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Sample records for thicken oil slicks

  1. Research on using oil herding surfactants to thicken oil slicks in pack ice for in situ burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buist, I.; Morrison, J.

    2005-01-01

    The severe limitations of conventional containment and recovery systems for oil spills in pack ice have been demonstrated during skimmer tests conducted in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. In-situ burning may be one of the few viable alternatives to quickly remove oil spilled in pack ice, but the slicks are often too thin, preventing effective ignition or burning. This study examined ways to thicken the slicks to the 2- to 5-mm range so that effective burns could be carried out. Specific chemical surface-active agents known as oil herders or oil collecting agents can be used to clear and contain oil slicks on water surfaces. Since these agents can spread quickly on water, only a small quantity is needed to clear thin films of oil from large areas of water. Applying a chemical herder around the periphery of spilled oil can contract the oil into a thicker slick. Two chemical products were developed and tested in the 1970s and 1980s: Shell Herder and Exxon OC-5 Oil Collector. However, they are no longer used because they were effective only in very calm conditions. Corexit EC9580 which exhibits similar slick herding abilities and which has a spreading pressure of 39.5 mN/m is still commercially available. This study tested formulations of herding agents for use in pack ice. Concerns regarding the potential toxicity risk of using these agents in pack ice were also addressed. The agents should not harm the environment because they have low toxicity and only very small quantities are used. Two series of tests conducted to assess the potential for herding agents to help ignite and effectively burn thin oil slicks in loose pack ice conditions. The agents proved to be effective on cold water and on thick slicks. The composition of the oil played an important role in determining potential efficiency. It was concluded that applying herders to thin oil slicks in pack ice shows considerable promise for thickening them for in-situ burning. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 17 figs

  2. Field research on using oil herding surfactants to thicken oil slicks in pack ice for in-situ burning. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buist, I.; Potter, S.; Nedwed, T.; Mullin, J.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies have been performed in recent years to determine the capability of herding agents to thicken oil slicks among loose pack ice for the purpose of in situ burning. In loose pack ice conditions where booms are not practical, effective in situ burns may be possible if thin slicks could be thickened to the 2 to 5 mm range. However, specific chemical surface-active agents known as herders are need to clear and contain oil slicks on an open water surface. The agents spread quickly over a water surface into a monomolecular layer due to their high spreading coefficients. The best agents have spreading pressures in the mid 40 mN/m range. As such, only small quantities of these surfactants are needed to clear thin films of oil from large areas of water surface, and to contract it into thicker slicks. This paper summarized the previous studies that evaluated shoreline-cleaning agents with oil herding properties. However, the main focus of this paper was on the final phase of testing conducted at the Prudhoe Bay Fire Training Grounds in November 2006 in which a series of outdoor burns were conducted at the scale of 30 m 2 with herders and crude oil in a test pool containing pieces of ice. The tests revealed that when a herder was used on crude oil slicks that were otherwise unignitable, the slicks could be ignited and burned in situ in brash and slush ice conditions at temperatures as low as -17 degrees C. Both the removal rate and efficiencies for the herded slicks were comparable to the theoretical maximum achievable for mechanically contained slicks on open water. 13 refs., 1 tab., 18 figs

  3. Oil slick skimmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karterman, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    A craft for removing an oil slick from a body of water is described comprising: a pair of spacedly arranged paralleled positioned elongated floats, a platform mounted on and extending between said floats, a weir mounted on said platform between said floats and being movable independently and substantially vertical of the longitudinal axis of said floats to a position below the surface of said body of water, a submersible oil receiving and storage means detachedly mounted to said platform between said floats and having an inlet port at one level and comprising a substantially enclosed oil accumulator having an outlet port at a lower level, said weir comprising a sluice gate constructed and arranged to admit into said inlet port of said oil receiving and storage means under the effects of gravity a portion of an oil stick comprising a water and oil mixture skimmed from said body of water, and a first pump connected to said outlet port of said accumulator to control the movement of water from the inside lower level of said accumulator out of said accumulator to thereby control the amount of the oil slick flowing into said accumulator

  4. Oil Slick Characterization with UAVSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Holt, B.

    2017-12-01

    Although radar has long been used for mapping the spatial extent of oil slicks, its capability for characterizing oil, e.g., to discriminate thicker from thinner oil or mineral slicks from look-alikes, is far less well defined. In fact, the capability of SAR to quantify the oil-to-water ratio of emulsions within slicks on the open water was first demonstrated using UAVSAR data acquired over the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico [Minchew et al., 2012]. UAVSAR's capability was made possible by the airborne instrument's high signal-to-noise ratio, which enabled it to measure low backscatter signals from oil-smoothed water that are often near or below the noise floor of satellite SAR instruments. Since 2010, UAVSAR has been used to study oil slicks through experiments in Norway (2015) and the Gulf of Mexico. In November 2016, UAVSAR took part in a NOAA-led experiment to study remote sensing of oil slicks, which took place at the site of a persistent seep in the Gulf of Mexico. The goal was to use remote sensing to identify zones of thicker oil, which is the type of information that could direct emergency responders for more effective clean-up. The objectives of the experiment were to validate and compare different remote sensing methods' capabilities for measuring the thickness of oil within a slick on open water under environmental conditions typical of oil spills. In this presentation, we show the results from UAVSAR for determining oil thickness within a slick, and relate them to the standard method of oil slick classification, the Bonn Agreement oil appearance code used by trained observers in the field. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts with the California Dept. of Water Resources and with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  5. Oil concentrations below a demulsifier treated slick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunel, T.; Lewis, A.

    1993-01-01

    During field trials in the North Sea in 1992, three 20-tonne slicks of a relatively weak 30% water-in-oil emulsion were released. Two of the slicks were treated with demulsifier from spray aircraft and one of the treated slicks was sprayed with dispersant seven hours later. The experiment used flow-through fluorometry to determine oil concentrations below the control and demulsifier-treated slick. Remote sensing imagery was used to determine the area of the surface slicks. Emulsion formation was slowed down in the two demulsifier-treated slicks relative to the control slick. The demulsifier-treated slicks resulted in maximum oil concentrations in water some five times higher than the control slick and spread over a volume 10-20 times as large. The control slick was therefore more persistent on the sea surface than either of the treated slicks. 5 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Effectiveness of dispersants on thick oil slicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.; Belore, R.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between dispersant effectiveness and oil slick thickness, and thereby determine the optimum time for applying dispersant onto spilled oil at sea. Tests were completed at a lab-scale level by varying the three parameters of oil type, dispersant application, and oil thickness. The tests were intended to be comparative only. The primary oils used were Alberta sweet mix blend and Hibernia B-27 crude. The dispersant, Corexit 9527, was applied either premixed with the oil, dropwise in one application, or dropwise in multiple applications to simulate a multi-hit aircraft operation. The apparatus used in the experiment was an oscillating hoop tank, with oil-containing rings used to obtain and maintain uniform slick thickness. The results indicate that the effectiveness potential of a chemical dispersant does not decrease as slick thickness increases. In fact, results of the tests involving Hibernia oil suggest that oils that tend to herd easily would be treated more effectively if dispersant were applied when the oil was relatively thick (1 mm or greater) to avoid herding problems. The oil slicks premixed with dispersant did not disperse well in the thick oil tests, not because of dispersant-oil interaction problems but because of reduced mixing energy. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Oil Slick Characterization Using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Breivik, O.; Brekke, C.; Skrunes, S.; Holt, B.

    2015-12-01

    Oil spills are a hazard worldwide with potential of causing high impact disasters, and require an active oil spill response capability to protect personnel, the ecosystem, and the energy supply. As the amount of oil in traditionally accessible reserves decline, there will be increasing oil extraction from the Arctic and deep-water wells, both new sources with high risk and high cost for monitoring and response. Although radar has long been used for mapping the spatial extent of oil slicks, it is only since the Deepwater Horizon spill that synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been shown capable of characterizing oil properties within a slick, and therefore useful for directing response to the recoverable thicker slicks or emulsions. Here we discuss a 2015 Norwegian oil-on-water spill experiment in which emulsions of known quantity and water-to-oil ratio along with a look-alike slick of plant oil were released in the North Sea and imaged with polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) by NASA's UAVSAR instrument for several hours following release. During the experiment, extensive in situ measurements were made from ship or aircraft with meteorological instruments, released drift buoys, and optical/IR imagers. The experiment was designed to provide validation data for development of a physical model relating polarization-dependent electromagnetic scattering to the dielectric properties of oil mixed with ocean water, which is the basis for oil characterization with SAR. Data were acquired with X-, C-, and L-band satellite-based SARs to enable multi-frequency comparison of characterization capabilities. In addition, the data are used to develop methods to differentiate mineral slicks from biogenic look-alikes, and to better understand slick weathering and dispersion. The results will provide a basis for modeling oil-in-ice spills, currently a high priority for nations involved in Arctic oil exploration. Here we discuss the Norwegian experiment, the validation data, and the results of

  8. Remote sensing of oil slicks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    the drawback of expensive conventional surveying methods. An airborne remote sensing system used for monitoring and surveillance of oil comprises different sensors such as side-looking airborne radar, synthetic aperture radar, infrared/ultraviolet line scanner...

  9. Applicability of spectral indices on thickness identification of oil slick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanfei; Shen, Yonglin; Chen, Qihao; Liu, Xiuguo

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing technology has played a vital role in the identification and monitoring of oil spill events, and amount of spectral indices have been developed. In this paper, the applicability of six frequently-used indices is analyzed, and a combination of spectral indices in aids of support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is used to identify the oil slicks and corresponding thickness. The six spectral indices are spectral rotation (SR), spectral absorption depth (HI), band ratio of blue and green (BG), band ratio of BG and shortwave infrared index (BGN), 555nm and 645nm normalized by the blue band index (NB) and spectral slope (ND). The experimental study is conducted in the Gulf of Mexico oil spill zone, with Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) hyperspectral imagery captured in May 17, 2010. The results show that SR index is the best in all six indices, which can effectively distinguish the thickness of the oil slick and identify it from seawater; HI index and ND index can obviously distinguish oil slick thickness; BG, BGN and NB are more suitable to identify oil slick from seawater. With the comparison among different kernel functions of SVM, the classify accuracy show that the polynomial and RBF kernel functions have the best effect on the separation of oil slick thickness and the relatively pure seawater. The applicability of spectral indices of oil slick and the method of oil film thickness identification will in aids of oil/gas exploration and oil spill monitoring.

  10. Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisbury, J.W.; D'Aria, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    It is important to develop a remote sensing technique for reliable detection of oil slicks for reasons of both oil exploration and environmental protection. Yet, unambiguous detection has proven an elusive goal. This article presents new thermal infrared spectra of oil slicks made from five different crude oil samples with a wide range of API gravities and compositions. After a brief outgassing phase, all oil slick spectra are quite similar and little affected by thickness, extended exposure to air or sunlight, and even by emulsification with seawater (mousse formation). Thus, oil slicks provide a remarkably unvarying spectral signature as remote sensing targets in the thermal infrared compared to other regions of the spectrum. This spectral signature in the 8-14 μm atmospheric window is flat, with an average reflectance of 4%. Seawater, on the other hand, has a spectrum that varies in reflectance with wavelength in the 8-14 μm window from 0.90 to 3.65%. In addition, the authors show that sea foam displays a reflectance spectrum quite similar to that of seawater in the 8-14 μm region, because the very high absorption coefficient of water in this wavelength region prevents volume scattering in foam bubbles. This results in a relatively uniform spectral background, against which oil slicks can be detected, based on their different spectral signature. Thus, thermal infrared multispectral remote sensing appears to offer a simple and reliable technique for aircraft or satellite detection of oil slicks

  11. Enrichment of Fusobacteria in Sea Surface Oil Slicks from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Tony; Berry, David; Teske, Andreas; Aitken, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill led to rapid microbial community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico, including the formation of unprecedented quantities of marine oil snow (MOS) and of a massive subsurface oil plume. The major taxa that bloomed in sea surface oil slicks during the spill included Cycloclasticus, and to a lesser extent Halomonas, Alteromonas, and Pseudoalteromonas?organisms that grow and degrade oil hydrocarbons aerobically. Here, we show that sea surface oil slicks at DWH cont...

  12. Natural and unnatural oil slicks in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia‐Pineda, O.; Beet, A.; Daneshgar Asl, S.; Feng, L.; Graettinger, G.; French‐McCay, D.; Holmes, J.; Hu, C.; Huffer, F.; Leifer, I.; Muller‐Karger, F.; Solow, A.; Silva, M.; Swayze, G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract When wind speeds are 2–10 m s−1, reflective contrasts in the ocean surface make oil slicks visible to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) under all sky conditions. Neural network analysis of satellite SAR images quantified the magnitude and distribution of surface oil in the Gulf of Mexico from persistent, natural seeps and from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) discharge. This analysis identified 914 natural oil seep zones across the entire Gulf of Mexico in pre‐2010 data. Their ∼0.1 µm slicks covered an aggregated average of 775 km2. Assuming an average volume of 77.5 m3 over an 8–24 h lifespan per oil slick, the floating oil indicates a surface flux of 2.5–9.4 × 104 m3 yr−1. Oil from natural slicks was regionally concentrated: 68%, 25%, 7%, and Gulf, respectively. This reflects differences in basin history and hydrocarbon generation. SAR images from 2010 showed that the 87 day DWH discharge produced a surface‐oil footprint fundamentally different from background seepage, with an average ocean area of 11,200 km2 (SD 5028) and a volume of 22,600 m3 (SD 5411). Peak magnitudes of oil were detected during equivalent, ∼14 day intervals around 23 May and 18 June, when wind speeds remained <5 m s−1. Over this interval, aggregated volume of floating oil decreased by 21%; area covered increased by 49% (p < 0.1), potentially altering its ecological impact. The most likely causes were increased applications of dispersant and surface burning operations. PMID:27774370

  13. Discrimination of Oil Slicks and Lookalikes in Polarimetric SAR Images Using CNN

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hao; Wu, Danni; An, Jubai

    2017-01-01

    Oil slicks and lookalikes (e.g., plant oil and oil emulsion) all appear as dark areas in polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and are highly heterogeneous, so it is very difficult to use a single feature that can allow classification of dark objects in polarimetric SAR images as oil slicks or lookalikes. We established multi-feature fusion to support the discrimination of oil slicks and lookalikes. In the paper, simple discrimination analysis is used to rationalize a preferred f...

  14. Barents Sea field test of herder to thicken oil for in-situ burning in drift ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buist, I.; Potter, S.; Sorstrom, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Thick oil slicks are the key to effective in situ burning. Pack ice can enable in situ burning by keeping slicks thick. Oil spills in drift ice conditions can rapidly spread and become too thin to ignite. The application of chemical surface-active agents known as oil herders are commonly used in open waters to clean and contain oil slicks. Herders result in the formation of a monolayer of surfactants on the water surface and reduce the surface tension on the surrounding water considerably. When the surfactant monolayer reaches the edge of a thin oil slick, it changes the balance of interfacial forces acting on the slick edge and allows the interfacial tensions to contract the oil into thicker layers. This study examined the use of chemical herding agents to thicken oil spills in broken ice to allow them to be ignited and burned in situ. Two meso-scale field burn tests were conducted in May 2008 with crude oil slicks of about 0.1 and 0.7 m 3 in open drift ice off Svalbard in the Barents Sea. Prior to the field experiments, 2 series of small laboratory tests were conducted using Heidrun and Statfjord crudes to determine the ability of the U.S. Navy herding agent to contract slicks of the oil. In the first field experiment involving 102 litres of fresh Heidrun, the slick was unexpectedly carried by currents to a nearby ice edge where the oil was ignited and burned. Approximately 80 per cent of the oil was consumed in the burn. In the second field experiment involving 630 litres of fresh Heidrun, the free-drifting oil was allowed to spread for 15 minutes until it was much too thin to ignite. When the herding agent was applied, the slick contracted and thickened for about 10 minutes and was then ignited using a gelled gas igniter. A 9-minute long burn consumed about 90 per cent of the oil. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 34 figs.

  15. Tracking an oil slick from multiple natural sources, Coal Oil Point, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, Ira; Luyendyk, Bruce; Broderick, Kris

    2006-01-01

    Oil slicks on the ocean surface emitted from natural marine hydrocarbon seeps offshore from Coal Oil Point in the Santa Barbara Channel, California were tracked and sampled over a 2-h period. The objectives were to characterize the seep oil and to track its composition over time using a new sampling device, a catamaran drum sampler (CATDRUMS). The sampler was designed and developed at UCSB. Chromatograms showed that oil originating from an informally named, very active seep area, Shane Seep, primarily evolved during the first hour due to mixing with oil originating from a convergence zone slick surrounding Shane Seep. (author)

  16. Tracking an oil slick from multiple natural sources, Coal Oil Point, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, Ira [Marine Sciences Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Luyendyk, Bruce [Department of Geological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Broderick, Kris [Exxon/Mobil Exploration Company, 13401 N. Freeway, Houston, TX 77060 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Oil slicks on the ocean surface emitted from natural marine hydrocarbon seeps offshore from Coal Oil Point in the Santa Barbara Channel, California were tracked and sampled over a 2-h period. The objectives were to characterize the seep oil and to track its composition over time using a new sampling device, a catamaran drum sampler (CATDRUMS). The sampler was designed and developed at UCSB. Chromatograms showed that oil originating from an informally named, very active seep area, Shane Seep, primarily evolved during the first hour due to mixing with oil originating from a convergence zone slick surrounding Shane Seep. (author)

  17. Oil slick: the risk and the ordinary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, C.

    2004-01-01

    In order to fight oil contamination due to oil tanker accidents, it appears necessary and natural to implement new regulations through regular and more complete technical controls. It would be more efficient to define actions and policies from the true reality of sea transport. The simplified picture that appears just after an accident concerning the assumed relationships between the shipper, the public authorities and the insurance companies is far from depicting the reality. The safety relies more on mutual recommendations between the different actors of sea transport than on injunctions concerning particular points. The complexity, the specificities and particular constraints of sea trade have to be taken into account. (A.C.)

  18. Importance of the slick thickness for effective in-situ burning of crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Brogaard, Nicholas L.; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2015-01-01

    height. The experiments were performed in a new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), which has been developed to study ISB of oil on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The regression rate, average mass loss rate and burning...... efficiency reached a constant maximum value for all oils at slick thicknesses exceeding 10–20 mm. For thinner initial slick thicknesses, these values were greatly reduced, most likely due to heat losses to the water. A further increase in the initial slick thickness could not improve the burning efficiency......In order to improve the potential of in-situ burning (ISB), the importance of the oil slick thickness on two pure oils (n-octane and dodecane) and two fresh crude oils (Grane and REBCO) was studied in relation to the regression rate, boilover tendency, mass loss rate, burning efficiency and flame...

  19. Characterization of oils sands thickened tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.D.; Jeeravipoolvarn, S.; Donahue, R.; Ozum, B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This presentation discussed the characterization of oils sands thickened tailings. The problem statement was defined as the fact that many laboratory procedures to characterize fine tailings do not take into account the extraction process, and instead use standardized laboratory tests. The purpose of this presentation was to demonstrate how different extraction processes affect the fine tailings geotechnical properties and water chemistry. Properties that were characterized included particle size analysis from hydrometer-sieve tests; per cent clay from methylene blue tests; per cent clay from mineralogy tests; Atterberg limits; water chemistry; and morphology by scanning electron microscopy. The presentation discussed the origin of fines (silt and clay) in tailings; where fine particles come from; tailings materials; mineralogy of tailings; the hydrometer-sieve test on fine tailings and thickened tailings; and the methylene blue test. It was concluded that the great majority of clay minerals in the tailings come from the clay-shale discontinuous seams and layers. For thickened tailings, the dispersed and non-dispersed hydrometer tests show considerable difference in the amount of clay size material. tabs., figs.

  20. Modeling spreading of oil slicks based on random walk methods and Voronoi diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgut, İsmail; Reed, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a methodology for representation of a surface oil slick using a Voronoi diagram updated at each time step. The Voronoi cells scale the Gaussian random walk procedure representing the spreading process by individual particle stepping. The step length of stochastically moving particles is based on a theoretical model of the spreading process, establishing a relationship between the step length of diffusive spreading and the thickness of the slick at the particle locations. The Voronoi tessellation provides the areal extent of the slick particles and in turn the thicknesses of the slick and the diffusive-type spreading length for all particles. The algorithm successfully simulates the spreading process and results show very good agreement with the analytical solution. Moreover, the results are robust for a wide range of values for computational time step and total number of particles. - Highlights: • A methodology for representation of a surface oil slick using a Voronoi diagram • An algorithm simulating the spreading of oil slick with the Voronoi diagram representation • The algorithm employs the Gaussian random walk method through individual particle stepping. • The diffusive spreading is based on a theoretical model of the spreading process. • Algorithm is computationally robust and successfully reproduces analytical solutions to the spreading process.

  1. A new method to calibrate Lagrangian model with ASAR images for oil slick trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Siyu; Huang, Xiaoxia; Li, Hongga

    2017-03-15

    Since Lagrangian model coefficients vary with different conditions, it is necessary to calibrate the model to obtain optimal coefficient combination for special oil spill accident. This paper focuses on proposing a new method to calibrate Lagrangian model with time series of Envisat ASAR images. Oil slicks extracted from time series images form a detected trajectory of special oil slick. Lagrangian model is calibrated by minimizing the difference between simulated trajectory and detected trajectory. mean center position distance difference (MCPD) and rotation difference (RD) of Oil slicks' or particles' standard deviational ellipses (SDEs) are calculated as two evaluations. The two parameters are taken to evaluate the performance of Lagrangian transport model with different coefficient combinations. This method is applied to Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident. The simulation result with calibrated model agrees well with related satellite observations. It is suggested the new method is effective to calibrate Lagrangian model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using optical remote sensing model to estimate oil slick thickness based on satellite image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y C; Tian, Q J; Lyu, C G; Fu, W X; Han, W C

    2014-01-01

    An optical remote sensing model has been established based on two-beam interference theory to estimate marine oil slick thickness. Extinction coefficient and normalized reflectance of oil are two important parts in this model. Extinction coefficient is an important inherent optical property and will not vary with the background reflectance changed. Normalized reflectance can be used to eliminate the background differences between in situ measured spectra and remotely sensing image. Therefore, marine oil slick thickness and area can be estimated and mapped based on optical remotely sensing image and extinction coefficient

  3. Discrimination of Oil Slicks and Lookalikes in Polarimetric SAR Images Using CNN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Wu, Danni; An, Jubai

    2017-08-09

    Oil slicks and lookalikes (e.g., plant oil and oil emulsion) all appear as dark areas in polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and are highly heterogeneous, so it is very difficult to use a single feature that can allow classification of dark objects in polarimetric SAR images as oil slicks or lookalikes. We established multi-feature fusion to support the discrimination of oil slicks and lookalikes. In the paper, simple discrimination analysis is used to rationalize a preferred features subset. The features analyzed include entropy, alpha, and Single-bounce Eigenvalue Relative Difference (SERD) in the C-band polarimetric mode. We also propose a novel SAR image discrimination method for oil slicks and lookalikes based on Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The regions of interest are selected as the training and testing samples for CNN on the three kinds of polarimetric feature images. The proposed method is applied to a training data set of 5400 samples, including 1800 crude oil, 1800 plant oil, and 1800 oil emulsion samples. In the end, the effectiveness of the method is demonstrated through the analysis of some experimental results. The classification accuracy obtained using 900 samples of test data is 91.33%. It is here observed that the proposed method not only can accurately identify the dark spots on SAR images but also verify the ability of the proposed algorithm to classify unstructured features.

  4. Mississippi River and sea surface height effects on oil slick migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Falcini

    Full Text Available Millions of barrels of oil escaped into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM after the 20 April, 2010 explosion of Deepwater Horizon (DH. Ocean circulation models were used to forecast oil slick migration in the GoM, however such models do not explicitly treat the effects of secondary eddy-slopes or Mississippi River (MR hydrodynamics. Here we report oil front migration that appears to be driven by sea surface level (SSL slopes, and identify a previously unreported effect of the MR plume: under conditions of relatively high river discharge and weak winds, a freshwater mound can form around the MR Delta. We performed temporal oil slick position and altimeter analysis, employing both interpolated altimetry data and along-track measurements for coastal applications. The observed freshwater mound appears to have pushed the DH oil slick seaward from the Delta coastline. We provide a physical mechanism for this novel effect of the MR, using a two-layer pressure-driven flow model. Results show how SSL variations can drive a cross-slope migration of surface oil slicks that may reach velocities of order km/day, and confirm a lag time of order 5-10 days between mound formation and slick migration, as observed form the satellite analysis. Incorporating these effects into more complex ocean models will improve forecasts of slick migration for future spills. More generally, large SSL variations at the MR mouth may also affect the dispersal of freshwater, nutrients and sediment associated with the MR plume.

  5. AUTOMATIC CALCULATION OF OIL SLICK AREA FROM MULTIPLE SAR ACQUISITIONS FOR DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Osmanoğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 and became the largest accidental marine oil spill in history. Oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780, 000m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The oil spill caused extensive economical and ecological damage to the areas it reached, affecting the marine and wildlife habitats along with fishing and tourism industries. For oil spill mitigation efforts, it is important to determine the areal extent, and most recent position of the contaminated area. Satellitebased oil pollution monitoring systems are being used for monitoring and in hazard response efforts. Due to their high accuracy, frequent acquisitions, large area coverage and day-and-night operation Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellites are a major contributer of monitoring marine environments for oil spill detection. We developed a new algorithm for determining the extent of the oil spill from multiple SAR images, that are acquired with short temporal intervals using different sensors. Combining the multi-polarization data from Radarsat-2 (C-band, Envisat ASAR (C-band and Alos-PALSAR (L-band sensors, we calculate the extent of the oil spill with higher accuracy than what is possible from only one image. Short temporal interval between acquisitions (hours to days allow us to eliminate artifacts and increase accuracy. Our algorithm works automatically without any human intervention to deliver products in a timely manner in time critical operations. Acquisitions using different SAR sensors are radiometrically calibrated and processed individually to obtain oil spill area extent. Furthermore the algorithm provides probability maps of the areas that are classified as oil slick. This probability information is then combined with other acquisitions to estimate the combined probability map for the spill.

  6. Infrared sensing and the measurement of oil slick thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.M.; Baschuk, J.J.; Goodman, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of whether infrared images can be used to detect the thickness of a marine oil spill was discussed. Infrared images of oil spills on water show density variations because of variations in oil temperature and emissivity. These observations have been used to determine thickness variations in the oil. Experiments were conducted in a large wave basin using two typical crude oils in the thickness range of 1 mm to 10 mm. Infrared images of oil spills were recorded and simultaneous thickness measurements were made using an acoustic thickness gauge. The study showed that there is no relationship between infrared image pixel greyness and the thickness measured with an acoustic probe. It was not possible to determine the volume of a spill using infrared images. 2 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  7. Remote Detection of Oil Slicks at the Ocean Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    por la explosión del pozo petrolero Macondo y conocido con el nombre de Deepwater Horizon (DWH) o el Horizonte de Aguas Profundas, fue el peor...samples. The in situ collections which entailed measuring oil reflectance with a field radiometer did not yield new insights into the behavior of

  8. Comparisons of Circular Transmit and Linear Receive Compact Polarimetric SAR Features for Oil Slicks Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compact polarimetric (CP synthetic aperture radar (SAR has proven its potential in distinguishing oil slicks and look-alikes. Polarimetric information can be retrieved directly from scattering vector or from reconstructed pseudo-Quad-Pol covariance matrix of CP SAR data. In this paper, we analysed features from Circular Transmit and Linear Receive (CTLR CP SAR data that are derived by taking both of these two methods. K-means clustering followed by accuracy assessment was also implemented for performance evaluation. Through experiments that were conducted based on L-band UAVSAR fully polarimetric data, it was found that optimum extraction methods varied for different features. The histogram analysis and segmentation results also demonstrated the comparable performance of CP SAR features in distinguishing different damping properties within oil slicks. This study proposed a framework of statistically analyzing polarimetric SAR (Pol-SAR features and provided guidelines for determining optimum feature extraction methods from CP SAR data and for marine oil-spills detection and classification.

  9. Design and hydrodynamic testing of an oil slick containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen-Jones, J.

    1997-01-01

    Aspects of mechanical containment of spilled oil were studied. The focus was on design problems and the development of a model for global loading on a horizontal catenary of a previously defined form. The result is then compared with existing theoretical formulations and an approximate model is developed for the effect of flow through the system in deep water. The modified result is again compared with accepted formulations and with sea-trial data. The leading edge of the skirt was observed to oscillate sinusoidally. Experimental results obtained from pressure transducer data and calibrated underwater video measurements show that the oscillation period diminishes with increases in tow speed. In contrast, the magnitude of the oscillation increases while mean deviation from datum draught returns to zero. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs

  10. Analysis of the Contribution of Wind Drift Factor to Oil Slick Movement under Strong Tidal Condition: Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Case

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Wea...

  11. TESTING THE GENERALIZATION EFFICIENCY OF OIL SLICK CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHM USING MULTIPLE SAR DATA FOR DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ozkan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine oil spills due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, etc. are seriously affecting the fragile marine and coastal ecosystem and cause political and environmental concern. A catastrophic explosion and subsequent fire in the Deepwater Horizon oil platform caused the platform to burn and sink, and oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Today, space-borne SAR sensors are extensively used for the detection of oil spills in the marine environment, as they are independent from sun light, not affected by cloudiness, and more cost-effective than air patrolling due to covering large areas. In this study, generalization extent of an object based classification algorithm was tested for oil spill detection using multiple SAR imagery data. Among many geometrical, physical and textural features, some more distinctive ones were selected to distinguish oil and look alike objects from each others. The tested classifier was constructed from a Multilayer Perception Artificial Neural Network trained by ABC, LM and BP optimization algorithms. The training data to train the classifier were constituted from SAR data consisting of oil spill originated from Lebanon in 2007. The classifier was then applied to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill data in the Gulf of Mexico on RADARSAT-2 and ALOS PALSAR images to demonstrate the generalization efficiency of oil slick classification algorithm.

  12. Improvements in and relating to a device for removing oil slicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanoff, A

    1975-09-10

    The invention relates to a means for removing oil floating as an oil slick on a body of water. The device is a water craft consisting of a hull including side walls and a stern wall joining the side walls. The bow end of the hull is open, the side walls channelling oil entering between them toward the stern wall as the craft moves. A means for removing oil accumulating between the side walls is provided. An antisurging means is mounted between the side walls. The antisurging means is disposed to reduce the amplitude of waves prior to reaching the stern wall so as to calm oil covered water between the side walls of the hull. The antisurging means consists of a plate mounted between the side walls, the plate extends horizontally and sternwardly from adjacent to the bow end of the hull and below the surface of calm water relative to the side walls of the hull, at least when the craft moves. (16 claims)

  13. Oil Slick Observation at Low Incidence Angles in Ku-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilova, M. A.; Karaev, V. Y.; Guo, Jie

    2018-03-01

    On the 20 April 2010 the oil platform Deep Water Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico suffered an explosion during the final phases of drilling an exploratory well. As a result, an oil film covered the sea surface area of several thousand square kilometers. In the present paper the data of the Ku-band Precipitation Radar, which operates at low incidence angles, were used to explore the oil spill event. The two-scale model of the scattering surface was used to describe radar backscatter from the sea surface. The algorithm for retrieval of normalized radar cross section at nadir and the total slope variance of large-scale waves compared to the wavelength of electromagnetic wave (22 mm) was developed for the Precipitation Radar swath. It is shown that measurements at low incidence angles can be used for oil spill detection. This is the first time that the dependence of mean square slope of large-scale waves on wind speed has been obtained for oil slicks from Ku-band data, and compared to mean square slope obtained by Cox and Munk from optical data.

  14. Size Distribution and Dispersion of Droplets Generated by Impingement of Breaking Waves on Oil Slicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Miller, J.; Wang, J.; Koley, S. S.; Katz, J.

    2017-10-01

    This laboratory experimental study investigates the temporal evolution of the size distribution of subsurface oil droplets generated as breaking waves entrain oil slicks. The measurements are performed for varying wave energy, as well as large variations in oil viscosity and oil-water interfacial tension, the latter achieved by premixing the oil with dispersant. In situ measurements using digital inline holography at two magnifications are applied for measuring the droplet sizes and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for determining the temporal evolution of turbulence after wave breaking. All early (2-10 s) size distributions have two distinct size ranges with different slopes. For low dispersant to oil ratios (DOR), the transition between them could be predicted based on a turbulent Weber (We) number in the 2-4 range, suggesting that turbulence plays an important role. For smaller droplets, all the number size distributions have power of about -2.1, and for larger droplets, the power decreases well below -3. The measured steepening of the size distribution over time is predicted by a simple model involving buoyant rise and turbulence dispersion. Conversely, for DOR 1:100 and 1:25 oils, the diameter of slope transition decreases from ˜1 mm to 46 and 14 µm, respectively, much faster than the We-based prediction, and the size distribution steepens with increasing DOR. Furthermore, the concentration of micron-sized droplets of DOR 1:25 oil increases for the first 10 min after entrainment. These phenomena are presumably caused by the observed formation and breakup oil microthreads associated with tip streaming.

  15. Dual-Polarized L-Band SAR Imagery for Temporal Monitoring of Marine Oil Slick Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Angelliaume

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available SAR sensors are usually used in the offshore domain to detect marine oil slicks which allows the authorities to guide cleanup operations or prosecute polluters. As radar imagery can be used any time of day or year and in almost any weather conditions, the use and programming of such remote sensing data is usually favored over optical imagery. Nevertheless, images collected in the optical domain provide access to key information not accessible today by SAR instruments, such as the thickness or the amount of pollutant. To address this knowledge gap, a methodology based on the joint use of a scattering model (U-WCA and remote sensing data collected by a low frequency (e.g., L-band imaging radar over controlled release of mineral oil spill is reported in this paper. The proposed method allows estimation of the concentration of pollutant within an oil-in-water mixture as well as the temporal variation of this quantity due to weathering processes.

  16. Data Mining of Satellite-Based Measurements to Distinguish Natural From Man-Made Oil Slicks at the Sea Surface in Campeche Bay (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, G. D. A.; Minnett, P. J.; de Miranda, F. P.; Landau, L.; Paes, E.

    2016-02-01

    Campeche Bay, located in the Mexican portion of the Gulf of Mexico, has a well-established activity engaged with numerous oil rigs exploring and producing natural gas and oil. The associated risk of oil slicks in this region - that include oil spills (i.e. oil floating at the sea surface solely attributed to man-made activities) and oil seeps (i.e. surface footprint of the oil that naturally comes out of the seafloor reaching the surface of the ocean) - leads Pemex to be in a continuous state of alert for reducing possible negative influence on marine and coastal ecosystems. Focusing on a monitoring strategy, a multi-year dataset (2008-2012) of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements from the RADARSAT-2 satellite is used to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of the oil slicks observed at the surface of the ocean in the Campeche Bay region. The present study is an exploratory data analysis that seeks to discriminate between these two possible oil slick types: oil seeps and oil spills. Multivariate data analysis techniques (e.g. Principal Components Analysis, Clustering Analysis, Discriminant Function, etc.) are explored to design a data-learning classification algorithm to distinguish natural from man-made oil slicks. This analysis promotes a novel idea bridging geochemistry and remote sensing research to express geophysical differences between seeped and spilled oil. Here, SAR backscatter coefficients - i.e. sigma-naught (σo), beta-naught (βo), and gamma-naught (γo) - are combined with attributes referring to the geometry, shape, and dimension that describe the oil slicks. Results indicate that the synergy of combining these various characteristics is capable of distinguishing oil seeps from oil spills observed on the sea surface to a useful accuracy.

  17. Tribological characteristic enhancement effects by polymer thickened oil in lubricated sliding contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratomo, Ariawan Wahyu; Muchammad, Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Jamari, Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    Polymer thickened oils are the most preferred materials for modern lubrication applications due to their high shear. The present paper explores a lubrication mechanism in sliding contact lubricated with polymer thickened oil considering cavitation. Investigations are carried out by using a numerical method based on commercial CFD (computational fluid dynamic) software ANSYS for fluid flow phenomenon (Fluent) to assess the tribological characteristic (i.e. hydrodynamic pressure distribution) of lubricated sliding contact. The Zwart-Gerber-Belamri model for cavitation is adopted in this simulation to predict the extent of the full film region. The polymer thickened oil is characterized as non-Newtonian power-law fluid. The simulation results show that the cavitation lead lower pressure profile compared to that without cavitation. In addition, it is concluded that the characteristic of the lubrication performance with polymer thickened oil is strongly dependent on the Power-law index of lubricant.

  18. Comparison Of Semi-Automatic And Automatic Slick Detection Algorithms For Jiyeh Power Station Oil Spill, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanoglu, B.; Ozkan, C.; Sunar, F.

    2013-10-01

    After air strikes on July 14 and 15, 2006 the Jiyeh Power Station started leaking oil into the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The power station is located about 30 km south of Beirut and the slick covered about 170 km of coastline threatening the neighboring countries Turkey and Cyprus. Due to the ongoing conflict between Israel and Lebanon, cleaning efforts could not start immediately resulting in 12 000 to 15 000 tons of fuel oil leaking into the sea. In this paper we compare results from automatic and semi-automatic slick detection algorithms. The automatic detection method combines the probabilities calculated for each pixel from each image to obtain a joint probability, minimizing the adverse effects of atmosphere on oil spill detection. The method can readily utilize X-, C- and L-band data where available. Furthermore wind and wave speed observations can be used for a more accurate analysis. For this study, we utilize Envisat ASAR ScanSAR data. A probability map is generated based on the radar backscatter, effect of wind and dampening value. The semi-automatic algorithm is based on supervised classification. As a classifier, Artificial Neural Network Multilayer Perceptron (ANN MLP) classifier is used since it is more flexible and efficient than conventional maximum likelihood classifier for multisource and multi-temporal data. The learning algorithm for ANN MLP is chosen as the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM). Training and test data for supervised classification are composed from the textural information created from SAR images. This approach is semiautomatic because tuning the parameters of classifier and composing training data need a human interaction. We point out the similarities and differences between the two methods and their results as well as underlining their advantages and disadvantages. Due to the lack of ground truth data, we compare obtained results to each other, as well as other published oil slick area assessments.

  19. An image-segmentation-based framework to detect oil slicks from moving vessels in the Southern African oceans using SAR imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, Lizwe W

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil slick events caused due to bilge leakage/dumps from ships and from other anthropogenic sources pose a threat to the aquatic ecosystem and need to be monitored on a regular basis. An automatic image-segmentation-based framework to detect oil...

  20. Analysis of the Contribution of Wind Drift Factor to Oil Slick Movement under Strong Tidal Condition: Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area. PMID:24498094

  1. Analysis of the contribution of wind drift factor to oil slick movement under strong tidal condition: Hebei Spirit oil spill case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC model and Automatic Weather System (AWS were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area.

