energy performance. Common window products are described by commonly used nomenclature, description of frame and sash conctructions and description of commonly used glazing types.The energy...... transmission through windows is described in detail including radiation, convection and conduction as well as solar transmittance of window glazing. The most used terms related to characterization of window energy performance are defined and calculation methods according to international standards...... flow and detailed calculation of light and solar transmittance is given.Different measurement techniques for characterization of window heat loss coefficient and total solar energy transmittance is described and references to interantional standards are given.Finally, the handbook includes...

  4. Windows with improved energy performances

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...... resulted in a window with a positive net energy gain (in short the Net Gain Window), which means that it contributes to the space heating of the building. All improvements are based on existing technology and manufacturing methods. The results from this work show that the energy performances of windows can...

  5. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-01-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to transverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a open-quotes vacuum windowclose quotes which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions

  6. Windows on the axion

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the Θ vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10 6 eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. WINDOW-CLEANING

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  8. Flexible transparent electrode

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention is the provision of a material capable of withstanding a high-temperature, corrosive and erosive environment for use as a ceramic-metal composite electrode current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic generator. (U.K.)

  10. Electrochemical behavior of LiCoO2 as aqueous lithium-ion battery electrodes

    Ruffo, Riccardo; Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    .e., as the counter electrode. A commercial reference electrode is also present. Both the working and the counter electrodes have been prepared as thin layers on a metallic substrate using the procedures typical for the study of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

  11. Working with Windows 7 at CERN (EN)

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Overview of new concepts and user interface changes in Windows 7 as compared with older versions of Windows: XP or Vista. Availability of Windows 7 at CERN and its integration with CERN Windows infrastructure will be discussed.

  12. High Electrocatalytic Response of a Mechanically Enhanced NbC Nanocomposite Electrode Towards Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    Coy, Emerson; Yate, Luis; Valencia, Drochss P; Aperador, Willian; Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Torruella, Pau; Azanza, Eduardo; Estrade, Sonia; Iatsunskyi, Igor; Peiró , Francesca; Zhang, Xixiang; Tejada, Javier; Ziolo, Ronald F.

    2017-01-01

    Resistant and efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are desired to replace scarce and commercially expensive platinum electrodes. Thin film electrodes of metal-carbides are a promising alternative due to their reduced

  13. Nanopatterned Metallic Films for Use As Transparent Conductive Electrodes in Optoelectronic Devices

    Catrysse, Peter B.; Fan, Shanhui

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of nanopatterned metallic films as transparent conductive electrodes in optoelectronic devices. We find that the physics of nanopatterned electrodes, which are often optically thin metallic films, differs from

  14. First report on synthesis of ZnFe_2O_4 thin film using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction: Approach towards solid-state symmetric supercapacitor device

    Raut, Shrikant S.; Sankapal, Babasaheb R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First report on synthesis of ZnFe_2O_4 thin film using SILAR method. • ZnFe_2O_4 electrode yields the specific capacitance of 471 Fg"−"1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s"−"1 in 1 M NaOH aqueous solution. • Solid-state symmetric supercapacitor device based on ZnFe_2O_4 sandwiched in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)–LiClO_4 gel electrolyte exhibits voltage windows of 1.0 V. • ZnFe_2O_4-SSS supercapacitor device shows good energy and power density with long cycle life. - Abstract: ZnFe_2O_4 thin film has been synthesized by a simple and low cost successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method without the use of surfactant or template. The nanoplate composed of nanoparticles with porous surface morphology has been revealed which is beneficial towards supercapacitor application. Formed ZnFe_2O_4 thin film has been tested as an electrode material for supercapacitor through electrochemical analysis. First attempt for SILAR synthesized ZnFe_2O_4 thin film exhibited a specific capacitance of 471 Fg"−"1 at a scan rate of 5 mVs"−"1 in 1 M NaOH aqueous solution. Further, ZnFe_2O_4 solid-state symmetric (SSS) supercapacitor device demonstrated voltage window of 1.0 V with specific capacitance of 32 Fg"−"1, energy density of 4.47 Whkg"−"1 and power density of 277 Wkg"−"1 at 1 Ag"−"1 current density. Such high performance capacitive behavior indicates ZnFe_2O_4 thin film is promising and low cost electrode material towards energy storage devices for various portable electronic systems.

