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Sample records for thimerosal affects early

  1. Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend ... and/or fungi from contaminating the vaccine. Do flu vaccines contain thimerosal? Flu vaccines in multi-dose ...

  2. Sensitization to thimerosal (Merthiolate) is still present today

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Van 't Veen (A.); Th. van Joost (Theo)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe results on thimerosal (Merthiolate) hypersensitivity of a retrospective study, together with the relevant data on thimerosal hypersensitivity referred to in the literature up to 1993, are presented. Positive patch test reactions to thimerosal (0.1% pet.) were observed in 32 (1.3%) of

  3. Immunization Safety Review: Thimerosal - Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stratton, Kathleen; Gable, Alicia; McCormick, Marie C

    2001-01-01

    In this report, the Immunization Safety Review committee examines the hypothesis of whether or not the use of vaccines containing the preservative thimerosal can cause neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs...

  4. Effect of thimerosal on thyroid hormones metabolism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago U Pantaleão

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mercury seems to exert an inhibitory effect on deiodinases, but there are few studies using Thimerosal (TM as the mercury source. We aimed to elucidate the effect of TM on thyroid hormones peripheral metabolism. Adult Wistar female rats received 0.25 μg or 250 μg TM/100 g BW, IM, twice a week, for a month. We evaluated serum total T3 and T4, D1 activity using 125I-rT3 as tracer, and D2 activity using 125I-T4. NADPH oxidase activity was measured by Amplex-red/HRP method and mRNA levels by real time PCR. Serum T4 was increased and T3 decreased by the greatest dose of TM. Even though D1 activity in pituitary and kidney was reduced by the highest dose of TM, hepatic D1 activity and D1 mRNA levels remained unchanged. D2 activity was also significantly decreased by the highest dose of TM in all CNS samples tested, except cerebellum, but D2 mRNA was unaltered. mRNA levels of the tested NADPH oxidases were not affected by TM and NADPH oxidase activity was either unaltered or decreased. Our results indicate that TM might directly interact with deiodinases, inhibiting their activity probably by binding to their selenium catalytic site, without changes in enzyme expression.

  5. Abnormal Brain Connectivity Spectrum Disorders Following Thimerosal Administration

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    David A. Geier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD, tic disorder (TD, and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood (attention deficit disorder [ADD]/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] are disorders recently defined as abnormal connectivity spectrum disorders (ACSDs because they show a similar pattern of abnormal brain connectivity. This study examines whether these disorders are associated with exposure to thimerosal, a mercury (Hg-based preservative. Methods: A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated the Vaccine Safety Datalink for the potential dose-dependent odds ratios (ORs for diagnoses of ASD, TD, and ADD/ADHD compared to controls, following exposure to Hg from thimerosal-containing Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines administrated within the first 15 months of life. Febrile seizures, cerebral degeneration, and unspecified disorders of metabolism, which are not biologically plausibly linked to thimerosal, were examined as control outcomes. Results: On a per 25 μg Hg basis, cases diagnosed with ASD (OR = 1.493, TD (OR = 1.428, or ADD/ADHD (OR = 1.503 were significantly (P < .001 more likely than controls to have received increased Hg exposure. Similar relationships were observed when separated by gender. Cases diagnosed with control outcomes were no more likely than controls to have received increased Hg exposure. Conclusion: The results suggest that Hg exposure from thimerosal is significantly associated with the ACSDs of ASD, TD, and ADD/ADHD.

  6. Immunosuppressive and autoimmune effects of thimerosal in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havarinasab, S.; Haeggqvist, B.; Bjoern, E.; Pollard, K.M.; Hultman, P.

    2005-01-01

    The possible health effects of the organic mercury compound thimerosal (ethylmercurithiosalicylate), which is rapidly metabolized to ethylmercury (EtHg), have recently been much debated and the effect of this compound on the immune system is largely unknown. We therefore studied the effect of thimerosal by treating A.SW (H-2 s ) mice, susceptible to induction of autoimmunity by heavy metals, with 10 mg thimerosal/L drinking water (internal dose ca 590 μg Hg/kg body weight/day) for up to 30 days. The lymph node expression of IL-2 and IL-15 mRNA was increased after 2 days, and of IL-4 and IFN-γ mRNA after 6 and 14 days. During the first 14 days treatment, the number of splenocytes, including T and B cells as well as Ig-secreting cells decreased. A strong immunostimulation superseded after 30 days treatment with increase in splenic weight, number of splenocytes including T and B cells and Ig-secreting cells, and Th2- as well as Th-1-dependent serum immunoglobulins. Antinucleolar antibodies (ANoA) targeting the 34-kDa nucleolar protein fibrillarin, and systemic immune-complex deposits developed. The H-2 s strains SJL and B10.S also responded to thimerosal treatment with ANoA. The A.TL and B10.TL strain, sharing background genes with the A.SW and B10.S strain, respectively, but with a different H-2 haplotype (t1), did not develop ANoA, linking the susceptibility to H-2. Thimerosal-treated H-2 s mice homozygous for the nu mutation (SJL-nu/nu), or lacking the T-cell co-stimulatory molecule CD28 (B10.S-CD28 -/- ), did not develop ANoA, which showed that the autoimmune response is T-cell dependent. Using H-2 s strains with targeted mutations, we found that IFN-γ and IL-6, but not IL-4, is important for induction of ANoA by thimerosal. The maximum added renal concentration of thimerosal (EtHg) and inorganic mercury occurred after 14 days treatment and was 81 μg Hg/g. EtHg made up 59% and inorganic mercury 41% of the renal mercury. In conclusion, the organic mercury

  7. Dose-response study of thimerosal-induced murine systemic autoimmunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havarinasab, S.; Lambertsson, L.; Qvarnstroem, J.; Hultman, P.

    2004-01-01

    The organic compound ethylmercurithiosalicylate (thimerosal), which is primarily present in the tissues as ethylmercury, has caused illness and several deaths due to erroneous handling when used as a disinfectant or as a preservative in medical preparations. Lately, possible health effects of thimerosal in childhood vaccines have been much discussed. Thimerosal is a well-known sensitizing agent, although usually of no clinical relevance. In rare cases, thimerosal has caused systemic immune reactions including acrodynia. We have studied if thimerosal might induce the systemic autoimmune condition observed in genetically susceptible mice after exposure to inorganic mercury. A.SW mice were exposed to 1.25-40 mg thimerosal/l drinking water for 70 days. Antinucleolar antibodies, targeting the 34-kDa protein fibrillarin, developed in a dose-related pattern and first appeared after 10 days in the two highest dose groups. The lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for antifibrillarin antibodies was 2.5 mg thimerosal/l, corresponding to an absorbed dose of 147 μg Hg/kg bw and a concentration of 21 and 1.9 μg Hg/g in the kidney and lymph nodes, respectively. The same LOAEL was found for tissue immune-complex deposits. The total serum concentration of IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a showed a significant dose-related increase in thimerosal-treated mice, with a LOAEL of 5 mg thimerosal/l for IgG1 and IgE, and 20 mg thimerosal/l for IgG2a. The polyclonal B-cell activation showed a significant dose-response relationship with a LOAEL of 10 mg thimerosal/l. Therefore, thimerosal induces in genetically susceptible mice a systemic autoimmune syndrome very similar to that seen after treatment with inorganic mercury, although a higher absorbed dose of Hg is needed using thimerosal. The autoimmune syndrome induced by thimerosal is different from the weaker and more restricted autoimmune reaction observed after treatment with an equipotent dose of methylmercury

  8. Neonate exposure to thimerosal mercury from hepatitis B vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; Marques, Rejane C; Brandão, Katiane G

    2009-08-01

    Infant exposure to ethylmercury (EtHg) has not only increased but is starting earlier as a result of the current immunization schedule that uses thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs). Although vaccination schedule varies considerably between countries, infants in less-developed countries continue to be exposed to EtHg derived from more affordable TCVs. We studied the exposure of newborns to EtHg from hepatitis B vaccines; hospital records (21,685) were summarized for the years 2001 to 2005 regarding date of birth, vaccination date, and birth weight. Most of the vaccinations occurred in the first 24 hours postdelivery; over the 5 years, there was an increase in vaccinations within hours of birth (same day), from 7.4% (2001) to 87.8% (2005). Nearly 94.6% of infants are now being vaccinated within the first 24 hours. Range of mercury exposure spread from 4.2 to 21.1 microg mercury/kg body weight for those receiving TCVs with the highest thimerosal concentration; these exposure levels are conservative for 2% of children receiving vaccines within 2 to 3 postnatal days, when they are still going through physiological postnatal weight loss. Because of the particular timing (transitioning from in utero to ex utero metabolism) and specific aspects of exposure (i.e., parenteral mode, bypassing gastroenteric barriers) and dose (related to vaccine manufacturer and with variation in birth weight), this study reveals critical issues that can modulate toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of organomercurials in neonates.

  9. [Lack of association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Majewska, Renata; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka; Augustyniak, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    In Poland, administered childhood vaccines still contain thimerosal as a preservative. Despite the access to mercury free formulas, the most of children are still vaccinated by thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV) owing to economical reasons. That circumstances caused the rising discussion on potential harmful influence of TCVs on children health. The objective of this analysis was to determine an association of TCVs exposure with the risk of autism. Study population included 96 cases diagnosed with childhood or atypical autism and 192 controls matched individually by year of birth, gender, and physician's practice. Data on autism diagnose and vaccination history were from GPs. Data on the other possible autism risk factors were collected from mothers. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the risk of autism due to TCVs exposure. No significant association was found between TCVs exposure and autism. After adjusting to potential confounders, odds ratios of the risk of autism developing for infants vaccinated with TCVs were 1.52 (95% CI: 0.29-11.11) for doses 12.5-87.5 microg, 2.78 (95% CI: 0.29-11.11) for 100-137.5 microg and 1.97 (95% CI: 0.37-18.95) for these exposed > or = 150 microg. Our study revealed no evidence of an association between TCVs and autism.

  10. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  11. Addressing the controversy regarding the association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism

    OpenAIRE

    García-Fernández, Lisset; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública (UNAGESP), Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médica infectóloga.; Hernández, Adrián V.; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública (UNAGESP), Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland. Ohio, EE. UU. médico epidemiólogo clínico, PhD in Health Science.; Suárez Moreno, Víctor; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública (UNAGESP), Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico infectólogo, MPH in Public Health.; Fiestas, Fabián; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública (UNAGESP), Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico epidemiólogo.

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most important public health interventions in the reduction childhood morbidity and mortality. Thimerosal is an organic mercury compound used as preservante in multi-dose vials. Often in Peru, there are waves of controversy about the safety of this type of vaccines, mainly arguing that there is an association between them and autism. As a result of these controversies, there have been some voices asking for laws banning thimerosal-containing vaccines, which would...

  12. Alternatively Spliced Methionine Synthase in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells: Cobalamin and GSH Dependence and Inhibitory Effects of Neurotoxic Metals and Thimerosal

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    Mostafa Waly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The folate and cobalamin (Cbl- dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS is highly sensitive to oxidation and its activity affects all methylation reactions. Recent studies have revealed alternative splicing of MS mRNA in human brain and patient-derived fibroblasts. Here we show that MS mRNA in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells is alternatively spliced, resulting in three primary protein species, thus providing a useful model to examine cofactor dependence of these variant enzymes. MS activity was dependent upon methylcobalamin (MeCbl or the combination of hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM. OHCbl-based activity was eliminated by depletion of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH but could be rescued by provision of either glutathionylcobalamin (GSCbl or MeCbl. Pretreatment of cells with lead, arsenic, aluminum, mercury, or the ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal lowered GSH levels and inhibited MS activity in association with decreased uptake of cysteine, which is rate-limiting for GSH synthesis. Thimerosal treatment decreased cellular levels of GSCbl and MeCbl. These findings indicate that the alternatively spliced form of MS expressed in SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells is sensitive to inhibition by thimerosal and neurotoxic metals, and lower GSH levels contribute to their inhibitory action.

  13. Methodological Issues and Evidence of Malfeasance in Research Purporting to Show Thimerosal in Vaccines Is Safe

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    Brian Hooker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are over 165 studies that have focused on Thimerosal, an organic-mercury (Hg based compound, used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, and found it to be harmful. Of these, 16 were conducted to specifically examine the effects of Thimerosal on human infants or children with reported outcomes of death; acrodynia; poisoning; allergic reaction; malformations; auto-immune reaction; Well’s syndrome; developmental delay; and neurodevelopmental disorders, including tics, speech delay, language delay, attention deficit disorder, and autism. In contrast, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that Thimerosal is safe and there is “no relationship between [T]himerosal[-]containing vaccines and autism rates in children.” This is puzzling because, in a study conducted directly by CDC epidemiologists, a 7.6-fold increased risk of autism from exposure to Thimerosal during infancy was found. The CDC’s current stance that Thimerosal is safe and that there is no relationship between Thimerosal and autism is based on six specific published epidemiological studies coauthored and sponsored by the CDC. The purpose of this review is to examine these six publications and analyze possible reasons why their published outcomes are so different from the results of investigations by multiple independent research groups over the past 75+ years.

  14. Early syphilis affects markers of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsafti, Ourania; Paparizos, Vassilios; Kourkounti, Sofia; Chatziioannou, Argiro; Nicolaidou, Electra; Kapsimali, Violetta; Antoniou, Christina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if early syphilis infection affects markers of HIV infection; CD4 T cells and viral load (VL). A retrospective study was performed on 160 HIV-positive patients (111 receiving antiretroviral therapy [ART] and 49 without ART). Early syphilis diagnosis was made in HIV patients during their follow-up at the HIV/AIDS Unit at a Greek Dermatology and Venereology Unit. The patients' blood tests were available at the time of diagnosis, as well as before and 12 weeks after early syphilis diagnosis. CD4 T cell counts and VL levels were measured. It was found that syphilis infection had a negative impact on the CD4 T cell counts in both groups, with reduced CD4 T cell counts observed in 84.6% (99/111) and 79.5% (39/49) of patients receiving and not receiving ART, respectively. After treatment for syphilis, CD4 T cell counts returned to pre-treatment levels in most patients, especially those receiving ART. There was a slight and transient VL increase. Patients receiving ART had a 27% increase in VL, compared to 71.4% among patients not receiving ART. Although the VL increase was slight (41-14,000 copies/ml) in the group under treatment, 4-5% (5/111) patients did not return to pre-treatment levels. Moreover, viral mutations associated with treatment resistance were identified in these patients. Early syphilis accelerates and complicates the progression of HIV infection. Early diagnosis and treatment of syphilis may prevent infection-associated complications in most instances. Consequently, prevention of syphilis and other sexually transmitted infections is of great importance for patients infected with HIV. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Thimerosal Exposure and the Role of Sulfation Chemistry and Thiol Availability in Autism

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    Mark R. Geier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurological disorder in which a significant number of the children experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously acquired skills and abilities. Typically reported are losses of verbal, nonverbal, and social abilities. Several recent studies suggest that children diagnosed with an ASD have abnormal sulfation chemistry, limited thiol availability, and decreased glutathione (GSH reserve capacity, resulting in a compromised oxidation/reduction (redox and detoxification capacity. Research indicates that the availability of thiols, particularly GSH, can influence the effects of thimerosal (TM and other mercury (Hg compounds. TM is an organomercurial compound (49.55% Hg by weight that has been, and continues to be, used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, particularly in developing countries. Thiol-modulating mechanisms affecting the cytotoxicity of TM have been identified. Importantly, the emergence of ASD symptoms post-6 months of age temporally follows the administration of many childhood vaccines. The purpose of the present critical review is provide mechanistic insight regarding how limited thiol availability, abnormal sulfation chemistry, and decreased GSH reserve capacity in children with an ASD could make them more susceptible to the toxic effects of TM routinely administered as part of mandated childhood immunization schedules.

  16. Thimerosal-induced apoptosis in mouse C2C12 myoblast cells occurs through suppression of the PI3K/Akt/survivin pathway.

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    Wen-Xue Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative, is one of the most widely used preservatives and found in a variety of biological products. Concerns over its possible toxicity have reemerged recently due to its use in vaccines. Thimerosal has also been reported to be markedly cytotoxic to neural tissue. However, little is known regarding thimerosal-induced toxicity in muscle tissue. Therefore, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of thimerosal and its possible mechanisms on mouse C2C12 myoblast cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study showed that C2C12 myoblast cells underwent inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis after exposure to thimerosal (125-500 nM for 24, 48 and 72 h. Thimerosal caused S phase arrest and induced apoptosis as assessed by flow cytometric analysis, Hoechst staining and immunoblotting. The data revealed that thimerosal could trigger the leakage of cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and that an inhibitor of caspase could suppress thimerosal-induced apoptosis. Thimerosal inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt(ser473 and survivin expression. Wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, inhibited Akt activity and decreased survivin expression, resulting in increased thimerosal-induced apoptosis in C2C12 cells, while the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway by mIGF-I (50 ng/ml increased the expression of survivin and attenuated apoptosis. Furthermore, the inhibition of survivin expression by siRNA enhanced thimerosal-induced cell apoptosis, while overexpression of survivin prevented thimerosal-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the data show that the PI3K/Akt/survivin pathway plays an important role in the thimerosal-induced apoptosis in C2C12 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that in C2C12 myoblast cells, thimerosal induces S phase arrest and finally causes apoptosis via inhibition of PI3K/Akt/survivin signaling followed by activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic

  17. B-Lymphocytes from a Population of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings Exhibit Hypersensitivity to Thimerosal

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    Martyn A. Sharpe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of thimerosal containing vaccines in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been an area of intense debate, as has the presence of mercury dental amalgams and fish ingestion by pregnant mothers. We studied the effects of thimerosal on cell proliferation and mitochondrial function from B-lymphocytes taken from individuals with autism, their nonautistic twins, and their nontwin siblings. Eleven families were examined and compared to matched controls. B-cells were grown with increasing levels of thimerosal, and various assays (LDH, XTT, DCFH, etc. were performed to examine the effects on cellular proliferation and mitochondrial function. A subpopulation of eight individuals (4 ASD, 2 twins, and 2 siblings from four of the families showed thimerosal hypersensitivity, whereas none of the control individuals displayed this response. The thimerosal concentration required to inhibit cell proliferation in these individuals was only 40% of controls. Cells hypersensitive to thimerosal also had higher levels of oxidative stress markers, protein carbonyls, and oxidant generation. This suggests certain individuals with a mild mitochondrial defect may be highly susceptible to mitochondrial specific toxins like the vaccine preservative thimerosal.

  18. Bipolar Disorder and Early Affective Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Codt, Aloise; Monhonval, Pauline; Bongaerts, Xavier; Belkacemi, Ikram; Tecco, Juan Martin

    2016-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high prevalence and is a major psychosocial and medical burden. The exact etiological pathways of bipolar disorder are not fully understood. Genetic factors are known to play an important role in the etiology of bipolar disorder. However, high rates of discordance among identical twins and a growing body of evidence that environmental factors such as early stress can influence the onset and course of psychiatric diseases underline the importance of additional etiological mechanisms of bipolar disorders. There has been little investigation about early trauma in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the association between early traumatic interactions like child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and the occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease. Studies investigating associations between child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease were searched in the Pubmed database. More than 700 articles were sorted independently by two of the authors using predefined criteria. Only research articles, reviews and meta-analyses were selected for this review. 53 articles met the inclusion criteria. To date, four systematic reviews partially addressed our research question. Early trauma is more frequently found in the past of bipolar patients than in the general population. Studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a worse prognosis. Early trauma is more often found in the past of bipolar adult patients than the general population and studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a

  19. Skin reactions to thimerosal and Leishmania in dogs from a leishmaniasis endemic area: it is better to keep them apart

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    Moacir Paranhos-Silva

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Positive Montenegro's skin test is a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction widely used as indicative of previous infection with Leishmania in both humans and dogs. Montenegro's antigen consists of a crude Leishmania antigen solution, usually containing thimerosal as preserving agent. In this work it is shown that a large proportion of dogs (11 out of 56 examined in an endemic area of leishmaniasis presented induration at the site of injection of a diluent containing thimerosal alone. This clearly demonstrates that thimerosal leads to a high number of false positive skin reactions in dogs and that its use in Montenegro's skin test antigenic preparations should be avoided.

  20. Do psychological variables affect early surgical recovery?

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    Michael N Mavros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 16 eligible studies, 15 of which reported a significant association between at least one psychological variable or intervention and an early postoperative outcome. However, most studies also reported psychological factors not influencing surgical recovery and there was significant heterogeneity across the studies. Overall, trait and state anxiety, state anger, active coping, subclinical depression, and intramarital hostility appeared to complicate recovery, while dispositional optimism, religiousness, anger control, low pain expectations, and external locus of control seemed to promote healing. Psychological interventions (guided relaxation, couple support visit, and psychiatric interview also appeared to favor recovery. Psychological factors unrelated to surgical outcomes included loneliness, perceived social support, anger expression, and trait anger. CONCLUSION: Although the heterogeneity of the available evidence precludes any safe conclusions, psychological variables appear to be associated with early surgical recovery; this association could bear important implications for clinical practice. Large clinical trials and further analyses are needed to precisely evaluate the contribution of psychology in surgical recovery.

  1. Visual variability affects early verb learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Katherine E; Lush, Lauren; Pearce, Ruth; Horst, Jessica S

    2014-09-01

    Research demonstrates that within-category visual variability facilitates noun learning; however, the effect of visual variability on verb learning is unknown. We habituated 24-month-old children to a novel verb paired with an animated star-shaped actor. Across multiple trials, children saw either a single action from an action category (identical actions condition, for example, travelling while repeatedly changing into a circle shape) or multiple actions from that action category (variable actions condition, for example, travelling while changing into a circle shape, then a square shape, then a triangle shape). Four test trials followed habituation. One paired the habituated verb with a new action from the habituated category (e.g., 'dacking' + pentagon shape) and one with a completely novel action (e.g., 'dacking' + leg movement). The others paired a new verb with a new same-category action (e.g., 'keefing' + pentagon shape), or a completely novel category action (e.g., 'keefing' + leg movement). Although all children discriminated novel verb/action pairs, children in the identical actions condition discriminated trials that included the completely novel verb, while children in the variable actions condition discriminated the out-of-category action. These data suggest that - as in noun learning - visual variability affects verb learning and children's ability to form action categories. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Dynamics of learner affective development in early FLL

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    Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Affective learner factors were first considered as a cause of success in language learning. This was followed by a change in approach and recently authors (e.g., Edelenbos, Johnstone, & Kubanek, 2006 have considered them an important outcome, especially in early foreign language learning (FLL. Current research into affective learner factors in early FLL tries to catch the developmental aspects too, and studies are emerging that take a contextual view as well. This paper describes a study on affective characteristics of young FL learners that combines the developmental and contextual perspectives. Using the case study methodology the author analyses the affective profiles of three young learners of English as a foreign language who were followed for 4 years. The analyses are done taking into account their immediate language learning environment, home support, out-of-school exposure to English and language achievement. The findings suggest that affective learner factors contribute to the dynamic complexity of early FLL.

  3. Comparative evaluation of phenol and thimerosal as preservatives for a candidate vaccine against American cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Wilson Mayrink

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For decades thimerosal has been used as a preservative in the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis, which was developed by Mayrink et al. The use of thimerosal in humans has been banned due to its mercury content. This study addresses the standardization of phenol as a new candidate vaccine preservative. We have found that the proteolytic activity was abolished when the test was conducted using the candidate vaccine added to merthiolate (MtVac as well as to phenol (PhVac. The Montenegro's skin test conversion rates induced by MtVac and by PhVac was 68.06% and 85.9%, respectively, and these values were statistically significant (p < 0.05. The proliferative response of peripheral mononuclear blood cells shows that the stimulation index of mice immunized with both candidate vaccines was higher than the one in control animals (p < 0.05. The ability of the candidate vaccines to induce protection in C57BL/10 mice against a challenge with infective Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes was tested and the mice immunized with PhVac developed smaller lesions than the mice immunized with MtVac. Electrophoresis of phenol-preserved antigen revealed a number of proteins, which were better preserved in PhVac. These results do in fact encourage the use of phenol for preserving the immunogenic and biochemical properties of the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  4. A Dose-Response Relationship between Organic Mercury Exposure from Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

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    David A. Geier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated concerns about the toxic effects of organic-mercury (Hg exposure from thimerosal-containing (49.55% Hg by weight vaccines on the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs. Automated medical records were examined to identify cases and controls enrolled from their date-of-birth (1991–2000 in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD project. ND cases were diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD, specific developmental delay, tic disorder or hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood. In addition, putative non-thimerosal-related outcomes of febrile seizure, failure to thrive and cerebral degenerations were examined. The cumulative total dose of Hg exposure from thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine (T-HBV administered within the first six months of life was calculated. On a per microgram of organic-Hg basis, PDD (odds ratio (OR = 1.054, specific developmental delay (OR = 1.035, tic disorder (OR = 1.034 and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood (OR = 1.05 cases were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg exposure. By contrast, none of the non-thimerosal related outcomes were significantly more likely than the controls to have received increased organic-Hg exposure. Routine childhood vaccination may be an important public health tool to reduce infectious disease-associated morbidity/mortality, but the present study significantly associates organic-Hg exposure from T-HBV with an increased risk of an ND diagnosis.

  5. Traits affecting early season nitrogen uptake in nine legume species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elana Dayoub

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to identify the main traits explaining the variability among legume species in soil N uptake and to study the effect of the soil mineral N supply on the legume strategy for the use of available N sources during early growth. Nine legume species were grown in rhizotrons with or without N supply. Root expansion, shoot and root biomass, nodule establishment, N2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. A large interspecific variability was observed for all traits affecting soil N uptake. Root lateral expansion and early biomass in relation to seed mass were the major traits influencing soil N uptake regardless of the level of soil N availability. Fenugreek, lentil, alfalfa, and common vetch could be considered weak competitors for soil N due to their low plant biomass and low lateral root expansion. Conversely, peanut, pea, chickpea and soybean had a greater soil N uptake. Faba bean was separated from other species having a higher nodule biomass, a higher N2 fixation and a lower seed reserve depletion. Faba bean was able to simultaneously fix N2 and take up soil N. This work has identified traits of seed mass, shoot and root biomass, root lateral expansion, N2 fixation and seed reserve depletion that allowing classification of legume species regarding their soil N uptake ability during early growth.

  6. Suppression by thimerosal of ex-vivo CD4+ T cell response to influenza vaccine and induction of apoptosis in primary memory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Loison

    Full Text Available Thimerosal is a preservative used widely in vaccine formulations to prevent bacterial and fungal contamination in multidose vials of vaccine. Thimerosal was included in the multidose non-adjuvanted pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine Panenza. In the context of the analysis of the ex-vivo T cell responses directed against influenza vaccine, we discovered the in vitro toxicity Panenza, due to its content in thimerosal. Because thimerosal may skew the immune response to vaccines, we investigated in detail the ex-vivo effects of thimerosal on the fate and functions of T cells in response to TCR ligation. We report that ex-vivo exposure of quiescent or TCR-activated primary human T cells to thimerosal induced a dose-dependent apoptotic cell death associated with depolarization of mitochondrial membrane, generation of reactive oxygen species, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and caspase-3 activation. Moreover, exposure to non-toxic concentrations of thimerosal induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase of TCR-activated T cells, and inhibition of the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN gamma, IL-1 beta, TNF alpha, IL-2, as well as the chemokine MCP1. No shift towards Th2 or Th17 cells was detected. Overall these results underline the proapoptotic effect of thimerosal on primary human lymphocytes at concentrations 100 times less to those contained in the multidose vaccine, and they reveal the inhibitory effect of this preservative on T-cell proliferation and functions at nanomolar concentrations.

  7. Thimerosal-Preserved Hepatitis B Vaccine and Hyperkinetic Syndrome of Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Geier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood (HKSoC is an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9 category in which the majority of the children are also diagnosed under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR, where the umbrella term is “Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders”. The diagnostic criteria for HKSoC are developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Some studies have implicated mercury (Hg exposure as a risk factor. (2 Methods: This hypothesis testing study; using the Vaccine Safety Datalink; assessed the toxicological effects of bolus exposure to organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs by examining the relationship between Thimerosal-preserved hepatitis B vaccines (TM-HepB given at varying levels and at specific intervals in the first six months after birth and the risk of a child being diagnosed with HKSoC. (3 Results: Children diagnosed with HKSoC were significantly more likely to be exposed to increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB doses given within the first month (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.30–1.62; within the first two months (odds ratio = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.28–1.59; and within the first six months (odds ratio = 4.51; 95% CI = 3.04–6.71 than controls. (4 Conclusion: The results indicate that increasing organic-Hg exposure from TCVs heightens the risk of a HKSoC diagnosis.

  8. Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y

    2014-04-01

    Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects׳ attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects׳ task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. How Early Child Care Affects Later Development. Science Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Are there Long-Term Effects of Early Child Care?" (J. Belsky, D. L. Vandell, M. Burchinal, K. A. Clarke-Stewart, K. McCartney, M. T. Owen, M. T., and The NICHD Early Child Care Research Network).…

  10. Empathy in early childhood: genetic, environmental, and affective contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Ariel; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Davidov, Maayan; Van Hulle, Carol; Robinson, JoAnn L; Rhee, Soo Hyun

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the genetic and environmental origins of children's empathy toward a distress victim and its correlates with emotional symptoms and affective knowledge. The cognitive (hypothesis testing) and affective (empathic concern) empathy of 122 twin pairs in response to simulated pain by an adult examiner was observed at 3.5 years of age. Moderate (0.19 to 0.44) heritabilities were estimated for individual differences in empathy, and the nonshared environment and error accounted for the rest of the variance. Hypothesis testing and empathic concern were moderately correlated, mainly through overlapping genetic effects. Although children's affective knowledge did not correlate with their empathy, affective knowledge interacted with mother-rated emotional symptoms in predicting empathy; knowledge about emotions was associated with greater empathy in children low in emotional symptoms. In contrast, among children with high degrees of emotional symptoms, those with better affective knowledge tended to show lower empathy.

  11. Older Siblings Affect Gut Microbiota Development in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    .006) at 18 months. Further, having older siblings was associated with increased relative abundance of several bacterial taxa at both 9 and 18 months of age. Compared to the effect of having siblings, presence of household furred pets and early life infections had less pronounced effects on the gut microbiota....... Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...... could contribute to the substantiation of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes...

  12. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  13. Affective Dynamics in Triadic Peer Interactions in Early Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavictoire, L.A.; Snyder, J.; Stoolmiller, M.; Hollenstein, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    In interpersonal interaction research, moving beyond dyadic to triadic dynamics can be analytically daunting. We explored the affective states expressed during triadic peer interactions to understand how patterns were associated with childhood psychopathology and sociometric status. High-risk

  14. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy after vitrectomy early factors affect IOP

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    Shi-Bo Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore possible causes of early postoperative elevated intraocular pressure caused by proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDRvitrectomy. METHODS:Totally 72 cases(100 eyeswhich have performed vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy were retrospectively analyzed to observe the incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension, and the relevant factors that caused postoperative high intraocular pressure were statistically analyzed. Early postoperative ocular hypertension diagnostic criteria: any time after 2 weeks of non-contact tonometer measured IOP> 25mmHg(1mmHg=0.133kPa. RESULTS:High intraocular pressure after vitrectomy occurred in 27 eyes(27%, the incidence of male and female were 27.27%, 26.79%, the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. Eyes filled with balanced liquid filling incidence rate of 30.95%, 6.25%, and the difference was statistically significant(P0.05. Incidences of intraoperative panretinal photocoagulation and additional retinal photocoagulation group were 41%, 20%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Preoperative retinopathy of four, five, six groups of incidence were 9.52%, 23.81%, 40.56%, and the groups were statistically significant(P<0.05. Unconsolidated preoperative retinal detachment and retinal detachment incidence rate of 19%, 41%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Surgery in the united lens resection with intraoperative unfederated lens the resection group's incidence rate of 34%, 15%, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that retinal detachment preoperative and intraoperative intraocular filling were independent risk factors that caused early postoperative ocular hypertension after vitrectomy. CONCLUSION:Post-operative ocular hypertension after PDR vitrectomy is related to preoperative retinal detachment, intraoperative lensectomy, intraoperative intraocular filling, and intraoperative

  15. Carbon paste electrode modified with silver thimerosal for the potentiometric flow injection analysis of silver(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Hosny [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: dr_hosny@yahoo.com

    2005-07-27

    The utility of carbon paste electrode modified with silver ethylmercurythiosalicylate (silver thimerosal) in both static mode and flow injection analysis (FIA) is demonstrated. The electrode was fully characterized in terms of composition, response time, thermal stability, usable pH and ionic strength ranges. It has been shown that diisononyl phthalate (DINP) acts as more suitable solvent mediator for preparation of the electrode, which exhibits linear response range to Ag(I) extending from 5.0 x 10{sup -7} to 1.0 x 10{sup -3} M with detection limit of 2.5 x 10{sup -7} M and Nernstian slope of 59.3 {+-} 1.0 mV/decade. The proposed chemically modified carbon paste electrode shows a very good selectivity for Ag(I) over a wide variety of metal ions and successfully used for the determination of the silver content of silver sulphadiazine (burning cream) and developed radiological films. The electrode was also used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of thiopental and thimerosal with AgNO{sub 3}.

  16. Subtype-selective regulation of IP(3) receptors by thimerosal via cysteine residues within the IP(3)-binding core and suppressor domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Samir A; Rossi, Ana M; Riley, Andrew M; Potter, Barry V L; Taylor, Colin W

    2013-04-15

    IP(3)R (IP(3) [inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate] receptors) and ryanodine receptors are the most widely expressed intracellular Ca(2+) channels and both are regulated by thiol reagents. In DT40 cells stably expressing single subtypes of mammalian IP(3)R, low concentrations of thimerosal (also known as thiomersal), which oxidizes thiols to form a thiomercurylethyl complex, increased the sensitivity of IP(3)-evoked Ca(2+) release via IP(3)R1 and IP(3)R2, but inhibited IP(3)R3. Activation of IP(3)R is initiated by IP(3) binding to the IBC (IP(3)-binding core; residues 224-604) and proceeds via re-arrangement of an interface between the IBC and SD (suppressor domain; residues 1-223). Thimerosal (100 μM) stimulated IP(3) binding to the isolated NT (N-terminal; residues 1-604) of IP(3)R1 and IP(3)R2, but not to that of IP(3)R3. Binding of a competitive antagonist (heparin) or partial agonist (dimeric-IP(3)) to NT1 was unaffected by thiomersal, suggesting that the effect of thimerosal is specifically related to IP(3)R activation. IP(3) binding to NT1 in which all cysteine residues were replaced by alanine was insensitive to thimerosal, so too were NT1 in which cysteine residues were replaced in either the SD or IBC. This demonstrates that thimerosal interacts directly with cysteine in both the SD and IBC. Chimaeric proteins in which the SD of the IP(3)R was replaced by the structurally related A domain of a ryanodine receptor were functional, but thimerosal inhibited both IP(3) binding to the chimaeric NT and IP(3)-evoked Ca(2+) release from the chimaeric IP(3)R. This is the first systematic analysis of the effects of a thiol reagent on each IP(3)R subtype. We conclude that thimerosal selectively sensitizes IP(3)R1 and IP(3)R2 to IP(3) by modifying cysteine residues within both the SD and IBC and thereby stabilizing an active conformation of the receptor.

  17. Subtype-selective regulation of IP3 receptors by thimerosal via cysteine residues within the IP3-binding core and suppressor domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Samir A.; Rossi, Ana M.; Riley, Andrew M.; Potter, Barry V. L.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2013-01-01

    IP3R (IP3 [inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate] receptors) and ryanodine receptors are the most widely expressed intracellular Ca2+ channels and both are regulated by thiol reagents. In DT40 cells stably expressing single subtypes of mammalian IP3R, low concentrations of thimerosal (also known as thiomersal), which oxidizes thiols to form a thiomercurylethyl complex, increased the sensitivity of IP3-evoked Ca2+ release via IP3R1 and IP3R2, but inhibited IP3R3. Activation of IP3R is initiated by IP3 binding to the IBC (IP3-binding core; residues 224–604) and proceeds via re-arrangement of an interface between the IBC and SD (suppressor domain; residues 1–223). Thimerosal (100 μM) stimulated IP3 binding to the isolated NT (N-terminal; residues 1–604) of IP3R1 and IP3R2, but not to that of IP3R3. Binding of a competitive antagonist (heparin) or partial agonist (dimeric-IP3) to NT1 was unaffected by thiomersal, suggesting that the effect of thimerosal is specifically related to IP3R activation. IP3 binding to NT1 in which all cysteine residues were replaced by alanine was insensitive to thimerosal, so too were NT1 in which cysteine residues were replaced in either the SD or IBC. This demonstrates that thimerosal interacts directly with cysteine in both the SD and IBC. Chimaeric proteins in which the SD of the IP3R was replaced by the structurally related A domain of a ryanodine receptor were functional, but thimerosal inhibited both IP3 binding to the chimaeric NT and IP3-evoked Ca2+ release from the chimaeric IP3R. This is the first systematic analysis of the effects of a thiol reagent on each IP3R subtype. We conclude that thimerosal selectively sensitizes IP3R1 and IP3R2 to IP3 by modifying cysteine residues within both the SD and IBC and thereby stabilizing an active conformation of the receptor. PMID:23282150

  18. Alteration of the spontaneous systemic autoimmune disease in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice by treatment with thimerosal (ethyl mercury)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havarinasab, S.; Hultman, P.

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic mercury may aggravate murine systemic autoimmune diseases which are either spontaneous (genetically determined) or induced by non-genetic mechanisms. Organic mercury species, the dominating form of mercury exposure in the human population, have not been examined in this respect. Therefore, ethyl mercury in the form of thimerosal, a preservative recently debated as a possible health hazard when present in vaccines, was administered in a dose of 0.156-5 mg/L drinking water to female (NZB x NZW)F1 (ZBWF1) mice. These mice develop an age-dependent spontaneous systemic autoimmune disease with high mortality primarily due to immune-complex (IC) glomerulonephritis. Five mg thimerosal/L drinking water (295 μg Hg/kg body weight (bw)/day) for 7 weeks induced glomerular, mesangial and systemic vessel wall IC deposits and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) which were not present in the untreated controls. After 22-25 weeks, the higher doses of thimerosal had shifted the localization of the spontaneously developing renal glomerular IC deposits from the capillary wall position seen in controls to the mesangium. The altered localization was associated with less severe histological kidney damage, less proteinuria, and reduced mortality. The effect was dose-dependent, lower doses having no effect compared with the untreated controls. A different effect of thimerosal treatment was induction of renal and splenic vessel walls IC deposits. Renal vessel wall deposits occurred at a dose of 0.313-5 mg thimerosal/L (18-295 μg Hg/kg bw/day), while splenic vessel wall deposits developed also in mice given the lowest dose of thimerosal, 0.156 mg/L (9 μg Hg/kg bw/day). The latter dose is 3- and 15-fold lower than the dose of Hg required to induce vessel wall IC deposits in genetically susceptible H-2 s mice by HgCl 2 and thimerosal, respectively. Further studies on the exact conditions needed for induction of systemic IC deposits by low-dose organic mercurials in autoimmune

  19. A Retrospective Analysis of Factors Affecting Early Stoma Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Umit; Karaman, Kerem; Gomceli, Ismail; Dalgic, Tahsin; Ozer, Ilter; Ulas, Murat; Ercan, Metin; Bostanci, Erdal; Akoglu, Musa

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques and products for stoma care, stoma-related complications are still common. A retrospective analysis was performed of the medical records of 462 consecutive patients (295 [63.9%] female, 167 [36.1 %] male, mean age 55.5 ± 15.1 years, mean body mass index [BMI] 25.1 ± 5.2) who had undergone stoma creation at the Gastroenterological Surgery Clinic of Turkiye Yuksek İhtisas Teaching and Research Hospital between January 2008 and December 2012 to examine the incidence of early (ie, within 30 days after surgery) stoma complications and identify potential risk factors. Variables abstracted included gender, age, and BMI; existence of malignant disease; comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, chronic respiratory disease); use of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy; permanent or temporary stoma; type of stoma (loop/end stoma); stoma localization; and the use of preoperative marking of the stoma site. Data were entered and analyzed using statistical software. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to describe and analyze all variables, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent risk factors for stoma complications. Ostomy-related complications developed in 131 patients (28.4%) Of these, superficial mucocutaneous separation was the most frequent complication (90 patients, 19.5%), followed by stoma retraction (15 patients, 3.2%). In univariate analysis, malignant disease (P = .025), creation of a colostomy (P = .002), and left lower quadrant stoma location (P toma complication. Only stoma location was an independent risk factor for the development of a stoma complication (P = .044). The rate of stoma complications was not significantly different between patients who underwent nonemergent surgery (30% in patients preoperatively sited versus 28.4% not sited) and patients who underwent emergency surgery (27.1%). Early stoma complication rates were higher

  20. Amygdala reactivity to sad faces in preschool children: An early neural marker of persistent negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Gaffrey

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The current findings provide preliminary evidence for amygdala activity as a potential biomarker of persistent negative affect during early childhood and suggest future work examining the origins and long-term implications of this relationship is necessary.

  1. Timing of examinations affects school performance differently in early and late chronotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Zerbini, Giulia; Siersema, Anne; Pieper, Amy; Merrow, Martha; Hut, Roelof A.; Roenneberg, Till; Kantermann, Thomas

    Circadian clocks of adolescents typically run lateincluding sleep timesyet adolescents generally are expected at school early in the morning. Due to this mismatch between internal (circadian) and external (social) times, adolescents suffer from chronic sleep deficiency, which, in turn, affects

  2. Attentional and affective biases for attractive females emerge early in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennels, Jennifer Lynn; Verba, Stephanie Ann

    2017-01-01

    Predominant experience with females early in development results in infants developing an attractive, female-like facial representation that guides children's attention toward and affective preferences for attractive females. When combined with increased interest in the other sex at puberty, these early emerging biases might help explain the robust prosocial and financial biases men exhibit toward attractive women during adulthood.

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Appraisal of the Decision to Take Early Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowan, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines why individuals elect to take the early retirement package offered by their employer, as well as factors affecting their appraisal of that decision. Results suggest that all early retirement decisions are not voluntary. Individuals who do not wish to retire and who had lower self-esteem, fewer financial resources, and plans to continue…

  4. BALANCING ON THE BORDERLINE OF EARLY AFFECT-CONFUSION - PART 2 OF A CASE STUDY TRILOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Part 2 of a case study trilogy on early affect-confusion describes the psychotherapy relationship between an angry/helpless client and the psychotherapist’s skill in balancing the “borderline” between behavioral management and affect attunement, historical inquiry and normalization, validation and shame. The therapeutic use of bifurcated questions and juxtaposition reactions is illustrated.

  5. Infant pain-related negative affect at 12 months of age: early infant and caregiver predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din Osmun, Laila; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Flora, David B

    2014-01-01

    To examine the predictive relationships of early infant and caregiver variables on expressed pain-related negative affect duration at the 12-month immunization. Infants and their caregivers (N = 255) were followed during immunization appointments over the first year of life. Latent growth curve modeling in a structural equation modeling context was used. Higher levels of initial infant pain reactivity at 2 months and caregiver emotional availability averaged across 2, 4, and 6 months of age were related to larger decreases in the duration of infant negative affect over the first 6 months of life. Longer duration of infant negative affect at 2 months and poorer regulation of infant negative affect over the first 6 months of life predicted longer durations of infant negative affect by 12 months. Infant negative affect at 12 months was a function of both infant factors and the quality of caregiver interactive behaviors (emotional availability) in early infancy.

  6. Early-life Socio-economic Status and Adult Health: The Role of Positive Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Kyle W; LeRoy, Angie S; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a further understanding of the relationship between early-life socio-economic status (SES) and adult health disparities. This was accomplished through evaluation of state indicators of positive and negative affect as mechanisms through which early-life SES was associated with susceptibility to a rhinovirus (i.e. the common cold). Analyses were conducted among 286 adults in a viral challenge study in which participants were exposed to a rhinovirus via nasal drops and cold symptoms were evaluated over a period of 5 days. Participant age, body mass index, sex, education, ethnicity, pre-challenge virus-specific antibody titres and subjective adult SES, along with virus type and season of participation, were included as covariates. Early-life SES was associated with cold incidence through state positive affect, but not state negative affect. In addition, contrast analysis indicated that the indirect effect through state positive affect was stronger than the indirect effect through state negative affect. Findings provide further support for early-life SES being an important variable associated with adult health, and that state self-reported positive affect may be an underlying mechanism associated with susceptibility to rhinoviruses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The affective dimension of early-onset psychosis and its relationship with suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Baeza, Inmaculada; Arango, Celso; González-Pinto, Ana; de la Serna, Elena; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Montserrat; Paya, Beatriz; Llorente, Cloe; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2015-07-01

    The affective dimension has scarcely been studied in early-onset psychosis. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence and type of affective symptoms in the prodromal and acute phases of early-onset psychosis and to examine their relationship with suicide. We also sought to establish whether the presence of premorbid antecedents or the presence of affective symptoms during the prodromal and acute phase might predict a later diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BP) or schizophrenia (SZ). Participants were 95 youths, aged 9-17 years, experiencing a first episode of a psychotic disorder (FEP) according to DSM-IV criteria. Prodromal affective symptoms in the year prior to the onset of full-blown psychosis were assessed by means of the K-SADS. Affective symptoms during the acute episode were evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale. Suicidality was assessed during the acute episode and at 6 and 12 months. Half of the patients experienced affective symptoms during the prodrome, with depressive symptoms being the most frequently reported. During the acute episode, 23.2% presented depressive, 41.4% mixed and 18.9% manic symptoms. After logistic regression analysis, only the presence of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with suicidality during the 12 months following the FEP. Neither early premorbid antecedents nor the prevalence or type of affective symptoms during the FEP predicted a diagnosis of BP or SZ at 12 months. However, both depressive and manic prodromal symptoms were associated with a later diagnosis of BP. The FEP of both SZ and BP is preceded by an identifiable prodromal phase. Early detection programs should target young people at clinical risk for the extended psychosis phenotype. The high prevalence of affective symptoms during the early phases of psychosis may encourage clinicians to identify and treat them in order to prevent suicide behaviour. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental

  8. RELATIONAL HEALING OF EARLY AFFECT-CONFUSION - PART 3 OF A CASE STUDY TRILOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Part 3 of a case study trilogy on early affect-confusion describes the use of therapeutic dialogue, relational presence and supportive age regression in the psychotherapy of a client who lived on a “borderline” of early affect confusion. The concepts and methods of an in-depth, integrative and relational psychotherapy include a sensitivity to the client’s physiological and emotional expressions of implicit and sub-symbolic memories, therapeutic inference, an awareness of the client’s relational-needs, the effective use of a developmental image, as well the identification of an introjected other and the use of therapeutic interposition.