  2. Using SAR images to delineate ocean oil slicks with a texture-classifying neural network algorithm (TCNNA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Pineda, O.; MacDonald, I.R. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Oceanography; Zimmer, B. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics; Howard, M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Oceanography; Pichel, W. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Camp Springs, MD (United States). Center for Satellite Applications and Research, National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service; Li, X. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Camp Springs, MD (United States). Systems Group, National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information

    2009-10-15

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is used to detect surfactant layers produced by floating oil on the ocean surface. This study presented details of a texture-classifying neural network algorithm (TCNNA) designed to process SAR data from a wide selection of beam modes. Patterns from SAR imagery were extracted in a semi-supervised procedure using a combination of edge-detection filters; texture descriptors; collection information; and environmental data. Various natural oil seeps in the Gulf of Mexico were used as case studies. An analysis of the case studies demonstrated that the TCNNA was able to extract targets and rapidly interpret images collected under a range of environmental conditions. Results presented by the TCNNA were used to evaluate the effects of different environmental conditions on the expressions of oil slicks detected by the data. Optimal incidence angle ranges and wind speed ranges for surfactant film detection were also presented. Results obtained by the TCNNA can be stored and manipulated in geographic information system (GIS) data layers. 26 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  3. Some observations on the pre-boilover burning of a slick of oil on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garo, J.P.; Vantelon, J.P.; Gandhi, S.; Torero, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of burning oil in water were investigated to establish a systematic methodology for ignition of oil-spills. A simple heat conduction model was used to describe the pre-boil over burning rate of crude oil and heating oil. Results from the model were compared with experimental pool burning test results. The calculations agreed well with experiments conducted with crude oil and heating oil. Theoretical expressions were also successfully correlated with emulsified and weathered crude. The parameters considered for the calculations included the fuel layer thickness, the weathering level and the percentage of water emulsified in the fuel. The model accurately described the regression rate for fuel layers thicker than 8 mm. 22 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs

  4. Finger Thickening during Extra-Heavy Oil Waterflooding: Simulation and Interpretation Using Pore-Scale Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Regaieg

    Full Text Available Although thermal methods have been popular and successfully applied in heavy oil recovery, they are often found to be uneconomic or impractical. Therefore, alternative production protocols are being actively pursued and interesting options include water injection and polymer flooding. Indeed, such techniques have been successfully tested in recent laboratory investigations, where X-ray scans performed on homogeneous rock slabs during water flooding experiments have shown evidence of an interesting new phenomenon-post-breakthrough, highly dendritic water fingers have been observed to thicken and coalesce, forming braided water channels that improve sweep efficiency. However, these experimental studies involve displacement mechanisms that are still poorly understood, and so the optimization of this process for eventual field application is still somewhat problematic. Ideally, a combination of two-phase flow experiments and simulations should be put in place to help understand this process more fully. To this end, a fully dynamic network model is described and used to investigate finger thickening during water flooding of extra-heavy oils. The displacement physics has been implemented at the pore scale and this is followed by a successful benchmarking exercise of the numerical simulations against the groundbreaking micromodel experiments reported by Lenormand and co-workers in the 1980s. A range of slab-scale simulations has also been carried out and compared with the corresponding experimental observations. We show that the model is able to replicate finger architectures similar to those observed in the experiments and go on to reproduce and interpret, for the first time to our knowledge, finger thickening following water breakthrough. We note that this phenomenon has been observed here in homogeneous (i.e. un-fractured media: the presence of fractures could be expected to exacerbate such fingering still further. Finally, we examine the impact of

  5. The oil slick of Erika: ecological and eco-toxicological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laubier, L.

    2004-01-01

    In december 1999 the oil tanker Erika loaded with 31.000 tonnes of industrial fuel oil (IFO) sank off the coasts of Brittany (France). 12.400 tonnes of IFO were recovered in the wrecked parts of the tanker and in the sea, 19.000 tonnes were spilled into the environment. The cleaning campaigns that took place in 2000 and 2001 led to the recovery of 240.000 to 280.000 tonnes of contaminated wastes containing 30.000 to 40.000 tonnes of emulsion, which corresponds to the spilled quantity of IFO. About 30 different programs have been implemented to monitor the environmental contamination and to assess the impact of the spilling on the different natural habitats (sea, rocky areas, beaches, sediments,..) and on fauna and flora. The main results show that: -) the development of plants does not seem affected by the oil contamination except in heavily-stricken zones, -) the concentration of HAP (poly-cyclical aromatic hydro-carbons) in plants is decreasing steadily, -) between 64.000 and 125.000 common guillemots died during the first month after the catastrophe, -) sea mammals have not been directly hit by the spilling, -) populations of sea urchins have been decimated and now are recovering. The main difficulty encountered by these programs assessing the impact is the lack of a reliable reference of the state of the different animal and plant populations before the spilling. (A.C.)

  6. Role of the thickening agent concentration and surfactant additions in the system's soap-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchegolev, G.G.; Trapeznikov, A.A.; Taranenko, V.G.

    1973-03-01

    The effect of the thickening agent concentration, surfactant additions and mechanical treatment on the microstructure and structural-mechanical properties of the system's lithium stearate-oil has been studied. The rate of cooling of the soap-oil system has been shown also to be of importance. The surfactants are less effective when introduced into a finished pseudogel, than when added during crystallization.

  7. Gelation of Oil Slicks by Amine Carbamates as an Adjunct to U.S. Navy Oil Spill Recovery Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-14

    plan for a field test in Boston Harbor was to be developed and submitted to the EPA, Coast Guard, state and municipal water control authorities. Di ...Residual Special Fuel Oil #6, and similar oils) was found to be a mixture of 40 g. dodecylamine, 25 R. tetradecylamine, and 4.5 g. hexadecylamine In...solution with 100 g. methyl alcohol. By far the best system, however, was a mixture of 70% dehydroabletylamine ("Amine D", as manufactured by Hercules Corp

  8. Trace metal mobilization from oil sands froth treatment thickened tailings exhibiting acid rock drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Alsu; Kuznetsov, Petr; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2016-11-15

    Froth treatment thickened tailings (TT) are a waste product of bitumen extraction from surface-mined oil sands ores. When incubated in a laboratory under simulated moist oxic environmental conditions for ~450d, two different types of TT (TT1 and TT2) exhibited the potential to generate acid rock drainage (ARD) by producing acid leachate after 250 and 50d, respectively. We report here the release of toxic metals from TT via ARD, which could pose an environmental threat if oil sands TT deposits are not properly managed. Trace metal concentrations in leachate samples collected periodically revealed that Mn and Sr were released immediately even before the onset of ARD. Spikes in Co and Ni concentrations were observed both pre-ARD and during active ARD, particularly in TT1. For most elements measured (Fe, Cr, V, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Se), leaching was associated with ARD production. Though equivalent acidification (pH2) was achieved in leachate from both TT types, greater metal release was observed from TT2 where concentrations reached 10,000ppb for Ni, 5000ppb for Co, 3000ppb for As, 2000ppb for V, and 1000ppb for Cr. Generally, metal concentrations decreased in leachate with time during ARD and became negligible by the end of incubation (~450d) despite appreciable metals remaining in the leached TT. These results suggest that using TT for land reclamation purposes or surface deposition for volume reduction may unfavorably impact the environment, and warrants application of appropriate strategies for management of pyrite-enriched oil sands tailings streams. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Oil sands thickened froth treatment tailings exhibit acid rock drainage potential during evaporative drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-02-01

    Bitumen extraction from oil sands ores after surface mining produces different tailings waste streams: 'froth treatment tailings' are enriched in pyrite relative to other streams. Tailings treatment can include addition of organic polymers to produce thickened tailings (TT). TT may be further de-watered by deposition into geotechnical cells for evaporative drying to increase shear strength prior to reclamation. To examine the acid rock drainage (ARD) potential of TT, we performed predictive analyses and laboratory experiments on material from field trials of two types of thickened froth treatment tailings (TT1 and TT2). Acid-base accounting (ABA) of initial samples showed that both TT1 and TT2 initially had net acid-producing potential, with ABA values of -141 and -230 t CaCO₃ equiv. 1000 t(-1) of TT, respectively. In long-term kinetic experiments, duplicate ~2-kg samples of TT were incubated in shallow trays and intermittently irrigated under air flow for 459 days to simulate evaporative field drying. Leachates collected from both TT samples initially had pH~6.8 that began decreasing after ~50 days (TT2) or ~250 days (TT1), stabilizing at pH~2. Correspondingly, the redox potential of leachates increased from 100-200 mV to 500-580 mV and electrical conductivity increased from 2-5 dS m(-1) to 26 dS m(-1), indicating dissolution of minerals during ARD. The rapid onset and prolonged ARD observed with TT2 is attributed to its greater pyrite (13.4%) and lower carbonate (1.4%) contents versus the slower onset of ARD in TT1 (initially 6.0% pyrite and 2.5% carbonates). 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis revealed rapid shift in microbial community when conditions became strongly acidic (pH~2) favoring the enrichment of Acidithiobacillus and Sulfobacillus bacteria in TT. This is the first report showing ARD potential of TT and the results have significant implications for effective management of pyrite-enriched oil sands tailings streams/deposits. Copyright © 2014

  10. Thickening agent for flood water in secondary recovery of oil and for other aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, H H

    1966-04-14

    Alkenyl-aromatic polymer sulfonates are good thickeners for some aqueous solutions, but addition of salts to such solutions reduces the desirable viscosity. High-molecular, water-soluble alkenyl-aromatic polymers which carry sulfonic acid or sulfonate groups substituted at the aromatic nuclei yield thickened solutions (e.g., for waterflooding) which are not influenced by the presence of water-soluble salts. Such polymers are derivatives of polyvinyltoluene, alone or in combination with about 5% acrylonitrile. It was also found that such thickening agents are less adsorbed on the rock matrix in a waterflood formation. (1 claim)

  11. Chronology and backtracking of oil slick trajectory to source in offshore environments using ultraspectral to multispectral remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammoglia, Talita; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto de

    2015-07-01

    Offshore natural seepage confirms the occurrence of an active petroleum system with thermal maturation and migration, regardless its economic viability for petroleum production. Ocean dynamics, however, impose a challenge for correlation between oil seeps detected on the water surface and its source at the ocean floor. This hinders the potential use of seeps in petroleum exploration. The present study aims to estimate oil exposure time on the water surface via remote sensing in order to help locating ocean floor seepage sources. Spectral reflectance properties of a variety of fresh crude oils, oil films on water and oil-water emulsions were determined. Their spectral identity was used to estimate the duration of exposure of oil-water emulsions based on their temporal spectral responses. Laboratory models efficiently predicted oil status using ultraspectral (>2000 bands), hyperspectral (>300 bands), and multispectral (oil seepage recorded by the ASTER sensor on the Brazilian coast was used to test the designed predictive model. Results indicate that the model can successfully forecast the timeframe of crude oil exposure in the ocean (i.e., the relative "age" of the seepage). The limited spectral resolution of the ASTER sensor, though, implies less accurate estimates compared to higher resolution sensors. The spectral libraries and the method proposed here can be reproduced for other oceanic areas in order to approximate the duration of exposure of noticeable natural oil seepages. This type of information is optimal for seepage tracing and, therefore, for oceanic petroleum exploration and environmental monitoring.

  12. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge and fat, oil and grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Caixia; Zhou Quancheng; Fu Guiming; Li Yebo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG). → Co-digestion of TWAS and FOG at 64% VS increased biogas production by 137%. → FOG addition ratio at 74% of total VS caused inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process. → Micronutrients addition did not significantly improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. - Abstract: Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was conducted semi-continuously under mesophilic conditions. The results showed that daily methane yield at the steady state was 598 L/kg VS added when TWAS and FOG (64% of total VS) were co-digested, which was 137% higher than that obtained from digestion of TWAS alone. The biogas composition was stabilized at a CH 4 and CO 2 content of 66.8% and 29.5%, respectively. Micronutrients added to co-digestion did not improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. With a higher addition of FOG (74% of total VS), the digester initially failed but was slowly self-recovered; however, the methane yield was only about 50% of a healthy reactor with the same organic loading rate.

  13. Multi-Frequency and Multi-Polarization Analysis of Oil Slicks using TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2 Data

    OpenAIRE

    Singha, Suman; Ressel, Rudolf; Lehner, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The use of fully polarimetric SAR data for oil spill detection is relatively new and shows great potential for operational offshore platform monitoring. Greater availability of these kind of SAR data calls for a development of time critical processing chain capable of detecting and distinguishing oil spills from ’look-alikes’. This paper describes the development of an automated Near Real Time (NRT) oil spill detection processing chain based on quad-pol RADARSAT-2 (RS-2) and quad-pol Terra...

  14. A Laboratory Screening Study On The Use Of Solidifiers As A Response Tool To Remove Crude Oil Slicks On Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of five solidifiers to remove Prudhoe Bay crude oil from artificial seawater in the laboratory was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The performance of the solidifers was determined by US-V...

  15. Food Grade Grease Berbahan Baku Minyak Sawit Crude Palm Oil (Cpo Off Grade Dengan Variasi Konsentrasi Thickening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martanto Totok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food grade grease (FGG is a kind of lubricant made from vegetable oil. Food Grease isconsidered safe for healthy and it does not pollute the environment so that it can be veryimportant for particular industries such as pharmaceutical, animal feeding, cosmetic, andespecially food industry. This study is aiming at obtaining optimum basic formulation ofthickening agent (LiOH that can produce qualified food grade grease. It is a kind of factorialexperimental study by using complete random sampling. Based on Fisher test, the treatmentshows a different result significantly. Then, it is continued by conducting Duncan’s MultipleRange Test (DMRT. 2% of activated charcoal is the best treatment because it results FFAscore, lower water content, and the bright yellow color that is shown by the score of 5.48%,0.0498 %, and 3 % that successively obtained. The treatment on thickening agent (LiOH(P1 and the revious one (L1 are the best treatment which produce qualified food gradegrease, corrosion resistance value 12.0, dropping point 130C, lubricating texture value 1,pH value 9.45, water content 0.19%, and ash content value 0.76%.

  16. Concentrations of the genotoxic metals, chromium and nickel, in whales, tar balls, oil slicks, and released oil from the gulf of Mexico in the immediate aftermath of the deepwater horizon oil crisis: is genotoxic metal exposure part of the deepwater horizon legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John Pierce; Wise, James T F; Wise, Catherine F; Wise, Sandra S; Gianios, Christy; Xie, Hong; Thompson, W Douglas; Perkins, Christopher; Falank, Carolyne; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Concern regarding the Deepwater Horizon oil crisis has largely focused on oil and dispersants while the threat of genotoxic metals in the oil has gone largely overlooked. Genotoxic metals, such as chromium and nickel, damage DNA and bioaccumulate in organisms, resulting in persistent exposures. We found chromium and nickel concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 8.46 ppm in crude oil from the riser, oil from slicks on surface waters and tar balls from Gulf of Mexico beaches. We found nickel concentrations ranged from 1.7 to 94.6 ppm wet weight with a mean of 15.9 ± 3.5 ppm and chromium concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 73.6 ppm wet weight with a mean of 12.8 ± 2.6 ppm in tissue collected from Gulf of Mexico whales in the wake of the crisis. Mean tissue concentrations were significantly higher than those found in whales collected around the world prior to the spill. Given the capacity of these metals to damage DNA, their presence in the oil, and their elevated concentrations in whales, we suggest that metal exposure is an important understudied concern for the Deepwater Horizon oil disaster.

  17. Clofilium inhibits Slick and Slack potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Angeles Tejada, Maria; Stolpe, Kathleen; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Klaerke, Dan A

    2012-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance potassium channels have been recently discovered, and are found in the central nervous system and in the heart. Both channels are activated by Na(+) and Cl(-), and Slick channels are also inhibited by adenosine triphospate (ATP). An important role of setting the resting membrane potential and controlling the basal excitability of neurons has been suggested for these channels. In addition, no specific blockers for these channels are known up to the present. With the purpose of studying the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels, the effects of exposure to the antiarrhythmic compound clofilium were evaluated. Clofilium was able to modulate the activity of Slick and Slack channels effectively, with a stronger effect on Slack than Slick channels. In order to evaluate the pharmacological behavior of Slick and Slack channels further, 38 commonly used potassium channel blockers were tested. Screening of these compounds did not reveal any modulators of Slick and Slack channels, except for clofilium. The present study provides a first approach towards elucidating the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels and could be the basis for future studies aimed at developing potent and specific blockers and activators for these channels.

  18. Formulation of lubricating grease using Beeswax thickener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaila, N.; Japar, A.; Aizudin, M.; Aziz, A.; Najib Razali, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The issues on environmental pollution has brought the industries to seek the alternative green solutions for lubricating grease formulation. The significant challenges in producing modified grease are in which considering the chosen thickener as one of the environmental friendly material. The main purposes of the current research were to formulate lubricant grease using different types of base oils and to study the effect of thickener on the formulated lubricant grease. Used oil and motor oil were used as the base oils for the grease preparation. Beeswax and Damar were used as thickener and additive. The grease is tested based on its consistency, stability and oil bleeding. The prepared greases achieved grease consistency of grade 2 and 3 except for grease with unfiltered used oil. Grease formulated with used oil and synthetic oil tend to harden and loss its lubricating ability under high temperature compared to motor oil’ grease. Grease modification using environmental friendly thickener were successfully formulated but it is considered as a low temperature grease as the beeswax have low melting point of 62°C-65°C.

  19. Operational forecast of oil spill trajectory and assessment of impacts on intertidal macrobenthos in the Dahanu region, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, V.S.; Sukumaran, S.; Dubbewar, O.; Reddy, G.S.

    due to current and wind, (b) horizontal spreading of the surface slick due to both turbulent diffusion and gravitational, inertia, viscous, and surface tension forces, (c) emulsification (d) mass transfer and change in physicochemical properties... processes in the early stage of the oil slick transformation. The spreading of an oil slick is determined by the balance between gravitational, viscous and surface tension forces. The spreading of an oil slick passes through the following three phases: (i...

  20. Caracterización de una biograsa de aceite vegetal de Jatropha curcas L y jabón de litio//Characterization of biogrease based on Jatropha curcas L vegetable oil and Lithium Soap Thickener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Chitue de Assunção Nascimento

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Los aceites vegetales poseen un gran potencial como fluido base y como sustituto de los aceites minerales para la formulación de grasas lubricantes, estos aceites son biodegradables y renovables. En el trabajo se determinaron las propiedades  fisicoquímicas, antidesgaste y de extrema presión de una biograsa de aceite vegetal de Jatropha curcas L y jabón de litio empleando los métodos de pruebas estándar para las grasas lubricantes. La biograsa posee un color amarillo claro, una textura suave y homogénea,  un grado de penetración NLGI 1, una temperatura de goteo de 145 oC, magnitudes adecuadas del contenido de álcalis libre y corrosión al cobre; así como  propiedades antidesgaste y de extrema presión similares a otras grasas minerales y biograsas formuladas con diferentes aceites vegetales. Palabras claves: biograsa, aceite de Jatropha curcas L, jabón de litio, propiedades fisicoquímicas, propiedades antidesgaste, propiedades de extrema presión. Characterization of biogrease based on Jatropha curcas L vegetable oil and Lithium Soap Thickener. Abstract Vegetable oils have a great potential as a base fluid and a substitute for mineral oil in grease formulation, these oils are biodegradable and renewable. In this paper were determined the  physicochemical, antiwear and extreme pressure properties of a biogrease based on Jatropha curcas L vegetable oil and lithium soap thickener using the lubricanting greases standard test methods. The biogrease have a light yellow color, soft and homogeneous texture, a penetration grade NLGI 1, a drop point of 145 oC, appropriate magnitudes of free alkalis and copper corrosion; as well as antiwear and extreme pressure properties similar to the other mineral lubricating grease and formulated biogreases with differents vegetable oils. Key words: biogrease, Jatropha curcas L vegetable oil, lithium soap thickener, physicochemical properties, antiwear properties, extreme pressure properties.

  1. Non-aqueous slurries used as thickeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatfield, J C

    1982-04-07

    A non-aqueous slurry is described that is suitable for use as a thickener or viscosifier in oil or gas drilling, fracturing, flow diversion completion or workover fluids. The slurry comprises a water-soluble cellulose ether polymer, a water-insoluble liquid hydrocarbon, a non-ionic surfactant having an HLB of from 7 to 14, and an organo modified clay. There also is described a process for thickening or viscosifying a drilling, fracturing, flow diversion, completion or workover fluid. The use of the slurry prevents bumping during addition to aqueous fluids. (27 claims)

  2. PIP2 modulation of slick and slack K+ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejada, Maria de los Angeles; Jensen, Lars Jørn; Klærke, Dan Arne

    2012-01-01

    Slick and Slack are members of the Slo family of high-conductance potassium channels. These channels are activated by Na(+) and Cl(-) and are highly expressed in the CNS, where they are believed to contribute to the resting membrane potential of neurons and the control of excitability. Herein, we...... provide evidence that Slick and Slack channels are regulated by the phosphoinositide PIP(2). Two stereoisomers of PIP(2) were able to exogenously activate Slick and Slack channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and in addition, it is shown that Slick and Slack channels are modulated by endogenous PIP(2......). The activating effect of PIP(2) appears to occur by direct interaction with lysine 306 in Slick and lysine 339 in Slack, located at the proximal C-termini of both channels. Overall, our data suggest that PIP(2) is an important regulator of Slick and Slack channels, yet it is not involved in the recently...

  3. Experimental sea slicks: Their practical applications and utilization for basic studies of air-sea interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Garrett, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    Practical applications of organic surface films added to the sea surface date back to ancient times. Aristotle, Plutarch, and Pliny the Elder describe the seaman's practice of calming waves in a storm by pouring oil onto the sea [Scott, 1977]. It was also noted that divers released oil beneath the water surface so that it could rise and spread over the sea surface, thereby suppressing the irritating flicker associated with the passage of light through a rippled surface. From a scientific point of view, Benjamin Franklin was the first to perform experiments with oils on natural waters. His experiment with a `teaspoonful of oil' on Clapham pond in 1773 inspired many investigators to consider sea surface phenomena or to conduct experiments with oil films. This early research has been reviewed by Giles [1969], Giles and Forrester [1970], and Scott [1977]. Franklin's studies with experimental slicks can be regarded as the beginning of surface film chemistry. His speculations on the wave damping influence of oil induced him to perform the first qualitative experiment with artificial sea slicks at Portsmouth (England) in October of 1773. Although the sea was calmed and very few white caps appeared in the oil-covered area, the swell continued through the oiled area to Franklin's great disappointment.

  4. Stratigraphy of Slick Rock district and vicinity, San Miguel and Dolores Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawe, Daniel R.; Simmons, George C.; Archbold, Norbert L.

    1968-01-01

    The Slick Rock district covers about 570 square miles in western San Miguel and Dolores Counties, in southwestern Colorado. It is at the south edge of the salt-anticline region of southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah and of the Uravan mineral belt.Deposition of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the district and vicinity was principally controlled by development of the Paradox Basin, and of Mesozoic rocks by development of a depositional basin farther west. The Paleozoic rocks generally are thickest at the northeast side of the Paradox Basin in a northwest- trending trough which seems to be a wide graben in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic basement rocks; Mesozoic rocks generally thicken westward and southwestward from the district.Sedimentary rocks rest on a Precambrian basement consisting of a variety of rocks, including granite and amphibolite. The surface of the Precambrian rocks is irregular and generally more than 2,000 feet below sea level and 7,000-11,000 feet below the ground surface. In the northern part of the district the Precambrian surface plunges abruptly northeastward into the trough occupying the northeast side of the Paradox Basin, and in the southern part it sags in a narrow northeasterly oriented trough. Deepening of both troughs, or crustal deformation in their vicinity, influenced sedimentation during much of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic time.The maximum total thickness of sedimentary rocks underlying the district is 13,000 feet, and prior to extensive erosion in the late Tertiary and the Quaternary it may have been as much as about 18,000 feet. The lower 5,000 feet or more of the sequence of sedimentary rocks consists of arenaceous strata of early Paleozoic age overlain by dominantly marine carbonate rocks and evaporite beds interbedded with lesser amounts of clastic sediments of late Paleozoic age. Overlying these rocks is about 4,500 feet of terrestrial clastic sediments, dominantly sandstone with lesser amounts of shale, mudstone

  5. PIP₂ modulation of Slick and Slack K⁺ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Angeles Tejada, Maria; Jensen, Lars Jørn; Klaerke, Dan A

    2012-07-27

    Slick and Slack are members of the Slo family of high-conductance potassium channels. These channels are activated by Na(+) and Cl(-) and are highly expressed in the CNS, where they are believed to contribute to the resting membrane potential of neurons and the control of excitability. Herein, we provide evidence that Slick and Slack channels are regulated by the phosphoinositide PIP(2). Two stereoisomers of PIP(2) were able to exogenously activate Slick and Slack channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and in addition, it is shown that Slick and Slack channels are modulated by endogenous PIP(2). The activating effect of PIP(2) appears to occur by direct interaction with lysine 306 in Slick and lysine 339 in Slack, located at the proximal C-termini of both channels. Overall, our data suggest that PIP(2) is an important regulator of Slick and Slack channels, yet it is not involved in the recently described cell volume sensitivity of Slick channels, since mutated PIP(2)-insensitive Slick channels retained their sensitivity to cell volume. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Technical summary of geological, hydrological, and engineering studies at the Slick Rock Uranium Mill Tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) with a summary of the technical aspects of the proposed remedial action for the Slick Rock tailings near Slick Rock, Colorado. The technical issues summarized in this document are the geology and groundwater at the Burro Canyon disposal site and preliminary engineering considerations for the disposal cell

  7. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  8. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VP) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial actions at the Slick Rock sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

  9. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U 3 O 8 whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future

  10. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U 3 O 8 whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future

  11. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future.

  12. Thickened infant formula: What to know

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvatore, Silvia; Savino, Francesco; Singendonk, Maartje; Tabbers, Merit; Benninga, Marc A.; Staiano, Annamaria; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to provide an overview of the characteristics of thickened formulas to aid health care providers manage infants with regurgitations. The indications, properties, and efficacy of different thickening agents and thickened formulas on regurgitation and gastroesophageal reflux in

  13. Multichannel thickener of flotation tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratenko, A F; Shuliko, A N; Zinchenko, A F

    1983-04-01

    A multichannel thickener of flotation tailings developed by Ukrniiugleobogashchenie is described. Tailings with solid content ranging from 40 to 60 g/l are mixed with flocculation reagents (quantity ratio from 60 to 70 g/l) in a turbulent mixer: waste water with tailings fed to the mixer is divided into three streams, flocculation reagents are batched in stages with each water stream. After turbulent mixing, water, tailings and reagent are fed to the settling chamber. Settling chamber (dimensions 2.4 x 1.5 x 1.0 m) is divided into a number of channels by settling surfaces of 0.35 m/sup 2/ each, inclined at an angle of 55 degrees. Distance between the surfaces is 50 mm. The thickener has a total settling surface of 18.7 m/sup 2/. Water with tailings flows upwards, cleaned water is removed by a separating system and settled tailings move downward and accumulate in the compacting chamber (dimensions 1.5 x 1.5 x 0.9 m). From the compacting chamber thickened slurry with solid content from 90 to 150 g/l is removed by a hydraulic system. During performance testing in some plants preparing coal difficult to wash, thickening efficiency amounted to 100%. The results of performance testing are shown in two tables. Factors which influence thickener productivity are evaluated. (In Russian)

  14. Improving biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of Thickened Waste Activated Sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) using a dual-stage hyper-thermophilic/thermophilic semi-continuous reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqaralleh, Rania Mona; Kennedy, Kevin; Delatolla, Robert

    2018-07-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility and advantages of using a dual-stage hyper-thermophilic/thermophilic semi-continuous reactor system for the co-digestion of Thickened Waste Activated Sludge (TWAS) and Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) to produce biogas in high quantity and quality. The performance of the dual-stage hyper-thermophilic (70°C)/thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic co-digestion system is evaluated and compared to the performance of a single-stage thermophilic (55°C) reactor that was used to co-digest the same FOG-TWAS mixtures. Both co-digestion reactors were compared to a control reactor (the control reactor was a single-stage thermophilic reactor that only digested TWAS). The effect of FOG% in the co-digestion mixture (based on total volatile solids) and the reactor hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the biogas/methane production and the reactors' performance were thoroughly investigated. The FOG% that led to the maximum methane yield with a stable reactor performance was determined for both reactors. The maximum FOG% obtained for the single-stage thermophilic reactor at 15 days HRT was found to be 65%. This 65% FOG resulted in 88.3% higher methane yield compared to the control reactor. However, the dual-stage hyper-thermophilic/thermophilic co-digestion reactor proved to be more efficient than the single-stage thermophilic co-digestion reactor, as it was able to digest up to 70% FOG with a stable reactor performance. The 70% FOG in the co-digestion mixture resulted in 148.2% higher methane yield compared to the control at 15 days HRT. 70% FOG (based on total volatile solids) is so far the highest FOG% that has been proved to be useful and safe for semi-continuous reactor application in the open literature. Finally, the dual-stage hyper-thermophilic/thermophilic co-digestion reactor also proved to be efficient and stable in co-digesting 40% FOG mixtures at lower HRTs (i.e., 9 and 12 days) and still produce high methane yields and Class A effluents

  15. Field Experiments on SAR Detection of Film Slicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, S.; da Silva, J. C. B.; Kapustin, I.; Sergievskaya, I.

    2013-03-01

    Field experiments on radar detection of film slicks using satellite synthetic aperture radar TerraSAR-X and X-band scatterometer on board a research vessel are described. The experiments were carried out with surfactant films with known physical parameters, the surface tension and the film elasticity, at low to moderate wind conditions and at different radar incidence angles. It is shown that the depression of radar backscatter (contrast) in films slicks for X-band SAR weakly depends on wind velocity/direction, film elasticity and incidence angles within the range of 200-400. Scatterometer contrasts obtained at incidence angles of about 600 are larger than SAR contrasts. Theoretical analysis of radar contrasts for low-to-moderate incidence angles has been carried out based on a hydrodynamic model of wind wave damping due to films and on a composite radar imaging model. The hydrodynamic model takes into account wave damping due to viscoelastic films, wind wave generation and a phenomenological term describing nonlinear limitation of the wind wave spectrum. The radar model takes into account Bragg scattering and specular scattering mechanisms, the latter is usually negligible compared to the Bragg mechanism at moderate incidence angles (larger than 30-35 degrees), but gives noticeable contribution to radar backscattering at smaller incidence angles particularly for slick areas when cm-scale ripples are strongly depressed by films. Calculated radar contrasts in slicks are compared with experiments and it is concluded that development of the model is needed to predict quantitatively observations.

  16. Method of cleaning oil slicks and chemical spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of cleaning a floating chemical spill on a body of water. It comprises: providing a quantity of popular bark-based pelleted or granular product, flotation means and a flexible net having openings generally smaller than the smallest whole pellet dimension of the pelleted product, spreading the net over a chemical spill on the body of water, connecting the floatation means to the net thereby supporting the net adjacent the surface of the body of water, placing the poplar bark-based product on the net, absorbing the floating chemical spill into the product, and removing the chemical soaked product from the body of water

  17. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the processing sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the ground water from further degradation. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the processing sites on land administered by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

  18. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC section 7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miquel County. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 63 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 15 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The sites are within 1 mile of each other and are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,300 cubic yards (yd 3 ). In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designing site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM)

  19. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the processing sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the ground water from further degradation. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the processing sites on land administered by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project.

  20. @iMaersk navigator@@ oil spill in the great channel (Andaman Sea) in January 1993 and its environmental impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Shailaja, M.S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Observations on oil slicks, tar residues and dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons (DPH) shortly after the oil spill resulting from the tanker accident in January 1993 showed negligible impact on the Indian EEZ of the Great Channel (Andaman Sea). DPH...

  1. Maersk navigator oil spill in the great channel (Andaman Sea) in January 1993 and its environmental impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Shailaja, M.S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Observations on oil slicks, tar residues and dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons (DPH) shortly after the oil spill resulting from the tanker accident in January 1993 showed negligible impact on the Indian EEZ of the Great Channel (Andaman Sea). DPH...

  2. Slack, Slick, and Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    The Slack and Slick genes encode potassium channels that are very widely expressed in the central nervous system. These channels are activated by elevations in intracellular sodium, such as those that occur during trains of one or more action potentials, or following activation of nonselective cationic neurotransmitter receptors such as AMPA receptors. This review covers the cellular and molecular properties of Slack and Slick channels and compares them with findings on the properties of sodium-activated potassium currents (termed KNa currents) in native neurons. Human mutations in Slack channels produce extremely severe defects in learning and development, suggesting that KNa channels play a central role in neuronal plasticity and intellectual function. PMID:24319675

  3. Separating oil from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C

    1991-04-11

    The technology available to deal with oil spills has assumed many new faces in recent years. Methods of dealing with small-scale pollution in the process industries and vast oil slicks such as that in the Gulf have developed in parallel. The progress being made in finding new means of separating oil from water is reported and the relative merits of bioremediation, hydrocylones, horizontal separators and gas flotation are discussed. (author).

  4. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the slick rock Uranium Mill Tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC section 7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 12 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 61 8,300 cubic yards. In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. All solid contaminated materials would be buried under 5 feet (ft) of rock and soil materials. The proposed disposal site area is currently used by ranchers for cattle grazing over a 7-month period. The closest residence to the proposed disposal site is 2 air mi. An estimated 44 ac of land would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future use

  5. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the slick rock Uranium Mill Tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC {section} 7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 12 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 61 8,300 cubic yards. In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. All solid contaminated materials would be buried under 5 feet (ft) of rock and soil materials. The proposed disposal site area is currently used by ranchers for cattle grazing over a 7-month period. The closest residence to the proposed disposal site is 2 air mi. An estimated 44 ac of land would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future use.

  6. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VP) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial actions at the Slick Rock sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  7. Experimental observation of shear thickening oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Nakanishi, Hiizu; Mitarai, Namiko

    2013-01-01

    We report experimental observations of the shear thickening oscillation, i.e. the spontaneous macroscopic oscillation in the shear flow of severe shear thickening fluid. Using a density-matched starch-water mixture, in the cylindrical shear flow of a few centimeters flow width, we observed...

  8. The identification of a putative mutation for SLICK hair coat in Senepol cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted, Criollo-derived cattle breeds. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-tolerance and subsequent increased productivity. The goal of thi...

  9. The SLICK hair locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to intensively managed lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Khan, F A; Huson, H J; Sonstegard, T S; Moss, J I; Dahl, G E; Hansen, P J

    2014-09-01

    The SLICK haplotype (http://omia.angis.org.au/OMIA001372/9913/) in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine (1) whether lactating Holsteins with the slick hair phenotype have superior ability for thermoregulation compared with wild-type cows or relatives not inheriting the SLICK haplotype, and (2) whether seasonal depression in milk yield would be reduced in SLICK cows. In experiment 1, diurnal variation in vaginal temperature in the summer was monitored for cows housed in a freestall barn with fans and sprinklers. Vaginal temperatures were lower in slick-haired cows than in relatives and wild-type cows. In experiment 2, acute responses to heat stress were monitored after cows were moved to a dry lot in which the only heat abatement was shade cloth. The increases in rectal temperature and respiration rate caused by heat stress during the day were lower for slick cows than for relatives or wild-type cows. Moreover, sweating rate was higher for slick cows than for cows of the other 2 types. In experiment 3, effects of season of calving (summer vs. winter) on milk yield and composition were determined. Compared with milk yield of cows calving in winter, milk yield during the first 90 d in milk was lower for cows calving in the summer. However, this reduction was less pronounced for slick cows than for wild-type cows. In conclusion, Holsteins with slick hair have superior thermoregulatory ability compared with non-slick animals and experience a less drastic depression in milk yield during the summer. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Shoreline oil cleanup, recovery and treatment evaluation system (SOCRATES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, J.; Lunel, T.; Sommerville, M.; Tyler, A.; Marshall, I.

    1996-01-01

    A beach cleanup computer system was developed to mitigate the impact of shoreline oiling. The program, entitled SOCRATES, was meant to determine the most suitable cleanup methodologies for a range of different spill scenarios. The development, operation and capabilities of SOCRATES was described, with recent examples of successful use during the Sea Empress spill. The factors which influenced decision making and which were central to the numerical solution were: (1) the volumetric removal rate of oil, (2) area removal rate of oil, (3) length of oil slick removed per hour, (4) volumetric removal rate of oily waste, (5) area of the oil slick, (6) length of the oil slick, (7) volume of liquid emulsion, and (8) length of beach. 14 figs

  11. Data Validation Package September 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nguyen, Jason [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-01-04

    The Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites are referred to as the Slick Rock West Processing Site (SRK05) and the Slick Rock East Processing Site (SRK06). This annual event involved sampling both sites for a total of 16 monitoring wells and 6 surface water locations as required by the 2006 Draft Final Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites (GCAP). A domestic well was also sampled at a property adjacent to the Slick Rock East site at the request of the landowner.

  12. PEG and Thickeners: A Critical Interaction Between Polyethylene Glycol Laxative and Starch-Based Thickeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Brian J; Craft, Garrett; Harmon, Julie P; Ilkevitch, Alina; Nicoghosian, Jenik; Sheyner, Inna; Stewart, Jonathan T

    2016-09-01

    Clinicians commonly encounter dysphagia and constipation in a skilled nursing population. Increasing the viscosity of liquids, usually with a starch- or xanthan gum-based thickener, serves as a key intervention for patients with dysphagia. We report a newly identified and potentially dangerous interaction between polyethylene glycol 3350 laxative (PEG) and starch-thickened liquids. A patient requiring nectar-thickened liquids became constipated, and medical staff prescribed PEG for constipation. His nurse observed that the thickened apple juice immediately thinned to near-water consistency when PEG was added. She obtained the same results with thickened water and coffee. We quantified this phenomenon by isothermal rotational rheology. Results confirmed a precipitous loss of thickening when PEG was added to starch-based thickeners but not with xanthan gum-based thickeners. Clinicians and front-line staff should be aware of this potentially critical interaction between PEG- and starch-based thickeners. Although confirmatory studies are needed, our preliminary data suggest that PEG may be compatible with xanthan gum-- based thickeners. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Slick (Kcnt2 Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels Limit Peptidergic Nociceptor Excitability and Hyperalgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L Tomasello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Slick (Kcnt2 sodium-activated potassium (K Na channel is a rapidly gating and weakly voltage-dependent and sodium-dependent potassium channel with no clearly defined physiological function. Within the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs, we show Slick channels are exclusively expressed in small-sized and medium-sized calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP-containing DRG neurons, and a pool of channels are localized to large dense-core vesicles (LDCV-containing CGRP. We stimulated DRG neurons for CGRP release and found Slick channels contained within CGRP-positive LDCV translocated to the neuronal membrane. Behavioral studies in Slick knockout (KO mice indicated increased basal heat detection and exacerbated thermal hyperalgesia compared with wild-type littermate controls during neuropathic and chronic inflammatory pain. Electrophysiologic recordings of DRG neurons from Slick KO mice revealed that Slick channels contribute to outward current, propensity to fire action potentials (APs, and to AP properties. Our data suggest that Slick channels restrain the excitability of CGRP-containing neurons, diminishing pain behavior after inflammation and injury.