  15. Electrode Processes in Porous Electrodes.

    1985-11-26

    F104470 2.0 MASS SPECTROMETRY One part of activity for this year is an investigation of the behavior of silver electrodes through the distribution of...al. (2)). These, in some cases, involve tedious and time comsuming procedures and discrepencies of as much as 15% have been observed in the results. As

  16. Window observers for linear systems

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  17. Windows 7 the definitive guide

    Stanek, William R

    2010-01-01

    This book provides everything you need to manage and maintain Windows 7. You'll learn all of the features and enhancements in complete detail, along with specifics for configuring the operating system to put you in full control. Bestselling author and Windows expert William Stanek doesn't just show you the steps you need to follow, he also tells you how features work, why they work, and how you can customize them to meet your needs. Learn how to squeeze every bit of power out of Windows 7 to take full advantage of its features and programs. Set up, customize, and tune Windows 7-Optimize its

  18. Windows 7 The Missing Manual

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    In early reviews, geeks raved about Windows 7. But if you're an ordinary mortal, learning what this new system is all about will be challenging. Fear not: David Pogue's Windows 7: The Missing Manual comes to the rescue. Like its predecessors, this book illuminates its subject with reader-friendly insight, plenty of wit, and hardnosed objectivity for beginners as well as veteran PC users. Windows 7 fixes many of Vista's most painful shortcomings. It's speedier, has fewer intrusive and nagging screens, and is more compatible with peripherals. Plus, Windows 7 introduces a slew of new features,

  19. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials

    Carpenter, Tom

    2012-01-01

    A full-color guide to key Windows 7 administration concepts and topics Windows 7 is the leading desktop software, yet it can be a difficult concept to grasp, especially for those new to the field of IT. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials is an ideal resource for anyone new to computer administration and looking for a career in computers. Delving into areas such as fundamental Windows 7 administration concepts and various desktop OS topics, this full-color book addresses the skills necessary for individuals looking to break into a career in IT. Each chapter begins with a list of topi

  20. Beginning Windows 8.1

    Halsey, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever and the 8.1 update enhances the paradigm further. Beginning Windows 8.1 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the fullest possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes w

  1. Live histograms in moving windows

    Zhil'tsov, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    Application of computer graphics for specific hardware testing is discussed. The hardware is position sensitive detector (multiwire proportional chamber) which is used in high energy physics experiments, and real-out electronics for it. Testing program is described (XPERT), which utilises multi-window user interface. Data are represented as histograms in windows. The windows on the screen may be moved, reordered, their sizes may be changed. Histograms may be put to any window, and hardcopy may be made. Some program internals are discussed. The computer environment is quite simple: MS-DOS IBM PC/XT, 256 KB RAM, CGA, 5.25'' FD, Epson MX. 4 refs.; 7 figs

  2. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  3. Chemical synthesis of porous web-structured CdS thin films for photosensor applications

    Gosavi, S.R., E-mail: srgosavi.taloda@gmail.com [C. H. C. Arts, S. G. P. Commerce, and B. B. J. P. Science College, Taloda, Dist., Nandurbar 425413, M. S. (India); Nikam, C.P. [B.S.S.P.M.S. Arts, Commerce and Science College, Songir, Dist., Dhule 424309, M. S. (India); Shelke, A.R.; Patil, A.M. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, M.S. (India); Ryu, S.-W. [Department of Physics, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Bhat, J.S. [Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580003 (India); Deshpande, N.G., E-mail: nicedeshpande@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, M.S. (India)