  9. Thimerosal-Derived Ethylmercury Is a Mitochondrial Toxin in Human Astrocytes: Possible Role of Fenton Chemistry in the Oxidation and Breakage of mtDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn A. Sharpe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thimerosal generates ethylmercury in aqueous solution and is widely used as preservative. We have investigated the toxicology of Thimerosal in normal human astrocytes, paying particular attention to mitochondrial function and the generation of specific oxidants. We find that ethylmercury not only inhibits mitochondrial respiration leading to a drop in the steady state membrane potential, but also concurrent with these phenomena increases the formation of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and Fenton/Haber-Weiss generated hydroxyl radical. These oxidants increase the levels of cellular aldehyde/ketones. Additionally, we find a five-fold increase in the levels of oxidant damaged mitochondrial DNA bases and increases in the levels of mtDNA nicks and blunt-ended breaks. Highly damaged mitochondria are characterized by having very low membrane potentials, increased superoxide/hydrogen peroxide production, and extensively damaged mtDNA and proteins. These mitochondria appear to have undergone a permeability transition, an observation supported by the five-fold increase in Caspase-3 activity observed after Thimerosal treatment.

  10. Case of early pelviolumeral progressive muscular dystrophy associated with marked heart affection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gor'kova, N.B.; Starykh, L.M.; Karpova, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    A case of early pelviolumeral progressive muscular dystrophy detected in childhood and associated with marked heart affection is described. Patient underwent multimodality examination, including ECG, ultrasonography, roentgenography. It is shown that patients with progressive muscular dystrophy should receive medical supervision and treatment of both neuropathologist and therapist

  11. A Resource and Reference Bibliography in Early Childhood Education and Developmental Psychology: The Affective Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ronald, Comp.; Coopersmith, Stanley, Comp.

    This bibliography provides a comprehensive listing of the reference literature in early childhood (ages 2-9) psychology and education dealing with the affective domain. Categories such as achievement motivation; aggression; anger and frustration; character and moral development; creativity; games; and social behavior are included. One of the 27…

  12. Early environmental predictors of the affective and interpersonal constructs of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daversa, Maria T

    2010-02-01

    Early childhood maltreatment (i.e., physical, sexual, emotional abuse) and caregiver disruptions are hypothesized to be instrumental in altering the neurobiology of the brain, particularly the amygdala, and contributing to the development of the affective deficits examined in individuals with psychopathy. Exposure to early untoward life events in models of rodent and nonhuman primates changes the neurobiology of the stress response. It is hypothesized that these changes may permanently shape brain regions that mediate stress and emotion and therefore play a role in the etiology of affective disorders in humans. The significance of experience (e.g., the intensity/severity, chronicity/duration, and developmental timing of experiences) and how the accompanying changes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system affect alterations in the amygdala are discussed as critical contributors to the etiology of psychopathy. A model is proposed in which early maltreatment experiences contribute to alterations to the amygdala and produce a blunted or dissociative response to stress, a key factor in the affective deficits observed in psychopaths.

  13. TREATMENT PLANNING, PACING, AND COUNTERTRANSFERENCE: PERSPECTIVES ON THE PSYCHOTHERAPY OF EARLY AFFECT-CONFUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a rejoinder and elaboration on the article “Early Affect-Confusion: The ‘Borderline’ Between Despair and Rage: Part 1 of a Case Study Trilogy” and addresses the distinction between personality style, pattern, and disorder. It describes the pacing of a time-limited psychotherapy, the use of phenomenological inquiry in resolving transferential enactments, and the psychological function of idealization.

  14. Evaluation of regulatory processes affecting nuclear power plant early site approval and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This report presents the results of a survey and evaluation of existing federal, state and local regulatory considerations affecting siting approval of power plants in the United States. Those factors that may impede early site approval of nuclear power plants are identified, and findings related to the removal of these impediments and the general improvement of the approval process are presented. A brief evaluation of standardization of nuclear plant design is also presented

  15. Identifying the factors that affect the job satisfaction of early career Notre Dame graduate physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacopanos, Eleni; Edgar, Susan

    2016-11-01

    Objective Previous studies have highlighted the short career intentions and high attrition rates of physiotherapists from the profession. The aim of the present study was to examine the job satisfaction and attrition rates of early career physiotherapists graduating from one Western Australian university. Methods A self-administered online survey was conducted of 157 Notre Dame physiotherapy graduates (2006-2012), incorporating a job satisfaction rating scale. Results Results showed that lowered job satisfaction was related to working in the cardiorespiratory area of physiotherapy and working in multiple jobs since graduation. The majority of graduates did not predict a long-term career in physiotherapy, highlighting a lack of career progression and limited scope of practice as influential factors. Conclusions Job satisfaction in early career physiotherapists varies across different clinical areas of practice related to several factors, including challenge and flexibility. New roles in the profession, including extended scope roles, may impact on the future job satisfaction of physiotherapists. Further studies are needed to explore the effect of these roles on workforce trends, including attrition rates. What is known about the topic? Physiotherapists predict careers of 10 years or less on entry into the profession. No previous studies have explored the individual factors influencing job satisfaction in early career physiotherapists across different clinical settings. What does this paper add? This study highlights specific factors influencing the job satisfaction of early career physiotherapists, including clinical area of practice. Physiotherapists working in the cardiorespiratory area were less satisfied, as were physiotherapists undertaking multiple positions since graduation. What are the implications for practitioners? This study informs employers and workforce planners on the factors affecting job satisfaction in early career physiotherapists. In addition

  16. Antigenic profile of heat-killed versus thimerosal-treated Leishmania major using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arjmand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmania is a parasitic protozoan of trypanosomatidae family which causes a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to deadly visceral forms. In endemic areas, field trials of different preparations of Leishmania total antigen were tested as leishmaniasis vaccine. Two preparations of killed Leishmania major were produced In Iran, which were heat-killed vaccine called autoclaved L. major (ALM and thimerosal-treated freeze-thawed vaccine called killed L. major (KLM. In this study, the protein content of both ALM and KLM were compared with that of freshly harvested intact L. major promastigotes using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Materials and Methods: L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER from pre-infected Balb/c mice was isolated with modified Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN medium and then subcultured in liquid RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS 20% for mass production. Two preparations of KLM and ALM were produced by Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Iran, under WHO/TDR supervision. Electrophoresis was performed by SDS-PAGE method and the gel was stained by Coomassie brilliant blue dye. The resultant unit bands were compared using standard molecular proteins. Results: Electrophoresis of the two preparations produced many bands from 10 kDa to 100 kDa. KLM bands were much like those of freshly harvested intact L. major. Conclusion: It is concluded that although there are similar bands in the three forms of Leishmania antigens, there are some variations which might be considered for identification and purification of protective immunogens in a total crude antigen, and detection of their stability is essential for the production and marketing of a putative vaccine.

  17. Nutritional deficits during early development affect hippocampal structure and spatial memory later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravosudov, Vladimir V; Lavenex, Pierre; Omanska, Alicja

    2005-10-01

    Development rates vary among individuals, often as a result of direct competition for food. Survival of young might depend on their learning abilities, but it remains unclear whether learning abilities are affected by nutrition during development. The authors demonstrated that compared with controls, 1-year-old Western scrub jays (Aphelocoma californica) that experienced nutritional deficits during early posthatching development had smaller hippocampi with fewer neurons and performed worse in a cache recovery task and in a spatial version of an associative learning task. In contrast, performance of nutritionally deprived birds was similar to that of controls in 2 color versions of an associative learning task. These findings suggest that nutritional deficits during early development have long-term consequences for hippocampal structure and spatial memory, which, in turn, are likely to have a strong impact on animals' future fitness.

  18. Social stress in early adolescents' daily lives: Associations with affect and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected adolescents' mood, and whether loneliness moderated these relations. The Experience Sampling Method was used to measure positive and negative affect and increases in social stress in 278 early adolescents from the Netherlands. Results showed that adolescents were most likely to experience increases in social stress when they were with classmates, during week days, and in the morning. Lonely adolescents showed higher increases in social stress and responded more negatively to increases in social stress, compared to non-lonely adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of early events involved in human dendritic cell maturation induced by sensitizers: Cross talk between MAPK signalling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trompezinski, Sandra; Migdal, Camille; Tailhardat, Magalie; Le Varlet, Beatrice; Courtellemont, Pascal; Haftek, Marek; Serres, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), efficient-antigen presenting cells play an important role in initiating and regulating immune responses. DC maturation following exposure to nickel or DNCB induced an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Early intracellular mechanisms involved in DC maturation required to be precise. To address this purpose, DCs derived from human monocytes were treated with sensitizers (nickel, DNCB or thimerosal) in comparison with an irritant (SDS). Our data confirming the up-regulation of CD86, CD54 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNFα) induced by sensitizers but not by SDS, signalling transduction involved in DC maturation was investigated using these chemicals. Kinase activity measurement was assessed using two new sensitive procedures (Face TM and CBA) requiring few cells. SDS did not induce changes in signalling pathways whereas NiSO 4 , DNCB and thimerosal markedly activated p38 MAPK and JNK, in contrast Erk1/2 phosphorylation was completely inhibited by DNCB or thimerosal and only activated by nickel. A pre-treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) suppressed Erk1/2 inhibition induced by DNCB or thimerosal demonstrating a direct interaction between p38 MAPK and Erk1/2. A pre-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly reduced Erk1/2 inhibition and p38 MAPK phosphorylation induced by DNCB and thimerosal, suggesting a direct activation of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress and a regulation of MAPK signalling pathways depending on chemicals. Because of a high sensitivity of kinase activity measurements, these procedures will be suitable for weak or moderate sensitizer screening

  20. Early-Life Diet Affects Host Microbiota and Later-Life Defenses Against Parasites in Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutie, Sarah A; Shea, Lauren A; Kupselaitis, Marinna; Wilkinson, Christina L; Kohl, Kevin D; Rohr, Jason R

    2017-10-01

    Food resources can affect the health of organisms by altering their symbiotic microbiota and affecting energy reserves for host defenses against parasites. Different diets can vary in their macronutrient content and therefore they might favor certain bacterial communities of the host and affect the development and maintenance of the immune system, such as the inflammatory or antibody responses. Thus, testing the effect of diet, especially for animals with wide diet breadths, on host-associated microbiota and defenses against parasites might be important in determining infection and disease risk. Here, we test whether the early-life diet of Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) affects early- and later-life microbiota as well as later-life defenses against skin-penetrating, gut worms (Aplectana hamatospicula). We fed tadpoles two ecologically common diets: a diet of conspecifics or a diet of algae (Arthrospira sp.). We then: (1) characterized the gut microbiota of tadpoles and adults; and (2) challenged adult frogs with parasitic worms and measured host resistance (including the antibody-mediated immune response) and tolerance of infections. Tadpole diet affected bacterial communities in the guts of tadpoles but did not have enduring effects on the bacterial communities of adults. In contrast, tadpole diet had enduring effects on host resistance and tolerance of infections in adult frogs. Frogs that were fed a conspecific-based diet as tadpoles were more resistant to worm penetration compared with frogs that were fed an alga-based diet as tadpoles, but less resistant to worm establishment, which may be related to their suppressed antibody response during worm establishment. Furthermore, frogs that were fed a conspecific-based diet as tadpoles were more tolerant to the effect of parasite abundance on host mass during worm establishment. Overall, our study demonstrates that the diet of Cuban tree frog tadpoles affects the gut microbiota and defenses against

  1. A Developmental Shift in Black-White Differences in Depressive Affect across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The Influence of Early Adult Social Roles and Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined Black-White differences in growth of depressive affect using a longitudinal sample of middle-class, suburban U.S. subjects (n = 956) that spanned from adolescence to early adulthood. Specifically, this study examined whether Black-White differences in growth of depressive affect shift over time, and the extent to which that…

  2. Cortisol Stress Response Variability in Early Adolescence Attachment, Affect and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents. PMID:27468997

  3. Cortisol Stress Response Variability in Early Adolescence: Attachment, Affect and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents.

  4. Basic abnormalities in visual processing affect face processing at an early age in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamings, Petra Hendrika Johanna Maria; Jonkman, Lisa Marthe; van Daalen, Emma; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Kemner, Chantal

    2010-12-15

    A detailed visual processing style has been noted in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); this contributes to problems in face processing and has been directly related to abnormal processing of spatial frequencies (SFs). Little is known about the early development of face processing in ASD and the relation with abnormal SF processing. We investigated whether young ASD children show abnormalities in low spatial frequency (LSF, global) and high spatial frequency (HSF, detailed) processing and explored whether these are crucially involved in the early development of face processing. Three- to 4-year-old children with ASD (n = 22) were compared with developmentally delayed children without ASD (n = 17). Spatial frequency processing was studied by recording visual evoked potentials from visual brain areas while children passively viewed gratings (HSF/LSF). In addition, children watched face stimuli with different expressions, filtered to include only HSF or LSF. Enhanced activity in visual brain areas was found in response to HSF versus LSF information in children with ASD, in contrast to control subjects. Furthermore, facial-expression processing was also primarily driven by detail in ASD. Enhanced visual processing of detailed (HSF) information is present early in ASD and occurs for neutral (gratings), as well as for socially relevant stimuli (facial expressions). These data indicate that there is a general abnormality in visual SF processing in early ASD and are in agreement with suggestions that a fast LSF subcortical face processing route might be affected in ASD. This could suggest that abnormal visual processing is causative in the development of social problems in ASD. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Methylphenidate during early consolidation affects long-term associative memory retrieval depending on baseline catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Isabella C; van Buuren, Mariët; Bovy, Leonore; Morris, Richard G; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-02-01

    Synaptic memory consolidation is thought to rely on catecholaminergic signaling. Eventually, it is followed by systems consolidation, which embeds memories in a neocortical network. Although this sequence was demonstrated in rodents, it is unclear how catecholamines affect memory consolidation in humans. Here, we tested the effects of catecholaminergic modulation on synaptic and subsequent systems consolidation. We expected enhanced memory performance and increased neocortical engagement during delayed retrieval. Additionally, we tested if this effect was modulated by individual differences in a cognitive proxy measure of baseline catecholamine synthesis capacity. Fifty-three healthy males underwent a between-subjects, double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure across 2 days. On day 1, subjects studied and retrieved object-location associations and received 20 mg of methylphenidate or placebo. Drug intake was timed so that methylphenidate was expected to affect early consolidation but not encoding or retrieval. Memory was tested again while subjects were scanned three days later. Methylphenidate did not facilitate memory performance, and there was no significant group difference in activation during delayed retrieval. However, memory representations differed between groups depending on baseline catecholamines. The placebo group showed increased activation in occipito-temporal regions but decreased connectivity with the hippocampus, associated with lower baseline catecholamine synthesis capacity. The methylphenidate group showed stronger activation in the postcentral gyrus, associated with higher baseline catecholamine synthesis capacity. Altogether, methylphenidate during early consolidation did not foster long-term memory performance, but it affected retrieval-related neural processes depending on individual levels of baseline catecholamines.

  6. Factors preventing early case detection for women affected by leprosy: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Victoria Grace

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Although leprosy can affect both sexes equally, it is globally reported that men are affected, or simply report, more often than females at the average ratio of 2:1. If cases are simply not being reported, women may be suffering in silence more often than men, and, therefore, understanding the social reasons for this in a number of countries could support the prevention of long-term disabilities caused as a result of leprosy. Objectives: The objective of this review is to recognise the current academic literature surrounding the potential factors for late diagnosis of women affected by leprosy, giving possible explanations for the 2:1 gender disparity observed in case detection globally. It is hoped that health practitioners will become more equipped to recognise these barriers and ensure they are doing whatever possible to encourage women to report the early symptoms of leprosy. Methods: The review used a systematic search process in order to identify gender-related publications using robust research, useful for gleaning a cross-cultural perception of issues women may confront on the prospect of a diagnosis of leprosy. Results: Identifying 12 publications from just five countries, the review found there to be four overarching areas which may be considered barriers more often faced by women: societal stigma; women’s dependence and low status; self-stigmatising attitudes; and the gender insensitivity of leprosy services. Conclusion: Stigma surrounding leprosy experienced from these four overarching areas can all be attributed to the later diagnosis of women affected by leprosy, in relation to their male counterparts. The need for future research surrounding the specific experience of women affected by leprosy is pressing. PMID:28853325

  7. Application and analysis of debris-flow early warning system in Wenchuan earthquake-affected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. L.; Zhang, S. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zhao, L. Q.; Jiang, Y. H.; Tang, D.; Leng, X. P.

    2016-02-01

    The activities of debris flow (DF) in the Wenchuan earthquake-affected area significantly increased after the earthquake on 12 May 2008. The safety of the lives and property of local people is threatened by DFs. A physics-based early warning system (EWS) for DF forecasting was developed and applied in this earthquake area. This paper introduces an application of the system in the Wenchuan earthquake-affected area and analyzes the prediction results via a comparison to the DF events triggered by the strong rainfall events reported by the local government. The prediction accuracy and efficiency was first compared with a contribution-factor-based system currently used by the weather bureau of Sichuan province. The storm on 17 August 2012 was used as a case study for this comparison. The comparison shows that the false negative rate and false positive rate of the new system is, respectively, 19 and 21 % lower than the system based on the contribution factors. Consequently, the prediction accuracy is obviously higher than the system based on the contribution factors with a higher operational efficiency. On the invitation of the weather bureau of Sichuan province, the authors upgraded their prediction system of DF by using this new system before the monsoon of Wenchuan earthquake-affected area in 2013. Two prediction cases on 9 July 2013 and 10 July 2014 were chosen to further demonstrate that the new EWS has high stability, efficiency, and prediction accuracy.

  8. Thimerosal exposure and increased risk for diagnosed tic disorder in the United States: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geier David A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A hypothesis testing, case-control study evaluated automated medical records for exposure to organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (TM-HepB administered at specific intervals in the first six-months-of-life among cases diagnosed with a tic disorder (TD or cerebral degeneration (CD (an outcome not biologically plausibly linked to TM exposure in comparison to controls; both cases and controls were continuously enrolled from birth (born from 1991–2000 within the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD database. TD cases were significantly more likely than controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first month-of-life (odds ratio (OR=1.59, p<0.00001, first two-months-of-life (OR=1.59, p<0.00001, and first six-months-of-life (OR=2.97, p<0.00001. Male TD cases were significantly more likely than male controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first month-of-life (OR =1.65, p<0.0001, first two-months-of-life (OR=1.64, p<0.0001, and first six months-of-life (OR=2.47, p<0.05, where as female TD were significantly more likely than female controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first six-months-of-life (OR=4.97, p<0.05. By contrast, CD cases were no more likely than controls to have received increased organic-Hg exposure from TM-HepB administered at any period studied within the first six-months-of-life. Although routine childhood vaccination is considered an important public health tool to combat infectious diseases, the present study associates increasing organic-Hg exposure from TM-HepB and the subsequent risk of a TD diagnosis.

  9. Early nutritional programming affects liver transcriptome in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, L M; Metochis, C; Taylor, J F; Clarkson, M; Skjærven, K H; Migaud, H; Tocher, D R

    2017-11-17

    To ensure sustainability of aquaculture, plant-based ingredients are being used in feeds to replace marine-derived products. However, plants contain secondary metabolites which can affect food intake and nutrient utilisation of fish. The application of nutritional stimuli during early development can induce long-term changes in animal physiology. Recently, we successfully used this approach to improve the utilisation of plant-based diets in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon. In the present study we explored the molecular mechanisms occurring in the liver of salmon when challenged with a plant-based diet in order to determine the metabolic processes affected, and the effect of ploidy. Microarray analysis revealed that nutritional history had a major impact on the expression of genes. Key pathways of intermediary metabolism were up-regulated, including oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate metabolism, TCA cycle, glycolysis and fatty acid metabolism. Other differentially expressed pathways affected by diet included protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, RNA transport, endocytosis and purine metabolism. The interaction between diet and ploidy also had an effect on the hepatic transcriptome of salmon. The biological pathways with the highest number of genes affected by this interaction were related to gene transcription and translation, and cell processes such as proliferation, differentiation, communication and membrane trafficking. The present study revealed that nutritional programming induced changes in a large number of metabolic processes in Atlantic salmon, which may be associated with the improved fish performance and nutrient utilisation demonstrated previously. In addition, differences between diploid and triploid salmon were found, supporting recent data that indicate nutritional requirements of triploid salmon may differ from those of their diploid counterparts.

  10. Distraction by emotion in early adolescence: affective facilitation and interference during the attentional blink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHeim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which early adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years differ from adults in their sensitivity to attention capture by affective stimuli during rapid processing. A rapid serial visual presentation paradigm (RSVP was implemented as a dual task, requiring the report of two green target stimuli embedded in a stream of distractors. Known as the attentional blink (AB, task performance is typically impaired when the first and second targets (T1 and T2, respectively are separated by at least one distractor and about 200 ms of time. Here we used written verbs of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant content as T1 items, while affectively neutral exemplars served as T2 and distractor events. The temporal distance between T1 and T2 was manipulated to contain either one distractor (intertarget interval 232 ms or five distractors (intertarget interval 696 ms. Students reported pleasant T1 words more accurately, compared to neutral and unpleasant words, indicating facilitation of appetitive content on performance during RSVP. Emotional relevance of T1 was at the expense of T2 accuracy: At an intertarget interval of 232 ms (i.e., during the AB period, identification of (neutral T2 words was impaired when preceded by pleasant and unpleasant T1s. No interference across targets was observed, however, beyond the blink period, in which T1 and T2 were separated by 696 ms. Thus, emotionally relevant events capture and hold attentional resources, at the cost of attentive processing in subsequent episodes. Contrary to our findings in adults, these capture effects were most obvious when the available capacity was limited, i.e., during the critical interval of the AB. The findings are discussed in light of the use of alternative cognitive strategies as development proceeds beyond early adolescence into adulthood.

  11. Early-life exposure to caffeine affects the construction and activity of cortical networks in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Walid; Zappettini, Stefania; Marguet, Stephan Lawrence; Grendel, Jasper; Esclapez, Monique; Bernard, Christophe; Isbrandt, Dirk

    2017-09-01

    The consumption of psychoactive drugs during pregnancy can have deleterious effects on newborns. It remains unclear whether early-life exposure to caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance, alters brain development. We hypothesized that maternal caffeine ingestion during pregnancy and the early postnatal period in mice affects the construction and activity of cortical networks in offspring. To test this hypothesis, we focused on primary visual cortex (V1) as a model neocortical region. In a study design mimicking the daily consumption of approximately three cups of coffee during pregnancy in humans, caffeine was added to the drinking water of female mice and their offspring were compared to control offspring. Caffeine altered the construction of GABAergic neuronal networks in V1, as reflected by a reduced number of somatostatin-containing GABA neurons at postnatal days 6-7, with the remaining ones showing poorly developed dendritic arbors. These findings were accompanied by increased synaptic activity in vitro and elevated network activity in vivo in V1. Similarly, in vivo hippocampal network activity was altered from the neonatal period until adulthood. Finally, caffeine-exposed offspring showed increased seizure susceptibility in a hyperthermia-induced seizure model. In summary, our results indicate detrimental effects of developmental caffeine exposure on mouse brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  13. Early Postnatal Diets Affect the Bioregional Small Intestine Microbiome and Ileal Metabolome in Neonatal Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Brian D; Mercer, Kelly E; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Bowlin, Anne K; Saraf, Manish K; Pack, Lindsay; Chintapalli, Sree V; Shankar, Kartik; Adams, Sean H; Badger, Thomas M; Yeruva, Laxmi

    2017-08-01

    Background: Breastfeeding is known to be protective against gastrointestinal disorders and may modify gut development. Although the gut microbiome has been implicated, little is known about how early diet affects the small intestine microbiome. Objective: We hypothesized that disparate early diets would promote unique microbial profiles in the small intestines of neonatal pigs. Methods: Male and female 2-d-old White Dutch Landrace pigs were either sow fed or provided dairy (Similac Advance powder; Ross Products Abbott Laboratories) or soy (Enfamil Prosobee Lipil powder; Mead Johnson Nutritionals) infant formulas until day 21. Bacterial ecology was assessed in the contents of the small intestine through the use of 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. α-Diversity, β-diversity, and differential abundances of operational taxonomic units were assessed by ANOVA, permutational ANOVA, and negative binomial regression, respectively. Ileum tissue metabolomics were measured by LC-mass spectrometry and assessed by weighted correlation network analysis. Results: Greater α-diversity was observed in the duodena of sow-fed compared with formula-fed neonatal pigs ( P 60% relative abundance in all of the groups. In the duodenum, 77 genera were altered by diet, followed by 48 in the jejunum and 19 in the ileum. Metabolomics analyses revealed associations between ileum tissue metabolites (e.g., acylcarnitines, 3-aminoisobutyric acid) and diet-responsive microbial genera. Conclusions: These results indicate that the neonatal diet has regional effects on the small intestine microbiome in pigs, with the most pronounced effects occurring in the duodena. Regional effects may be important factors when considering gut tissue metabolism and development in the postnatal period. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. DPEP1, expressed in the early stages of colon carcinogenesis, affects cancer cell invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiyama, Yuji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Hiromi; Saigusa, Susumu; Yokoe, Takeshi; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Tanaka, Koji; Miki, Chikao; Kusunoki, Masato

    2011-02-01

    We investigated changes in the gene expression profile in colon cancer in order to identify gene markers that may be useful in the management of this disease. The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project was used to detect differences in gene expression between normal and cancer tissue. The overexpression of dipeptidase-1 (DPEP1) in cancer tissue was confirmed in a sample of 76 patients by real-time PCR. To identify the function of DPEP1, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to inactivate this gene in the colon cancer cell line. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to characterize the pattern of DPEP1 expression in colon cancer. DPEP1 expression in cancer was significantly higher than that in normal tissue. However, DPEP1 expression decreased with pathological differentiation, lymph-node and distant metastasis. Patients with tumors with decreased DPEP1 expression showed a poorer prognosis, and this was also true of patients with tumors who are treated with curative intent. RNAi-mediated DPEP1 reduction in the colon cancer cell line did not result in cell proliferation or apoptosis, but was associated with an increased invasive ability. DPEP1 protein was observed on the apical side of the cancer cells, and is expressed in the early stages of carcinogenesis, even in adenomas of both sporadic colorectal cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis patients. DPEP1 expression in normal colonic mucosa is very low, but it is highly expressed in colorectal adenoma and cancer specimens and is negatively correlated with parameters of pathological aggressiveness and poor prognosis. DPEP1 is expressed in the early stages of colon carcinogenesis and affects cancer cell invasiveness.

  15. Chinese primiparous women's experiences of early motherhood: factors affecting maternal role competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Fei-Wan; Chan, Sally W C; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Chinese women's perceptions of maternal role competence and factors contributing to maternal role competence during early motherhood. Developing a sense of competence and satisfaction in the maternal role are considered critical components in maternal adaptation, which have a significant impact on parenting behaviours and the psychosocial development of the child. However, qualitative studies that address maternal role competence are limited in the Chinese population. This was an exploratory descriptive study. A purposive sample of 26 Chinese primiparous mothers participated in a childbirth psychoeducation programme and was interviewed at six weeks postpartum. Data were analysed using content analysis. Women perceived a competent mother as being able to make a commitment to caring for the physical and emotional well-being of child, while cultivating appropriate values for childhood. Personal knowledge and experience of infant care, success in breastfeeding, infant's well-being, availability of social support and contradictory information from various sources were major factors affecting maternal role competency. The findings highlight the importance of understanding Chinese cultural attitudes to childrearing and maternal role competence. New Chinese mothers need information on child care, positive experiences of infant care, social support and consistent information to enhance their maternal role competency. Recommendations are made for Chinese culturally specific guidelines and healthcare delivery interventions to enhance maternal role competence in early motherhood. Nursing and midwifery care should always take into account the cultural beliefs and enable adaptation of traditional postpartum practices. Providing consistent information and positive experience on parenting skills and infant behaviour as well as enhancing effective coping strategies could strengthen Chinese women's maternal role competency. © 2011 Blackwell

  16. Early affective processing in patients with acute posttraumatic stress disorder: magnetoencephalographic correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Burgmer

    Full Text Available In chronic PTSD, a preattentive neural alarm system responds rapidly to emotional information, leading to increased prefrontal cortex (PFC activation at early processing stages (<100 ms. Enhanced PFC responses are followed by a reduction in occipito-temporal activity during later processing stages. However, it remains unknown if this neuronal pattern is a result of a long lasting mental disorder or if it represents changes in brain function as direct consequences of severe trauma.The present study investigates early fear network activity in acutely traumatized patients with PTSD. It focuses on the question whether dysfunctions previously observed in chronic PTSD patients are already present shortly after trauma exposure. We recorded neuromagnetic activity towards emotional pictures in seven acutely traumatized PTSD patients between one and seven weeks after trauma exposure and compared brain responses to a balanced healthy control sample. Inverse modelling served for mapping sources of differential activation in the brain.Compared to the control group, acutely traumatized PTSD patients showed an enhanced PFC response to high-arousing pictures between 60 to 80 ms. This rapid prefrontal hypervigilance towards arousing pictorial stimuli was sustained during 120-300 ms, where it was accompanied by a reduced affective modulation of occipito-temporal neural processing.Our findings indicate that the hypervigilance-avoidance pattern seen in chronic PTSD is not necessarily a product of an endured mental disorder, but arises as an almost immediate result of severe traumatisation. Thus, traumatic experiences can influence emotion processing strongly, leading to long-lasting changes in trauma network activation and expediting a chronic manifestation of maladaptive cognitive and behavioral symptoms.

  17. Early developmental gene enhancers affect subcortical volumes in the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Martin; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; Hibar, Derrek P; Renteria, Miguel E; Stein, Jason L; Thompson, Paul M; Francks, Clyde; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype-phenotype association typically remains unclear. In this article, we propose a complementary targeted strategy to reveal the genetic underpinnings of variability in subcortical brain volumes, by specifically selecting genomic loci that are experimentally validated forebrain enhancers, active in early embryonic development. We hypothesized that genetic variation within these enhancers may affect the development and ultimately the structure of subcortical brain regions in adults. We tested whether variants in forebrain enhancer regions showed an overall enrichment of association with volumetric variation in subcortical structures of >13,000 healthy adults. We observed significant enrichment of genomic loci that affect the volume of the hippocampus within forebrain enhancers (empirical P = 0.0015), a finding which robustly passed the adjusted threshold for testing of multiple brain phenotypes (cutoff of P < 0.0083 at an alpha of 0.05). In analyses of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identified an association upstream of the ID2 gene with rs7588305 and variation in hippocampal volume. This SNP-based association survived multiple-testing correction for the number of SNPs analyzed but not for the number of subcortical structures. Targeting known regulatory regions offers a way to understand the underlying biology that connects genotypes to phenotypes, particularly in the context of neuroimaging genetics. This biology-driven approach generates testable hypotheses regarding the functional biology of identified associations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1788-1800, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dietary fatty acids early in life affect lipid metabolism and adiposity in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Paula S; Guimarães, Daniella E D; Mizurini, Daniella M; Maia, Ingrid C; Ortiz-Costa, Susana; Sardinha, Fátima L; do Carmo, Maria G Tavares

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four isoenergetic diets of differing fat composition on blood lipid profile and adiposity in young rats. Diets containing different lipid sources--partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO), palm oil (PO), canola oil (CO), and soy oil (SO)--were fed to lactating rats during the 21 days of lactation, and then fed to young males following weaning until the 45th day of life. In vivo lipogenesis rate (LR), lipid content (LC), relative level of FA, and the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) enzyme were measured in epididymal adipose tissue (EPI). Fasting blood lipoproteins and LC in the carcass were also appraised. Body weight of PO and PHVO groups was significantly higher than CO and SO groups from day 14 of lactation to day 45, despite the lower food intake in the PHVO group. PO and PHVO groups presented higher LR and LC in EPI than SO and CO groups. Carcass fat content was significantly higher in PHVO and PO groups than in CO and SO groups. The LPL activity in EPI was unaffected by dietary lipids. PHVO group had increased total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in comparison with the PO group, and significantly lower HDL level compared with the other groups. These results show that the kind of FA in the dietary lipid offered early in life can affect lipid metabolism and adiposity.

  19. Factors affecting the quality of voice in the early glottic cancer treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Baccher, Gurmit K.; Waghmare, Chaitali M.; Mallick, Indranil; Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Pai, Prathamesh; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; D'Cruz, Anil; Shrivastava, Shyam K.; Dinshaw, Ketayun A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To prospectively analyze the objective voice quality before and after radiotherapy (RT) for early glottic cancer and to evaluate the role of different factors that may affect it. Methods: Patients with T1-T2N0M0 glottic cancer underwent voice quality assessment before treatment and after radical RT. Post-RT voice quality was compared to the voice at diagnosis and the voice of healthy individuals used as controls. A comprehensive set of voice parameters were measured. The effects of age, smoking history, T stage, anterior commissure (AC) involvement, radiation dose, fractionation and volumes on pre-treatment and post-treatment voice quality were analyzed. Results: The voice quality data of 50 patients were analyzed. Following treatment, there was a significant improvement in the majority of measured parameters. However, perturbation and HNR remained inferior compared to controls. A history of smoking, AC involvement and larger RT volumes resulted in poorer voice parameters following RT. There was no significant impact of age alone. T2 tumors had an inferior voice quality before treatment, but did not remain inferior following RT. Hypofractionated RT did not show any negative impact. Conclusions: There is a considerable improvement of voice quality following RT. Several factors may have specific effects on pre-treatment and post-treatment voice

  20. Intraspecies variation in BMR does not affect estimates of early hominin total daily energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehle, Andrew W; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2006-12-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 45 studies reporting basal metabolic rate (BMR) data for Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes to determine the effects of sex, age, and latitude (a proxy for climate, in humans only). BMR was normalized for body size using fat-free mass in humans and body mass in chimpanzees. We found no effect of sex in either species and no age effect in chimpanzees. In humans, juveniles differed significantly from adults (ANCOVA: P BMR and body size, and used them to predict total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in four early hominin species. Our predictions concur with previous TEE estimates (i.e. Leonard and Robertson: Am J Phys Anthropol 102 (1997) 265-281), and support the conclusion that TEE increased greatly with H. erectus. Our results show that intraspecific variation in BMR does not affect TEE estimates for interspecific comparisons. Comparisons of more closely related groups such as humans and Neandertals, however, may benefit from consideration of this variation. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Transplacental and early life exposure to inorganic arsenic affected development and behavior in offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Shuhua; Jin, Yaping; Sun, Guifan [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Sun, Wenjuan; Wang, Fengzhi [Shenyang Medical College, Department of Preventive Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2009-06-15

    To evaluate the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic in offspring rats by transplacental and early life exposure to sodium arsenite in drinking water, the pregnant rats or lactating dams, and weaned pups were given free access to drinking water, which contained arsenic at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 mg/L from GD 6 until PND 42. A battery of physical and behavioral tests was applied to evaluate the functional outcome of pups. Pups in arsenic exposed groups weighed less than controls throughout lactation and weaning. Body weight of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups decreased significantly on PND 42, 16 and 12, respectively. Physical development (pinna unfolding, fur appearance, incisor eruption, or eye opening) in pups displayed no significant differences between control and arsenic treated groups. The number of incidences within the 100 mg/L arsenic treated group, in tail hung, auditory startle and visual placing showed significant decrease compared to the control group (p<0.05). In square water maze test, the trained numbers to finish the trials successfully in 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups increased remarkably compared to control group, and there was a dose-related increase (p<0.01) observed. Taken together, these data show that exposure of inorganic arsenite to pregnant dams and offspring pups at levels up to 100 mg/L in drinking water may affect their learning and memory functions and neuromotor reflex. (orig.)

  2. Disembodied Voice and Embodied Affect: e-Reading in Early Childhood Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Hermansson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on observations made in a Swedish digital early childhood classroom during reading time. The question of ‘what is happening’ in the digital classroom when six-year-olds read a fictional electronic book is explored through video observations focusing on children learning to read by engaging in e-books. Informed by affect, as described by Baruch de Spinoza and interpreted by Gilles Deleuze, this article provides a way to attend to the highly dynamic encounters between bodies, ideas and materiality that characterize the children's engagement in e-reading. The analysis suggests that the digital voice is a vital component for activating engagement in and a drive for reading through the moments and movements of embodied reading when children co-read a fictional e-book on their own. Focusing on how e-book reading is enacted in the educational everyday reading practices, this article is an empirically grounded contribution to the understanding of how e-reading is constituted in contemporary digital classroom in all its complexity.

  3. The recruitment of early retirees: a vignette study of the factors that affect managers' decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpinska, K.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Schippers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Retirement is characterised as a dynamic process that has several different outcomes, from early retirement to re-entry to the labour force. Recent studies of the Dutch population show that a substantial number of early retirees re-enter the workforce after early retirement, but others do not

  4. Vaccines and Thimerosal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  5. Early life stress affects mortality rate more than social behavior, gene expression or oxidative damage in honey bee workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, Olav; Yousefi, Babak; Collazo, Juan; Smith, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and Paraquat exposure, early in life. Consequences were measured at the molecular, behavioral, and demographic level. While treatments did not significantly affect levels of oxidative damage, expression of select genes, and titers of the common deformed wing virus, most of these measures were affected by age. Some of the age effects, such as declining levels of deformed wing virus and oxidative damage, were opposite to our predictions but may be explained by demographic selection. Further analyses suggested some influences of worker behavior on mortality and indicated weak treatment effects on behavior. The latter effects were inconsistent among the two experiments. However, mortality rate was consistently reduced by Varroa mite stress during development. Thus, mortality was more responsive to early life stress than our other response variables. The lack of treatment effects on these measures may be due to the social organization of honey bees that buffers the individual from the impact of stressful developmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Loblolly pine grown under elevated CO2 affects early instar pine sawfly performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R S; Lincoln, D E; Thomas, R B

    1994-06-01

    Seedlings of loblolly pine Pinus taeda (L.), were grown in open-topped field chambers under three CO 2 regimes: ambient, 150 μl l -1 CO 2 above ambient, and 300 μl l -1 CO 2 above ambient. A fourth, non-chambered ambient treatment was included to assess chamber effects. Needles were used in 96 h feeding trials to determine the performance of young, second instar larvae of loblolly pine's principal leaf herbivore, red-headed pine sawfly, Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch). The relative consumption rate of larvae significantly increased on plants grown under elevated CO 2 , and needles grown in the highest CO 2 regime were consumed 21% more rapidly than needles grown in ambient CO 2 . Both the significant decline in leaf nitrogen content and the substantial increase in leaf starch content contributed to a significant increase in the starch:nitrogen ratio in plants grown in elevated CO 2 . Insect consumption rate was negatively related to leaf nitrogen content and positively related to the starch:nitrogen ratio. Of the four volatile leaf monoterpenes measured, only β-pinene exhibited a significant CO 2 effect and declined in plants grown in elevated CO 2 . Although consumption changed, the relative growth rates of larvae were not different among CO 2 treatments. Despite lower nitrogen consumption rates by larvae feeding on the plants grown in elevated CO 2 , nitrogen accumulation rates were the same for all treatments due to a significant increase in nitrogen utilization efficiency. The ability of this insect to respond at an early, potentially susceptible larval stage to poorer food quality and declining levels of a leaf monoterpene suggest that changes in needle quality within pines in future elevated-CO 2 atmospheres may not especially affect young insects and that tree-feeding sawflies may respond in a manner similar to herb-feeding lepidopterans.

  7. Time-Dependent Behavior of Shrinkage Strain for Early Age Concrete Affected by Temperature Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Yu; Yi, Zhijian; Wang, Weina; Wang, Di

    2017-01-01

    Shrinkage has been proven to be an important property of early age concrete. The shrinkage strain leads to inherent engineering problems, such as cracking and loss of prestress. Atmospheric temperature is an important factor in shrinkage strain. However, current research does not provide much attention to the effect of atmospheric temperature on shrinkage of early age concrete. In this paper, a laboratory study was undertaken to present the time-dependent shrinkage of early age concrete under...

  8. The Roles of Motivation, Affective Attitudes, and Willingness to Communicate among Chinese Students in Early English Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, Ellen; Chi, Yanping

    2012-01-01

    Early English immersion in China has been studied from many angles, but no research to date has investigated affective variables, which may have a profound relevance to successful English acquisition. The present study examines the roles of motivation, attitudes towards learning English, willingness to communicate, perceived competence, language…

  9. RESPONSE TO THE RICHARD ERSKINES ARTICLE RELATIONAL HEALING OF EARLY AFFECT-CONFUSION - PART 3 OF A CASE STUDY TRILOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides four responses from senior psychotherapists and supervisors to Erskine’s articleRelational Healing of Early Affect-Confusion. The authors approach the third part of case study trilogy from their particular perspective and provide both challenge and respect for the author’s work.

  10. Exposure to Mercury and Aluminum in Early Life: Developmental Vulnerability as a Modifying Factor in Neurologic and Immunologic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Dórea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, ethylmercury (EtHg and adjuvant-Al are the dominating interventional exposures encountered by fetuses, newborns, and infants due to immunization with Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs. Despite their long use as active agents of medicines and fungicides, the safety levels of these substances have never been determined, either for animals or for adult humans—much less for fetuses, newborns, infants, and children. I reviewed the literature for papers reporting on outcomes associated with (a multiple exposures and metabolism of EtHg and Al during early life; (b physiological and metabolic characteristics of newborns, neonates, and infants relevant to xenobiotic exposure and effects; (c neurobehavioral, immunological, and inflammatory reactions to Thimerosal and Al-adjuvants resulting from TCV exposure in infancy. Immunological and neurobehavioral effects of Thimerosal-EtHg and Al-adjuvants are not extraordinary; rather, these effects are easily detected in high and low income countries, with co-exposure to methylmercury (MeHg or other neurotoxicants. Rigorous and replicable studies (in different animal species have shown evidence of EtHg and Al toxicities. More research attention has been given to EtHg and findings have showed a solid link with neurotoxic effects in humans; however, the potential synergic effect of both toxic agents has not been properly studied. Therefore, early life exposure to both EtHg and Al deserves due consideration.

  11. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    Recent research has provided great insight into the impact of early experience on brain development. It is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring…

  12. Heavy rare earth elements affect early life stages in Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula sea urchins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral, Rahime; Pagano, Giovanni; Siciliano, Antonietta; Gravina, Maria; Palumbo, Anna; Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; Thomas, Philippe J.; Guida, Marco; Tommasi, Franca; Trifuoggi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Background: Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) have been scarcely studied for their toxicity, in spite of their applications in several technologies. Thus HREEs require timely investigations for their adverse health effects. Methods: Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula embryos and sperm were exposed to trichloride salts of five HREEs (Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu) and to Ce(III) as a light REE (LREE) reference to evaluate: 1) developmental defects (% DD) in HREE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of HREE-exposed sperm; 2) mitotic anomalies; 3) fertilization success; and 4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Nominal HREE concentrations were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: HREEs induced concentration-related DD increases in P. lividus and A. lixula larvae, ranging from no significant DD increase at 10 −7 M HREEs up to ≅100% DD at 10 −5 M HREE. Larvae exposed to 10 −5 M Ce(III) resulted in less severe DD rates compared to HREEs. Decreased mitotic activity and increased aberration rates were found in HREE-exposed P. lividus embryos. Significant increases in ROS formation and NO levels were found both in HREE-exposed and in Ce(III) embryos, whereas only Ce(III), but not HREEs resulted in significant increase in MDA levels. Sperm exposure to HREEs (10 −5 –10 −4 M) resulted in a concentration-related decrease in fertilization success along with increase in offspring damage. These effects were significantly enhanced for Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III) and Yb(III), compared to Lu(III) and to Ce(III). Conclusion: HREE-associated toxicity affected embryogenesis, fertilization, cytogenetic and redox endpoints showing different toxicities of tested HREEs. - Highlights: • Different toxicities were exerted by five tested HREEs on sea urchin early life stages. • Sea urchin embryos and sperm were sensitive to HREE levels ranging from 1 to 100 μM, according to

  13. Heavy rare earth elements affect early life stages in Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula sea urchins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, Rahime [Ege University, Faculty of Fisheries, TR-35100 Bornova, İzmir (Turkey); Pagano, Giovanni, E-mail: gbpagano@tin.it [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Chemical Sciences, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Siciliano, Antonietta; Gravina, Maria [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Biology, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Palumbo, Anna; Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Thomas, Philippe J. [Environment and Climate Change Canada, Science & Technology Branch, National Wildlife Research Center – Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Guida, Marco [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Biology, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Tommasi, Franca [University of Bari, Department of Biology, Bari (Italy); Trifuoggi, Marco [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Chemical Sciences, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) have been scarcely studied for their toxicity, in spite of their applications in several technologies. Thus HREEs require timely investigations for their adverse health effects. Methods: Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula embryos and sperm were exposed to trichloride salts of five HREEs (Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu) and to Ce(III) as a light REE (LREE) reference to evaluate: 1) developmental defects (% DD) in HREE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of HREE-exposed sperm; 2) mitotic anomalies; 3) fertilization success; and 4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Nominal HREE concentrations were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: HREEs induced concentration-related DD increases in P. lividus and A. lixula larvae, ranging from no significant DD increase at 10{sup −7} M HREEs up to ≅100% DD at 10{sup −5} M HREE. Larvae exposed to 10{sup −5} M Ce(III) resulted in less severe DD rates compared to HREEs. Decreased mitotic activity and increased aberration rates were found in HREE-exposed P. lividus embryos. Significant increases in ROS formation and NO levels were found both in HREE-exposed and in Ce(III) embryos, whereas only Ce(III), but not HREEs resulted in significant increase in MDA levels. Sperm exposure to HREEs (10{sup −5}–10{sup −4} M) resulted in a concentration-related decrease in fertilization success along with increase in offspring damage. These effects were significantly enhanced for Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III) and Yb(III), compared to Lu(III) and to Ce(III). Conclusion: HREE-associated toxicity affected embryogenesis, fertilization, cytogenetic and redox endpoints showing different toxicities of tested HREEs. - Highlights: • Different toxicities were exerted by five tested HREEs on sea urchin early life stages. • Sea urchin embryos and sperm were sensitive to HREE levels ranging from 1 to 100

  14. A Genetically Informed Cross-lagged Analysis of Autistic-Like Traits and Affective Problems in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micalizzi, Lauren; Ronald, Angelica; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    A genetically informed cross-lagged model was applied to twin data to explore etiological links between autistic-like traits and affective problems in early childhood. The sample comprised 310 same-sex twin pairs (143 monozygotic and 167 dizygotic; 53% male). Autistic-like traits and affective problems were assessed at ages 2 and 3 using parent ratings. Both constructs were related within and across age (r = .30−.53) and showed moderate stability (r = .45−.54). Autistic-like traits and affective problems showed genetic and environmental influences at both ages. Whereas at age 2, the covariance between autistic-like traits and affective problems was entirely due to environmental influences (shared and nonshared), at age 3, genetic factors also contributed to the covariance between constructs. The stability paths, but not the cross-lagged paths, were significant, indicating that there is stability in both autistic-like traits and affective problems but they do not mutually influence each other across age. Stability effects were due to genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences. Substantial novel genetic and nonshared environmental influences emerge at age 3 and suggest change in the etiology of these constructs over time. During early childhood, autistic-like traits tend to occur alongside affective problems and partly overlapping genetic and environmental influences explain this association. PMID:26456961

  15. Early life experiences affect the adaptive capacity of rearing hens during infectious challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, I.; Napel, ten J.; Kemp, B.; Schipper, H.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether pre- and early postnatal experiences of rearing hens contribute to the ability to cope with infectious challenges at an older age. In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 352 Lohmann Brown chicks were exposed to either suboptimal or optimized incubation plus hatch

  16. Prenatal light exposure affects early feather-pecking behaviour in the domestic chick

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedstra, B; Groothuis, TGG

    Recently we proposed that early feather pecking is a form of social exploration. Social recognition, important for exploration, is a lateralized function in the domestic chick. Lateralization of functions can be influenced by light exposure late in embryonic development. Therefore, we investigated

  17. Early postnatal diets affect the bioregional small intestine microbiome and ileal metabolome in neonatal piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exclusive breastfeeding is known to be protective against gastrointestinal disorders and may modify gut development. Although the gut microbiome has been implicated, little is known about how early diet impacts the small intestinal microbiome, and how microbial shifts impact gut metabolic physiology...