  14. Thickened cortical bones in congenital neutropenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boechat, M.I.; Gormley, L.S.; O'Laughlin, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Congenital neutropenia is an uncommon entity which may be familial and has a wide spectrum of clinical expression. Three sisters with the severe form of the disease, that suffered from recurrent infections which lead to their demise are described. Review of their radiographs revealed the presence of cortical thickening of the bones. Although several syndroms with different bone abnormalities have been reported associated with neutropenia, the radiographic finding of thickened cortex in children with congenital neutropenia has not been previously described. (orig.)

  15. Thickened cortical bones in congenital neutropenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boechat, M.I.; Gormley, L.S.; O' Laughlin, B.J.

    1987-02-01

    Congenital neutropenia is an uncommon entity which may be familial and has a wide spectrum of clinical expression. Three sisters with the severe form of the disease, that suffered from recurrent infections which lead to their demise are described. Review of their radiographs revealed the presence of cortical thickening of the bones. Although several syndroms with different bone abnormalities have been reported associated with neutropenia, the radiographic finding of thickened cortex in children with congenital neutropenia has not been previously described.

  16. Echocardiography: pericardial thickening and constrictive pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittger, I; Bowden, R E; Abrams, J; Popp, R L

    1978-09-01

    A total of 167 patients with pericardial thickening noted on M node echocardiography were studied retrospectively. After the echocardiogram, 72 patients underwent cardiac surgery, cardiac catheterization or autopsy for various heart diseases; 96 patients had none of these procedures. In 49 patients the pericardium was directly visualized at surgery or autopsy; 76 percent of these had pericardial thickening or adhesions. In another 8 percent, pericardial adhesions were absent, but no comment had been made about the appearance of the pericardium itself. In the remaining 16 percent, no comment had been made about the pericardium or percardial space. Cardiac catheterization in 64 patients revealed 24 with hemodynamic findings of constrictive pericarditis or effusive constrictive disease. Seven echocardiographic patterns consistent with pericardial adhesions or pericardial thickening are described and related when possible to the subsequent findings at heart surgery or autopsy. The clinical diagnoses of 167 patients with pericardial thickening are presented. The hemodynamic diagnosis of constrictive pericardial disease was associated with the echocardiographic finding of pericardial thickening, but there were no consistent echocardiographic patterns of pericardial thickening diagnostic of constriction. However, certain other echocardiographic abnormalities of left ventricular posterior wall motion and interventricular septal motion and a high E-Fo slope were suggestive of constriction.

  17. Microwave remote sensing measurements of oil pollution on the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croswell, W. F.; Blume, H.-J. C.; Johnson, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Microwave and optical remote sensors were flown over fresh and weathered crude oil released from a surface research vessel and also over a slick formed on the sea by frozen oleyl alcohol cubes released from a helicopter. For the crude oil experiments, microwave radiometric measurements at 1.43, 2.65, 22, and 31 GHz are reported, along with the variable incidence angle scattering measurements at 13.9 GHz. For these experiments, unusual depressions in the L-band brightness temperature were observed, possibly related to dispersants applied to the crude oil. Similar depressions, but with much larger values, were observed over the oleyl alcohol monomolecular slicks. Images obtained at 31 and 22 GHz were used to infer oil volume, yielding values which bound the known amounts spilled. Ku band measurements obtained in repeated passes over crude oil slicks are also discussed.

  18. Simulating surface oil transport during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Experiments with the BioCast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, Jason Keith; Smith, Travis A.; Ladner, Sherwin; Arnone, Robert A.

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing nowcast/forecast software systems designed to combine satellite ocean color data streams with physical circulation models in order to produce prognostic fields of ocean surface materials. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico provided a test case for the Bio-Optical Forecasting (BioCast) system to rapidly combine the latest satellite imagery of the oil slick distribution with surface circulation fields in order to produce oil slick transport scenarios and forecasts. In one such sequence of experiments, MODIS satellite true color images were combined with high-resolution ocean circulation forecasts from the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS®) to produce 96-h oil transport simulations. These oil forecasts predicted a major oil slick landfall at Grand Isle, Louisiana, USA that was subsequently observed. A key driver of the landfall scenario was the development of a coastal buoyancy current associated with Mississippi River Delta freshwater outflow. In another series of experiments, longer-term regional circulation model results were combined with oil slick source/sink scenarios to simulate the observed containment of surface oil within the Gulf of Mexico. Both sets of experiments underscore the importance of identifying and simulating potential hydrodynamic conduits of surface oil transport. The addition of explicit sources and sinks of surface oil concentrations provides a framework for increasingly complex oil spill modeling efforts that extend beyond horizontal trajectory analysis.

  19. NORSE2015 - A Focused Experiment On Oil Emulsion Characterization Using PolSAR During the 2015 Norwegian Oil-On-Water Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, B.; Jones, C. E.; Brekke, C.; Breivik, O.; Skrunes, S.; Espeseth, M.

    2016-02-01

    A targeted experiment in characterizing the properties and development of mineral oil slicks was undertaken by NASA, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute during the 2015 Norwegian oil-on-water spill exercise in the North Sea (OPV2015). NORSE2015 (Norwegian Radar oil Spill Experiment) involved controlled release of plant oil and mineral emulsions of three different oil-to-water ratios, imaging of the slicks with satellite-borne synthetic aperture radars (SAR), and tracking their development with the NASA-UAVSAR instrument over a period of eight hours following release. During the experiment, in situ measurements were made from ship or aircraft with meteorological instruments, released drift buoys, and optical/IR imagers. The experiment was designed to provide validation data for development of a physical model relating polarization-dependent electromagnetic scattering to the dielectric properties of oil mixed with ocean water in a thick slick or emulsion. UAVSAR is a particularly low noise instrument, which enables detection of oil characteristics, and serves as the basis for a relative comparison of different radar frequencies and instruments in oil slick detection and characterization. The time series of UAVSAR polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) is used to track the spreading, movement, and change in backscatter of the different emulsion slicks and the plant oil, to look at movement relative to wind and wave directions, and to develop methods to differentiate between biogenic and mineral slicks based upon temporal changes in the slicks, including environment-driven changes. In this presentation, the experiment will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. The Norwegian experiment was partly financed by CIRFA - Centre for integrated remote sensing and forecasting for arctic operations.

  20. Heteromeric Slick/Slack K+ channels show graded sensitivity to cell volume changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejada, Maria A; Hashem, Nadia; Callø, Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance K+ channels are found in the CNS, kidneys, pancreas, among other organs, where they play an important role in cell excitability as well as in ion transport processes. They are both activated by Na+ and Cl- but show a differential regulation by cell volume changes....... Slick has been shown to be regulated by cell volume changes, whereas Slack is insensitive. α-subunits of these channels form homomeric as well as heteromeric channels. It is the aim of this work to explore whether the subunit composition of the Slick/Slack heteromeric channel affects the response...... to osmotic challenges. In order to provide with the adequate water permeability to the cell membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes, mRNA of aquaporin 1 was co-expressed with homomeric or heteromeric Slick and Slack α-subunits. Oocytes were superfused with hypotonic or hypertonic buffers and changes in currents...

  1. Color doppler sonography in thickened gallbladder wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Suk; Choi, Seok Jin; Seo, Chang Hae; Eun, Choong Ki

    1996-01-01

    The thickening of the gallbladder wall is a valuable finding for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, but may be seen in non-cholecystic disease as well as in acute or chronic cholecystitis. The purpose of this study is to determine the value of color Doppler sonography in differentiating the causes of thickened gallbladder wall. Ninety eight patients with thickened gallbladder wall(more than 3mm) which was not due to gallbladder cancer were prospectively evaluated with color Doppler sonography. Sixty-six cases, confirmed by pathologic reports and clinical records, were analyzed for correlation between thickened gallbladder wall and color flow signal according to the underlying causes. Of the 66 patients, 28 cases were cholecystitis and 38 cases had non-cholecystic causes such as liver cirrhosis, ascites, hepatitis, pancreatitis, renal failure, and hypoalbuminemia. Of the 28 patients with cholecystitis(12 acute, 16 chronic), 23(82%) had color Doppler flow signals in the thickened gallbladder wall. Of the 38 patients with non-cholecystic causes, eight(21%) had color Doppler flow signals. There was a statistically significant difference of color Doppler flow signals between the cholecystitis and non-cholecystic groups(p=0.0001). No significant difference of color Doppler flow signals was found between cases of acute and chronic cholecystitis. Of the 23 patients with color Doppler flow signals in 28 cases of cholecystitis, 18(78.3%) showed a linear pattern and five(21.7%) showed a spotty pattern. Of the eight patients with color Doppler flow signals in the 38 non-cholecystic cases, four(50%) showed a linear pattern and four(50%) showed a spotty pattern. In cholecystitis, a linear color Doppler flow signal pattern is a much more frequent finding than a spotty pattern. Color Doppler sonography is a useful and adequate method for determining whether a thickened gallbladder wall is the result of cholecystitis or has non-cholecystic causes

  2. Heteromeric Slick/Slack K+ channels show graded sensitivity to cell volume changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Maria A; Hashem, Nadia; Calloe, Kirstine; Klaerke, Dan A

    2017-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance K+ channels are found in the CNS, kidneys, pancreas, among other organs, where they play an important role in cell excitability as well as in ion transport processes. They are both activated by Na+ and Cl- but show a differential regulation by cell volume changes. Slick has been shown to be regulated by cell volume changes, whereas Slack is insensitive. α-subunits of these channels form homomeric as well as heteromeric channels. It is the aim of this work to explore whether the subunit composition of the Slick/Slack heteromeric channel affects the response to osmotic challenges. In order to provide with the adequate water permeability to the cell membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes, mRNA of aquaporin 1 was co-expressed with homomeric or heteromeric Slick and Slack α-subunits. Oocytes were superfused with hypotonic or hypertonic buffers and changes in currents were measured by two-electrode voltage clamp. This work presents the first heteromeric K+ channel with a characteristic graded sensitivity to small and fast changes in cell volume. Our results show that the cell volume sensitivity of Slick/Slack heteromeric channels is dependent on the number of volume sensitive Slick α-subunits in the tetrameric channels, giving rise to graded cell volume sensitivity. Regulation of the subunit composition of a channel may constitute a novel mechanism to determine volume sensitivity of cells.

  3. Sensory and rheological characteristics of thickened liquids differing concentrations of a xanthan gum-based thickener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeri; Hwang, Han-Im; Song, Ki-Won; Lee, Jeehyun

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and compare sensory characteristics of beverages and soups thickened with different concentrations of a xanthan gum-based thickener, and to examine, using rheological measurement, whether the viscosity of the thickened liquids conformed to the recommendations of the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) Task Force. Beverages tested included water, apple juice, orange juice, soymilk, and Yakult. The thickening agent was added to samples at concentrations of 1, 2, or 3%. Addition of the thickening agent had a significant effect on the appearance, texture, and starchy flavor, which were evaluated by descriptive sensory evaluation. The reference standards of viscosity used in sensory descriptive analysis could be useful to practitioners who have to make dysphagia diets and need to learn to make them properly. In rheological measurement, viscosity of thickened liquids in stationary state would be perceived as higher compared to that while swallowing, because of the shear thinning property. This could lead to noncompliance of the medical advice or malnutrition. It is necessary to determine optimal proportion of xanthan gum-based thickener or uncover alternatives, which have shear thinning properties lower than those of xanthan gum, for the acceptance of dysphagia patients. There was no pudding-like viscosity as classified by NDD, when prepared following instructions. Future studies should include higher concentrations of thickener to find out the concentration of the thickener resulting in pudding-like viscosity as recommended by NDD. When a manufacturer modifies or develops a xanthan gum-based thickener, findings from this study can be utilized to understand sensory and rheological characteristics of thickened liquid. For practitioners who have to make dysphagia diets, the reference standards of viscosity used in sensory descriptive analysis could be helpful for deciding the viscosity level of thickened liquids based only on visual

  4. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix C to Attachment 3, Calculations. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This volume contains calculations for: Slick Rock processing sites background ground water quality; Slick Rock processing sites lysimeter water quality; Slick Rock processing sites on-site and downgradient ground water quality; Slick Rock disposal site background water quality; Burro Canyon disposal site, Slick Rock, Colorado, average hydraulic gradients and average liner ground water velocities in the upper, middle, and lower sandstone units of the Burro Canyon formation; Slick Rock--Burro Canyon disposal site, Burro Canyon pumping and slug tests--analyses; water balance and surface contours--Burro Canyon disposal cell; and analytical calculation of drawdown in a hypothetical well completed in the upper sandstone unit of the Burro Canyon formation

  5. French crew for Ixtoc one oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuy, G

    1979-08-30

    In response to Mexico's July 1979 call for international bids to assist in cleaning up the oil slick from the Ixtoc No. 1 well blowout the French Government asked for responses from various organizations, to share the work under the leadership of the French Mission Interministerialle de la Mer (MISMER). Mexico called for 17 studies; among the French organizations, the Institut Geographique National and the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) were especially interested in tracking the slick and developing a model of the oil dispersion and diffusion, and the Office de Recherche Scientifique and Technique d'Outre-Mer was interested in the environmental impacts. CNEXO, with the IFP, selected projects on meteorological effects on the slick, and demographic studies of the marine and estuarine zones, and on the effects of the slick on deepwater near-surface resources, and deep sea and estuarine fish and shrimp. CEDRE suggested examining the hydrocarbon accumulations.

  6. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: State of the art and application to the BP DeepWater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Clark, R.; Jones, C.; Holt, B.; Svejkovsky, J.; Swayze, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast, persistent, and unconstrained oil release from the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) challenged the spill response, which required accurate quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Experienced observers are the mainstay of oil spill response. Key limitations are weather, scene illumination geometry, and few trained observers, leading to potential observer bias. Aiding the response was extensive passive and active satellite and airborne remote sensing, including intelligent system augmentation, reviewed herein. Oil slick appearance strongly depends on many factors like emulsion composition and scene geometry, yielding false positives and great thickness uncertainty. Oil thicknesses and the oil to water ratios for thick slicks were derived quantitatively with a new spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of spectral features related to C-H vibration bands. The approach used near infrared, imaging spectroscopy data from the AVIRIS (Airborne Visual/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on the NASA ER-2 stratospheric airplane. Extrapolation to the total slick used MODIS satellite visual-spectrum broadband data, which observes sunglint reflection from surface slicks; i.e., indicates the presence of oil and/or surfactant slicks. Oil slick emissivity is less than seawater's allowing MODIS thermal infrared (TIR) nighttime identification; however, water temperature variations can cause false positives. Some strong emissivity features near 6.7 and 9.7 ??m could be analyzed as for the AVIRIS short wave infrared features, but require high spectral resolution data. TIR spectral trends can allow fresh/weathered oil discrimination. Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SSAR) provided synoptic data under all-sky conditions by observing oil dampening of capillary waves; however, SSAR typically cannot discriminate thick from thin oil slicks. Airborne UAVSAR's significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and fine spatial resolution allowed

  7. Rheological characteristics of cold thickened beverages containing xanthan gum-based food thickeners used for dysphagia diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun M; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2015-01-01

    Cold beverages are commonly thickened with commercial gum-based food thickeners for consumption by patients with dysphagia. In this study, the rheological properties of a thickened water and five thickened beverages (orange juice, apple juice, grape juice, whole milk, and a sport drink) that were prepared with four commercial instant xanthan gum-based thickeners (coded A-D) were investigated at a 3% thickener concentration. All thickened samples showed high shear-thinning behavior with yield stress at the serving temperature of 8°C. The magnitudes of apparent viscosity (ηa,50), consistency index (K), storage modulus (G'), and loss modulus (G'') of the thickened beverages, except for water, with food thickener A were significantly higher compared with other thickeners (B, C, and D) (Pbeverages were observed at 1-hour storage, and at longer times their K values, except for milk, remained approximately constant. Rheological parameters demonstrated statistically significant differences in flow and dynamic behaviors between the cold thickened beverages prepared with the xanthan gum-based food thickeners (Pfood thickener, and storage time. In particular, appropriately selecting a commercial food thickener for preparing thickened beverages seems to be of importance for managing dysphagia. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploratory Data Analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Measurements to Distinguish the Sea Surface Expressions of Naturally-Occurring Oil Seeps from Human-Related Oil Spills in Campeche Bay (Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Araújo Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA aims to use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR measurements for discriminating between two oil slick types observed on the sea surface: naturally-occurring oil seeps versus human-related oil spills—the use of satellite sensors for this task is poorly documented in scientific literature. A long-term RADARSAT dataset (2008–2012 is exploited to investigate oil slicks in Campeche Bay (Gulf of Mexico. Simple Classification Algorithms to distinguish the oil slick type are designed based on standard multivariate data analysis techniques. Various attributes of geometry, shape, and dimension that describe the oil slick Size Information are combined with SAR-derived backscatter coefficients—sigma-(σo, beta-(βo, and gamma-(γo naught. The combination of several of these characteristics is capable of distinguishing the oil slick type with ~70% of overall accuracy, however, the sole and simple use of two specific oil slick’s Size Information (i.e., area and perimeter is equally capable of distinguishing seeps from spills. The data mining exercise of our EDA promotes a novel idea bridging petroleum pollution and remote sensing research, thus paving the way to further investigate the satellite synoptic view to express geophysical differences between seeped and spilled oil observed on the sea surface for systematic use.

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protocols were developed and evaluated to assess the efficacy and environmental safety of commercial oil spill bioremediation agents (CBAs). Test systems that simulate oil slicks on open water or oiled sandy beaches were used to test the effectiveness of CBAs. Gravimetric and gas...

  10. Simulation of an oil film at the sea surface and its radiometric properties in the SWIR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenger, F.; Eijk, A.M.J. van

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of the optical contrast of an oil layer on the sea under various surface roughness conditions is of great interest for oil slick monitoring techniques. This paper presents a 3D simulation of a dynamic sea surface contaminated by a floating oil film. The simulation considers the damping

  11. Convergent Evolution of Slick Coat in Cattle through Truncation Mutations in the Prolactin Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio R. Porto-Neto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary adaptations are occasionally convergent solutions to the same problem. A mutation contributing to a heat tolerance adaptation in Senepol cattle, a New World breed of mostly European descent, results in the distinct phenotype known as slick, where an animal has shorter hair and lower follicle density across its coat than wild type animals. The causal variant, located in the 11th exon of prolactin receptor, produces a frameshift that results in a truncated protein. However, this mutation does not explain all cases of slick coats found in criollo breeds. Here, we obtained genome sequences from slick cattle of a geographically distinct criollo breed, namely Limonero, whose ancestors were originally brought to the Americas by the Spanish. These data were used to identify new causal alleles in the 11th exon of the prolactin receptor, two of which also encode shortened proteins that remove a highly conserved tyrosine residue. These new mutations explained almost 90% of investigated cases of animals that had slick coats, but which also did not carry the Senepol slick allele. These results demonstrate convergent evolution at the molecular level in a trait important to the adaptation of an animal to its environment.

  12. Differential distribution of the sodium‐activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Hans‐Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sodium‐activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high‐conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093–2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26587966

  13. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miquel County. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 63 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 15 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The sites are within 1 mile of each other and are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,300 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}). In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designing site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

  14. Genome-wide association study and ancestral origins of the slick-hair coat in tropically adapted cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted cattle that are from Criollo descent through Spanish colonization of cattle into the New World. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-t...

  15. Identification of potential novel interaction partners of the sodium-activated potassium channels Slick and Slack in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Sandra; Schwarzer, Christoph; Kremser, Leopold; Lindner, Herbert H; Knaus, Hans-Günther

    2015-12-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are paralogous channels of the Slo family of high-conductance potassium channels. Slick and Slack channels are widely distributed in the mammalian CNS and they play a role in slow afterhyperpolarization, generation of depolarizing afterpotentials and in setting and stabilizing the resting potential. In the present study we used a combined approach of (co)-immunoprecipitation studies, Western blot analysis, double immunofluorescence and mass spectrometric sequencing in order to investigate protein-protein interactions of the Slick and Slack channels. The data strongly suggest that Slick and Slack channels co-assemble into identical cellular complexes. Double immunofluorescence experiments revealed that Slick and Slack channels co-localize in distinct mouse brain regions. Moreover, we identified the small cytoplasmic protein beta-synuclein and the transmembrane protein 263 (TMEM 263) as novel interaction partners of both, native Slick and Slack channels. In addition, the inactive dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP 10) and the synapse associated protein 102 (SAP 102) were identified as constituents of the native Slick and Slack channel complexes in the mouse brain. This study presents new insights into protein-protein interactions of native Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain.

  16. Studies of food thickeners in Nigeria for contamination by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... Food thickeners or thickening agents are used in food to absorb the fluid of the ... used in beverages, gravies, sauces and stews. The use of food ... Furthermore, it has also not been possible to develop effective management.

  17. The development and application of high-capacity thickening techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zhenwan; Song Yuejie

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of sedimentation theory and comparison between the high-capacity and conventional thickening techniques, the authors analyse the ways to increase capacity and to improve technological parameters of thickeners, describes the construction features, development, application, automatic control and test installations of high-capacity thickeners at home and abroad

  18. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the two millsites in Slick Rock, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. The Union Carbide site has 350,000 tons of tailings and the North Continent site now owned by Union Carbide has 37,000 tons of tailings. Both tailings piles have been stabilized in accordance with regulations of the State of Colorado. Radon gas release from the tailings on the sites constitute the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact. Hence the three alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the sites (Option I), and returning the windblown tailings to the piles and stabilizing the piles with cover material (Option II), and consolidating the two piles on the UC site and stabilizing with 2 ft of cover (Option III). Fencing around the tailings piles is included in all options. Options II and III provide 2 ft of cover material on the tailings. Costs of the options range from $370,000 to $1,100,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible

  19. Effectiveness of a chemical herder in association with in-situ burning of oil spills in ice-infested water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    The average herded slick thickness, surface distribution and burning efficiency of a light crude oil were studied in ice-infested water to determine the effectiveness of a chemical herder in facilitating the in-situ burning of oil. Experiments were performed in a small scale (1.0m2) and an interm......The average herded slick thickness, surface distribution and burning efficiency of a light crude oil were studied in ice-infested water to determine the effectiveness of a chemical herder in facilitating the in-situ burning of oil. Experiments were performed in a small scale (1.0m2...

  20. Development of Flexible Extremities Protection utilizing Shear Thickening Fluid/Fabric Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    The influence of Interparticle Interactions and Hydrodynamic Forces on Shear Thickening in Concentrated Colloidal Dispersions and Slurries 10...Armor Using Fumed SiO2 Nanoparticles Dispersed into Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) through Sonic Cavitation , NSTI-Nanotech 2006. 2006/05/07 00:00:00...for a wide variety of suspensions such as clay–water [17], calcium carbonate–water [18], polystyrene spheres in silicon oil [19], iron particles in

  1. Cell volume changes regulate slick (Slo2.1), but not slack (Slo2.2) K+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Maria A; Stople, Kathleen; Hammami Bomholtz, Sofia; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Klaerke, Dan A

    2014-01-01

    Slick (Slo2.1) and Slack (Slo2.2) channels belong to the family of high-conductance K+ channels and have been found widely distributed in the CNS. Both channels are activated by Na+ and Cl- and, in addition, Slick channels are regulated by ATP. Therefore, the roles of these channels in regulation of cell excitability as well as ion transport processes, like regulation of cell volume, have been hypothesized. It is the aim of this work to evaluate the sensitivity of Slick and Slack channels to small, fast changes in cell volume and to explore mechanisms, which may explain this type of regulation. For this purpose Slick and Slack channels were co-expressed with aquaporin 1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes and cell volume changes of around 5% were induced by exposure to hypotonic or hypertonic media. Whole-cell currents were measured by two electrode voltage clamp. Our results show that Slick channels are dramatically stimulated (196% of control) by cell swelling and inhibited (57% of control) by a decrease in cell volume. In contrast, Slack channels are totally insensitive to similar cell volume changes. The mechanism underlining the strong volume sensitivity of Slick channels needs to be further explored, however we were able to show that it does not depend on an intact actin cytoskeleton, ATP release or vesicle fusion. In conclusion, Slick channels, in contrast to the similar Slack channels, are the only high-conductance K+ channels strongly sensitive to small changes in cell volume.

  2. Cell volume changes regulate slick (Slo2.1, but not slack (Slo2.2 K+ channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Tejada

    Full Text Available Slick (Slo2.1 and Slack (Slo2.2 channels belong to the family of high-conductance K+ channels and have been found widely distributed in the CNS. Both channels are activated by Na+ and Cl- and, in addition, Slick channels are regulated by ATP. Therefore, the roles of these channels in regulation of cell excitability as well as ion transport processes, like regulation of cell volume, have been hypothesized. It is the aim of this work to evaluate the sensitivity of Slick and Slack channels to small, fast changes in cell volume and to explore mechanisms, which may explain this type of regulation. For this purpose Slick and Slack channels were co-expressed with aquaporin 1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes and cell volume changes of around 5% were induced by exposure to hypotonic or hypertonic media. Whole-cell currents were measured by two electrode voltage clamp. Our results show that Slick channels are dramatically stimulated (196% of control by cell swelling and inhibited (57% of control by a decrease in cell volume. In contrast, Slack channels are totally insensitive to similar cell volume changes. The mechanism underlining the strong volume sensitivity of Slick channels needs to be further explored, however we were able to show that it does not depend on an intact actin cytoskeleton, ATP release or vesicle fusion. In conclusion, Slick channels, in contrast to the similar Slack channels, are the only high-conductance K+ channels strongly sensitive to small changes in cell volume.

  3. Effect of Time and Temperature on Thickened Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosa, Memorie M; Dodrill, Pamela

    2017-04-01

    Unlike adult populations, who primarily depend on liquids for hydration alone, infants rely on liquids to provide them with hydration and nutrition. Speech-language pathologists working within pediatric medical settings often identify dysphagia in patients and subsequently recommend thickened liquids to reduce aspiration risk. Caregivers frequently report difficulty attempting to prepare infant formula to the prescribed thickness. This study was designed to determine (1) the relationship between consistencies in modified barium swallow studies and thickened infant formulas and (2) the effects of time and temperature on the resulting thickness of infant formula. Prepackaged barium consistencies and 1 standard infant formula that was thickened with rice cereal and with 2 commercially available thickening agents were studied. Thickness was determined via a line spread test after various time and temperature conditions were met. There were significant differences between the thickened formula and barium test consistencies. Formula thickened with rice cereal separated over time into thin liquid and solid residue. Formula thickened with a starch-based thickening agent was thicker than the desired consistency immediately after mixing, and it continued to thicken over time. The data from this project suggest that nectar-thick and honey-thick infant formulas undergo significant changes in flow rates within 30 minutes of preparation or if refrigerated and then reheated after 3 hours. Additional empirical evidence is warranted to determine the most reliable methods and safest products for thickening infant formula when necessary for effective dysphagia management.

  4. Differential distribution of the sodium-activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Sandra; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high-conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093-2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Kato, Katsuya; Usami, Ikuji; Sakai, Fumikazu; Tokuyama, Takeshi; Hayashi, Seiji; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2014-01-01

    The clinical features of asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) remain unclear. To clarify the association between radiological findings of DPT and respiratory function. Medical data from patients with asbestos-related DPT were collected, including their history of occupational or neighborhood asbestos exposure, initial symptoms, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea grade, smoking history, radiological findings, and respiratory function test results. There were 106 DPT patients between 2005 and 2010 [i.e. 103 men (97.2%) and 3 women (2.8%)]. The median age at diagnosis was 69 years (range 46-88). Patient occupations related to asbestos exposure included: asbestos product manufacturing (n = 17); the shipbuilding industry (n = 14); the construction industry (n = 13); heat insulation work (n = 12); plumbing, asbestos spraying, and electrical work (n = 7 each), and transportation and demolition work (n = 4 each). The median duration of asbestos exposure was 25 years (range 2-54), and the median latency period before the onset of DPT was 46 years (range 25-66). Involvement of the costophrenic angle (CPA) was also negatively correlated with the percent vital capacity (%VC; r = -0.448, p < 0.01). Pleural thickness and the craniocaudal and horizontal extension of pleural thickening, as determined by chest computed tomography (CT), were also negatively correlated with %VC (r = -0.226, p < 0.05; r = -0.409, p < 0.01, and r = -0.408, p < 0.01, respectively). DPT develops after a long latency period following occupational asbestos exposure and causes marked respiratory dysfunction. The extension of DPT should be evaluated by chest CT, and chest X-ray would be important for the evaluation of the involvement of the CPA.

  6. Thickening compositions, and related materials and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael Joseph; Perry, Robert James; Enick, Robert Michael; Lee, Jason Jiwoo

    2017-10-03

    A silicone polymer is provided, modified with at least one functional group from the class of anthraquinone amide groups; anthraquinone sulfonamide groups; thioxanthone amide groups; or thioxanthone sulfone amide groups. The polymer can be combined with a hydrocarbon solvent or with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2), and is very effective for increasing the viscosity of either medium. A process for the recovery of oil from a subterranean, oil-bearing formation is also described, using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with the functionalized silicone polymer. A process for extracting natural gas or oil from a bedrock-shale formation is also described, again using the modified silicone polymer.

  7. Study of shear thickening behavior in colloidal suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Maleki Jirsaraee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the shear thickening behavior of the nano silica suspension (silica nanoparticles 12 nm in size suspended in ethylene glycol under steady shear. The critical shear rate for transition into shear thickening phase was determined at different concentrations and temperatures. The effect of temperature and concentration was studied on the shear thickening behavior. In silica suspension, it was observed that all the samples had a transition into shear thickening phase and also by increasing the temperature, critical shear rate increased and viscosity decreased. Our observations showed that movement in silica suspension was Brownian and temperature could cause a delay in transition into shear thickening phase. Yet, we observed that increasing the concentration would decrease critical shear rate and increase viscosity. Increasing temperature increased Brownian forces and increasing concentration increased hydrodynamic forces, confirming the contrast between these two forces for transition into shear thickening phase for the suspensions containing nano particles

  8. [Residual pleural thickening in tuberculous pleuritis. Associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, E; Alegre, J; Alemán, C; Vizcaya, S; Armadans, L; Segura, R M; Andreu, J; Iglesias, D; Fernández de Sevilla, T

    2000-10-01

    To study the factors related to the development of residual pleural thickening in pleural tuberculosis. We studied 39 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion. A chest X-ray was taken of each patient at the end of treatment. The patients' medical histories, pleural fluid findings and diagnostic chest films were evaluated. Residual pleural thickening was defined as thickening that was visibly greater than 2 mm in the lower side portion of the chest film. Residual pleural thickening developed in 26% of patients and was found mainly in men (RR = 3.86). In no patients with Löwenstein-Jensen cultures positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis did pleural complications develop. Residual pleural thickening is a common complication of tuberculous pleural effusion. Residual pleural thickening in tuberculous pleurisy occurs more often in men and older patients, and in cases in which pleural liquid culture is negative for M. tuberculosis.

  9. Sensory characteristics of liquids thickened with commercial thickeners to levels specified in the International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative (IDDSI) framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jane Jun-Xin; Steele, Catriona M; Duizer, Lisa M

    2018-06-01

    Sensory characteristics are important for the acceptance of thickened liquids, but those of liquids thickened to the new standards put forth by the International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative (IDDSI) are unknown. This research sought to identify and rate the perception of important sensory properties of liquids thickened to levels specified in the IDDSI framework. Samples were made with water, with and without added barium sulfate, and were thickened with a cornstarch or xanthan gum based thickener. Samples were characterized using projective mapping/ultra-flash profiling to identify important sample attributes, and then with trained descriptive analysis panels to characterize those attributes in non-barium and barium thickened liquids. Three main groups of attributes were observed. Taste and flavor attributes decreased in intensity with increasing thickener. Thickener specific attributes included graininess and chalkiness for the cornstarch thickened samples, and slipperiness for the xanthan gum samples. Within the same type of thickener, ratings of thickness-related attributes (perceived viscosity, adhesiveness, manipulation, and swallowing) at different IDDSI levels were significantly different from each other. However, in non-barium samples, cornstarch samples were perceived as thicker than xanthan gum samples even though they had similar apparent viscosities at 50 s -1 . On the other hand, the two thickeners had similar perceived thickness in the barium samples even though the apparent viscosities of cornstarch samples were higher than those of the xanthan gum samples. In conclusion, IDDSI levels can be distinguished based on sensory properties, but these properties may be affected by the type of thickener and medium being thickened.

  10. Oil spill models for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgins, D.O.

    1997-01-01

    The need for, and the nature of an oil spill model, were discussed. Modern oil spill models were shown to provide rapid and accurate input of information about a marine spill, as well as to provide powerful visualization methods for displaying output data. Marine oil spill models are designed to answer five questions: (1) where will the oil go in 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours, (2) how fast will it move, (3) how big will the slick get, (4) how much will end up on shore and where, and (5) how do the oil properties change. The models are able to provide timely and accurate results by using reasonably complete algorithms for the physics and chemistry governing oil slick evolution that take advantage of computer visualization methods for displaying output data. These models have been made possible through new technologies which have increased access to environmental data on winds, currents and satellite imaging of slicks. Spill modelling is also evolving by taking advantage of the Internet for both acquisition of input data and dissemination of results. 5 figs

  11. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  12. State of the Art Satellite and Airborne Marine Oil Spill Remote Sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    development and operationalization of new spill response remote sensing tools must precede the next major oil spill. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved...Environment 124 (2012) 185–209 sensing oil spill impacts, and 5) a final discussion. Each section presents background, available remote sensing tools , and...cialized DaVinci command-line software (Clark et al., 2003) then mapped oil slick volume (Clark et al., 2010) in each AVIRIS pixel by identifying the

  13. Remedial action and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This report presents geologic considerations that are pertinent to the Remedial Action Plan for Slick Rock mill tailings. Topics covered include regional geology, site geology, geologic stability, and geologic suitability

  14. An hydrodynamic model for the calculation of oil spills trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladino, Emilio Ernesto; Maliska, Clovis Raimundo [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Dinamica dos Fluidos Computacionais]. E-mails: emilio@sinmec.ufsc.br; maliska@sinmec.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a mathematical model and its numerical treatment to forecast oil spills trajectories in the sea. The knowledge of the trajectory followed by an oil slick spilled on the sea is of fundamental importance in the estimation of potential risks for pipeline and tankers route selection, and in combating the pollution using floating barriers, detergents, etc. In order to estimate these slicks trajectories a new model, based on the mass and momentum conservation equations is presented. The model considers the spreading in the regimes when the inertial and viscous forces counterbalance gravity and takes into account the effects of winds and water currents. The inertial forces are considered for the spreading and the displacement of the oil slick, i.e., is considered its effects on the movement of the mass center of the slick. The mass loss caused by oil evaporation is also taken into account. The numerical model is developed in generalized coordinates, making the model easily applicable to complex coastal geographies. (author)

  15. Slurry explosive containing an improved thickening agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakazono, Y.; Otsuka, Y.

    1970-08-18

    A slurry explosive having stable physical properties and a thickening agent which when blended with a slurry explosive, maintains it in a uniform and stable state as a good suspended dispersion condition over a long period of time, are described. The slurry explosive has a composition consisting essentially of ammonium nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate, at least one member selected from the group consisting of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, aluminum, smokeless powder and fuels, and water, 0.1 to 2.0% guar gum, not more than 0.3% of a borate or borates, and/or not more than 20% of hexamethylene tetramine, and 0.02 to 2.0% of an antimony compound or compounds, all percents being by weight. (6 claims)

  16. Geologic history of the Slick Rock district and vicinity, San Miguel and Dolores Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawe, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    This report is a narrative summary and interpretation, in the form of a geologic history of the Slick Rock district and vicinity, of four previously published chapters in this series dealing with stratigraphy of the Slick Rock district and vicinity, petrography of sedimentary rocks of the district, structure of the district and vicinity, and altered sedimentary rocks of the district, and of other previously published reports on the district. It forms the background, with the earlier reports, for presentation of a final report in the series describing the uranium-vanadium ore deposits. A review of the origin of sedimentary rocks and geologic history of the region indicates that formation of uranium-vanadium deposits was a natural result of the deposition of th rocks, the occurrence of intrastratal waters therein, and the post-depositional movement of the waters resulting from evolution of the sedimentary rock environment. 31 refs

  17. Oil pollution in the seas around India and application of remote sensing for its detection and monitoring

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.

    beam of microwave radia tion at the sea surface and measuring the strength of the reflected signal. Oil slicks can be detected because they damp out capillary waves and reduce the amount of backscatter and as a result oil appears as a dark area...