    2015-06-15

    The photo-activity of chemically deposited cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin film has been studied. The simple chemical route nucleates the CdS films with size up to the mean free path of the electron. Growth Kinematics of crystalline hexagonal CdS phase in the thin film form was monitored using X-ray diffraction. The time limitation set for the formation of the amorphous/nano-crystalline material is 40 and 60 min. Thereafter enhancement of the crystalline orientation along the desired plane was identified. Web-like porous structured surface morphology of CdS thin film over the entire area is observed. With decrease in synthesis time, increase of band gap energy i.e., a blue spectral shift was seen. The activation energy of CdS thin film at low and high temperature region was examined. It is considered that this activation energy corresponds to the donor levels associated with shallow traps or surface states of CdS thin film. The photo-electrochemical performance of CdS thin films in polysulphide electrolyte showed diode-like characteristics. Exposure of light on the CdS electrode increases the photocurrent. This suggests the possibility of production of free carriers via excited ions and also the light harvesting mechanism due to porous web-structured morphology. These studies hint that the obtained CdS films can work as a photosensor. - Highlights: • Photoactivity of chemically synthesized cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films was studied. • Web-like porous structured surface morphology of CdS thin film over the entire area was observed. • Blue spectral shift with lowering of the synthesis time suggests films can act as a window layer over the absorber layer. • Porous web-structured CdS thin films can be useful in light harvesting.

  4. Chemical synthesis of porous web-structured CdS thin films for photosensor applications

    Gosavi, S.R.; Nikam, C.P.; Shelke, A.R.; Patil, A.M.; Ryu, S.-W.; Bhat, J.S.; Deshpande, N.G.

    2015-01-01

    The photo-activity of chemically deposited cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin film has been studied. The simple chemical route nucleates the CdS films with size up to the mean free path of the electron. Growth Kinematics of crystalline hexagonal CdS phase in the thin film form was monitored using X-ray diffraction. The time limitation set for the formation of the amorphous/nano-crystalline material is 40 and 60 min. Thereafter enhancement of the crystalline orientation along the desired plane was identified. Web-like porous structured surface morphology of CdS thin film over the entire area is observed. With decrease in synthesis time, increase of band gap energy i.e., a blue spectral shift was seen. The activation energy of CdS thin film at low and high temperature region was examined. It is considered that this activation energy corresponds to the donor levels associated with shallow traps or surface states of CdS thin film. The photo-electrochemical performance of CdS thin films in polysulphide electrolyte showed diode-like characteristics. Exposure of light on the CdS electrode increases the photocurrent. This suggests the possibility of production of free carriers via excited ions and also the light harvesting mechanism due to porous web-structured morphology. These studies hint that the obtained CdS films can work as a photosensor. - Highlights: • Photoactivity of chemically synthesized cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films was studied. • Web-like porous structured surface morphology of CdS thin film over the entire area was observed. • Blue spectral shift with lowering of the synthesis time suggests films can act as a window layer over the absorber layer. • Porous web-structured CdS thin films can be useful in light harvesting

  5. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    Carvey, Harlan

    2012-01-01

    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  6. Experimental and analytical investigation of an MHD channel window frame

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Krajcinovic, D.

    1977-01-01

    A common design of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator channel emphasizes a series of mutually connected window frames providing the support for electrodes and containing the jet of ionized gases. Structurally, a window frame is a rectangular frame with a cross section in the form of a quadrilateral weakened by one or more holes forming the cooling system. Window frames are joined together to make a beam with a box cross section by means of shear pins. A typical window frame is subjected to a rather severe environment characterized by large pressure and high temperatures. The main sources of stresses and strains would include static and dynamic gas pressures and thermal fields characterized by large gradients across the thickness of frame members. The authors consider only the stresses associated with thermal fields. The actual problem is still a very complex one involving analysis of the heat conduction through the electrode-frame system heated by the gas and cooled by the coolant fluid and determination of stresses (elastic and plastic) in a frame with an irregular cross section. In order to obtain a reasonable qualitative and quantitative insight into the phenomenon, three distinctly different approaches have been used: a large elasto-plastic finite element program was used to determine the stresses in the actual frame, an experiment was performed to establish the stress concentrations around holes needed for the passage of coolant, and a two-bar model was used in order to assess the time dependent behavior of the structure for various loading conditions. (Auth.)