  18. Root-zone temperature and water availability affect early root growth of planted longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Sword

    1995-01-01

    Longleaf pine seedlings from three seed sources were exposed to three root-zone temperatures and three levels of water availability for 28 days. Root growth declined as temperature and water availability decreased. Root growth differed by seed source. Results suggest that subtle changes in the regeneration environment may influence early root growth of longleaf pine...

  19. Evolutionary conserved neural signature of early life stress affects animal social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Cecilia; Fischer, Stefan; Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Taborsky, Barbara

    2018-01-31

    In vertebrates, the early social environment can persistently influence behaviour and social competence later in life. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in animal social competence are largely unknown. In rats, high-quality maternal care causes an upregulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors ( gr ) and reduces offspring stress responsiveness. This identifies gr regulation as a candidate mechanism for maintaining variation in animal social competence. We tested this hypothesis in a highly social cichlid fish, Neolamprologus pulcher , reared with or without caring parents. We find that the molecular pathway translating early social experience into later-life alterations of the stress axis is homologous across vertebrates: fish reared with parents expressed the glucocorticoid receptor gr1 more in the telencephalon. Furthermore, expression levels of the transcription factor egr-1 (early growth response 1) were associated with gr1 expression in the telencephalon and hypothalamus. When blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GR) with an antagonist, mifepristone (RU486), parent-reared individuals showed more socially appropriate, submissive behaviour when intruding on a larger conspecific's territory. Remarkably, mifepristone-treated fish were less attacked by territory owners and had a higher likelihood of territory takeover. Our results indicate that early social-environment effects on stress axis programming are mediated by an evolutionary conserved molecular pathway, which is causally involved in environmentally induced variation of animal social competence. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. Dynamic cerebral autoregulatory capacity is affected early in Type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Yu-Sok; Immink, Rogier V.; Stok, Wim J.; Karemaker, John M.; Secher, Niels H.; van Lieshout, Johannes J.

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of endothelial dysfunction and microvascular complications with impaired autoregulation of tissue perfusion. Both microvascular disease and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy may affect cerebral autoregulation. In the present study, we tested the

  1. IVF culture medium affects human intrauterine growth as early as the second trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Ewka C M; Van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Smits, Luc J M; Menheere, Paul P C A; Evers, Johannes L H; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Peeters, Louis L; Coumans, Audrey B; Dumoulin, John C M

    2013-08-01

    When does a difference in human intrauterine growth of singletons conceived after IVF and embryo culture in two different culture media appear? Differences in fetal development after culture of embryos in one of two IVF media were apparent as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. Abnormal fetal growth patterns are a major risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in adult life. Previously, we have shown that the medium used for culturing embryos during the first few days after fertilization significantly affects the birthweight of the resulting human singletons. The exact onset of this growth difference was unknown. In this retrospective cohort study, all 294 singleton live births after fresh embryo transfer in the period July 2003 to December 2006 were included. These embryos originated from IVF treatments that were part of a previously described clinical trial. Embryos were allocated to culture in either Vitrolife or Cook commercially available sequential culture media. We analysed ultrasound examinations at 8 (n = 290), 12 (n = 83) and 20 weeks' (n = 206) gestation and used first-trimester serum markers [pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free β-hCG]. Differences between study groups were tested by the Student's t-test, χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test, and linear multivariable regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders (for example, parity, gestational age at the time of ultrasound and fetal gender). A total of 294 singleton pregnancies (Vitrolife group nVL = 168, Cook group: nC = 126) from 294 couples were included. At 8 weeks' gestation, there was no difference between crown-rump length-based and ovum retrieval-based gestational age (ΔGA) (nVL = 163, nC = 122, adjusted mean difference, -0.04 days, P = 0.84). A total of 83 women underwent first-trimester screening at 12 weeks' gestation (nVL = 45, nC = 38). ΔGA, nuchal translucency (multiples of median, MoM) and PAPP-A (MoM) did not differ between the study

  2. Interpersonal processes affecting early alliance formation in experiential therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Karen; Pos, Alberta E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of in-session interpersonal process and pre-therapy interpersonal problems on session-one alliance formation for 32 clients who received short-term experiential therapy for depression. Interpersonal behavior measured by the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior, as well as clients' pre-therapy reports of interpersonal problems significantly related to session-one alliance scores. Greater client disclosure independently predicted a stronger session-one bond with the therapist. Both greater client disclosure (positively) and pre-therapy Social Inhibition (negatively) independently predicted early goal agreement. Findings suggest that client disclosure is a marker of early engagement in experiential therapy, as well as support this model's mandate to form interpersonally safe therapeutic environments from the first moments of therapy.

  3. Early learning affects social dominance: interspecifically cross-fostered tits become subdominant

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Terning Hansen; Tore Slagsvold

    2004-01-01

    Social dominance influences the outcome of competitive interactions over limited resources, and may hence be important for individual fitness. Theory thus predicts that its heritability will be low and that non-genetic determinants of dominance should prevail. In this field experiment we reciprocally cross-fostered great tits (Parus major) to blue tits (Parus caeruleus) to investigate the impact of early social experience on dominance status in competition over food during winter. Controlling...

  4. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? a cross-national study

    OpenAIRE

    Ritesh Bhandarkar; Ajit Shah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. Methods: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. Results: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the pe...

  5. Institutional factors that affect black South African students' perceptions of early childhood teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G Steyn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Black students account for over 72% of enrolments in higher education, but only a small percentage of them choose Early Childhood Education (ECE as a field of study and complete the qualification. The purpose of this study was to examine, from the perspective of black ECE students, why so few of them enrol in this particular programme at a historically white university. Through a qualitative, case study approach the reasons for the low enrolment and completion rates were investigated. Participants mentioned that recruitment for this programme, particularly in rural areas should be improved. They also pointed out the higher prestige of other career options, the linguistic challenges they face, the cost of university education and early teacher education in particular, as well as access to transport and resources as barriers to recruitment and retention. Their recommendations for higher enrolment rates included the use of black students to recruit in rural and in township areas, increased funding for bursaries, and more culturally sensitive pedagogies in early childhood teacher education.

  6. Early social environment affects the endogenous oxytocin system: a review and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eAlves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous oxytocin plays an important role in a wide range of human functions including birth, milk ejection during lactation and facilitation of social interaction. There is increasing evidence that both variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR and concentrations of oxytocin are associated with differences in these functions. The causes for the differences that have been observed in tonic and stimulated oxytocin release remain unclear. Previous reviews have suggested that across the life course, these differences may be due to individual factors, e.g. genetic variation (of the OXTR, age or sex, or be the result of early environmental influences such as social experiences, stress or trauma partly by inducing epigenetic changes. This review has three aims. First, we briefly discuss the endogenous oxytocin system, including physiology, development, individual differences and function. Secondly, current models describing the relationship between the early life environment and the development of the oxytocin system in humans and animals are discussed. Finally, we describe research designs that can be used to investigate the effects of the early environment on the oxytocin system, identifying specific areas of research that need further attention.

  7. Maternal early-life trauma and affective parenting style: the mediating role of HPA-axis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Sarah H; Hendrix, Cassandra; Robinson, Brittany; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A; Johnson, Katrina C

    2016-02-01

    A history of childhood trauma is associated with increased risk for psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood and, for those who have children, impairments in parenting and increased risk of negative outcomes in offspring. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In the current study, maternal history of childhood trauma was hypothesized to predict differences in maternal affect and HPA axis functioning. Mother-infant dyads (N = 255) were assessed at 6 months postpartum. Mothers were videotaped during a 3-min naturalistic interaction, and their behavior was coded for positive, neutral, and negative affect. Maternal salivary cortisol was measured six times across the study visit, which also included an infant stressor paradigm. Results showed that childhood trauma history predicted increased neutral affect and decreased mean cortisol in the mothers and that cortisol mediated the association between trauma history and maternal affect. Maternal depression was not associated with affective measures or cortisol. Results suggest that early childhood trauma may disrupt the development of the HPA axis, which in turn impairs affective expression during mother-infant interactions in postpartum women. Interventions aimed at treating psychiatric illness in postpartum women may benefit from specific components to assess and treat trauma-related symptoms and prevent secondary effects on parenting.

  8. Social stress in early adolescents' daily lives : Associations with affect and loneliness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected

  9. Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.N.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Kemp, B.; Groothuis, T.G.G.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of

  10. Parents and early life environment affect behavioral development of laying hen chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Elske N. de; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G.G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of

  11. Abnormal early brain responses during visual search are evident in schizophrenia but not bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanMeerten, Nicolaas J; Dubke, Rachel E; Stanwyck, John J; Kang, Seung Suk; Sponheim, Scott R

    2016-01-01

    People with schizophrenia show deficits in processing visual stimuli but neural abnormalities underlying the deficits are unclear and it is unknown whether such functional brain abnormalities are present in other severe mental disorders or in individuals who carry genetic liability for schizophrenia. To better characterize brain responses underlying visual search deficits and test their specificity to schizophrenia we gathered behavioral and electrophysiological responses during visual search (i.e., Span of Apprehension [SOA] task) from 38 people with schizophrenia, 31 people with bipolar disorder, 58 biological relatives of people with schizophrenia, 37 biological relatives of people with bipolar disorder, and 65 non-psychiatric control participants. Through subtracting neural responses associated with purely sensory aspects of the stimuli we found that people with schizophrenia exhibited reduced early posterior task-related neural responses (i.e., Span Endogenous Negativity [SEN]) while other groups showed normative responses. People with schizophrenia exhibited longer reaction times than controls during visual search but nearly identical accuracy. Those individuals with schizophrenia who had larger SENs performed more efficiently (i.e., shorter reaction times) on the SOA task suggesting that modulation of early visual cortical responses facilitated their visual search. People with schizophrenia also exhibited a diminished P300 response compared to other groups. Unaffected first-degree relatives of people with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed an amplified N1 response over posterior brain regions in comparison to other groups. Diminished early posterior brain responses are associated with impaired visual search in schizophrenia and appear to be specifically associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? A cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality). Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood. ‎

  13. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Bhandarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. METHODS: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. RESULTS: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood.

  14. Unknown loads affect force production capacity in early phases of bench press throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Davó, J L; Sabido Solana, R; Sarabia Marínm, J M; Sánchez Martos, Á; Moya Ramón, M

    2015-10-01

    Explosive strength training aims to improve force generation in early phases of movement due to its importance in sport performance. The present study examined the influence of lack of knowledge about the load lifted in explosive parameters during bench press throws. Thirteen healthy young men (22.8±2.0 years) participated in the study. Participants performed bench press throws with three different loads (30, 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum) in two different conditions (known and unknown loads). In unknown condition, loads were changed within sets in each repetition and participants did not know the load, whereas in known condition the load did not change within sets and participants had knowledge about the load lifted. Results of repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that unknown conditions involves higher power in the first 30, 50, 100 and 150 ms with the three loads, higher values of ratio of force development in those first instants, and differences in time to reach maximal rate of force development with 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum. This study showed that unknown conditions elicit higher values of explosive parameters in early phases of bench press throws, thereby this kind of methodology could be considered in explosive strength training.

  15. Metabolism of early-lactation dairy cows as affected by dietary starch and monensin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Pelton, S H; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary starch content and monensin (MON) on metabolism of dairy cows during early lactation. Before parturition, primiparous (n=21) and multiparous (n=49) Holstein cows were fed a common controlled-energy close-up diet with a daily topdress of either 0 or 400mg/d monensin. From d 1 to 21 postpartum, cows were fed a high-starch (HS; 26.2% starch, 34.3% neutral detergent fiber, 22.7% acid detergent fiber, 15.5% crude protein) or low-starch (LS; 21.5% starch, 36.9% neutral detergent fiber, 25.2% acid detergent fiber, 15.4% crude protein) total mixed ration with a daily topdress of either 0mg/d monensin (CON) or 450mg/d monensin (MON), continuing with prepartum topdress assignment. From d 22 through 63 postpartum, all cows were fed HS and continued with the assigned topdress treatment until d 63. Cows fed HS had higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) than cows fed LS during d 1 to 21 postpartum. Cows fed LS had elevated early-lactation β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) compared with cows fed HS. Cows fed HS had greater insulin resistance and increased plasma haptoglobin in the early lactation period. There was no effect of MON on postpartum plasma NEFA. Cows fed MON had higher plasma glucose compared with CON cows, which was driven by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had greater plasma glucose concentrations than cows fed CON. Cows fed MON had lower plasma BHBA compared with CON, which was contributed to by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had lower BHBA concentrations than CON. Starch treatment had no effect on overall liver triglyceride content. Primiparous cows fed MON had increased liver triglyceride content compared with CON primiparous cows, and multiparous cows fed MON had decreased liver triglyceride content compared with CON cows. Multiparous cows fed LS with MON had higher liver glycogen content than multiparous

  16. Production performance and plasma metabolites of dairy ewes in early lactation as affected by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, A.; Arranz, J.; Mandaluniz, N.; Beltrán-de-Heredia, I.; Ruiz, R.; Goiri, I.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan (CHI) supplementation on production performance and blood parameters in dairy ewes. Twenty-four multiparous Latxa dairy ewes at d 16 of lactation were divided into two groups of 12 ewes each. Ewes were fed one of two experimental concentrates (0.840 kg dry matter/d), control or supplemented with 1.2% CHI, on a dry matter basis. Ewes also had free access to tall fescue hay, water, and mineral salts. The experimental period lasted for 25 d, of which the first 14 d were for treatment adaptation and the last 11 d for measurements and samplings. Supplementation with CHI decreased total (p=0.043) and fescue (p=0.035) dry matter intake (DMI), but did not affect concentrate DMI. Supplementation with CHI, moreover, increased plasma glucose (p=0.013) and BUN concentrations (p=0.035), but did not affect those of non-esterified fatty acids. Dietary supplementation with CHI, however, did not affect milk yield, 6.5% FCM, milk composition, or BW, but it improved dietary apparent efficiency by increasing the milk yield-to-DMI (p=0.055) and 6.5% FCM-to-DMI (p=0.045) ratios. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of chitosan maintained ewe performance while reducing feed intake and improving dietary apparent efficiency. (Author)

  17. A review on early gut maturation and colonization in pigs, including biological and dietary factors affecting gut homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Everaert, Nadia; Van Cruchten, Steven; Weström, Björn

    2017-01-01

    During the prenatal, neonatal and post-weaning periods, the mammalian gastrointestinal tract undergoes various morphological and physiological changes alongside with an expansion of the immune system and microbial ecosystem. This review focuses on the time period before weaning and summarizes...... in digestive function coincides with development in both the adaptive and innate immune system. This secures a balanced immune response to the ingested milk-derived macromolecules, and colonizing bacteria. Husbandry and dietary interventions in early life appear to affect the development of multiple components...... and immunological maturation, as influenced by early microbial colonization and ingestion of dietary factors, is of utmost importance to identify management and feeding strategies to optimize intestinal health. We discuss some possible implications related to intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm delivery...

  18. Perceptions of stigma among people affected by early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Rosalie

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this research was to explore perceptions of stigma among people with early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease and those who support them, using questionnaires ( n = 44) and semi-structured interviews ( n = 14). Perceived stigma reporting was low in the questionnaires, whereas interviews revealed higher levels of perceived stigma in the form of unpredictable reactions to diagnosis, feeling stupid and ignorance of the condition among the public. Perceived stigma was managed in similar ways across age groups, focusing on 'being the lucky ones'. Results support the need to further tackle stigma and challenge expectations, particularly given the drive to diagnose people and thereby expose them to stigma.

  19. Zebrafish foxo3b negatively regulates canonical Wnt signaling to affect early embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun-wei Xie

    Full Text Available FOXO genes are involved in many aspects of development and vascular homeostasis by regulating cell apoptosis, proliferation, and the control of oxidative stress. In addition, FOXO genes have been showed to inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling by competing with T cell factor to bind to β-catenin. However, how important of this inhibition in vivo, particularly in embryogenesis is still unknown. To demonstrate the roles of FOXO genes in embryogenesis will help us to further understand their relevant physiological functions. Zebrafish foxo3b gene, an orthologue of mammalian FOXO3, was expressed maternally and distributed ubiquitously during early embryogenesis and later restricted to brain. After morpholino-mediated knockdown of foxo3b, the zebrafish embryos exhibited defects in axis and neuroectoderm formation, suggesting its critical role in early embryogenesis. The embryo-developmental marker gene staining at different stages, phenotype analysis and rescue assays revealed that foxo3b acted its role through negatively regulating both maternal and zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Moreover, we found that foxo3b could interact with zebrafish β-catenin1 and β-catenin2 to suppress their transactivation in vitro and in vivo, further confirming its role relevant to the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Taken together, we revealed that foxo3b played a very important role in embryogenesis and negatively regulated maternal and zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling by directly interacting with both β-catenin1 and β-catenin2. Our studies provide an in vivo model for illustrating function of FOXO transcription factors in embryogenesis.

  20. EARLY AFFECT-CONFUSION: THE BORDERLINE BETWEEN DESPAIR AND RAGE - PART 1 OF A CASE STUDY TRILOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This three part case study illustrates the principles, theoretical concepts, and relational methods of Integrative Psychotherapy in the treatment of a client who continually experienced early affect-confusion and lived on a “borderline” between intense neediness and rage, despair and self-reliance, impulsivity and manipulation. Part 1 describes the behavioral dynamics of a 38 year old female client who required a two-part treatment approach that emphasized an inter-subjective relationship, consistency, and respect while helping her to acknowledge and value her relational-needs and to engage in a relationally contactful form of anger.

  1. Early intraoperative blood collection does not affect complete blood counts, von Willebrand factor or factor VIII levels in normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hanni; Mundell, Gillianne; Engen, Dale; Lillicrap, David; Silva, Mariana; James, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining blood from children for research studies can be difficult, particularly for controls. One solution is to obtain samples during elective surgery; however, consideration must be given to the potential effects of the timing of phlebotomy. Ten children were recruited and phlebotomy was carried out during a preoperative clinic visit and intraoperatively immediately after the induction of anesthesia but before the start of surgery. CBCs, VWF, and FVIII levels were measured at both time points and no significant differences were seen. This negative result may be beneficial to pediatric research by suggesting that early intraoperative blood collection for controls does not affect the results.

  2. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enise Bagci

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1 and type 2 (D2 increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3 decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray, biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO and knockdown of D3 (D3MO both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct

  3. Analysis of factors affecting the early hypothyroidism following 131I treatment of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Rong; Kuang Anren; Qin Weishi

    2001-01-01

    Objective: It is a retrospective study designed to evaluate the early therapeutic outcome of radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves' disease and determine whether the outcome of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease depends on thyroid volume, function, thyreo-stasis, therapeutic dosage, 131 I uptake, age, sex, and absorbed doses by per gram of thyroid tissue. Methods: One year after treatment, 342 patients were divided into two groups according to whether there was hypothyroidism, t test and x 2 test were used to compare the variable parameters between the two groups. Results: 92.1% were cured with a single dose of 131 I, and 21.2% contracted hypothyroidism at 12 months after treatment. The outcome of treatment at 12 months depended on the volume of thyroid and the absorbed doses by per gram of thyroid tissue. And pretreatment with thyreo-stasis did not reduce the therapeutic efficacy of 131 I in hyperthyroidism if antithyroid drugs were discontinued at least 3 days before 131 I treatment. Conclusions: Since most hypothyroidism occurred in patients whose thyroid volume is small, appropriate reduction of target dose is recommended here for those patients

  4. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  5. Detection of selected periodontal bacteria in preschool children affected by early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantuckova, Pavla; Bartosova, Michaela; Broukal, Zdenek; Kukletova, Martina; Holla, Lydie Izakovicova

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the detection frequency of periodontal bacteria in dental plaque in children with early childhood caries (ECC) with and without gingival inflammation. A convenience sample of 25 preschool children (mean age 3.61 years, SD 1.42) was recruited. Dental plaque was taken from periodontal areas with and without visible signs of inflammation and processed using the StomaGene® (Protean s.r.o. Czech Republic) and ParoCheck® 20 (Greiner Bio-one GmbH, Germany) detection kits. The two sample t tests between percents for differences between inflammatory and healthy sites and kappa statistics for the agreement of both systems were used. At the inflammatory sites, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were significantly more frequently detected by StomaGene® while Fusobacterium nucleatum, A. actinomycetemcomitans, Tanarella forsythia and Prevotella intermedia were significantly more frequently identified by ParoCheck® test. The agreement between the two detection systems was substantial for A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum in the samples collected from inflamed sites and only for F. nucleatum from clinically healthy sites. Therefore, we recommend that the same system should be used when the same patient is examined repeatedly.

  6. Early efficacy of the ketogenic diet is not affected by initial body mass index percentile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Shastin; Diaz-Medina, Gloria; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Nickels, Katherine; Eckert, Susan; Wirrell, Elaine

    2014-05-01

    Predictors of the ketogenic diet's success in treating pediatric intractable epilepsy are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether initial body mass index and weight percentile impact early efficacy of the traditional ketogenic diet in children initiating therapy for intractable epilepsy. This retrospective study included all children initiating the ketogenic diet at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from January 2001 to December 2010 who had body mass index (children ≥2 years of age) or weight percentile (those diet initiation and seizure frequency recorded at diet initiation and one month. Responders were defined as achieving a >50% seizure reduction from baseline. Our cohort consisted of 48 patients (20 male) with a median age of 3.1 years. There was no significant correlation between initial body mass index or weight percentile and seizure frequency reduction at one month (P = 0.72, r = 0.26 and P = 0.91, r = 0.03). There was no significant association between body mass index or weight percentile quartile and responder rates (P = 0.21 and P = 0.57). Children considered overweight or obese at diet initiation (body mass index or weight percentile ≥85) did not have lower responder rates than those with body mass index or weight percentiles ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic cerebral autoregulatory capacity is affected early in Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Y.S.; Immink, R.V.; Stok, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of endothelial dysfunction and microvascular complications with impaired autoregulation of tissue perfusion. Both microvascular disease and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy may affect cerebral autoregulation. In the present study, we tested...... the hypothesis that, in the absence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, cerebral autoregulation is impaired in subjects with DM+ (Type 2 diabetes with microvascular complications) but intact in subjects with DM- (Type 2 diabetes without microvascular complications). Dynamic cerebral autoregulation...... and the steady-state cerebrovascular response to postural change were studied in subjects with DM+ and DM-, in the absence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, and in CTRL (healthy control) subjects. The relationship between spontaneous changes in MCA V(mean) (middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity...

  8. Metal cycling during sediment early diagenesis in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Ester; Ayora, Carlos; Canovas, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    The discharge of acid mine drainage (AMD) into a reservoir may seriously affect the water quality. To investigate the metal transfer between the water and the sediment, three cores were collected from the Sancho Reservoir (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) during different seasons: turnover event......; oxic, stratified period; anoxic and under shallow perennially oxic conditions. The cores were sliced in an oxygen-free atmosphere, after which pore water was extracted by centrifugation and analyzed. A sequential extraction was then applied to the sediments to extract the water-soluble, monosulfide......, low crystallinity Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide, crystalline Fe(III)-oxide, organic, pyrite and residual phases. The results showed that, despite the acidic chemistry of the water column (pH

  9. Early life factors initiate a 'vicious circle' of affective and gastrointestinal symptoms: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael P; Oudenhove, Lukas Van; Koloski, Natasha; Tack, Jan; Talley, Nicholas J

    2013-10-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) have been shown to be associated with both comorbid mood disorders and traumatic events such as abuse earlier in life. In a longitudinal study, we tested a model that hypothesized: (i) childhood abuse was associated with subsequent mood disorder and pain or interference in life by bowel symptoms both directly and indirectly via neurotic personality; and (ii) an ongoing cycle of mood disorder impacts on bowel symptoms. Subjects from the general population classified as irritable bowel syndrome and/or functional dyspepsia (IBS/FD, n = 207) or free of FGID (n = 100) were prospectively studied every 6 months over 18 months. In addition to bowel symptom interference and abdominal pain, measures of personality (neuroticism), childhood abuse history, depression, and anxiety were obtained. The hypothesized model was tested via Path Modelling. Childhood abuse was found to be directly associated with neuroticism but only indirectly associated with baseline interference and mood disorders (via neuroticism). The data further supported an ongoing cycle of elevations in mood disorders and pain/interference by bowel symptoms. The data supported direct effects of interference at one time point on interference at the subsequent time point in addition to indirect effects of prior anxiety and depression. Repeating the model with pain frequency as the outcome yielded almost identical findings which suggests the findings are generalized across domains of symptoms and quality-of-life. Our data provide support for a model characterized by a 'vicious circle' between mood disorders and FGID symptoms in adulthood, with initial input from early life factors.

  10. Nanodiamond modified copolymer scaffolds affects tumour progression of early neoplastic oral keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Salwa; Mustafa, Kamal; Krueger, Anke; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Osdal, Tereza; Hamza, Amani O; Sun, Yang; Parajuli, Himalaya; Waag, Thilo; Nickel, Joachim; Johannessen, Anne Christine; McCormack, Emmet; Costea, Daniela Elena

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the tumorigenic potential of functionalising poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds. The copolymer scaffolds were functionalised with nanodiamonds (nDP) or with nDP and physisorbed BMP-2 (nDP-PHY) to enhance osteoinductivity. Culturing early neoplastic dysplastic keratinocytes (DOK(Luc)) on nDP modified scaffolds reduced significantly their subsequent sphere formation ability and decreased significantly the cells' proliferation in the supra-basal layers of in vitro 3D oral neoplastic mucosa (3D-OT) when compared to DOK(Luc) previously cultured on nDP-PHY scaffolds. Using an in vivo non-invasive environmentally-induced oral carcinogenesis model, nDP scaffolds were observed to reduce bioluminescence intensity of tumours formed by DOK(Luc) + carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAF). nDP modification was also found to promote differentiation of DOK(Luc) both in vitro in 3D-OT and in vivo in xenografts formed by DOK(Luc) alone. The nDP-PHY scaffold had the highest number of invasive tumours formed by DOK(Luc) + CAF outside the scaffold area compared to the nDP and control scaffolds. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo results presented here demonstrate that nDP modified copolymer scaffolds are able to decrease the tumorigenic potential of DOK(Luc), while confirming concerns for the therapeutic use of BMP-2 for reconstruction of bone defects in oral cancer patients due to its tumour promoting capabilities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Does Self-Efficacy Affect Cognitive Performance in Persons with Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Early Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Joseph Jongen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In persons with multiple sclerosis (MS a lowered self-efficacy negatively affects physical activities. Against this background we studied the relationship between self-efficacy and cognitive performance in the early stages of MS. Thirty-three patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS and early Relapsing Remitting MS (eRRMS were assessed for self-efficacy (MSSES-18, cognition (CDR System, fatigue (MFIS-5, depressive symptoms (BDI, disease impact (MSIS-29, and disability (EDSS. Correlative analyses were performed between self-efficacy and cognitive scores, and stepwise regression analyses identified predictors of cognition and self-efficacy. Good correlations existed between total self-efficacy and Power of Attention (r= 0.65; P< 0.001, Reaction Time Variability (r= 0.57; P< 0.001, and Speed of Memory (r= 0.53; P< 0.01, and between control self-efficacy and Reaction Time Variability (r= 0.55; P< 0.01. Total self-efficacy predicted 40% of Power of Attention, 34% of Reaction Time Variability, and 40% of Speed of Memory variabilities. Disease impact predicted 65% of total self-efficacy and 58% of control self-efficacy variabilities. The findings may suggest that in persons with CIS and eRRMS self-efficacy may positively affect cognitive performance and that prevention of disease activity may preserve self-efficacy.

  12. Early corticosteroid treatment does not affect severity of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in extreme low birth weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulzebos, Christian V; Bos, Arend F; Anttila, Eija; Hallman, Mikko; Verkade, Henkjan J

    2011-02-01

    To determine the relationship between early postnatal dexamethasone (DXM) treatment and the severity of hyperbilirubinemia in extreme low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants. In 54 ELBW preterm infants, total serum bilirubin concentrations (TSB) and phototherapy (PT) data during the first 10 days were evaluated retrospectively. ELBW infants had participated in a randomized controlled trial of early DXM treatment which aimed to assess effects on chronic lung disease. Infants had been treated with DXM (0.25 mg/kg twice daily at postnatal day 1 and 2) or with placebo (normal saline). Analysis was performed on an intention to treat basis. Twenty-five Infants had been randomized into the DXM group; 29 into the placebo group. Mean (±SD) TSB [120 (±19) μmol/L vs. 123 (±28) μmol/L, DXM versus placebo, respectively] and maximum TSB [178 (±23) μmol/L vs. 176 (±48), DXM versus placebo, respectively] concentrations were similar. TSB concentrations peaked 30 h earlier in the DXM group (p ≤ 0.05). The need for PT as well as the duration of PT was similar in both groups. Early DXM treatment does not affect the severity of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in ELBW preterm infants. Our results seem compatible with the concept that factors other than bilirubin conjugation capacity are important for the pathophysiology of neonatal jaundice in ELBW preterm infants. © 2010 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  13. In vivo dendritic cell depletion reduces breeding efficiency, affecting implantation and early placental development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Gesa; Frank, Pierre; Shaikly, Valerie; Barrientos, Gabriela; Cordo-Russo, Rosalia; Ringel, Frauke; Moschansky, Petra; Chernukhin, Igor V; Metodiev, Metodi; Fernández, Nelson; Klapp, Burghard F; Arck, Petra C; Blois, Sandra M

    2008-09-01

    Implantation of mammalian embryos into their mother's uterus ensures optimal nourishment and protection throughout development. Complex molecular interactions characterize the implantation process, and an optimal synchronization of the components of this embryo-maternal dialogue is crucial for a successful reproductive outcome. In the present study, we investigated the role of dendritic cells (DC) during implantation process using a transgenic mouse system (DTRtg) that allows transient depletion of CD11c+ cells in vivo through administration of diphtheria toxin. We observed that DC depletion impairs the implantation process, resulting in a reduced breeding efficiency. Furthermore, the maturity of uterine natural killer cells at dendritic cell knockout (DCKO) implantation sites was affected as well; as demonstrated by decreased perforin expression and reduced numbers of periodic-acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive cells. This was accompanied by disarrangements in decidual vascular development. In the present study, we were also able to identify a novel DC-dependent protein, phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta (PITPbeta), involved in implantation and trophoblast development using a proteomic approach. Indeed, DCKO mice exhibited substantial anomalies in placental development, including hypocellularity of the spongiotrophoblast and labyrinthine layers and reduced numbers of trophoblast giant cells. Giant cells also down-regulated their expression of two characteristic markers of trophoblast differentiation, placental lactogen 1 and proliferin. In view of these findings, dendritic cells emerge as possible modulators in the orchestration of events leading to the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy.

  14. Ibuprofen exposure in early neonatal life does not affect renal function in young adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Anke; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Levtchenko, Elena; Simons, Sinno Hp; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; Heuvel, Lambertus P van den; Jacobs, Lotte; Staessen, Jan A; Allegaert, Karel

    2018-03-01

    Ibuprofen exposure results in acute transient renal dysfunction in preterm neonates, but we are unaware of data on long-term renal safety. In a previously studied cohort of extreme low birth weight (ELBW, ibuprofen. In this post hoc analysis, we linked markers of renal function in young adolescence in ELBW cases with their perinatal (prenatal maternal, setting at birth, treatment modalities including drug prescription during neonatal stay, neonatal creatinine values, postdischarge growth) characteristics, including but not limited to ibuprofen exposure during neonatal stay. Ibuprofen exposure was not associated with significant differences in renal length or eGFR cysC . Moreover, we were unable to identify any other risk factor (perinatal characteristics, postnatal creatinine trends, postdischarge growth) on renal outcome in this cohort. Neonatal exposure to ibuprofen did not affect renal function. Larger studies are needed to explore the confounders of variability in renal function in former ELBW cases. This matters since ELBW relates to risk for hypertension, cardiovascular events and renal disease in later life and identification of risk factors holds the promise of secondary prevention. NCT02147457. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Dietary energy density affects fat mass in early adolescence and is not modified by FTO variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Johnson

    Full Text Available Dietary energy density (DED does not have a simple linear relationship to fat mass in children, which suggests that some children are more susceptible than others to the effects of DED. Children with the FTO (rs9939609 variant that increases the risk of obesity may have a higher susceptibility to the effects of DED because their internal appetite control system is compromised. We tested the relationship between DED and fat mass in early adolescence and its interaction with FTO variants.We carried out a prospective analysis on 2,275 children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Diet was assessed at age 10 y using 3-day diet diaries. DED (kJ/g was calculated excluding drinks. Children were genotyped for the FTO (rs9939609 variant. Fat mass was estimated at age 13 y using the Lunar Prodigy Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scanner. There was no evidence of interaction between DED at age 10 y and the high risk A allele of the FTO gene in relation to fat mass at age 13 y (beta = 0.005, p = 0.51, suggesting that the FTO gene has no effect on the relation between DED at 10 y and fat mass at 13 y. When DED at 10 y and the A allele of FTO were in the same model they were independently related to fat mass at 13 y. Each A allele of FTO was associated with 0.35+/-0.13 kg more fat mass at 13 y and each 1 kJ/g DED at 10 y was associated with 0.16+/-0.06 kg more fat mass at age 13 y, after controlling for misreporting of energy intake, gender, puberty, overweight status at 10 y, maternal education, TV watching, and physical activity.This study reveals the multi-factorial origin of obesity and indicates that although FTO may put some children at greater risk of obesity, encouraging a low dietary energy density may be an effective strategy to help all children avoid excessive fat gain.

  16. Early, but not late visual distractors affect movement synchronization to a temporal-spatial visual cue

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    Ashley J Booth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ease of synchronising movements to a rhythmic cue is dependent on the modality of the cue presentation: timing accuracy is much higher when synchronising with discrete auditory rhythms than an equivalent visual stimulus presented through flashes. However, timing accuracy is improved if the visual cue presents spatial as well as temporal information (e.g. a dot following an oscillatory trajectory. Similarly, when synchronising with an auditory target metronome in the presence of a second visual distracting metronome, the distraction is stronger when the visual cue contains spatial-temporal information rather than temporal only. The present study investigates individuals’ ability to synchronise movements to a temporal-spatial visual cue in the presence of same-modality temporal-spatial distractors. Moreover, we investigated how increasing the number of distractor stimuli impacted on maintaining synchrony with the target cue. Participants made oscillatory vertical arm movements in time with a vertically oscillating white target dot centred on a large projection screen. The target dot was surrounded by 2, 8 or 14 distractor dots, which had an identical trajectory to the target but at a phase lead or lag of 0, 100 or 200ms. We found participants’ timing performance was only affected in the phase-lead conditions and when there were large numbers of distractors present (8 and 14. This asymmetry suggests participants still rely on salient events in the stimulus trajectory to synchronise movements. Subsequently, distractions occurring in the window of attention surrounding those events have the maximum impact on timing performance.

  17. Word position affects stimulus recognition: evidence for early ERP short-term plastic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spironelli, Chiara; Galfano, Giovanni; Umiltà, Carlo; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2011-12-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the short-term plastic changes that follow word learning at a neurophysiological level. The main hypothesis was that word position (left or right visual field, LVF/RH or RVF/LH) in the initial learning phase would leave a trace that affected, in the subsequent recognition phase, the Recognition Potential (i.e., the first negative component distinguishing words from other stimuli) elicited 220-240 ms after centrally presented stimuli. Forty-eight students were administered, in the learning phase, 125 words for 4s, randomly presented half in the left and half in the right visual field. In the recognition phase, participants were split into two equal groups, one was assigned to the Word task, the other to the Picture task (in which half of the 125 pictures were new, and half matched prior studied words). During the Word task, old RVF/LH words elicited significantly greater negativity in left posterior sites with respect to old LVF/RH words, which in turn showed the same pattern of activation evoked by new words. Therefore, correspondence between stimulus spatial position and hemisphere specialized in automatic word recognition created a robust prime for subsequent recognition. During the Picture task, pictures matching old RVF/LH words showed no differences compared with new pictures, but evoked significantly greater negativity than pictures matching old LVF/RH words. Thus, the priming effect vanished when the task required a switch from visual analysis to stored linguistic information, whereas the lack of correspondence between stimulus position and network specialized in automatic word recognition (i.e., when words were presented to the LVF/RH) revealed the implicit costs for recognition. Results support the view that short-term plastic changes occurring in a linguistic learning task interact with both stimulus position and modality (written word vs. picture representation). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Factors affecting early compressive strength of alkali activated fly ash (OPC-free concrete

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    Palomo, A.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of experimental research into the chief characteristics of a new type of concrete made solely with alkali activated fly ash (AAFA: i.e., free of ordinary Portland cement (OPC. The results of testing to determine specific properties of the fresh concrete and the development of its mechanical strength showed that most of the factors that affect the manufacture and final properties of Portland cement concrete (water/cement ratio, curing conditions, etc. also impact the preparation and final quality of this new material. A number of parameters specific to AAFA concrete (nature and concentration of alkali present in the system were also explored to determine their role in the setting and hardening process.Este trabajo presenta los resultados de una investigación experimental llevada a cabo para evaluar las principales características de un nuevo tipo de hormigón fabricado solamente con ceniza volante activada alcalinamente (AAFA; es decir, sin cemento Portland comercial (OPC. Los resultados de los ensayos realizados para determinar las propiedades específicas del hormigón fresco y el desarrollo de resistencias mecánicas mostraron que la mayoría de los factores que afectan al proceso de fabricación y a las propiedades finales de los hormigones de cemento Portland (relación agua/cemento, condiciones de curado, etc. también afectan a la preparación y calidad final de estos nuevos materiales. También fueron estudiados otros parámetros específicos de los hormigones de AAFA (la naturaleza y concentración del álcali presente en el sistema para determinar su papel en el proceso de fraguado y endurecimiento.

  19. Neonatal stress-induced affective changes in adolescent Wistar rats: early signs of schizophrenia-like behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Neves Girardi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are multifactorial diseases with etiology that may involve genetic factors, early life environment and stressful life events. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia is based on a wealth of data on increased vulnerability in individuals exposed to insults during the perinatal period. Maternal deprivation disinhibits the adrenocortical response to stress in neonatal rats and has been used as an animal model of schizophrenia. To test if long-term affective consequences of early life stress were influenced by maternal presence, we submitted 10-day old rats, either deprived (for 22 h or not from their dams, to a stress challenge (i.p. saline injection. Corticosterone plasma levels were measured 2 h after the challenge, whereas another subgroup was assessed for behavior in the open field, elevated plus maze, social investigation and the negative contrast sucrose consumption test in adolescence (postnatal day 45. Maternally deprived rats exhibited increased plasma corticosterone levels which were higher in maternally deprived and stress challenged pups. Social investigation was impaired in maternally deprived rats only, while saline injection, independently of maternal deprivation, was associated with increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and an impaired intake decrement in the negative sucrose contrast. In the open field, center exploration was reduced in all maternally-deprived adolescents and in control rats challenged with saline injection. The most striking finding was that exposure to a stressful stimulus per se, regardless of maternal deprivation, was linked to differential emotional consequences. We therefore propose that besides being a well-known and validated model of schizophrenia in adult rats, the maternal deprivation paradigm could be extended to model early signs of psychiatric dysfunction, and would particularly be a useful tool to detect early signs that resemble schizophrenia.

  20. Length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect the risk of early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Katherine S.; Bennett, Claire E.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is the length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range associated with the risk of early menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER The length of repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect risk of early menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There is a strong, well-established relationship between length of premutation FMR1 alleles and age at menopause, suggesting that this relationship could continue into the normal range. Within the normal range, there is conflicting evidence; differences in ovarian reserve have been identified with FMR1 repeat allele length, but a recent population-based study did not find any association with age at menopause as a quantitative trait. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION We analysed cross-sectional baseline survey data collected at recruitment from 2004 to 2010 from a population-based, prospective epidemiological cohort study of >110 000 women to investigate whether repeat allele length was associated with early menopause. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHOD We included 4333 women from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS), of whom 2118 were early menopause cases (menopause under 46 years) and 2215 were controls. We analysed the relationship between length of FMR1 alleles and early menopause using logistic regression with allele length as continuous and categorical variables. We also conducted analyses with the outcome age at menopause as a quantitative trait as well as appropriate sensitivity and exploratory analyses. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE There was no association of the shorter or longer FMR1 allele or their combined genotype with the clinically relevant end point of early menopause in our main analysis. Likewise, there were no associations with age at menopause as a quantitative trait in our secondary analysis. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Women with homozygous alleles in the normal range may have undetected FMR1 premutation alleles, although there was no evidence to suggest this. We

  1. A longitudinal cohort study of the relationship between Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccination and specific delays in development in the United States: Assessment of attributable risk and lifetime care costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Geier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence suggests a link between mercury (Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and specific delays in development. A hypothesis-testing longitudinal cohort study (n = 49,835 using medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between exposure to Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (T-HBVs administered at specific intervals in the first 6 months of life and specific delays in development [International Classification of Disease, 9th revision (ICD-9: 315.xx] among children born between 1991 and 1994 and continuously enrolled from birth for at least 5.81 years. Infants receiving increased Hg doses from T-HBVs administered within the first month, the first 2 months, and the first 6 months of life were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with specific delays in development than infants receiving no Hg doses from T-HBVs. During the decade in which T-HBVs were routinely recommended and administered to US infants (1991–2001, an estimated 0.5–1 million additional US children were diagnosed with specific delays in development as a consequence of 25 μg or 37.5 μg organic Hg from T-HBVs administered within the first 6 months of life. The resulting lifetime costs to the United States may exceed $1 trillion.