  18. First day of an oil spill on the open sea: Early mass transfers of hydrocarbons to air and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gros, J.; Nabi, D.; Würz, B.; Wick, L.Y.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Huisman, J.; van der Meer, J.R.; Reddy, C.M.; Arey, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    During the first hours after release of petroleum at sea, crude oil hydrocarbons partition rapidly into air and water. However, limited information is available about very early evaporation and dissolution processes. We report on the composition of the oil slick during the first day after a

  19. Non-traumatic Thickening of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Hyun Jun; Park, Jin Gyoon; Song, Sang Gook [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of non-traumatic thickening of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and to evaluate the associated lesions. Between January 2003 and August 2005, 44 knees of 44 patients who had thickened ACLs on MR images and had no history of knee trauma were analyzed retrospectively. The normal thickness of the ACL was measured on axial T2-weighted images of 40 healthy adult knees. The MR imaging findings of the thickened ACLs and associated lesions were analyzed. In 40 cases of healthy knees, the thickness of the proximal ACL was 3-6 mm. In 44 cases of non-traumatic thickening of the ACL, the thickness of the proximal ACL was 8-14 mm. There was an increased signal intensity and ill-defined border in all cases of thickened ACLs, linear low-signal intensity fibers parallel to the long axis of the thickened ACL (celery stalk appearance) in 24 cases, and entrapment in 10 cases. With respect to associated lesions, there was osteoarthritis in 40 cases, meniscal tears in 42 cases, and degeneration of the posterior cruciate ligament in 7 cases. Non-traumatic thickening of the ACL was associated with osteoarthritis and meniscal tears in almost all cases and showed increased signal intensity and ill-defined borders simulating acute ligamentous tears

  20. When oil spills emulsify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.; Fingas, M.; Tennyson, E.

    1992-01-01

    Cleanup operations of oil spills must take into account the numerous detrimental effects attributable to the emulsification of spilled oil into a stable water-in-oil mousse. The incorporation of water greatly increases the volume of the polluted material. The viscous nature of mousse impedes the efficient operation of most mechanical recovery equipment and results in a cohesive slick that resists dispersion, both natural and artificial. The rate at which spilled oil emulsifies determines the effective window of opportunity for specific countermeasures. Much has been learned from previous studies on petroleum emulsification, but is still remain a poorly understood phenomenon. Although most crude oils can be emulsified, not all spills result in the formation of stable mousse. The formation of mousse results from a complex series of processes. Whether an oil will form mousse or not, and if so, at what rate, depends on an array of different factors including the properties of the oil and the prevailing environmental conditions. We need a greater understanding of the emulsification process to better predict the emulsification behavior of oil spills and utilize the most appropriate countermeasures available. In this paper, the authors report on work to elucidate the role that physicochemical factors play in determining an oil's tendency to emulsify. The authors studied the emulsification behavior of oils of known composition to examine the importance of oil chemistry in the emulsification process

  1. Assessment of oil pollution as consequence of the oil leaks from seabed pipeline in the Bohai Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Li, X.; Goncharov, V.K.; Klementieva, N.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Although oil leaks from pipelines are less dangerous than a blowout of oil as a result of a pipeline break, the presence of oil in the ocean can have a devastating affect on the marine environment, particularly as oil leaks are difficult to detect and can occur over long periods of time. This paper discussed oil pollution in the Bohai Sea. Most of the crude oil in the Bohai oil fields is heavy and contains both paraffin and sand, both of which contribute to greater incidences of cracks and corrosion wormholes in pipes. The Main Points of Model for Assessment of Environmental Consequence of the Oil Leaks from Marine Pipeline (MAECOLMP) is based on the assumption that oil leaks from wormholes on seabed pipelines generate separate oil drops which float up to create a plume in the water. After their emergence on the sea surface, an oil slick forms, which has the shape of a serpentine strip extending along the surface in the direction of the current. The main parameters that define environmental oil pollution are: the dimensions of oil drops in the water; the dimension of the oil slick on the sea surface; and the carryover of crude oil on the coastline. According to the model, the assessment of environmental effects of the oil leaks from the sea bed consist of the following stages: selection of the probable position of wormholes in the pipeline and their size; calculation of the rate of the oil leak from the wormhole for selected sizes and positions; estimation of probable average sizes of oil drops for the selected diameter of wormhole; calculation of boundaries of the plume; calculation of the width and extension of the oil slicks for each selected position of the wormhole; and estimation of the volume of crude oil that can be carried over to the coastline in each case and detection of the most dangerous accident variant. This model permits the use of the Lagrangian description in order to take into account the difference in the velocities of emerging oil drops. It

  2. Process for the preparation of a thickened explosive slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-10-25

    A process is described for the preparation of a thickened explosive slurry, substantially aqueous. The composition consists essentially of a suspension of an inorganic oxygen salt for furnishing oxygen in a fluid matrix. This fluid matrix consists of a lower aliphatic glycol (ethylene, diethylene, propylene, dipropylene) thickened with one of the polysaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose) or mixtures of them. The composition should have a density below 1.8 g per cu cm. (5 claims)

  3. The Logistics of Oil Spill Dispersant Application. Volume I. Logistics-Related Properties of Oil Spill Dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    time of application. Such designs were probably influenced by the ready availabilit " 51 of fire-fighting hoses on ships and tugs; the water stream not...8217 I I1 ---- i . . .. . IIII . . . I I PREFACE The use of chemicals for the dispersal of oil spilled on water has been the subject of discussion (and of...20 Oil Type, Weathering and Emulsification.. 20 Slick Thickness .......................... 28 Water Temperature

  4. State of the art satellite and airborne marine oil spill remote sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Lehr, William J.; Simecek-Beatty, Debra; Bradley, Eliza; Clark, Roger N.; Dennison, Philip E.; Hu, Yongxiang; Matheson, Scott; Jones, Cathleen E; Holt, Benjamin; Reif, Molly; Roberts, Dar A.; Svejkovsky, Jan; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wozencraft, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The vast and persistent Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill challenged response capabilities, which required accurate, quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Although experienced observers are a spill response's mainstay, few trained observers and confounding factors including weather, oil emulsification, and scene illumination geometry present challenges. DWH spill and impact monitoring was aided by extensive airborne and spaceborne passive and active remote sensing.Oil slick thickness and oil-to-water emulsion ratios are key spill response parameters for containment/cleanup and were derived quantitatively for thick (> 0.1 mm) slicks from AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data using a spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of near infrared spectral absorption features. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite, visible-spectrum broadband data of surface-slick modulation of sunglint reflection allowed extrapolation to the total slick. A multispectral expert system used a neural network approach to provide Rapid Response thickness class maps.Airborne and satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides synoptic data under all-sky conditions; however, SAR generally cannot discriminate thick (> 100 μm) oil slicks from thin sheens (to 0.1 μm). The UAVSAR's (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR) significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and finer spatial resolution allowed successful pattern discrimination related to a combination of oil slick thickness, fractional surface coverage, and emulsification.In situ burning and smoke plumes were studied with AVIRIS and corroborated spaceborne CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) observations of combustion aerosols. CALIPSO and bathymetry lidar data documented shallow subsurface oil, although ancillary data were required for confirmation.Airborne hyperspectral, thermal infrared data have nighttime and

  5. See võid sina olla. See võib olla sinu kloon. Sina võid olla kloon / Gregory Slick ; interv. Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Slick, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    USA fotograaf G. Slick, kellel lõppes residentuur EKL külalisateljees, endast, oma loomingust, Eestist jm. G. Slick jätkas Eestis tööd seeriatega "Natural Histories" ja "Humans vs Space". Intervjuu on antud "Vikerraadio" saate "Kultuurikaja" jaoks

  6. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small town of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated UMTRA sites at Slick Rock, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The UC site is approximately 1 mile (mi) [2 kilometers (km)] downstream of the NC site. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres (ac) [22 hectares (ha)] at the UC site and 12 ac (4.9 ha) at the NC site. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 620, 000 cubic yards (yd 3 ) [470,000 cubic meters (m 3 )]. In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, four vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into groundwater

  7. Incendiary Devices for the in-situ Combustion of Crude Oil Slicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    contiennent. Celles-cl se composent principalement d’un oxydant , le perchlorate d’ammonium, d’un carburant, une poudre m~tallique, et d’un liant...20.8 I- R T: 78% vt. R-45HT/22% wt. DDI-1410. 2- Epoxy: 85% vt. Epon 815/15% wt. Hysol 3543. 3- Solvent: ethyl alcohol . 4- F-ND: boron-potassium nitrate

  8. Image segmentation-based oil slick detection using SAR Radarsat-2 OSVN maritime data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, Lizwe W

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available (RS2) Maritime Satellite Surveillance Radar (MSSR) modes have been developed to further improve ocean surveillance. This data can monitor large areas (400 km for SEN1 EW and over 500 km for RS2 OSVN), with a finer resolution. These modes enable...

  9. Oil spill encounter rate: A means of estimating advancing skimmer performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.

    1993-01-01

    A high rate of oil spill recovery can only be achieved if the spilled oil can be collected fast enough for the skimming and pumping systems to operate at their rated capacity. For advancing skimmers, recovery capacity depends on the rate at which the skimming system encounters the oil slick. For these systems, encounter rate depends on skimming speed, sweep width, and the amount of oil available, in this case measured in terms of slick thickness. The computation of the spill encounter rate is described, and a chart is provided that permits the user to determine encounter rate for candidate skimming systems by inspection. Furthermore, a contingency planning worksheet for advancing skimmers is provided that allows the user to evaluate a particular response system. The resulting data can be used to determine the oil slick area that can be covered in a period of time, the volume of oil that can be expected to be recovered in that time based on oil spill planning scenarios, the pumping capacity required for skimming and transfer systems, and the storage requirements for recovered oil. Finally, suggestions are presented on how computations of oil spill encounter rate can be used to make important decisions in procuring advancing skimmers for specific applications. 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  11. The Parameters Controlling the Burning Efficiency of In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    Parameters that control the burning efficiency of in-situ burning of crude oil on water were identified by studying the influence of the initial slick thickness, vaporization order, oil slick diameter, weathering state of the oil, heat losses to the water layer and heat flux to the fuel surface...... on the burning efficiency for light and heavy crude oils. These parameters were studied in several small scale and intermediate scale experimental setups. The results showed that the heat losses to the water layer increase with increasing burning time because the components in a crude oil evaporate from volatile...... to non-volatile. Due to the relatively low heat feedback (reradiation and convection, in kW/m2) to the fuel surface of small scale pool fires, as compared to large scale pool fires, these heat losses were shown to limit the burning efficiency in small scale experiments. By subjecting small scale crude...

  12. Design of a Low-cost Oil Spill Tracking Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Hu, X.; Yu, F.; Dong, S.; Chen, G.

    2017-12-01

    As the rapid development of oil exploitation and transportation, oil spill accidents, such as Prestige oil spill, Gulf of Mexico oil spill accident and so on, happened frequently in recent years which would result in long-term damage to the environment and human life. It would be helpful for rescue operation if we can locate the oil slick diffusion area in real time. Equipped with GNSS system, current tracking buoys(CTB), such as Lagrangian drifting buoy, Surface Velocity Program (SVP) drifter, iSLDMB (Iridium self locating datum marker buoy) and Argosphere buoy, have been used as oil tracking buoy in oil slick observation and as validation tools for oil spill simulation. However, surface wind could affect the movement of oil slick, which couldn't be reflected by CTB, thus the oil spill tracking performance is limited. Here, we proposed an novel oil spill tracking buoy (OSTB) which has a low cost of less than $140 and is equipped with Beidou positioning module and sails to track oil slick. Based on hydrodynamic equilibrium model and ocean dynamic analysis, the wind sails and water sails are designed to be adjustable according to different marine conditions to improve tracking efficiency. Quick release device is designed to assure easy deployment from air or ship. Sea experiment was carried out in Jiaozhou Bay, Northern China. OSTB, SVP, iSLDMB, Argosphere buoy and a piece of oil-simulated rubber sheet were deployed at the same time. Meanwhile, oil spill simulation model GNOME (general NOAA operational modeling environment) was configured with the wind and current field, which were collected by an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) mounted with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) and wind speed and direction sensors. Experimental results show that the OSTB has better relevance with rubber sheet and GNOME simulation results, which validate the oil tracking ability of OSTB. With low cost and easy deployment, OSTB provides an effective way for oil spill numerical

  13. The diagnostic significance of thickening of extrapleural fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Weifeng; Pan Jixu; Liu Fugeng

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine the role of thickening of extrapleural fat (EPF) in the diagnosis of pleural and/or para-pleural lung disease. Methods: 166 patients with pleural and/or para-pleural lung disease were studied by CT. Any EPF demonstrated would be near the diseased area, its thickness, and CT number were measured and compared with the CT number of the subcutaneous fat. The anterior thoracic wall of 50 normal subjects were also observed for the normal EPF appearances. Results: In normal group 28(56%) cases showed EPF, its thickness being 1-2 mm. In patient group 106(63.9%) cases showed EPF, among these 88 cases showed the thickness of EPF>2 mm. The mean thickness of the thickened EPF was 5.6 mm. Its mean CT number was -90.3 HU. Higher than that of the subcutaneous fat, the latter's mean CT number was -116.8HU. In this group, the causative disease included radiation lung injury, empyema, chronic lung tuberculosis, thickened and calcified pleura, calcified tuberculoma and lung injury, empyema, chronic lung tuberculosis, thickened and calcified pleura, calcified tuberculoma and lung fibrosis. In the remaining 18 cases, the thickness of EPF was less than 2 mm. No EPF was demonstrated in the other 60 patients. In the latter group the disease included carcinomatous effusion, pleural transudates, peripheral lung caner, thickened pleura, pleural metastasis, tuberculous pleural effusion, acute pneumonia and pleural fibroma. Conclusions: The thickening of EPF was mostly seen in chronic inflammatory and tuberculous diseases. This sign was helpful in differential diagnosis of pleural and/or parapleural lung disease

  14. Viscosity of Dysphagia-Oriented Cold-Thickened Beverages: Effect of Setting Time at Refrigeration Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Gun; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although extensive literature is available on the viscosity of thickened beverages with food thickeners, no attempt has been made to study the effect of setting time on the viscosity of pudding-like cold-thickened beverages with xanthan gum (XG)-based thickeners by using a rheometer. In particular, it is of considerable practical…

  15. A laboratory study of particulate and gaseous emissions from crude oil and crude oil-dispersant contaminated seawater due to breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Li, Cheng; Rule, Ana M.; Katz, Joseph; Koehler, Kirsten

    2018-04-01

    Crude oil spill incidents occur frequently causing a verity of occupational, ecological and environmental problems. Dispersants are applied to enhance the dispersion rate of crude oil slicks into the water column. In this study, the aerosol size distribution from 10 nm to 20 μm, total particle-bound aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are measured in a 6 x 0.3 x 0.6 m tank as plunging breaking waves entrain oil slicks. The experiments are performed for seawater with slicks of crude oil, crude oil-dispersant mixture and dispersant only. The measurements investigate the effects of wave energy and slick properties on the temporal evolution of the emissions. The total number concentrations of particles originating from the oil-dispersant mixture are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those of crude oil across the entire nano-scale range, reaching 100x for 20 nm particles. Conversely, the differences in concentration are small in the micron range. The average concentrations of pPAH are variable but similar (150-270 ng/m3). The VOC concentrations for crude oil-dispersant mixtures are 2-3 times lower than those of crude oil, presumably due to the surfactant effect on mass diffusion. The drastic increase in ultrafine particle concentrations may raise concerns about effects of inhalation by cleanup workers and downstream communities though VOC emissions reduce. Findings through this study provide insight into how the spray of dispersant may change the ratio of airborne particulate matter and VOC emissions from seawater due to natural processes.

  16. Novel CO{sub 2}-thickeners for improved mobility control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

    2000-02-02

    The objective of this study was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO{sub 2}. Previously, fluoroacrylate homopolymers and fluorinated telechelic ionomers were shown to increase the viscosity of carbon dioxide by a factor of 3--4 at concentrations of 2--3 at concentrations of 4--5 wt%. This report details the findings for several new types of carbon dioxide thickening candidates. Hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, sulfonated hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, semifluorinated trialkyltin fluorides and small hydrogen-bounding compounds were evaluated.

  17. The breakup of oil spills in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeidan, E.; Zahariev, K.; Li, M.; Garrett, C.

    1997-01-01

    Existing theories of oil slick disintegration under stormy conditions were examined. A novel empirical model suitable for use in oil spill models was developed in an effort to demonstrate the many difficulties encountered in modeling the emulsification process. Chief among the difficulties is the prediction of the onset and extent of oil spill emulsification. The empirical model was described in some detail using surface active constituents and energy available from wind and waves as the controlling parameters. The resulting chart, if used in the marine environment, can predict localized emulsification and a more realistic behaviour of oil spills. 43 refs., 6 figs

  18. 3D cardiac wall thickening assessment for acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, A.; Chan, B. T.; Lim, E.; Liew, Y. M.

    2017-06-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most severe form of coronary artery disease leading to localized myocardial injury and therefore irregularities in the cardiac wall contractility. Studies have found very limited differences in global indices (such as ejection fraction, myocardial mass and volume) between healthy subjects and AMI patients, and therefore suggested regional assessment. Regional index, specifically cardiac wall thickness (WT) and thickening is closely related to cardiac function and could reveal regional abnormality due to AMI. In this study, we developed a 3D wall thickening assessment method to identify regional wall contractility dysfunction due to localized myocardial injury from infarction. Wall thickness and thickening were assessed from 3D personalized cardiac models reconstructed from cine MRI images by fitting inscribed sphere between endocardial and epicardial wall. The thickening analysis was performed in 5 patients and 3 healthy subjects and the results were compared against the gold standard 2D late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images for infarct localization. The notable finding of this study is the highly accurate estimation and visual representation of the infarct size and location in 3D. This study provides clinicians with an intuitive way to visually and qualitatively assess regional cardiac wall dysfunction due to infarction in AMI patients.

  19. Extension of thickened and hot lithospheres: Inferences from laboratory modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirel, C.; Brun, J.P.; Sokoutis, D.

    2006-01-01

    The extension of a previously thickened lithosphere is studied through a series of analogue experiments. The models deformed in free and boundary-controlled gravity spreading conditions that simulate the development of wide rift-type and core complex-type structures. In models, the development of

  20. Computer simulations of shear thickening of concentrated dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, W.H.; Laven, J.; Stein, H.N.

    1995-01-01

    Stokesian dynamics computer simulations were performed on monolayers of equally sized spheres. The influence of repulsive and attractive forces on the rheological behavior and on the microstructure were studied. Under specific conditions shear thickening could be observed in the simulations, usually

  1. Shear thickening behavior of nanoparticle suspensions with carbon nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, Xiaofei; Yu, Kejing, E-mail: yukejing@gmail.com; Cao, Haijian; Qian, Kun [Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles (China)

    2013-07-15

    Suspensions comprised of silica nanoparticle (average diameter: 650 nm) and carbon nanofillers dispersed in polyethylene glycol were prepared and investigated. Rheological measurement demonstrated that the mixed suspensions showed a non-Newtonian flow profile, and the shear thickening effect was enhanced by the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (main range of diameter: 10-20 nm; length: 5-15 {mu}m; purity: >97 wt%) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNs) (average diameter: >50 nm; average length: 20 {mu}m; purity: >92 wt%). It suggested that better the aggregation effect of dispersed particles was, the more significant the shear thickening effect achieved. The results also revealed that the formation of large nanomaterials clusters could be suitable to explain the phenomena. Furthermore, the trend of shear thickening behavior of the silica suspension with CNTs was more striking than that of GNs. The physical reactions between those multi-dispersed phases had been described by the schematic illustrations in papers. Otherwise, a model was built to explain these behaviors, which could be attributed to the unique structures and inherent properties of these two different nanofillers. And the morphologies of the shear thickening fluid which were examined by transmission electron microscopy confirmed this mechanism.

  2. EFFECT OF THICKENERS ON THE TEXTURE OF STIRRED YOGURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. GONÇALVEZ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The effect of the addition of gelatin and starch on the rheological properties of sweetened plain stirred yogurt was studied by manufacturing six samples: two with gelatin (3000 and 6000 ppm, three with starch (1000, 5000, 10000 ppm and a sample without thickener (control. Rheological characterization of the samples was performed using a coaxial cylinder Haake VT500 viscometer. Yield stress ( and hysteresis were also determined. Syneresis (% was measured by centrifugation at 1100 rpm for 10 minutes. Sensory characterization was performed with a panel of trained sensory assessors, who evaluated the following texture attributes: viscosity, ropiness, creaminess and mouthfeel. All samples showed thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviour. Since the upward curve did not fit a unique model, it was divided in two regions. The first one fitted Herschel-Bulkley’s model. The addition of gelatine decreased flow behaviour index (n, whereas yield stress significantly increased with the addition of both thickeners. Gelatine was more efficient in reducing syneresis than starch. The addition of thickeners significantly increased all the studied sensory texture attributes. Non-oral and oral parameters were highly correlated witch each other and witch rheological parameters. KEYWORDS: Yogurt; texture; thickeners.

  3. Sensory texture analysis of thickened liquids during ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Edgar; Jenkins, Alicia; Mertz Garcia, Jane

    2017-12-01

    Practitioners support the use of thickened liquids for many patients with disordered swallowing. Although physical measures have highlighted differences among products there are questions about the ability of the measures to fully explain the sensory texture effects during swallowing of thickened liquids. This study used a trained sensory panel to describe the textural aspects of liquids during ingestion and swallowing. The lexicon was able to characterize differences in beverages, thickeners, and thickness levels with the most important attribute being viscosity, which loaded heavily in the almost one-dimensional space that resulted from the sensory analysis of these beverages. Other effects, such as slipperiness provided some minimal additional information on the products. Trained sensory panelists were shown to be useful in the measurement of differences in thickened liquid products prescribed for patients with dysphagia. They were able to differentiate products based on perceived differences related to flow speed, viscosity, and other parameters suggesting their use in further studies of swallowing behavior and for development of products for disordered swallowing should be considered. Understanding how these variables might relate to clinical decision making about product selection or modification to best meet the nutritional needs of a person with disordered swallowing could be helpful. This is especially true given the difficulties in measuring texture instrumentally in these products. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Scaling and diffusion of oil spills in the Ocean Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquis, A. M.; Platonov, A.; Grau, J.; Sekula, E.

    2010-05-01

    The region of the Gulf of Lions at the northwestern Mediterranean Sea has been studied within a ten-year period from December 1996 until November 2006. More than 1000 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, which have been acquired by the Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS 1/2) as well as from ENVISAT. We present statistical results of the structure of several features revealed by SAR such as oil spills and tensioactive slicks dynamic. We compare oil splils obtained from the projects Clean Seas,ENVA4/CT/0334, RC2003/005700, ESP2005/07551 and ESA/AO/IP2240. Since natural (caused by plankton, fish, etc.) slicks as well as man-made oil slicks dampen the small-scale surface waves, which are responsible for the radar backscattering from the ocean surface, both types of effects may be confused and give look/alike false oil spill detections. The early SAR images were processed at a resolution of 1 pixel=200m and were provided by the RApid Information Dissemination System (RAIDS) SAR processing facility in West Freugh, UK. Recent ENVISAT images directly from ESA allow a higher resolution of 1 pixel = 26 m, improving the detected turbulent scaling range. The occurrence of marine oil pollution as well as several dynamic features near Barcelona (frames 8-10, 19, 20; 200 SAR images)is itself a random multi-scale process. The use of different multifractal techniques, both using limits to the smallest and largest available scales, show that the scaling laws are very complex and depend strongly on intermittency of the assumed turbulent cascade, the shapes of the multifractal spectra functions are seen to deviate from an homogeneous multifractal and depend both on the initial conditions of the spill or slick, and on the transit time that the spill has been subjected to the local turbulence.

  5. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  6. Detection of Oil near Shorelines during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Garcia-Pineda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During any marine oil spill, floating oil slicks that reach shorelines threaten a wide array of coastal habitats. To assess the presence of oil near shorelines during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill, we scanned the library of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imagery collected during the event to determine which images intersected shorelines and appeared to contain oil. In total, 715 SAR images taken during the DWH spill were analyzed and processed, with 188 of the images clearly showing oil. Of these, 156 SAR images showed oil within 10 km of the shoreline with appropriate weather conditions for the detection of oil on SAR data. We found detectable oil in SAR images within 10 km of the shoreline from west Louisiana to west Florida, including near beaches, marshes, and islands. The high number of SAR images collected in Barataria Bay, Louisiana in 2010 allowed for the creation of a nearshore oiling persistence map. This analysis shows that, in some areas inside Barataria Bay, floating oil was detected on as many as 29 different days in 2010. The nearshore areas with persistent floating oil corresponded well with areas where ground survey crews discovered heavy shoreline oiling. We conclude that satellite-based SAR imagery can detect oil slicks near shorelines, even in sheltered areas. These data can help assess potential shoreline oil exposure without requiring boats or aircraft. This method can be particularly helpful when shoreline assessment crews are hampered by difficult access or, in the case of DWH, a particularly large spatial and temporal spill extent.

  7. Simulation of shear thickening in attractive colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pednekar, Sidhant; Chun, Jaehun; Morris, Jeffrey F

    2017-03-01

    The influence of attractive forces between particles under conditions of large particle volume fraction, ϕ, is addressed using numerical simulations which account for hydrodynamic, Brownian, conservative and frictional contact forces. The focus is on conditions for which a significant increase in the apparent viscosity at small shear rates, and possibly the development of a yield stress, is observed. The high shear rate behavior for Brownian suspensions has been shown in recent work [R. Mari, R. Seto, J. F. Morris and M. M. Denn PNAS, 2015, 112, 15326-15330] to be captured by the inclusion of pairwise forces of two forms, one a contact frictional interaction and the second a repulsive force often found in stabilized colloidal dispersions. Under such conditions, shear thickening is observed when shear stress is comparable to the sum of the Brownian stress, kT/a 3 , and a characteristic stress based on the combination of interparticle force, i.e. σ ∼ F 0 /a 2 with kT the thermal energy, F 0 the repulsive force scale and a the particle radius. At sufficiently large ϕ, this shear thickening can be very abrupt. Here it is shown that when attractive interactions are present with the noted forces, the shear thickening is obscured, as the viscosity shear thins with increasing shear rate, eventually descending from an infinite value (yield stress conditions) to a plateau at large stress; this plateau is at the same level as the large-shear rate viscosity found in the shear thickened state without attractive forces. It is shown that this behavior is consistent with prior observations in shear thickening suspensions modified to be attractive through depletion flocculation [V. Gopalakrishnan and C. F. Zukoski J. Rheol., 2004, 48, 1321-1344]. The contributions of the contact, attractive, and hydrodynamics forces to the bulk stress are presented, as are the contact networks found at different attractive strengths.

  8. Oil spillage recovery by vacuum trawl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkett, H.

    1992-01-01

    In this invention, floating oil is sucked from the surface of the sea under a skirt and into a tubular floating boom, along whose interior it is carried to water-oil separation means. The suction is produced by one or more ejectors which are supplied with sea water under pressure and may be located inside the boom, or immediately below it and connected into a separate pipe. The boom is used to enclose an oil slick and drawn tighter to increase the thickness of the oil layer. The oil enters the boom through holes in its upper half and then flows to the ejector(s) along separate internal tubes or between buoyancy balls. A fraction of the oil-water mixture withdrawn from the boom is pressurised and returned to ejector(s) and the rest is diverted to the separation means. (author)

  9. CHEMICAL OIL SPILL DISPERSANTS: UPDATE STATE-OF-THE- ART ON MECHANISM OF ACTION AND LABORATORY TESTING FOR PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical dispersants are formulations designed to facilitate dispersion of an oil slick into small droplets that disperse to non-problematic concentrations in an underlying water column. This project had two primary objectives: (1) update information on mechanisms of action of ...

  10. Monitoring of oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf based on medium resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of inland and offshore oil fields are located in the Arabian Gulf where about 25% of the world's oil is produced by the countries surrounding the Arabian Gulf region. Almost all of this oil production is shipped by sea worldwide through the Strait of Hormuz making the region vulnerable to environmental and ecological threats that might arise from accidental or intentional oil spills. Remote sensing technologies have the unique capability to detect and monitor oil pollutions over large temporal and spatial scales. Synoptic satellite imaging can date back to 1972 when Landsat-1 was launched. Landsat satellite missions provide long time series of imagery with a spatial resolution of 30 m. MODIS sensors onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites provide a wide and frequent coverage at medium spatial resolution, i.e. 250 m and 500, twice a day. In this study, the capability of medium resolution MODIS and Landsat data in detecting and monitoring oil pollutions in the Arabian Gulf was tested. Oil spills and slicks show negative or positive contrasts in satellite derived RGB images compared with surrounding clean waters depending on the solar/viewing geometry, oil thickness and evolution, etc. Oil-contaminated areas show different spectral characteristics compared with surrounding waters. Rayleigh-corrected reflectance at the seven medium resolution bands of MODIS is lower in oil affected areas. This is caused by high light absorption of oil slicks. 30-m Landsat image indicated the occurrence of oil spill on May 26 2000 in the Arabian Gulf. The oil spill showed positive contrast and lower temperature than surrounding areas. Floating algae index (FAI) images are also used to detect oil pollution. Oil-contaminated areas were found to have lower FAI values. To track the movement of oil slicks found on October 21 2007, ocean circulations from a HYCOM model were examined and demonstrated that the oil slicks were advected toward the coastal areas of United Arab

  11. Rheometry-PIV of shear-thickening wormlike micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Santibañez, Benjamín M; Pérez-Gonzalez, José; de Vargas, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Huelsz, Guadalupe

    2006-04-25

    The shear-thickening behavior of an equimolar semidilute aqueous solution of 40 mM/L cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium salicylate was studied in this work by using a combined method of rheometry and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Experiments were conducted at 27.5 degrees C with Couette, vane-bob, and capillary rheometers in order to explore a wide shear stress range as well as the effect of boundary conditions and time of flow on the creation and destruction of shear-induced structures (SIS). The use of the combined method of capillary rheometry with PIV allowed the detection of fast spatial and temporal variations in the flow kinematics, which are related to the shear-thickening behavior and the dynamics of the SIS but are not distinguished by pure rheometrical measurements. A rich-in-details flow curve was found for this solution, which includes five different regimes. Namely, at very low shear rates a Newtonian behavior was found, followed by a shear thinning one in the second regime. In the third, shear banding was observed, which served as a precursor of the SIS and shear-thickening. The fourth and fifth regimes in the flow curve were separated by a spurtlike behavior, and they clearly evidenced the existence of shear-thickening accompanied by stick-slip oscillations at the wall of the rheometer, which subsequently produced variations in the shear rate under shear stress controlled flow. Such a stick-slip phenomenon prevailed up to the highest shear stresses used in this work and was reflected in asymmetric velocity profiles with spatial and temporal variations linked to the dynamics of creation and breakage of the SIS. The presence of apparent slip at the wall of the rheometer provides an energy release mechanism which leads to breakage of the SIS, followed by their further reformation during the stick part of the cycles. In addition, PIV measurements allowed the detection of apparent slip at the wall, as well as mechanical failures in the bulk of the

  12. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix B to Attachment 3, lithologic logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This appendix contains the lithologic logs and monitor well construction information for the remedial action plan for uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, CO. Data from each borehole is presented graphically and a stratigraphic description is given

  13. In-situ burning of spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of results from the Minerals Management Service's (MMS) funded research on in situ burning of spilled oil. The program began in 1983 to determine the limitations of this innovative response strategies. Specific physical variables evaluated were slick thickness, degree of weathering (sparging), sea state, wind velocities, air and water temperatures, degrees of emulsification and degree of ice-coverage. All of the oils tested burned with 50 to 95 percent removal ratios as long as emulsification had not occurred. Slick thickness of 3mm or thicker were required to sustain ignition and extinguishment occurred when the slick reached approximately 1mm thick. The next phase of the research involved quantitative analysis of the pollutants created by in situ burning including chemical composition of the parent oil, burn residue, and airborne constituents. These studies were conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with emphasis on particulate, and gaseous components created by the burning process. Research efforts over several years, and a variety of crude oils, yielded data which indicated that aldehydes ketones, dioxans, furans, and polyaromatic compounds (PAHS) were not formed in the burning process. The airborne pollutants reflected similar concentrations of these compounds that were present in the parent oil. Lighter molecular weight PAHs tended to be converted to higher molecular weight compounds. Heavier molecular weight compounds are considered less acutely toxic than lighter molecular weight PAHS. Predominant burn products released into the air were by weight: 75% carbon dioxide, 12% water vapor, 10% soot, 3% carbon monoxide and 0.2% other products including those listed above

  14. Oceanographic Applications of ALOS PALSAR Imagery to the Coast of the Korea Peninsula- A Case Study of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk-jin; Kang, Jinho; Kim, Younsoo; Lee, Hoonyol; Moon, Wooil M.

    2008-11-01

    On December 7th, 2007, the nation's largest maritime oil spill occurred on the west coast of the Korean peninsula. More than 10,000 tons of crude oil from an oil tanker leaked into the Yellow Sea and contaminated an ecologically pristine region as well as polluted the western coastline of the Korean peninsula. All SAR sensors then available including TerraSAR-X, ENVISAT ASAR, RADARSAT-1, ERS-2 SAR and ALOS PALSAR acquired imageries over the contaminated area from oil spill. Dark patches observed in SAR images, due to the presence of oil slicks, were extracted using adaptive thresholding methods. From multi-frequency SAR images, the damping ratios were calculated and analyzed with measured wind speed and radar frequency. With the multi-temporal SAR images, the movement of oil slicks was monitored and traced.

  15. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. A summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the two millsites in Slick Rock, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. The Union Carbide site has 350,000 tons of tailings and the North Continent site now owned by Union Carbide has 37,000 tons of tailings. Both tailings piles have been stabilized in accordance with regulations of the State of Colorado. Radon gas release from the tailings on the sites constitute the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact. Hence the three alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the sites (Option I), and returning the windblown tailings to the piles and stabilizing the piles with cover material (Option II), and consolidating the two piles on the UC site and stabilizing with 2 ft of cover (Option III). Fencing around the tailings piles is included in all options. Options II and III provide 2 ft of cover material on the tailings. Costs of the options range from $370,000 to $1,100,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible

  16. A comparison of visual observations of surface oil with Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery of the Sea Empress oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.

    2001-06-15

    A comparison has been made between the visual observations of surface oil and four satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images taken during the Sea Empress oil spill in February 1996. Whilst the basic oil slick imaging capabilities of SAR are well documented, to be of use at the time of a major oil spill, the imagery must be able to provide information on the thickness of oil. This analysis suggests that, under certain environmental conditions, this is possible. The optimum wind speed for the identification of heavy surface oil is around 5-6 m s{sup -1}. At this wind speed, light and medium sheen is not evident in the imagery and there is a distinction between the backscatter reductions due to heavy sheen and thick brown/black oil. At higher wind speeds, even thick oil slicks readily mix into the water column and their SAR signature weakens. In light winds, pattern recognition is very important to the identification of oil sticks. The images are more sensitive to the presence of sheen within the sheltered waters of Milford Haven than in the open coastal waters, indicating a possible relationship between sheen visibility in satellite-borne SAR and sea state. (author)

  17. In-situ burning of Alaskan oils and emulsions: preliminary results of laboratory tests with and without waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buist, I.; McCourt, J.; Karunakaran, K.; Gierer, C.; Comins, D.; Glover, N.; McKenzie, B.

    1996-01-01

    The efficiency of in-situ burning (ISB) as a response tool for oils transported in Alaska was studied. ISB can be an effective measure during an oil spill clean-up and has the potential to quickly remove large amounts of oil from the water surface. However, studies have shown that it is important to act quickly before the oil evaporates and before water-in-oil emulsions form, rendering the slick unignitable. Small-scale laboratory tests were conducted to determine the limits to ignition of slicks of four oils, and to determine the effectiveness of chemical emulsion breakers in extending the ignition limits. Results showed that while evaporation and emulsification could curtail ignition of oil slicks, the addition of a chemical emulsion breaker could extend the limits of ignition and burnability. Preliminary results also showed that waves had an effect on the burning of fresh, weathered and slightly emulsified crude oil. Burn efficiency and burn time were found to decrease with increasing wave energy. 14 refs., 18 tabs., 4 figs

  18. RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COFFEEFLAVORED YOGURT WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF THICKENER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rocha dos Santos MATHIAS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Yogurt is a functional food that has great demand due to the consumer’s search for a healthier diet. In order to expand the consumer market of this product, many flavors are available, satisfying the most varied preferences. Besides the taste attribute, consistency and viscosity of yogurt are some of the main factors involved in product quality and acceptance. Therefore, this work is a study of the influence of concentration of thickener in coffee-flavored yogurt. The thickener agent used was gelatin. The rheological behavior (flow and viscosity curves of yogurts with and without addition of gelatin was compared with commercial yogurt, which contains another type of thickener (locust bean gum in its formulation. The flow and viscosity curves were obtained from rotational rheometer Thermo Haake Mars, with a range of shear rate from 0.02 to 100 s-1 (rising curve and 100 to 0.02 s-1 (descendent curve at a total time of 20 minutes. Hysteresis was determined as the area between the curves and adjusted to the models of Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley and Ostwald-de-Waele. Were also carried out tests of thixotropy, by measuring the viscosity as a function of time at a constant rate of 100 s-1 for 10 minutes. These curves were adjusted by the Weltman model. All samples showed pseudoplastic and thixotropic behavior. The Herschel-Bulkley model was the best fit to the three samples tested. The Weltman’s model well described the thixotropy tests, except for the sample of commercial yogurt. The use of gelatin as a thickener showed protective character, reducing the structural break of the gel.

  19. Discontinuous Shear Thickening and Dilatancy: Frictional Effects in Viscous Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Shear thickening in concentrated suspensions has been well-known for quite a long time, yet a firm consensus on the basis for very abrupt or ``discontinuous'' shear thickening (DST) seen in suspensions of large solid fraction, ϕ, has not been reached. This work addresses the DST phenomenon, and proposes a simulation method based in the Stokesian Dynamics algorithm to explore the role of various forces between the particles, including hydrodynamic, conservative potential, and frictional interactions. This work shows that allowance for friction between spherical particles suspended in a viscous liquid causes a significant reduction in the jamming solid fraction of the mixture, ϕmax, taken as the maximum fraction at which the suspension will flow. A consequence of this is a shifting of the singularity in the effective viscosity, η, to smaller ϕmax, and the frictional suspension has a larger viscosity than does the frictionless suspension of the same solid fraction, as is clear from the standard empirical modeling of η (ϕ) =(1 - ϕ /ϕmax) - α , α ~ 2 . When a counterbalancing repulsive force between the particles, representative for example of charge-induced repulsion, is incorporated in the dynamics, the mixture undergoes a transition from frictionless to frictional interactions, and from low to high effective viscosity, at a critical shear rate. Comparison with experimental data shows remarkable agreement in the features of DST captured by the method. The basic algorithm and results of both rate-controlled and stress-controlled simulations will be presented. Like the shear stress, the magnitude of the normal stress exerted by the suspended particles also increases abruptly at the critical shear rate, consistent with the long-standing notion that dilatancy and shear-thickening are synonymous. We will show that considering all shear thickening materials as dilatant is a misconception, but demonstrate the validity of the connection of dilatancy with DST in

  20. Reconnaissance of Macondo-1 well oil in sediment and tarballs from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt; Wong, Florence L.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons were extracted and analyzed from sediment and tarballs collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coast that is potentially impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil. The samples were analyzed for a suite of diagnostic geochemical biomarkers. Aided by multivariate statistical analysis, the M-1 well oil has been identified in sediment and tarballs collected from Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts from Texas correlated with the M-1 well oil. Oil-impacted sediments are confined to the shoreline adjacent to the cumulative oil slick of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and no impact was observed outside of this area.