  7. Learning Windows Azure Mobile Services for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8

    Webber-Cross, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This book is based around a case study game which was written for the book. This means that the chapters progress in a logical way and build upon lessons learned as we go. Real-world examples are provided for each topic that are practical and not given out-of-context so they can be applied directly to other applications.If you are a developer who wishes to build Windows 8 and Phone 8 applications and integrate them with Windows Azure Mobile Services, this book is for you. Basic C# and JavaScript skills are advantageous, as well as some knowledge of building Windows 8 or Windows Phone 8 applica

  8. Rootkit pro MS Windows

    Trutman, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá metodami útoků na operační systém MS Windows a přibližuje techniky skrývání výpočetních prostředků používané existujícími rootkity. Práce je rozdělena na teoretickou a praktickou část. První část pojednává o klasifikaci rootkitů, představuje strukturu jádra systému a následně popisuje jednotlivé techniky napadení operačního systému. V praktické části je prezentována implementace a testování vlastního rootkitu. This bachelor's thesis deals with methods of att...

  9. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  10. Window prototypes during the project

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described.......The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described....

  11. Materials And Devices In Electrochromic Window Development

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Anderson, Elizabeth J.; Plante, Timothy D.; Rauh, R. David

    1985-12-01

    Windows with switchable electrochromic glazings are potentially useful for regulating solar input to building interiors. In this article, we describe the structure and operation of a proposed solid-state electrochromic glazing based on crystalline LixWO3 (c-LiXWO3) and a low coloration efficiency counter electrode material such as amorphous Nb2O5 (a-Nb2O5). The importance of reversibility in electrochromic glazing operation is emphasized, and optical switching experiments that demonstrate reversible lithium insertion/extraction in c-LixW03, a-LixWO3, and a-LixNb2O5 are described. Additional optical switching experiments in tandem electrochromic cells comprised of c-LixWO3/a-Nb2O5 and a-LixWO3/a-Nb2O5 demonstrated the proposed design, indicating reversible optical switching over 500 and 200 complete cycles, respectively, without degradation. Optical data on the evolution of reflective and absorp-tive modulation in c-LixWO3 are presented and solar attenuation results are used to demon-strate the advantage of using crystalline electrochromics to conserve daylighting during electrochromic window operation.

  12. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes on Solution-Processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes

    Wu, Junbo; Agrawal, Mukul; Becerril, Héctor A.; Bao, Zhenan; Liu, Zunfeng; Chen, Yongsheng; Peumans, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical estimates indicate that graphene thin films can be used as transparent electrodes for thin-film devices such as solar cells and organic light-emitting diodes, with an unmatched combination of sheet resistance and transparency. We

  13. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    considerably by reducing the frame width, which results in a larger transparent area causing a larger solar gain but still main-taining a low thermal transmittance. Using three layers of glass with large gaps, using very slim frame profiles, and omitting the edge constructions that normally causes thermal...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  14. Polymeric electrodes

    Appel, G.; Mikalo, R.; Henkel, K.; Oprea, A.; Yfantis, A.; Paloumpa, I.; Schmeißer, D.

    2000-05-01

    We report experiments on conducting polymer polypyrrole leading to sensor applications. The resonance frequency, stability and sensitivity of AT-cut quartz crystals, electrochemically covered with polypyrrole tosylate, were tested under various operating conditions. The interaction of this organic semiconductor with thin metallic films was analysed by photoelectron investigations. Shifts of the valence band spectra during silver deposition are explained by the neutralization of positive charged surface defects. Thus the existence of a space charge region in polypyrrole is demonstrated spectroscopically.