  2. Early Adverse Caregiving Experiences and Preschoolers' Current Attachment Affect Brain Responses during Facial Familiarity Processing: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungl, Melanie T; Bovenschen, Ina; Spangler, Gottfried

    2017-01-01

    When being placed into more benign environments like foster care, children from adverse rearing backgrounds are capable of forming attachment relationships to new caregivers within the first year of placement, while certain problematic social behaviors appear to be more persistent. Assuming that early averse experiences shape neural circuits underlying social behavior, neurophysiological studies on individual differences in early social-information processing have great informative value. More precisely, ERP studies have repeatedly shown face processing to be sensitive to experience especially regarding the caregiving background. However, studies on effects of early adverse caregiving experiences are restricted to children with a history of institutionalization. Also, no study has investigated effects of attachment security as a marker of the quality of the caregiver-child relationship. Thus, the current study asks how adverse caregiving experiences and attachment security to (new) caregivers affect early- and mid-latency ERPs sensitive to facial familiarity processing. Therefore, pre-school aged foster children during their second year within the foster home were compared to an age matched control group. Attachment was assessed using the AQS and neurophysiological data was collected during a passive viewing task presenting (foster) mother and stranger faces. Foster children were comparable to the control group with regard to attachment security. On a neurophysiological level, however, the foster group showed dampened N170 amplitudes for both face types. In both foster and control children, dampened N170 amplitudes were also found for stranger as compared to (foster) mother faces, and, for insecurely attached children as compared to securely attached children. This neural pattern may be viewed as a result of poorer social interactions earlier in life. Still, there was no effect on P1 amplitudes. Indicating heightened attentional processing, Nc amplitude responses

  3. Early Adverse Caregiving Experiences and Preschoolers' Current Attachment Affect Brain Responses during Facial Familiarity Processing: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie T. Kungl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When being placed into more benign environments like foster care, children from adverse rearing backgrounds are capable of forming attachment relationships to new caregivers within the first year of placement, while certain problematic social behaviors appear to be more persistent. Assuming that early averse experiences shape neural circuits underlying social behavior, neurophysiological studies on individual differences in early social-information processing have great informative value. More precisely, ERP studies have repeatedly shown face processing to be sensitive to experience especially regarding the caregiving background. However, studies on effects of early adverse caregiving experiences are restricted to children with a history of institutionalization. Also, no study has investigated effects of attachment security as a marker of the quality of the caregiver-child relationship. Thus, the current study asks how adverse caregiving experiences and attachment security to (new caregivers affect early- and mid-latency ERPs sensitive to facial familiarity processing. Therefore, pre-school aged foster children during their second year within the foster home were compared to an age matched control group. Attachment was assessed using the AQS and neurophysiological data was collected during a passive viewing task presenting (foster mother and stranger faces. Foster children were comparable to the control group with regard to attachment security. On a neurophysiological level, however, the foster group showed dampened N170 amplitudes for both face types. In both foster and control children, dampened N170 amplitudes were also found for stranger as compared to (foster mother faces, and, for insecurely attached children as compared to securely attached children. This neural pattern may be viewed as a result of poorer social interactions earlier in life. Still, there was no effect on P1 amplitudes. Indicating heightened attentional processing, Nc

  4. Early Adverse Caregiving Experiences and Preschoolers' Current Attachment Affect Brain Responses during Facial Familiarity Processing: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungl, Melanie T.; Bovenschen, Ina; Spangler, Gottfried

    2017-01-01

    When being placed into more benign environments like foster care, children from adverse rearing backgrounds are capable of forming attachment relationships to new caregivers within the first year of placement, while certain problematic social behaviors appear to be more persistent. Assuming that early averse experiences shape neural circuits underlying social behavior, neurophysiological studies on individual differences in early social-information processing have great informative value. More precisely, ERP studies have repeatedly shown face processing to be sensitive to experience especially regarding the caregiving background. However, studies on effects of early adverse caregiving experiences are restricted to children with a history of institutionalization. Also, no study has investigated effects of attachment security as a marker of the quality of the caregiver-child relationship. Thus, the current study asks how adverse caregiving experiences and attachment security to (new) caregivers affect early- and mid-latency ERPs sensitive to facial familiarity processing. Therefore, pre-school aged foster children during their second year within the foster home were compared to an age matched control group. Attachment was assessed using the AQS and neurophysiological data was collected during a passive viewing task presenting (foster) mother and stranger faces. Foster children were comparable to the control group with regard to attachment security. On a neurophysiological level, however, the foster group showed dampened N170 amplitudes for both face types. In both foster and control children, dampened N170 amplitudes were also found for stranger as compared to (foster) mother faces, and, for insecurely attached children as compared to securely attached children. This neural pattern may be viewed as a result of poorer social interactions earlier in life. Still, there was no effect on P1 amplitudes. Indicating heightened attentional processing, Nc amplitude responses

  5. Age effects on preattentive and early attentive auditory processing of redundant stimuli: is sensory gating affected by physiological aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Kreisel, Stefan H; Bachmann, Silke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Thomas, Christine

    2011-10-01

    The frontal hypothesis of aging predicts an age-related decline in cognitive functions requiring inhibitory or attentional regulation. In Alzheimer's disease, preattentive gating out of redundant information is impaired. Our study aimed to examine changes associated with physiological aging in both pre- and early attentive inhibition of recurrent acoustic information. Using a passive double-click paradigm, we recorded mid-latency (P30-P50) and late-latency (N100 and P200) evoked potentials in healthy young (26 ± 5 years) and healthy elderly subjects (72 ± 5 years). Physiological aging did not affect auditory gating in amplitude measures. Both age groups exhibited clear inhibition in preattentive P50 and attention-modulated (N100) components, whereas P30 was not attenuated. Irrespective of age, the magnitude of inhibition differed significantly, being most pronounced for N100 gating. Inhibition of redundant information seems to be preserved with physiological aging. Early attentive N100 gating showed the maximum effect. Further studies are warranted to evaluate sensory gating as a suitable biomarker of underlying neurodegenerative disease.

  6. Can early physical therapy positively affect the onset of independent walking in infants with Down syndrome? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Bruno; Sommella, Nadia; Ciardi, Gianluca; Raiano, Enza; Scala, Iris; Strisciuglio, Pietro; Servodio Iammarrone, Clemente

    2018-02-19

    The development of both gross and fine motor skills in a child with Down syndrome is generally delayed. The most seriously affected stage is the achievement of independent walking ability, which influences the onset of all following motor and cognityive skills. The study objectives were (a) to assess the time taken to achieve independent walking ability in a cohort of children with Down syndrome, (b) to examine differences in walking onset by patient characteristics, (c) to verify the effect of early physical therapy (Neurodevelopmental Treatment on the basis of Bobath Concept practised within the first months of life) in the achievement of that skill. A retrospective study was carried out on a cohort of 86 children with Down Syndrome. The knowledge of the exact age of walking onset and information about comorobities and rehabilitation practised since birth were the eligibility criteria. The average age at which walking began in the sample was 26 months (Standard Deviation = 9.66). Some patient characteristics proved to be related negatively to the walking onset: gender male, trisomy 21, improved joint ligamentous laxity. When practised, early physical therapy was able to contrast the delay in walking. NDT-Bobath is a well-known and valid instrument for a child with Down syndrome to attain his highest possible psychomotor functioning level. This study pointed out for the first time ever its capability to contrast the delay on walking onset, which can influences positively the development of the following motor and cognitive skills.

  7. Early exposure to a low dose of bisphenol A affects socio-sexual behavior of juvenile female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Stefania; Belloni, Virginia; Della Seta, Daniele; Farabollini, Francesca; Giannelli, Giuletta; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco

    2005-04-15

    Play behavior is affected by alteration of the hormonal environment during development. In fact, congenital adrenal hyperplasia or early administration of diethylstilbestrol are able to modify female play behavior in mammals. In this research, play behavior of female rats was used to explore the effects of perinatal exposure to low, environmentally relevant dose of bisphenol A (BPA), a xenoestrogen widely diffused in the environment. We used 18 females born to mothers exposed to 40 microg/kg/day BPA during pregnancy and lactation, and 18 control females. The subjects were observed in a heterosexual social situation from 35 to 55 days of age. Six main behaviors were identified by principal component analysis (PCA): exploration, defensive behavior to males, play behavior with males, play behavior with females, low-intensity mating behavior, social grooming. Early administration of BPA was responsible for a significant increase of exploration (including social investigation) (pbehavior, but is able however to defeminize some aspects of female behavior. This result is compatible with the estrogenic properties of BPA, and suggests caution in the use of a chemical that, in the range of human exposure, is able to influence the development of the brain during a critical period, resulting in long-term effects on behavior.

  8. Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, T M; Malmkvist, J

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams with access to nesting materials. Kits were weighed on days 1 and 7, dead kits were collected daily from birth until day 7 after birth, and nest climate was measured continuously from days 1 to 6. We tested the influences of the following daily temperature (T) and humidity (H) parameters on the number of live-born kit deaths and kit growth: T mean, T min, T max, T var (fluctuation) and H mean. The nest microclimate experienced by the kits was buffered against the ambient climate, with higher temperatures and reduced climate fluctuation. Most (77.0%) live-born kit deaths in the 1st week occurred on days 0 and 1. Seven of 15 climate parameters on days 1 to 3 had significant effects on live-born kit mortality. However, conflicting effects among days, marginal effects and late effects indicated that climate was not the primary cause of kit mortality. Five of 30 climate parameters had significant effects on kit growth. Few and conflicting effects indicated that the climate effect on growth was negligible. One exception was that large nest temperature fluctuations on day 1 were associated with reduced deaths of live-born kit (P<0.001) and increased kit growth (P=0.003). Litter size affected kit vitality; larger total litter size at birth was associated with greater risks of kit death (P<0.001) and reduced growth (P<0.001). The number of living kits in litters had the opposite effect, as kits in large liveborn litters had a reduced risk of death (P<0.001) and those with large mean litter size on days 1 to 7 had increased growth (P=0.026). Nest box temperature had little effect on early kit survival and growth, which could be due to dams' additional maternal behaviour. Therefore, we

  9. A systematic study of the disposition and metabolism of mercury species in mice after exposure to low levels of thimerosal (ethylmercury)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos, E-mail: mafehoca@fcfrp.usp.br [Laboratório de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto – USP, Avenida do Café, s/n, Monte Alegre, CEP 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Oliveira Souza, Juliana Maria, E-mail: souza.jmo@gmail.com [Laboratório de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto – USP, Avenida do Café, s/n, Monte Alegre, CEP 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Grotto, Denise, E-mail: denise.grotto@prof.uniso.br [Laboratório de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto – USP, Avenida do Café, s/n, Monte Alegre, CEP 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de Sorocaba, Rodovia Raposo Tavares km 92.5, CEP 18023-000 Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); and others

    2014-10-15

    Thimerosal (TM) is an ethylmercury (etHg)-containing preservative used in some vaccines despite very limited knowledge on the kinetics and direct interaction/effects in mammals' tissues after exposure. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the kinetics of Hg species in mice in a time course analysis after intramuscular injection of TM, by estimating Hg half-lives in blood and tissues. Mice were exposed to one single intramuscular dose of 20 µg of Hg as TM. Blood, brain, heart, kidney and liver were collected at 0.5 hour (h), 1 h, 8 h, 16 h, 144 h, 720 h and 1980 h after TM exposure (n=4). Hg species in animal tissues were identified and quantified by speciation analysis via liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LC–ICP-MS). It was found that the transport of etHg from muscle to tissues and its conversion to inorganic Hg (inoHg) occur rapidly. Moreover, the conversion extent is modulated in part by the partitioning between EtHg in plasma and in whole blood, since etHg is rapidly converted in red cells but not in a plasma compartment. Furthermore, the dealkylation mechanism in red cells appears to be mediated by the Fenton reaction (hydroxyl radical formation). Interestingly, after 0.5 h of TM exposure, the highest levels of both etHg and inoHg were found in kidneys (accounting for more than 70% of the total Hg in the animal body), whereas the brain contributed least to the Hg body burden (accounts for <1.0% of total body Hg). Thirty days after TM exposure, most Hg had been excreted while the liver presented the majority of the remaining Hg. Estimated half-lives (in days) were 8.8 for blood, 10.7 for brain, 7.8 for heart, 7.7 for liver and 45.2 for kidney. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that TM (etHg) kinetics more closely approximates Hg{sup 2+} than methylmercury (meHg) while the kidney must be considered a potential target for etHg toxicity. - Highlights: • Ethylmercury is rapidly converted to inorganic

  10. A systematic study of the disposition and metabolism of mercury species in mice after exposure to low levels of thimerosal (ethylmercury)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Oliveira Souza, Juliana Maria; Grotto, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Thimerosal (TM) is an ethylmercury (etHg)-containing preservative used in some vaccines despite very limited knowledge on the kinetics and direct interaction/effects in mammals' tissues after exposure. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the kinetics of Hg species in mice in a time course analysis after intramuscular injection of TM, by estimating Hg half-lives in blood and tissues. Mice were exposed to one single intramuscular dose of 20 µg of Hg as TM. Blood, brain, heart, kidney and liver were collected at 0.5 hour (h), 1 h, 8 h, 16 h, 144 h, 720 h and 1980 h after TM exposure (n=4). Hg species in animal tissues were identified and quantified by speciation analysis via liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LC–ICP-MS). It was found that the transport of etHg from muscle to tissues and its conversion to inorganic Hg (inoHg) occur rapidly. Moreover, the conversion extent is modulated in part by the partitioning between EtHg in plasma and in whole blood, since etHg is rapidly converted in red cells but not in a plasma compartment. Furthermore, the dealkylation mechanism in red cells appears to be mediated by the Fenton reaction (hydroxyl radical formation). Interestingly, after 0.5 h of TM exposure, the highest levels of both etHg and inoHg were found in kidneys (accounting for more than 70% of the total Hg in the animal body), whereas the brain contributed least to the Hg body burden (accounts for <1.0% of total body Hg). Thirty days after TM exposure, most Hg had been excreted while the liver presented the majority of the remaining Hg. Estimated half-lives (in days) were 8.8 for blood, 10.7 for brain, 7.8 for heart, 7.7 for liver and 45.2 for kidney. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that TM (etHg) kinetics more closely approximates Hg 2+ than methylmercury (meHg) while the kidney must be considered a potential target for etHg toxicity. - Highlights: • Ethylmercury is rapidly converted to inorganic mercury.

  11. DOES FATHER INVOLVEMENT INFLUENCE THE AFFECT, LANGUAGE ACQUISITION, SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT AND BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG AUTISTIC CHILDREN? AN EARLY INTERVENTION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tabitha LOUIS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study adopts a randomized experimental design to evaluate the impact of a father-mediated therapy to improve the play skills, affect, language, social skills and behavior among 30 clinically diagnosed autistic children at the age of 3-5 years. Standardized inventories such as, The Play Based Observation (PBO, The Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS, The Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS and the Rendel Shorts Questionnaire were administered pre and post intervention. A special program that involved fathers in the caregiving and nurturing processes of these children was designed and implemented for 6 months after which the children were reassessed. Prior to the intervention, deficits in play skills and developmental delays across expressive and receptive language were observed Scores on the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Rendel Shorts revealed behavioral markers. Post intervention, we noticed significant differences in the play, language acquisition, social engagement and behavior in the treatment group in comparison to the control group. The results suggested that father-mediated therapeutic involvement significantly has proven to positively foster development in young autistic children and this is an important implication for practitioners in developing early intervention programs.

  12. CaMKII knockdown affects both early and late phases of olfactory long-term memory in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Christina; Kübert, Natalie; Muenz, Thomas S; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    Honeybees are able to solve complex learning tasks and memorize learned information for long time periods. The molecular mechanisms mediating long-term memory (LTM) in the honeybee Apis mellifera are, to a large part, still unknown. We approached this question by investigating the potential function of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), an enzyme known as a 'molecular memory switch' in vertebrates. CaMKII is able to switch to a calcium-independent constitutively active state, providing a mechanism for a molecular memory and has further been shown to play an essential role in structural synaptic plasticity. Using a combination of knockdown by RNA interference and pharmacological manipulation, we disrupted the function of CaMKII during olfactory learning and memory formation. We found that learning, memory acquisition and mid-term memory were not affected, but all manipulations consistently resulted in an impaired LTM. Both early LTM (24 h after learning) and late LTM (72 h after learning) were significantly disrupted, indicating the necessity of CaMKII in two successive stages of LTM formation in the honeybee. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Interleukin 22 early affects keratinocyte differentiation, but not proliferation, in a three-dimensional model of normal human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donetti, Elena, E-mail: elena.donetti@unimi.it [Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Cornaghi, Laura; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Landoni, Federica [Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Romagnoli, Paolo [Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 50125 Florence (Italy); Mastroianni, Nicolino [Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Pescitelli, Leonardo [Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 50125 Florence (Italy); Baruffaldi Preis, Franz W. [I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, 20161 Milan (Italy); Prignano, Francesca [Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 50125 Florence (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    Interleukin (IL)-22 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine driving the progression of the psoriatic lesion with other cytokines, as Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-17. Our study was aimed at evaluating the early effect of IL-22 alone or in combination with TNF-alpha and IL-17 by immunofluorescence on i) keratinocyte (KC) proliferation, ii) terminal differentiation biomarkers as keratin (K) 10 and 17 expression, iii) intercellular junctions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis was performed. A model of human skin culture reproducing a psoriatic microenvironment was used. Plastic surgery explants were obtained from healthy young women (n=7) after informed consent. Fragments were divided before adding IL-22 or a combination of the three cytokines, and harvested 24 (T24), 48 (T48), and 72 (T72) h later. From T24, in IL-22 samples we detected a progressive decrease in K10 immunostaining in the spinous layer paralleled by K17 induction. By TEM, after IL-22 incubation, keratin aggregates were evident in the perinuclear area. Occludin immunostaining was not homogeneously distributed. Conversely, KC proliferation was not inhibited by IL-22 alone, but only by the combination of cytokines. Our results suggest that IL-22 affects keratinocyte terminal differentiation, whereas, in order to induce a proliferation impairment, a more complex psoriatic-like microenvironment is needed.

  14. Interleukin 22 early affects keratinocyte differentiation, but not proliferation, in a three-dimensional model of normal human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donetti, Elena; Cornaghi, Laura; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Landoni, Federica; Romagnoli, Paolo; Mastroianni, Nicolino; Pescitelli, Leonardo; Baruffaldi Preis, Franz W.; Prignano, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine driving the progression of the psoriatic lesion with other cytokines, as Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-17. Our study was aimed at evaluating the early effect of IL-22 alone or in combination with TNF-alpha and IL-17 by immunofluorescence on i) keratinocyte (KC) proliferation, ii) terminal differentiation biomarkers as keratin (K) 10 and 17 expression, iii) intercellular junctions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis was performed. A model of human skin culture reproducing a psoriatic microenvironment was used. Plastic surgery explants were obtained from healthy young women (n=7) after informed consent. Fragments were divided before adding IL-22 or a combination of the three cytokines, and harvested 24 (T24), 48 (T48), and 72 (T72) h later. From T24, in IL-22 samples we detected a progressive decrease in K10 immunostaining in the spinous layer paralleled by K17 induction. By TEM, after IL-22 incubation, keratin aggregates were evident in the perinuclear area. Occludin immunostaining was not homogeneously distributed. Conversely, KC proliferation was not inhibited by IL-22 alone, but only by the combination of cytokines. Our results suggest that IL-22 affects keratinocyte terminal differentiation, whereas, in order to induce a proliferation impairment, a more complex psoriatic-like microenvironment is needed.

  15. Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E

    2013-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the

  16. Does Early Childhood Teacher Education Affect Students' Cognitive Orientations? The Effect of Different Education Tracks in Teacher Education on Prospective Early Childhood Teachers' Cognitive Orientations in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischo, Christoph; Wahl, Stefan; Strohmer, Janina; Wolf, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for…

  17. Does Early Versus Delayed Active Range of Motion Affect Rotator Cuff Healing After Surgical Repair? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczynski, Melissa A; Isenburg, Maureen M; Marzo, John M; Bisson, Leslie J

    2016-03-01

    The timing of passive range of motion (ROM) after surgical repair of the rotator cuff (RC) has been shown to affect healing. However, it is unknown if early or delayed active ROM affects healing. To determine whether early versus delayed active ROM affects structural results of RC repair surgery. Systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic review of articles published between January 2004 and April 2014 was conducted. Structural results were compared for early (repair method. A total of 37 studies (2251 repairs) were included in the analysis, with 10 (649 repairs) in the early group and 27 (1602 repairs) in the delayed group. For tears ≤3 cm, the risk of a structural tendon defect was higher in the early versus delayed group for transosseous plus single-row suture anchor repairs (39.7% vs 24.3%; RR, 1.63 [95% CI, 1.28-2.08]). For tears >3 cm, the risk of a structural tendon defect was higher in the early versus delayed group for suture bridge repairs (48% vs 17.5%; RR, 2.74 [95% CI, 1.59-4.73]) and all repair methods combined (40.5% vs 26.7%; RR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.17-1.97]). For tears >5 cm, the risk of structural tendon defect was higher in the early versus delayed group for suture bridge repairs (100% vs 16.7%; RR, 6.00 [95% CI, 1.69-21.26]). There were no statistically significant associations for tears measuring ≤1, 1-3, or 3-5 cm. Early active ROM was associated with increased risk of a structural defect for small and large RC tears, and thus might not be advisable after RC repair. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Early Childhood IQ Trajectories in Individuals Later Developing Schizophrenia and Affective Psychoses in the New England Family Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Buka, Stephen L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Smoller, Jordan W; Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J

    2015-07-01

    Individuals who develop schizophrenia in adulthood exhibit, on average, deficits in childhood cognition relative to healthy controls. However, it remains unclear when in childhood such deficits emerge and whether they are stable across childhood or change (increase or decrease) across development. Importantly, whether the trajectory of childhood cognition differs among youth who later develop affective psychoses (AP) vs schizophrenia as adults remains unresolved. Subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project were administered the Stanford-Binet IQ test at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. A total of 9809 (54.7%) participants in the New England Study sites were tested at both ages, including 37 who later developed schizophrenia spectrum psychoses (SSP) and 39 who later developed AP. Logistic regression models examined the association of level of and change in childhood IQ and later SSP or AP. Lower overall childhood IQ was associated with higher risk of SSP. Additionally, there was a small mean increase in IQ in the SSP group relative to a mean decrease in the control group from age 4 to 7 such that positive change in IQ was significantly associated with a higher risk of SSP. Neither overall level nor change in IQ was associated with risk of AP. The results are consistent with neurocognitive impairment throughout early childhood specifically for children who later develop schizophrenia, affirming the theory of atypical neurodevelopment in premorbid schizophrenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Early weaning of calves after different dietary regimens affects later rumen development, growth, and carcass traits in Hanwoo cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondreddy Eswar Reddy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of different diets for early-weaned (EW calves on rumen development, and how this affects fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi of adult Korean Hanwoo beef cattle. Methods Three EW groups were established (each n = 12 in which two- week-old Hanwoo calves were fed for ten weeks with milk replacer+concentrate (T1, milk replacer+concentrate+ roughage (T2, or milk replacer+concentrate+30% starch (T3; a control group (n = 12 was weaned as normal. At six months, 5 calves of each group were slaughtered and their organs were assessed and rumen papillae growth rates were measured. The remaining calves (n = 7 in each group were raised to 20 months for further analysis. Results Twenty-month-old EW calves had a higher body weight (BW, backfat thickness (BF, longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA and intramuscular fat (IMF than the control (p<0.05. Organ growth, rumen histology, and gene expression patterns in the 6-month-old calves were positively related to the development of marbling in the loin, as assessed by ultrasound analysis (p<0.05. In the group fed the starch-enriched diet (T3, higher BW, BF, LMA, and IMF were present. The IMF beef quality score of 20-month-old cattle was 1+ for the T2 and T3 diets and 1 for the T1 diet (p<0.05. Conclusion Papillae development was significantly greater in calves fed on high-concentrate diets and this may have resulted in the improved beef quality in the EW dietary groups compared to the control.

  20. Changes in ruminal volatile fatty acid production and absorption rate during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, K.; Dijkstra, J.; Schonewille, J. T.; Bannink, A.

    The aim of the present experiment was to study changes in volatile fatty acid (VFA) production using an isotope dilution technique, and changes in VFA fractional absorption rate (k aVFA) using a buffer incubation technique (BIT) during the dry period and early lactation, as affected by the

  1. Energy intake in late gestation affects blood metabolites in early lactation independently of milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nicolaj Ingemann; Hameleers, A; Young, F J

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effect of offering either a high- (H) or low- (L) energy-density diet in late gestation and early lactation on physiological parameters, body condition score (BCS) and milk production in early lactation. In all, 40 multiparous Holstein cows were randomly alloca...

  2. The role of negative maternal affective states and infant temperament in early interactions between infants with cleft lip and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Fedeli, Claudia; Murray, Lynne; Morandi, Francesco; Brusati, Roberto; Perego, Guenda Ghezzi; Borgatti, Renato

    2012-03-01

    The study examined the early interaction between mothers and their infants with cleft lip, assessing the role of maternal affective state and expressiveness and differences in infant temperament. Mother-infant interactions were assessed in 25 2-month-old infants with cleft lip and 25 age-matched healthy infants. Self-report and behavioral observations were used to assess maternal depressive symptoms and expressions. Mothers rated infant temperament. Infants with cleft lip were less engaged and their mothers showed more difficulty in interaction than control group dyads. Mothers of infants with cleft lip displayed more negative affectivity, but did not report more self-rated depressive symptoms than control group mothers. No group differences were found in infant temperament. In order to support the mother's experience and facilitate her ongoing parental role, findings highlight the importance of identifying maternal negative affectivity during early interactions, even when they seem have little awareness of their depressive symptoms.

  3. Bipolar affective disorder and borderline personality disorder: Differentiation based on the history of early life stress and psychoneuroendocrine measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Angela Kaline; Cleare, Anthony J; Young, Allan H; Juruena, Mario F

    2018-04-24

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Bipolar Affective Disorder (BD) have clinical characteristics in common which often make their differential diagnosis difficult. The history of early life stress (ELS) may be a differentiating factor between BPD and BD, as well as its association with clinical manifestations and specific neuroendocrine responses in each of these diagnoses. Assessing and comparing patients with BD and BPD for factors related to symptomatology, etiopathogenesis and neuroendocrine markers. The study sample consisted of 51 women, divided into 3 groups: patients with a clinical diagnosis of BPD (n = 20) and BD (n = 16) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15). Standardized instruments were used for the clinical evaluation, while the history of ELS was quantified with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and classified according to the subtypes: emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect. The functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by measuring a single plasma cortisol sample. Patients with BPD presented with more severe psychiatric symptoms of: anxiety, impulsivity, depression, hopelessness and suicidal ideation than those with BD. The history of ELS was identified as significantly more prevalent and more severe in patients (BPD and BP) than in HC. Emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect also showed differences and were higher in BPD than BD patients. BPD patients had greater severity of ELS overall and in the subtypes of emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect than BD patients. The presence of ELS in patients with BPD and BP showed significant difference with lower cortisol levels when compared to HC. The endocrine evaluation showed no significant differences between the diagnoses of BPD and BD. Cortisol measured in patients with BPD was significantly lower compared to HC in the presence of emotional neglect and physical

  4. The chromosome region including the earliness per se locus Eps-A(m)1 affects the duration of early developmental phases and spikelet number in diploid wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lewis, S.; Faricelli, M. E.; Appendino, M. L.; Valárik, Miroslav; Dubcovsky, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 13 (2008), s. 3595-3607 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Development * earliness per se * heading time Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2008

  5. Pulmonary exposure to single-walled carbon nanotubes does not affect the early immune response against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swedin Linda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT trigger pronounced inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs of mice following administration via pharyngeal aspiration or inhalation. Human exposure to SWCNT in an occupational setting may occur in conjunction with infections and this could yield enhanced or suppressed responses to the offending agent. Here, we studied whether the sequential exposure to SWCNT via pharyngeal aspiration and infection of mice with the ubiquitous intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii would impact on the immune response of the host against the parasite. Methods C57BL/6 mice were pre-exposed by pharyngeal administration of SWCNT (80 + 80 μg/mouse for two consecutive days followed by intravenous injection with either 1x103 or 1x104 green fluorescence protein and luciferase-expressing T. gondii tachyzoites. The dissemination of T. gondii was monitored by in vivo bioluminescence imaging in real time for 7 days and by plaque formation. The inflammatory response was analysed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, and by assessment of morphological changes and immune responses in lung and spleen. Results There were no differences in parasite distribution between mice only inoculated with T. gondii or those mice pre-exposed for 2 days to SWCNT before parasite inoculum. Lung and spleen histology and inflammation markers in BAL fluid reflected the effects of SWCNT exposure and T. gondii injection, respectively. We also noted that CD11c positive dendritic cells but not F4/80 positive macrophages retained SWCNT in the lungs 9 days after pharyngeal aspiration. However, co-localization of T. gondii with CD11c or F4/80 positive cells could not be observed in lungs or spleen. Pre-exposure to SWCNT did not affect the splenocyte response to T. gondii. Conclusions Taken together, our data indicate that pre-exposure to SWCNT does not enhance or suppress the early immune response to T. gondii in mice.

  6. Surgical quality of wedge resection affects overall survival in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Gaurav S; Wang, Chi-Hsiung; Kim, Ki Wan; Howington, John A; Krantz, Seth B

    2018-07-01

    Very few studies have examined the quality of wedge resection in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Using the National Cancer Database, we evaluated whether the quality of wedge resection affects overall survival in patients with early disease and how these outcomes compare with those of patients who receive stereotactic radiation. We identified 14,328 patients with cT1 to T2, N0, M0 disease treated with wedge resection (n = 10,032) or stereotactic radiation (n = 4296) from 2005 to 2013 and developed a subsample of propensity-matched wedge and radiation patients. Wedge quality was grouped as high (negative margins, >5 nodes), average (negative margins, ≤5 nodes), and poor (positive margins). Overall survival was compared between patients who received wedge resection of different quality and those who received radiation, adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. Among patients who underwent wedge resection, 94.6% had negative margins, 44.3% had 0 nodes examined, 17.1% had >5 examined, and 3.0% were nodally upstaged; 16.7% received a high-quality wedge, which was associated with a lower risk of death compared with average-quality resection (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.82). Compared with stereotactic radiation, wedge patients with negative margins had significantly reduced hazard of death (>5 nodes: aHR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.43-0.58; ≤5 nodes: aHR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.60-0.70). There was no significant survival difference between margin-positive wedge and radiation. Lymph nodes examined and margins obtained are important quality metrics in wedge resection. A high-quality wedge appears to confer a significant survival advantage over lower-quality wedge and stereotactic radiation. A margin-positive wedge appears to offer no benefit compared with radiation. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk; Malmkvist, Jens

    2017-01-01

    increased growth (P=0.026). Nest box temperature had little effect on early kit survival and growth, which could be due to dams’ additional maternal behaviour. Therefore, we cannot confirm that temperature is the primary reason for kit mortality, under the conditions of plenty straw access for maternal nest......We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams...... building. Instead, prenatal and/or parturient litter size is the primary factor influencing early kit vitality. The results indicate that the focus should be on litter size and dam welfare around the times of gestation and birth to increase early kit survival in farmed mink....

  8. Early season herbivore differentially affects plant defence responses to subsequently colonizing herbivores and their abundance in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Broekgaarden, C.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Induction of plant defences by early season herbivores can mediate interspecific herbivore competition. We have investigated plant-mediated competition between three herbivorous insects through studies at different levels of biological integration. We have addressed (i) gene expression; (ii) insect

  9. Feminisation of Teaching: Factors Affecting Low Male participation in Early Childhood Teaching at Private Schools in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meher Saigol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed atidentifying associated barriers to entry of male teachers into early childhood teaching and to understand the gender inequality and the shortage of male role models for early learners at private schools of Karachi. A qualitative research was conducted with phenomenology as the chosen inquiry method. A purposeful sampleof six in-service educators was selected from four private schools in Karachi two male post-secondary teachers, two female early childhood teachers and two private school female heads. The data were collected using three semi structured interviews one for each sample subtype. The study revealed that the male teachers did not teach early learners at private schools due to poor pay;low male adult and child compatibility; the influence of gender stereotypes and societal norms on occupational choice and child safety concerns. To create gender neutrality of early childhood teachers, male participants expressed an interest to teach young learners if offered equitable pay and professional development opportunities, while female participants suggested increased pay and child protection policy implementation.

  10. Recommendations for Implementing the New Illinois Early Learning and Development Standards to Affect Classroom Practices for Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Dusenbury, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The state of Illinois in the central United States has long been a trendsetter both in the development of learning standards and in addressing social and emotional learning in education settings. With a recent revision to the state's early learning standards, published in 2013, the Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE) fully aligned its…

  11. Early corticosteroid treatment does not affect severity of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in extreme low birth weight preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Bos, Arend F.; Anttila, Eija; Hallman, Mikko; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    Aim: To determine the relationship between early postnatal dexamethasone (DXM) treatment and the severity of hyperbilirubinemia in extreme low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants. Methods: In 54 ELBW preterm infants, total serum bilirubin concentrations (TSB) and phototherapy (PT) data during the

  12. Is the efficacy of hormonal therapy affected by lymph node status? data from the bicalutamide (Casodex) Early Prostate Cancer program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Wirth, Manfred P; See, William A

    2004-01-01

    To report an exploratory subgroup analysis assessing the extent to which the overall benefit found in the Early Prostate Cancer program is dependent on lymph node status at randomization. The program is ongoing, and the overall survival data are immature. The first combined analysis of the bicalu...

  13. Are First Impressions of Unknown Children and Early Adolescents Affected by the Facial Attractiveness of Their Best Friend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbatany, Lynne; Marshall, Kiera G.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a best friend's facial attractiveness on first impressions of medium-attractive children and early adolescents. Younger (N = 114, 48 boys and 66 girls, M[subscript age] = 8.16 years) and older (N = 168, 83 boys and 85 girls, M[subscript age] = 12.32 years) participants rated photos of unknown medium-attractive…

  14. Early and Later Experience with One Younger Sibling Affects Face Processing Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Available evidence indicates that experience with one face from a specific age group improves face-processing abilities if acquired within the first 3 years of life but not in adulthood. In the current study, we tested whether the effects of early experience endure at age 6 and whether the first 3 years of life are a sensitive period for the…

  15. Some Ways in Which Neighborhoods, Nuclear Families, Friendship Groups, and Schools Jointly Affect Changes in Early Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Thomas D.; Herman, Melissa R.; Phillips, Meredith; Settersten, Richard A., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed how schools, neighborhoods, nuclear families, and friendship groups jointly contribute to positive change during early adolescence. Analyses showed that the four context indices modestly intercorrelated at the individual student level, but clustered more tightly at the school and neighborhood levels. Joint influence of all four…

  16. Date of shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position affect early rooting of dormant hardwood cuttings of Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S., Jr. Zalesny; A.H. Wiese

    2006-01-01

    Identifying superior combinations among date of dormant- season shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position can increase the rooting potential of Populus cuttings. Thus, the objectives of our study were to: 1) evaluate variation among clones in early rooting from hardwood cuttings processed every three weeks from shoots collected...

  17. Do early unemployment and health status among young men and women affect their chances of later employment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, A; Janlert, U

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this 5-year prospective study was to investigate the risk of future unemployment among young people who had experienced early unemployment, and to examine whether this risk was influenced by their health status. A total of 1,083 pupils in the final year of compulsory schooling were included in the cohort. The non-participation rate was 2%. At the time of a five-year follow-up, of those who were unemployed during the first two-year period, 71% of the men and 49% of the women were unemployed, had recent experience of unemployment, or were outside the labour market. The relative risk of being unemployed was 2.39 for men (95% CI 1.85-3.10) and 1.76 for women (95% CI 1.25-2.48) among those who had experienced early unemployment compared with those who had been in Youth Opportunities Programmes (YOP) or in work. Young women in YOP had the same risk of later unemployment as those who had experienced early unemployment, while young men in YOP did not have increased risk. Health status and health behaviour had only a minor influence on the risk of unemployment.

  18. Family Routines and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors among Early and Middle Adolescents Affected by Maternal HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Debra A.; Marelich, William D.; Herbeck, Diane M.; Payne, Diana L.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of parenting skills on adolescent outcomes among children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS (N = 118, M age = 13) was investigated. Among families with more frequent family routines, over time adolescents showed lower rates of aggression, anxiety, worry, depression, conduct disorder, binge drinking, and increased self-concept. Among…

  19. Disturbance of the gut microbiota in early-life selectively affects visceral pain in adulthood without impacting cognitive or anxiety-related behaviors in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, S M; Felice, V D; Nally, K; Savignac, H M; Claesson, M J; Scully, P; Woznicki, J; Hyland, N P; Shanahan, F; Quigley, E M; Marchesi, J R; O'Toole, P W; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2014-09-26

    Disruption of bacterial colonization during the early postnatal period is increasingly being linked to adverse health outcomes. Indeed, there is a growing appreciation that the gut microbiota plays a role in neurodevelopment. However, there is a paucity of information on the consequences of early-life manipulations of the gut microbiota on behavior. To this end we administered an antibiotic (vancomycin) from postnatal days 4-13 to male rat pups and assessed behavioral and physiological measures across all aspects of the brain-gut axis. In addition, we sought to confirm and expand the effects of early-life antibiotic treatment using a different antibiotic strategy (a cocktail of pimaricin, bacitracin, neomycin; orally) during the same time period in both female and male rat pups. Vancomycin significantly altered the microbiota, which was restored to control levels by 8 weeks of age. Notably, vancomycin-treated animals displayed visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood without any significant effect on anxiety responses as assessed in the elevated plus maze or open field tests. Moreover, cognitive performance in the Morris water maze was not affected by early-life dysbiosis. Immune and stress-related physiological responses were equally unaffected. The early-life antibiotic-induced visceral hypersensitivity was also observed in male rats given the antibiotic cocktail. Both treatments did not alter visceral pain perception in female rats. Changes in visceral pain perception in males were paralleled by distinct decreases in the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1, the α-2A adrenergic receptor and cholecystokinin B receptor. In conclusion, a temporary disruption of the gut microbiota in early-life results in very specific and long-lasting changes in visceral sensitivity in male rats, a hallmark of stress-related functional disorders of the brain-gut axis such as irritable bowel disorder. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Early maternal rejection affects the development of monoaminergic systems and adult abusive parenting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Higley, J Dee; Lindell, Stephen G; Newman, Timothy K; McCormack, Kai M; Sanchez, Mar M

    2006-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of early exposure to variable parenting style and infant abuse on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of monoamine metabolites and examined the role of monoaminergic function in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Forty-three infants reared by their biological mothers and 15 infants that were cross-fostered at birth and reared by unrelated mothers were followed longitudinally through their first 3 years of life or longer. Approximately half of the infants were reared by abusive mothers and half by nonabusive controls. Abused infants did not differ from controls in CSF concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylgycol (MHPG). Abused infants, however, were exposed to higher rates of maternal rejection, and highly rejected infants had lower CSF 5-HIAA and HVA than low-rejection infants. The abused females who became abusive mothers in adulthood had lower CSF 5-HIAA than the abused females who did not. A similar trend was also observed among the cross-fostered females, suggesting that low serotonergic function resulting from early exposure to high rates of maternal rejection plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse.

  1. Administration of two probiotic strains during early childhood does not affect the endogenous gut microbiota composition despite probiotic proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenous...... gut microbiota, however probiotic intervention studies in adults have failed to show significant effects on gut microbiota composition. The gut microbiota of young children is known to be unstable and more responsive to external factors than that of adults. Therefore, potential effects of probiotic...... intervention on gut microbiota may be easier detectable in early life. We thus investigated the effects of a 6 month placebo-controlled probiotic intervention with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®) on gut microbiota composition and diversity in more than 200...

  2. Early-life social experiences in mice affect emotional behaviour and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Simó, Clara; Valverde, Olga

    2012-09-01

    Early-life stressful experiences are associated to alterations in behavioural responses and development of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. In rodents, individual housing is considered as a stressful condition whilst enriched environment can protect against stress and its negative consequences. Neuroendocrine responses to stress can also be altered by early-life experiences and seem to contribute to behavioural alterations induced by changes in housing conditions. To develop an improved procedure of social isolation throughout development (from pre-adolescence to adulthood) in CD1 mice and to elucidate its effects on behavioural parameters related to stress and neuroendocrine responses compared to enriched or social conditions. CD1 male mice (PND 21) were housed in social/standard conditions, enriched conditions or isolated conditions during seven weeks. After that, different relevant behaviours were evaluated, including locomotor activity, anxiety-like and despair behaviour. Levels of plasma corticosterone were also analysed before and after a stressful event. CD1 mice exposed to an isolated environment exhibited higher locomotion and anxiety-like responses than animals exposed to social or enriched conditions. In addition, isolated animals showed lower basal plasma corticosterone than social or enriched ones but after a stressful event the elevation of plasma corticosterone was higher, suggesting an enhanced response of the HPA axis to a novel and stressful situation. Social interaction is an important feature to display an appropriate behavioural and neuronal development. Habituation to novel stimuli is impaired in subjects exposed to social isolation and induces increased excitability response to stressful events. Social deprivation increases the possibility of altered neuronal function and could facilitate the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecologically-relevant exposure to methylmercury during early development does not affect adult phenotype in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morran, Spencer A M; Elliott, John E; Young, Jessica M L; Eng, Margaret L; Basu, Niladri; Williams, Tony D

    2018-04-01

    Methylmercury causes behavioural and reproductive effects in adult mammals via early developmental exposure. Similar studies in birds are limited and mostly focussed on aquatic systems, but recent work has reported high blood mercury concentrations in terrestrial, passerine songbirds. We used the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) as a model to explore the long-term effects of early developmental exposure to methylmercury exposure. Chicks were dosed orally with either the vehicle control, 0.0315 µg Hg/g bw/day, or 0.075 µg Hg/g bw/day throughout the nestling period (days 1-21 post-hatching). We then measured (a) short-term effects on growth, development, and behaviour (time to self-feeding, neophobia) until 30 days of age (independence), and (b) long-term effects on courtship behaviour and song (males) and reproduction (females) once methylmercury-exposed birds reached sexual maturity (90 days post-hatching). High methylmercury treated birds had mean blood mercury of 0.734 ± 0.163 µg/g at 30 days post-hatching, within the range of values reported for field-sampled songbirds at mercury contaminated sites. However, there were no short-term effects of treatment on growth, development, and behaviour of chicks, and no long-term effects on courtship behaviour and song in males or reproductive performance in females. These results suggest that the nestling period is not a critical window for sensitivity to mercury exposure in zebra finches. Growing nestlings can reduce blood mercury levels through somatic growth and depuration into newly growing feathers, and as a result they might actually be less susceptible compared to adult birds receiving the same level of exposure.

  4. Early benthic successional processes at implanted substrates in Barkley Submarine Canyon affected by a permanent oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera De Leo, F.; Smith, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Fleury, A.; Aguzzi, J.

    2016-02-01

    With the advent of cabled observatories scientists are now able to have a permanent presence in the deep-seafloor, being able to reveal previously unseen faunal behavior as well as to track long-term changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function. The Ocean Networks Canada 800-km loop seafloor observatory array (NEPTUNE) located in the NE Pacific has instruments measuring a variety of environmental variables ranging from temperature, salinity, oxygen, currents, turbidity, fluorescence, etc, at multiple and very high temporal resolution scales. High-definition video cameras also monitor benthic communities in multiple deep-sea habitats, all at some extent influenced by an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). In the present study, whale-bone and wood substrates are being used to evaluate bathymetric, regional and inter-basin variations in benthic biodiversity and connectivity, as well as interactions between biodiversity and ecosystem function. In May of 2014 three humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) rib sections, one 20x20x10 cm block of Douglas Fir (Pseudotsunga meniziesii), and a 30x30x30 block of authigenic carbonate were placed with the use of an ROV at 890 m depth inside Barkley Canyon. The substrate packages were placed concentrically, 45-cm away from a HD video camera. Five-minute videos were captured at 2-hr intervals. Preliminary data analysis from 8 months of deployment showed very distinct early community succession patterns between the two organic substrates (bones and wood) and the authigenic carbonate. Whalebones and wood showed amphipod (Orchomene obtusa) abundance peaks mostly contained during the first 60 days after deployment; Amphipod peak abundance rapid decline coincides with rapid growth of bacterial mat on whalebone and wood surfaces. Low abundance, species richness and substrate degradation rates are in agreement with a low oxygen environment of the OMZ in the canyon. Despite the early stages of data analysis, this experiment demonstrates how

  5. Administration of two probiotic strains during early childhood does not affect the endogenous gut microbiota composition despite probiotic proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni; Michaelsen, Kim F; Bahl, Martin Iain; Licht, Tine Rask

    2017-08-17

    Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenous gut microbiota, however probiotic intervention studies in adults have failed to show significant effects on gut microbiota composition. The gut microbiota of young children is known to be unstable and more responsive to external factors than that of adults. Therefore, potential effects of probiotic intervention on gut microbiota may be easier detectable in early life. We thus investigated the effects of a 6 month placebo-controlled probiotic intervention with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®) on gut microbiota composition and diversity in more than 200 Danish infants (N = 290 enrolled; N = 201 all samples analyzed), as assessed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Further, we evaluated probiotic presence and proliferation by use of specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Probiotic administration did not significantly alter gut microbiota community structure or diversity as compared to placebo. The probiotic strains were detected in 91.3% of the fecal samples from children receiving probiotics and in 1% of the placebo treated children. Baseline gut microbiota was not found to predict the ability of probiotics to establish in the gut after the 6 month intervention. Within the probiotics group, proliferation of the strains LGG® and BB-12® in the gut was detected in 44.7% and 83.5% of the participants, respectively. A sub-analysis of the gut microbiota including only individuals with detected growth of the probiotics LGG® or BB-12® and comparing these to placebo revealed no differences in community structure or diversity. Six months of probiotic administration during early life did not change gut

  6. Radioiodine-131 treatment of thyrotoxicosis: Dose required for and some factors affecting the early induction of hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alevizaki, C.C.; Alevizaki-Harhalaki, M.C.; Ikkos, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The results of 131 I treatment of thyrotoxicosis in 1,168 patients (302 males, 866 females; 58.5% diffuse and 41.5% multinodular toxic goitre) are presented. At the end of the 1st year post-treatment, 54.4% were hypothyroid, and the incidence of hypothyroidism after the 2nd year increased by 3% per year. When the results were analysed according to the calculated radiation dose the thyroid, it was found that the cumulative incidence of hypothyroidism from 6 months to 2 years post-treatment rose almost proportionally to the dose in cases of doses of 1,500-15,0000 rad, but increased very little for higher doses; however, the long-term incidence of hypothyroidism was almost independent of the thyroid dose. Multivariate analysis showed that the results of 131 I therapy at 6 months depended also on sex (treatment being more effective in women), the consistency of the thyroid gland and the year of treatment, with the same radiation dose giving a higher incidence of hypothyroidism in patients treated recently, in comparison to those treated in early in the period studied. Of the patients treated in the period 1978-1982 (mean dose, 300 μCi/g), 93.5% were cured with a single dose of 131 I, and 78% were hypothyroid at 6 months post-treatment. (orig.)

  7. Radioiodine-131 treatment of thyrotoxicosis: Dose required for and some factors affecting the early induction of hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alevizaki, C C; Alevizaki-Harhalaki, M C; Ikkos, D G

    1985-05-01

    The results of /sup 131/I treatment of thyrotoxicosis in 1,168 patients (302 males, 866 females; 58.5% diffuse and 41.5% multinodular toxic goitre) are presented. At the end of the 1st year post-treatment, 54.4% were hypothyroid, and the incidence of hypothyroidism after the 2nd year increased by 3% per year. When the results were analysed according to the calculated radiation dose the thyroid, it was found that the cumulative incidence of hypothyroidism from 6 months to 2 years post-treatment rose almost proportionally to the dose in cases of doses of 1,500-15,0000 rad, but increased very little for higher doses; however, the long-term incidence of hypothyroidism was almost independent of the thyroid dose. Multivariate analysis showed that the results of /sup 131/I therapy at 6 months depended also on sex (treatment being more effective in women), the consistency of the thyroid gland and the year of treatment, with the same radiation dose giving a higher incidence of hypothyroidism in patients treated recently, in comparison to those treated in early in the period studied. Of the patients treated in the period 1978-1982 (mean dose, 300 ..mu..Ci/g), 93.5% were cured with a single dose of /sup 131/I, and 78% were hypothyroid at 6 months post-treatment.