  1. Autocrine role of vascular IL-15 in intimal thickening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercek, Miha; Matsumoto, Michiaki; Li, Hongyan; Chyu, K.-Y.; Peter, Ashok; Shah, Prediman K.; Dimayuga, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that modulates T cell recruitment and activation, independent of antigen. It has been detected in human atherosclerotic plaques and atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-/- mice. IL-15 regulates fractalkine (FKN)-CX3CR1 chemokine signaling which is involved in atherogenesis and promotes SMC proliferation. We investigated the role of IL-15 in intimal thickening after arterial injury. Treatment of serum-stimulated SMC with IL-15 in vitro attenuated proliferation and suppressed CX3CR1 and FKN mRNA expression. The role of endogenous IL-15 in vivo was investigated in injured carotid arteries of mice. Periadventitial arterial injury resulted in increased IL-15 expression in the media and neointima, paralleled by increased IL-15 receptor α expression. Blockade of endogenous IL-15 increased intimal thickening. FKN and CX3CR1 expression increased after injury and were further augmented after IL-15 blockade. These data suggest that endogenous IL-15 attenuated intimal thickening after arterial injury. The potential mechanism of action is suppression of CX3CR1 signaling

  2. Roughness-dependent tribology effects on discontinuous shear thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiao-Peng; Ramakrishna, Shivaprakash N; Zanini, Michele; Spencer, Nicholas D; Isa, Lucio

    2018-05-15

    Surface roughness affects many properties of colloids, from depletion and capillary interactions to their dispersibility and use as emulsion stabilizers. It also impacts particle-particle frictional contacts, which have recently emerged as being responsible for the discontinuous shear thickening (DST) of dense suspensions. Tribological properties of these contacts have been rarely experimentally accessed, especially for nonspherical particles. Here, we systematically tackle the effect of nanoscale surface roughness by producing a library of all-silica, raspberry-like colloids and linking their rheology to their tribology. Rougher surfaces lead to a significant anticipation of DST onset, in terms of both shear rate and solid loading. Strikingly, they also eliminate continuous thickening. DST is here due to the interlocking of asperities, which we have identified as "stick-slip" frictional contacts by measuring the sliding of the same particles via lateral force microscopy (LFM). Direct measurements of particle-particle friction therefore highlight the value of an engineering-tribology approach to tuning the thickening of suspensions. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  3. Analysis of abnormally thickened endometrial patterns on transvaginal sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Sook; Cho, Hyeun Cha

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether the transvaginal sonographic appearance of the thickened endometrium can help to predict the underlying endometrial pathologic process. The sonogram reports of fall 41 pre- and 21 postmenopausal women who underwent transvaginal sonogram were retrospectively analyzed. The women undergoing estrogen replacement therapy, tamoxifen therapy or having abnormal cervical cytology were excluded from this study. The analysis of sonographic and histologic results was performed in all patients. Three distinct sonographic patterns were encountered. Type I consisted of heterogeneous endometrial thickening with internal hypoechoic areas (normal [n=4], polyp [n=1] and cancer [n=4] in premenopausal women and cancer [n=4] in postmenopausal women). Type II consisted of echogenic endometrial thickening with or without tiny cysts (normal[n=5], and hyperplasia [n=7] in premenopausal women and normal [n=4], polyp [n=2], and hyperplasia [n=1] in postmenopausal women). Type III consisted of localized well defined endoluminal lesion (normal [n=1], polyp [n=14], hyperplasia [n=1], cancer [n=1], and submucosal mass [n=3] in premenopausal women and normal [n=4], polyp [n=2],submucosal mass [n=3], and hematoma [n=1] in postmenopausal women). The measurement of the endometrial thickness combined with analysis of sonographic echo patterns may be helpful in prediction and differentiation of endometrial disease in pre- and postmenopausal women. Also it can contribute to avoiding unnecessary D and C.

  4. A New Thickener for CO2 Anhydrous Fracturing Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 dry fracturing technology is well-known for its advantages. Little water is used in this technology, which is able to ease the pressure of consumption on water resources. Many abroad theoretical researches, laboratory experiments and field tests have been taken to explore the yield mechanism, the adaptability and the technology of pure liquid CO2 fracturing. These achievements have been applied to a variety of reservoirs transformation and improven the effectiveness of stimulation treatment in a degree. The researches and studies in the domestic didn’t get popular until recent years. Thus, this article firstly introduces the main development and application about pure CO2 anhydrous fracturing technology, and sums up the effect and evaluation of its fluid through application examples both in the domestic and abroad. However, although this technology has many excellent qualities, but systematic studies indicate that its proppant-carrying capacity is less competitive because of the low viscosity of pure CO2 liquid and other reasons. In a consequence, it is necessary to develop an appropriate thickener for CO2 anhydrous fracturing fluid to improve its carrying capacity. Then this article describes some studies of previous scholars about CO2 thickener. Then we put forward our own research ideas and transform it into actual experiments. Thanks to the valid performances of these tests, we successfully develop a thickener X and cosolvent B.

  5. [Analysis of thickening polysaccharides by the improved diethyldithioacetal derivatization method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takumi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    The identification test for thickening polysaccharides containing neutral saccharides and uronic acids was investigated by GC analysis of constituent monosaccharides. The reported method, in which monosaccharides were converted to diethyldithioacetal derivatives with ethanethiol followed by trimethylsilylation, was improved in terms of operability and reproducibility of GC/MS analysis. The suitability of the improved diethyldithioacetal derivatization method was determined for seven thickening polysaccharides, i.e., carob bean gum, guar gum, karaya gum, gum arabic, gum ghatti, tragacanth gum and peach gum. The samples were acid-hydrolyzed to form monosaccharides. The hydrolysates were derivatized and analyzed with GC/FID. Each sugar derivative was detected as a single peak and was well separated from others on the chromatograms. The amounts of constituent monosaccharides in thickening polysaccharides were successfully estimated. Seven polysaccharides were distinguished from each other on the basis of constituent monosaccharides. Further examination of the time period of hydrolysis of polysaccharides using peach gum showed that the optimal times were not the same for all monosaccharides. A longer time was needed to hydrolyze glucuronic acid than neutral saccharides. The findings suggest that hydrolysis time may sometimes affect the analytical results on composition of constituent monosaccharides in polysaccharides.

  6. Rheological characterization of modified foodstuffs with food grade thickening agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ocampo, I.; Aguayo-Vallejo, JP; Ascanio, G.; Córdova-Aguilar, MS

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a rheological characterization in terms of shear and extensional properties of whole milk, modified with food grade thickening agents (xanthan and carboxymethyl cellulose) with the purpose of being utilized in dysphagia treatment. Shear viscosity of the thickened fluids (2% wt. of xanthan and CMC) were measured in a stress-controlled rheometer and for extensional viscosity, a custom-built orifice flowmeter was used, with elongation rates from 20 to 3000 s-1. Such elongation-rate values represent the entire swallowing process, including the pharyngeal and esophageal phases. The steady-state shear and extensional flow curves were compared with the flow curve of a pudding consistency BaSO4 suspension (α=05), typically used as a reference fluid for the specialized commercial dysphagia products. The modified fluids presented non-Newtonian behavior in both, shear and extensional flows, and the comparison with the reference fluid show that the thickened milk prepared here, can be safely used for consumption by patients with severe dysphagia.

  7. Offshore oil spill recovery operations in the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.D.; Gangsaas, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    On or about January 25, 1991, Iraqi forces in Kuwait discharged more than 4 million barrels of Kuwait crude oil into the Persian Gulf. The counterclockwise current carried the resulting slick southeastward along the coast of Saudi Arabia. The Saudi Arabian oil company, Aramco, chartered the multiclassed tanker and response vessel Al Waasit, based in Dubai, to assist in the offshore recovery operation. The Al Waasit's response resulted in the offshore recovery of about 100,000 barrels of oil during a 42-day period, without a recovery system failure. The authors both served on board Al Waasit as operations managers during this response operation

  8. Dynamic behaviour of natural oil droplets through the water column in deep-water environment: the case of the Lower Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatiault, R.; Dhont, D.; Loncke, L.; Durrieu De Madron, X.; Dubucq, D.; Channelliere, C.; Bourrin, F.

    2017-12-01

    Key words: Hydrocarbon seepage, Oil Slick, Lower Congo Basin, Underwater deflection, Deep-water Pockmark, Ascent speedThe space-borne imagery provides a significant means to locate active oil seeps and to estimate the expelled volume in the marine environment. The analysis of numerous overlapping satellite images revealed an abundant volume of 4400 m3 of oil naturally reaching the sea surface per year, expelled from more than a hundred seep sites through the Lower Congo Basin. The active seepage area is located in the distal compressional province of the basin where salt napes and squeezed diapirs. The integration of current data was used to link accurately sea surface manifestations of natural oil leakages with active fluid flow features on the seafloor. A mooring with ADCPs (Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers) distributed throughout the water column provided an efficient calibration tool to evaluate the horizontal deflection of oil droplets. Using a Eulerian propagation model that considered a range of probable ascent speeds, we estimated the oil migration pathways through the water column using two different approaches. The first approach consisted in simulating the backwards trajectory of oil droplets using sea surface oil slicks locations and concomitant current measurements. The second method analyzed the spatial spreading of the surfacing signatures of natural oil slicks based on 21 years of satellite observations. The location of the surfacing points of oil droplets at the sea surface is restricted to a circle of 2.5 km radius around the release point at the seafloor. Both approaches provided a range of ascent speeds of oil droplets between 3 to 8 cm.s-1. The low deflection values validate the near-vertical links between the average surfacing area of oil slicks at the sea surface with specific seafloor disturbances (i.e. pockmarks or mounds) known to expel fluids.

  9. Application of Satellite SAR for Discovery and Quantification of Natural Marine Oil Seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, J.; Lai, R.; Zimmer, B.; Leiva, A.; MacDonald, I.

    2006-12-01

    Natural marine oil seeps discharge gassy drops from the seafloor. Oil drops and gas bubbles reach the surface from water depths as great as 3000m. The oil spreads rapidly, forming an invisible layer that drifts down-wind and down-current in long, linear streaks called slicks. Oil slicks are visible in SAR data because the surfactant dampens capillary waves and reduces backscatter. Application of SAR as an exploration tool in energy prospecting is well-established. We have applied this technique for discovering the chemosynthetic communities that colonize the seafloor in the vicinity of deep-water seeps on the continental margin of the Gulf of Mexico. The management goal for this effort is to prevent harmful impact to these communities resulting from exploration or production activities. The scientific goals are to delineate the zoogeography of the chemosynthetic fauna, which is widespread on continental margins, and to establish study sites where their life history can be investigated. In the course of an ongoing, multidisciplinary study in the spring and summer of 2006, we explored 20 possible sites where SAR and geophysical data indicated seeps might occur. SAR was only partly diagnostic: all sites with SAR-detected slicks were found to have biologic communities, but communities were also found at geophysical anomalies that did not produce slicks. We acquired over 60 RADARSAT SAR images from the northern Gulf of Mexico in cooperation with the Alaska Satellite Facility. The ship RV ATLANTIS was at sea during the acquisition and collected synoptic weather and oceanographic data. To automate interpretation of large image dataset we have employed texture recognition with use of a library of textons applied iteratively to the images. This treatment shows promise in distinguishing floating oil from false targets generated by rain fronts and other phenomena. One goal of the analysis is to delineate bounding boxes to quantify the ocean area covered by the thin oil layer

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water.

  12. Rapid microbial respiration of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in offshore surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Bethanie R; Reddy, Christopher M; Carmichael, Catherine A; Longnecker, Krista; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S; Camilli, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was one of the largest oil spills in history, and the fate of this oil within the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem remains to be fully understood. The goal of this study-conducted in mid-June of 2010, approximately two months after the oil spill began-was to understand the key role that microbes would play in the degradation of the oil in the offshore oligotrophic surface waters near the Deepwater Horizon site. As the utilization of organic carbon by bacteria in the surface waters of the Gulf had been previously shown to be phosphorus limited, we hypothesized that bacteria would be unable to rapidly utilize the oil released from the Macondo well. Although phosphate was scarce throughout the sampling region and microbes exhibited enzymatic signs of phosphate stress within the oil slick, microbial respiration within the slick was enhanced by approximately a factor of five. An incubation experiment to determine hydrocarbon degradation rates confirmed that a large fraction of this enhanced respiration was supported by hydrocarbon degradation. Extrapolating our observations to the entire area of the slick suggests that microbes had the potential to degrade a large fraction of the oil as it arrived at the surface from the well. These observations decidedly refuted our hypothesis. However, a concomitant increase in microbial abundance or biomass was not observed in the slick, suggesting that microbial growth was nutrient limited; incubations amended with nutrients showed rapid increases in cell number and biomass, which supported this conclusion. Our study shows that the dynamic microbial community of the Gulf of Mexico supported remarkable rates of oil respiration, despite a dearth of dissolved nutrients.

  13. Effect of Human Saliva on the Consistency of Thickened Drinks for Individuals with Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallons, Katleen J. R.; Helmens, Harold J.; Oudhuis, A. A. C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thickening of foods and fluids is commonly used in the management of dysphagia to reduce the risk of aspiration. The use of starch-based thickeners is established. However, the use of gums in thickeners is gaining interest as they are resistant to salivary amylase, which may promote safer swallowing. Aims: To compare the effect of…

  14. Novel CO{sub 2}-thickeners for improved mobility control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

    2000-02-02

    The objective of this study was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO{sub 2}. Hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, sulfated hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, semifluorinated trialkyltin fluorides and small hydrogen-bonding compounds were evaluated. Random copolymers of styrene and heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate were characterized by high solubility ion dense carbon dioxide and the most substantial increases in solution viscosity. Falling cylinder viscometry results indicated that the 29%styrene--71%fluoroacylate bulk-polymerized copolymer induced 2--250 fold increases in viscosity at copolymer concentrations of 0.2--5.0wt%.

  15. Diffuse interlobular septal thickening in a coal miner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrumurthy, S.G.; Kearney, S.; Sissons, M.; Haider, Y. [Lancashire Teaching Hospital for NHS Funding Trust, Chorley (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Diffuse interlobular septal thickening (DIST) is an abnormality seen on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning of the thorax. While DIST may be present to variable extents in a number of lung conditions, it is uncommon as a predominant finding except in a few entities. This report features an ex-coal miner, thought to have coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), in whom the HRCT scan showed no evidence of CWP and instead showed DIST. The patient's condition progressed incessantly towards death from severe secondary pulmonary hypertension. The case links fatal pulmonary hypertension to DIST, a pattern not previously described in coal workers.

  16. Constitutional Syndrome, Ascites and Duodenal Thickening Presenting as Groove Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Maria Frutos Perez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Groove pancreatitis (GP is a very infrequent subtype of chronic pancreatitis affecting the pancreatic-duodenal junction. It usually manifests in middle-aged men with a history of chronic alcoholism, though it has also been described in women and in individuals who do not consume alcohol[1]. Even though the underlying etiology is unclear, chronic alcohol consumption is known to increase the viscosity of the pancreatic juice and exacerbate the inflammatory process[2]. We present a case of GP that posed diagnostic difficulties because it manifested as ascites and duodenal thickening, with pancreatic imaging findings initially normal.

  17. Development of Oil Spill Monitoring System for the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and the Barents/Kara Seas (DEMOSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandven, Stein; Kudriavtsev, Vladimir; Malinovsky, Vladimir; Stanovoy, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    DEMOSS will develop and demonstrate elements of a marine oil spill detection and prediction system based on satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and other space data. In addition, models for prediction of sea surface pollution drift will be developed and tested. The project implements field experiments to study the effect of artificial crude oil and oil derivatives films on short wind waves and multi-frequency (Ka-, Ku-, X-, and C-band) dual polarization radar backscatter power and Doppler shift at different wind and wave conditions. On the basis of these and other available experimental data, the present model of short wind waves and radar scattering will be improved and tested.A new approach for detection and quantification of the oil slicks/spills in satellite SAR images is developed that can discriminate human oil spills from biogenic slicks and look-alikes in the SAR images. New SAR images are obtained in coordination with the field experiments to test the detection algorithm. Satellite SAR images from archives as well as from new acquisitions will be analyzed for the Black/Caspian/Kara/Barents seas to investigate oil slicks/spills occurrence statistics.A model for oil spills/slicks transport and evolution is developed and tested in ice-infested arctic seas, including the Caspian Sea. Case studies using the model will be conducted to simulate drift and evolution of oil spill events observed in SAR images. The results of the project will be disseminated via scientific publications and by demonstration to users and agencies working with marine monitoring. The project lasts for two years (2007 - 2009) and is funded under INTAS Thematic Call with ESA 2006.

  18. Oil spill remote sensing flights around Vancouver Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.E.; Fingas, M.F.; Marois, R. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A large number of oiled seabirds are found on beaches and shorelines in Canada each year. Although there are several programs in place to detect high-volume oily bilge dumping incidents, the sensors used in many surveillance procedures are not capable of detecting suspected chronic low-volume disposal of contaminated waste waters by ships. This paper described the development and testing procedures of the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF), which was designed to map and characterize oil contamination in marine coastal and shoreline environments. Laser-induced fluorescence is detected by SLEAF with a spectrometric receiver. Full-spectral resolution geo-referenced fluorescence data are collected for each laser pulse and recorded directly to a computer. Eight oil spill remote sensing flights using SLEAF were conducted during March and April 2006. Geo-referenced infrared, ultraviolet, colour video and digital still imagery was collected alongside the fluorosensor data. Several light patches of oil were observed with SLEAF, most of which were in shipping lanes in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The oil patches were light, and some were not visible to the naked eye, and were only detected by the laser fluorosensor. Larger slicks were captured in video imagery. Approximately 50 marine vessels were overflown during the flight demonstration program, and only 2 vessels appeared to be associated with the oil slicks. It was concluded that chronic low-volume oil releases in shipping lanes around Vancouver Island are a cause for concern. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. An oil spill-food chain interaction model for coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yew Hoong Gin, K.; Huda, Md. K.; Tkalich, P.

    2001-01-01

    An oil spill-food chain interaction model, composed of a multiphase oil spill model (MOSM) and a food chain model, has been developed to assess the probable impacts of oil spills on several key marine organisms (phytoplankton, zooplankton, small fish, large fish and benthic invertebrates). The MOSM predicts oil slick thickness on the water surface; dissolved, emulsified and particulate oil concentrations in the water column; and dissolved and particulate oil concentrations in bed sediments. This model is used to predict the fate of oil spills and transport with respect to specific organic compounds, while the food chain model addresses the uptake of toxicant by marine organisms. The oil spill-food chain interaction model can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil spills in marine ecosystems. The model is applied to the recent Evoikos-Orapin Global oil spill that occurred in the Singapore Strait. (author)

  20. Floating oil-covered debris from Deepwater Horizon: identification and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, Catherine A; Lemkau, Karin L; Nelson, Robert K; Reddy, Christopher M; Arey, J Samuel; Graham, William M; Linn, Laura J

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of oiled and non-oiled honeycomb material in the Gulf of Mexico surface waters and along coastal beaches shortly after the explosion of Deepwater Horizon sparked debate about its origin and the oil covering it. We show that the unknown pieces of oiled and non-oiled honeycomb material collected in the Gulf of Mexico were pieces of the riser pipe buoyancy module of Deepwater Horizon. Biomarker ratios confirmed that the oil had originated from the Macondo oil well and had undergone significant weathering. Using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s records of the oil spill trajectory at the sea surface, we show that the honeycomb material preceded the front edge of the uncertainty of the oil slick trajectory by several kilometers. We conclude that the observation of debris fields deriving from damaged marine materials may be incorporated into emergency response efforts and forecasting of coastal impacts during future offshore oil spills, and ground truthing predicative models. (letter)

  1. Supplement to the UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water and surface water sampling at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Union Carbide (UC) and North Continent (NC) processing sites and the Burro Canyon disposal site near Slick Rock, Colorado. The initial WSAP was finalized in August 1994 and will be completely revised in accordance with the WSAP guidance document (DOE, 1995) in late 1996. This version supplements the initial WSAP, reflects only minor changes in sampling that occurred in 1995, covers sampling scheduled for early 1996, and provides a preliminary projection of the next 5 years of sampling and monitoring activities. Once surface remedial action is completed at the former processing sites, additional and more detailed hydrogeologic characterization may be needed to develop the Ground Water Program conceptual ground water model and proposed compliance strategy. In addition, background ground water quality needs to be clearly defined to ensure that the baseline risk assessment accurately estimated risks from the contaminants of potential concern in contaminated ground water at the UC and NC sites

  2. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Chou, K.D.; Ellis, B.S.

    1980-06-01

    Results of a radiological survey of two inactive mill sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in April 1976 are presented. One mill, referred to in this report as North Continent (NC), was operated primarily for recovery of radium and vanadium and, only briefly, uranium. The Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) mill produced a uranium concentrate for processing elsewhere and, although low-level contamination with 226 Ra was widespread at this site, the concentration of this nuclide in tailings was much lower than at the NC site. The latter site also has an area with a high above-ground gamma dose rate (2700 μR/hr) and a high-surface 226 Ra concentration (5800 pCi/g). This area, which is believed to have been a liquid disposal location during plant operations, is contained within a fence. A solid disposal area outside the present fence contains miscellaneous contaminated debris. The estimated concentration of 226 Ra as a function of depth, based on gamma hole-logging data, is presented for 27 holes drilled at the two sites

  3. SAR observation and model tracking of an oil spill event in coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Li, Xiaofeng; Xu, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Oil spills are a major contributor to marine pollution. The objective of this work is to simulate the oil spill trajectory of oil released from a pipeline leaking in the Gulf of Mexico with the GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment) model. The model was developed by NOAA (National...... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) to investigate the effects of different pollutants and environmental conditions on trajectory results. Also, a Texture-Classifying Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA) was used to delineate ocean oil slicks from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations. During...

  4. A Dynamic Remote Sensing Data-Driven Approach for Oil Spill Simulation in the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Yan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In view of the fact that oil spill remote sensing could only generate the oil slick information at a specific time and that traditional oil spill simulation models were not designed to deal with dynamic conditions, a dynamic data-driven application system (DDDAS was introduced. The DDDAS entails both the ability to incorporate additional data into an executing application and, in reverse, the ability of applications to dynamically steer the measurement process. Based on the DDDAS, combing a remote sensor system that detects oil spills with a numerical simulation, an integrated data processing, analysis, forecasting and emergency response system was established. Once an oil spill accident occurs, the DDDAS-based oil spill model receives information about the oil slick extracted from the dynamic remote sensor data in the simulation. Through comparison, information fusion and feedback updates, continuous and more precise oil spill simulation results can be obtained. Then, the simulation results can provide help for disaster control and clean-up. The Penglai, Xingang and Suizhong oil spill results showed our simulation model could increase the prediction accuracy and reduce the error caused by empirical parameters in existing simulation systems. Therefore, the DDDAS-based detection and simulation system can effectively improve oil spill simulation and diffusion forecasting, as well as provide decision-making information and technical support for emergency responses to oil spills.

  5. The experimental study of sinal wall thickening on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, Yasuhiro; Iinuma, Tositaka; Oyama, Kazuyuki.

    1988-01-01

    In our previous report, we investigated several factors which cause apparent thickening of the walls of maxillary sinus. We confirmed, however, that the major factor for the sinal wall thickening is the artifact of CT. In present study, we report the results obtained by phantom models of isolated maxillary bone and egg shell. As the substance corresponding to the soft tissue density, solutions of CaCl 2 in various concentrations were used. In the maxillary bone studies, the thickness of the anterior sinus wall by CT was larger than the actual value even though only the air was contained. When solutions of CaCl 2 were contained and in touch with the anterior wall, the thickness by CT was larger than that of containing air. In the egg shell studies, the increase in thickness by CT correlated to the increase in percentage of solutions. The above results indicate that the apparent increased thickness of the sinal walls by CT is largely the artifact by CT and is dependent upon the soft tissue density or CT value (X-ray attenuation coefficient) of substances in touch with the sinal walls. In CT images obtained by clinical cases, the increased thickness of the sinal walls, in sinuses filled with soft tissue density, is more apparent than real. (author)

  6. Ongoing Research on Herding Agents for In Situ Burning in Arctic Waters: Studies on Fate and Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Gustavson, Kim; Wegeberg, Susse

    Research on the fate and effects of herding agents used to contain and thicken oil slicks for in situ burning in Arctic waters continues under the auspices of the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers Arctic Oil Spill Response Technology – Joint Industry Program (JIP). In 2014/2015 l...

  7. Evaluating technologies of oil spill surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hover, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Surveillance and monitoring of oil in the marine environment imposes a broad spectrum of remote sensing requirements. At the US Coast Guard Research ampersand Development Center, the environmental safety branch is sponsoring oil spill remote sensing research in four areas of technology: Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Frequency-scanning microwave radiometry (FSR), Laser fluorosensing (LFS), and Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagers. SAR technology uses sophisticated signal processing to overcome prior limitations, providing images of higher and more uniform spatial acuity which may enable interpreters to more-readily distinguish petroleum slicks from others. The ability to determine the distribution of oil thickness within a slick is necessary when an estimate of oil volume is desired. Scientists at MIT have formulated a new approach to radiometric oil thickness measurement that takes advantage of recent advances in electronic component technology. The initial data collected with a prototype FSR instrument have validated the FSR concept and more work is ongoing. The Coast Guard is co-funding a program to demonstrate and evaluate the capabilities of an airborne laser fluorosensor to support oil spill response operations. During a controlled test, the instrument successfully demonstrated an ability to detect oil on water, ice, and various beach surfaces. Additional testing included different oil types and allowed for weathering. Data analysis is ongoing. Recent developments in infrared imager technology have produced a wide variety of off-the-shelf, portable cameras that could potentially provide a rapid-response spill assessment capability. The R ampersand D Center has been involved in the testing of many of these sensors

  8. Integration of thickener underflow into thermal dryer circuit. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, A.W.; Breault, R.W.

    1998-12-31

    A large number of coal preparation plants in the United States are troubled with coal fines and associated plant operation problems. As part of their process, these plants use thermal dryers for producing product coal, cyclones for first-stage recovery of coal fines, and wet scrubbers for the second-stage removal of coal fines carry-over from the dryer exhaust gas. The first challenge for these plants is to recover the clean ultra-fine coal captured in the scrubbers rather than to dispose of it in settling ponds. The second challenge is to mitigate the over-dry fine coal dusting problems in the dryer product. Prior to the completion of this program, the difficulties of the first challenge involving the recovery and use of fine clean coal from the thermal dryer scrubber effluent had not been solved. The second challenge, controlling fine coal dusting, was previously met by applying a solution of surfactants and process water to the over-dry coal fraction. As a result of the demonstration provided by the performance of this program, the implementation of a simple process improvement, involving the use of a thickener in combination with a belt press, simultaneously solved both challenges: the de-dusting and the dryer scrubber effluent recovery issues. The objective of this project was to: (1) Use a clean coal thickener with a squeeze belt press to recover the ultra-fine coal in dryer scrubber effluent; (2) Demonstrate that the coal-water mixture (CWM) produced from scrubber sludge of a thermal dryer can be used as a dust suppressant. The thickener/belt press system has increased the production of JWRI Mine Number 4 by approximately 0.7%. This production increase was accomplished by recovering and re-using 3 metric tons/hr (3.3 tons/hr) of coal fines that were previously sent to holding ponds, returning this as a 50% CWM to de-dust the 430 metric tons/hr (470 tons/hr) of existing dryer production.

  9. Application of oil spill model to marine pollution and risk control problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, Nikita; Agoshkov, Valery; Sheloput, Tatyana

    2017-04-01

    Oil transportation by sea induces challenging problems of environmental control. Millions of tonnes of oil are yearly released during routine ship operations, not to mention vast spills due to different accidents (e.g. tanker collisions, grounding, etc.). Oil pollution is dangerous to marine organisms such as plants, fish and mammals, leading to widespread damage to our planet. In turn, fishery and travel agencies can lose money and clients, and ship operators are obliged to pay huge penalties for environmental pollution. In this work we present the method of accessing oil pollution of marine environment using recently developed oil spill model. The model describes basic processes of the oil slick evolution: oil transport due to currents, drift under the action of wind, spreading on the surface, evaporation, emulsification and dispersion. Such parameters as slick location, mass, density of oil, water content, viscosity and density of "water-in-oil" emulsion can be calculated. We demonstrate how to apply the model to damage calculation problems using a concept of average damage to particular marine area. We also formulate the problem of oil spill risk control, when some accident parameters are not known, but their probability distribution is given. We propose a new algorithm to solve such problems and show results of our model simulations. The work can be interesting to broad environmental, physics and mathematics community. The work is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant 16-31-00510.

  10. Detection of the Hebei Spirit oil spill on SAR imagery and its temporal evolution in a coastal region of the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Sung; Park, Kyung-Ae; Li, Xiaofeng; Lee, Moonjin; Hong, Sungwook; Lyu, Sang Jin; Nam, Sooyong

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the evolution of a disastrous oil spill from a vessel collision, known as the Hebei Spirit accident, off the coast of Korea in the Yellow Sea on 6 December 2007, oil slicks were identified from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images using a neural network (NN) and an adaptive threshold method. The results from the two objective methods showed good agreement, enough for the estimation of the extent of oil patches and their trajectories, with the exception of negligible errors at the boundaries. Quantitative analyses showed that the detected oil slicks moved southward, corresponding to the prevailing wind and tidal currents, and gradually dissipated during the spill, except for an extraordinary rapid decrease in onshore regions at the initial stage. The initial dissipation of the spilt oil was induced by tidal mixing in the tidal front zone. The spatial and temporal variations of the oil slicks confirmed the influence of atmospheric and oceanic environmental factors. The overall horizontal migration of the oil spills detected from consecutive SAR images was mainly driven by Ekman drift during the winter monsoon rather than the tidal residual current.

  11. The N-terminal domain of Slack determines the formation and trafficking of Slick/Slack heteromeric sodium-activated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijun; Kronengold, Jack; Yan, Yangyang; Gazula, Valeswara-Rao; Brown, Maile R; Ma, Liqun; Ferreira, Gonzalo; Yang, Youshan; Bhattacharjee, Arin; Sigworth, Fred J; Salkoff, Larry; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2009-04-29

    Potassium channels activated by intracellular Na(+) ions (K(Na)) play several distinct roles in regulating the firing patterns of neurons, and, at the single channel level, their properties are quite diverse. Two known genes, Slick and Slack, encode K(Na) channels. We have now found that Slick and Slack subunits coassemble to form heteromeric channels that differ from the homomers in their unitary conductance, kinetic behavior, subcellular localization, and response to activation of protein kinase C. Heteromer formation requires the N-terminal domain of Slack-B, one of the alternative splice variants of the Slack channel. This cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of Slack-B also facilitates the localization of heteromeric K(Na) channels to the plasma membrane. Immunocytochemical studies indicate that Slick and Slack-B subunits are coexpressed in many central neurons. Our findings provide a molecular explanation for some of the diversity in reported properties of neuronal K(Na) channels.

  12. Retinal Thickening and Photoreceptor Loss in HIV Eyes without Retinitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Arcinue

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of structural changes in HIV retinae (i.e., photoreceptor density and retinal thickness in the macula compared with age-matched HIV-negative controls.Cohort of patients with known HIV under CART (combination Antiretroviral Therapy treatment were examined with a flood-illuminated retinal AO camera to assess the cone photoreceptor mosaic and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT to assess retinal layers and retinal thickness.Twenty-four eyes of 12 patients (n = 6 HIV-positive and 6 HIV-negative were imaged with the adaptive optics camera. In each of the regions of interest studied (nasal, temporal, superior, inferior, the HIV group had significantly less mean cone photoreceptor density compared with age-matched controls (difference range, 4,308-6,872 cones/mm2. A different subset of forty eyes of 20 patients (n = 10 HIV-positive and 10 HIV-negative was included in the retinal thickness measurements and retinal layer segmentation with the SD-OCT. We observed significant thickening in HIV positive eyes in the total retinal thickness at the foveal center, and in each of the three horizontal B-scans (through the macular center, superior, and inferior to the fovea. We also noted that the inner retina (combined thickness from ILM through RNFL to GCL layer was also significantly thickened in all the different locations scanned compared with HIV-negative controls.Our present study shows that the cone photoreceptor density is significantly reduced in HIV retinae compared with age-matched controls. HIV retinae also have increased macular retinal thickness that may be caused by inner retinal edema secondary to retinovascular disease in HIV. The interaction of photoreceptors with the aging RPE, as well as possible low-grade ocular inflammation causing diffuse inner retinal edema, may be the key to the progressive vision changes in HIV-positive patients without overt retinitis.

  13. Remedial action and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites (EPA, 1987). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 Public Law (PL) 95-604 (PL 95-604), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined that for Slick Rock, this assessment shall include hydrogeologic site characterization for two separate uranium processing sites, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site, and for the proposed Burro Canyon disposal site

  14. Physical aspects of crude oil spills on northern terrain. Task Force on Northern Oil Development, Report No. 74-25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackay, D; Charles, M E; Phillips, C R

    1974-01-01

    The physical aspects of crude oil spills on the terrain of the Mackenzie Valley were investigated. The aqueous solubility of Norman Wells crude oil has been determined and it has been established that about half of the dissolved hydrocarbon is aromatic. The distribution of hydrocarbons between the oil and aqueous phases is in good agreement with predicted values. The permeability of the surface terrain to oil at Norman Wells was found to decrease very rapidly with depth below the surface. A simple, in-situ method for determination of the profile was developed. The implication of the results is that flow will occur more readily near the surface than near the basement. The spreading rates of two crude oils on water were studied on two lakes near Inuvik. Pembina crude oil showed only one spreading front, whereas Norman Wells crude oil showed a bulk front preceded by a surface-slick. Once the initial separation occurred, wind drove both fronts across the water at about 6 percent of the wind speed. The area of surface-active contamination was several times the area of the bulk oil film. The isothermal spreading of five crude oils on ice under gravity-viscous conditions was examined. The radius of the slick was found to increase linearly with the ratio (time/viscosity)/sup /sup 1///sub 5//. Surface roughness effects were negligible. An attempt has been made to predict the behavior of a 50,000 barrel oil spill in the taiga region of the Mackenzie Valley, under both summer and winter conditions. The areas affected and the amounts of hydrocarbon evaporated were predicted. These predictions are valuable in providing a scenario of an oil spill incident which will assist in assessing the environmental impact of oil spills in the Mackenzie Valley and in preparing for clean-up measures. Burning as a clean-up procedure considered in some detail. Other methods specifically designed for Arctic conditions will probably prove more satisfactory.

  15. Marine iguanas die from trace oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, Martin; Wong, Vanessa; Chevalier, Brett; Rattenborg, Niels; Snell, Howard L

    2002-06-06

    An oil tanker ran aground on the Galapagos island of San Cristóbal on 17 January 2001, spilling roughly three million litres of diesel and bunker oil. The slick started to spread westwards and was dispersed by strong currents, so only a few marine animals were killed immediately as a result. Here we draw on the long-term data sets gathered before the spill to show that a population of marine iguanas (Amblyrhychus cristatus) on Sante Fe island suffered a massive 62% mortality in the year after the accident, due to a small amount of residual oil contamination in the sea. Another population on the more remote island of Genovesa was unaffected.

  16. Measurements of oil spill spreading in a wave tank using digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, H.; Saavedra, I.; Andreatta, A.; Llona, G.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an experimental study of spreading of crude oil is carried out in a wave tank. The tests are performed by spilling different volumes and types of crude oil on the water surface. An experimental measurement technique was developed based on digital processing of video images. The acquisition and processing of such images is carried out by using a video camera and inexpensive microcomputer hardware and software. Processing is carried out by first performing a digital image filter, then edge detection is performed on the filtered image data. The final result is a file that contains the coordinates of a polygon that encloses the observed slick for each time step. Different types of filters are actually used in order to adequately separate the color intensifies corresponding to each of the elements in the image. Postprocessing of the vectorized images provides accurate measurements of the slick edge, thus obtaining a complete geometric representation, which is significantly different from simplified considerations of radially symmetric spreading. The spreading of the oil slick was recorded for each of the tests. Results of the experimental study are presented for each spreading regime, and analyzed in terms of the wave parameters such as period and wave height. (author)

  17. Satellite SAR inventory of Gulf of Mexico oil seeps and shallow gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, O.; MacDonald, I. R.; Zimmer, B.; Shedd, W.; Frye, M.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from the RADARSAT platform were used to detect and inventory persistent layers of oil released from natural seeps in the Gulf of Mexico. Previously published inventories of natural oil seeps in the Gulf have been limited in scope and have relied on manual interpretation of satellite images (Mitchell et al. 1999; De Beukelaer et al. 2003). We developed a texture classifying neural network algorithm (TCNNA) to rapidly identify floating oil-layers in a semi-supervised operation. Oil layers, known as slicks, were recognized as long (10 km), narrow (100 m), often curvilinear streaks with distinct points of origin where oil reaches the ocean surface. After training the TCNNA over known seep areas and under a range of environmental and viewing conditions, the procedure was applied to 426 separate images that covered ocean areas of 100x100 km (Standard Beam Mode), 102 images that covered ocean areas of 450x450 km(ScanSAR Wide Beam Mode), and 84 images that covered ocean areas of 300x300 km (ScanSAR Narrow Beam Mode). This image data-set was collected between 1994 and 2007. It covered the entire Gulf of Mexico with a repeat rate of 4 to109, with the highest concentration over the continental slope. This effort identified a total of 4957 slicks among all the images. Of these, 287 appeared a single time in isolated locations and may therefore be false targets. The remaining slicks appeared in groups of up to 9 separate features, clustered in areas of 1 to 6.5 km across. When slicks appear within the same area in repeated images, they are judged to have a persistent source—a bubbling vent on the seafloor (MacDonald et al. 2002). Persistent sources represent geologic formations defined by migrating hydrocarbons that may include multiple separate vents. A total of 559 formations were defined by repeated imaging; these comprised a maximum of 1995 and a minimum of 1263 individual vents. This total was distributed between U

  18. Oil spill remote sensing sensors and aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fruhwirth, M.; Gamble, L.

    1992-01-01

    The most common form of remote sensing as applied to oil spills is aerial remote sensing. The technology of aerial remote sensing, mainly from aircraft, is reviewed along with aircraft-mounted remote sensors and aircraft modifications. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of optical techniques, infrared and ultraviolet sensors, fluorosensors, microwave and radar sensors, and slick thickness sensors are discussed. Special attention is paid to remote sensing of oil under difficult circumstances, such as oil in water or oil on ice. An infrared camera is the first sensor recommended for oil spill work, as it is the cheapest and most applicable device, and is the only type of equipment that can be bought off-the-shelf. The second sensor recommended is an ultraviolet and visible-spectrum device. The laser fluorosensor offers the only potential for discriminating between oiled and un-oiled weeds or shoreline, and for positively identifying oil pollution on ice and in a variety of other situations. However, such an instrument is large and expensive. Radar, although low in priority for purchase, offers the only potential for large-area searches and foul-weather remote sensing. Most other sensors are experimental or do not offer good potential for oil detection or mapping. 48 refs., 8 tabs

  19. Mechanical recovery of oil in ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solsberg, L.B.; McGrath, M.

    1992-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the mechanical systems used for removing oil in ice. The most promising spill cleanup techniques were identified along with recommendations for future work. Catalogued data in the review focused on skimmers, of which rope mop machines were considered as having the most versatile approach. The performance of the Foxtail VAB 8-14 skimmer was then assessed in North Slope crude oil and diesel fuel at a test site in Alaska. The skimmer operates through a remote power pack and pump, and incorporates eight vertically oriented rope mops. It weighs 900 kg and is suspended from a crane when deployed. Three independent test parameters were measured: oil type, slick thickness, and ice cover. A test strategy was devised to isolate the effects of individual parameters on skimming in order to optimize machine performance. Skimmer performance was based on the percent oil in the recovered oil/water mixture and the net oil collection rate. Skimmer performance was found to be optimal at rope mop speeds of 0.2-0.3 m/s in medium range viscosity oils. The unit tested was significantly less effective in diesel. Overall, the Foxtail skimmer was found to comprise an oil recovery concept that has excellent potential and affords versatility for many oil-in-ice applications. 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Optimisation of Oil Spill Dispersants on Weathered Oils. A New Approach Using Experimental Design and Multivariate Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandvik, Per Johan

    1997-12-31

    This thesis describes how laboratory experiments combined with numerical modelling were used to predict weathering of an oil slick at different environmental conditions (temperature, wind etc.). It also applies laboratory test methods to screen dispersant effectiveness under different temperatures and salinities. A new approach is developed for dispersant optimization based on statistical design and multivariate analysis; this resulted in a new dispersant with low toxicity and high effectiveness on a broad selection of oil types. The thesis illustrates the potential of dispersant used as an operational response method on oil spills by discussing three different oil spill scenarios and compares the effect of using dispersants to using mechanical recovery and to doing nothing. Some recommendations that may increase the effectiveness of the Norwegian oil spill contingency are also given. 172 refs., 65 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Process of cleaning oil spills and the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breisford, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    A process of cleaning spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like from bodies of water, garage floors, roadways and the like, comprising spraying unbonded shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles onto the spill, absorbing the spill into the shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles, and removing the soaked shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles and the spill absorbed therein. An absorbent composition for absorbing spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and like, comprising shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and means for absorbing the spill and for stiffening the co-position so that the composition fights against being compressed so that less of the absorbed spill escapes from the composition when it is being removed from the spill, said means including cork particles dispersed in with the fiberglass blowing wool particles. An absorbent sock for absorbing or containing a spill of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like, comprising a hollow tube, said tube being permeable to the toxic or hazardous materials and being made of nylon or polypropylene, and unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles enclosed in the tube. Apparatus for controlling an oil slick on the surface of water, comprising a craft for traversing the slick, a supply of fiberglass blowing wool composition particles stored on the craft in position for being dispersed, shredding means on the craft for shredding the fiberglass blowing wool particles to form unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and dispensing means on the craft for dispensing the unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles onto the slick

  2. Studies on the dissolution and long term weathering of spilled crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackay, D; Charles, M E; Sumchi, Lee; Lun, R; Ooijen, H van; Romocki, K; Harner, T; Ralfs, M

    1993-04-01

    The development of a laboratory system for the study of the long term behavior of crude oil on a water surface is described. The apparatus consists of a cylindrical glass vessel containing water which is rotated at 33 rpm, thus creating a concave surface in which oil tends to accumulate at the center. Turbulence is induced by a stationary stirrer. Results are described of tests conducted with a number of crude oils and it is concluded that the system is able to create reproducible conditions of controlled evaporation, dissolution, turbulence, photolysis, and oil in water emulsion formation. A major advantage of the system is its simplicity and robustness which permits prolonged exposure of the oil to simulate weathering, over periods of weeks and months. A second system is described which can be used to determine the concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbons under oil slicks by in-situ headspace analysis. A prototype submersible sparger sampling system was devised and tested, and results are presented. It is concluded that the system is a promising and practical method of determining the extent to which dissolved hydrocarbons are present in water at various depths under an oil slick. In both cases it is concluded that the concepts have sufficient merit that further work is justified. Recommendations are made for further research and development which will, it is hoped, enable these systems to be used to investigate aspects of the fate and effects of oil spills at sea. 6 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Multidisciplinary oil spill modeling to protect coastal communities and the environment of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M.; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Panagiotakis, Costas; Lardner, Robin

    2016-11-01

    We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves. By applying a qualitative analysis, seabed morphology is for the first time related to the direction of the oil slick expansion, as it is able to alter the movement of sea currents. Specifically, the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. This work suggests that oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea should be mitigated in the very few hours after their onset, and before wind and currents disperse them. We explain that protocols should be prioritized between neighboring countries to mitigate any oil spills.