  15. Tokamak physics experiment: Diagnostic windows study

    Merrigan, M.; Wurden, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    We detail the study of diagnostic windows and window thermal stress remediation in the long-pulse, high-power Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) operation. The operating environment of the TPX diagnostic windows is reviewed, thermal loads on the windows estimated, and cooling requirements for the windows considered. Applicable window-cooling technology from other fields is reviewed and its application to the TPX windows considered. Methods for TPX window thermal conditioning are recommended, with some discussion of potential implementation problems provided. Recommendations for further research and development work to ensure performance of windows in the TPX system are presented

  16. Transparent solar cell window module

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  17. Big Book of Windows Hacks

    Gralla, Preston

    2008-01-01

    Bigger, better, and broader in scope, the Big Book of Windows Hacks gives you everything you need to get the most out of your Windows Vista or XP system, including its related applications and the hardware it runs on or connects to. Whether you want to tweak Vista's Aero interface, build customized sidebar gadgets and run them from a USB key, or hack the "unhackable" screensavers, you'll find quick and ingenious ways to bend these recalcitrant operating systems to your will. The Big Book of Windows Hacks focuses on Vista, the new bad boy on Microsoft's block, with hacks and workarounds that

  18. Production management of window handles

    Manuela Ingaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the chapter a company involved in the production of aluminum window and door handles was presented. The main customers of the company are primarily companies which produce PCV joinery and wholesalers supplying these companies. One chosen product from the research company - a single-arm pin-lift window handle - was described and its production process depicted technologically. The chapter also includes SWOT analysis conducted in the research company and the value stream of the single-arm pin-lift window handle.

  19. Windows 8 visual quick tips

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Easy-in, easy-out format covers all the bells and whistles of Windows 8 If you want to learn how to work smarter and faster in Microsoft's Windows 8 operating system, this easy-to-use, compact guide delivers the goods. Designed for visual learners, it features short explanations and full-color screen shots on almost every page, and it's packed with timesaving tips and helpful productivity tricks. From enhancing performance and managing digital content to setting up security and much more, this handy guide will help you get more out of Windows 8. Uses full-color screen shots and short, step-by-

  20. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  1. Holography through optically active windows

    Decker, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    By using two orthogonally polarized reference beams, holograms can be recorded through stressed windows and the reconstructed virtual image will show no stress pattern. As shown analytically, the stress-pattern-free hologram is recordable for any polarization state of the object illumination. Hence, the more efficient nondepolarizing diffuser can be used in performing holography through stressed windows if two reference beams are used. Results are presented for a pair of machined polysulfone windows intended for use in a holographic flow-visualization setup in a single-stage-compressor test rig.

  2. Grab Windows training opportunities; check CERN Windows roadmap!

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    CERN Operating Systems and Information Services group (IT-OIS) actively monitors market trends to check how new software products correspond to CERN needs. In the Windows world, Windows 7 has been a big hit, with over 1500 Windows 7 PCs within less than a year since its support was introduced at CERN. No wonder: Windows XP is nearly 10 years old and is steadily approaching the end of its life-cycle. At CERN, support for Windows XP will stop at the end of December 2012. Compared to Vista, Windows 7 has the same basic hardware requirements, but offers higher performance, so the decision to upgrade is rather straightforward. CERN support for Vista will end in June 2011. In the world of Microsoft Office, version 2007 offers better integration with the central services than the older version 2003. Progressive upgrade from 2003 to 2007 is planned to finish in September 2011, but users are encouraged to pro-actively upgrade at their convenience. Please note that Office 2007 brings an important change in the area of ...

  3. 344 cm x 86 cm low mass vacuum window

    Reimers, R.M.; Porter, J.; Meneghetti, J.; Wilde, S.; Miller, R.

    1983-08-01

    The LBL Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) superconducting magnet contains a 1 m x 3.45 m x 2 m vacuum tank in its gap. A full aperture thin window was needed to minimize background as the products of nuclear collisions move from upstream targets to downstream detectors. Six windows were built and tested in the development process. The final window's unsupported area is 3m 2 with a 25 cm inward deflection. The design consists of a .11 mm Nylon/aluminum/polypropylene laminate as a gas seal and .55 mm woven aramid fiber for strength. Total mass is 80 milligrams per cm 2 . Development depended heavily on past experience and testing. Safety considerations are discussed

  4. Systems and methods for producing low work function electrodes

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Kahn, Antoine; Meyer, Jens; Shim, Jae Won; Marder, Seth R.