  8. Relaxin affects cell organization and early and late stages of spermatogenesis in a coculture of rat testicular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, M T; Francisco, R A R; Silva, R P; Porto, C S; Lazari, M F M

    2015-07-01

    Relaxin and its receptor RXFP1 are co-expressed in Sertoli cells, and relaxin can stimulate proliferation of Sertoli cells. In this study, we investigated a role of relaxin in spermatogenesis, using a short-term culture of testicular cells of the rat that allowed differentiation of spermatogonia to spermatids. Sertoli, germ, and peritubular myoid cells were the predominant cell types in the culture. Sertoli and germ cells expressed RXFP1. Cultures were incubated without (control) or with 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or 100 ng/mL H2 relaxin (RLN) for 2 days. Cell organization, number, and differentiation were analyzed after 2 (D2), 5 (D5) or 8 (D8) days of culturing. Although the proportion of germ cells decayed from D2 to D5, the relative contribution of HC, 1C, 2C, and 4C germ cell populations remained constant in the control group during the whole culture. RLN did not affect the proportion of germ cell populations compared with control, but increased gene and/or protein expression of the undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia markers PLZF and c-KIT, and of the post-meiotic marker Odf2 in D5. RLN favored organization of cells in tubule-like structures, the arrangement of myoid cells around the tubules, arrangement of c-KIT-positive spermatogonia at the basal region of the tubules, and expression of the cell junction protein β-catenin close to the plasma membrane region. Knockdown of relaxin with small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced expression of β-catenin at the cell junctions, and shifted its expression to the nucleus. We propose that relaxin may affect spermatogenesis by modulating spermatogonial self renewal and favoring cell contact. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  9. The modified amino sugarN-Butyryl Glucosaminefed toovariectomized ratspreservesbone mineralthroughincreased early mineralization,but does not affect body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassos Anastassiades

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The toxicities of pharmaceuticals for chronic arthritis and osteoporosis should be of concern to consumers. This partially accounts for the popularity of consumption of the amino sugar glucosamine, in-spite of controversy about its efficacy. We chemically synthesized N-butyryl glucosamine (GlcNBu, which we discovered protected bone and cartilage in an inflammatory arthritis rat model when used as a feed supplement. GlcNBu can also be potentially synthesized biochemically, since we recently demonstrated that human acetyl-CoA: glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 has a relaxed donor specificity and transfers acyl groups of up to four carbons in length, i.e. the butyryl moiety. Oral GlcNBu had no detectable toxicity and also protected against bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX rats as a model for osteoporosis. However, we demonstrated this only for bones excised at 6 months. Thus, the current study aims to determine when bone mineralization is maximized during daily GlcNBu supplementation, in both OVΧ and Sham-OVX rats, in addition to the relationship of bone mineralization to body composition. Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 4 groups, containing 8 rats each. The groups consisted of OVX or Sham-OVX rats whose diets were supplemented with either 200 mg/kg/day of GlcNBu or an equimolar amount of glucose. We performed sequential bone density and body composition measurements, by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the live, anesthetised rats, over a 6-month experimental period, starting at the age of 8 weeks. Results were analyzed by descriptive statistics and 2-way ANOVA. Results: The major increases in the mineral content and density of the spine and the femur in GlcNBu-supplemented rats occurred early, from the baseline to week 8. Ovariectomy resulted in a number of significant differences in body composition, while feeding GlcNBu had no significant effects on body composition. The significant effects of

  10. Response of early Ruppia cirrhosa litter breakdown to nutrient addition in a coastal lagoon affected by agricultural runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Margarita

    2009-05-01

    The response of early Ruppia cirrhosa Petagna (Grande) litter decomposition to external nitrogen and phosphorus availability in La Tancada (Ebro River, NE Spain), a coastal lagoon that receives agricultural freshwater runoff from rice fields has been examined. Recently abscised dead R. cirrhosa stems were collected and 25 g of fresh weight was placed in litter bags with a mesh size of 100 μm and 1 mm. These bags were fertilised by adding nitrogen (N), a mixture of nitrogen plus phosphorus (N + P), or phosphorus (P), or were left untreated (CT). Macroinvertebrates were retrieved from the bags and the ash-free dry weight, and carbon, and N and P content of the remaining plant material were measured after 0, 3, 7, 14, 22 and 32 days. Litter decomposition rates, k (day -1), were estimated using a simple exponential model. Litter decay was clearly accelerated by the addition of P in the fine (100 μm) litter bags (0.042), but when N was added alone (0.0099) the decomposition rate was lower than in the CT treatments (0.022). No significant difference was observed between the N (0.0099-0.018) and N + P (0.0091-0.015) treatments in either the fine or the coarse (1 mm) litter bags. These results could be attributed to the relatively high availability of external (environmental) and internal (detritus contents) N. No significant effect of macro invertebrates was observed in the CT treatment or under N or P or N + P addition. The ratio between the decomposition rates in coarse and fine litter bags (k c/k f) was lower in disturbed Tancada lagoon (0.82) than in Cesine lagoon (2.11), a similar Mediterranean coastal water body with almost pristine conditions. These results indicate that, in addition to data on macroinvertebrate community structure, decomposition rates could also be used to assess water quality in coastal lagoons.

  11. Risk factors for alcoholism in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns project: impact of early life adversity and family history on affect regulation and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorocco, Kristen H; Carnes, Nathan C; Cohoon, Andrew J; Vincent, Andrea S; Lovallo, William R

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the impact of early lifetime adversity (ELA) on affect regulation and personality in persons with family history (FH+) and without (FH-) a family history of alcoholism. We examined the impact of early life adversity in healthy young adults, 18-30 years of age enrolled in a long-term study on risk for alcohol and other substance abuse. ELA was assessed by a composite score of low socioeconomic status and personal experience of physical or sexual abuse and/or separation from parents before age 16, resulting in a score of 0, 1-2, or >3 adverse events. Unstable affect regulation and personality variables were obtained via self-report measures. Higher ELA scores were seen in FH+ (χ(2)=109.2, paffect regulation, negative moods, and have risky drinking and drug abuse tendencies independent of ELA level. ELA predicts reduced stress reactivity and poorer cognitive control over impulsive behaviors as shown elsewhere. The present work shows that FH+ have poor mood regulation and antisocial characteristics. The greater prevalence of ELA in FH+ persons indicates that life experience and FH+ work in tandem to result in risky patterns of alcohol and drug experimentation to elevate risk for alcoholism. Further studies of genetic and environmental contributions to alcoholism are called for. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Perinatal paracetamol exposure in mice does not affect the development of allergic airways disease in early life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Debbie C P; Walker, Simone A; Byrne, Adam J; Gregory, Lisa G; Buckley, James; Bush, Andrew; Shaheen, Seif O; Saglani, Sejal; Lloyd, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Background Current data concerning maternal paracetamol intake during pregnancy, or intake during infancy and risk of wheezing or asthma in childhood is inconclusive based on epidemiological studies. We have investigated whether there is a causal link between maternal paracetamol intake during pregnancy and lactation and the development of house dust mite (HDM) induced allergic airways disease (AAD) in offspring using a neonatal mouse model. Methods Pregnant mice were administered paracetamol or saline by oral gavage from the day of mating throughout pregnancy and/or lactation. Subsequently, their pups were exposed to intranasal HDM or saline from day 3 of life for up to 6 weeks. Assessments of airway hyper-responsiveness, inflammation and remodelling were made at weaning (3 weeks) and 6 weeks of age. Results Maternal paracetamol exposure either during pregnancy and/or lactation did not affect development of AAD in offspring at weaning or at 6 weeks. There were no effects of maternal paracetamol at any time point on airway remodelling or IgE levels. Conclusions Maternal paracetamol did not enhance HDM induced AAD in offspring. Our mechanistic data do not support the hypothesis that prenatal paracetamol exposure increases the risk of childhood asthma. PMID:25841236

  13. A preliminary trial to determine whether prevention of dark adaptation affects the course of early diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, G B; Gündüz, M K; Kurtenbach, A; Völker, M; Zrenner, E; Gündüz, S B; Kamis, U; Oztürk, B T; Okudan, S

    2010-07-01

    This study was designed to determine whether a new form of treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was acceptable to patients and whether reduction in the maximal activity of rods in diabetes could affect the progress of DR. In 12 patients, trans-lid retinal illumination of one eye was employed during sleep to prevent the depolarisation of rods and thus reduce their metabolic activity. A headband was used to place a source of chemical light over one eye, with its fellow as a control. Colour contrast thresholds were measured before and after a period of treatment in treated eyes, and the changes were compared to those in untreated fellow eyes, and areas of 'dark retinal anomalies' (microaneurysms, dot haemorrhages) were measured at the same time points. Patients found this intervention to be acceptable, and no adverse effects were noted. In the majority of cases, and for each outcome measure, the treated eyes improved relative to their fellows. The intervention significantly reduced the tritan thresholds in treated eyes relative to their fellows (P=0.03), and the area of dark retinal anomalies decreased in treated eyes and increased in untreated eyes, with a similar probability. The study showed that this intervention is safe. Although the study was not powered to study efficacy, the results are promising and consistent with other reports that indicate the retina in DR is suffering from hypoxia; however, further trials should be undertaken.

  14. Mutations altering the gammaretrovirus endoproteolytic motif affect glycosylation of the envelope glycoprotein and early events of the virus life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A., E-mail: carolyn.wilson@fda.hhs.gov

    2015-01-15

    Previously, we found that mutation of glutamine to proline in the endoproteolytic cleavage signal of the PERV-C envelope (RQKK to RPKK) resulted in non-infectious vectors. Here, we show that RPKK results in a non-infectious vector when placed in not only a PERV envelope, but also the envelope of a related gammaretrovirus, FeLV-B. The amino acid substitutions do not prevent envelope precursor cleavage, viral core and genome assembly, or receptor binding. Rather, the mutations result in the formation of hyperglycosylated glycoprotein and a reduction in the reverse transcribed minus strand synthesis and undetectable 2-LTR circular DNA in cells exposed to vectors with these mutated envelopes. Our findings suggest novel functions associated with the cleavage signal sequence that may affect trafficking through the glycosylation machinery of the cell. Further, the glycosylation status of the envelope appears to impact post-binding events of the viral life cycle, either membrane fusion, internalization, or reverse transcription. - Highlights: • Env cleavage signal impacts infectivity of gammaretroviruses. • Non-infectious mutants have hyper-glycosylated envelope that bind target cells. • Non-infectious mutants have defects in the formation of the double-stranded DNA. • Env cleavage motif has functions beyond cleavage of the env precursor.

  15. EVERREST prospective study: a 6-year prospective study to define the clinical and biological characteristics of pregnancies affected by severe early onset fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rebecca; Ambler, Gareth; Brodszki, Jana; Diemert, Anke; Figueras, Francesc; Gratacós, Eduard; Hansson, Stefan R; Hecher, Kurt; Huertas-Ceballos, Angela; Marlow, Neil; Marsál, Karel; Morsing, Eva; Peebles, Donald; Rossi, Carlo; Sebire, Neil J; Timms, John F; David, Anna L

    2017-01-23

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a serious obstetric condition for which there is currently no treatment. The EVERREST Prospective Study has been designed to characterise the natural history of pregnancies affected by severe early onset FGR and establish a well phenotyped bio-bank. The findings will provide up-to-date information for clinicians and patients and inform the design and conduct of the EVERREST Clinical Trial: a phase I/IIa trial to assess the safety and efficacy of maternal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene therapy in severe early onset FGR. Data and samples from the EVERREST Prospective Study will be used to identify ultrasound and/or biochemical markers of prognosis in pregnancies with an estimated fetal weight (EFW) economic impact; psychological impact; neonatal condition, progress and complications; and infant growth and neurodevelopment to 2 years of corrected age in surviving infants. Standardised longitudinal ultrasound measurements are performed, including: fetal biometry; uterine artery, umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus Doppler velocimetry; and uterine artery and umbilical vein volume blood flow. Samples of maternal blood and urine, amniotic fluid (if amniocentesis performed), placenta, umbilical cord blood, and placental bed (if caesarean delivery performed) are collected for bio-banking. An initial analysis of maternal blood samples at enrolment is planned to identify biochemical markers that are predictors for fetal or neonatal death. The findings of the EVERREST Prospective Study will support the development of a novel therapy for severe early onset FGR by describing in detail the natural history of the disease and by identifying women whose pregnancies have the poorest outcomes, in whom a therapy might be most advantageous. The findings will also enable better counselling of couples with affected pregnancies, and provide a valuable resource for future research into the causes of FGR. NCT02097667

  16. Unstable Expression of Commonly Used Reference Genes in Rat Pancreatic Islets Early after Isolation Affects Results of Gene Expression Studies.

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    Lucie Kosinová

    Full Text Available The use of RT-qPCR provides a powerful tool for gene expression studies; however, the proper interpretation of the obtained data is crucially dependent on accurate normalization based on stable reference genes. Recently, strong evidence has been shown indicating that the expression of many commonly used reference genes may vary significantly due to diverse experimental conditions. The isolation of pancreatic islets is a complicated procedure which creates severe mechanical and metabolic stress leading possibly to cellular damage and alteration of gene expression. Despite of this, freshly isolated islets frequently serve as a control in various gene expression and intervention studies. The aim of our study was to determine expression of 16 candidate reference genes and one gene of interest (F3 in isolated rat pancreatic islets during short-term cultivation in order to find a suitable endogenous control for gene expression studies. We compared the expression stability of the most commonly used reference genes and evaluated the reliability of relative and absolute quantification using RT-qPCR during 0-120 hrs after isolation. In freshly isolated islets, the expression of all tested genes was markedly depressed and it increased several times throughout the first 48 hrs of cultivation. We observed significant variability among samples at 0 and 24 hrs but substantial stabilization from 48 hrs onwards. During the first 48 hrs, relative quantification failed to reflect the real changes in respective mRNA concentrations while in the interval 48-120 hrs, the relative expression generally paralleled the results determined by absolute quantification. Thus, our data call into question the suitability of relative quantification for gene expression analysis in pancreatic islets during the first 48 hrs of cultivation, as the results may be significantly affected by unstable expression of reference genes. However, this method could provide reliable information

  17. How does early maternal separation and chronic stress in adult rats affect the immunoreactivity of serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollano, Antonella; Trujillo, Verónica; Suárez, Marta M

    2018-01-01

    Vulnerability to emotional disorders like depression derives from interactions between early and late environments, including stressful conditions. The serotonin (5HT) system is strongly affected by stress and chronic unpredictable stress can alter the 5HT system. We evaluated the distribution of active serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) through immunohistochemistry in maternally separated and chronically stressed rats treated with an antidepressant, tianeptine, whose mechanism of action is still under review. Male Wistar rats were subjected to daily maternal separation (MS) for 4.5 h between postnatal days (PND) 1-21, or to animal facility rearing (AFR). Between (PND) days 50-74, rats were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress and were treated daily with tianeptine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle. We found an interaction between the effects of MS and chronic unpredictable stress on Fos-5HT immunoreactive cells at mid-caudal level of the DR. MS-chronically stressed rats showed an increase of Fos-5HT immunoreactive cells compared with AFR-chronically stressed rats. The ventrolateral (DRL/VLPAG) and dorsal (DRD) subdivisions of the DR were significantly more active than the ventral part (DRV). At the rostral level of the DR, tianeptine decreased the number of Fos-5HT cells in DR in the AFR groups, both unstressed and stressed. Overall, our results support the idea of a match in phenotype exhibited when the early and the adult environment correspond.

  18. Isobaric Tagging-Based Quantification for Proteomic Analysis: A Comparative Study of Spared and Affected Muscles from mdx Mice at the Early Phase of Dystrophy.

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    Cintia Yuri Matsumura

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common childhood myopathy, characterized by muscle loss and cardiorespiratory failure. While the genetic basis of DMD is well established, secondary mechanisms associated with dystrophic pathophysiology are not fully clarified yet. In order to obtain new insights into the molecular mechanisms of muscle dystrophy during earlier stages of the disease, we performed a comparative proteomic profile of the spared extraocular muscles (EOM vs. affected diaphragm from the mdx mice, using a label based shotgun proteomic approach. Out of the 857 identified proteins, 42 to 62 proteins had differential abundance of peptide ions. The calcium-handling proteins sarcalumenin and calsequestrin-1 were increased in control EOM compared with control DIA, reinforcing the view that constitutional properties of EOM are important for their protection against myonecrosis. The finding that galectin-1 (muscle regeneration, annexin A1 (anti-inflammatory and HSP 47 (fibrosis were increased in dystrophic diaphragm provides novel insights into the mechanisms through which mdx affected muscles are able to counteract dystrophy, during the early stage of the disease. Overall, the shotgun technique proved to be suitable to perform quantitative comparisons between distinct dystrophic muscles and allowed the suggestion of new potential biomarkers and drug targets for dystrophinopaties.

  19. Temperatures during flower bud development affect pollen germination, self-incompatibility reaction and early fruit development of clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, G; Gentile, A; Hedhly, A; La Malfa, S

    2018-03-01

    One of the key environmental factors affecting plant reproductive systems is temperature. Characterising such effects is especially relevant for some commercially important genera such as Citrus. In this genus, failure of fertilisation results in parthenocarpic fruit development and seedlessness, which is a much-prized character. Here, we characterise the effects of temperature on flower and ovary development, and on pollen-pistil interactions in 'Comune' clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.). We examine flower bud development, in vitro pollen germination and pollen-pistil interaction at different temperatures (15, 20, 25 or 30 °C). These temperatures span the range from 'cold' to 'hot' weather during the flowering season in many citrus-growing regions. Temperature had a strong effect on flower and ovary development, pollen germination, and pollen tube growth kinetics. In particular, parthenocarpic fruit development (indicated by juice vesicle growth) was initiated early if flowers were exposed to warmer temperatures during anthesis. Exposure to different temperatures during flower bud development also alters expression of the self-incompatibility reaction. This affects the point in the pistil at which pollen tube growth is arrested and confirms the role of sub- and supra-optimal temperatures in determining the numbers of pollen tubes reaching the ovary. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. The street children of Manila are affected by early-in-life periodontal infection: description of a treatment modality: sea salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, J F; Michel, M G; Nadan, J; Nowzari, H

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of street children of Manila are affected by early-in-life oral infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a sea-salt mouthrinse solution in street children of Manila affected by mild to severe forms of periodontal disease. These children were all in need of special protection: abandoned, abused, exploited, neglected, orphaned, poor. During 3 oral-health missions in 2003, 2004 and 2005, 617 abandoned children (5 to 13 year-old), received oral examination at a non-sectarian child-caring institution in Metro Manila (Virlanie Foundation) by calibrated examiners. A treatment based on what could be done was proposed: 1. Teaching of a precise tooth brushing technique with sea-salt, controlled and reinforced every two days for one week by calibrated health educators, 2. The application of sea-salt water mouthrinse (2.5 gram in 20 ml). Periodontal measurements were repeated at the end of each mission. All children returned to child-caring institution for the followup examinations. In 2003, 10 male and 11 female (n=21) were diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis. In 2009 and 2010, none was affected by aggressive periodontitis. For all patients, the gingival index decreased from 1.08 at the first mission to 1.04 at the end of the second mission and 0.98 at the end of the third mission. The periodontal index decreased from 1.33 at the first mission to 0.98 at the second mission and 0.92 at the last mission. The present investigation confirms that prevention and early diagnosis can result in success with minimum cost. The provided oral health program empowered street children in the most desperate circumstances to be educated and become self-reliant, independent, and responsible. We propose here an antimicrobial approach which has a high degree of efficacy and tolerability, and can be implemented in virtually all parts of the world using low-cost resources.

  1. Early life stress in rats sex-dependently affects remote endocrine rather than behavioral consequences of adult exposure to contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Sílvia; Daviu, Núria; Gagliano, Humberto; Belda, Xavier; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2018-05-30

    Exposure to electric foot-shocks can induce in rodents contextual fear conditioning, generalization of fear to other contexts and sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to further stressors. All these aspects are relevant for the study of post-traumatic stress disorder. In the present work we evaluated in rats the sex differences and the role of early life stress (ELS) in fear memories, generalization and sensitization. During the first postnatal days subjects were exposed to restriction of nesting material along with exposure to a "substitute" mother. In the adulthood they were exposed to (i) a contextual fear conditioning to evaluate long-term memory and extinction and (ii) to a novel environment to study cognitive fear generalization and HPA axis heterotypic sensitization. ELS did not alter acquisition, expression or extinction of context fear conditioned behavior (freezing) in either sex, but reduced activity in novel environments only in males. Fear conditioning associated hypoactivity in novel environments (cognitive generalization) was greater in males than females but was not specifically affected by ELS. Although overall females showed greater basal and stress-induced levels of ACTH and corticosterone, an interaction between ELS, shock exposure and sex was found regarding HPA hormones. In males, ELS did not affect ACTH response in any situation, whereas in females, ELS reduced both shock-induced sensitization of ACTH and its conditioned response to the shock context. Also, shock-induced sensitization of corticosterone was only observed in males and ELS specifically reduced corticosterone response to stressors in males but not females. In conclusion, ELS seems to have only a minor impact on shock-induced behavioral conditioning, while affecting the unconditioned and conditioned responses of HPA hormones in a sex-dependent manner. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The Validation of Macro and Micro Observations of Parent-Child Dynamics Using the Relationship Affect Coding System in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Mun, Chung Jung; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Kim, Hanjoe; Shaw, Daniel S; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N; Peterson, Jenene

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the validity of micro social observations and macro ratings of parent-child interaction in early to middle childhood. Seven hundred and thirty-one families representing multiple ethnic groups were recruited and screened as at risk in the context of Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) Nutritional Supplement service settings. Families were randomly assigned to the Family Checkup (FCU) intervention or the control condition at age 2 and videotaped in structured interactions in the home at ages 2, 3, 4, and 5. Parent-child interaction videotapes were micro-coded using the Relationship Affect Coding System (RACS) that captures the duration of two mutual dyadic states: positive engagement and coercion. Macro ratings of parenting skills were collected after coding the videotapes to assess parent use of positive behavior support and limit setting skills (or lack thereof). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the measurement model of macro ratings of limit setting and positive behavior support was not supported by the data, and thus, were excluded from further analyses. However, there was moderate stability in the families' micro social dynamics across early childhood and it showed significant improvements as a function of random assignment to the FCU. Moreover, parent-child dynamics were predictive of chronic behavior problems as rated by parents in middle childhood, but not emotional problems. We conclude with a discussion of the validity of the RACS and on methodological advantages of micro social coding over the statistical limitations of macro rating observations. Future directions are discussed for observation research in prevention science.

  3. Gluconeogenesis during starvation and refeeding phase is affected by previous dietary carbohydrates levels and a glucose stimuli during early life in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii

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    Xiaofang Liang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gluconeogenesis responses was assessed during a short starvation period and subsequent refeeding in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii previously fed different dietary carbohydrates levels and experienced to a glucose stimuli during early life. The sturgeon larvae were previously fed either a high glucose diet (G or a low glucose diet (F from the first feeding to yolk absorption (8 to 12 d post-hatching [dph]. Each group of fish was sub-divided into 2 treatments at 13 dph and was fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (H or a low carbohydrate diet (L until 20 wk. In the current study, the fish in 4 groups (GL, FL, GH and FH were experienced to starvation for 21 d following by re-feeding of their corresponding diets for 21 d. Fish were sampled at postprandial 6 and 24 h before starvation (P6h and P24h, starvation 7, 14 and 21 d (S7, S14 and S21 and 1, 7, 14 and 21 d during refeeding (R1, R7, R14 and R21. Plasma samples during refeeding were taken at P6h at each time point. Glycaemia levels, liver and muscle glycogen contents, activities and mRNA levels of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes were examined. We found that both dietary carbohydrate levels and early glucose stimuli significantly affected the metabolic responses to starvation and refeeding in Siberian sturgeon (P < 0.05. During prolonged starvation, Siberian sturgeon firstly mobilized the liver glycogen and then improved gluconeogenesis when the dietary carbohydrates were abundant, whereas preserved the liver glycogen stores at a stable level and more effectively promoted gluconeogenesis when the dietary carbohydrates are absent to maintain glucose homoeostasis. During refeeding, as most teleostean, Siberian sturgeon failed controlling the activities and mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic forms (PEPCK-C, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, but particularly controlled phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mitochondrial forms (PEPCK-M activities and mRNA expression

  4. Valence interacts with the early ERP old/new effect and arousal with the sustained ERP old/new effect for affective pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Langeslag, Sandra J E; Strekalova, Nadja J; Gootjes, Liselotte; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2009-01-28

    To examine whether valence and arousal influence recognition memory during early automatic or during more sustained processes, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) of 21 women were recorded while they made old/new judgments in a continuous recognition task with pictures from the International Affective Picture System. The pictures were presented twice and differed in emotional valence and arousal. The P1 peak and four time windows were investigated: 200-300 ms, 300-400 ms, 400-600 ms, and 750-1000 ms after stimulus onset. There was a robust old/new effect starting in the 200-300 ms epoch and lasting all time windows. The valence effect was mainly present in the P1 peak and the 200-400 ms epoch, whereas the arousal effect was found in the 300-1000 ms epoch. Exploratory sLORETA analyses dissociated valence-dependent ventromedial prefrontal activity and arousal-dependent occipital activity in the 350-380 ms time window. Valence interacted with the 200-400 ms old/new effect at central and frontal sites. Arousal interacted with the 750-1000 ms old/new effect at posterior sites. It is concluded that valence influences fast recognition memory, while arousal may influence sustained encoding.

  5. Suppression of microRNA-31 increases sensitivity to 5-FU at an early stage, and affects cell migration and invasion in HCT-116 colon cancer cells

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    Sun Xiao-Feng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenously expressed noncoding RNAs with important biological and pathological functions. Although several studies have shown that microRNA-31 (miR-31 is obviously up-regulated in colorectal cancer (CRC, there is no study on the functional roles of miR-31 in CRC. Methods Anti-miR™ miRNA 31 inhibitor (anti-miR-31 is a sequence-specific and chemically modified oligonucleotide to specifically target and knockdown miR-31 molecule. The effect of anti-miR-31 transfection was investigated by real-time PCR. HCT-116p53+/+ and HCT-116p53-/-colon cancer cells were treated by anti-miR-31 with or without 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay; apoptosis was detected by DAPI staining; cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry; colony formation, migration and invasion assays were performed to investigate the effect of suppression of miR-31 on the cell lines. Results Real-time PCR results showed that anti-miR-31 was efficiently introduced into the cells and reduced miR-31 levels to 44.1% in HCT-116p53+/+ and 67.8% in HCT-116p53-/-cell line (p = 0.042 and 0.046. MTT results showed that anti-miR-31 alone had no effect on the proliferation of HCT-116p53+/+ or HCT-116p53-/-. However, when combined with 5-FU, anti-miR-31 inhibited the proliferation of the two cell lines as early as 24 h after exposure to 5-FU (p = 0.038 and 0.044. Suppression of miR-31 caused a reduction of the migratory cells by nearly 50% compared with the negative control in both HCT-116p53+/+ and HCT-116p53-/-(p = 0.040 and 0.001. The invasive ability of the cells were increased by 8-fold in HCT-116p53+/+ and 2-fold in HCT-116p53-/- (p = 0.045 and 0.009. Suppression of miR-31 had no effect on cell cycle and colony formation (p > 0.05. Conclusions Suppression of miR-31 increases sensitivity to 5-FU at an early stage, and affects cell migration and invasion in HCT-116 colon cancer cells.

  6. The Varicella-Zoster Virus Immediate-Early 63 protein affects chromatin controlled gene transcription in a cell-type dependent manner

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    Bontems Sébastien

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella Zoster Virus Immediate Early 63 protein (IE63 has been shown to be essential for VZV replication, and critical for latency establishment. The activity of the protein as a transcriptional regulator is not fully clear yet. Using transient transfection assays, IE63 has been shown to repress viral and cellular promoters containing typical TATA boxes by interacting with general transcription factors. Results In this paper, IE63 regulation properties on endogenous gene expression were evaluated using an oligonucleotide-based micro-array approach. We found that IE63 modulates the transcription of only a few genes in HeLa cells including genes implicated in transcription or immunity. Furthermore, we showed that this effect is mediated by a modification of RNA POL II binding on the promoters tested and that IE63 phosphorylation was essential for these effects. In MeWo cells, the number of genes whose transcription was modified by IE63 was somewhat higher, including genes implicated in signal transduction, transcription, immunity, and heat-shock signalling. While IE63 did not modify the basal expression of several NF-κB dependent genes such as IL-8, ICAM-1, and IκBα, it modulates transcription of these genes upon TNFα induction. This effect was obviously correlated with the amount of p65 binding to the promoter of these genes and with histone H3 acetylation and HDAC-3 removal. Conclusion While IE63 only affected transcription of a small number of cellular genes, it interfered with the TNF-inducibility of several NF-κB dependent genes by the accelerated resynthesis of the inhibitor IκBα.

  7. Small Variations in Early-Life Environment Can Affect Coping Behaviour in Response to Foraging Challenge in the Three-Spined Stickleback.

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    M Rohaa Langenhof

    Full Text Available An increasing concern in the face of human expansion throughout natural habitats is whether animal populations can respond adaptively when confronted with challenges like environmental change and novelty. Behavioural flexibility is an important factor in estimating the adaptive potential of both individuals and populations, and predicting the degree to which they can cope with change.This study on the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus is an empiric illustration of the degree of behavioural variation that can emerge between semi-natural systems within only a single generation. Wild-caught adult sticklebacks (P, N = 400 were randomly distributed in equal densities over 20 standardized semi-natural environments (ponds, and one year later offspring (F1, N = 652 were presented with repeated behavioural assays. Individuals were challenged to reach a food source through a novel transparent obstacle, during which exploration, activity, foraging, sociability and wall-biting behaviours were recorded through video observation. We found that coping responses of individuals from the first generation to this unfamiliar foraging challenge were related to even relatively small, naturally diversified variation in developmental environment. All measured behaviours were correlated with each other. Especially exploration, sociability and wall-biting were found to differ significantly between ponds. These differences could not be explained by stickleback density or the turbidity of the water.Our findings show that a differences in early-life environment appear to affect stickleback feeding behaviour later in life; b this is the case even when the environmental differences are only small, within natural parameters and diversified gradually; and c effects are present despite semi-natural conditions that fluctuate during the year. Therefore, in behaviourally plastic animals like the stickleback, the adaptive response to human-induced habitat disturbance

  8. [Soil seed bank formation during early revegetation of areas affected by mining in a tropical rain forest of Chocó, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois-Cuesta, Hamleth; Martínez-Ruiz, Carolina; Urrutia-Rivas, Yorley

    2017-03-01

    Mining is one of the main economic activities in many tropical regions and is the cause of devastation of large areas of natural tropical forests. The knowledge of the regenerative potential of mining disturbed areas provides valuable information for their ecological restoration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age of abandonment of mines and their distance from the adjacent forest, on the formation of soil seed bank in abandoned mines in the San Juan, Chocó, Colombia. To do this, we determined the abundance and species composition of the soil seed bank, and the dynamics of seed rain in mines of different cessation period of mining activity (6 and 15 years), and at different distances from the adjacent forest matrix (50 and 100 m). Seed rain was composed by five species of plants with anemocorous dispersion, and was more abundant in the mine of 6 years than in the mine of 15 years. There were no significant differences in the number of seeds collected at 50 m and 100 m from the adjacent forest. The soil seed bank was represented by eight species: two with anemocorous dispersion (common among the seed rain species) and the rest with zoochorous dispersion. The abundance of seeds in the soil did not vary with the age of the mine, but was higher at close distances to the forest edge than far away. During the early revegetation, the formation of the soil seed bank in the mines seems to be related to their proximity to other disturbed areas, rather than their proximity to the adjacent forest or the cessation activity period of mines. Therefore, the establishment of artificial perches or the maintenance of isolated trees in the abandoned mines could favour the arrival of bird-dispersed seeds at mines. However, since the soil seed bank can be significantly affected by the high rainfall in the study area, more studies are needed to evaluate management actions to encourage soil seed bank formation in mines of high-rainfall environments in the Choc

  9. Small Variations in Early-Life Environment Can Affect Coping Behaviour in Response to Foraging Challenge in the Three-Spined Stickleback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Apperloo, Rienk; Komdeur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An increasing concern in the face of human expansion throughout natural habitats is whether animal populations can respond adaptively when confronted with challenges like environmental change and novelty. Behavioural flexibility is an important factor in estimating the adaptive potential of both individuals and populations, and predicting the degree to which they can cope with change. This study on the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is an empiric illustration of the degree of behavioural variation that can emerge between semi-natural systems within only a single generation. Wild-caught adult sticklebacks (P, N = 400) were randomly distributed in equal densities over 20 standardized semi-natural environments (ponds), and one year later offspring (F1, N = 652) were presented with repeated behavioural assays. Individuals were challenged to reach a food source through a novel transparent obstacle, during which exploration, activity, foraging, sociability and wall-biting behaviours were recorded through video observation. We found that coping responses of individuals from the first generation to this unfamiliar foraging challenge were related to even relatively small, naturally diversified variation in developmental environment. All measured behaviours were correlated with each other. Especially exploration, sociability and wall-biting were found to differ significantly between ponds. These differences could not be explained by stickleback density or the turbidity of the water. Our findings show that a) differences in early-life environment appear to affect stickleback feeding behaviour later in life; b) this is the case even when the environmental differences are only small, within natural parameters and diversified gradually; and c) effects are present despite semi-natural conditions that fluctuate during the year. Therefore, in behaviourally plastic animals like the stickleback, the adaptive response to human-induced habitat disturbance may occur

  10. Thimerosal and children’s neurodevelopmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Maya, Luis; Luna, Flora

    2006-01-01

    Se evalúa la relación causal entre el timerosal (etilmercurio), como preservante en las vacunas pediátricas, y el incremento de casos de enfermedades del neurodesarrollo infantil, como consecuencia de la ampliación de los esquemas de inmunización. Se revisó la información científica, relacionando el timerosal y las evidencias que permitan evaluar una posible asociación causal, con estudios epidemiológicos, ecológicos, biomoleculares y toxicológicos, de bioseguridad, toxicológicos fetales y so...

  11. Morphological adaptation of rumen papillae during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314000550; Bannink, A.; Geurts, I. A L; Schonewille, J. T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185364306; Gort, G.; Dijkstra, J.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the morphological adaptation of rumen papilla, which plays an important role in volatile fatty acid absorption, in dry and early lactation dairy cattle is limited. Therefore, macro- and microscopic changes in papilla morphology during the dry period and lactation and the effect of rate

  12. Ghrelin and hypothalamic NPY/AgRP expression in mice are affected by chronic early-life stress exposure in a sex-specific manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yam, K.Y.; Ruigrok, S.R.; Ziko, I.; De Luca, S.N.; Lucassen, P.J.; Spencer, S.J.; Korosi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Early-life stress (ES) is a risk factor for metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity) with a notoriously higher prevalence in women compared to men. However, mechanisms underlying these effects remain elusive. The development of the hypothalamic feeding and metabolic regulatory circuits occurs mostly in

  13. Early Sign Language Experience Goes along with an Increased Cross-Modal Gain for Affective Prosodic Recognition in Congenitally Deaf CI Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, Ineke; Delfau, Pia-Céline; Röder, Brigitte

    2018-01-01

    It is yet unclear whether congenitally deaf cochlear implant (CD CI) users' visual and multisensory emotion perception is influenced by their history in sign language acquisition. We hypothesized that early-signing CD CI users, relative to late-signing CD CI users and hearing, non-signing controls, show better facial expression recognition and…

  14. Education and coronary heart disease risk associations may be affected by early-life common prior causes: a propensity matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Eric B; Buka, Stephen L; Rogers, Michelle L; Liu, Tao; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura D; Martin, Laurie T; Gilman, Stephen E

    2012-04-01

    Education is inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD); however whether this is attributable to causal effects of schooling rather than potential confounders existing before school entry (eg, childhood intelligence, childhood economic circumstances, childhood chronic illness, parental mental health) remains unknown. We evaluated whether education is associated with 10-year CHD risk independent of 21 prospectively assessed childhood conditions, in participants ages 38-47 years. Using linear regression analyses, we evaluated associations of education with 10-year CHD risk, the latter calculated by use of the validated Framingham risk algorithm incorporating diabetes, blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, age, and sex. Propensity score matching incorporated 21 early-life potential confounders. Regression analyses demonstrated college graduation was associated with -27.9% lower (95% CI, -36.2, -18.6%) 10-year CHD risk compared with ≤high school after matching on propensity score that included age, sex and race (n = 272); addition of 21 early life potential confounders resulted in effect size of -13.1% (95% CI, -33.4, 13.4; mean n = 110). Participants with college degree had substantially lower risk of CHD (27.9%) after accounting for demographics; the addition of early life potential confounders resulted in a moderate effect size (13.1%), suggesting potential importance of early life factors in explaining observed associations between education and CHD risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How Does Access to Early Childhood Services Affect the Participation of Women in the Labour Market? Education Indicators in Focus. No. 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2018

    2018-01-01

    While the benefits of early childhood education and care (ECEC) services to better learning are now widely acknowledged, a widespread and accessible provision for these services also helps support gender equality in the workforce. In particular, the availability, intensity, reliability and affordability of ECEC play an important role in engaging…

  16. Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact at the level of the adrenal gland to affect the adult hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelen, R.H.A. van der; Deschamps, W.; D'Annibale, C.; Peeters, D.; Wevers, R.A.; Zelena, D.; Homberg, J.R.; Kozicz, L.T.

    2014-01-01

    The short allelic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) promoter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with the etiology of major depression by interaction with early life stress (ELS). Furthermore, 5-HTTLPR has been associated with abnormal functioning of the

  17. "We Don't Allow Children to Climb Trees": How a Focus on Safety Affects Norwegian Children's Play in Early-Childhood Education and Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Sando, Ole Johan

    2016-01-01

    The authors point out a basic contradiction: On one hand, we want to keep children as safe as possible; On the other, they suggest, learning to take risks is a normal part of childhood and child development. In Norway, research has shown that early-childhood education and care (ECEC) practitioners have, in the past, taken a permissive approach to…

  18. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  19. Multi-instrumental Investigation of Affecting of Early Somatic Embryos of Spruce by Cadmium(II) and Lead(II) Ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šupálková, V.; Petřek, J.; Baloun, J.; Adam, V.; Bartušek, Karel; Trnková, L.; Beklová, M.; Diopan, V.; Havel, L.; Kizek, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, 5 (2007), s. 743-759 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/0389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : early somatic embryos of spruces * glutathione * heavy metals * plant cells * esterase activity * fluorescence detection Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.573, year: 2007

  20. Early brain loss in circuits affected by Alzheimer’s disease is predicted by fornix microstructure but may be independent of gray matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan eFletcher

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In a cohort of community-recruited elderly subjects with normal cognition at initial evaluation, we found that baseline fornix white matter microstructure was significantly correlated with early volumetric longitudinal tissue change across a region of interest (called fSROI, which overlaps circuits known to be selectively vulnerable to AD pathology. Other white matter and gray matter regions had much weaker or non-existent associations with longitudinal tissue change. Tissue loss in fSROI was in turn a significant factor in a survival model of cognitive decline, as was baseline fornix microstructure. These findings suggest that WM deterioration in the fornix and tissue loss in fSROI may be the early beginnings of posterior limbic circuit and default mode network degeneration. We also found that gray matter baseline volumes in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus predicted cognitive decline in survival models. But since GM regions did not also significantly predict brain tissue loss, our results may imply a view in which early, prodromal deterioration appears as two quasi independent processes in white and gray matter regions of the limbic circuit crucial to memory.

  1. Affective processing within 1/10th of a second: High arousal is necessary for early facilitative processing of negative but not positive words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Markus J; Kuchinke, Lars; Tamm, Sascha; Võ, Melissa L-H; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2009-12-01

    Lexical decisions to high- and low-arousal negative words and to low-arousal neutral and positive words were examined in an event-related potentials (ERP) study. Reaction times to positive and high-arousal negative words were shorter than those to neutral (low-arousal) words, whereas those to low-arousal negative words were longer. A similar pattern was observed in an early time window of the ERP response: Both positive and high-arousal negative words elicited greater negative potentials in a time frame of 80 to 120 msec after stimulus onset. This result suggests that arousal has a differential impact on early lexical processing of positive and negative words. Source localization in the relevant time frame revealed that the arousal effect in negative words is likely to be localized in a left occipito-temporal region including the middle temporal and fusiform gyri. The ERP arousal effect appears to result from early lexico-semantic processing in high-arousal negative words.

  2. BAX-mediated cell death affects early germ cell loss and incidence of testicular teratomas in Dnd1(Ter/Ter) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Matthew S; Coveney, Douglas; Batchvarov, Iordan; Nadeau, Joseph H; Capel, Blanche

    2009-04-15

    A homozygous nonsense mutation (Ter) in murine Dnd1 (Dnd1(Ter/Ter)) results in a significant early loss of primordial germ cells (PGCs) prior to colonization of the gonad in both sexes and all genetic backgrounds tested. The same mutation also leads to testicular teratomas only on the 129Sv/J background. Male mutants on other genetic backgrounds ultimately lose all PGCs with no incidence of teratoma formation. It is not clear how these PGCs are lost or what factors directly control the strain-specific phenotype variation. To determine the mechanism underlying early PGC loss we crossed Dnd1(Ter/Ter) embryos to a Bax-null background and found that germ cells were partially rescued. Surprisingly, on a mixed genetic background, rescued male germ cells also generated fully developed teratomas at a high rate. Double-mutant females on a mixed background did not develop teratomas, but were fertile and produced viable off-spring. However, when Dnd1(Ter/Ter) XX germ cells developed in a testicular environment they gave rise to the same neoplastic clusters as mutant XY germ cells in a testis. We conclude that BAX-mediated apoptosis plays a role in early germ cell loss and protects from testicular teratoma formation on a mixed genetic background.

  3. How has early testicular cancer affected your life? A study of sexual function in men attending active surveillance for stage one testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Sue; Williams, Hilary; Braybrooke, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in young men, it is frequently diagnosed at key times in relationship formation. In early stage disease the vast majority of tumours will be cured by surgery alone with patients being offered active surveillance rather than adjuvant therapies. To date, research has not evaluated how surveillance alone impacts on sexual function. The aim of this quantitative longitudinal study was to ascertain the sexual function of men with stage one disease at 3 and 12 months post diagnosis and to compare with normative data. Additional data was collected on the information men sought regarding sexual function and media they used to access this. This study shows that men's sexual function is altered at diagnosis and improves by 3 months. At 12 months, whilst not statistically significant, sexual function improves but not to the same level as normative data comparison. Men appear to find verbal information useful at 3 months, however men appear to be seeking written and online information at 12 months. The intricacies of sexual function together with the low number of participants may have been best met with a qualitative approach. However, the information data indicates the importance of further research into the effects of early stage testicular cancer on sexual function. Therefore, further qualitative research is recommended to explore the effects of early stage testicular cancer in relation to sexual function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  5. Myosin-1 inhibition by PClP affects membrane shape, cortical actin distribution and lipid droplet dynamics in early Zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabuddha Gupta

    Full Text Available Myosin-1 (Myo1 represents a mechanical link between the membrane and actin-cytoskeleton in animal cells. We have studied the effect of Myo1 inhibitor PClP in 1-8 cell Zebrafish embryos. Our results indicate a unique involvement of Myo1 in early development of Zebrafish embryos. Inhibition of Myo1 (by PClP and Myo2 (by Blebbistatin lead to arrest in cell division. While Myo1 isoforms appears to be important for both the formation and the maintenance of cleavage furrows, Myo2 is required only for the formation of furrows. We found that the blastodisc of the embryo, which contains a thick actin cortex (~13 μm, is loaded with cortical Myo1. Myo1 appears to be crucial for maintaining the blastodisc morphology and the actin cortex thickness. In addition to cell division and furrow formation, inhibition of Myo1 has a drastic effect on the dynamics and distribution of lipid droplets (LDs in the blastodisc near the cleavage furrow. All these results above are effects of Myo1 inhibition exclusively; Myo2 inhibition by blebbistatin does not show such phenotypes. Therefore, our results demonstrate a potential role for Myo1 in the maintenance and formation of furrow, blastodisc morphology, cell-division and LD organization within the blastodisc during early embryogenesis.