  4. Significance of appendiceal thickening in association with typhlitis in pediatric oncology patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarville, M.B.; Thompson, J.; Adelman, C.S.; Lee, M.O.; Li, C.; Alsammarae, D.; Rao, B.N.; May, M.V.; Jones, S.C.; Sandlund, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The management of pediatric oncology patients with imaging evidence of appendiceal thickening is complex because they are generally poor surgical candidates and often have confounding clinical findings. Objective: We sought to determine the significance of appendiceal thickening in pediatric oncology patients who also had typhlitis. Specifically, we evaluated the impact of this finding on the duration of typhlitis, its clinical management, and outcome. Materials and methods: From a previous review of the management of typhlitis in 90 children with cancer at our institution, we identified 4 with imaging evidence of appendiceal thickening. We compared colonic wall measurements, duration of typhlitis symptoms, management, and outcome of patients with appendiceal thickening and typhlitis to patients with typhlitis alone. Results: There was no significant difference in duration of typhlitis symptoms between patients with typhlitis only (15.6 ± 1.2 days) and those with typhlitis and appendiceal thickening (14.5 ± 5.8 days; P = 0.9). Two patients with appendiceal thickening required surgical treatment for ischemic bowel, and two were treated medically. Only one patient in the typhlitis without appendiceal thickening group required surgical intervention. There were no deaths in children with appendiceal thickening; two patients died of complications of typhlitis alone. (orig.)

  5. Comment and response document for the final remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This document for the final remedial action plan and site design has been prepared for US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Division as part of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action plan. Comments and responses are included for the site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

  6. Combining conservation value, vulnerability, and effectiveness of mitigation actions in spatial conservation decisions: an application to coastal oil spill combating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihaksi, Taina; Kokkonen, Teemu; Helle, Inari; Jolma, Ari; Lecklin, Tiina; Kuikka, Sakari

    2011-05-01

    Increasing oil transportation and severe oil accidents in the past have led to the development of various sensitivity maps in different countries all over the world. Often, however, the areas presented on the maps are far too large to be safeguarded with the available oil combating equipment and prioritization is required to decide which areas must be safeguarded. While oil booms can be applied to safeguard populations from a drifting oil slick, decision making on the spatial allocation of oil combating capacity is extremely difficult due to the lack of time, resources and knowledge. Since the operational decision makers usually are not ecologists, a useful decision support tool including ecological knowledge must be readily comprehensible and easy to use. We present an index-based method that can be used to make decisions concerning which populations of natural organisms should primarily be safeguarded from a floating oil slick with oil booms. The indices take into account the relative exposure, mortality and recovery potential of populations, the conservation value of species and populations, and the effectiveness of oil booms to safeguard different species. The method has been implemented in a mapping software that can be used in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) for operational oil combating. It could also be utilized in other similar conservation decisions where species with varying vulnerability, conservational value, and benefits received from the management actions need to be prioritized.

  7. Texture Adaption in Dysphagia: Acceptability Differences Between Thickened and Naturally Thick Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschke, Marco; Seehafer, Peggy

    The aim of the study was to investigate differences in the acceptability between thickened and naturally viscous beverages. This was an exploratory, cross-sectional study. One hundred twenty-eight healthy volunteers rated overall liking/disliking of a selection of each of three thickened drinks and three beverages of natural viscosity pre- and postconsumption. Mean ratings were subjected to statistical analysis done with t tests. Although all naturally thick beverages evoked good expectations, there were significant differences in expected acceptance of thickened fluids concerning the kind of beverage. Postconsumption of naturally thick beverages were rated significantly better than thickened. The findings suggest an alternative offer of naturally thick drinks and waiver of thickening water when viscosity adaption is needed. The sufficient and safe oral fluid intake in dysphagia requires compliance to dietetic recommendations. Naturally thick beverages can contribute to increase the appeal of texture-modified diet.

  8. A mathematical model for batch and continuous thickening of flocculent suspensions in vessels with varying section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, R.; Damasceno, J.J.R.; Karlesen, K.H.

    2001-10-01

    The phenomenological theory of continuous thickening of flocculated suspensions in an ideal cylindrical thickener is extended to vessels having varying cross-section, including divergent or convergent conical vessels. The purpose of this contribution is to draw attention to the corresponding mathematical model, whose key ingredient is a strongly degenerate parabolic partial differential equation. For ideal (non-flocculated) suspensions, which do not form co compressible sediments, the mathematical model reduces to the kinematic approach by Anestis, who developed a method of construction of exact solution by the method of characteristics. The difficulty lies in the fact that characteristics and iso-concentration lines, unlike the conventional Kynch model for cylindrical vessels, do not coincide, and one has to resort to numerical methods to simulate the thickening process. A numerical algorithm is presented and employed for simulations of continuous thickening. Implications of the mathematical model are also demonstrated by steady-state calculations, which lead to new possibilities in thickener design. (author)

  9. A Novel Model for the Entire Settling-Thickening Process in a Secondary Settling Tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhijiang; Zhang, Yuankai; Wang, Hongchen; Qi, Lu; Yin, Xunfei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wen, Yang

    2016-12-01

      Sludge settling and thickening occur simultaneously in secondary settling tanks (SSTs). The ability to accurately calculate the settling and thickening capacity of activated sludge was of great importance. Despite extensive studies on the development of settling velocity models for use with SSTs, these models have not been applied due to the difficulty in calibrating the related parameters. Additionally, there have been some studies of the thickening behavior of the activated sludge in SSTs. In this study, a novel settling and thickening model for activated sludge was developed, and the model was validated using experimental data (R2 = 0.830 to 0.963, p settling and thickening behavior of the activated sludge in an SST. The application of these models requires only one critical parameter, namely, the stirred sludge volume index SSVI3.5, which is readily available in a water resource recovery facility.

  10. Study of low-velocity impact response of sandwich panels with shear-thickening gel cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpeng; Gong, Xinglong; Xuan, Shouhu

    2018-06-01

    The low-velocity impact response of sandwich panels with shear-thickening gel cores was studied. The impact tests indicated that the sandwich panels with shear-thickening gel cores showed excellent properties of energy dissipation and stress distribution. In comparison to the similar sandwich panels with chloroprene rubber cores and ethylene-propylene-diene monomer cores, the shear-thickening gel cores led to the obviously smaller contact forces and the larger energy absorptions. Numerical modelling with finite element analysis was used to investigate the stress distribution of the sandwich panels with shear-thickening gel cores and the results agreed well with the experimental results. Because of the unique mechanical property of the shear-thickening gel, the concentrated stress on the front facesheets were distributed to larger areas on the back facesheets and the peak stresses were reduced greatly.

  11. Simulation of oil pollution in the Persian Gulf near Assaluyeh oil terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihifard, M.; Badri, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulation of oil slick movement with respect to tidal factors and wind effects was performed in order to counteract oil pollution in the Persian Gulf. First, a flow model was invoked with respect to water level fluctuations. The main tidal constituents were applied to the model using the initial conditions of water level variations in the Hormuz Strait near the Hangam Island. The movement of oil pollution was determined due to wind, tide and temperature effects and confirmed by applying a verified field results. Simulations were focused near an important terminal in the Persian Gulf, Assaluyeh Port. The results were led to preparing a risk-taking map in a parallel research for the Persian Gulf.

  12. Hyperspectral and Radar Airborne Imagery over Controlled Release of Oil at Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Angelliaume

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing techniques are commonly used by Oil and Gas companies to monitor hydrocarbon on the ocean surface. The interest lies not only in exploration but also in the monitoring of the maritime environment. Occurrence of natural seeps on the sea surface is a key indicator of the presence of mature source rock in the subsurface. These natural seeps, as well as the oil slicks, are commonly detected using radar sensors but the addition of optical imagery can deliver extra information such as thickness and composition of the detected oil, which is critical for both exploration purposes and efficient cleanup operations. Today, state-of-the-art approaches combine multiple data collected by optical and radar sensors embedded on-board different airborne and spaceborne platforms, to ensure wide spatial coverage and high frequency revisit time. Multi-wavelength imaging system may create a breakthrough in remote sensing applications, but it requires adapted processing techniques that need to be developed. To explore performances offered by multi-wavelength radar and optical sensors for oil slick monitoring, remote sensing data have been collected by SETHI (Système Expérimental de Télédection Hyperfréquence Imageur, the airborne system developed by ONERA (the French Aerospace Lab, during an oil spill cleanup exercise carried out in 2015 in the North Sea, Europe. The uniqueness of this dataset lies in its high spatial resolution, low noise level and quasi-simultaneous acquisitions of different part of the EM spectrum. Specific processing techniques have been developed to extract meaningful information associated with oil-covered sea surface. Analysis of this unique and rich dataset demonstrates that remote sensing imagery, collected in both optical and microwave domains, allows estimating slick surface properties such as the age of the emulsion released at sea, the spatial abundance of oil and the relative concentration of hydrocarbons remaining on

  13. State-of-the-art and research needs for oil spill impact assessment modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French-McCay, D.

    2009-01-01

    Many oil spill models focus on trajectory and fate in aquatic environments. Models designed to address subsurface oil concentrations typically overlay fates model concentration results on maps or grids of biological distributions to assess impacts. This paper discussed a state-of-the-art biological effects model designed to evaluate the impacts and dose of oil spill hydrocarbons on aquatic biota including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, invertebrates and plants. The biological effects model was coupled to an oil trajectory and fates spill impact model application package (SIMAP) in order to obtain accurate spatial and temporal quantifications of oil distributions and hydrocarbon component concentrations. Processes simulated in the model included slick spreading, evaporation of volatiles from surface oil, transport on the water surface, and various types of oil dispersion and emulsification. The design of the model was discussed, as well as strategies used for applying the model for hindcasts and risk assessments. 204 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  14. State-of-the-art and research needs for oil spill impact assessment modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French-McCay, D. [Applied Science Associates Inc., South Kingstown, RI (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Many oil spill models focus on trajectory and fate in aquatic environments. Models designed to address subsurface oil concentrations typically overlay fates model concentration results on maps or grids of biological distributions to assess impacts. This paper discussed a state-of-the-art biological effects model designed to evaluate the impacts and dose of oil spill hydrocarbons on aquatic biota including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, invertebrates and plants. The biological effects model was coupled to an oil trajectory and fates spill impact model application package (SIMAP) in order to obtain accurate spatial and temporal quantifications of oil distributions and hydrocarbon component concentrations. Processes simulated in the model included slick spreading, evaporation of volatiles from surface oil, transport on the water surface, and various types of oil dispersion and emulsification. The design of the model was discussed, as well as strategies used for applying the model for hindcasts and risk assessments. 204 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. The Measurement of Thickened Liquids Used for the Management of Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, T. M.; Torley, P. J.; Cichero, J. A. Y.

    2008-07-01

    Dysphagia is a condition where a person has difficulty in swallowing. This can lead to reduced dietary intake, dehydration and malnutrition and also aspiration of material into the lungs and asphyxiation. Using thickened fluids slow the act of swallowing and by doing so enhance safe swallowing. A common method of thickening drinks is to use a powdered thickener, but this can lead to problems in ensuring that the consistency of the degree of thickening appropriate to an individual is maintained by those making up the fiuids. There is also no assurance that the thickness of thickened liquids is consistent across commercial manufacturers. In this field viscosity is typically measured using a Line Spread Test, with the resulting viscosities being described by such terms as nectar- honey- or pudding-thick. This test is prone to many variations in operating conditions and so cannot provide accurate reproducible data. In this paper we have used conventional rheology (dynamic oscillatory using a couette cell) to provide quantitative measurement of the development in thickness of various beverages as a function of time. It was found fruit juices typically required less thickener and milk more to achieve the same thickness, but that the degree of thickening varied non-linearly with addition level.

  16. The receptor-like kinase AtVRLK1 regulates secondary cell wall thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Zhang, Rui; Gui, Jinshan; Zhong, Yu; Li, Laigeng

    2018-04-20

    During the growth and development of land plants, some specialized cells, such as tracheary elements, undergo secondary cell wall thickening. Secondary cell walls contain additional lignin, compared with primary cell walls, thus providing mechanical strength and potentially improving defenses against pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms that initiate wall thickening are unknown. In this study, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, encoded by AtVRLK1 (Vascular-Related RLK 1), that is specifically expressed in cells undergoing secondary cell wall thickening. Suppression of AtVRLK1expression resulted in a range of phenotypes that included retarded early elongation of the inflorescence stem, shorter fibers, slower root growth, and shorter flower filaments. In contrast, upregulation of AtVRLK1 led to longer fiber cells, reduced secondary cell wall thickening in fiber and vessel cells, and defects in anther dehiscence. Molecular and cellular analyses showed that downregulation of AtVRLK1 promoted secondary cell wall thickening and upregulation of AtVRLK1 enhanced cell elongation and inhibited secondary cell wall thickening. We propose that AtVRLK1 functions as a signaling component in coordinating cell elongation and cell wall thickening during growth and development. {copyright, serif} 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  17. Gallbladder wall thickening: MR imaging and pathologic correlation with emphasis on layered pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S.E.; Lee, J.M.; Hahn, S.T.; Lee, K.; Rha, S.E.; Choi, B.G.; Kim, E.K.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate MR findings of gallbladder wall thickening with pathologic findings on the basis of the layered pattern and to evaluate the diagnostic value of MR imaging in gallbladder disease. We retrospectively evaluated the source images of HASTE sequences for MR cholangiography in 144 patients with gallbladder wall thickening. The layered pattern of thickened wall was classified into four patterns. Type 1 shows two layers with a thin hypointense inner layer and thick hyperintense outer layer. Type 2 has two layers of ill-defined margin. Type 3 shows multiple hyperintense cystic spaces in the wall. Type 4 shows diffuse nodular thickening without layering. MR findings of a layered pattern of thickened gallbladder were well correlated with histopathology. Chronic cholecystitis matched to type 1, acute cholecystitis corresponded to type 2, adenomyomatosis showed type 3, and the gallbladder carcinomas showed type 4. All four layered patterns were associated with PPV of 73% or greater, sensitivity of 92% or greater and specificity of 95% or greater. Our results indicate that MR findings of gallbladder wall thickening are characteristic in each entity and correlate well with pathologic findings. The classification of the layered pattern may be valuable for interpreting thickened gallbladder wall. (orig.)

  18. A comparative ultrastructural study of pit membranes with plasmodesmata associated thickenings in four angiosperm species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaey, David; Lens, Frederic; Huysmans, Suzy; Smets, Erik; Jansen, Steven

    2008-11-01

    Recent micromorphological observations of angiosperm pit membranes have extended the number and range of taxa with pseudo-tori in tracheary elements. This study investigates at ultrastructural level (TEM) the development of pseudo-tori in the unrelated Malus yunnanensis, Ligustrum vulgare, Pittosporum tenuifolium, and Vaccinium myrtillus in order to determine whether these plasmodesmata associated thickenings have a similar developmental pattern across flowering plants. At early ontogenetic stages, the formation of a primary thickening was observed, resulting from swelling of the pit membrane in fibre-tracheids and vessel elements. Since plasmodesmata appear to be frequently, but not always, associated with these primary pit membrane thickenings, it remains unclear which ultrastructural characteristics control the formation of pseudo-tori. At a very late stage during xylem differentiation, a secondary thickening is deposited on the primary pit membrane thickening. Plasmodesmata are always associated with pseudo-tori at these final developmental stages. After autolysis, the secondary thickening becomes electron-dense and persistent, while the primary thickening turns transparent and partially or entirely dissolves. The developmental patterns observed in the species studied are similar and agree with former ontogenetic studies in Rosaceae, suggesting that pseudo-tori might be homologous features across angiosperms.

  19. Finding of no significant impact proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0339) of the proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock in San Miguel County, Colorado. These sites contain radioactively contaminated materials that would be removed and stabilized at a remote location. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (ONSI)

  20. Impact assessment of artificial recharge and geo-chemical characterization of the waters of the slick Tebolba (Eastern Tunisia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferchichi, Hajer

    2007-01-01

    This study concerned the impact assessment of artificial recharge of a coastal aquifer (Tebolba) from the waters of the dam Nebhana and chemical characterization of its waters. The analysis maps piezometric drawn and salinity at various dates since 1940, the establishment of chronic recharge from the years 1992 to 2006, as well as geochemical study of groundwater in the slick Tebolba have enabled us to reach the many results. This study using a multidisciplinary approach (hydrodynamics and geochemical) seeks an assessment of impacts of recharging the water table in Tebolba from the waters of the dam Nebhana through the history of the qualitative and quantitative water the water and a hydro-geochemical study the current state of the waters of the water. (Author). 45 refs

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report.

  3. Oil spill research program, U. S. Minerals Management Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBelle, R. P.; Mullin, J. V.; White, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    The oil spill prevention and response research program of the U.S. Minerals Management Service was described including its goals and objectives, some recently funded projects, and future research directions. As it is now the trend in most research organizations, a large part of the program is carried out in cooperation with other major research centers to leverage funds and to maximize study results. For example, joint research with Environment Canada focuses on the physical and chemical properties of dispersants, remote sensing and mapping oil slicks and shoreline cleanup strategies. Similarly, cooperative projects are underway with the National Institute of Standards and Technology in assessing the capabilities of in-situ burning as an oil spill response tool. Research capabilities of OHMSETT - The National Oil Spill Response Test Facility were also reviewed. A series of tables listed titles of research projects completed during 1995-1996. 5 tabs.,

  4. OSIS: A Windows 3 Oil Spill Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, M.; Walker, M.; Wiltshire, M.; Tyler, A.

    1993-01-01

    An oil spill modelling and analysis system called the Oil Spill Information System (OSIS) has recently been developed. OSIS uses a model of oceanographic processes to predict three-dimensional spreading and transport of an oil slick under the influence of wind, waves, tide, turbulence, and shear diffusion. Oil weathering and fate processes of emulsification, evaporation, and dispersion are also simulated. The physical models have been tested against data obtained from sea trials and spill incidents. OSIS uses an object-oriented programming technique and presents model output as maps, graphs, and tables in multiple windows and can link to other Windows packages to create a suite of spill information management tools. 15 refs., 12 figs

  5. Pumping evaluations with paste tailings thickened close to the surface disposal area

    OpenAIRE

    Wennberg, Thord; Sellgren, Anders

    2007-01-01

    An elevated location of a paste thickener on a ridge close to the disposal area is considered at a Swedish iron ore mine. About 0.7 Mtonnes of thickened tailings are planned to be layered as paste in the vicinity of the thickener over several years with pipeline lengths of up to 900 m after about 20 years. In order to clarify the pipeline pumping characteristics of the tailings product for volumetric solids concentration from 40 to 50%, experiments in loop systems with pipeline inner diameter...

  6. Chemical oil-spill dispersants: evaluation of three laboratory procedures for estimating performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J.R.; Marsden, P.

    1992-09-01

    The report presents data from studies designed to evaluate characteristics of selected bench-scale test methods for estimating performance of chemical agents for dispersing oil from surface slicks into an underlying water column. In order to mitigate the effect of surface slicks with chemical dispersant agents, however, an on-scene coordinator must have information and an understanding of performance characteristics for available dispersant agents. Performance of candidate dispersant agents can be estimated on the basis of laboratory testing procedures that are designed to evaluate performance of different agents. Data presented in the report assist in the evaluation of candidate test methods for estimating performance of candidate dispersant agents. Three test methods were selected for evaluating performance: the currently accepted Revised Standard EPA test, Environmental Canada's Swirling Flask test, and the IFP-Dilution test

  7. The life of phi: the development of phi thickenings in roots of the orchids of the genus Miltoniopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Nurul A; Collings, David A

    2015-02-01

    Phi thickenings, bands of secondary wall thickenings that reinforce the primary wall of root cortical cells in a wide range of species, are described for the first time in the epiphytic orchid Miltoniopsis. As with phi thickenings found in other plants, the phi thickenings in Miltoniopsis contain highly aligned cellulose running along the lengths of the thickenings, and are lignified but not suberized. Using a combination of histological and immunocytochemical techniques, thickening development can be categorized into three different stages. Microtubules align lengthwise along the thickening during early and intermediate stages of development, and callose is deposited within the thickening in a pattern similar to the microtubules. These developing thickenings also label with the fluorescently tagged lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). These associations with microtubules and callose, and the WGA labeling, all disappear when the phi thickenings are mature. This pattern of callose and WGA deposition show changes in the thickened cell wall composition and may shed light on the function of phi thickenings in plant roots, a role for which has yet to be established.

  8. A Review of Oil Spill Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl E

    2017-12-30

    The technical aspects of oil spill remote sensing are examined and the practical uses and drawbacks of each technology are given with a focus on unfolding technology. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, but limited to certain observational conditions and simple applications. Infrared cameras offer some potential as oil spill sensors but have several limitations. Both techniques, although limited in capability, are widely used because of their increasing economy. The laser fluorosensor uniquely detects oil on substrates that include shoreline, water, soil, plants, ice, and snow. New commercial units have come out in the last few years. Radar detects calm areas on water and thus oil on water, because oil will reduce capillary waves on a water surface given moderate winds. Radar provides a unique option for wide area surveillance, all day or night and rainy/cloudy weather. Satellite-carried radars with their frequent overpass and high spatial resolution make these day-night and all-weather sensors essential for delineating both large spills and monitoring ship and platform oil discharges. Most strategic oil spill mapping is now being carried out using radar. Slick thickness measurements have been sought for many years. The operative technique at this time is the passive microwave. New techniques for calibration and verification have made these instruments more reliable.

  9. Tailings dewatering in the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, S.; Labelle, M. [Golder Paste Technology, Sudbury, ON (Canada); Wislesky, I. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Alberta's Directive 074 was established to reduce fluid tailings produced during oil sands extraction processes. This PowerPoint presentation examined some of the dewatering strategies available for oil sands operators and provided recommendations for implementing a dewatering plan. Sites must be evaluated in order to determine their chemistry, mineralogy, and the total quantity of material to be handled. The availability of potential additives must also be considered. Process technologies must be selected in relation to the operator's depositional strategy. Each site will require its own unique dewatering and depositional strategy. Dewatering technologies include thickening; in-line flocculation; centrifuge; co-mingling; and various new technologies such as electro-osmosis. Laboratory testing programs include index tests, primary stream thickening, and mini-pilot plant testing. The performance of various testing formats was evaluated. Thickening and depositional techniques were reviewed. tabs., figs.

  10. Crestal Sinus Augmentation in the Presence of Severe Sinus Mucosal Thickening: A Report of 3 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiqin; An, Xueyin; Jeong, Seung-Mi; Choi, Byung-Ho

    2018-06-01

    In the presence of severe sinus mucosal thickening, the ostium can be blocked when the sinus membrane is lifted, causing drainage disturbances and sinusitis. Here, we present 3 cases in which maxillary sinus floor elevation was performed using a crestal approach in the presence of severe sinus mucosal thickening (>10 mm). The effects of maxillary sinus floor elevation using the crestal approach technique on sinus mucosal thickening and bone formation in the sinus were evaluated using cone beam computed tomography. None of the patients exhibited an increase in sinus membrane thickness. No complications were encountered during the follow-up periods, and bone formation was observed around the implants at the sinus floor. All implants were functioning successfully. Maxillary sinus floor elevation using the crestal approach technique in the presence of severe sinus mucosal thickening allows for minimally invasive sinus grafting and simultaneous implant placement and does not increase sinus membrane thickness.

  11. Shear Thickening Fluid (STF) – Enhanced Textiles for Impact Energy Dissipation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The rheological behavior of some liquids can lead to the creation of materials with very unique properties. Shear thickening fluids (STFs), also known as dilatants,...

  12. Stab Resistance of Shear Thickening Fluid (STF)-Kevlar Composites for Body Armor Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egres Jr., R. G; Decker, M. J; Halbach, C. J; Lee, Y. S; Kirkwood, J. E; Kirwood, K. M; Wagner, N. J; Wetzel, E. D

    2004-01-01

    The stab resistance of shear thickening fluid (STF)-Kevlar and STF-Nylon fabric composites are investigated and found to exhibit significant improvements over neat fabric targets of equivalent areal density...

  13. Thickened water-based hydraulic fluid with reduced dependence of viscosity on temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deck, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    Improved hydraulic fluids or metalworking lubricants, utilizing mixtures of water, metal lubricants, metal corrosion inhibitors, and an associative polyether thickener, have reduced dependence of the viscosity on temperature achieved by the incorporation therein of an ethoxylated polyether surfactant.

  14. A Comparative Study Between Modified Starch and Xanthan Gum Thickeners in Post-Stroke Oropharyngeal Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardell, N; Rofes, L; Arreola, V; Speyer, R; Clavé, P

    2016-04-01

    Thickeners are used in post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) as a compensatory therapeutic strategy against aspirations. To compare the therapeutic effects of modified starch (MS) and xanthan gum (XG) thickeners on swallow safety and efficacy in chronic post-stroke OD patients using clinical and videofluoroscopic (VFS) assessment. Patients were studied by clinical assessment (volume-viscosity swallow test, V-VST) and VFS using 3 volumes (5, 10, 20 mL) and 3 viscosities (liquid, nectar and spoon thick), comparing MS and XG. We studied 122 patients (46MS, 76XG). (A) V-VST showed that both thickeners similarly improved safety of swallow. Prevalence of safe swallowing significantly increased with enhanced viscosity (P < 0.001 vs liquid), MS: 47.83 % at liquid, 84.93 % at nectar and 92.96 % at spoon thick; XG: 55.31 % at liquid, 77.78 % at nectar and 97.84 % at spoon thick. Patients on MS reported higher prevalence of pharyngeal residue at spoon-thick viscosities. (B) VFS: increasing bolus viscosity with either thickener increased prevalence of safe swallows (P < 0.001 vs liquid), MS: 30.25 % liquid, 61.07 % nectar and 92.64 % spoon thick; XG: 29.12 % liquid, 71.30 % nectar and 89.91 % spoon thick. Penetration-aspiration scale score was significantly reduced with increased viscosity with both thickeners. MS increased oral and pharyngeal residues at nectar and spoon-thick viscosities but XG did not. Timing of airway protection mechanisms and bolus velocity were not affected by either thickener. Increasing bolus viscosity with MS and XG thickeners strongly and similarly improved safety of swallow in chronic post-stroke OD by a compensatory mechanism; in contrast only MS thickeners increased oropharyngeal residue.

  15. Discrimination between pleural thickening and minimal pleural effusion using color Doppler chest ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali A.; Makhlouf, Hoda A.; Mohamed, Alaa R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The discrimination of pleural thickening from minimal pleural effusion may be difficult as both lesions appear as anechoic on grayscale ultrasound, hence, free of “echoes” does not confirm the presence of pleural fluid. Aim of this study: To evaluate the value of color Doppler ultrasound in differentiating minimal pleural effusion that could be aspirated from pleural thickening and to compare it with grayscale ultrasound. Patients and methods: This analytic cross-sectional s...

  16. Influence of physical and chemical dispersion on the biodegradation of oil under simulated marine conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swannell, R. P. J.; Daniel, F.; Croft, B. C.; Engelhardt, M. A.; Wilson, S.; Mitchell, D. J.; Lunel, T.

    1997-01-01

    Dispersion and biodegradation of oil was studied in marine microcosms designed to simulate oil dispersion at sea. Dispersion was studied using both Phase Doppler Particle Analyser and a Chamber Slide technique. In both natural and artificial seawater, oil addition was observed to encourage the growth of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the presence of sufficient nitrogen and phosphorus. Results showed that microorganisms enhanced oil dispersion by colonizing physically-dispersed oil droplets and preventing re-coalescence with the surface slick. The addition of dispersants increased the rate of colonization as well as the number of degraded droplets. These results suggest that stimulation of physical dispersion by chemical means increase the rate of oil biodegradation under natural conditions. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 14 figs

  17. Use of an environmental specimen bank for evaluating the impact of the Prestige oil spill on the levels of trace elements in two species of Fucus on the coast of Galicia (NW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villares, Ruben; Real, Carlos; Fernandez, Jose Angel; Aboal, Jesus; Carballeira, Alejo

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we investigated possible contamination by trace elements due to the oil slick caused by the shipwreck of the Prestige oil tanker, in two species of brown macroalgae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus ceranoides) collected from the coastal area most severely affected by the spill (Galicia, NW Spain). The oil slick apparently did not cause significant increases in the concentrations of the trace elements studied, except vanadium. It appears that the magnitude of terrestrial inputs to coastal waters is sufficiently high to mask the inputs of trace elements from the fuel. The observed exception of V suggests that bioaccumulation of this element by the two species of Fucus may be used to indicate exposure to petrochemical products similar to the Prestige fuel. The findings of the study are another example of the importance of the existence of Environmental Specimen Banks for studies of this type

  18. Use of an environmental specimen bank for evaluating the impact of the Prestige oil spill on the levels of trace elements in two species of Fucus on the coast of Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villares, Ruben; Real, Carlos [Area de Ecologia, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Fernandez, Jose Angel; Aboal, Jesus; Carballeira, Alejo [Area de Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    In the present study we investigated possible contamination by trace elements due to the oil slick caused by the shipwreck of the Prestige oil tanker, in two species of brown macroalgae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus ceranoides) collected from the coastal area most severely affected by the spill (Galicia, NW Spain). The oil slick apparently did not cause significant increases in the concentrations of the trace elements studied, except vanadium. It appears that the magnitude of terrestrial inputs to coastal waters is sufficiently high to mask the inputs of trace elements from the fuel. The observed exception of V suggests that bioaccumulation of this element by the two species of Fucus may be used to indicate exposure to petrochemical products similar to the Prestige fuel. The findings of the study are another example of the importance of the existence of Environmental Specimen Banks for studies of this type. (author)

  19. Microstructural changes in thickened corpus callosum in children: contribution of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlini, Laura; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Kanavaki, Aikaterini; Hanquinet, Sylviane [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Thickened corpus callosum is a rare finding and its pathophysiology is not well known. An anomalous supracallosal bundle has been depicted by fiber tracking in some cases but no diffusion tensor imaging metrics of thickened corpus callosum have been reported. To use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in cases of thickened corpus callosum to help in understanding its clinical significance. During a 7-year period five children (ages 6 months to 15 years) with thickened corpus callosum were studied. We determined DTI metrics of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, and axial (λ1) and radial (λ2, λ3) diffusivity and performed 3-D fiber tracking reconstruction of the thickened corpus callosum. We compared our results with data from the literature and 24 age-matched controls. Brain abnormalities were seen in all cases. All children had at least three measurements of corpus callosum thickness above the 97th percentile according to age. In all children 3-D fiber tracking showed an anomalous supracallosal bundle and statistically significant decrease in FA (P = 0.003) and λ1 (P = 0.001) of the corpus callosum compared with controls, but no significant difference in mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity. Thickened corpus callosum was associated with abnormal bundles, suggesting underlying axonal guidance abnormality. DTI metrics suggested abnormal fiber compactness and density, which may be associated with alterations in cognition. (orig.)

  20. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document contains the page changes for Attachment 3, Ground Water Hydrology Report dated August, 1996 for the Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for Stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This portion of Attachment 3 contains the Table of Contents pages i and ii, and pages numbered 3-3 through 3-56 of the Ground Water Hydrology Report. Also included are the cover sheets for Appendix A, B, and C to Attachment 3

  1. Second to none: Brazilian, Mexican oil giants turn to Canadian satellite system for eagle eye on offshore spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramp, B.

    2001-01-01

    The use by Petrobras of Canada's RADARSAT-1 earth observation satellite imaging system to determine the characteristics of the developing environmental disaster when the world's largest oil rig afloat, owned by Petrobras, was sinking of the Brazilian coast following a series of three explosions which seriously damaged the rig. RADARSAT-1 was pressed into service to determine the fate of the oil slick in terms of where it was heading and how soon it would get there, information that is vital to directing clean-up efforts to minimize the damage. RADARSAT-1 was also involved in responding to a tanker oil spill in January 2001 that threatened the Galapagos Islands off the coast of Ecuador. PEMEX, the Mexican state oil company also uses RADARSAT-1 satellite imagery to monitor its nearly 400 marine oil operations in the Gulf of Mexico. RADARSAT-1, launched in 1995 by the Canadian Space Agency, is well known for its reliability, regularity and rapidity. It is equipped with microwave sensors, which can be relied on to produce usable imagery 96 to 97 per cent of the time. It can acquire imagery day or night under any atmospheric conditions through its ability to penetrate darkness, cloud, rain or haze. This is crucial when tracking oil slicks in the ocean where clouds and haze are common, especially near or in the equatorial zones. RADARSAT-1 works by transmitting microwave energy, bouncing it off the earth's surface and back to the satellite. The returning signals are received and stored by the satellite as data. Oil slicks as small as 100 metres long can be detected from space by RADARSAT-1

  2. Satellite observations of oil spills in Bohai Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y L; Tang, Z Y; Li, X F

    2014-01-01

    Several oil spills occurred at two oil platforms in Bohai Sea, China on June 4 and 17, 2011. The oil spills were subsequently imaged by different types of satellite sensors including SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), Chinese HJ-1-B CCD and NOAA MODIS. In order to detect the oil spills more accurately, images of the former three sensors were used in this study. Oil spills were detected using the semi-supervised Texture-Classifying Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA) in SAR images and gradient edge detection algorithm in HJ-1-B and MODIS images. The results show that, on June 11, the area of oil slicks is 31 km 2 and they are observed in the vicinity and to the north of the oilfield in SAR image. The coverage of the oil spill expands dramatically to 244 km 2 due to the newly released oil after June 11 in SAR image of June 14. The results on June 19 show that under a cloud-free condition, CCD and MODIS images capture the oil spills clearly while TCNNA cannot separate them from the background surface, which implies that the optical images play an important role in oil detection besides SAR images

  3. Relative abundance of 'Bacillus' spp., surfactant-associated bacterium present in a natural sea slick observed by satellite SAR imagery over the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Lynn Howe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The damping of short gravity-capillary waves (Bragg waves due to surfactant accumulation under low wind speed conditions results in the formation of natural sea slicks. These slicks are detectable visually and in synthetic aperture radar satellite imagery. Surfactants are produced by natural life processes of many marine organisms, including bacteria, phytoplankton, seaweed, and zooplankton. In this work, samples were collected in the Gulf of Mexico during a research cruise on the R/V 'F.G. Walton Smith' to evaluate the relative abundance of 'Bacillus' spp., surfactant-associated bacteria, in the sea surface microlayer compared to the subsurface water at 0.2 m depth. A method to reduce potential contamination of microlayer samples during their collection on polycarbonate filters was implemented and advanced, including increasing the number of successive samples per location and changing sample storage procedures. By using DNA analysis (real-time polymerase chain reaction to target 'Bacillus' spp., we found that in the slick areas, these surfactant-associated bacteria tended to reside mostly in subsurface waters, lending support to the concept that the surfactants they may produce move to the surface where they accumulate under calm conditions and enrich the sea surface microlayer.