    2015-07-07

    According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, systems and methods are provided for producing low work function electrodes. According to an exemplary embodiment, a method is provided for reducing a work function of an electrode. The method includes applying, to at least a portion of the electrode, a solution comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer; and based at least in part on applying the solution, forming an ultra-thin layer on a surface of the electrode, wherein the ultra-thin layer reduces the work function associated with the electrode by greater than 0.5 eV. According to another exemplary embodiment of the invention, a device is provided. The device includes a semiconductor; at least one electrode disposed adjacent to the semiconductor and configured to transport electrons in or out of the semiconductor.

  5. APCVD Transition Metal Oxides – Functional Layers in ''Smart windows''

    Gesheva, K A; Ivanova, T M; Bodurov, G K

    2014-01-01

    Transition metal oxides (TMO) exhibit electrochromic effect. Under a small voltage they change their optical transmittance from transparent to collored (absorbing) state. The individual material can manifest its electrochromic properties only when it is part of electrochromic (EC) multilayer system. Smart window is controlling the energy of solar flux entering the building or car and makes the interiors comfortable and energy utilization more effective. Recently the efforts of material researchers in this field are directed to price decreasing. APCVD technology is considered as promissing as this process permits flowthrough large-scale production process. The paper presents results on device optimization based on WO 3 -MoO 3 working electrode. Extensive research reveals that WO 3 -MoO 3 structure combines positive features of single oxides: excellent electrochromic performance of WO 3 and better kinetic properties of MoO 3 deposition. The achieved color efficiency of APCVD WO 3 -MoO 3 films is 200cm 2 /C and optical modulation of 65-70% are practically favorable electrochromic characteristics. To respond to low cost requirement, the expensive hexacarbonyl can be replaced with acetylacetonate. We have started with this precursor to fabricate mixed W x V 1-x O 3 films. The films possess excellent surface coverage and high growth-rate. CVD deposition of VO 2 , a promissing thermochromic thin film material is also presented

  6. Peliohjelmointi Windows Phone 8:lle

    Bäckström, Toni

    2014-01-01

    Tässä insinöörityössä tutustutaan Windows Phone 8 -mobiilikäyttöjärjestelmään peliohjelmoijan näkökulmasta. Työn tavoitteena oli erityisesti esitellä Microsoftin itse kehittämiä XNA- ja DirectX-peliohjelmointikirjastoja teoriassa ja käytännössä. Työn aluksi käydään läpi hieman Windows Phonen historiaa ja yleisesti kehittämistä Windows Phone 8:lle. Tämän jälkeen luodaan katsaus Windows Phone 8:aan pelialustana. Työn suurin osuus on XNA:n ja DirectX:n esittely teoriassa; kummastakin men...

  7. Insulating electrodes: a review on biopotential front ends for dielectric skin–electrode interfaces

    Spinelli, Enrique; Haberman, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Insulating electrodes, also known as capacitive electrodes, allow acquiring biopotentials without galvanic contact with the body. They operate with displacement currents instead of real charge currents, and the electrolytic electrode–skin interface is replaced by a dielectric film. The use of insulating electrodes is not the end of electrode interface problems but the beginning of new ones: coupling capacitances are of the order of pF calling for ultra-high input impedance amplifiers and careful biasing, guarding and shielding techniques. In this work, the general requirements of front ends for capacitive electrodes are presented and the different contributions to the overall noise are discussed and estimated. This analysis yields that noise bounds depend on features of the available devices as current and voltage noise, but the final noise level also depends on parasitic capacitances, requiring a careful shield and printed circuit design. When the dielectric layer is placed on the skin, the present-day amplifiers allow achieving noise levels similar to those provided by wet electrodes. Furthermore, capacitive electrode technology allows acquiring high quality ECG signals through thin clothes. A prototype front end for capacitive electrodes was built and tested. ECG signals were acquired with these electrodes in direct contact with the skin and also through cotton clothes 350 µm thick. They were compared with simultaneously acquired signals by means of wet electrodes and no significant differences were observed between both output signals