  6. Polar orientation of renal grafts within the proximal seal zone affects risk of early type IA endoleaks after chimney endovascular aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kenneth; Ullery, Brant W; Itoga, Nathan; Lee, Jason T

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the polar orientation of renal chimney grafts within the proximal seal zone and to determine whether graft orientation is associated with early type IA endoleak or renal graft compression after chimney endovascular aneurysm repair (ch-EVAR). Patients who underwent ch-EVAR with at least one renal chimney graft from 2009 to 2015 were included in this analysis. Centerline three-dimensional reconstructions were used to analyze postoperative computed tomography scans. The 12-o'clock polar position was set at the takeoff of the superior mesenteric artery. Relative polar positions of chimney grafts were recorded at the level of the renal artery ostium, at the mid-seal zone, and at the proximal edge of the graft fabric. Early type IA endoleaks were defined as evidence of a perigraft flow channel within the proximal seal zone. There were 62 consecutive patients who underwent ch-EVAR (35 double renal, 27 single renal) for juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms with a mean follow-up of 31.2 months; 18 (29%) early type IA "gutter" endoleaks were identified. During follow-up, the majority of these (n = 13; 72%) resolved without intervention, whereas two patients required reintervention (3.3%). Estimated renal graft patency was 88.9% at 60 months. Left renal chimney grafts were most commonly at the 3-o'clock position (51.1%) at the ostium, traversing posteriorly to the 5- to 7-o'clock positions (55.5%) at the fabric edge. Right renal chimney grafts started most commonly at the 9-o'clock position (n = 17; 33.3%) and tended to traverse both anteriorly (11 to 1 o'clock; 39.2%) and posteriorly (5 to 7 o'clock; 29.4%) at the fabric edge. In the polar plane, the majority of renal chimney grafts (n = 83; 85.6%) traversed 90 degrees were independently associated with early type IA endoleaks (odds ratio, 11.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-64.8) even after controlling for other device and anatomic variables. Polar orientation of the chimney

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Association between Infant Hepatitis B Vaccine Exposure in Boys and the Risk of Adverse Effects as Measured by Receipt of Special Education Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Geier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Center for Education Statistics reported that between 1990–2005 the number of children receiving special education services (SES rose significantly, and then, from 2004–2012, the number declined significantly. This coincided with the introduction of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine in 1991, and the subsequent introduction of Thimerosal-reduced hepatitis B vaccine in the early 2000s. This study examined the potential relationship between infant exposure to mercury from three doses of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of boys being adversely affected (as measured by receipt of SES. This cross-sectional study examined 1192 boys (weighted n = 24,537,123 7–8 years of age (born: 1994–2007 from the combined 2001–2014 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES. Survey logistic regression modeling revealed that an exposed population receiving three doses of infant Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine (weighted n = 11,186,579, in comparison to an unexposed population (weighted n = 704,254, were at an increased risk of receipt of SES. This association was robust (crude odds ratio = 10.143, p = 0.0232, even when considering covariates, such as race and socioeconomic status (adjusted odds ratio = 9.234, p = 0.0259. Survey frequency modeling revealed that receipt of SES for the population that was exposed to three doses of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine in infancy (12.91% was significantly higher than the unexposed population (1.44% (prevalence ratio = 8.96, p = 0.006, prevalence attributable rate = 0.1147. Despite the limitation of this cross-sectional study not being able to ascribe a direct cause-and-effect relationship between exposure and outcome, it is estimated that an additional 1.2 million boys received SES with excess education costs of about United States (US $180 billion associated with exposure to Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine. By contrast, exposure

  8. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Association between Infant Hepatitis B Vaccine Exposure in Boys and the Risk of Adverse Effects as Measured by Receipt of Special Education Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; Homme, Kristin G; Geier, Mark R

    2018-01-12

    The National Center for Education Statistics reported that between 1990-2005 the number of children receiving special education services (SES) rose significantly, and then, from 2004-2012, the number declined significantly. This coincided with the introduction of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine in 1991, and the subsequent introduction of Thimerosal-reduced hepatitis B vaccine in the early 2000s. This study examined the potential relationship between infant exposure to mercury from three doses of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of boys being adversely affected (as measured by receipt of SES). This cross-sectional study examined 1192 boys (weighted n = 24,537,123) 7-8 years of age (born: 1994-2007) from the combined 2001-2014 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES). Survey logistic regression modeling revealed that an exposed population receiving three doses of infant Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine (weighted n = 11,186,579), in comparison to an unexposed population (weighted n = 704,254), were at an increased risk of receipt of SES. This association was robust (crude odds ratio = 10.143, p = 0.0232), even when considering covariates, such as race and socioeconomic status (adjusted odds ratio = 9.234, p = 0.0259). Survey frequency modeling revealed that receipt of SES for the population that was exposed to three doses of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine in infancy (12.91%) was significantly higher than the unexposed population (1.44%) (prevalence ratio = 8.96, p = 0.006, prevalence attributable rate = 0.1147). Despite the limitation of this cross-sectional study not being able to ascribe a direct cause-and-effect relationship between exposure and outcome, it is estimated that an additional 1.2 million boys received SES with excess education costs of about United States (US) $180 billion associated with exposure to Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine. By contrast, exposure to Thimerosal

  9. TNFα altered inflammatory responses, impaired health and productivity, but did not affect glucose or lipid metabolism in early-lactation dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuan

    Full Text Available Inflammation may be a major contributing factor to peripartum metabolic disorders in dairy cattle. We tested whether administering an inflammatory cytokine, recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-α (rbTNFα, affects milk production, metabolism, and health during this period. Thirty-three Holstein cows (9 primiparous and 24 multiparous were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition. Treatments were 0 (Control, 1.5, or 3.0 µg/kg body weight rbTNFα, which were administered once daily by subcutaneous injection for the first 7 days of lactation. Statistical contrasts were used to evaluate the treatment and dose effects of rbTNFα administration. Plasma TNFα concentrations at 16 h post-administration tended to be increased (P0.10 was detected; rbTNFα treatments increased (P0.10 by rbTNFα administration, but 6 out of 16 measured eicosanoids changed (P0.10 by rbTNFα treatment. Glucose turnover rate was unaffected (P=0.18 by rbTNFα administration. The higher dose of rbTNFα tended to increase the risk of cows developing one or more health disorders (P=0.08. Taken together, these results indicate that administration of rbTNFα daily for the first 7 days of lactation altered inflammatory responses, impaired milk production and health, but did not significantly affect liver triglyceride accumulation or nutrient metabolism in dairy cows.

  10. Early-age feed restriction affects viability and gene expression of satellite cells isolated from the gastrocnemius muscle of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle growth depends on the fusion of proliferate satellite cells to existing myofibers. We reported previously that 0–14 day intermittent feeding led to persistent retardation in myofiber hypertrophy. However, how satellite cells respond to such nutritional insult has not been adequately elucidated. Results One-day-old broiler chicks were allocated to control (Con, ad libitum feeding, intermittent feeding (IF, feed provided on alternate days and re-feeding (RF, 2 days ad libitum feeding after 12 days of intermittent feeding groups. Chickens were killed on Day 15 and satellite cells were isolated. When cultured, satellite cells from the IF group demonstrated significant retardation in proliferation and differentiation potential, while RF partly restored the proliferation rate and differentiation potential of the satellite cells. Significant up-regulation of insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR (P0.05 and thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα (P0.05, and down-regulation of growth hormone receptor (GHR (P0.01 and IGF-I (P0.01 mRNA expression was observed in freshly isolated IF satellite cells when compared with Con cells. In RF cells, the mRNA expression of IGF-I was higher (P0.05 and of TRα was lower (P0.01 than in IF cells, suggesting that RF restored the mRNA expression of TRα and IGF-I, but not of GHR and IGF-IR. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio tended to increase in the IF group, which was reversed in the RF group (P0.05, indicating that RF reduced the pro-apoptotic influence of IF. Moreover, no significant effect of T3 was detected on cell survival in IF cells compared with Con (PP0.05 cells. Conclusions These data suggest that early-age feed restriction inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, induces changes in mRNA expression of the GH/IGF-I and thyroid hormone receptors in satellite cells, as well as blunted sensitivity of satellite cells to T3, and that RF partially reverses these effects. Thus

  11. Meningeal mast cells affect early T cell central nervous system infiltration and blood-brain barrier integrity through TNF: a role for neutrophil recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Blayne A; Christy, Alison L; Walker, Margaret E; Brown, Melissa A

    2010-06-15

    Mast cells contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a rodent model of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. Yet their site and mode of action is unknown. In both diseases, myelin-specific T cells are initially activated in peripheral lymphoid organs. However, for disease to occur, these cells must enter the immunologically privileged CNS through a breach in the relatively impermeable blood-brain barrier. In this study, we demonstrate that a dense population of resident mast cells in the meninges, structures surrounding the brain and spinal cord, regulate basal CNS barrier function, facilitating initial T cell CNS entry. Through the expression of TNF, mast cells recruit an early wave of neutrophils to the CNS. We propose that neutrophils in turn promote the blood-brain barrier breach and together with T cells lead to further inflammatory cell influx and myelin damage. These findings provide specific targets for intervention in multiple sclerosis as well as other immune-mediated CNS diseases.

  12. High Intensity Interval Training Favourably Affects Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression and Markers of Cardiorenal Health in a Rat Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patrick S; Scanlan, Aaron T; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-01-01

    The majority of CKD-related complications stem from cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. To help reduce cardiovascular complications, aerobic exercise is often prescribed. Emerging evidence suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT) may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of varying forms of aerobic exercise, along with descriptions of mechanisms responsible for health-related improvements, are lacking. This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of HIIT (85% VO2max), versus low intensity aerobic exercise (LIT; 45-50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour (SED), in an animal model of early-stage CKD. Tissue-specific mRNA expression of RAAS-related genes and CKD-related clinical markers were examined. Compared to SED, HIIT resulted in increased plasma albumin (p = 0.001), reduced remnant kidney weight (p = 0.028), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p = 0.045). Compared to LIT, HIIT resulted in reduced Agt mRNA expression (p = 0.035), reduced plasma LDL (p = 0.001), triglycerides (p = 0.029), and total cholesterol (p = 0.002), increased plasma albumin (p = 0.047), reduced remnant kidney weight (p = 0.005), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p = 0.048). These results suggest HIIT is a more potent regulator of several markers that describe and influence health in CKD.

  13. High Intensity Interval Training Favourably Affects Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression and Markers of Cardiorenal Health in a Rat Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S. Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of CKD-related complications stem from cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. To help reduce cardiovascular complications, aerobic exercise is often prescribed. Emerging evidence suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of varying forms of aerobic exercise, along with descriptions of mechanisms responsible for health-related improvements, are lacking. This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of HIIT (85% VO2max, versus low intensity aerobic exercise (LIT; 45–50% VO2max and sedentary behaviour (SED, in an animal model of early-stage CKD. Tissue-specific mRNA expression of RAAS-related genes and CKD-related clinical markers were examined. Compared to SED, HIIT resulted in increased plasma albumin (p=0.001, reduced remnant kidney weight (p=0.028, and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p=0.045. Compared to LIT, HIIT resulted in reduced Agt mRNA expression (p=0.035, reduced plasma LDL (p=0.001, triglycerides (p=0.029, and total cholesterol (p=0.002, increased plasma albumin (p=0.047, reduced remnant kidney weight (p=0.005, and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p=0.048. These results suggest HIIT is a more potent regulator of several markers that describe and influence health in CKD.

  14. Early Onset Inflammation in Pre-Insulin-Resistant Diet-Induced Obese Rats Does Not Affect the Vasoreactivity of Isolated Small Mesenteric Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blædel, Martin; Raun, Kirsten; Boonen, Harrie C M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity is an increasing burden affecting developed and emerging societies since it is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and consequent cardiovascular complications. Increasing evidence points towards a pivotal role of inflammation in the etiology of vascular dysfunction. ...... concomitant vascular dysfunction. The results show that inflammation and obesity are tightly associated, and that inflammation is manifested prior to significant insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction........ Our study aimed to investigate signs of inflammation and their relation to vascular dysfunction in rats receiving a high fat diet. Methods: Diet-induced obese (DIO) rats were used as a model since these rats exhibit a human pre-diabetic pathology. Oral glucose and insulin tolerance tests were...... conducted on DIO rats and their controls prior to the development of insulin resistance. Furthermore, the plasma contents of selected cytokines [macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1 (IL-1)] and the concentration of adiponectin were measured. Using wire...

  15. TNFα Altered Inflammatory Responses, Impaired Health and Productivity, but Did Not Affect Glucose or Lipid Metabolism in Early-Lactation Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedova, Laman K.; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Bradford, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation may be a major contributing factor to peripartum metabolic disorders in dairy cattle. We tested whether administering an inflammatory cytokine, recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-α (rbTNFα), affects milk production, metabolism, and health during this period. Thirty-three Holstein cows (9 primiparous and 24 multiparous) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition. Treatments were 0 (Control), 1.5, or 3.0 µg/kg body weight rbTNFα, which were administered once daily by subcutaneous injection for the first 7 days of lactation. Statistical contrasts were used to evaluate the treatment and dose effects of rbTNFα administration. Plasma TNFα concentrations at 16 h post-administration tended to be increased (P0.10) was detected; rbTNFα treatments increased (P0.10) by rbTNFα administration, but 6 out of 16 measured eicosanoids changed (Pinsulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride, 3-methylhistidine, and liver triglyceride were unaffected (P>0.10) by rbTNFα treatment. Glucose turnover rate was unaffected (P = 0.18) by rbTNFα administration. The higher dose of rbTNFα tended to increase the risk of cows developing one or more health disorders (P = 0.08). Taken together, these results indicate that administration of rbTNFα daily for the first 7 days of lactation altered inflammatory responses, impaired milk production and health, but did not significantly affect liver triglyceride accumulation or nutrient metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:24260367

  16. Systemic inflammation and intelligence in early adulthood and subsequent risk of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses: a longitudinal cohort and co-relative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappelmann, Nils; Khandaker, Golam M; Dal, Henrik; Stochl, Jan; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Jones, Peter B; Dalman, Christina; Karlsson, Håkan

    2018-04-06

    Schizophrenia is associated with impaired neurodevelopment as indexed by lower premorbid IQ. We examined associations between erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation, IQ, and subsequent schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses (ONAP) to elucidate the role of neurodevelopment and inflammation in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Population-based data on ESR and IQ from 638 213 Swedish men assessed during military conscription between 1969 and 1983 were linked to National Hospital Discharge Register for hospitalisation with schizophrenia and ONAP. The associations of ESR with IQ (cross-sectional) and psychoses (longitudinal) were investigated using linear and Cox-regression. The co-relative analysis was used to examine effects of shared familial confounding. We examined mediation and moderation of effect between ESR and IQ on psychosis risk. Baseline IQ was associated with subsequent risk of schizophrenia (adjusted HR per 1-point increase in IQ = 0.961; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.960-0.963) and ONAP (adjusted HR = 0.973; 95% CI 0.971-0.975). Higher ESR was associated with lower IQ in a dose-response fashion. High ESR was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia (adjusted HR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.01-1.28) and decreased risk for ONAP (adjusted HR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.74-0.96), although these effects were specific to one ESR band (7-10 mm/hr). Familial confounding explained ESR-IQ but not ESR-psychoses associations. IQ partly mediated the ESR-psychosis relationships. Lower IQ is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation and with an increased risk of schizophrenia and ONAP in adulthood. Low-grade inflammation may influence schizophrenia risk by affecting neurodevelopment. Future studies should explore the differential effects of inflammation on different types of psychosis.

  17. Affectivity in the Liminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    In this paper I propose a return to the work of Arnold van Gennep, in order to briefly discuss how the terms of liminality and affectivity were always already connected. By linking the concept of liminality that van Gennep made famous to affectivity, we are actually not proposing new...... at the threshold. The paper contains three sections: a) liminality and affectivity in van Gennep’s life; b) liminality and affectivity as a theme in his work; c) liminality and affectivity as developed in the early reception of his work....

  18. Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract affects hepatic glucose transporter-2 to attenuate early onset of insulin resistance consequent to high fructose intake: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R.; Dutta, Shagun; Velpandian, T.; Mathur, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is amalgam of pathologies like altered glucos metabolism, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and associated with type-II diabetes and cardiometabolic diseases. One of the reasons leading to its increased and early incidence is understood to be a high intake of processed fructose containing foods and beverages by individuals, especially, during critical developmental years. Objective: To investigate the preventive potential of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves (PG) against metabolic pathologies, vis-à-vis, IR, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia and hypertension, due to excess fructose intake initiated during developmental years. Materials and Methods: Post-weaning (4 weeks old) male rats were provided fructose (15%) as drinking solution, ad libitum, for 8 weeks and assessed for food and water/fructose intake, body weight, fasting blood sugar, mean arterial pressure, lipid biochemistry, endocrinal (insulin, leptin), histopathological (fatty liver) and immunohistochemical (hepatic glucose transporter [GLUT2]) parameters. Parallel treatment groups were administered PG in doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/d, po × 8 weeks and assessed for same parameters. Using extensive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry protocols, PG was analyzed for the presence of phytoconstituents like Myrecetin, Luteolin, Kaempferol and Guavanoic acid and validated to contain Quercetin up to 9.9%w/w. Results: High fructose intake raised circulating levels of insulin and leptin and hepatic GLUT2 expression to promote IR, dyslipidemia, and hypertension that were favorably re-set with PG. Although PG is known for its beneficial role in diabetes mellitus, for the first time we report its potential in the management of lifelong pathologies arising from high fructose intake initiated during developmental years. PMID:25829790

  19. Early growth interactions between a mangrove and an herbaceous salt marsh species are not affected by elevated CO2 or drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Stagg, Camille L.; Utomo, Herry S.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are likely to influence future distributions of plants and plant community structure in many regions of the world through effects on photosynthetic rates. In recent decades the encroachment of woody mangrove species into herbaceous marshes has been documented along the U.S. northern Gulf of Mexico coast. These species shifts have been attributed primarily to rising sea levels and warming winter temperatures, but the role of elevated CO2 and water availability may become more prominent drivers of species interactions under future climate conditions. Drought has been implicated as a major factor contributing to salt marsh vegetation dieback in this region. In this greenhouse study we examined the effects of CO2 concentration (∼380 ppm, ∼700 ppm) and water regime (drought, saturated, flooded) on early growth of Avicennia germinans, a C3 mangrove species, and Spartina alterniflora, a C4 grass. Plants were grown in monocultures and in a mixed-species assemblage. We found that neither species responded to elevated CO2 over the 10-month duration of the experiment, and there were few interactions between experimental factors. Two effects of water regime were documented: lower A. germinanspneumatophore biomass under drought conditions, and lower belowground biomass under flooded conditions regardless of planting assemblage. Evidence of interspecific interactions was noted. Competition for aboveground resources (e.g., light) was indicated by lower S. alterniflora stem biomass in mixed-species assemblage compared to biomass in S. alterniflora monocultures. Pneumatophore biomass of A. germinans was reduced when grown in monoculture compared to the mixed-species assemblage, indicating competition for belowground resources. These interactions provide insight into how these species may respond following major disturbance events that lead to vegetation dieback. Site variation in propagule availability

  20. Do parent–child acculturation gaps affect early adolescent Latino alcohol use? A study of the probability and extent of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The literature has been mixed regarding how parent–child relationships are affected by the acculturation process and how this process relates to alcohol use among Latino youth. The mixed results may be due to, at least, two factors: First, staggered migration in which one or both parents arrive to the new country and then send for the children may lead to faster acculturation in parents than in children for some families. Second, acculturation may have different effects depending on which aspects of alcohol use are being examined. This study addresses the first factor by testing for a curvilinear trend in the acculturation-alcohol use relationship and the second by modeling past year alcohol use as a zero inflated negative binomial distribution. Additionally, this study examined the unique and mediation effects of parent–child acculturation discrepancies (gap), mother involvement in children’s schooling, father involvement in children’s schooling, and effective parenting on youth alcohol use during the last 12 months, measured as the probability of using and the extent of use. Direct paths from parent–child acculturation discrepancy to alcohol use, and mediated paths through mother involvement, father involvement, and effective parenting were also tested. Only father involvement fully mediated the path from parent–child acculturation discrepancies to the probability of alcohol use. None of the variables examined mediated the path from parent–child acculturation discrepancies to the extent of alcohol use. Effective parenting was unrelated to acculturation discrepancies; however, it maintained a significant direct effect on the probability of youth alcohol use and the extent of use after controlling for mother and father involvement. Implications for prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:23347822

  1. Water, Rather than Temperature, Dominantly Impacts How Soil Fauna Affect Dissolved Carbon and Nitrogen Release from Fresh Litter during Early Litter Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Liao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Longstanding observations suggest that dissolved materials are lost from fresh litter through leaching, but the role of soil fauna in controlling this process has been poorly documented. In this study, a litterbag experiment employing litterbags with different mesh sizes (3 mm to permit soil fauna access and 0.04 mm to exclude fauna access was conducted in three habitats (arid valley, ecotone and subalpine forest with changes in climate and vegetation types to evaluate the effects of soil fauna on the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN during the first year of decomposition. The results showed that the individual density and community abundance of soil fauna greatly varied among these habitats, but Prostigmata, Isotomidae and Oribatida were the dominant soil invertebrates. At the end of the experiment, the mass remaining of foliar litter ranged from 58% for shrub litter to 77% for birch litter, and the DOC and TDN concentrations decreased to 54%–85% and increased to 34%–269%, respectively, when soil fauna were not present. The effects of soil fauna on the concentrations of both DOC and TDN in foliar litter were greater in the subalpine forest (wetter but colder during the winter and in the arid valley (warmer but drier during the growing season, and this effect was positively correlated with water content. Moreover, the effects of fauna on DOC and TDN concentrations were greater for high-quality litter and were related to the C/N ratio. These results suggest that water, rather than temperature, dominates how fauna affect the release of dissolved substances from fresh litter.

  2. Early invitation to food and/or multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy does not affect body composition in offspring at 54 months: follow-up of the MINIMat randomised trial, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashraful Islam; Kabir, Iqbal; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Arifeen, Shams; Frongillo, Edward A; Persson, Lars Åke

    2015-07-01

    Growth patterns in early life are associated with later health. The effect of nutrition during in utero development on later body composition is unclear. We evaluated whether prenatal early invitation to food and/or multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) in pregnancy has an effect on offspring body composition at 54 months of age. In Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab trial (ISRCTN16581394) in Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were randomised into six equally sized groups: double-masked supplementation with capsules of either 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid, or 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid, or MMS (15 micronutrients), was combined with a randomised early invitation (around 9 weeks) or a usual invitation (around 20 weeks) to start food supplementation (608 kcal 6 days per week). At 54 months, the body composition of the offspring was assessed by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis. Of the 3267 live singletons with birth anthropometry, 2290 children were measured at 54 months, representing 70% of the live births. There was no interaction between the food and micronutrient supplementation on body composition outcomes. There were no significant differences in a range of anthropometric and body composition measurements, including weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, head circumference, skinfold thickness, and fat mass and fat-free mass between the different prenatal food and micronutrient groups using an intention-to-treat analysis. This analysis shows that early invitation to food supplementation and MMS provided to rural Bangladeshi women during pregnancy did not affect offspring body composition at 54 months of age. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Hepatic expression of the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathway, acute-phase response signalling and complement system are affected in mouse offspring by prenatal and early postnatal exposure to maternal high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow, Jens; Kucia, Marzena; Langhammer, Martina; Koczan, Dirk; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Metges, Cornelia C

    2011-12-01

    Effects of pre- and early postnatal exposure to maternal high-protein diets are not well understood. Transcription profiling was performed in male mouse offspring exposed to maternal high-protein diet during pregnancy and/or lactation to identify affected hepatic molecular pathways. Dams were fed isoenergetic diets with control (20% w/w) or high protein levels (40%). The hepatic expression profiles were evaluated by differential microarray analysis 3 days (d3) and 3 weeks (d21) after birth. Offspring from three different high-protein dietary groups, HP (d3, high-protein diet during pregnancy), HPHP (d21, high-protein diet during pregnancy and lactation) and CHP (d21, control diet during pregnancy and high-protein diet during lactation), were compared with age-matched offspring from dams fed control diet. Offspring body and liver mass of all high-protein groups were decreased. Prenatal high-protein diet affected hepatic expression of genes mapping to the acute response/complement system and the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF signalling pathways. Maternal exposure to high-protein diet during lactation affected hepatic gene expression of the same pathways but additionally affected genes mapping to protein, fatty acid, hexose and pyruvate metabolism. (1) Genes of the acute response/complement system and GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathways were down-regulated in offspring of dams exposed to high-protein diets during pregnancy and/or lactation. (2) Genes related to nutrient and energy metabolism, however, were only affected when high-protein diet was administered during lactation. (3) Modulation of the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathway might be responsible for reduced body and liver masses by maternal high-protein diet.

  4. Prediction of outcome of bright light treatment in patients with seasonal affective disorder: Discarding the early response, confirming a higher atypical balance, and uncovering a higher body mass index at baseline as predictors of endpoint outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Tzvetelina D; Reeves, Gloria M; Snitker, Soren; Lapidus, Manana; Sleemi, Aamar R; Balis, Theodora G; Manalai, Partam; Tariq, Muhammad M; Cabassa, Johanna A; Karim, Naila N; Johnson, Mary A; Langenberg, Patricia; Rohan, Kelly J; Miller, Michael; Stiller, John W; Postolache, Teodor T

    2017-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the early improvement in mood after the first hour of bright light treatment compared to control dim-red light would predict the outcome at six weeks of bright light treatment for depressed mood in patients with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). We also analyzed the value of Body Mass Index (BMI) and atypical symptoms of depression at baseline in predicting treatment outcome. Seventy-eight adult participants were enrolled. The first treatment was controlled crossover, with randomized order, and included one hour of active bright light treatment and one hour of control dim-red light, with one-hour washout. Depression was measured on the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-SAD version (SIGH-SAD). The predictive association of depression scores changes after the first session. BMI and atypical score balance with treatment outcomes at endpoint were assessed using multivariable linear and logistic regressions. No significant prediction by changes in depression scores after the first session was found. However, higher atypical balance scores and BMI positively predicted treatment outcome. Absence of a control intervention for the six-weeks of treatment (only the first session in the laboratory was controlled). Exclusion of patients with comorbid substance abuse, suicidality and bipolar I disorder, and patients on antidepressant medications, reducing the generalizability of the study. Prediction of outcome by early response to light treatment was not replicated, and the previously reported prediction of baseline atypical balance was confirmed. BMI, a parameter routinely calculated in primary care, was identified as a novel predictor, and calls for replication and then exploration of possible mediating mechanisms. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  6. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  7. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  8. [Otomycosis and topical application of thimerosal: study of 152 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisner, J; Millán, J; Rivas, P; Adiego, I; Castellote, A; Valles, H

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the topical application of Timerosal (merthilate tintura) in mycosis involving the external auditory canal. The study includes 152 patients with the clinical, otoscopic and microscopic diagnosis of otomycosis. Results were assessed 72 hours and 10 days after the application. Bacteriological study was performed in 83 patients, finding Aspergilly niger in 54.0% of the cases, Candida albicans in 25.4%, Aspergillus fumigatus in 15.8% and Penicillium in 4.8%. Improvement at 72 h. was found in 66.4% and at 10 days in 93.4% of the patients. Bacteriological contamination was found in 6.6% of the total. In most of the patients, the otomycosis healed after cleaning of the external auditory canal and topical application of timerosal. This method is easy to apply, fast, effective, of low cost and few side effects.

  9. Thimerosal in vaccines - white, black, or quite the opposite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the recent controversy regarding the introduction of a bill to Chilean Congress that aims to ban thiomersal and/or any trace of organomercurial compounds from vaccines in the country. Rather than providing a formal overview of all available evidence, this analysis focuses on the reasons behind the controversy, the scientific evidence invoked by both sides in the debate, and the anomalies in the healthcare decision-making process.

  10. Immunization Safety Review: Thimerosal - Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stratton, Kathleen; Gable, Alicia; McCormick, Marie C

    2001-01-01

    ..., and Marie C.McCormick, Editors Immunization Safety Review Committee Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-specific created from the as publ...

  11. Do early changes in the HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization factor items affect treatment outcome among depressed outpatients? Comparison of two controlled trials of St John’s Wort (Hypericum Perforatum) versus an SSRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitran, Stella; Farabaugh, Amy H; Ameral, Victoria E; LaRocca, Rachel A; Clain, Alisabet J; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess whether early changes in HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization items predict remission in two controlled studies of hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) versus an SSRI for major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods The Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group (NIMH) study randomized 340 subjects to hypericum, sertraline, or placebo for 8 weeks. The MGH study randomized 135 subjects to hypericum, fluoxetine, or placebo for 12 weeks. We examined whether remission was associated with early changes in anxiety/somatization symptoms. Results In the NIMH study, significant associations were observed between remission and early improvement in the anxiety-psychic item (sertraline arm), somatic-gastrointestinal item (hypericum arm), and somatic symptoms-general (placebo arm). None of the three treatment arms of the MGH study showed significant associations between anxiety/somatization symptoms and remission. When both study samples were pooled, we found associations for anxiety-psychic (SSRI arm), somatic-gastrointestinal and hypochondriasis (hypericum arm), and anxiety-psychic and somatic symptoms-general (placebo arm). In the entire sample, remission was associated with improvement in the anxiety-psychic, somatic-gastrointestinal, and somatic symptoms-general items. Conclusions The number and type of anxiety/somatization items associated with remission varied depending on the intervention. Early scrutiny of the HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization items may help predict remission of MDD. PMID:21278577

  12. Do early changes in the HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization factor items affect the treatment outcome among depressed outpatients? Comparison of two controlled trials of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) versus a SSRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitran, Stella; Farabaugh, Amy H; Ameral, Victoria E; LaRocca, Rachel A; Clain, Alisabet J; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2011-07-01

    To assess whether early changes in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 anxiety/somatization items predict remission in two controlled studies of Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for major depressive disorder. The Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group (National Institute of Mental Health) randomized 340 patients to Hypericum, sertraline, or placebo for 8 weeks, whereas the Massachusetts General Hospital study randomized 135 patients to Hypericum, fluoxetine, or placebo for 12 weeks. The investigators examined whether remission was associated with early changes in anxiety/somatization symptoms. In the National Institute of Mental Health study, significant associations were observed between remission and early improvement in the anxiety (psychic) item (sertraline arm), somatic (gastrointestinal item; Hypericum arm), and somatic (general) symptoms (placebo arm). None of the three treatment arms of the Massachusetts General Hospital study showed significant associations between anxiety/somatization symptoms and remission. When both study samples were pooled, we found associations for anxiety (psychic; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors arm), somatic (gastrointestinal), and hypochondriasis (Hypericum arm), and anxiety (psychic) and somatic (general) symptoms (placebo arm). In the entire sample, remission was associated with the improvement in the anxiety (psychic), somatic (gastrointestinal), and somatic (general) items. The number and the type of anxiety/somatization items associated with remission varied depending on the intervention. Early scrutiny of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 anxiety/somatization items may help to predict remission of major depressive disorder.

  13. Affective monitoring: A generic mechanism for affect elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans ePhaf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavour to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.

  14. Early detection of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background During the last decades we have seen a new focus on early treatment of psychosis. Several reviews have shown that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is correlated to better outcome. However, it is still unknown whether early treatment will lead to a better long-term outcome....... This study reports the effects of reducing DUP on 5-year course and outcome. Method During 1997–2000 a total of 281 consecutive patients aged >17 years with first episode non-affective psychosis were recruited, of which 192 participated in the 5-year follow-up. A comprehensive early detection (ED) programme...... and cognitive factors and for global assessment of functioning for social functioning at 5-year follow-up. The ED group also had more contacts with friends. Regression analysis did not find that these differences could be explained by confounders. Conclusions Early treatment had positive effects on clinical...

  15. Early determinants of mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental adversities in pre- and early postnatal life may have life-long consequences. Based upon a series of epidemiological and clinical studies and natural experiments, this review describes how the early life environment may affect psychological functions and mental disorders later in life.

  16. The effects of centralised and specialised combined pharmacological and psychological intervention compared with decentralised and non-specialised treatment in the early course of severe unipolar and bipolar affective disorders--design of two randomised clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe

    2011-01-01

    In unipolar, and bipolar affective disorders, there is a high risk of relapse that increases as the number of episodes increases. Naturalistic follow-up studies suggest that the progressive development of the diseases is not prevented with the present treatment modalities. It is not known whether...

  17. Rheumatoid arthritis affecting temporomandibular joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Sodhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune inflammatory disorder that is characterized by joint inflammation, erosive properties and symmetric multiple joint involvement. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ is very rare to be affected in the early phase of the disease, thus posing diagnostic challenges for the dentist. Conventional radiographs fail to show the early lesions due to its limitations. More recently cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT has been found to diagnose the early degenerative changes of TMJ and hence aid in the diagnosis of the lesions more accurately. Our case highlights the involvement of TMJ in RA and the role of advanced imaging (CBCT in diagnosing the bony changes in the early phase of the disease.

  18. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...... will ask and try to answer. The mobile phone and its devices are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence, interaction, and affect. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity - soul....... The paper will investigate how technology, humanity, affects, and synaesthesia are presented and combined with examples from everyday aesthetics, e.g. early computer tv-commercial, net-commercial for mobile phones. Technology and affects point, is the conclusion, towards a forgotten pre-human and not he...

  19. Early discontinuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Felde, Lina; Gichangi, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    prevalence and rate of early discontinuation of different drugs consisting of, in this study, lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensive drugs, antidepressants, antidiabetics and drugs against osteoporosis. Material and methods This was a register study based on prescription data covering a 4-year period...... and consisting of 470,000 citizens. For each practice and group of drug, a 1-year prevalence for 2002 and the rate of early discontinuation among new users in 2002-2003 were estimated. Early discontinuation was defined as no prescriptions during the second half-year following the first prescription....... There was a positive association between the prevalence of prescribing for the specific drugs studied (antidepressants, antidiabetics, drugs against osteoporosis and lipid-lowering drugs) and early discontinuation (r = 0.29 -0.44), but not for anti-hypertensive drugs. The analysis of the association between prevalence...

  20. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  1. Will increasing temperature and CO2 affect pumpkin early development in Brazilian semi-arid? | O aumento da temperatura e do CO2 afetará o desenvolvimento precoce da abóbora no semi-árido brasileiro?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara França Dantas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With rising levels of CO2 in atmosphere, understanding possible impacts on development and growth of plants becomes increasingly important. The aim of this study was to evaluate interaction between different temperatures and CO2 levels in germination and early development of seedlings of different species of pumpkin. Seeds of Cucurbita pepo cultivars ‘Caserta’ and ‘Redonda’, and Cucurbita maxima ‘Coroa’ were sown in trays of 36 cells and held in growth chambers with different combinations of levels of CO2 and day/night temperatures. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 X 3 factorial scheme with two levels of CO2 concentration (360 and 550ppm and three day/night temperatures (26/20, 29/26 and 32/26°C, with four replicates of 18 seedlings for each treatment. CO2 levels used caused different effects among cultivars for most variables, but a significant change in physiological behavior of seedlings with increasing CO2 concentration was not observed. Increase in temperature led to physiological changes in both seeds and seedlings. The predicted conditions of increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2 and temperature are damaging to production of pumpkin seedlings

  2. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome....... In addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  3. Early Smoking, Education, and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market

  4. Early Cardiac Involvement Affects Left Ventricular Longitudinal Function in Females Carrying α-Galactosidase A Mutation: Role of Hybrid Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Letizia; Imbriaco, Massimo; Nappi, Carmela; Nicolai, Emanuele; Giugliano, Giuseppe; Ponsiglione, Andrea; Diomiaiuti, Tommaso Claudio; Riccio, Eleonora; Duro, Giovanni; Pisani, Antonio; Trimarco, Bruno; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    Hybrid 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may differentiate mature fibrosis or scar from fibrosis associated to active inflammation in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease, even in nonhypertrophic stage. This study was designed to compare the results of positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance cardiac imaging with those of speckle-tracking echocardiography in heterozygous Anderson-Fabry disease females. Twenty-four heterozygous females carrying α-galactosidase A mutation and without left ventricular hypertrophy underwent cardiac positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance using 18 F-FDG for glucose uptake and 2-dimensional strain echocardiography. 18 F-FDG myocardial uptake was quantified by measuring the coefficient of variation (COV) of the standardized uptake value using a 17-segment model. Focal 18 F-FDG uptake with COV >0.17 was detected in 13 patients, including 2 patients with late gadolinium enhancement at magnetic resonance. COV was 0.30±0.14 in patients with focal 18 F-FDG uptake and 0.12±0.03 in those without ( P 0.17 compared with those with COV ≤0.17 (-18.5±2.7% versus -22.2±1.8%; P =0.024). For predicting COV >0.17, a global longitudinal strain >-19.8% had 77% sensitivity and 91% specificity and a value >2 dysfunctional segments 92% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In females carrying α-galactosidase A mutation, focal 18 F-FDG uptake represents an early sign of disease-related myocardial damage and is associated with impaired left ventricular longitudinal function. These findings support the hypothesis that inflammation plays an important role in glycosphingolipids storage disorders. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Early Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  6. A QTL on the short arm of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3B affects the stability of grain weight in plants exposed to a brief heat shock early in grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirdelmoghanloo, Hamid; Taylor, Julian D; Lohraseb, Iman; Rabie, Huwaida; Brien, Chris; Timmins, Andy; Martin, Peter; Mather, Diane E; Emebiri, Livinus; Collins, Nicholas C

    2016-04-22

    Molecular markers and knowledge of traits associated with heat tolerance are likely to provide breeders with a more efficient means of selecting wheat varieties able to maintain grain size after heat waves during early grain filling. A population of 144 doubled haploids derived from a cross between the Australian wheat varieties Drysdale and Waagan was mapped using the wheat Illumina iSelect 9,000 feature single nucleotide polymorphism marker array and used to detect quantitative trait loci for heat tolerance of final single grain weight and related traits. Plants were subjected to a 3 d heat treatment (37 °C/27 °C day/night) in a growth chamber at 10 d after anthesis and trait responses calculated by comparison to untreated control plants. A locus for single grain weight stability was detected on the short arm of chromosome 3B in both winter- and autumn-sown experiments, determining up to 2.5 mg difference in heat-induced single grain weight loss. In one of the experiments, a locus with a weaker effect on grain weight stability was detected on chromosome 6B. Among the traits measured, the rate of flag leaf chlorophyll loss over the course of the heat treatment and reduction in shoot weight due to heat were indicators of loci with significant grain weight tolerance effects, with alleles for grain weight stability also conferring stability of chlorophyll ('stay-green') and shoot weight. Chlorophyll loss during the treatment, requiring only two non-destructive readings to be taken, directly before and after a heat event, may prove convenient for identifying heat tolerant germplasm. These results were consistent with grain filling being limited by assimilate supply from the heat-damaged photosynthetic apparatus, or alternatively, accelerated maturation in the grains that was correlated with leaf senescence responses merely due to common genetic control of senescence responses in the two organs. There was no evidence for a role of mobilized stem reserves (water

  7. Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 10, Crop Failure in Britain in 1799 and 1800 and the British Decision to Send a Naval Force to the Baltic Early in 1801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, J.; Kington, J.

    1992-02-01

    In 1799 and 1800, crop failures struck the British Isles. The crop failure of 1799 was due to the combined effects of the cold winter of 1798-99 and the cool and rainy growing season of the year. The summer was characterized by the prevalence of low-pressure systems resembling cyclonic weather patterns of the winter.The crop failure of 1800 was mainly due to a drought early in summer. In July there was either no rain at all (especially in the south) or the amounts were negligible. The general synoptic situation indicated an extension of the Azores High to Britain and beyond to central Europe. In the London area the pressure in duly was never below 1020 mb.The wheat harvests of 1799 and 1800 were about one-half and three-quarters of the average, respectively. The deficiencies could not be made up by imports, for, at least in 1799, the weather conditions were also unfavorable to grain production in the countries of northern Europe that were "traditional" exporters of grain to Britain. We estimate that in the "bread-consumption year", October 1799 to September 1800, harvest and imports accounted for but 60% of the required quantity of wheat, the principal ingredient of bread in England and Wales at the time. In consequence of the bread scarcity, there were sharp rises in the price of bread and in bread riots. Some of the slogans of the rioters made mention of the French Revolution.In parallel with the increasing scarcity of bread, diplomatic relations between Britain and Russia worsened from 1799 on. Its significance on the bread crisis, as well as a crisis of naval supplies, was that the Baltic ports through which the grain of the northern countries (East Prussia, Poland, and Russia) was channeled for Britain stood under the tsar's direct or indirect control. The strained relations between Britain and Russia peaked in November 1800. On 18 November, Tsar Paul I imposed an embargo on British ships and their crews. This embargo meant that the bread scarcity was to

  8. Rearing environment affects development of the immune system in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inman, C.F.; Haverson, K.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Jones, P.H.; Harris, C.; Smidt, H.; Miller, B.; Bailey, M.; Stokes, C.

    2010-01-01

    P>Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect

  9. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes in a bi-ethnic cohort: the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You (B.A.B.Y.) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Carrie J; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-12-28

    Vitamin D deficiency is common during pregnancy and higher in Hispanic as compared with non-Hispanic white women. However, the association between vitamin D deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains unclear and may vary across ethnic groups, in part because of genetic variation in the metabolism of vitamin D. Few studies have included Hispanic women. Therefore, we investigated this association among 237 participants in the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You Study, a randomised trial of an exercise intervention among ethnically diverse prenatal care patients in Massachusetts. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured at 15·2 (sd 4·7) weeks' gestation. Information on adverse pregnancy outcomes was abstracted from medical records. Mean 25(OH)D was 30·4 (sd 12·0) ng/ml; 53·2 % of participants had insufficient (<30 ng/ml) and 20·7 % had deficient (<20 ng/ml) 25(OH)D levels. After adjusting for month of blood draw, gestational age at blood draw, gestational age at delivery, age, BMI and Hispanic ethnicity, women with insufficient and deficient vitamin D had infants with birth weights 139·74 (se 69·16) g (P=0·045) and 175·52 (se 89·45) g (P=0·051) lower compared with women with sufficient vitamin D levels (≥30 ng/ml). Each 1 ng/ml increase in 25(OH)D was associated with an increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus among Hispanic women only (relative risk 1·07; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·11) in multivariable analysis. We did not observe statistically significant associations between maternal vitamin D status and other pregnancy outcomes. Our findings provide further support for an adverse impact of vitamin D deficiency on birth weight in Hispanic women.

  10. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of affect is a relatively new and challenging multidisciplinary research area that has gained a lot of interest over the past few years. The research and development of affect recognition systems has opened many opportunities for improving the interaction between man and

  11. [Autism: An early neurodevelopmental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Brilhault, F

    2017-04-01

    With approximately 67 million individuals affected worldwide, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder (United Nations, 2011), with a prevalence estimated to be 1/100. In France ASD affects approximately 600,000 individuals (from childhood to adulthood, half of whom are also mentally retarded), who thus have a major handicap in communication and in adapting to daily life, which leads autism to be recognized as a national public health priority. ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects several domains (i.e., socio-emotional, language, sensori-motor, executive functioning). These disorders are expressed early in life with an age of onset around 18 months. Despite evidence suggesting a strong genetic link with ASD, the genetic determinant remains unclear. The clinical picture is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviors (DSM-5, ICD-10). However, in addition to these two main dimensions there is significant comorbidity between ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or with genetic and medical conditions. One of the diagnostic features of ASD is its early emergence: symptoms must begin in early childhood for a diagnosis to be given. Due to brain plasticity, early interventions are essential to facilitate clinical improvement. Therefore, general practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect early signs of ASD and to guide both medical explorations and early rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Clarifying Parent-Child Reciprocities during Early Childhood: The Early Childhood Coercion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2004-01-01

    Consistent with existing theory, the quality of parent-child interactions during early childhood affects children's social relationships and behavioral adjustment during middle childhood and adolescence. Harsh parenting and a propensity toward emotional overarousal interact very early in life to affect risk for later conduct problems. Less…

  13. Pterins and affective disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hoekstra (Rocco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe pathophysiology of affective disorders is largely unknown. In patients with various affective disorders the activity of pterins and related amino acids were investigated before and after clinical treatment. In particular the bipolar affective disorder could be

  14. Early multisensory interactions affect the competition among multiple visual objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Burg, E.; Talsma, D.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Hickey, C.M.; Theeuwes, J.

    2011-01-01

    In dynamic cluttered environments, audition and vision may benefit from each other in determining what deserves further attention and what does not. We investigated the underlying neural mechanisms responsible for attentional guidance by audiovisual stimuli in such an environment. Event-related

  15. Early detection of deteriorations affecting neutrons boron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech, T.; Hamrita, H.; Normand, S. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteur et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif/Yvette (France); Daviaud, J. P. [EDF, DPN, 1 place Pleyel, 93 282 Saint Denis Cedex (France); Laroche, M. [EDF, SEPTEN, 12-14 rue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of these studies is to design and to industrialize a new device taking back the features of the actual system of control of boron detectors and updating them by adding some analysis of the pulses shapes for predictive maintenance. (authors)

  16. PREVALENCE OF EARLY WARNINNG SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    Mental illness is a psychological, emotional and mental health problems that affects .... review of the field of child psychiatric epidemiology ... occurs at early adolescent and mood disorders tend .... types of hospitals, and primary health clinics.

  17. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  18. The transcriptome landscape of early maize meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiosis, particularly meiotic recombination, is a major factor affecting yield and breeding of plants. To gain insight into the transcriptome landscape during early initiation steps of meiotic recombination, we profiled early prophase I meiocytes from maize using RNA-seq. Our analyses of genes prefe...

  19. Challenges and limitations in early intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Research over the past three decades has shown that early intervention in infants biologically at risk of developmental disorders, irrespective of the presence of a brain lesion, is associated with improved cognitive development in early childhood without affecting motor development. However, at

  20. Mediatised affective activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring

    2014-01-01

    bodies by addressing affective registers. The mediatised ‘affective environment’ (Massumi, 2009) cues bodies and generates spreadability, yet it also produces disconnections. These disconnections might redistribute the ‘economy of recognizability’ (Butler and Athanasiou, 2013); however, the Femen...

  1. Engaging in Affective Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    schools, the paper develops an affective-power approach drawing on Foucault’s notion of power and Whetherell’s conceptualisation of affect. The approach captures the affective dimension of governing and resistance in interactional practice that engages teachers and pupils. This enables a research focus......The paper presents how the merging of the theoretical concepts ‘Affect’ and ‘Power’ faces methodological and ethical challenges when entangled in teachers’ and pupils’ practice. Based on a study of pedagogical methods aiming to shape certain affective relations and avoid conflicts in Danish primary....... Witnessing tense conflict situations taking place I as a researcher get affected as well, and in turn affect the practice myself. Because, both the teacher, pupil, and I are well aware of my research focus on power and affect, being observed in conflictual situations contributes to pervasive shame...

  2. Affective processes in human-automation interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Stephanie M

    2011-08-01

    This study contributes to the literature on automation reliance by illuminating the influences of user moods and emotions on reliance on automated systems. Past work has focused predominantly on cognitive and attitudinal variables, such as perceived machine reliability and trust. However, recent work on human decision making suggests that affective variables (i.e., moods and emotions) are also important. Drawing from the affect infusion model, significant effects of affect are hypothesized. Furthermore, a new affectively laden attitude termed liking is introduced. Participants watched video clips selected to induce positive or negative moods, then interacted with a fictitious automated system on an X-ray screening task At five time points, important variables were assessed including trust, liking, perceived machine accuracy, user self-perceived accuracy, and reliance.These variables, along with propensity to trust machines and state affect, were integrated in a structural equation model. Happiness significantly increased trust and liking for the system throughout the task. Liking was the only variable that significantly predicted reliance early in the task. Trust predicted reliance later in the task, whereas perceived machine accuracy and user self-perceived accuracy had no significant direct effects on reliance at any time. Affective influences on automation reliance are demonstrated, suggesting that this decision-making process may be less rational and more emotional than previously acknowledged. Liking for a new system may be key to appropriate reliance, particularly early in the task. Positive affect can be easily induced and may be a lever for increasing liking.

  3. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention. AJP AT 175 Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1925: Interpretations of Manic-Depressive Phases Earl Bond and G.E. Partridge reviewed a number of patients with manic-depressive illness in search of a unifying endo-psychic conflict. They concluded that understanding either phase of illness was "elusive" and

  5. Early or Premature Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email updates Enter email Submit Early or premature menopause Menopause that happens before age 40 is called ... What is the difference between early and premature menopause? Early or premature menopause happens when ovaries stop ...