  4. Evaluating environmental effects of oil spills by simulating the behaviour and spreading of oil on the sea surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, V.K.; Ivanov, I.V.; Sokolov, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    The area of polluted surface of the sea and the volume of crude oil carried to the coastline are the main parameters that determine ecological damage. This paper considered some of the problems surrounding the assessment of environmental impacts caused by oil spills in the marine environment. Assessment of potential damage involves the analysis of many possible scenarios and the conditions that accompany them, including varying weather conditions. Computer simulations of the behaviour of spilled oil on the sea surface along with other criteria allow for the evaluation of the predicted scenario. Computer simulations provide knowledge of the spreading and drift of oil, as well as its volume and thickness. Knowledge of the following factors, combined with a knowledge of weather conditions is important in emergency response planning: vulnerability of oil pollution areas on shore; calculation of impact factors; detection of vulnerability to oil pollution; the possibility of incidents of the inadmissible oil pollution forecast; and results of a simulation of 48 hour drift of oil slick formed due to a spill in Devkin Zavod Bay. Adequate meteorological information is crucial for the development of valid data. Further progress is currently being developed for specific water areas around oil fields, tanker routes, seabed crude oil pipeline, wind currents, heaving, hydrological and environmental characteristics of sea water. 5 refs., 3 figs

  5. Computer-aided detection of bladder wall thickening in CT urography (CTU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kenny H.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Weizer, Alon Z.; Gordon, Marshall N.; Samala, Ravi K.

    2018-02-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection system for bladder cancer in CT urography (CTU). Bladder wall thickening is a manifestation of bladder cancer and its detection is more challenging than the detection of bladder masses. We first segmented the inner and outer bladder walls using our method that combined deep-learning convolutional neural network with level sets. The non-contrast-enhanced region was separated from the contrast-enhanced region with a maximum-intensity-projection-based method. The non-contrast region was smoothed and gray level threshold was applied to the contrast and non-contrast regions separately to extract the bladder wall and potential lesions. The bladder wall was transformed into a straightened thickness profile, which was analyzed to identify regions of wall thickening candidates. Volume-based features of the wall thickening candidates were analyzed with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to differentiate bladder wall thickenings from false positives. A data set of 112 patients, 87 with wall thickening and 25 with normal bladders, was collected retrospectively with IRB approval, and split into independent training and test sets. Of the 57 training cases, 44 had bladder wall thickening and 13 were normal. Of the 55 test cases, 43 had wall thickening and 12 were normal. The LDA classifier was trained with the training set and evaluated with the test set. FROC analysis showed that the system achieved sensitivities of 93.2% and 88.4% for the training and test sets, respectively, at 0.5 FPs/case.

  6. Synthesis and Evaluation of CO2 Thickeners Designed with Molecular Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Enick; Erick Beckman; J. Karl Johnson

    2009-08-31

    The objective of this research was to use molecular modeling techniques, coupled with our prior experimental results, to design, synthesize and evaluate inexpensive, non-fluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. The first type of thickener that was considered was associating polymers. Typically, these thickeners are copolymers that contain a highly CO{sub 2}-philic monomer, and a small concentration of a CO{sub 2}-phobic associating monomer. Yale University was solely responsible for the synthesis of a second type of thickener; small, hydrogen bonding compounds. These molecules have a core that contains one or more hydrogen-bonding groups, such as urea or amide groups. Non-fluorous, CO{sub 2}-philic functional groups were attached to the hydrogen bonding core of the compound to impart CO{sub 2} stability and macromolecular stability to the linear 'stack' of these compounds. The third type of compound initially considered for this investigation was CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactants. These surfactants contain conventional ionic head groups and composed of CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers (short polymers) or small compounds (sugar acetates) previously identified by our research team. Mobility reduction could occur as these surfactant solutions contacted reservoir brine and formed mobility control foams in-situ. The vast majority of the work conducted in this study was devoted to the copolymeric thickeners and the small hydrogen-bonding thickeners; these thickeners were intended to dissolve completely in CO{sub 2} and increase the fluid viscosity. A small but important amount of work was done establishing the groundwork for CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactants that reduced mobility by generating foams in-situ as the CO{sub 2}+surfactant solution mixed with in-situ brine.

  7. Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation - A common defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Rabęda, Irena; Basińska, Aneta; Lewandowski, Michał; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Napieralska, Anna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Woźny, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Lead, one of the most abundant and hazardous trace metals affecting living organisms, has been commonly detected in plant cell walls including some tolerant plants, mining ecotypes and hyperaccumulators. We have previously shown that in tip growing Funaria sp. protonemata cell wall is remodeled in response to lead by formation of thickenings rich in low-methylesterified pectins (pectin epitope JIM5 - JIM5-P) able to bind metal ions, which accumulate large amounts of Pb. Hence, it leads to the increase of cell wall capacity for Pb compartmentalization. Here we show that diverse plant species belonging to different phyla (Arabidopsis, hybrid aspen, star duckweed), form similar cell wall thickenings in response to Pb. These thickenings are formed in tip growing cells such as the root hairs, and in diffuse growing cells such as meristematic and root cap columella cells of root apices in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis and in mesophyll cells in star duckweed fronds. Notably, all analyzed cell wall thickenings were abundant in JIM5-P and accumulated high amounts of Pb. In addition, the co-localization of JIM5-P and Pb commonly occurred in these cells. Hence, cell wall thickenings formed the extra compartment for Pb accumulation. In this way plant cells increased cell wall capacity for compartmentalization of this toxic metal, protecting protoplast from its toxicity. As cell wall thickenings occurred in diverse plant species and cell types differing in the type of growth we may conclude that pectinous cell wall thickenings formation is a widespread defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb. Moreover, detection of natural defense strategy, increasing plant cell walls capacity for metal accumulation, reveals a promising direction for enhancing plant efficiency in phytoremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Distinguishing benign from malignant gallbladder wall thickening using FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oe, Ai; Kawabe, Joji; Torii, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Because thickening of the gallbladder wall is observed not only in patients with gallbladder cancer but also in those with benign diseases such as chronic cholecystitis and gallbladder adenomyosis, it is difficult to distinguish between benign and malignant gallbladder wall thickening by conventional techniques of diagnostic imaging such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and abdominal ultrasonography (US). In the present study, we attempted to distinguish between benign and malignant gallbladder wall thickening by means of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-Positron emission tomography (PET). FDG-PET was performed in 12 patients with gallbladder wall thickening detected by CT or US, to determine whether it was benign or malignant. Emission scans were taken, beginning 45 minutes after intravenous administration of FDG, and standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated as an indicator of glucose metabolism. Of the 12 patients, 4 showed positive uptake of FDG in the gallbladder wall. Of these 4 patients, 3 had gallbladder cancer. The remaining one, who had chronic cholecystitis, had false-positive findings. The other 8 patients had negative uptake of FDG in the gallbladder wall. Two of these 8 underwent surgical resection, which yielded a diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis. The other 6 patients exhibited no sign of gallbladder malignancy and have been followed without active treatment. FDG-PET appears able to distinguish between benign and malignant gallbladder wall thickening. (author)

  9. Breast disease with skin thickening: differential diagnosis with mammography and ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Rok; Kim, Hak Hee; Cha, Eun Suk; Park, Hye Seong; Kim, Ki Tae; Shinn, Kyung Sub [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    Diffuse skin thickening of the breast is produced by lymphedema usually secondary to obstruction of the axillary lymphatics. On physical examination, the affected breast is, due to increased fluid content, larger, heavier, and of higher overall density. Mammography reveals an increased coarse reticular pattern. Thickening of the skin can have many causes. It may be a result of tumor invasion or a tumor in the dermal lymphatics ; or because of lymphatic congestion through obstruction of lymphatic drainage within the breast, in the axilla, or centrally in the mediastinum. Further causes may be congestive heart failure, benign inflammation, primary skin processes such as psoriasis, or systemic diseases which involve the skin. Mammographic appearance is known to be nonspecific. Ultrasound can demonstrate skin thickening directly, but despite some reports suggesting that the cause of skin thickening can be inferred from the results of ultrasound, this is not usually of practical importance. The purpose of this study is to review the causes of skin thickening of the breast and to use mammography and US to differentiate the causes.

  10. A Comparison of the Viscosities of Thickened Liquids for Pediatric Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ranjith; Clifton, Mekale; Tarlton, Morgan; Heinsohn, Erica; Ewing, Mary

    It has been reported that Speech Language Pathologists in different facilities across the nation use a variety of thickening agents and recipes as therapeutic measures for infants and children diagnosed with dysphagia. Limited research has been completed in this area. Viscosity was tested to determine the thickness of each thickening agent mixed with infant formula. The values were then compared to the National Dysphagia Diet liquid levels to determine which thickening agent resulted in the desired viscosity levels. The thickeners were mixed with common infant formulas and soy formulas to determine if the type of formula impacted the viscosity. The main goal was to determine if the assumed thickness level (viscosity) of prescribed thickened liquids was actually being met. This topic is of high concern because of its impact on the safety and well-being of clients with dysphagia. A viscometer was used to collect the viscosity levels. Commercially available formulas selected for this study. The final results of our investigation will be presented during the APS meeting. This work is supported by a Ball State University Immersive Learning Grant.

  11. [Effect of food thickener on disintegration and dissolution of magnesium oxide tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Yuya; Tsubouchi, Yoshiko; Nakanishi, Rie; Kojima, Chikako; Yoneshima, Mihoko; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Sumiya, Kenji; Kohda, Yukinao

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that magnesium oxide tablets are excreted in a non-disintegrated state in the stool of patients when the tablets are administered after being immersed in a food thickener. Therefore we examined whether immersion in a food thickener affects the pharmacological effect in patients taking magnesium oxide tablets, and whether immersion affects its disintegration and solubility. The mean dosage (1705 mg/d) was higher for patients who took tablets after immersion in a food thickener than for those who took non-immersed tablets (1380 mg/d). The disintegration time and dissolution rate of the immersed tablets were lower than those of non-immersed tablets in vitro. Furthermore, components that constitute the food thickener and differences in composition concentrations differentially affect the disintegration and solubility of magnesium oxide tablets. This suggests that commercially available food thickeners are likely to be associated with changes in the degradation of magnesium oxide tablets, and they therefore should be carefully used in certain clinical situations.

  12. Modeling oil spills in the Med-Sea as a mean of early response in cases of oil leakages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; De Dominicis, Michela; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Lardner, Robin; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Soloviev, Dmitry; Tintore, Joaquin; Sotillo, Marcos; Drago, Aldo; Stylianou, Stavros; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Alves, Tiago; Kokinou, Eleni

    2016-04-01

    Modeling oil spills in the Med-Sea as a mean of early response in cases of oil leakages G. Zodiatis1, M. De Dominicis2, L. Perivoliotis3, H. Radhakrishnan1, R. W. Lardner1, N. Pinardi2, G. Coppini4, D. Soloviev1, J. Tintore5, M. Sotillo6 A. Drago7, S. Stylianou1, A. Nikolaidis1, T. Alves8, E. Kokinou9 and MEDESS4MS partners 1Oceanography Centre, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus 2Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy 3Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Athens, Greece 4Centro Euro- Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Italy 5SOCIB, IMEDEA, Palma de Majorca, Spain 6Puertos del Estado, Madrid, Spain 7IOI, University of Malta, La Valetta, Malta 83D Seismic Lab, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom 9Dept. of Environmental and Natural Resources, Technological Educational Institute Crete, Chania, Greece The risk from oil spill pollution in the Mediterranean is high due to the heavy traffic of merchant vessels for transporting oil and to the increasing coastal and offshore platforms related to the hydrocarbon exploration. This is especially true in the Levantine Basin following the recent widening of the Suez canal and the increase of the offshore deep wells for the exploitation of oil and gas. In order to select the optimal response measurements to assist the response agencies, oil spill models are used to provide predictions of the drift and weathering of the oil slicks. The establishment of the operational ocean forecasting systems at regional level, within the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service and in association with the national downscaled ones, provided the background for the implementation of a multi model integrated oil spill prediction system for the entire Mediterranean to support the maritime safety in near real time. This implementation was carried out in the frame of the medess4ms.eu project, which is dedicated to the response agencies of the riparian countries and to

  13. Airway wall thickening and emphysema show independent familial aggregation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bipen D; Coxson, Harvey O; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: It is unclear whether airway wall thickening and emphysema make independent contributions to airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and whether these phenotypes cluster within families. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether airway wall thickening and emphysema (1...... to airflow obstruction in COPD. These phenotypes show independent aggregation within families of individuals with COPD, suggesting that different genetic factors influence these disease processes....... the severity of airway wall thickening and emphysema. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 3,096 individuals were recruited to the study, of whom 1,159 (519 probands and 640 siblings) had technically adequate high-resolution computed tomography scans without significant non-COPD-related thoracic disease...

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of thickened pituitary stalk proceeding to langerhans cell histiocytosis in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halefoglu, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has shown isolated pituitary stalk thickening in certain cases of idiopathic or secondary central diabetes insipidus (Dl) due to infiltrative processes. We present a 4-year-old boy who was initially diagnosed as having central Dl. The MRI showed isolated pituitary stalk thickening with prominent homogeneous contrast enhancement. The remaining findings on MRI were within normal limits. The patient's personal and family history and laboratory and clinical findings were unremarkable; therefore, he was initially diagnosed as having idiopathic Dl. Since central Dl and isolated pituitary stalk thickening may be considered to be the first manifestations of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, we decided to follow up the patient. After 5 months, following the initial diagnosis, on skeletal X-ray survey, the patient did indeed develop multiple lytic skull lesions which, on biopsy, were histologically typical bone lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Copyright (2006) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  15. Effects of shearing on biogas production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion with recuperative thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shufan; Phan, Hop V; Bustamante, Heriberto; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Nghiem, Long D

    2017-06-01

    Recuperative thickening can intensify anaerobic digestion to produce more biogas and potentially reduce biosolids odour. This study elucidates the effects of sludge shearing during the thickening process on the microbial community structure and its effect on biogas production. Medium shearing resulted in approximately 15% increase in biogas production. By contrast, excessive or high shearing led to a marked decrease in biogas production, possibly due to sludge disintegration and cell lysis. Microbial analysis using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that medium shearing increased the evenness and diversity of the microbial community in the anaerobic digester, which is consistent with the observed improved biogas production. By contrast, microbial diversity decreased under either excessive shearing or high shearing condition. In good agreement with the observed decrease in biogas production, the abundance of Bacteroidales and Syntrophobaterales (which are responsible for hydrolysis and acetogenesis) decreased due to high shearing during recuperative thickening. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Automatic airway-artery analysis on lung CT to quantify airway wall thickening and bronchiectasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Rovira, Adria; Kuo, Wieying; Petersen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bronchiectasis and airway wall thickening are commonly assessed in computed tomography (CT) by comparing the airway size with the size of the accompanying artery. Thus, in order to automate the quantification of bronchiectasis and wall thickening following a similar principle......, and pairs airway branches with the accompanying artery, then quantifies airway wall thickening and bronchiectasis by measuring the wall-artery ratio (WAR) and lumen and outer wall airway-artery ratio (AAR). Measurements that do not use the artery size for normalization are also extracted, including wall...... area percentage (WAP), wall thickness ratio (WTR), and airway diameters. Results: The method was thoroughly evaluated using 8000 manual annotations of airway-artery pairs from 24 full-inspiration pediatric CT scans (12 diseased and 12 controls). Limits of agreement between the automatically...

  17. Larval Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) Sublethal Exposure to Weathered Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil: Developmental and Transcriptomic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Elvis Genbo; Khursigara, Alex J; Magnuson, Jason; Hazard, E Starr; Hardiman, Gary; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Roberts, Aaron P; Schlenk, Daniel

    2017-09-05

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) incident resulted in extensive oiling of the pelagic zone and shoreline habitats of many commercially important fish species. Exposure to the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of oil from the spill causes developmental toxicity through cardiac defects in pelagic fish species. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of the oil on near-shore estuarine fish species such as red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Following exposure to a certified weathered slick oil (4.74 μg/L ∑PAH 50 ) from the DWH event, significant sublethal impacts were observed ranging from impaired nervous system development [average 17 and 22% reductions in brain and eye area at 48 h postfertilization (hpf), respectively] to abnormal cardiac morphology (100% incidence at 24, 48, and 72 hpf) in red drum larvae. Consistent with the phenotypic responses, significantly differentially expressed transcripts, enriched gene ontology, and altered functions and canonical pathways predicted adverse outcomes in nervous and cardiovascular systems, with more pronounced changes at later larval stages. Our study demonstrated that the WAF of weathered slick oil of DWH caused morphological abnormalities predicted by a suite of advanced bioinformatic tools in early developing red drum and also provided the basis for a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of crude oil toxicity in fish.

  18. Unidirectional spreading of oil under solid ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerasuriya, S.A.; Yapa, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Equations are presented to describe the unidirectional spreading of oil under solid ice covers floating in calm water. These spreading equations are derived using a simplified form of the Navier-Stokes equations, and cover both the constant discharge and the constant volume modes. An equation for computing final slick length is also given. Laboratory experiments using physical models were conducted to verify the equations. The experiments used oils of different viscosities, ice cover roughnesses varying from smooth to rough, and a variety of discharge conditions. The emphasis of the study was on the dominant spreading mechanism for oil under ice, which is the buoyancy-viscous phase. The laboratory results agree closely with the theoretical predictions. Discrepancies can be attributed to the experimental difficulties and errors introduced from the assumptions made in deriving the theory. The equations presented will be useful in computing spreading rate during an accidental oil spill or in contingency planning. The equations are simple to use, suitable for hand calculations or for incorporation into numerical models for oil spill simulation. 24 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  19. Potential effect of skull thickening on the associations between cognition and brain atrophy in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribisala, Benjamin Segun; Royle, Natalie A; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Murray, Catherine; Penke, Lars; Gow, Alan; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark; Deary, Ian; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    intracranial volume (ICV) is commonly used as a marker of premorbid brain size in neuroimaging studies as it is thought to remain fixed throughout adulthood. However, inner skull table thickening would encroach on ICV and could mask actual brain atrophy. we investigated the effect that thickening might have on the associations between brain atrophy and cognition. the sample comprised 57 non-demented older adults who underwent structural brain MRI at mean age 72.7 ± 0.7 years and were assessed on cognitive ability at mean age 11 and 73 years. Principal component analysis was used to derive factors of general cognitive ability (g), information processing speed and memory from the recorded cognitive ability data. The total brain tissue volume and ICV with (estimated original ICV) and without (current ICV) adjusting for the effects of inner table skull thickening were measured. General linear modelling was used to test for associations. all cognitive ability variables were significantly (P skull thickening (g: η(2) = 0.177, speed: η(2) = 0.264 and memory: η(2) = 0.132). After accounting for skull thickening, only speed was significantly associated with percentage total brain volume in ICV (η(2) = 0.085, P = 0.034), not g or memory. not accounting for skull thickening when computing ICV can distort the association between brain atrophy and cognitive ability in old age. Larger samples are required to determine the true effect. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Pelvis dilatation and mucosal thickening of transplanted kidney: comparative study of resistive index and ultrasonographic finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Yu Seun; Park, Ki Il

    1992-01-01

    Diagnostic ability of duplex Doppler ultrasonography relying on resistive index is limited when clinical symptoms and signs of rejection are subtle or renal dysfunction is caused by other conditions such as urinary tract infection. To investigate the significance in the changes of renal pelvis, a combined analysis of resistive index and ultrasonographic findings in cases of renal pelvis dilatation and mucosal thickening was undertaken. A mean resistive index was calculated from Doppler measurements of the main, segmental and interlobar arteries. The cause of mucosal thickening was retrospectively analysed using the clinical and laboratory findings. Twenty three cases of renal pelvis dilatation and 17 cases of mucosal thickening were found in a total of 159 renal transplantation cases. In 14 of the 23 cases with renal pelvis dilatation, renal function was normal and their mean resistive index was 0.64 ± 0.04. Pelvis and ureter dilatation caused by ureteral stenosis or compression was demonstrated in 6 cases and their mean resistive index (0.72 ± 0.05) was increased. Mucosal thickening of renal pelvis was found in 7 of 32 cases with acute injection and in 2 of 13 cases with chronic rejection, but their mean resistive index was not different from that of the cases without pelvic mucosal changes. Three cases of acute rejection associated with urinary tract infection and 2 cases of chronic rejection in whom resistive indices were indeterminate, but mucosal thickening of the renal pelvis was prominent at ultrasonography. In renal transplant patients having indeterminate resistive index and mucosal thickening of the renal pelvis, ultrasonographic features must be correlated with the clinical and laboratory findings for an accurate diagnosis and treatment of renal dysfunction

  1. Subclinical leaflet thickening and stent frame geometry in self-expanding transcatheter heart valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Andreas; De Backer, Ole; Brooks, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between subclinical leaflet thickening and stent frame geometry in patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with a self-expanding transcatheter heart valve (THV). METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-five patients with a self-expanding THV....... CONCLUSIONS: Regional THV stent frame underexpansion is associated with an increased risk of leaflet thickening. Post-dilatation of self-expanding THV as well as a supra-annular valve position seem to reduce the occurrence of this phenomenon....

  2. Feed thickener for infants up to six months of age with gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, T'ng Chang; Ojha, Shalini; Dorling, Jon

    2017-12-05

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is common in infants, and feed thickeners are often used to manage it in infants as they are simple to use and perceived to be harmless. However, conflicting evidence exists to support the use of feed thickeners. To evaluate the use of feed thickeners in infants up to six months of age with GOR in terms of reduction in a) signs and symptoms of GOR, b) reflux episodes on pH probe monitoring or intraluminal impedance or a combination of both, or c) histological evidence of oesophagitis. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 2), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 22 November 2016), Embase (1980 to 22 November 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 22 November 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials. We included randomised controlled trials if they examined the effects of feed thickeners as compared to unthickened feeds (no treatment or placebo) in treating GOR in term infants up to six months of age or six months of corrected gestational age for those born preterm. Two review authors independently identified eligible studies from the literature search. Two review authors independently performed data extraction and quality assessments of the eligible studies. Differences in opinion were resolved by discussion with a third review author, and consensus was reached among all three review authors. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of the evidence. Eight trials recruiting a total of 637 infants met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The infants included in the review were mainly formula-fed term infants. The trials were of variable methodological quality. Formula-fed term infants with GOR on feed thickeners had nearly two fewer episodes of regurgitation per day (mean difference -1.97 episodes per day

  3. Remote sensing of coastal fronts and their effects on oil dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemas, V

    1980-01-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques to determine the properties of coastal and estuarine fronts, which represent regions of discontinuities and high gradients in ocean physical parameters such as velocity and density, and to assess the influence of such fronts on oil pollutants is discussed. Results of an aircraft and boat verification study of an oil drift and spread model in Delaware Bay are indicated which illustrate the tendency of oil slicks to be attracted to frontal regions, where a denser fluid underlies a lighter fluid giving rise to an inclined interface with convergence zones. Landsat imagery of the bay acquired in order to incorporate frontal information into the interactive computer model is then presented which allows the locations of coastal fronts to be charted throughout a tidal cycle. It is noted that satellite observations of flood-associated fronts on the New Jersey side of the bay and ebb-associated fronts on the Delaware side agree with boat measurements and model predictions, and that the remote tracking of fronts by aircraft and satellites will aid in oil slick clean-up operations.

  4. SIMAP oil and Orimulsion fate and effects model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Mendelsohn, D.; Rines, H.

    1995-01-01

    SIMAP, ASA's Spill Impact MAPping model system, simulates the physical fates and biological effects of spilled oils and fuels in 3-dimensional space, allow evaluation of the effectiveness of spill response activities, and evaluate probabilities of trajectories and resulting impacts. It may be used for real-time spill simulation, contingency planning, and ecological risk assessments. SIMAP has been verified for oil spills using data from the Exxon Valdez, the August 1993 No. 6 fuel spill in Tampa Bay, the North Cape No. 2 oil spill in RI January 1996, and others. SIMAP has been extended to apply to the alternative fuel Orimulsion trademark by development of algorithms describing the characteristics of this fuel and mechanisms of dispersion if it is spilled. Orimulsion is a mixture of approximately70% bitumen, surfactant, and water (about 30%). This emulsion readily mixes into the water column when it is spilled, as opposed to remaining as a surface slick as do oils. Thus, Orimulsion is tracked in the model as two fractions dispersed in an initial water volume: (1) fuel (bitumen) droplets with attached surfactant, and (2) dissolved low molecular weight aromatics. The toxicity of each component is considered separately and as additive. The model evaluates exposure, toxicity, mortality, and sublethal losses of biota resulting from the spill. Toxic effects are a function of time and temperature of exposure to concentrations, exposure to surface slicks and shoreline oil, and physiological response based on biological classifications. Losses of fish, shellfish, and wildlife are evaluated in the context of natural and harvest mortality rates in the absence of the spill

  5. Weathering of oils at sea: model/field data comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, Per S.; Stroem, Tove

    1999-01-01

    The SINTEF Oil Weathering Model (OWM) has been extensively tested with results from full-scale field trials with experimental oil slicks in the Norwegian NOFO Sea trials in 1994 and 1995 and the AEA 1997 trials in UK. The comparisons between oil weathering values predicted by the model and ground-truth obtained from the field trials are presented and discussed. Good laboratory weathering data of the specific oil as input to the model is essential for obtaining reliable weathering predictions. Predications provided by the SINTEF-OWM enable oil spill personnel to estimate the most appropriate 'window of opportunity' for use of chemical dispersants under various spill situations. Pre-spill scenario analysis with the SINTEF Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) model system, in which the SINTEF-OWM is one of several components, has become an important part of contingency plans as well as contingency training of oil spill personnel at refineries, oil terminals and offshore installations in Norway. (Author)

  6. Results from oil spill response research - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent large oil spills from tankers have reaffirmed the need for continuing technology assessment and research to improve oil spill response capabilities. This paper discusses Minerals Management Service concerns, as reinforced by the acceleration of its research program in 1990. It briefly assesses current state-of-the-art technology for major aspects of spill response, including remote sensing, open-ocean containment and recovery, in-situ burning, use of chemical treating agents, beachline cleanup, and oil behavior. Specific research projects have begun to yield information that will improve detection and at-sea equipment performance; current projects include the development of an airborne laser-fluorosensor to determine whether apparent slicks contain oil. Additional projects involve the development of improved strategies for responding to oil in broken-ice conditions, for gaining an improved understanding of the fate and behavior of spilled oil as it affects response strategies, and for defining the capabilities of available dispersants and development of improved formulations. Recently, progress has been made on the development of safe and environmentally acceptable strategies to burn spilled oil in situ. The Ohmsett facility has been reopened and will be used to test prospective improvements in chemical treating agents and to develop standard procedures for testing and evaluating response equipment. Results of research published since the last Oil Spill Conference are discussed

  7. Toxicity of weathered Deepwater Horizon oil to bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn A; Forth, Heather; Takeshita, Ryan; Chesney, Edward J

    2018-02-01

    The BP-contracted Deepwater Horizon Macondo well blowout occurred on 20 April 2010 and lasted nearly three months. The well released millions of barrels of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico, causing extensive impacts on pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species. The bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) is an important zooplanktivore in the Gulf, serving as an ecological link between lower trophic levels and pelagic predatory fish species. Bay anchovy spawn from May through November in shallow inshore and estuarine waters throughout the Gulf. Because their buoyant embryos are a dominant part of the inshore ichthyoplankton throughout the summer, it is likely bay anchovy embryos encountered oil in coastal estuaries during the summer and fall of 2010. Bay anchovy embryos were exposed to a range of concentrations of two field-collected Deepwater Horizon oils as high-energy and low-energy water accommodated fractions (HEWAFs and LEWAFs, respectively) for 48h. The median lethal concentrations (LC 50 ) were lower in exposures with the more weathered oil (HEWAF, 1.48µg/L TPAH50; LEWAF, 1.58µg/L TPAH50) compared to the less weathered oil (HEWAF, 3.87µg/L TPAH50; LEWAF, 4.28µg/L TPAH50). To measure delayed mortality and life stage sensitivity between embryos and larvae, an additional 24h acute HEWAF exposure using the more weathered oil was run followed by a 24h grow-out period. Here the LC 50 was 9.71µg/L TPAH50 after the grow-out phase, suggesting a toxic effect of oil at the embryonic or hatching stage. We also found that exposures prepared with the more weathered Slick B oil produced lower LC 50 values compared to the exposures prepared with Slick A oil. Our results demonstrate that even relatively acute environmental exposure times can have a detrimental effect on bay anchovy embryos. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of sediment hydrocarbon contamination from the 2009 Montara oil blow out in the Timor Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Kathryn A.; Jones, Ross

    2016-01-01

    In August 2009, a blowout of the Montara H1 well 260 km off the northwest coast of Australia resulted in the uncontrolled release of about 4.7 M L of light crude oil and gaseous hydrocarbons into the Timor Sea. Over the 74 day period of the spill, the oil remained offshore and did not result in shoreline incidents on the Australia mainland. At various times slicks were sighted over a 90,000 km"2 area, forming a layer of oil which was tracked by airplanes and satellites but the slicks typically remained within 35 km of the well head platform and were treated with 183,000 L of dispersants. The shelf area where the spill occurred is shallow (100–200 m) and includes off shore emergent reefs and cays and submerged banks and shoals. This study describes the increased inputs of oil to the system and assesses the environmental impact. Concentrations of hydrocarbon in the sediment at the time of survey were very low (total aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged from 0.04 to 31 ng g"−"1) and were orders of magnitude lower than concentrations at which biological effects would be expected. - Highlights: • 2009 fire/collapse of MWH1 released approximately 4.7 M L oil into the Timor Sea. • Oil gushed for 74 days before capping. Sediment studies initially declined. • Estimated 183,000 L dispersant forced oil into seawater in ∼100 m water depth area. • Sediments collected from nearby reefs and shoals 6 and 18 months later. • Assessment based on the increased oil inputs to the system. - Australia's oil spill response must include sediments collected immediately after and sediment quality guidelines for PAHs must include alkylated components as specified by the USEPA quidelines.

  9. Formation of oil-SPM aggregates under various mixing intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.; Zheng, X.

    2009-01-01

    A considerable amount of petroleum products spill into aquatic ecosystems as a result of increased marine transportation of crude oil products. The oil spill response community is therefore seeking an economical and environmentally sound technology to remove oil from shorelines. The formation of oil-suspended particulate matter (SPM) aggregates (OSAs) occurs when oil and SPM are present in a turbulent system. This process is known to enhance natural cleaning of oiled shorelines by increasing oil dispersion into the water column and accelerating the biodegradation of the oil. This paper reported on a laboratory study that was conducted to investigate OSA formation under different mixing energy levels. It presented the results of experiments conducted with Arabian heavy crude oil, standard reference material 1941b, artificial seawater, and 3 shaking rates of the reciprocating shaker. The results are intended to offer insight into the rate and extent of oil sediment interaction following an oil spill in the marine environment under different mixing conditions. Mixing energy is expected to have a considerable control on OSA formation because it controls the splitting of an oil slick into small droplets, the aggregation between the droplets and SPM, and the breakage rate of natural flocs. The concentration of the OSA was measured using the gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) method. Ultraviolet epi-fluorescence image analysis was used to measure the structure of OSAs and the concentration of oil droplets forming OSAs. The results showed that the formation of OSAs increased as the mixing energy increased. A consistent increase in droplet concentration in OSAs was also noted as the mixing energy increased. Both oil droplet size and OSA size decreased as the mixing intensity increased. 38 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. The Newfoundland oil spill burn experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    1992-01-01

    A major offshore oil-spill combustion experiment is being planned for waters off Newfoundland. The experiment is designed to answer outstanding questions on the acceptability of in-situ oil spill burning. In the experiment, variables will be controlled to allow quantitative measurement of the scientific and operational parameters that will enhance understanding of in-situ combustion as an operational oil-spill response technique. The proposed full-scale tests follow six years of testing in laboratory tanks. Analyses have shown that the high temperatures reached during efficient in-situ combustion result in relatively complete destruction of the oil. Tests have shown that the most important factor in this regard is that the oil must be thickened sufficiently before effective burning will occur. Such thickening is potentially possible in the offshore, under suitable wind and sea conditions, using fireproof containment booms. The experiment will involve measurement of emissions to the air, levels of oil in water, and operational parameters of in-situ burning. Time and location of the experiment are chosen to minimize ecological damage and for operational reasons. When suitable conditions are present in early August 1993, two 45-m 3 batches of crude oil will be released into a containment boom and ignited. The burn residue will be recovered mechanically, and a secondary containment and recovery system will be towed behind the fireproof boom to pick up any fugitive oil or residue. 3 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Journal Article: Localized Pleural Thickening: Smoking and Exposure to Libby Vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is limited research on the combined effects of smoking and asbestos exposure on risk of localized pleural thickening (LPT). This analysis uses data from the Marysville cohort of workers occupationally exposed to Libby amphibole asbestos (LAA). Workers were interviewed to ...

  12. Inhibition of vein graft intimal and medial thickening by periadventitial application of a sulfated carbohydrate polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toes, GT; Barnathan, ES; Liu, HG; Raghunath, PN; Tomaszewski, JE; Caron, RJ; Weisz, PB; vanOeveren, W; Golden, MA

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the wall thickening observed in vein grafts after they were placed into the arterial circulation could be inhibited by periadventitial delivery of an insoluble sulfated polymer of beta-cyclodextrin (P-CDS) capable of tightly binding heparin

  13. Influence of thickening of the inner skull table on intracranial volume measurement in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, N A; Hernández, M C Valdés; Maniega, S Muñoz; Arabisala, B S; Bastin, M E; Deary, I J; Wardlaw, J M

    2013-07-01

    It is generally assumed that intracranial volume (ICV) remains constant after peaking in early adulthood. Thus ICV is used as a 'proxy' for original brain size when trying to estimate brain atrophy in older people in neuroimaging studies. However, physiological changes in the skull, such as thickening of the frontal inner table, are relatively common in older age and will reduce ICV. The potential influence that inner table skull thickening may have on ICV measurement in old age has yet to be investigated. We selected 60 (31 males, 29 females) representative older adults aged 71.1-74.3years from a community-dwelling ageing cohort, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. A semi-automatically derived current ICV measurement obtained from high resolution T1-weighted volume scans was compared to the estimated original ICV by excluding inner skull table thickening using expert manual image processing. Inner table skull thickening reduced ICV from an estimated original 1480.0ml to a current 1409.1ml, a median decrease of 7.3% (Z=-6.334; pestimated original ICV is required for research into brain ageing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The rheology of concentrated dispersions: structure changes and shear thickening in experiments and computer simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, W.H.; Laven, J.; Stein, H.N.; Moldenaers, P.; Keunings, R.

    1992-01-01

    The flow-induced changes in the microstructure and rheol. of very concd., shear thickening dispersions are studied. Results obtained for polystyrene sphere dispersions are compared with previous data and computer simulations to give better insight into the processes occurring in the dispersions. [on

  15. A simple empirical model for the clarification-thickening process in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y K; Wang, H C; Qi, L; Liu, G H; He, Z J; Fan, H T

    2015-01-01

    In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), activated sludge is thickened in secondary settling tanks and recycled into the biological reactor to maintain enough biomass for wastewater treatment. Accurately estimating the activated sludge concentration in the lower portion of the secondary clarifiers is of great importance for evaluating and controlling the sludge recycled ratio, ensuring smooth and efficient operation of the WWTP. By dividing the overall activated sludge-thickening curve into a hindered zone and a compression zone, an empirical model describing activated sludge thickening in the compression zone was obtained by empirical regression. This empirical model was developed through experiments conducted using sludge from five WWTPs, and validated by the measured data from a sixth WWTP, which fit the model well (R² = 0.98, p settling was also developed. Finally, the effects of denitrification and addition of a polymer were also analysed because of their effect on sludge thickening, which can be useful for WWTP operation, e.g., improving wastewater treatment or the proper use of the polymer.

  16. Connective tissue growth factor is necessary for retinal capillary basal lamina thickening in diabetic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Esther J.; van Zijderveld, Rogier; Roestenberg, Peggy; Lyons, Karen M.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Klaassen, Ingeborg; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental prevention of basal lamina (BL) thickening of retinal capillaries ameliorates early vascular changes caused by diabetes. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is upregulated early in diabetes in the human retina and is a potent inducer of expression of BL components. We hypothesize

  17. Tibetan garnet records early Eocene initiation of thickening in the Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Hacker, Bradley; Lee, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Himalayan orogeny depend on the age at which crustal thickening commenced. To investigate this age, we analyzed garnet from middle crustal rocks exposed in the north Himalayan Mabja and Kangmar gneiss domes of Tibet using Lu-Hf geochronology. Garnet yielded Lu-Hf a...

  18. Micromorphology and systematic distribution of pit membrane thickenings in Oleaceae: Tori and pseudo-tori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, D.; Huysmans, S.; Lens, F.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies on the functional significance of pit membranes in water conducting cells have renewed general interest in their micromorphology. At least two types of pit membrane thickenings have been described in angiosperm families, i.e. genuine tori and pseudo-tori. This study explores the

  19. Glomerular parietal epithelial cell activation induces collagen secretion and thickening of Bowman's capsule in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holderied, Alexander; Romoli, Simone; Eberhard, Jonathan; Konrad, Lukas A; Devarapu, Satish K; Marschner, Julian A; Müller, Susanna; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2015-03-01

    The metabolic and hemodynamic alterations in diabetes activate podocytes to increase extracellular matrix (ECM) production, leading to thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). We hypothesized that diabetes would activate parietal epithelial cells (PECs) in a similar manner and cause thickening of Bowman's capsules. Periodic acid Schiff staining of human kidney biopsies of 30 patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) revealed a significantly thicker Bowman's capsule as compared with 20 non-diabetic controls. The average thickness was 4.55±0.21 μm in the group of patients with DN compared with 2.92±0.21 μm in the group of non-diabetic controls (PBowman's capsule showed strong association with CD44-positive PECs. In summary, metabolic alterations in diabetes activate PECs to increase the expression and secretion of Bowman's capsule proteins. This process may contribute to the thickening of the Bowman's capsule, similar to the thickening of the GBM that is driven by activated podocytes. These data may also imply that activated PECs contribute to ECM production once they migrate to the glomerular tuft, a process resulting in glomerular scaring, for example, in diabetic glomerulosclerosis.

  20. Discrimination between pleural thickening and minimal pleural effusion using color Doppler chest ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Hasan

    2013-07-01

    Conclusions: Application of color Doppler examination increases the accuracy of real time chest ultrasound to discriminate pleural thickening from minimal pleural effusion and hence color Doppler examination proved to be a useful diagnostic tool to real-time gray-scale ultrasound for diagnosis of minimal pleural effusion.

  1. In-situ burning of crude oil and emulsions in broken ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenette, C.C.; Wighus, R.