  8. A window on urban sustainability

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced

  9. A window on urban sustainability

    Stigt, Rien van, E-mail: rien.vanstigt@hu.nl [Research Center for Technology and Innovation, Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 182, 3500 AD Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Spit, Tejo J.M., E-mail: T.J.M.Spit@uu.nl [Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  10. Mastering Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2

    Minasi, Mark; Finn, Aidan

    2010-01-01

    The one book you absolutely need to get up and running with Windows Server 2008 R2. One of the world's leading Windows authorities and top-selling author Mark Minasi explores every nook and cranny of the latest version of Microsoft's flagship network operating system, Windows Server 2008 R2, giving you the most in-depth coverage in any book on the market.: Focuses on Windows Windows Server 2008 R2, the newest version of Microsoft's Windows' server line of operating system, and the ideal server for new Windows 7 clients; Author Mark Minasi is one of the world's leading Windows authorities and h

  11. Chronic cranial window with access port for repeated cellular manipulations, drug application, and electrophysiology

    Christopher Joel Roome

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cranial windows have been instrumental in advancing optical studies in vivo, permitting long-term, high-resolution imaging in various brain regions. However, once a window is attached it is difficult to regain access to the brain under the window for cellular manipulations. Here we describe a simple device that combines long term in vivo optical imaging with direct brain access via glass or quartz pipettes and metal, glass, or quartz electrodes for cellular manipulations like dye or drug injections and electrophysiological stimulations or recordings while keeping the craniotomy sterile. Our device comprises a regular cranial window glass coverslip with a drilled access hole later sealed with biocompatible silicone. This chronic cranial window with access port is cheap, easy to manufacture, can be mounted just as the regular chronic cranial window, and is self-sealing after retraction of the pipette or electrode. We demonstrate that multiple injections can be performed through the silicone port by repetitively bolus loading calcium sensitive dye into mouse barrel cortex and recording spontaneous cellular activity over a period of weeks. As an example to the extent of its utility for electrophysiological recording, we describe how simple removal of the silicone seal can permit patch pipette access for whole-cell patch clamp recordings in vivo. During these chronic experiments we do not observe any infections under the window or impairment of animal health.

  12. Graphene Electrodes

    Pizzocchero, Filippo

    The production of graphene and the other 2D materials is presented in the beginning of this thesis. Micromechanical exfoliation is the best method for obtaining relatively small and top quality samples. The invention of Graphene Finder simplifies the procedure of finding the exfoliated flakes...... in copper thin films is studied and found to be detrimental for the growth of graphene. The modified synthesis of rGO is introduced, as rGO represents a cheap alternative to CVD for large scale production of graphene. The transfer of flakes is performed by several methods, such as with PVA/PMMA support, CAB...... wedging and the pick-up technique with hBN. Several important improvements of the pick-up technique are introduced. These allowed us to transfer any 2D crystals and patterned graphene flakes with PMMA residues. We also developed the drop-down technique, which is used to release any crystal on the surface...

  13. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  14. Filter and window behavior for the Advanced Photon Source beamline front end

    Wang, Zhibi; Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, Deming; Dejus, R.

    1993-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray windows are vacuum separators and are usually made of thin beryllium metal. Filters are provided upstream to absorb the soft x-rays so that the window is protected from overheating, which could result in failure. The filters are made of thin carbon products or sometimes beryllium, the same material as the window. Because the window is a vacuum separator, understanding its potential structural failure under thermal load is of utmost importance. The planned insertion devices and bending magnets for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) generate very high heat fluxes. To guarantee the integrity of the filter and window, extensive investigations have been carried out on both components. The material selection for filters and windows from among the possible candidate materials was investigated first. Then a series of thermal and structural analyses were performed on the filter and window. Results are presented from power absorption, analytical results from thermal, and structural analyses as well as application of the failure criteria suggested by Wang and Kuzay to the filters and windows

  15. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-07

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  16. Formulation of Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte To Expand the Voltage Window of Supercapacitors

    Van Aken, Katherine L.; Beidaghi, Majid; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-03-18

    An effective method to expand the operating potential window (OPW) of electrochemical capacitors based on formulating the ionic-liquid (IL) electrolytes is reported. Using model electrochemical cells based on two identical onion-like carbon (OLC) electrodes and two different IL electrolytes and their mixtures, it was shown that the asymmetric behavior of the electrolyte cation and anion toward the two electrodes limits the OPW of the cell and therefore its energy density. Also, a general solution to this problem is proposed by formulating the IL electrolyte mixtures to balance the capacitance of electrodes in a symmetric supercapacitor.