  6. Desfolha, população de plantas e precocidade do milho afetam a incidência e a severidade de podridões de colmo Defoliation, plant population, and earliness of maize affect the incidence and severity of stalk rots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Bassay Blum

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available As relações entre fonte e dreno interferem sobre a ocorrência de podridões de colmo na cultura do milho (Zea mays. O estudo foi conduzido em Lages, SC, para avaliar o efeito da desfolha, população de plantas e híbridos sobre as podridões do colmo do milho. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com parcelas sub-subdivididas e três repetições. Os híbridos P32R21 (superprecoce, Premium (precoce e C333B (tardio foram testados sem desfolha e com 50% de desfolha no estágio de espigamento nas populações de 25.000, 50.000, 75.000 e 100.000 plantas ha-1. Avaliaram-se a incidência e a severidade das podridões do colmo causadas por Colletotrichum graminicola, Diplodia maydis e Fusarium moniliforme. O híbrido P32R21 foi o mais afetado pelos fungos causadores de podridões. Nos híbridos P32R21 e Premium, as plantas desfolhadas foram mais severamente infectadas pelos patógenos do que as intactas. O aumento da população de plantas aumentou a intensidade (incidência ou severidade de podridões de colmo nas plantas intactas e diminuiu a ocorrência nas desfolhadas.The relationship between source and sink interferes on maize (Zea mays stalk rot occurrence. This study was conducted in Lages, SC, Brazil, to evaluate the effect of defoliation, plant population, and hybrids on the intensity (incidence or severity of maize stalk rots. The experiment was set in a randomized complete block design (three replications with a split-split-plot arrangement. The hybrids P32R21 (very early, Premium (early and C333B (late were tested without defoliation and with 50% defoliation on ear formation stage at plant populations of 25,000, 50,000, 75,000, and 100,000 plants ha-1. The incidence and severity of Colletotrichum graminicola, Diplodia maydis and Fusarium moniliforme stalk rots were evaluated. The hybrid P32R21 was the most affected by stalk rots. Defoliation enhanced rots on P32R21 and Premium. Enhancements in plant population increased

  7. Early hospital discharge and early puerperal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Villalobos, Dolores; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo; Salinas, Aarón; González, Dolores; Walker, Dilys; Rojo-Herrera, Guadalupe; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the association between time of postpartum discharge and symptoms indicative of complications during the first postpartum week. Women with vaginal delivery at a Mexico City public hospital, without complications before the hospital discharge, were interviewed seven days after delivery. Time of postpartum discharge was classified as early (25 hours). The dependent variable was defined as the occurrence and severity of puerperal complication symptoms. Out of 303 women, 208 (68%) were discharged early. However, women with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care had lower odds of presenting symptoms in early puerperium than women without early discharge and inadequate prenatal care (OR 0.36; 95% confidence intervals = 0.17-0.76). There was no association between early discharge and symptoms of complications during the first postpartum week; the odds of complications were lower for mothers with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care.

  8. Affected in the nightclub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan

    2013-01-01

    simultaneously with the affects of love, joy, sympathy and so on. Alcohol, illicit drugs, bouncers, music and other human or non-human actants are part of the place. It is within this heterogeneous assemblage that affects become embodied. The data consists of 273 cases from a large Copenhagen nightclub where...

  9. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  10. Dementia in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Mortensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with affective disorder have increased risk of developing dementia compared to other groups of psychiatric patients and compared to the general population. METHOD: In the Danish psychiatric central register, 3363 patients...... with unipolar affective disorder, 518 patients with bipolar affective disorder, 1025 schizophrenic and 8946 neurotic patients were identified according to the diagnosis at the first ever discharge from psychiatric hospital during the period from 1970 to 1974. The rate of discharge diagnosis of dementia...... on readmission was estimated during 21 years of follow-up. In addition, the rates were compared with the rates for admission to psychiatric hospitals with a discharge diagnosis of dementia for the total Danish population. RESULTS: Patients with unipolar and with bipolar affective disorder had a greater risk...

  11. Recurrence in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Andersen, P K

    1999-01-01

    The risk of recurrence in affective disorder is influenced by the number of prior episodes and by a person's tendency toward recurrence. Newly developed frailty models were used to estimate the effect of the number of episodes on the rate of recurrence, taking into account individual frailty toward...... recurrence. The study base was the Danish psychiatric case register of all hospital admissions for primary affective disorder in Denmark during 1971-1993. A total of 20,350 first-admission patients were discharged with a diagnosis of major affective disorder. For women with unipolar disorder and for all...... kinds of patients with bipolar disorder, the rate of recurrence was affected by the number of prior episodes even when the effect was adjusted for individual frailty toward recurrence. No effect of episodes but a large effect of the frailty parameter was found for unipolar men. The authors concluded...

  12. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cravings and weight gain Thoughts of death or suicide SAD is more common in women, young people, ... of serotonin, a brain chemical that affects your mood. Their bodies also make too ... with light therapy. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  13. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke

    into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology......This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...

  14. How culture affects management?

    OpenAIRE

    Billi, Lorena

    2012-01-01

    The study is about how culture affects management. Culture can have many different meanings. Management has also many different ways to be approached. While doing research about cultures, the study will try to analyze how the culture affects the management. The study starts with a full explanation of the meaning of culture. Some previous analysis and studies are added to illustrate my study on the subject. The effect culture has on management is studied at different levels. The study does not...

  15. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  16. A Study on the Early Education of the Infant : Focus on the position of Bruner's theory in early childhood education

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Yasuharu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the Bruner's early childhood education. This paper examined an education theory of Bruner in the change of early education as the clue. In section 1, it clarified about the history of Japanese early education. In section 2, it not only clarified about the hypothesis of Bruner which affected early childhood education, but it clarified about the error with Bruner by hypothetical understanding. A hypothesis of Bruner is "We begin with the hypothesis that s...

  17. Affective Biases in Humans and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E S J; Roiser, J P

    Depression is one of the most common but poorly understood psychiatric conditions. Although drug treatments and psychological therapies are effective in some patients, many do not achieve full remission and some patients receive no apparent benefit. Developing new improved treatments requires a better understanding of the aetiology of symptoms and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets in pre-clinical studies. Recent developments in our understanding of the basic cognitive processes that may contribute to the development of depression and its treatment offer new opportunities for both clinical and pre-clinical research. This chapter discusses the clinical evidence supporting a cognitive neuropsychological model of depression and antidepressant efficacy, and how this information may be usefully translated to pre-clinical investigation. Studies using neuropsychological tests in depressed patients and at risk populations have revealed basic negative emotional biases and disrupted reward and punishment processing, which may also impact on non-affective cognition. These affective biases are sensitive to antidepressant treatments with early onset effects observed, suggesting an important role in recovery. This clinical work into affective biases has also facilitated back-translation to animals and the development of assays to study affective biases in rodents. These animal studies suggest that, similar to humans, rodents in putative negative affective states exhibit negative affective biases on decision-making and memory tasks. Antidepressant treatments also induce positive biases in these rodent tasks, supporting the translational validity of this approach. Although still in the early stages of development and validation, affective biases in depression have the potential to offer new insights into the clinical condition, as well as facilitating the development of more translational approaches for pre-clinical studies.

  18. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  19. Affects and assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    the paper raises the questions where to locate aesthetics when planners and architects wishes to design for aesthetical experiences and sensations rather than formal objects. The paper will proceed through a brief outline of the recent notion of assemblage and affect in urban studies, planning theory...... happens to aesthetics and how does it change the existing social and geographical understanding of urban space? The paper sets out to reintroduce aesthetical aspects of affects and assemblages in relation to urban space and urban planning. It presupposes urban space as a continuous state of becoming where...

  20. Long-term Consequences of Early Parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Eva Rye; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Verner, Mette

    (and to lesser extent employment), as fathers appear to support the family, especially when early parenthood is combined with cohabitation with the mother and the child. Heterogeneous effects reveal that individuals with a more favorable socioeconomic background are affected more severely than......Having children at an early age is known to be associated with unfavorable economic outcomes, such as lower education, employment and earnings. In this paper, we study the long-term consequences of early parenthood for mothers and fathers. Our study is based on rich register-based data that......, importantly, merges all childbirths to the children’s mothers and fathers, allowing us to study the consequences of early parenthood for both parents. We perform a sibling fixed effects analysis in order to account for unobserved family attributes that are possibly correlated with early parenthood...

  1. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.

    1995-01-01

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  2. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  3. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    .26–0.48) and primiparous compared to multiparous had an OR of 0.22 (CI 0.17–0.29) for early discharge. Other predictors for early discharge were: no induction of labour, no epidural painkiller, bleeding less than 500 ml during delivery, higher gestational age, early expected discharge and positive breastfeeding experience...

  4. Dynamic Synchronization of Teacher-Students Affection in Affective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei

    2011-01-01

    Based on Bower's affective network theory, the article links the dynamic analysis of affective factors in affective instruction, and presents affective instruction strategic of dynamic synchronization between teacher and students to implement the best ideal mood that promotes students' cognition and affection together. In the process of teaching,…

  5. The Affective Turn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carnera, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This paper confronts biopolitics with modern labour addressing questions of ‘governmentality’, ‘self-management’ and ‘social innovation’. It argues that the new modes of production within immaterial labour involve a new complex relation between on the one hand the ‘Art of Governance...... of biopolitics that surpasses that of governmentality. The affective self-relation is used as a research tool to analyse the creation of social and economic values in our new modes of productions, for instance, within free labour of the cultural industry. The movie The Five Obstructions is used to show how...... organizing good affective encounters based on limitations enhance and facilitate the performative dimension of self-management. Finally, the paper addresses the problem of critique confronting self-relation with Spinoza's ethics as an ethical difference of powe...

  6. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  7. Neutrino oscillations in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, K.

    1990-01-01

    The oscillations of electron neutrinos into inert neutrinos may have resonant behaviour in the heat bath of the early Universe. It is shown that any initial neutrino asymmetry will be washed away by the oscillations. Neutrino oscillations would affect also primordial helium production, which implies stringent limits on the neutrino mixing parameters. (orig.)

  8. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  9. Bullying Prevention Strategies in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem that affects the young children's well being. Early childhood educators find it difficult to manage bullying in the classroom. Preschool is the first environment outside of the home setting where children encounter difficulties when they socially interact with their peers. Based on the principles of protecting and…

  10. Early Childhood Technology Education: A Sociocultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

    2005-01-01

    We are living in a fast-changing, technology-driven world, where technology affects the daily lives of every person, directly or indirectly. While the importance of providing young children with technological knowledge and experience has been well-recognized, how the curriculum should be developed deserves greater study. Using early childhood…

  11. Maternal Factors Associated With Early Spontaneous Singleton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the maternal factors predisposing to preterm deliveries should affect the anticipatory care of mothers at risk of delivering preterm babies and improve perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the maternal socio-biological characteristics associated with the delivery of early spontaneous ...

  12. Social and Affective Robotics Tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Evers, Vanessa; Deisenroth, Marc; Merino, Luis; Schuller, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Social and Affective Robotics is a growing multidisciplinary field encompassing computer science, engineering, psychology, education, and many other disciplines. It explores how social and affective factors influence interactions between humans and robots, and how affect and social signals can be

  13. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  14. Risk, Affect and Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O. Zinn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time theorising has underestimated the importance of affect and emotion in decision making and the management of risk and uncertainty. In relatively one-sided interpretations emotions were often interpreted as threats for rational decision making, and could be triggered by uncertainties, which would go along with social change. Recent interdisciplinary research has shown the importance to acknowledge the more complex link between reasoning and emotions. The article outlines different perspectives on emotion in risk research of economics, psychology and sociology and argues for further research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601293

  15. Early Transcendental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cowell, Simon; Poulin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In Early Transcendentals (The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 104, No 7) Steven Weintraub presents a rigorous justifcation of the "early transcendental" calculus textbook approach to the exponential and logarithmic functions. However, he uses tools such as term-by-term differentiation of infinite series. We present a rigorous treatment of the early transcendental approach suitable for a first course in analysis, using mainly the supremum property of the real numbers.

  16. Method of oocyte activation affects cloning efficiency in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Kristin M; Li, Rongfeng; Spate, Lee D; Wax, David M; Rieke, August; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Sutovsky, Miriam; Green, Jonathan A; Sutovsky, Peter; Prather, Randall S

    2009-05-01

    The following experiments compared the efficiency of three fusion/activation protocols following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with porcine somatic cells transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein driven by the chicken beta-actin/rabbit beta-globin hybrid promoter (pCAGG-EGFP). The three protocols included electrical fusion/activation (NT1), electrical fusion/activation followed by treatment with a reversible proteasomal inhibitor MG132 (NT2) and electrical fusion in low Ca(2+) followed by chemical activation with thimerosal/dithiothreitol (NT3). Data were collected at Days 6, 12, 14, 30, and 114 of gestation. Fusion rates, blastocyst-stage mean cell numbers, recovery rates, and pregnancy rates were calculated and compared between protocols. Fusion rates were significantly higher for NT1 and NT2 compared to NT3 (P NT1 (71.4%, n = 28; P 0.05). All fusion/activation treatments produced live, pCAGG-EGFP positive piglets from SCNT. Treatment with MG132 after fusion/activation of reconstructed porcine embryos was the most effective method when comparing the overall pregnancy rates. The beneficial effect of NT2 protocol may be due to the stimulation of proteasomes that infiltrate donor cell nucleus shortly after nuclear transfer. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Multisensory Perception of Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Gelder

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory integration must stand out among the fields of research that have witnessed a most impressive explosion of interest this last decade. One of these new areas of multisensory research concerns emotion. Since our first exploration of this phenomenon (de Gelder et al., 1999 a number of studies have appeared and they have used a wide variety of behavioral, neuropsychological and neuroscientifc methods. The goal of this presentation is threefold. First, we review the research on audiovisual perception of emotional signals from the face and the voice followed by a report or more recent studies on integrating emotional information provided by the voice and whole body expressions. We will also include some recent work on multisensory music perception. In the next section we discuss some methodological and theoretical issues. Finally, we will discuss findings about abnormal affective audiovisual integration in schizophrenia and in autism.

  18. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2014-01-01

    . The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...... of individual experiences of school and everyday school life as it unfolds in and beyond the formal teaching situations. The chapter follows in the wake of a growing attention to the aspects of everyday life and lived life at school in the history of education. It also develops tools for and demonstrates how...... the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective....

  19. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  20. Early Retirement Payoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Lovenheim, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    As public budgets have grown tighter over the past decade, states and school districts have sought ways to control the growth of spending. One increasingly common strategy employed to rein in costs is to offer experienced teachers with high salaries financial incentives to retire early. Although early retirement incentive (ERI) programs have been…

  1. Early Modern Philosophical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Bunge (Wiep)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe occurrence of an entry on early modern philosophical systems in an encyclopaedia of Neo-Latin studies is fraught with complications, if only on account of the gradual disappearance during the early modern period of Latin as the main vehicle of philosophical communication. What

  2. Early Intervention in Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallai, Maria; Katona, Ferenc; Balogh, Erzsebet; Schultheisz, Judit; Deveny, Anna; Borbely, Sjoukje

    2000-01-01

    This article presents five models of early intervention used in Budapest. Diagnostic and treatment methods used by the Pediatric Institute and the Conductive Education System are described, along with the Deveny Special Manual Technique and Gymnastic Method, the Gezenguz method and techniques used in the Early Developmental Center. (CR)

  3. The early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, G.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the physics of the early universe: the production and survival of relics from the big bang. The author comments on relic WIMPs as the dark matter in the universe. The remainder of this discussion is devoted to a review of the status of the only predictions from the early evolution of the universe that are accessible to astronomical observation: primordial nucleosynthesis

  4. Early College High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  5. Human activities affecting trace gases and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braatz, B.; Ebert, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Earth's climate has been in a constant state of change throughout geologic time due to natural perturbations in the global geobiosphere. However, various human activities have the potential to cause future global warming over a relatively short amount of time. These activities, which affect the Earth's climate by altering the concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere, include energy consumption, particularly fossil-fuel consumption; industrial processes (production and use of chlorofluorocarbons, halons, and chlorocarbons, landfilling of wastes, and cement manufacture); changes in land use patterns, particularly deforestation and biomass burning; and agricultural practices (waste burning, fertilizer usage, rice production, and animal husbandry). Population growth is an important underlying factor affecting the level of growth in each activity. This paper describes how the human activities listed above contribute to atmospheric change, the current pattern of each activity, and how levels of each activity have changed since the early part of this century

  6. Security affects us all!

    CERN Multimedia

    SMB Department

    2016-01-01

    In the hope of minimising the number of thefts of the Organization’s property, which can lead to months of work going to waste on certain projects, you are reminded of the importance that CERN attaches to the rules concerning the protection of equipment for which we are responsible. If you see any unusual behaviour or if you are the victim of a theft, don’t hesitate to report it by submitting a ticket through the CERN Portal or calling the CSA. Security affects us all!   CERN is attractive in more ways than one, and it remains as attractive as ever to thieves. With the nice weather and with the holiday season in full swing, the number of thefts recorded at CERN is on the rise. Items stolen include money, computers, electronic equipment, cable drums and copper antennae.   There are a few basic precautions that you should take to protect both your own and the Organization’s property: lock your door, don’t leave valuable items in your office, st...

  7. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly, the disserta......The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly......, the dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...... circulated beyond Japan. Using Sōseki’s theory as an example, and by comparing it to other theories, the dissertation argues that comparative literature needs to include not only more non-Western literature but also more non-Western literary theories in the ongoing debate of world literature. Close...

  8. Affective match: Leader emotions, follower positive affect, and follower performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, F.; van Knippenberg, B.M.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2008-01-01

    Leader emotions may play an important role in leadership effectiveness. Extending earlier research on leader emotional displays and leadership effectiveness, we propose that the affective match between follower positive affect (PA) and leaders' emotional displays moderates the effectiveness of

  9. Thimerosal and the occurrence of autism: negative ecological evidence from Danish population-based data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard; Lauritsen, Marlene Briciet; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2003-01-01

    -2000. OUTCOME MEASURES: Annual and age-specific incidence for first day of first recorded admission with a diagnosis of autism in children between 2 and 10 years old. RESULTS: A total of 956 children with a male-to-female ratio of 3.5:1 had been diagnosed with autism during the period from 1971...

  10. Introduction: Affective Ecologies and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera M Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Engaging the affective and materialist turn in the social sciences, this special section elaborates on how analytical attention on affect and affective relations is central to understanding human-nature relations and to conservation interventions. The contributors to this section use conceptual resources from affect theory, new materialism, and indigenous ontologies to illustrate the practical significance of paying attention to affect in understanding nature-society relations. This introduction reviews these conceptual resources to make a case for affective political ecology.

  11. Encountering Science Education's Capacity to Affect and Be Affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve

    2016-01-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science…

  12. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  13. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  14. Foods That Can Affect Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That Can Affect Fertility Print Email Foods That Can Affect Fertility By Caroline Kaufman, MS, RDN Published ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. While couples can't control all of the causes of infertility, ...

  15. Early School Leaving in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Bäckman, Olof; Lorentzen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    countries and find the highest vocational track dropout rates in Norway and the lowest in Finland. The results indicate that the relative labour market effect of dropping out from a vocational track is most detrimental in Norway. It is also in Norway that we find the greatest gender differences......The article explores the extent to which the organization of vocational tracks in upper secondary school affects the labour market risks associated with early school exit. The Nordic countries share many features, but the upper secondary school systems differ significantly in how their vocational...... tracks are organized. Denmark and Norway have dual vocational tracks, that is, they combine school-based education and workplace apprenticeships, whereas in Finland and Sweden they are primarily school based. We analyse administrative longitudinal data from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s in the four...

  16. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  17. Guideline for Early Interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vries, de, Maaike

    2006-01-01

    .... During the last years, the demand for early interventions has been increasing. International literature has shown that the psychosocial effects of disaster and military deployment may last for years...

  18. Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  19. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature menopause; Ovarian insufficiency - cancer ... Cancer treatments that can cause early menopause include: Surgery. Having both ovaries removed causes menopause to happen right away. If you are age 50 or younger, your provider may ...

  20. Early intervention in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges to their implementa......AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges...... benefits alone is not enough to promote implementation, as economic arguments and political and social pressure have shown to be important elements in efforts to achieve implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Users' narratives, close collaboration with community organizations and support from policy-makers and known...

  1. Earth's early biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  2. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  3. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  4. Embracing early literacy indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik; Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2010-01-01

    Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres.......Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres....

  5. Scrutinizing the Factors Affecting Fluency of English among Arab Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghazali, Fawzi

    2017-01-01

    This research study investigates the cognitive, psychological and personal factors affecting the accuracy and fluency of English language usage among Arab learners. Early research led by Chomsky (1965) and Krashen (1981) suggested that an individual's Language Acquisition Device once triggered at the appropriate time and supported with adequate…

  6. Who Gets Early Tracheostomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the benefits of early tracheostomy in patients dependent on ventilators are well established, the reasons for variation in time from intubation to tracheostomy remain unclear. We identified clinical and demographic disparities in time to tracheostomy. METHODS: We performed a level 3 retrospective prognostic study by querying the University HealthSystem Consortium (2007-2010) for adult patients receiving a tracheostomy after initial intubation. Time to tracheostomy was designated early ( 10 days). Cohorts were stratified by time to tracheostomy and compared using univariate tests of association and multivariable adjusted models. RESULTS: A total of 49,191 patients underwent tracheostomy after initial intubation: 42% early (n = 21,029) and 58% late (n = 28,162). On both univariate and multivariable analyses, women, blacks, Hispanics, and patients receiving Medicaid were less likely to receive an early tracheostomy. Patients in the early group also experienced lower rates of mortality (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.79-0.88). CONCLUSIONS: Early tracheostomy was associated with increased survival. Yet, there were still significant disparities in time to tracheostomy according to sex, race, and type of insurance. Application of evidence-based algorithms for tracheostomy may reduce unequal treatment and improve overall mortality rates. Additional research into this apparent bias in referral/rendering of tracheostomy is needed. PMID:26313324

  7. Tracing Early Interventions on Childhood Overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    This thesis presents results from a qualitative research project on early interventions to counter childhood obesity in Denmark. Overall, it was found that these interventions in families with preschool children were rarely performed. One barrier to the interventions is the structural setting...... in families with a non-western ethnic minority background and with low socioeconomic status. In families who participated in interventions, other social problems and a sense of insecurity caused by precarious living conditions of different kinds influenced the parents’ readiness to restrict children in order...... in the Danish health care system, which was found to be insufficient to initiate and facilitate early interventions. In addition, cultural stereotypes were found to affect the health care practitioners who are performing early interventions, and this can create reluctance to address overweight problems...

  8. Affective picture modulation: valence, arousal, attention allocation and motivational significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jorge; Carvalho, Sandra; Galdo-Alvarez, Santiago; Alves, Jorge; Sampaio, Adriana; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2012-03-01

    The present study analyses the modulatory effects of affective pictures in the early posterior negativity (EPN), the late positive potential (LPP) and the human startle response on both the peripheral (eye blink EMG) and central neurophysiological levels (Probe P3), during passive affective pictures viewing. The affective pictures categories were balanced in terms of valence (pleasant; unpleasant) and arousal (high; low). The data shows that EPN may be sensitive to specific stimulus characteristics (affective relevant pictures versus neutral pictures) associated with early stages of attentional processing. In later stages, the heightened attentional resource allocation as well as the motivated significance of the affective stimuli was found to elicit enhanced amplitudes of slow wave processes thought to be related to enhanced encoding, namely LPP,. Although pleasant low arousing pictures were effective in engaging the resources involved in the slow wave processes, the highly arousing affective stimuli (pleasant and unpleasant) were found to produce the largest enhancement of the LPP, suggesting that high arousing stimuli may are associated with increased motivational significance. Additionally the response to high arousing stimuli may be suggestive of increased motivational attention, given the heightened attentional allocation, as expressed in the P3 probe, especially for the pleasant pictures. The hedonic valence may then serve as a mediator of the attentional inhibition to the affective priming, potentiating or inhibiting a shift towards defensive activation, as measured by the startle reflex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  10. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research.

  11. General characteristics affective disorders in arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tolmachov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes researches on the study of affective disorders in arterial hypertension (AH. It is noted that AH at the present stage is considered as one of the factors of cognitive dysfunction. The article emphasizes that the analysis of comorbid relations of depression and hypertension is hardly possible without the study of affective and cardiovascular disorders at the clinical level, taking into account their dynamic characteristics and key features of the course of depressive states in general. The author considers the features of the current: post-stroke depressions, nosogenic depressions of anxious and anxious-hypochondriacally types, anxiety-phobic disorders, comorbid panic disorders, protracted depression with traits of endoreactive dysthymia, hypochondriacal disorders, panic attacks, and the like in patients with arterial hypertension. Some features of affective disorders are revealed in patients with cardiovascular disorders. It is emphasized that the increase in the effectiveness of treatment of mental disorders in patients with hypertensive encephalopathy can be solved by improving the methods of early diagnosis, developing additional screening and monitoring diagnostic tools using it in an interdisciplinary approach.

  12. Communication architecture of an early warning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angermann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses aspects of communication architecture for early warning systems (EWS in general and gives details of the specific communication architecture of an early warning system against tsunamis. While its sensors are the "eyes and ears" of a warning system and enable the system to sense physical effects, its communication links and terminals are its "nerves and mouth" which transport measurements and estimates within the system and eventually warnings towards the affected population. Designing the communication architecture of an EWS against tsunamis is particularly challenging. Its sensors are typically very heterogeneous and spread several thousand kilometers apart. They are often located in remote areas and belong to different organizations. Similarly, the geographic spread of the potentially affected population is wide. Moreover, a failure to deliver a warning has fatal consequences. Yet, the communication infrastructure is likely to be affected by the disaster itself. Based on an analysis of the criticality, vulnerability and availability of communication means, we describe the design and implementation of a communication system that employs both terrestrial and satellite communication links. We believe that many of the issues we encountered during our work in the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, Rudloff et al., 2009 on the design and implementation communication architecture are also relevant for other types of warning systems. With this article, we intend to share our insights and lessons learned.

  13. Early Dementia Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia.

  14. Early cosmology constrained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul [Institute of Cosmos Sciences, University of Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí Franquès, 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bellini, Emilio [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pigozzo, Cassio [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Heavens, Alan F., E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: emilio.bellini@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br, E-mail: a.heavens@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu [Imperial Centre for Inference and Cosmology (ICIC), Imperial College, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-01

    We investigate our knowledge of early universe cosmology by exploring how much additional energy density can be placed in different components beyond those in the ΛCDM model. To do this we use a method to separate early- and late-universe information enclosed in observational data, thus markedly reducing the model-dependency of the conclusions. We find that the 95% credibility regions for extra energy components of the early universe at recombination are: non-accelerating additional fluid density parameter Ω{sub MR} < 0.006 and extra radiation parameterised as extra effective neutrino species 2.3 < N {sub eff} < 3.2 when imposing flatness. Our constraints thus show that even when analyzing the data in this largely model-independent way, the possibility of hiding extra energy components beyond ΛCDM in the early universe is seriously constrained by current observations. We also find that the standard ruler, the sound horizon at radiation drag, can be well determined in a way that does not depend on late-time Universe assumptions, but depends strongly on early-time physics and in particular on additional components that behave like radiation. We find that the standard ruler length determined in this way is r {sub s} = 147.4 ± 0.7 Mpc if the radiation and neutrino components are standard, but the uncertainty increases by an order of magnitude when non-standard dark radiation components are allowed, to r {sub s} = 150 ± 5 Mpc.

  15. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine sh......After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria......-Palestine shortly before, and in the two centuries after, the Islamic expansion (the later sixth to the early ninth century AD), drawing on a wide range of new evidence from recent archaeological work. Alan Walmsley challenges conventional explanations for social change with the arrival of Islam, arguing...

  16. Early breastfeeding problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feenstra, Maria Monberg; Kirkeby, Mette Jørgine; Thygesen, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding problems are common and associated with early cessation. Stilllength of postpartum hospital stay has been reduced. This leaves new mothers to establish breastfeeding at home with less support from health care professionals. The objective was to explore mothers’ perspectives...... on when breastfeeding problems were the most challenging and prominent early postnatal. The aim was also toidentify possible factors associated with the breastfeeding problems. Methods In a cross-sectional study, a mixed method approach was used to analyse postal survey data from 1437 mothers with full...... term singleton infants. Content analysis was used to analyse mothers’ open text descriptions of their most challenging breastfeeding problem. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for early breastfeeding problems according to sociodemographic- and psychosocial factors. Results...

  17. Early Intervention in Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorry, Patrick D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early intervention for potentially serious disorder is a fundamental feature of healthcare across the spectrum of physical illness. It has been a major factor in the reductions in morbidity and mortality that have been achieved in some of the non-communicable diseases, notably cancer and cardiovascular disease. Over the past two decades, an international collaborative effort has been mounted to build the evidence and the capacity for early intervention in the psychotic disorders, notably schizophrenia, where for so long deep pessimism had reigned. The origins and rapid development of early intervention in psychosis are described from a personal and Australian perspective. This uniquely evidence-informed, evidence-building and cost-effective reform provides a blueprint and launch pad to radically change the wider landscape of mental health care and dissolve many of the barriers that have constrained progress for so long. PMID:25919380

  18. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...

  19. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity......Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were...... of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent...

  20. Affective disorders in neurological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, F M; Kessing, L V; Sørensen, T M

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal relationships between a range of neurological diseases and affective disorders. METHOD: Data derived from linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. Seven cohorts with neurological index diagnoses and two...... of affective disorder was lower than the incidence in the control groups. CONCLUSION: In neurological diseases there seems to be an increased incidence of affective disorders. The elevated incidence was found to be particularly high for dementia and Parkinson's disease (neurodegenerative diseases)....

  1. The Relationship of Teacher Affective Behavior to Pupil Affective Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameen, Marilyn C.; Brown, Jeannette A.

    The study investigated the relationship of teacher affective behavior changes to pupil affective behavior changes in the presence of elementary school guidance services for both populations. Specifically, the study asked: Is teacher change in Intimacy and Esprit related to pupil change in Self Perception and Peer Acceptance? Activities were…

  2. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents’ Future Affective Experience during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M.; Levine, Linda J.; Schneider, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents’ feelings during exercise. Method During the first semester of the school year, we assessed sixth grade students’ (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test, and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the second semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Results Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise, and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. Conclusion These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences. PMID:28494196

  3. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents' Future Affective Experience During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M; Levine, Linda J; Schneider, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents' feelings during exercise. During the 1st semester of the school year, we assessed 6th-grade students' (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the 2nd semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences.

  4. Assessing the Effects of Soil Humic and Fulvic Acids on Germination and Early Growth of Native and Introduced Grass Varieties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senesi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The presence of humic acid (HA) generally affects positively and at various extent the germination and early growth of all varieties examined but in some cases negative effects are measured on the early growth...

  5. Phentermine, sibutramine and affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hoyoung; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Chung, Seockhoon

    2013-04-01

    A safe and effective way to control weight in patients with affective disorders is needed, and phentermine is a possible candidate. We performed a PubMed search of articles pertaining to phentermine, sibutramine, and affective disorders. We compared the studies of phentermine with those of sibutramine. The search yielded a small number of reports. Reports concerning phentermine and affective disorders reported that i) its potency in the central nervous system may be comparatively low, and ii) it may induce depression in some patients. We were unable to find more studies on the subject; thus, it is unclear presently whether phentermine use is safe in affective disorder patients. Reports regarding the association of sibutramine and affective disorders were slightly more abundant. A recent study that suggested that sibutramine may have deleterious effects in patients with a psychiatric history may provide a clue for future phentermine research. Three explanations are possible concerning the association between phentermine and affective disorders: i) phentermine, like sibutramine, may have a depression-inducing effect that affects a specific subgroup of patients, ii) phentermine may have a dose-dependent depression-inducing effect, or iii) phentermine may simply not be associated with depression. Large-scale studies with affective disorder patients focusing on these questions are needed to clarify this matter before investigation of its efficacy may be carried out and it can be used in patients with affective disorders.

  6. Factors affecting the survival of HIV-infected children after ART ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Factors affecting the survival of HIV-infected children after. ART initiation ... balance between treating the disease and maintaining quality of life must be weighed carefully. An evaluation .... children were forced to work in early life, especially in.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study in Dachshund: Identification of a Major Locus Affecting Intervertebral Disc Calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette Sloth; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Proschowsky, Helle Friis

    2011-01-01

    Intervertebral disc calcification and herniation commonly affects Dachshund where the predisposition is caused by an early onset degenerative process resulting in disc calcification. A continuous spectrum of disc degeneration is seen within and among clog breeds, suggesting a multifactorial etiol...

  8. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Early Learning AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Education... meetings and written submissions, is seeking input from State agencies responsible for early learning and... assistance providers, researchers of early learning, stakeholders who work with early learning and...

  9. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  10. Introduction to "Early psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGorry, Patrick; Nordentoft, Merete; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    warrants careful analysis. The Third International Early Psychosis Conference proved to be a watershed and was the largest and most vibrant meeting to that point. This preface aims to set the scene for a selection of contributions, derived from the array of new evidence reported in Copenhagen, and recently...

  11. Early Functional Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Early Functional Abilities (EFA), - en skala til evaluering af behandlingsforløb af svært hjerneskadede patienter i forbindelse med tidlig rehabilitering. Formål At monitorere og dokumentere rehabiliteringsforløbet for svært hjerneskadede patienter, hvor funktionsniveauet endnu ikke kan registreres...

  12. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    This book presents a new interpretation of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine in the decades before and during the two centuries after the Islamic expansion into the region (roughly the later 6th to the early 9th century AD). Drawing on a wide range of evidence from recent...

  13. Teaching polymorphism early

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants...

  14. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  15. Characteristics of early psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, P.F.; Emck, C.; van Engeland, H.

    2006-01-01

    There is little research on characteristics related to course and prognosis of early-onset psychosis. The present article aims to advance our knowledge of this disorder for the purpose of proper diagnosis and treatment. It focuses on premorbid and prodromal characteristics, treatment history,

  16. Early practice: neurotology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Joseph T; Vrabec, Jeffrey T

    2015-04-01

    Besides technical and surgical proficiency, some of the most important skills for a young Neurotologist to refine include communication and critical thinking abilities. This Early Practice article provides perspectives on common challenges and career development from a current Neurotology fellow and his mentor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Development of a design methodology that can handle the vast design space in early building design. •A global design space is modelled from extensive Monte Carlo simulations. •Sensitivity analysis methods applied to guide decision-makers. •Interactive visualizations help the multi-act...

  18. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  19. Family psychoeducation for affective disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen; Bech, Per

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article was to examine the evidence of family psychoeducation (FPE) for affective disorders. Evidence indicates that FPE can be an effective supplement to the standard treatment of patients with affective disorders. FPE can effectively reduce the patients' risk of relapse and redu...

  20. How decision reversibility affects motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullens, L.; van Harreveld, F.; Förster, J.; Higgins, T.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making,

  1. Early abortion services in the United States: a provider survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janie; Clark, Kathryn Andersen; Gerhardt, Ann; Randall, Lynne; Dudley, Susan

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the availability of early surgical and medical abortion among members of the National Abortion Federation (NAF) and to identify factors affecting the integration of early abortion services into current services. Telephone interviews were conducted with staff at 113 Planned Parenthood affiliates and independent abortion providers between February and April 2000, prior to FDA approval of mifepristone. Early abortion services were available at 59% of sites, and establishing services was less difficult than or about what was anticipated. Sites generally found it easier to begin offering early surgical abortion than early medical abortion. Physician participation was found to be critical to implementing early services. At sites where some but not all providers offered early abortion, variations in service availability resulted. Given the option of reconsidering early services, virtually all sites would make the same decision again. These data suggest that developing mentoring relationships between experienced early abortion providers/sites and those not offering early services, and training physicians and other staff, are likely to be effective approaches to expanding service availability.

  2. Flow, affect and visual creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh, Genevieve M; Phillips, Louise H; Pearson, David G

    2015-01-01

    Flow (being in the zone) is purported to have positive consequences in terms of affect and performance; however, there is no empirical evidence about these links in visual creativity. Positive affect often--but inconsistently--facilitates creativity, and both may be linked to experiencing flow. This study aimed to determine relationships between these variables within visual creativity. Participants performed the creative mental synthesis task to simulate the creative process. Affect change (pre- vs. post-task) and flow were measured via questionnaires. The creativity of synthesis drawings was rated objectively and subjectively by judges. Findings empirically demonstrate that flow is related to affect improvement during visual creativity. Affect change was linked to productivity and self-rated creativity, but no other objective or subjective performance measures. Flow was unrelated to all external performance measures but was highly correlated with self-rated creativity; flow may therefore motivate perseverance towards eventual excellence rather than provide direct cognitive enhancement.

  3. Circadian polymorphisms associated with affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhtman Tatyana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical symptoms of affective disorders, their response to light treatment, and sensitivity to other circadian interventions indicate that the circadian system has a role in mood disorders. Possibly the mechanisms involve circadian seasonal and photoperiodic mechanisms. Since genetic susceptibilities contribute a strong component to affective disorders, we explored whether circadian gene polymorphisms were associated with affective disorders in four complementary studies. Methods Four groups of subjects were recruited from several sources: 1 bipolar proband-parent trios or sib-pair-parent nuclear families, 2 unrelated bipolar participants who had completed the BALM morningness-eveningness questionnaire, 3 sib pairs from the GenRed Project having at least one sib with early-onset recurrent unipolar depression, and 4 a sleep clinic patient group who frequently suffered from depression. Working mainly with the SNPlex assay system, from 2 to 198 polymorphisms in genes related to circadian function were genotyped in the participant groups. Associations with affective disorders were examined with TDT statistics for within-family comparisons. Quantitative trait associations were examined within the unrelated samples. Results In NR1D1, rs2314339 was associated with bipolar disorder (P = 0.0005. Among the unrelated bipolar participants, 3 SNPs in PER3 and CSNK1E were associated with the BALM score. A PPARGC1B coding SNP, rs7732671, was associated with affective disorder with nominal significance in bipolar family groups and independently in unipolar sib pairs. In TEF, rs738499 was associated with unipolar depression; in a replication study, rs738499 was also associated with the QIDS-SR depression scale in the sleep clinic patient sample. Conclusion Along with anti-manic effects of lithium and the antidepressant effects of bright light, these findings suggest that perturbations of the circadian gene network at several levels may

  4. Affective reading and strategic hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Frangi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals mainly with three issues: how people interact with linguistically codified messages in everyday life? How this affects people’s behaviour? And how does this thing relates to practicing philosophy? These three issues are faced with the help two concepts: “affective reading” regards the first two of them, while “strategic hermeneutics” regards the last one. This paper thus starts with the analysis of the meaning of affective reading and tries to show how this way of reading is practiced on everyday basis to organize our actions. Then the focus turns to philosophical applications of the affective reading to show how much it affects our discipline. Strategic hermeneutics takes here its place on the stage. Indeed, this concept is the application of affective reading as a philosophical tool and method. Hence, it’s shown how to use this kind of tool with a theoretical analysis and an example given. At the end of the paper I’ve tried to display how this philosophical method affects the foundation and development of the philosopher’s ego under the prospective of Lacan’s theory of Oedipus’ complex.

  5. Regulación afectiva diádica madre-bebé y autorregulación del infante en la estructuración psíquica temprana Dyadic affective regulation and infant self regulation in the early psychic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Raznoszczyk de Schejtman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo presenta una articulación entre resultados provenientes de la investigación empírica observacional en díadas madre-bebé y conceptualizaciones psicoanalíticas acerca de la estructuración psíquica. Se filmaron 48 díadas madre bebé y se evaluó la regulación afectiva a través del microanálisis de 3 minutos de interacción cara a cara madre-bebé. Se estudió la autoestima materna a través de una entrevista y de instrumentos autoadministrados. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos acerca de las relaciones entre la expresividad observada en la madre y el bebé, y la autoestima materna. Se presenta un desarrollo teórico sobre las implicancias para el psicoanálisis del estudio del fenómeno diádico interactivo y del pasaje de la regulación diádica madrebebé a la autorregulación que va logrando el infante. Se presentan desarrollos de Daniel Stern y Edward Tronick en esta temática y se propone un modelo de intervención clínica en primera infancia.The present paper deals with the overlapping between data obtained from observational mother-infant research and psychoanalytical conceptualizations on psychic structure. 48 mother-infant dyads were videotaped and affective regulation was studied through the microanalysis of 3 minutes face to face interaction. Maternal self esteem was studied through an interview and self administered instruments were offered to the mothers. Results are presented on the relations obtained between the observed expressivity in the mother and the infant, and Maternal Self Esteem. A theoretical discussion is presented regarding implications for psychoanalysis around the study of the interactive dyadic phenomenon and from the process from dyadic affective regulation to infant self regulation. Some ideas on the topic from Daniel Stern and Edward Tronick are presented and a psychotherapeutic intervention model in infancy is proposed.

  6. Emotion modelling towards affective pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, James Le

    2009-12-01

    Objective: There is a need in psychiatry for models that integrate pathological states with normal systems. The interaction of arousal and emotion is the focus of an exploration of affective pathogenesis. Method: Given that the explicit causes of affective disorder remain nascent, methods of linking emotion and disorder are evaluated. Results: A network model of emotional families is presented, in which emotions exist as quantal gradients. Morbid emotional states are seen as the activation of distal emotion sites. The phenomenology of affective disorders is described with reference to this model. Recourse is made to non-linear dynamic theory. Conclusions: Metaphoric emotion models have face validity and may prove a useful heuristic.

  7. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    2012 International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ICACII 2012) was the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction. The conference provided a rare opportunity to bring together worldwide academic researchers and practitioners for exchanging the latest developments and applications in this field such as Intelligent Computing, Affective Computing, Machine Learning, Business Intelligence and HCI.   This volume is a collection of 119 papers selected from 410 submissions from universities and industries all over the world, based on their quality and relevancy to the conference. All of the papers have been peer-reviewed by selected experts.  

  8. Change in Physical Attraction in Early Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Karandashev; Brittany Fata

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our research was to study the changes in physical attraction during the early stages of romantic relationships. The longitudinal study explored the personality characteristics of a partner and relationship events affecting physical attraction of early (within the first year) romantic relationships. Participants completed an eight-week longitudinal rating of their attraction toward their romantic partner. Factor analysis revealed behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physiological ...

  9. Early prenatal syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Rathod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis in pregnancy still remains a challenge despite the availability of adequate diagnostic tests for serological screening and penicillin therapy. We report a case of 2 month old female infant who presented with runny nose, papulosquamous lesions over both palms and soles and perianal erosions since 1 month after birth. Cutaneous examination revealed moist eroded areas in the perianal region and fine scaly lesions over palms and soles. Radiograph of both upper limbs and limbs revealed early periosteal changes in lower end of humerus and lower end of tibia. Diagnosis of early pre-natal syphilis was confirmed by Child′s Serum Rapid Plasma Reagin Antibody test [S.RPR] being positive with 1:64 dilution while that of mother was 1:8.

  10. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  11. Early childhood identity: ethnicity and acculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available How are concepts such as ethnic identity, acculturation and cultural orientation being perceived by a child? What is the process of identity construction in early preschool age? How is children’s wellbeing affected by parents’ desire to expose them to a certain culture, other than the one the children were born into? How natural is learning a foreign language for children, given a multiethnic space characterized by adversity and disparities such as “them”-“us”? And what are the potential outcomes of the phenomena in question? These are a few questions that the current study reflectively followed up upon by using a qualitative research design and data triangulation in order to increase its validity. The SDQ Questionnaire used to study the children’s wellbeing, the semi-structured “in-depth” interviews conducted on the main early preschool identity builders in the Cristian community and the participative observation indicated the children were proud to be part of the German department group. They did not undergo a brutal process of affiliation to the Saxon ethnicity due to the educators’ various compromises, and their wellbeing didn’t seem to be affected at the SDQ administration stage. However, learning German proved to be a difficult process and the two potential outcomes included hitting the language barrier or resuming adaptation to the native ethnic code. This study highlights the impact of the cultural code on the early identity foundation.

  12. Mapping the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    From its unique vantage point 900 kilometres above the earth's surface, NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has a privileged view of cosmic background radiation - the remnants of the early (radiation-dominated) Universe which followed the Big Bang some ten Gigayears ago, and possibly some subsequent history. In this way astroparticle physicists get a first peek at the quantum cosmology which moulded the infant Universe

  13. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  14. Coaching in Early Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeroth, Carrie; Sarama, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Falling scores in math have prompted a renewed interest in math instruction at early ages. By their own admission, early childhood educators are generally underprepared and not always comfortable teaching math. Professional development (PD) in early mathematics is widely considered a main way to increase teachers' skills and efficacy (e.g., Guskey, 2000; Hyson & Woods, 2014; Munby, Russell, & Martin, 2001; Piasta, Logan, Pelatti, Capps, & Petrill, 2015; Richardson & Placier, 2001; Sarama, Clements, Wolfe, & Spitler, 2016; Sarama & DiBiase, 2004; Zaslow, 2014). However, it has been documented that stand-alone PD is not as effective in changing practice (e.g., Biancarosa & Bryk, 2011; Garet et al., 2008; Guskey, 2000; Hyson & Woods, 2014; Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2015; Joyce & Showers, 2002; Zaslow, 2014). Site-embedded ongoing support in the form of coaching or mentoring has been shown to be critical for successful implementation (Neuman & Cunningham, 2009; Powell, Diamond, Burchinal, & Koehler, 2010). In this chapter, we describe coaching models and abstract characteristics of effective coaching from the research. With this background, we provide an in-depth view of the coaching aspect of two large empirical studies in early mathematics. We introduce the theoretical framework from which the coaching models for these projects were developed and describe the research on which they were based. We then summarize how the planned models were instantiated and challenges to their implementation within each project. In the final section, we summarize what we have learned and described implications and challenges for the field. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Early prevention of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating...

  16. Hands of early primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  17. Early Detection Of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Bhatnagar

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Farly detection of cancer is based upon three fundamental assumptions, firstly that the trea'ment of benign and precancerous lesions reduces the incidence of cancer, secondly, that the treatment of in situ cancers is conducive to total cure and thirdly that early diagnosis and management of invasive cancer ensures be.ter survival. When patient seeks medical advice for vague symptoms, which could however be due to a possible malignant tumour at a particular site, the alert clinician should investigate the patient immediately to exclude cancer. At this stage cancer is usually not significantly advanced. Currently the U. I. C. C. (International Union for Cancer Control} is studying the epidemiology of cancers in various countries The importance of this is two folds : Firstly by focussing attention on a section of population vulnerable to a particular cancer an early detection is facilitated Secondly by changing the causative factors responsible to a particular cancer, the incidence of that cancer can be reduced e. g. reduction in lung cancer following campaigns against ciguette smoking and reductioi in breast cancer after campaigns for advocating breast feeding of infants, lowering fat consumption and encouraging self palpation of breast regularly. Indeed early diagnosis of cancer implies diagnosis of cancer in almost a symptomatic stage It involves motiva’ion of the population towards acquisitio : of knowledge, attitude and practice.. Epidemiologies and clinicians should be able to recognise high risk cases exposed to particular neoplasia and knowledge of alarming symptoms should be pro- pogated for wide publicity through common available media and means. Probable cases should have regular clhrcal examination periodically and relevant investigations including radiological, imaging techniques and Bio-Chemical examination should be undertaken as and when desired Suspicious lesions should be investigated by specific tests including smear cytology

  18. PHOBOS, the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephans, George S. F.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2002-06-01

    The PHOBOS detector, one of the two small experiments at RHIC, focuses on measurements of charged particle multiplicity over almost the full phase space and identified particles near mid-rapidity. Results will be presented from the early RHIC gold--gold runs at nucleon--nucleon center of mass energies of 56 and 130 GeV as well as the recently concluded run at the full RHIC energy of 200 GeV.

  19. Mapping the early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-06-15

    From its unique vantage point 900 kilometres above the earth's surface, NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has a privileged view of cosmic background radiation - the remnants of the early (radiation-dominated) Universe which followed the Big Bang some ten Gigayears ago, and possibly some subsequent history. In this way astroparticle physicists get a first peek at the quantum cosmology which moulded the infant Universe.

  20. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongen, J.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  1. Interfacial modulation of urban affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban culture can increasingly be understood as interface culture (Munster) in which urban design, cultural institutions and architecture increasingly operate as affective interfaces distributing and mediating human perception, consumption and social encounters. As noted by Amin and Thrift (2002......, Massey 2006), they also exclude in depth social and human interaction. Through analysis of three examples of urban affective interfaces (The High Line in New York, Superkilen in Copenhagen and Stålsat By, Frederiksværk, the paper examines how affective urban interfaces modulate and mediate urban...... environments as bodily and sensorial experiences. It asks what is mediated through the interface – whether the. It also asks, what is excluded when urban environments become affective interfaces in the global networked city. Whereas urban interface collect and distribute the bodily and sensible in relational...

  2. Categorization in the Affective Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauciuc, Gabriela-Alina

    2011-01-01

    Data collected in Romance and Scandinavian languages (N=474) in a superordinate category name production task indicate that a multiple-strategy approach would be more suitable for accounting of categorization in the affective domain instead of a prototype approach as suggested by previous studies....... This paper will highlight performance aspects which appear to be consistent with such an interpretation, as well as an important layman- expert knowledge asymmetry in affective categorization....

  3. Early intervention as a catalyst for effective early childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of positive attitudes towards children with disabilities in a country like Ghana. ... As Ghana strides towards mainstreaming early childhood education in the quest ... an integrated, inclusive and effective early intervention programme becomes ...

  4. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  5. Early vision and focal attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  6. Early detection of materials degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  7. Prevalence of early childhood caries among 2-6 years old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence increased with age. Privileged children were more affected by caries than the underprivileged. The mandibular posterior teeth were the most affected and mandibular anterior teeth the least affected. Keywords: Early childhood caries, privileged, underprivileged, children. Tanzania Dental Journal Vol. 14 (2) ...

  8. Regulatory Review of Early Site Permit Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received and is reviewing three applications for early site permits (ESPs). The ESP process allows early resolution of site-related issues affecting possible construction and operation of a new nuclear power plant. The nuclear industry views a successful and predictable ESP process as an important step in assessing whether to seek authorization to construct and operate a new generation of nuclear power reactors in the United States. Because consideration of ESP applications is a first-of-a-kind activity, a number of issues have emerged prior to and during the reviews of the first three applications. Issues have included the need for design information at the ESP stage, accident analyses, quality assurance, and seismic analyses. The NRC has been working to resolve identified issues to support a Commission decision on whether to issue an ESP approximately 33-37 months after receipt of each ESP application. (authors)

  9. Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and…

  10. Delinquency as a Mediator of the Relation between Negative Affectivity and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shoal, Gavin D.; Gudonis, Lauren C.; Giancola, Peter R.; Tarter, Ralph E.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined mediators of the longitudinal relation between negative affectivity and the development of problematic drinking behavior in adolescent boys and girls. In the present study, 499 early adolescents completed inventories of negative affectivity, attitudes toward delinquency, personal delinquency, and affiliation with delinquent peers. Positive attitudes toward delinquency emerged as the most consistent mediator and strongly predicted drinking frequency in various situa...

  11. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  12. History of early atomic clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    This review of the history of early atomic clocks includes early atomic beam magnetic resonance, methods of separated and successive oscillatory fields, microwave absorption, optical pumping and atomic masers. (author)

  13. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  14. Why Recruits Separate Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    our sample were reportedly unable to adjust to the military environment due to social or emotional immaturity. This problem was especially prevalent...Table 9. Table 9 REASONS FOR EARLY SEPARATION 1. Mental health. Phobias , suicide threats and attempts, emotional immaturity, and personality and...hliurfl’lutf t’ htrtiuug tht .’ plinittol piioL’m.9 evIn’ thfll I b’ r i’lli. vre’.Ilv ifao~ , ýI ll.tv ill it](- rv ’: 111nil tln1 (i~..󈧏 4 P A W4.11

  15. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  16. Early solar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    1970-01-01

    Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

  17. Early and late motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Lausten, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates parental child rearing methods, structural factors relating to the family during adolescence geographic segregation, individual resource deficits and social background of first time late live births among 32 to 37 years old women and compare to teenagers before becoming...... economic and social gradient for first-time teenage mothers. Teenagers who had experienced family separation or who were formerly in out-of-home care in particular had an increased risk of early childbearing. Results showed that teenage mothers were in every respect in a more disadvantaged position than...

  18. A Developmental Neuroscience Perspective on Affect-Biased Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Santiago; Fu, Xiaoxue; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly E.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest regarding the impact of affect-biased attention on psychopathology. However, most of the research to date lacks a developmental approach. In the present review, we examine the role affect-biased attention plays in shaping socioemotional trajectories within a developmental neuroscience framework. We propose that affect-biased attention, particularly if stable and entrenched, acts as a developmental tether that helps sustain early socioemotional and behavioral profiles over time, placing some individuals on maladaptive developmental trajectories. Although most of the evidence is found in the anxiety literature, we suggest that these relations may operate across multiple domains of interest, including positive affect, externalizing behaviors, drug use, and eating behaviors. We also review the general mechanisms and neural correlates of affect-biased attention, as well as the current evidence for the co-development of attention and affect. Based on the reviewed literature, we propose a model that may help us better understand the nuances of affect-biased attention across development. The model may serve as a strong foundation for ongoing attempts to identify neurocognitive mechanisms and intervene with individuals at risk. Finally, we discuss open issues for future research that may help bridge existing gaps in the literature. PMID:27606972

  19. Unintentionality of affective attention across visual processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andero eUusberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Affective attention involves bottom-up perceptual selection that prioritizes motivationally significant stimuli. To clarify the extent to which this process is automatic, we investigated the dependence of affective attention on the intention to process emotional meaning. Affective attention was manipulated by presenting IAPS images with variable arousal and intentionality by requiring participants to make affective and non-affective evaluations. Polytomous rather than binary decisions were required from the participants in order to elicit relatively deep emotional processing. The temporal dynamics of prioritized processing were assessed using Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, 175-300 ms as well as P3-like (P3, 300 – 500 ms and Slow Wave (SW, 500 – 1500 ms portions of the Late Positive Potential. All analysed components were differentially sensitive to stimulus categories suggesting that they indeed reflect distinct stages of motivational significance encoding. The intention to perceive emotional meaning had no effect on EPN, an additive effect on P3, and an interactive effect on SW. We concluded that affective attention went from completely unintentional during the EPN to partially unintentional during P3 and SW where top-down signals, respectively, complemented and modulated bottom-up differences in stimulus prioritization. The findings were interpreted in light of two-stage models of visual perception by associating the EPN with large-capacity initial relevance detection and the P3 as well as SW with capacity-limited consolidation and elaboration of affective stimuli.

  20. A touch of affect: mediated social touch and affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Gijs

    2012-01-01

    This position paper outlines the first stages in an ongoing PhD project on mediated social touch, and the effects mediated touch can have on someone's affective state. It is argued that touch is a profound communication channel for humans, and that communication through touch can, to some extent,

  1. Early Reading and Concrete Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Cindy L. Howes; Goldstein, David

    1980-01-01

    Indicated that early readers are more likely to be advanced in cognitive development than are nonearly-reading peers. After one year of formal reading instruction, early readers maintained their advantage in reading achievement. Measures of concrete operations were found to predict reading achievement for early and nonearly readers. (Author/DB)

  2. Early Childhood Workforce Index, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitebook, Marcy; McLean, Caitlin; Austin, Lea J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The State of the Early Childhood Workforce (SECW) Initiative is a groundbreaking multi-year project to shine a steady spotlight on the nation's early childhood workforce. The SECW Initiative is designed to challenge entrenched ideas and policies that maintain an inequitable and inadequate status quo for early educators and for the children and…

  3. Test expectancy affects metacomprehension accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D

    2011-06-01

    Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and practice tests. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the accuracy metacognitive monitoring was affected by the nature of the test expected. Students (N= 59) were randomly assigned to one of two test expectancy groups (memory vs. inference). Then after reading texts, judging learning, completed both memory and inference tests. Test performance and monitoring accuracy were superior when students received the kind of test they had been led to expect rather than the unexpected test. Tests influence students' perceptions of what constitutes learning. Our findings suggest that this could affect how students prepare for tests and how they monitoring their own learning. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Early continuous video electroencephalography in neonatal stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Brian H

    2011-01-01

    Perinatal stroke is the second most common cause of neonatal seizures, and can result in long-term neurological impairment. Diagnosis is often delayed until after seizure onset, owing to the subtle nature of associated signs. We report the early electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in a female infant with a perinatal infarction, born at 41 weeks 2 days and weighing 3.42 kg. Before the onset of seizures, the EEG from 3 hours after delivery demonstrated occasional focal sharp waves over the affected region. After electroclinical seizures, focal sharp waves became more frequent, complex, and of higher amplitude, particularly in \\'quiet sleep\\'. In \\'active sleep\\

  5. Early continuous video electroencephalography in neonatal stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Brian H

    2012-01-31

    Perinatal stroke is the second most common cause of neonatal seizures, and can result in long-term neurological impairment. Diagnosis is often delayed until after seizure onset, owing to the subtle nature of associated signs. We report the early electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in a female infant with a perinatal infarction, born at 41 weeks 2 days and weighing 3.42 kg. Before the onset of seizures, the EEG from 3 hours after delivery demonstrated occasional focal sharp waves over the affected region. After electroclinical seizures, focal sharp waves became more frequent, complex, and of higher amplitude, particularly in \\'quiet sleep\\'. In \\'active sleep\\

  6. Do recruitment ties affect wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer-employee dataset from Vietnam we find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job through...... an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, we show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruitment tie used. The findings are robust across location, firm size categories and different worker types....

  7. Industrial applications of affective engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Shiizuka, Hisao; Lee, Kun-Pyo; Otani, Tsuyoshi; Lim, Chee-Peng

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the industrial applications of affective engineering. The contributors cover new analytical methods such as fluctuation, fuzzy logic, fractals, and complex systems. These chapters also include interdisciplinary research that traverses a wide range of fields, including information engineering, human engineering, cognitive science, psychology, and design studies. The text is split into two parts: theory and applications. This work is a collection of the best papers from ISAE2013 (International Symposium of Affective Engineering) held at Kitakyushu, Japan and Japan Kansei Engineering Meeting on March 6-8, 2013.

  8. Affective Computing and Sentiment Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Khurshid

    2011-01-01

    This volume maps the watershed areas between two 'holy grails' of computer science: the identification and interpretation of affect -- including sentiment and mood. The expression of sentiment and mood involves the use of metaphors, especially in emotive situations. Affect computing is rooted in hermeneutics, philosophy, political science and sociology, and is now a key area of research in computer science. The 24/7 news sites and blogs facilitate the expression and shaping of opinion locally and globally. Sentiment analysis, based on text and data mining, is being used in the looking at news

  9. Effect of socioeconomic status disparity on child language and neural outcome: how early is early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Hallam; Betancourt, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    It is not news that poverty adversely affects child outcome. The literature is replete with reports of deleterious effects on developmental outcome, cognitive function, and school performance in children and youth. Causative factors include poor nutrition, exposure to toxins, inadequate parenting, lack of cognitive stimulation, unstable social support, genetics, and toxic environments. Less is known regarding how early in life adverse effects may be detected. This review proposes to elucidate "how early is early" through discussion of seminal articles related to the effect of socioeconomic status on language outcome and a discussion of the emerging literature on effects of socioeconomic status disparity on brain structure in very young children. Given the young ages at which such outcomes are detected, the critical need for early targeted interventions for our youngest is underscored. Further, the fiscal reasonableness of initiating quality interventions supports these initiatives. As early life adversity produces lasting and deleterious effects on developmental outcome and brain structure, increased focus on programs and policies directed to reducing the impact of socioeconomic disparities is essential.

  10. Radiation early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Kloesch, W.; Stadtmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype station for a Radiation Early Warning Network has been designed and set up at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. This unit was developed to measure all relevant parameters necessary to detect and track radioactive contamination at an early stage. The station consists of the following components: Radiation measuring channel for ambient gamma dose rate. Meteorological measurement channels for air temperature and humidity, wind direction and wind speed, and precipitation. Data processing and storage unit. The system is capable of unattended operation and data acquisition even under adverse environmental conditions. Connection to a central processing platform may be achieved via leased line, dial up over public switched telephone network (PSTN), or radio-frequency transmission. The remote station will continue acquiring and storing data for at least a month, even if the communications link is broken. Multiple stations can be combined to form a network, providing detailed information about radiological and meteorological data at each site. Thus increased ambient radiation levels may be discovered, tracked, and forecasted based on calculations using current and local weather data

  11. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the spec......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises...

  12. Come, See and Experience Affective Interactive Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Reidsma, Dennis; van den Broek, Egon; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  13. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B.; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this parad...

  14. Osteoporosis in survivors of early life starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M; Albury, William R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide evidence for the association of early life nutritional deprivation and adult osteoporosis, in order to suggest that a history of such deprivation may be an indicator of increased risk of osteoporosis in later life. The 'fetal programming' of a range of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in adults was first proposed in the 1990s and more recently extended to disorders of bone metabolism. Localised famines during World War II left populations in whom the long-term effects of maternal, fetal and infantile nutritional deprivation were studied. These studies supported the original concept of 'fetal programming' but did not consider bone metabolism. The present paper offers clinical data from another cohort of World War II famine survivors - those from the Holocaust. The data presented here, specifically addressing the issue of osteoporosis, report on 11 Holocaust survivors in Australia (five females, six males) who were exposed to starvation in early life. The cases show, in addition to other metabolic disorders associated with early life starvation, various levels of osteoporosis, often with premature onset. The cohort studied is too small to support firm conclusions, but the evidence suggests that the risk of adult osteoporosis in both males and females is increased by severe starvation early in life - not just in the period from gestation to infancy but also in childhood and young adulthood. It is recommended that epidemiological research on this issue be undertaken, to assist planning for the future health needs of immigrants to Australia coming from famine affected backgrounds. Pending such research, it would be prudent for primary care health workers to be alert to the prima facie association between early life starvation and adult osteoporosis, and to take this factor into account along with other indicators when assessing a patient's risk of osteoporosis in later life.

  15. Perceptual Processing Affects Conceptual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dantzig, Saskia; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, Rene; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2008-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Symbols Theory of cognition (Barsalou, 1999), modality-specific simulations underlie the representation of concepts. A strong prediction of this view is that perceptual processing affects conceptual processing. In this study, participants performed a perceptual detection task and a conceptual property-verification task…

  16. On the Primacy of Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Reasserts view that there can be emotional or affective arousal without prior cognitive appraisal. Criticizes Lazarus's rejection of this view on the grounds that it presents no empirical evidence, is based on an arbitrary definition of emotion, and obliterates all distinctions between cognition, sensation, and perception. (CMG)

  17. Affective Politics and Colonial Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Andersen, Casper

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the spatial entanglement of colonial heritage struggles through a study of the Rhodes Must Fall student movement at the University of Cape Town and the University of Oxford. We explore affective politics and the role heritage can play in the landscape of body politics. We aim...

  18. Reclaiming hope: Affect, temporality, politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taş, B.

    2016-01-01

    The critical task I take up in this research is to reconceptualize hope as an affective orientation in time, which requires remaining open to the risks that the unknowability of the future entails. I consider this opening a political contestation that is necessary to critique the current

  19. Aesthetics, Affect, and Educational Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…

  20. Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and…

  1. Memory colours affect colour appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-01-01

    Memory colour effects show that colour perception is affected by memory and prior knowledge and hence by cognition. None of Firestone & Scholl's (F&S's) potential pitfalls apply to our work on memory colours. We present a Bayesian model of colour appearance to illustrate that an interaction between perception and memory is plausible from the perspective of vision science.

  2. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  3. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fantoni & Gerbino (2014 showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP, they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015 would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions, in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top

  4. Early-Onset Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, Elles; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Kate, Mara Ten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is a rare condition, with an often atypical clinical presentation, and it may therefore be challenging to diagnose. Specialized memory clinics vary in the type of patients seen, diagnostic procedures applied, and the pharmacological treatment given. The aim...... of this study was to investigate quality-of-care indicators in subjects with EOD from 3 tertiary memory clinics in 3 European countries. METHODS: We included 1325 newly diagnosed EOD patients, ages 65 years or younger, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, from the Danish Dementia Registry...... (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen), the Swedish Dementia Registry ("SveDem", Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm), and the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (VU University Medical Center). RESULTS: The frequency of EOD among all dementia patients was significantly lower in Copenhagen (410, 20%) and Stockholm (284, 21...

  5. Examination of the Safety of Pediatric Vaccine Schedules in a Non-Human Primate Model: Assessments of Neurodevelopment, Learning, and Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Britni; Liberato, Noelle; Rulien, Megan; Morrisroe, Kelly; Kenney, Caroline; Yutuc, Vernon; Ferrier, Clayton; Marti, C. Nathan; Mandell, Dorothy; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Sackett, Gene P.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the 1990s, the mercury-based preservative thimerosal was used in most pediatric vaccines. Although there are currently only two thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) recommended for pediatric use, parental perceptions that vaccines pose safety concerns are affecting vaccination rates, particularly in light of the much expanded and more complex schedule in place today. Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the safety of pediatric vaccine schedules in a non-human primate model. Methods We administered vaccines to six groups of infant male rhesus macaques (n = 12–16/group) using a standardized thimerosal dose where appropriate. Study groups included the recommended 1990s Pediatric vaccine schedule, an accelerated 1990s Primate schedule with or without the measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine, the MMR vaccine only, and the expanded 2008 schedule. We administered saline injections to age-matched control animals (n = 16). Infant development was assessed from birth to 12 months of age by examining the acquisition of neonatal reflexes, the development of object concept permanence (OCP), computerized tests of discrimination learning, and infant social behavior. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, multilevel modeling, and survival analyses, where appropriate. Results We observed no group differences in the acquisition of OCP. During discrimination learning, animals receiving TCVs had improved performance on reversal testing, although some of these same animals showed poorer performance in subsequent learning-set testing. Analysis of social and nonsocial behaviors identified few instances of negative behaviors across the entire infancy period. Although some group differences in specific behaviors were reported at 2 months of age, by 12 months all infants, irrespective of vaccination status, had developed the typical repertoire of macaque behaviors. Conclusions This comprehensive 5-year case–control study, which closely examined

  6. Napping Reduces Emotional Attention Bias during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremone, Amanda; Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Fraticelli-Torres, Ada; McDermott, Jennifer M.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Sleep loss alters processing of emotional stimuli in preschool-aged children. However, the mechanism by which sleep modifies emotional processing in early childhood is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a nap, compared to an equivalent time spent awake, reduces biases in attention allocation to affective information. Children (n = 43;…

  7. Freezing tolerance of wheat cultivars at the early growing season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stress is a worldwide abiotic stress in temperate regions that affects plant development and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and other winter crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of freezing stress at the early growing season on survival and also the relationship between resistances ...

  8. Implementation of Attachment Theory into Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvanian, Natalia; Michael, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Because numerous studies show that early child-adult attachment significantly affects a child's socio-emotional and cognitive development, we propose that establishing attachment-based child care can contribute to a healthy and happy childhood. This proposition is part of a new theoretical and experimental field and, thus, research is limited.…

  9. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  10. A Second Chance at Education for Early School Leavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidano, Cain; Tabasso, Domenico; Tseng, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to better understand the factors that affect the chances of re-engaging early school leavers in education, with a particular focus on the importance of time out from school (duration dependence) and school-related factors. Using data from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth and duration…

  11. Balancing the Readiness Equation in Early Childhood Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    As policy-makers continue to implement early childhood education reforms that frame the field as a mechanism that is to ready children for elementary school success, questions arise as to how the multiple variables in the readiness equation, such as the child, family, and program, are affected by these policies. The instrumental case study…

  12. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Emma; Sadler, Jon P.; Telfer, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  13. Hooked on an Affect: Detroit Techno and Dystopian Digital Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pope

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Detroit techno is typically historicized as having grown out of the late 1970s and early 1980s middle-class, consumerist, and aspirational high school social party scene, giving the impression that Detroit techno artists created forward-thinking music as a means to acquire subcultural capital and (reproduce their identities. In this essay, this position is nuanced for a more complex understanding of techno’s relation to the quotidian phenomenological encounter with the dystopian setting of Detroit. Concomitantly, predominant theorizations of affect within the humanities, which emphasize the utopian, hopeful dimensions of affect’s inherent productivity, are supplemented for an understanding of productive energy revolving around affects of dystopia and on a certain hopelessness which scholars, in the years ahead, will increasingly have to negotiate.Keywords: techno, Detroit, dystopia, affect, aesthetic, desire, subculture

  14. Literature review of factors affecting continence after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Pacik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical prostatectomy (RP is the most common cause of stress urinary incontinence (UI in men. Several anatomic structures affect or may affect urinary continence - urethral sphincter, levator ani muscle, puboprostatic ligaments, bladder neck, endopelvic fascia, neurovascular bundle - and understanding of the anatomy of pelvic floor and urethra is crucial for satisfactory functional outcome of the procedure. Surgical techniques implemented to improve continence rates include nerve-sparing procedure, bladder neck preservation/plication, urethral length preservation, musculofascial reconstruction, puboprostatic ligaments preservation or seminal vesicle preservation. Perioperative (preoperative and postoperative pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT aims to shorten the duration of postoperative UI and thus, improve early continence rates postoperatively. In the review, complex information regarding anatomical, intra- and perioperative factors affecting urinary continence after RP is provided, including description of important anatomical structures, possible implications for surgical technique and evaluation of different PFMT strategies in perioperative period.

  15. Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome Presented as Severe Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Pesic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of findings confirm the significance of cerebellum in affecting regulation and early learning. Most consistent findings refer to association of congenital vermis anomalies with deficits in nonmotor functions of cerebellum. In this paper we presented a young woman who was treated since sixteen years of age for polysubstance abuse, affective instability, and self-harming who was later diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Since the neurological and neuropsychological reports pointed to signs of cerebellar dysfunction and dysexecutive syndrome, we performed magnetic resonance imaging of brain which demonstrated partially developed vermis and rhombencephalosynapsis. These findings match the description of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome and show an overlap with clinical manifestations of borderline personality disorder.

  16. Early psychosis symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, H.A.; Hussain, S.; Islam, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia in the pathways to help-seeking. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Psychiatry, the Aga Khan University, Karachi, from 2008 to 2009. Methodology: A total of 93 patients were interviewed in the pathways to care of schizophrenia. The diagnosis was based on ICD-10 criteria. The pathways to care were assessed through a semi-structured questionnaire. The onset, course and symptoms of psychosis were assessed through Interview for Retrospective Assessment at Age at Onset of Psychosis (IROAS). Results: Fifty five (59%) participants were male while 41% (n=38%) were female. Using IROAS, 108 symptoms were identified as concerning behaviour. Alternatively, 60 (55%) concerning behaviours were reported in the open-ended inquiry of the reasons for help seeking as assessed by the pathways to care questionnaire with a statistically significant difference between most symptoms category. The difference was most pronounced (p < 0.001) for depressed mood (66%), worries (65%), tension (63%), withdrawal/mistrust (54%) and loss of self-confidence (53%). Thought withdrawal (22%) and passivity (15%) were elicited only through structured interview (IROAS). When symptoms were categorized together, about 83% of the subjects presented with affective and non-specific prodromal symptoms. Roughly, 10% of the subjects presented with positive symptoms and 3% presented with the negative symptoms of psychosis. The non-specific, affective symptoms appear to predominate the prodromal phase of the illness. Conclusion: Prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia include non-specific, affective symptoms. Attention needs to be paid on identifying the prodromal symptoms and change in social functioning in order to identify those who are at risk of long term psychosis. (author)

  17. Early Labour Market Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Philip

    Work interruptions related to birth are expected to affect mothers’ wages directly through changes in the formation of human capital. This effect is proposed to be exceptionally strong for young adult childbearing women who are about to start their working careers. This study investigates whether...... the long-term socioeconomic problems experienced by women with first childbirth before turning 26 are a reflection of pre-existing disadvantages or are a consequence of the childbearing timing? The purpose is furthermore to observe whether a new combination of the best practices of earlier studies...

  18. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  19. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  20. Global Media, Biopolitics and Affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Stage, Carsten

    Global Media, Biopolitics and Affect shows how mediations of bodily vulnerability have become a strong political force in contemporary societies. In discussions and struggles concerning war involvement, healthcare issues, charity, democracy movements, contested national pasts, and climate change...... culture. Likewise, it presents a range of close empirical case studies in the areas of illness blogging, global protests after the killing of Neda Agda Soltan in Iran, charity communication, green media activism, online war commemoration and digital witnessing related to conflicts in Sarajevo and Ukraine......., performances of bodily vulnerability is increasingly used by citizens to raise awareness, create sympathy, encourage political action, and to circulate information in global media networks. The book thus argues that bodily vulnerability can serve as a catalyst for affectively charging and disseminating...

  1. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality.

  2. The Affections of My Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Yan; Shi; Xiao; jing

    2013-01-01

    <正>When I look back over the 90 years of my life, through all the tumultuous events, highs and lows, joys and sorrows, I see that one bright, shining emotion has always warmed my heart: affection. The pillar supporting me throughout has been family love: the care of my parents, the love of my wife and children, and the close feelings between myself and my

  3. Gender affects body language reading

    OpenAIRE

    Arseny A Sokolov; Arseny A Sokolov; Samuel eKrüger; Paul eEnck; Ingeborg eKrägeloh-Mann; Marina A Pavlova; Marina A Pavlova

    2011-01-01

    Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language r...

  4. Gender Affects Body Language Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov, Arseny A.; Krüger, Samuel; Enck, Paul; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language r...

  5. Does Birth Spacing Affect Personality?

    OpenAIRE

    Golsteyn, Bart H.H.; Magnée, Cécile A. J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the causal effect of birth spacing (i.e., the age difference between siblings) on personality traits. We use longitudinal data from a large British cohort which has been followed from birth until age 42. Following earlier studies, we employ miscarriages between the first and second child as an instrument for birth spacing. The results show that a larger age gap between siblings negatively affects personality traits of the youngest child in two-child households. This result ...

  6. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidy, M. [U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    While no final legislative schedule has been set for the new Congress, two issues with strong environmental ramifications which are likely to affect the coal industry seem to top the list of closely watched debates in Washington -- the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed new ozone and particulate matter standards and utility restructuring. The paper discusses the background of the proposed standards, public comment, the Congressional review of regulations, other legislative options, and utility restructuring.

  7. Affective color palettes in visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, Abhisekh

    2017-01-01

    The communication of affect, a feeling or emotion, has a central role in creating engaging visual experiences. Prior work on the psychology of color has focused on its effect on emotions, color preferences and reactions to color. Studies have attempted to solve problems related to improving aesthetics and emotions of images by improving color themes and templates. However, we have little understanding of how designers manipulate color properties for effective visual communication in informati...

  8. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...

  9. Affective cycling in thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapp, A.

    1988-01-01

    Depression in an elderly man with primary recurrent unipolar depression responded to radioactive iodine treatment of a thyrotoxic nodule, without the addition of psychotropic medications. Two months later, manic symptoms developed concomitant with the termination of the hyperthyroid state secondary to the radioactive iodine treatment. Clinical implications of these findings in relation to the possible mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on affective cycling are discussed

  10. Political Dynamics Affected by Turncoats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Rosa; Gorgone, Matteo; Oliveri, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    An operatorial theoretical model based on raising and lowering fermionic operators for the description of the dynamics of a political system consisting of macro-groups affected by turncoat-like behaviors is presented. The analysis of the party system dynamics is carried on by combining the action of a suitable quadratic Hamiltonian operator with specific rules (depending on the variations of the mean values of the observables) able to adjust periodically the conservative model to the political environment.

  11. Anchoring effects on early autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Daniel L; Bishara, Anthony J; Mugayar-Baldocchi, Marino A

    2017-10-01

    Studies of childhood memory typically show that our earliest memories come from between three and four years of age. This finding is not universal, however. The age estimate varies across cultures and is affected by social influences. Research from the judgments and decision-making literature suggests that these estimates might also involve a judgment under uncertainty. Therefore, they might be susceptible to less social influences such as heuristics and biases. To investigate this possibility, we conducted two experiments that used anchoring paradigms to influence participants' estimates of their age during early autobiographical memories. In Experiment 1, participants answered either a high-anchor or a low-anchor question, and were warned that the anchor was uninformative; they went on to estimate their age during their earliest autobiographical memory. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 and extended the design to examine additional early autobiographical memories. In both experiments, participants in the low-anchor condition gave earlier age estimates than those in the high-anchor condition. These results provide new insights into the methods used to investigate autobiographical memory. Moreover, they show that reports of early autobiographical memories can be influenced by a relatively light touch - a change to a single digit in a single question.

  12. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  13. Early endocrine disruptors exposure acts on 3T3-L1 differentiation and endocrine activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Boudalia

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This study confirms that EDs singularly or in mixtures, introduced during early stages of life, could affect the differentiation and the endocrine activity of adipocytes, and can act as potential factors for obesity.

  14. Early life adversity: Lasting consequences for emotional learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm J. Krugers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions – mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life –at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.

  15. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M

    2013-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  16. Determination of environmental factors affecting dengue incidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Prevention movement is considered ineffective; therefore, a more efficient early warning system is required. It is required strongly correlated variables to as predictor in early warning system. This study aims to identify the environmental ...

  17. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  18. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; David Mintner; Wendy Moore; Jimmy O. Ong; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kalapi D. Sheth; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2001-05-17

    The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The accomplishments of Phase I are discussed in detail in this Phase I Concept Report. A RD and T Plan and a preliminary project financing plan have been developed and are submitted separately from this report.

  19. The Early Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    Stuart Freedman obtained his PhD at Berkley with an experimental thesis providing very strong evidence against theories requiring local hidden variables. He then came to Princeton in 1972 and began collaboration on a search for second-class currents. These measurements are quite difficult as the effects are the order of 1%, demonstrating Freedman's drive to take on hard but important experiments. After carrying out some relatively standard nuclear physics measurements he moved on to Stanford in 1976. There, Freedman was involved in identifying measurements sensitive to the existence of light axions. He also carried out searches for various exotica that might be produced from cosmic rays or the SLAC beam stop. During this time he was collaborating with us at Argonne investigating nuclear parity violation and time-like axial beta decay. In 1982 Freedman came to Argonne where he worked on fundamental issues in neutron beta decay. He also initiated what was to become one of his trademarks, demonstrating that surprising peaks in the e^+-e^- spectrum observed in very heavy ion collisions were spurious. He further launched his first neutrino oscillation experiment. This period of early research was marked by a remarkable diversity of subject matter and approach.

  20. Early diagnosis of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Babic-Erceg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 25-years old man from Zagreb, Croatia, was admitted to the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases four days after the onset of symptoms such as fever, intense pain in the calves and anuria. The patient owned a rabbit and, before the onset of the disease, repaired some rubber pipes damaged by rodents. At admission, he had a severe clinical picture with fever, hypotension, jaundice, immobility, and pain in leg muscles. Treatment with ceftriaxone was initiated in combination with volume restitution. Renal failure soon ensued. Consequently continuous venovenous hemodiaphiltration therapy was performed. Due to acute respiratory distress syndrome, the patient was mechanically ventilated. The patient’s condition gradually improved and he recovered fully from multi-organ failure. Diagnosis was confirmed by a microscopic agglutination test (MAT covering 15 leptospira serovars and real-time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR. The first serum sample taken on day 6 tested negative for leptospira, while PCR showed positive results for leptospiral DNA. The second serum sample taken on day 13 tested positive for serovar Canicola serogroup Canicola, serovar Patoc, serovar Grippotyphosa serogroup Grippotyphosa and serovar Tarassovi serogroup Tarassovi (titre 4000, 4000, 1000 and 2000, respectively, while PCR was negative. This report highlights the benefits of combining MAT and PCR methods in early diagnosis of leptospirosis.

  1. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William K. Davis

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation

  2. Genetic diversity affects productivity in early but not late stages of stand development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana; Skálová, Hana; Hadincová, Věroslava

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2009), s. 411-419 ISSN 1439-1791 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050820; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600050623; GA ČR GA206/06/0098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : clonal grass * complementarity * diversity-productivity relationships Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.422, year: 2009

  3. Factors Affecting Learning in Technology in the Early Years at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Brent

    2007-01-01

    The nature of progression in technology is still a matter of debate in technology education. While there is a growing research-based literature exploring the elements of technological literacy that might be appropriate measures of progression, little has been written about the factors that may influence both group and individual development of…

  4. Changes in muscle force-length properties affect the early rise of force in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blazevich, Anthony J; Cannavan, Dale; Horne, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Changes in contractile rate of force development (RFD), measured within a short time interval from contraction initiation, were measured after a period of strength training that led to increases in muscle fascicle length but no measurable change in neuromuscular activity. The relationship between...

  5. Early developmental gene enhancers affect subcortical volumes in the adult human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, M.; Guadalupe, T.M.; Franke, B.; Hibar, D.P.; Renteria, M.E.; Stein, J.L.; Thompson, P.M.; Francks, C.; Vernes, S.C; Fisher, S.E.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype-phenotype

  6. Early diagenetic processes affecting nutrients in the pore waters of Central Indian Ocean cores

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    and unoxidized organic carbon are observed in the Arabian Sea core, while nitrification with intermediate low nitrate and high organic carbon are found in the mottled zones of the pelagic cores. Mobilization of iron-host oxyhydroxides and peaked profiles...

  7. Parental education and family income affect birthweight, early longitudinal growth and body mass index development differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramsved, Rebecka; Regber, Susann; Novak, Daniel; Mehlig, Kirsten; Lissner, Lauren; Mårild, Staffan

    2018-01-07

    This study investigated the effects of two parental socio-economic characteristics, education and income, on growth and risk of obesity in children from birth to 8 years of age. Longitudinal growth data and national register-based information on socio-economic characteristics were available for 3,030 Swedish children. The development of body mass index (BMI) and height was compared in groups dichotomised by parental education and income. Low parental education was associated with a higher BMI from 4 years of age, independent of income, immigrant background, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy. Low family income was associated with a lower birthweight, but did not independently predict BMI development. At 8 years of age, children from less educated families had a three times higher risk of obesity, independent of parental income. Children whose parents had fewer years of education but high income had significantly higher height than all other children. Parental education protected against childhood obesity, even after adjusting for income and other important parental characteristics. Income-related differences in height, despite similar BMIs, raise questions about body composition and metabolic risk profiles. The dominant role of education underscores the value of health literacy initiatives for the parents of young children. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Early feeding affects resistance against cold exposure in young broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Molenaar, R.; Star, van der I.; Meijerhof, R.

    2010-01-01

    In field conditions, a fasting period of 24 to 72 h after hatch is common, which is associated with delayed gastrointestinal development and yolk utilization and retarded subsequent performance. Hardly any information is available about the influence of diet composition in the first days on later

  9. Combined exposure to ambient UVB radiation and nitrite negatively affects survival of amphibian early life stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, Guadalupe; Marco, Adolfo; Blaustein, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    Many aquatic species are sensitive to ambient levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) and chemical fertilizers. However, recent studies indicate that the interaction among multiple stressors acting simultaneously could be contributing to the population declines of some animal species. Therefore, we tested the potential synergistic effects between ambient levels of UVB and a contaminant, sodium nitrite in the larvae of two amphibian species, the common European toad Bufo bufo and the Iberian green frog Rana perezi. We studied R. perezi from both mountain and coastal populations to examine if populations of the same species varied in their response to stressors in different habitats. Both species were sensitive to the two stressors acting alone, but the interaction between the two stressors caused a multiplicative impact on tadpole survival. For B. bufo, the combination of UVB and nitrite was up to seven times more lethal than mortality for each stressor alone. In a coastal wetland, the combination of UVB and nitrite was four times more toxic for R. perezi than the sum of the effect on mortality for each stressor alone. One mg/L of nitrite killed half the population of R. perezi at Gredos Mountains at day 10 in the absence of UVB. In the presence of UVB, 50% of the tadpoles from the same experiment died at day 7. Similar toxic response were found for R. perezi in two highly contrasted environments suggesting this synergistic interaction can be a widespread phenomenon. The interaction of excess chemical fertilizers and manure with ambient UVB radiation could be contributing to the global decline of some amphibian species. We suggest that potential exposure to UVB radiation be accounted for when assessing water quality criteria regarding nitrite pollution

  10. Factors affecting acorn production and germination and early growth of seedlings and seedling sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    David F. Olson; Stephen G. Boyce

    1971-01-01

    Acorn production is extremely variable and unpredictable. Flowering is copious, but many climatic factors influence acorn development from initiation of flowers to acorn maturity. Acorns are consumed by birds, animals, insects, and microorganisms. The establishment of seedlings is more closely related to favorable site factors than to size of crops. A majority of oaks...

  11. Early social deprivation negatively affects social skill acquisition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Mulenga, Innocent Chitalu; Chidester, Diana Lisensky

    2014-03-01

    In a highly social species like chimpanzees, the process by which individuals become attuned to their social environment may be of vital importance to their chances of survival. Typically, this socialization process, defined by all acquisition experiences and fine-tuning efforts of social interaction patterns during ontogeny, occurs in large part through parental investment. In this study, we investigated whether maternal presence enhances the socialization process in chimpanzees by comparing the social interactions of orphaned and mother-reared individuals at the Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage Trust in Zambia. As response variables, we selected social interactions during which an elaborate level of fine-tuning is assumed to be necessary for sustaining the interaction and preventing escalation: social play. Comparing orphaned (n = 8) to sex- and age-matched mother-reared juvenile chimpanzees (n = 9), we hypothesized that the orphaned juveniles would play less frequently than the mother-reared and would be less equipped for fine-tuning social play (which we assayed by rates of aggression) because of the lack of a safe and facilitating social environment provided by the mother. First, contrary to our hypothesis, results showed that the orphaned juveniles engaged in social play more frequently than the mother-reared juveniles, although for significantly shorter amounts of time. Second, in support of our hypothesis, results showed that social play of the orphaned juveniles more often resulted in aggression than social play of the mother-reared juveniles. In conjunction, these results may indicate that, just like in humans, chimpanzee mothers provide their offspring with adequate social skills that might be of pivotal importance for future challenges like successful group-living and securing competitive fitness advantages.

  12. Bisphenol A affects placental layers morphology and angiogenesis during early pregnancy phase in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Sabrina; Tassinari, Roberta; Maranghi, Francesca; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widespread endocrine disrupter mainly used in food contact plastics. Much evidence supports the adverse effects of BPA, particularly on susceptible groups such as pregnant women. The present study considered placental development - relevant for pregnancy outcomes and fetal nutrition/programming - as a potential target of BPA. Pregnant CD-1 mice were administered per os with vehicle, 0.5 (BPA05) or 50 mg kg(-1) (BPA50) body weight day(-1) of BPA, from gestational day (GD) 1 to GD11. At GD12, BPA50 induced significant degeneration and necrosis of giant cells, increased vacuolization in the junctional zone in the absence of glycogen accumulation and reduction of the spongiotrophoblast layer. In addition, BPA05 induced glycogen depletion as well as significant nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in trophoblasts of labyrinthine and spongiotrophoblast layers, supporting the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that BPA05 promoted and BPA50 inhibited blood vessel development and branching; morphologically, maternal vessels were narrower in BPA05 placentas, whereas embryonic and maternal vessels were irregularly dilated in the labyrinth of BPA50 placentas. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction evidenced an estrogen receptor β induction by BPA50, which did not correspond to downstream genes activation; indeed, the transcription factor binding sites analysis supported the AhR/Arnt complex as regulator of BPA50-modulated genes. Conversely, Creb appeared as the main transcription factor regulating BPA05-modulated genes. Embryonic structures (head, forelimb) showed divergent perturbations upon BPA05 or BPA50 exposure, potentially related to unbalanced embryonic nutrition and/or to modulation of genes involved in embryo development. Our findings support placenta as an important target of BPA, even at environmentally relevant dose levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Yield and grain quality of spring barley as affected by biomass formation at early growth stages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, J.; Klem, Karel; Svobodová, I.; Míša, P.; Neudert, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 5 (2014), s. 221-227 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI111A133 Keywords : Hordeum vulgare L * above-ground biomass * tillering * grain yield formation * grain protein content Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2014

  14. Why and how the early-life environment affects development of coping behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan

    Understanding the ways in which individuals cope with threats, respond to challenges, make use of opportunities and mediate the harmful effects of their surroundings is important for predicting their ability to function in a rapidly changing world. Perhaps one of the most essential drivers of coping

  15. Combined exposure to ambient UVB radiation and nitrite negatively affects survival of amphibian early life stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, Guadalupe [Donana Biological Station, CSIC, Spanish Council for Scientific Research. P.O. Box 1056, Sevilla 41013 (Spain); Marco, Adolfo [Donana Biological Station, CSIC, Spanish Council for Scientific Research. P.O. Box 1056, Sevilla 41013 (Spain)], E-mail: amarco@ebd.csic.es; Blaustein, Andrew R. [Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 97331 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Many aquatic species are sensitive to ambient levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) and chemical fertilizers. However, recent studies indicate that the interaction among multiple stressors acting simultaneously could be contributing to the population declines of some animal species. Therefore, we tested the potential synergistic effects between ambient levels of UVB and a contaminant, sodium nitrite in the larvae of two amphibian species, the common European toad Bufo bufo and the Iberian green frog Rana perezi. We studied R. perezi from both mountain and coastal populations to examine if populations of the same species varied in their response to stressors in different habitats. Both species were sensitive to the two stressors acting alone, but the interaction between the two stressors caused a multiplicative impact on tadpole survival. For B. bufo, the combination of UVB and nitrite was up to seven times more lethal than mortality for each stressor alone. In a coastal wetland, the combination of UVB and nitrite was four times more toxic for R. perezi than the sum of the effect on mortality for each stressor alone. One mg/L of nitrite killed half the population of R. perezi at Gredos Mountains at day 10 in the absence of UVB. In the presence of UVB, 50% of the tadpoles from the same experiment died at day 7. Similar toxic response were found for R. perezi in two highly contrasted environments suggesting this synergistic interaction can be a widespread phenomenon. The interaction of excess chemical fertilizers and manure with ambient UVB radiation could be contributing to the global decline of some amphibian species. We suggest that potential exposure to UVB radiation be accounted for when assessing water quality criteria regarding nitrite pollution.

  16. Is credit for early action credible early action?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, C.; Michaelowa, A.; Dutschke, M.

    1999-12-01

    Credit for early action as a tool for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is compared with various market instruments as a means of narrowing the gap between projected emissions and those of the Kyoto Protocol. Market instruments work by creating a market price for emissions and use the market to encourage reductions at the lowest price, which is done by placing limits on greenhouse gas emissions and allowing the market to decide where reductions occur, or by imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge. While they can be applied within a sector, they are usually used to encourage reductions throughout the economy or across large sectors. Credit for early action also creates an incentive for emissions reductions throughout the economy or at least across many sectors. Credit for early action tools do not work by either imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge or placing limits on emissions, rather they promise that entities that take action against greenhouse gases prior to the imposition of a carbon tax or emissions limits will receive a credit against future taxes or limits. An overview is provided of the Kyoto Protocol and the rationale for taking early action, and a review is included of the theory and specific proposals for market instruments and credit for early action. A comparative analysis is provided of these approaches by examining their relative efficiency, environmental effectiveness, and impacts on the redistribution of wealth. Credit for early action is viewed as problematic on a number of counts and is seen as an interim strategy for imposition while political support for market instruments develop. The environmental effectiveness of credit for early action is very difficult to predict, and credit for early action programs do not yield the lowest cost emissions reductions. Credit for early action programs will not achieve compliance with the Kyoto Protocol at the lowest cost, and credits for early action will increase the compliance costs for those who

  17. Work-related factors and early retirement intention: a study of the Danish eldercare sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbæk, Camilla Sandal; Nexo, Mette A.; Borg, Vilhelm

    2012-01-01

    at the normal retirement age (65 years or older). High physical strain [hypothesis (iii)] and low and normal affective organizational commitment [hypothesis (ii)] were associated with very early retirement intention. None of the other work-related factors associated with early retirement intention. CONCLUSIONS......: Future interventions should focus on reducing physical strain and increase or maintain affective organizational commitment among employees in the eldercare sector to postpone retirement....

  18. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Eyes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the eyes? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect the eyes? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects the ...

  19. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Español Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Can the Weather Affect My ... Asthma? Print Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? Yes. Weather conditions can bring on asthma symptoms. ...

  20. affective variables of language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文敬

    2011-01-01

    why people enjoy different degrees of success in second language learning,given similar opportunities.in the presence of overly negative emotions such as anxiety,fear,stress,anger or depression,our optimal learning potential maybe compromised.the affective domain refers to the emotional domain that has to do with the emotional behavior of human beings.it includes such factors as self-confidence,extroversion,anxiety,attitudes and motivation.three major factors are introduced here:self-confidence,anxiety and motivation.