  17. Low Temperature Synthesis of Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Transparent Conducting Thin Film by Spray Pyrolysis Deposition.

    Ko, Eun-Byul; Choi, Jae-Seok; Jung, Hyunsung; Choi, Sung-Churl; Kim, Chang-Yeoul

    2016-02-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) is widely used for the application of flat panel display like liquid crystal displays and plasma display panel. It is also applied in the field of touch panel, solar cell electrode, low-emissivity glass, defrost window, and anti-static material. Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films were fabricated by spray pyrolysis of ethanol-added FTO precursor solutions. FTO thin film by spray pyrolysis is very much investigated and normally formed at high temperature, about 500 degrees C. However, these days, flexible electronics draw many attentions in the field of IT industry and the research for flexible transparent conducting thin film is also required. In the industrial field, indium-tin oxide (ITO) film on polymer substrate is widely used for touch panel and displays. In this study, we investigated the possibility of FTO thin film formation at relatively low temperature of 250 degrees C. We found out that the control of volume of input precursor and exhaust gases could make it possible to form FTO thin film with a relatively low electrical resistance, less than 100 Ohm/sq and high optical transmittance about 88%.

  18. Amperometric glucose sensor based on the Ni(OH){sub 2}/Al(OH){sub 4}{sup −} electrode obtained from a thin Ni{sub 3}Al foil

    Jarosz, Magdalena, E-mail: jarosz@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30060 Krakow (Poland); Socha, Robert P. [Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 8, 30239 Krakow (Poland); Jóźwik, Paweł [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00908 Warsaw (Poland); Sulka, Grzegorz D. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30060 Krakow (Poland)

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Chemical etching of Ni{sub 3}Al alloy in an acidic mixture was performed. • Electrochemical activity of samples was achieved by their oxidation in NaOH. • Ni(OH){sub 2}/Al(OH){sub 4}{sup −} electrode showed electrochemical activity towards glucose. • Synthesized material is characterized by high sensitivity and short response time. - Abstract: In this report, we present a facile and relatively fast method to roughen the surface of Ni{sub 3}Al–based intermetallic foil, and test it as an amperometric non-enzymatic glucose sensor. The alloy samples underwent chemical etching in a H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}:CH{sub 3}COOH (HAc):HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O (24:1:1:7 in volume) solution in order to achieve a high surface area with more electroactive sites. The Ni(OH){sub 2}/Al(OH){sub 4}{sup −} electrode was fabricated using potential cycling technique in a highly concentrated alkaline solution. The electrodes were tested electrochemically for oxidation of glucose. We have demonstrated that Ni(OH){sub 2}/Al(OH){sub 4}{sup −} electrodes exhibit high sensitivity towards glucose detection (796 μAmM{sup -1}cm{sup -2}) and short response time (3 s) upon successive addition of glucose. Moreover, as for a non-nanometric material, prepared electrodes show a relatively good linear correlation between current density and glucose concentration (0.025–0.45 mM) and limit of detection (47.6 μM). For more in-depth characterization of presented material, electrodes were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  19. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN (FR)

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). La mise à disposition de Windows 7 au CERN et son intégration dans l’infrastructure de Windows au CERN seront présentées.

  20. Music@Microsoft.Windows: Composing Ambience

    Rickert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    It is well known, of course, that all Windows versions except for 3.1 have a brief (four to six second) piece of music indicating that Windows is booted and ready for use. While the music may indicate Windows has booted, it bears no immediately discernable relation to the various uses we might actually put Windows to--working, gaming,…