    1996-01-01

    Large scale burns were conducted in a fjord in Norway, with fresh and emulsified crude oil to determine the feasibility of in-situ burning operations in an ice zone. The objective was to study the flame spreading characteristics of burning oil and emulsions in broken ice. The effect of wind on the flame spreading from one slick area to another was studied. The thermal environment produced by a crude oil fire on the sea surface and the response of a steel construction to the heat exposure from the fire was determined. The studies showed that high burning efficiencies (95 to 99%) could be obtained when burning fresh oil and emulsions contained in broken ice. Flame spreading was observed mostly in the downwind direction, and was dependent on the wind speed and direction. The temperatures and heat fluxes measured in the flames were higher than previously measured in pool fires. 9 refs., 7 figs

  2. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altin, Recep; Cetinkaya, Selim; Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  3. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altin, Recep [Ministry of Education, Projects Coordination Unit, Ankara (Turkey); Cetinkaya, Selim [Gazi Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar [Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  4. Operational use of ocean surface drifters for tracking spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamo, O. M.; Jensen, H.

    1997-01-01

    The use of Argos-positioned surface drifters by Norwegian engineers to monitor oil slicks in the North Sea was discussed. The system that was tested in June 1996 during the Norwegian Clean Seas Association oil-on-water exercise consisted of several GPS-positioned Argos drift trackers, an Argos receiver, a GPS navigator for the ship's position, and a PC with software for logging and displaying positions. Results of the field trial have been positive in that the system worked as expected. The range of direct transmission of signals from the buoys to the ship was about three nautical miles. The degree of accuracy of the relative positioning between the buoy GPS and the ship-borne GPS navigator was similar to the absolute positioning of single buoys. For best results, a minimum of two buoys and the use of lithium cells to increase battery capacity, were recommended. 3 refs., 5 figs

  5. Oil spill response engineering and planning. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, M.R.; Celikkol, B.; Goodwin, C.E.; Carrier, R.; McDonald, S.P.

    1991-12-01

    Tanker and barge traffic associated with the five petroleum product terminals along the NH side of the Piscataqua River represents a constant oil spill threat to the contiguous Great Bay System, NH, an estuarine reserve. Several serious accidents have in fact taken place in the 1970's and two small spills in 1990. A major factor is that the Piscataqua channel is subject to high velocity tidal currents. Should a spill occur, problems arise in knowing where the slick will move and how to control it using booms. In the project, these problems were addressed by developing procedures for using diversion booms in high speed current environments and in revising and implementing a previously developed Oil Spill Trajectory Model

  6. Accumulation of low density lipoprotein associated cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions correlates with intimal thickening in thoracic aortas of juvenile rabbits fed a supplemental cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culley Nathan C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that calcifying vesicles play an important role in aortic calcification and that cholesterol content in the isolated vesicle fraction is increased when rabbits are fed supplemental cholesterol diets. Whether lipoprotein-associated cholesterols and other lipids are also increased in the vesicle fraction and whether the increase correlates with atherosclerosis remain unknown. Results Fourteen juvenile male rabbits fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 2% peanut oil for 3 months developed varying degrees of hypercholesterolemia and intimal thickening in the ascending thoracic aorta. The correlation between these two parameters was insignificant, and likely attributable to the use of small numbers of rabbits in this study. Despite this lack of correlation, we demonstrate that the accumulation of cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions obtained from the collagenase-digested aorta fragments correlates well with intimal thickening (r2 = 0.98, p Conclusion When limited numbers of rabbits are used, LDL-C accumulation in calcifying vesicle fractions is a better biomarker for atherosclerosis than LDL-C levels in the serum. The close association of LDL-C with calcifying vesicles may play an important role in atherosclerosis and calcification.

  7. Prediction of oil droplet size distribution in agitated aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifa, A.; Lee, K.; Hill, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Oil spilled at sea undergoes many transformations based on physical, biological and chemical processes. Vertical dispersion is the hydrodynamic mechanism controlled by turbulent mixing due to breaking waves, vertical velocity, density gradients and other environmental factors. Spilled oil is dispersed in the water column as small oil droplets. In order to estimate the mass of an oil slick in the water column, it is necessary to know how the droplets formed. Also, the vertical dispersion and fate of oil spilled in aquatic environments can be modelled if the droplet-size distribution of the oil droplets is known. An oil spill remediation strategy can then be implemented. This paper presented a newly developed Monte Carlo model to predict droplet-size distribution due to Brownian motion, turbulence and a differential settling at equilibrium. A kinematic model was integrated into the proposed model to simulate droplet breakage. The key physical input of the model is the maximum droplet size permissible in the simulation. Laboratory studies were found to be in good agreement with field studies. 26 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  8. The impact of oil dispersant solvent on performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Canevari, G.P.; Becker, K.W.; Daling, P.S.

    1995-01-01

    Modern oil spill dispersant formulations are concentrated blends of surface active agents (surfactants) in a solvent carrier system. The surfactants are effective for lowering the interfacial tension of the oil slick and promoting and stabilizing oil-in-water dispersions. The solvent system has 2 key functions: (1) reduce viscosity of the surfactant blend to allow efficient dispersant application, and (2) promote mixing and diffusion of the surfactant blend into the oil film. A more detailed description than previously given in the literature is proposed to explain the mechanism of chemical dispersion and illustrate how the surfactant is delivered by the solvent to the oil-water interface. Laboratory data are presented which demonstrate the variability in dispersing effectiveness due to different solvent composition, particularly for viscous and emulsified test oils with viscosities up to 20,500 mPa·s. Other advantages of improved solvent components can include reduced evaporative losses during spraying, lower marine toxicity and reduced protective equipment requirements. Through this improved understanding of the role of the solvent, dispersants which are more effective over a wider range of oil types are being developed

  9. Selecting protective gloves for oil spill response and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Oil spill responders and cleanup workers must be provided with gloves that prevent skin contact while permitting them to do their job safely and efficiently. Glove selection is largely based on professional judgment, considering permeation, resistance to puncture and abrasion, and whether the material gets slick when coated with oil. This paper consolidates the most useful information from various studies and presents a selection rationale. In general, we found neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and nitrile to be the glove materials of choice for protection in oil spills. The skin toxicity potential for most petroleum materials encountered in a spill is low. Some fresh crudes may contain hydrocarbon molecules that may penetrate the skin and cause some systemic toxicity with high enough exposure. However, as crude weathers, the more volatile hydrocarbons evaporate rapidly, leaving behind the heavier fraction, which often contains polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds. Some PNAs have caused skin cancer in animals after prolonged and repeated contact. As a reference, most weathered crude is similar to used motor oil in skin toxicity; prolonged and repeated skin contact should be avoided, but there is no cause for concern if some gets on the skin. The typical skin problems from excessive skin contact are drying and cracking from the defatting action of the oil itself or from the soap or hand cleaners used to remove the oil, and pustules (similar to boils) if the oil plugs the sweat glands in the skin

  10. Oil spill contingency planning in the Ivory coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, K.; Jensen, S.K.; Ostergaerd, J.; Nogbou, P.

    1993-01-01

    The administrative center in charge of handling oil spill pollution situations on the Ivory Coast, West Africa, is named Centre Ivoirien Antipollution (CIAPOL). Its organizational structure has been reshuffled recently. CIAPOL now has three divisions: a laboratory division, a division for cleaning up oil and chemical pollution at sea, and an administrative division. The risk for oil pollution is known: within the past ten years five spills have been reported. All of these have been connected to operations relating to the refinery in Abidjan. More than 2,000 ships call at the port of Abidjan every year. Minor oil slicks are found almost permanently in the harbor and the lagoons around the harbor. Lumps of tar are rather common on the beaches all along the country's coast. This paper focuses on the background investigation in sensitive areas and risk analysis that led to a revision of the oil spill contingency plan, Plan Pollumar, and the recent purchase of oil spill cleanup equipment. The creation of a regional oil pollution response center at CIAPOL for all of the countries in West Africa, is proposed

  11. Water-bearing explosives thickened with a partially hydrolyzed acrylamide polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, W.M.

    1971-11-23

    Thickened water-bearing explosives are provided which do not segregate and are water-resistant over a wide range of viscosities. Preferred compositions have a unique combination of pourability and fluidity coupled with resistance to water and segregation which makes them particularly suitable in small diameter holes and in holes partially filled with water. Accordingly, water-bearing explosive compositions also are provided which consist of inorganic oxidizing salt, fuel, and water, which improvement consists of thickening the compositions with the combination of polyacrylamide and cross-linked galactomannan. The weight ratio of the polyacrylamide to galactomanan is from about ratio 0.1:1 to 10:1, and preferably 1:1 to 5:1. (1 claim)

  12. A new local thickening reverse spiral origami thin-wall construction for improving of energy absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, C. H.; Zhao, X. L.; Hagiwara, I. R.

    2018-02-01

    As an effective and representative origami structure, reverse spiral origami structure can be capable to effectively take up energy in a crash test. The origami structure has origami creases thus this can guide the deformation of structure and avoid of Euler buckling. Even so the origami creases also weaken the support force and this may cut the absorption of crash energy. In order to increase the supporting capacity of the reverse spiral origami structure, we projected a new local thickening reverse spiral origami thin-wall construction. The reverse spiral origami thin-wall structure with thickening areas distributed along the longitudinal origami crease has a higher energy absorption capacity than the ordinary reverse spiral origami thin-wall structure.

  13. The Influence of Thickener Content on the Properties of Acryl Emulsion Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Sam; Choi, Sang Goo [Department of Chemical Technology, Ho-Won University, Kunsan (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    HW-100 (acryl oligomer), Aerosil 200 (fine silica), HEMC (hydroxyethyl methylcellulose) and HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) were each mixed with acryl emulsion resin. For each mixture, various physical properties were tested experimentally. HW-100 mixtures showed higher viscosity and thixotropy than the other mixtures. The viscosity increased rapidly with adding of thickener. Fabrication workability decreased substantially with increased thixotropy. Aerosil mixture represented good properties in workability, adhesive strength and water-resistance, however, it had large shrinkage. The shrinkage was typically influenced by content of water and void. HEMC mixture showed higher pH and adhesion than others, while HPMC mixture had long drying-time and excellent alkali-resistance characteristics. Water-resistance and alkali-resistance were mainly influenced by the molecular structure of thickener and the content of void. 26 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Anatexis and metamorphism in tectonically thickened continental crust exemplified by the Sevier hinterland, western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino Douce, Alberto E.; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Johnston, A. Dana

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal and petrologic model of anatexis and metamorphism in regions of crustal thickening exemplified by the Sevier hinterland in western North America, and uses the model to examine the geological and physical processes leading to crustally derived magmatism. The results of numerical experiments show that anatexis was an inevitable end-product of Barrovian metamorphism in the thickened crust of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt and that the advection of heat across the lithosphere, in the form of mantle-derived mafic magmas, was not required for melting of metasedimentary rocks. It is suggested that, in the Sevier belt, as in other intracontinental orogenic belts, anatexis occurred in the midcrust and not at the base of the crust.

  15. Intramural hypoattenuated nodules in thickened wall of the gallbladder; CT features according to their primary causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Hyung; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Jean Hwa; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu; Kim, Myung-Jin

    2001-01-01

    According to published reports, a common feature of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is the presence of intramural hypoattenuated nodules in thickened gallbladder wall. These nodules can, however, also be seen in pathological conditions such as acute cholecystitis, hyperplastic cholecystoses (cholesterolosis and adenomyomatosis), gallbladder cancer, and other inflammatory diseases such as tuberculosis. Retrospective review of the abdominal CT findings in 622 patients who for various reasons underwent cholecystectomy during a one-year period showed that intramural nodules were present in 60. In this pictorial essay we illustrate the imaging features of the many different pathological conditions which give rise to intramural hypoattenuated nodules in thickened wall of the gallbladder, correlating these features with the histopathological findings

  16. Thickened boundary layer theory for air film drag reduction on a van body surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Cao, Lifeng; Huang, Heng

    2018-05-01

    To elucidate drag reduction mechanism on a van body surface under air film condition, a thickened boundary layer theory was proposed and a frictional resistance calculation model of the van body surface was established. The frictional resistance on the van body surface was calculated with different parameters of air film thickness. In addition, the frictional resistance of the van body surface under the air film condition was analyzed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and different air film states that influenced the friction resistance on the van body surface were discussed. As supported by the CFD simulation results, the thickened boundary layer theory may provide reference for practical application of air film drag reduction on a van body surface.

  17. A Look Behind the Salt Curve: An Examination of Thickening Mechanisms in Shampoo Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Dynamic oscillatory rheological measurements are used to examine two mechanisms for thickening simple shampoo formulations. The salt curve, in which viscosity of a surfactant solution is maximized at intermediate levels of salt, is shown to be due to the variation in relaxation time; this is found to correlate with variation in the degree of entanglement per micelle. This is contrasted with the effect of PEG-150 distearate, which alters viscosity through a change in modulus.

  18. Unexpected Rheological Behavior of Hydrophobic Associative Shellac-based Oligomeric Food Thickener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianan; Li, Kun; Xu, Juan; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Ma, Jinju; Liu, Lanxiang; Sun, Yanlin; Zhang, Hong; Li, Kai

    2018-06-07

    The sodium shellac constituting of "surfactant" monomer, which is sensitive to shear stress, exhibits shear-thickening behavior at low concentration (5 wt%), and reacts with H+ to retain the transient high viscosity under shear, is introduced in this study. The appearance of the sodium shellac with different concentrations in aqueous mode also could be described. The steady-shear flow test proved that under high shear rate, sodium shellac suspension could change from Newtonian fluid to continuous shear thickening of non-Newtonian fluid. Dynamic oscillation test suggested that the sodium shellac solution at low concentration (0.1 and 1 wt%) under low shear rate represented classic viscous fluid behavior (G´´G´), and the solution at high concentration (5, 10 and 15 wt%) represented the classic the elastic gel behavior (G´´G´). Moreover, high shear rate caused a cross-linking point between G´´and G´ curve; at the low concentration, this could be the gel point and at high concentration, it could be attributed to the broken of gel. All of these transforming points were relating to the interaction between the sodium clusters. This interaction should be the hydrophobic association between the particles. In order to prove phenomenon, classic hydrophilic polymer PEO was employed as the disrupting factor to the hydrophobic association. As expected, the shear-thickening behavior vanished after mixing with PEO, which verified our assumption. On the other hand, the high viscosity of the suspension under shear could be retained by reaction with H+ to solidify the transient hydroclusters under shear, meanwhile, sodium shellac had great potential as the functional shear-thickener which could modify the rheological property of the polymer with carboxyl groups, e.g. pectin, alginate or polyacrylic acid. Thus, this natural and green thicker has great potential in food, medical gel, green adhesive, or cosmetic products.

  19. Production and properties of a thickener with ability of suspending sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, B.; Wang, D.; Li, Z.; Chen, J. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Mineral and Safety Engineering

    2006-06-15

    To overcome the shortcomings of pouring sands, a thickener with the ability to suspend sands was developed. It is mixed with sands to form densified slurry, and can insure the sands against deposition, jamming pipelines and dehydration. The chemical structure of the thickener is introduced in this paper and the production process is studied. The main processes include immersion, decomposition, dilution and addition of additives. In order to produce a thickener with high viscosity to suspend sands, key factors must be controlled in each process: the immersion time is 2 h; the mass fraction of formaldehyde is 0.01% and mass of NaCO{sub 3} accounts for 15% of dry material; the water temperature is 65{sup o}C in summer and 72{sup o}C in winter and the decomposition time is 2 h in the reaction; the densified decomposition solution should be diluted to 1% mass fraction; the additives of calcium ions and pH indicators must be added to the diluted liquid; the mass fraction of CaCl{sub 2} is 0.048% and the pH value of the solution is 7.5. The thickener is a gel with three-dimensional network structure, a liquid with non-Newtonian behaviour and the characteristics of pseudo-plastic material, a solution with little resistance and the ability to revive its oral primary viscosity. It has been successfully applied in Shendong Mines and has great value and wide-spread prospective use. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Synthesis, processing and characterization of shear thickening fluid (STF) impregnated fabric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Tarig A.; Rangari, Vijay K.; Jeelani, Shaik

    2010-01-01

    Shear thickening is a non-Newtonian fluid behavior defined as the increase of viscosity with the increase in the applied shear rate. The shear thickening fluid (STF) is a combination of hard metal oxide particles suspended in a liquid polymer. This mixture of flowable and hard components at a particular composition, results in a material with remarkable properties. In this manuscript the shear thickening fluid (STF) was prepared by ultrasound irradiation of silica nanoparticles dispersed in liquid polyethylene glycol polymer. The as-prepared STFs have been tested for their rheological and thermal properties. Kevlar and Nylon fabrics were soaked in STF/ethanol solution to make STF/fabric composite. Knife threats and quasistatic penetration tests were performed on the neat fabrics and STF/fabric composite targets for both engineered spike and knife on areal density basis. The results showed that STF impregnated fabrics have better penetration resistance as compared to neat fabrics without affecting the fabric flexibility. This indicates that the addition of STF to the fabric have enhanced the fabric performance and can be used in liquid body armor applications.

  1. Axillary bud and pericycle involved in the thickening process of the rhizophore nodes in Smilax species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Appezzato-da-Glória

    Full Text Available AbstractThe species of the genus Smilax, popularly known as sarsaparilla, are widely used in folk medicine due to the antirheumatic properties of its underground structures. Smilax fluminensis and S. syphilitica occur in forested areas and form thickened stems called rhizophores from which adventitious roots grow. To provide information for more accurate identification of the commercialised product and for elucidating the process of stem thickening, a morphology and anatomy study of the underground organs of the two species was conducted. The adventitious roots differ in colour and diameter depending on the stage of development. They are white and have a larger diameter in the early stages of development, but as they grow, the adventitious roots become brown and have a smaller diameter due to the disintegration of the epidermis and virtually the entire cortex. In brown roots, the covering function is then performed by the lignified endodermis and the remaining walls of the cells from the last parenchyma cortical layer. These results are similar to those found in studies of other Smilax and suggest that the anatomy of the roots can be useful for identifying fraud in commercialised materials. The thickening process of the nodal regions of the rhizophores in both species involves the activity of axillary buds and pericyclic layers.

  2. The rheological properties of shear thickening fluid reinforced with SiC nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhao Ge

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of shear thickening fluid (STF reinforced with SiC nanowires were investigated in this paper. Pure STF consists of 56 vol% silica nano-particles and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400 solvent was fabricated; and a specific amount of SiC nanowires were dispersed into this pure STF, and then the volume fraction of PEG400 was adjusted to maintain the volume fraction of solid phase in the STF at a constant of 56%. The results showed there was almost 30% increase in the initial and shear thickening viscosity of the STF reinforced with SiC nanowires compared to the pure STF. Combining with the hydrodynamic cluster theory, the effect of the mechanism of SiC nanowire on the viscosity of STF was discussed, and based on the experimental results, an analytical model of viscosity was used to describe the rheological properties of STF, which agreed with the experimental results. Keywords: Shear thickening fluid (STF, Nanowire, Rheology, Viscosity, Analytical model

  3. Characteristic thickened cell walls of the bracts of the 'eternal flower' Helichrysum bracteatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Kuniko; Ito, Hiroaki; Awano, Tatsuya; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Yazawa, Susumu

    2008-07-01

    Helichrysum bracteatum is called an 'eternal flower' and has large, coloured, scarious bracts. These maintain their aesthetic value without wilting or discoloration for many years. There have been no research studies of cell death or cell morphology of the scarious bract, and hence the aim of this work was to elucidate these characteristics for the bract of H. bracteatum. DAPI (4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindol dihydrochloride) staining and fluorescence microscopy were used for observation of cell nuclei. Light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and polarized light microscopy were used for observation of cells, including cell wall morphology. Cell death occurred at the bract tip during the early stage of flower development. The cell wall was the most prominent characteristic of H. bracteatum bract cells. Characteristic thickened secondary cell walls on the inside of the primary cell walls were observed in both epidermal and inner cells. In addition, the walls of all cells exhibited birefringence. Characteristic thickened secondary cell walls have orientated cellulose microfibrils as well as general secondary cell walls of the tracheary elements. For comparison, these characters were not observed in the petal and bract tissues of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Bracts at anthesis are composed of dead cells. Helichrysum bracteatum bracts have characteristic thickened secondary cell walls that have not been observed in the parenchyma of any other flowers or leaves. The cells of the H. bracteatum bract differ from other tissues with secondary cell walls, suggesting that they may be a new cell type.

  4. Disentangling the role of hydrodynamic and frictional forces in a shear-thickening suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Itai

    2015-03-01

    Who among us has not spent countless hours squeezing, rubbing, and smushing gooey substances like, tooth paste, silly putty, corn starch, and even bodily fluids between our fingers? If we could magnify our view and look deep within the substances we are handling what structures would we find? How, do these structures lead to the fascinating mechanical properties that we experience on the scale of our fingers. In this talk I will address the phenomenon of shear thickening in which the viscosity of a suspension increases with increasing shear rate. I will describe recent measurements we have made using a newly developed confocal rheoscope that, for the first time, experimentally visualize the hydrodynamically induced particle clusters. Such clusters have been implicated in continuous shear thickening. It remains controversial as to whether thickening in such suspensions also arises from frictional interactions between particles. The distinct contributions of frictional and hydrodynamic forces are typically difficult to measure independently using conventional techniques. Here, I will describe our approach for using both bulk rheometry techniques and our confocal rheoscope to disentangle their contributions to the total stress response.

  5. The density behaviour of heavy oils in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Hollebone, B.; Fieldhouse, B.

    2006-01-01

    The recent concern regarding the difficulty of cleaning up Low API gravity oils (LAPIO) spilled in water was discussed. Sinking and overwashing are 2 phenomena related to the behaviour of these heavy oils in water. Sinking refers to the complete submergence of the oil to the bottom of a waterbody, while over-washing refers to the overflowing of a layer of water over dense oil at sea when the oil is still close to the surface. The latter is important because even a micron-layer of water could render the oil undetectable, particularly at acute viewing angles, such as from a ship. This paper reviewed the properties of heavy oil, the prediction of density changes and the sinking/over-washing of heavy oil. In particular, it discussed a spill which occurred in August 2005 when 11 tank cars from train derailment spilled 800,000 litres of Bunker fuel mixed with high PAH-containing pole-treating oil into Lake Wabamun, Alberta. The behaviour of the oil included submergence, neutral buoyancy, resurfacing and formation of several types of aggregates of oil. This study summarized the behaviours and processes that transformed the particles of oil into small tar balls, larger logs, sheets, and large lumps into a slick. Sediment uptake or loss was found to be the major process that caused the changes in density. The behaviour of the oils was compared with respect to density and uptake of various types of sediment. The paper also reviewed the literature on dense oil behaviour. Weathering experiments performed on dense oils to determine if extensive weathering could render oils heavier than water showed that rarely is weathering the only factor in the bulk sinking of oil. Once an oil is submerged, little weathering occurs, either by dissolution or volatilization. The uptake of particulate matter is the most important process in increasing density. This study reviewed over-washing experiments to develop a mathematical solution of the conditions required for oil to be covered by a

  6. Deepwater Horizon - Estimating surface oil volume distribution in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, B.; Simecek-Beatty, D.; Leifer, I.

    2011-12-01

    Spill responders to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill required both the relative spatial distribution and total oil volume of the surface oil. The former was needed on a daily basis to plan and direct local surface recovery and treatment operations. The latter was needed less frequently to provide information for strategic response planning. Unfortunately, the standard spill observation methods were inadequate for an oil spill this size, and new, experimental, methods, were not ready to meet the operational demands of near real-time results. Traditional surface oil estimation tools for large spills include satellite-based sensors to define the spatial extent (but not thickness) of the oil, complemented with trained observers in small aircraft, sometimes supplemented by active or passive remote sensing equipment, to determine surface percent coverage of the 'thick' part of the slick, where the vast majority of the surface oil exists. These tools were also applied to DWH in the early days of the spill but the shear size of the spill prevented synoptic information of the surface slick through the use small aircraft. Also, satellite images of the spill, while large in number, varied considerably in image quality, requiring skilled interpretation of them to identify oil and eliminate false positives. Qualified staff to perform this task were soon in short supply. However, large spills are often events that overcome organizational inertia to the use of new technology. Two prime examples in DWH were the application of hyper-spectral scans from a high-altitude aircraft and more traditional fixed-wing aircraft using multi-spectral scans processed by use of a neural network to determine, respectively, absolute or relative oil thickness. But, with new technology, come new challenges. The hyper-spectral instrument required special viewing conditions that were not present on a daily basis and analysis infrastructure to process the data that was not available at the command

  7. Detection, modeling and matching of pleural thickenings from CT data towards an early diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Kraus, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Pleural thickenings can be caused by asbestos exposure and may evolve into malignant pleural mesothelioma. While an early diagnosis plays the key role to an early treatment, and therefore helping to reduce morbidity, the growth rate of a pleural thickening can be in turn essential evidence to an early diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma. The detection of pleural thickenings is today done by a visual inspection of CT data, which is time-consuming and underlies the physician's subjective judgment. Computer-assisted diagnosis systems to automatically assess pleural mesothelioma have been reported worldwide. But in this paper, an image analysis pipeline to automatically detect pleural thickenings and measure their volume is described. We first delineate automatically the pleural contour in the CT images. An adaptive surface-base smoothing technique is then applied to the pleural contours to identify all potential thickenings. A following tissue-specific topology-oriented detection based on a probabilistic Hounsfield Unit model of pleural plaques specify then the genuine pleural thickenings among them. The assessment of the detected pleural thickenings is based on the volumetry of the 3D model, created by mesh construction algorithm followed by Laplace-Beltrami eigenfunction expansion surface smoothing technique. Finally, the spatiotemporal matching of pleural thickenings from consecutive CT data is carried out based on the semi-automatic lung registration towards the assessment of its growth rate. With these methods, a new computer-assisted diagnosis system is presented in order to assure a precise and reproducible assessment of pleural thickenings towards the diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma in its early stage.

  8. Development of a statistical oil spill model for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weijun

    2017-11-01

    To gain a better understanding of the impacts from potential risk sources, we developed an oil spill model using probabilistic method, which simulates numerous oil spill trajectories under varying environmental conditions. The statistical results were quantified from hypothetical oil spills under multiple scenarios, including area affected probability, mean oil slick thickness, and duration of water surface exposed to floating oil. The three sub-indices together with marine area vulnerability are merged to compute the composite index, characterizing the spatial distribution of risk degree. Integral of the index can be used to identify the overall risk from an emission source. The developed model has been successfully applied in comparison to and selection of an appropriate oil port construction location adjacent to a marine protected area for Phoca largha in China. The results highlight the importance of selection of candidates before project construction, since that risk estimation from two adjacent potential sources may turn out to be significantly different regarding hydrodynamic conditions and eco-environmental sensitivity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. [Effect of Food Thickeners on the Disintegration, Dissolution, and Drug Activity of Rapid Oral-disintegrating Tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Kohda, Yukinao; Kudo, Kenzo

    2018-01-01

     For patients with dysphagia in medical facilities and nursing homes, food thickeners are routinely used to aid the ingestion of medicines such as tablets. However, some types of thickeners affect the disintegration and dissolution of tablets, such as rapidly-disintegrating magnesium oxide tablets and donepezil hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets. Additionally, delayed disintegration and dissolution of tablets affect a drug's efficacy. As an example, with Voglibose orally disintegrating tablets, marked differences are observed in changes in glucose levels during glucose tolerance testing. When using food thickeners to aid tablet ingestion, it is therefore necessary to select a product that has little effect on drug disintegration, dissolution, and activity.

  10. Macondo-1 well oil in sediment and tarballs from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt

    2011-01-01

    From April 20 through July 15, 2010, an estimated 4.4 million barrels (1 barrel = 42 gallons [~700,000 cu m]) of crude oil spilled into the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) from the ruptured British Petroleum (BP) Macondo-1 (M-1) well after the explosion of the drilling platform Deepwater Horizon. In addition, ~1.84 million gallons (~7,000 cu m) of hydrocarbon-based Corexit dispersants were applied to the oil both on and below the sea surface (Operational Science Advisory Team, 2010). An estimate of the total extent of the surface oil slick, derived from wind, ocean currents, aerial photography, and satellite imagery, was 68,000 square miles (~180,000 sq km; Amos and Norse, 2010). Spilled oil from this event impacted sensitive habitat along the shores of the nGOM. In response to this environmental catastrophe, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected coastal sediment and tarball samples along the shores of the nGOM from Texas to Florida before and after oil made landfall. These sites included priority areas of the nGOM at highest risk for oil contamination. These areas included coastal wetlands, shorelines, and barrier islands that could suffer severe environmental damage if a significant amount of oil came ashore. Samples were collected before oil reached land from 69 sites; 49 were revisited to collect samples after oil landfall. This poster focuses on the samples from locations that were sampled on both occasions. The USGS samples and one M-1 well-oil sample provided by BP were analyzed for a suite of diagnostic geochemical biomarkers. Aided by multivariate statistical analysis, the M-1 well oil was not detected in the samples collected before landfall but have been identified in sediment and tarballs collected from Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida after landfall. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts from Texas correlated with the M-1 well oil. Oil-impacted sediment is confined to the shoreline adjacent to the cumulative oil slick of the

  11. Inexpensive CO2 Thickening Agents for Improved Mobility Control of CO2 Floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Enick; Eric Beckman; Andrew Hamilton

    2005-08-31

    The objective of this research was the design, synthesis and evaluation of inexpensive, non-fluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. We followed the same strategy employed in the design of fluorinated CO{sub 2} polymeric thickeners. First, a highly CO{sub 2}-philic, hydrocarbon-based monomer was to be identified. Polymers or oligomers of this monomer were then synthesized. The second step was to design a CO{sub 2}-thickener based on these CO{sub 2}-philic polymers. Two types of thickeners were considered. The first was a copolymer in which the CO{sub 2}-philic monomer was combined with a small proportion of CO{sub 2}-phobic associating groups that could cause viscosity-enhancing intermolecular interactions to occur. The second was a small hydrogen-bonding compound with urea groups in the core to promote intermolecular interactions that would cause the molecules to 'stack' in solution while the arms were composed of the CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers. Although we were not able to develop a viable thickener that exhibited high enough CO{sub 2} solubility at EOR MMP conditions to induce a viscosity increase, we made significant progress in our understanding of CO{sub 2}-soluble compounds that can be used in subsequent studies to design CO{sub 2}-soluble thickeners or CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactant-based foaming agents. These findings are detailed in this final report. In summary, we assessed many polymers and verified that the most CO{sub 2}-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon polymer is poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc. This is primarily due to the presence of both ether and carbonyl oxygens associated with acetate-rich compounds. In addition to polymers, we also made small acetate-rich molecules that were also capable of associating in solution via the inclusion of hydrogen-bonding groups in hopes of forming viscosity-enhancing macromolecules. Despite the presence of multiple acetate groups in these compounds, which can impart incredible CO{sub 2}-solubility to many

  12. Thickening the outer margins of the Tibetan Plateau: The role of crustal shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, R. O.; Burbank, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most direct consequences of the collision of two buoyant continents is large-scale crustal thickening that results in the upward and outward growth of high terrain. As the stronger Indian continent has collided with weaker Asia over at least the past 50 Myr, widespread crustal thickening has occurred over an area that is approximately 2.5 million km^2 at present. The resultant Tibetan crust is the thickest observed on Earth today with an average thickness of 65 km and a maximum that may reach 90 km in places. The mechanisms by which Tibetan crust has thickened, however, as well as the timing and distribution of these mechanisms across the plateau, remain debatable. Two of the most popular mechanisms for thickening the crust beneath the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are: 1) pure shear with faulting and folding in the upper crust and horizontal shortening below; and 2) flow and inflation of lower or middle crust without significant shortening of the upper crust. To help discriminate between the relative contributions of these two mechanisms, well-constrained estimates of upper crustal shortening are needed. Here we document the Cenozoic shortening budget across the northeastern Tibetan Plateau margin near 36°N 102.5°E with several 100- to 145-km-long balanced cross sections. Thermochronological and magnetostratigraphic data indicate that modest NNE-SSW shortening began in middle Eocene time, shortly after initial India-Asia collision. Accelerated east-west shortening, however, did not commence until ~35 Myr later. A five-fold acceleration in shortening rates in middle Miocene-to-Recent time accounts for more than half of the total Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening in this region. Overall, the balanced cross sections indicate 11 ± 2 % east-west shortening since middle Miocene time, and ~9 ± 2 % NNE-SSW shortening between middle Eocene and middle Miocene times. Given the present-day crustal thickness of 56 ± 4 km in northeastern Tibet, crustal

  13. A role for analytical chemistry in advancing our understanding of the occurrence, fate, and effects of Corexit Oil Dispersants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Ben; Anderson, Brian; Mekebri, Abdou; Furlong, Edward T.; Gray, James L.; Tjeerdema, Ron; Field, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    On April 24, 2010, the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig resulted in the release of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. As of July 19, 2010, the federal government's Deepwater Horizon Incident Joint Information Center estimates the cumulative range of oil released is 3,067,000 to 5,258,000 barrels, with a relief well to be completed in early August. By comparison, the Exxon Valdez oil spill released a total of 260,000 barrels of crude oil into the environment. As of June 9, BP has used over 1 million gallons of Corexit oil dispersants to solubilize oil and help prevent the development of a surface oil slick. Oil dispersants are mixtures containing solvents and surfactants that can exhibit toxicity toward aquatic life and may enhance the toxicity of components of weathered crude oil. Detailed knowledge of the composition of both Corexit formulations and other dispersants applied in the Gulf will facilitate comprehensive monitoring programs for determining the occurrence, fate, and biological effects of the dispersant chemicals. The lack of information on the potential impacts of oil dispersants has caught industry, federal, and state officials off guard. Until compositions of Corexit 9500 and 9527 were released by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency online, the only information available consisted of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), patent documentation, and a National Research Council report on oil dispersants. Several trade and common names are used for the components of the Corexits. For example, Tween 80 and Tween 85 are oligomeric mixtures.

  14. Oil spill model coupled to an ultra-high-resolution circulation model: implementation for the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotenko, K.

    2003-04-01

    An ultra-high-resolution version of DieCAST was adjusted for the Adriatic Sea and coupled with an oil spill model. Hydrodynamic module was developed on base of th low dissipative, four-order-accuracy version DieCAST with the resolution of ~2km. The oil spill model was developed on base of particle tracking technique The effect of evaporation is modeled with an original method developed on the base of the pseudo-component approach. A special dialog interface of this hybrid system allowing direct coupling to meteorlogical data collection systems or/and meteorological models. Experiments with hypothetic oil spill are analyzed for the Northern Adriatic Sea. Results (animations) of mesoscale circulation and oil slick modeling are presented at wabsite http://thayer.dartmouth.edu/~cushman/adriatic/movies/

  15. Retinal Layers Measurements following Silicone Oil Tamponade for Retinal Detachment Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurišić, Darija; Geber, Mia Zorić; Ćavar, Ivan; Utrobičić, Dobrila Karlica

    2017-12-19

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of silicone oil on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent vitreoretinal surgery. The study included 47 patients (eyes), who underwent a pars plana vitrectomy with the silicone oil tamponade. The control group included unoperated eye of all participants. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used for the measurements of peripapilar and macular RNFL thickness. The average peripapillary RNFL thickness was significantly higher in the silicone oil filled eyes during endotamponade and after its removal. The eyes with elevated IOP had less thickening of the RNFL in comparison to the eyes with normal IOP. Central macular thickness and macular volume were decreased in the silicone oil filled eyes in comparison to the control eyes. In conclusion, silicone oil caused peripapilar RNFL thickening in the vitrectomized eyes during endotamponade and after silicone oil removal.

  16. Artificial weathering of oils by rotary evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieldhouse, B.; Hollebone, B.P.; Singh, N.R.; Tong, T.S.; Mullin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil weathering has a considerable affect on the behaviour, impact and ultimate fate of an oil spill. As such, efforts have been made to study weathering as a whole using bench-scale procedures. The studies are generally divided into individual processes where the effect of other major processes are introduce as an amended sample input rather than a concurrent process. The weathering process that has the greatest effect immediately following an oil spill is evaporation, particularly for lighter oils. The rotary evaporator apparatus offers a convenient means of producing artificially weathered oil for laboratory studies. This paper reported on a study that examined the representativeness of samples obtained by this method compared to pan evaporation and the impact of changes to the apparatus or method parameters on sample chemistry. Experiments were performed on Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend no. 5 in a rotary evaporator under varying conditions of temperature and air flow at ambient pressure using 2 apparatus. The rate of mass loss increased with temperature and air flow rate as expected, but the quantitative relationships could not be defined from the data due to contributions by other uncontrolled factors. It was concluded that the rotary evaporator is not suited for evaporation rate studies, but rather for producing samples suitable for use in other studies. Chemical analysis showed that the relative abundance distributions of target n-alkane hydrocarbons varied with the degree of weathering of an oil in a consistent manner at ambient pressure, regardless of the temperature, rate of air exchange or other factors related to the apparatus and procedure. The composition of the artificially weathered oil was also consistent with that from an open pan simulation of a weathered oil slick. Loss of water content varied with the conditions of evaporation because of the differential rates of evaporation due to relative humidity considerations. It was concluded that weathering

  17. Spill-of-opportunity testing of dispersant effectiveness at the Mega Borg oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, J.R.; Martrano, R.J.; Reilly, T.J.; Lindblom, G.P.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Brooks, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The release of 3.9 million gallons of Angola Planca crude oil from the stricken tanker Mega Borg 57 miles offshore of Galveston, Texas in June 1990 provided a valuable opportunity to document dispersant effectiveness under field conditions. Aerial application of Corexit 9527 (968 gallons total in four adjacent passes) onto an identified test portion of the slick was evaluated by concurrent observations from a command-and-control aircraft and surface vessels (with videotape and 35-mm photographic documentation) and ground truth measurements, including continuous 4-meter-depth ultraviolet/fluorescence and a discrete water sampling program. Using the study plan outlined by Payne and colleagues, target and control areas were designated before dispersant application by deployment of smoke bombs and coded three-meter drogues. Postdispersant surface vessel placement and 30 liter water sampling activities from the Texas A ampersand M research vessel HOS Citation were aided by the smoke bombs, the free-drifting drogues, and directions from the command-and-control aircraft. Subsequent FID GC and GC/MS analyses of water sample extracts allowed quantitation of the dispersed oil concentrations under both treated and control areas. Although the spilled oil was extremely light (API gravity 39.0) and subject to significant natural dispersion, the field observations, filmed documentation, and water column data clearly demonstrated an increase in dispersed oil concentrations beneath the treated slick. The distribution of dispersed oil droplets was very heterogeneous and reflected the patchy distribution of oil on the water surface before dispersant application. Maximum concentrations of dispersed hydrocarbons in the center of the treated zone were 22,000 μg/L (22 ppm) for total aliphatic and 5.6 μg/L (5.6 ppb) for total aromatics 60 to 90 minutes after dispersant application. Elevated levels were generally limited to the upper 1 to 3 meters of the water column

  18. Sacrificial amphiphiles: Eco-friendly chemical herders as oil spill mitigation chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deeksha; Sarker, Bivas; Thadikaran, Keith; John, Vijay; Maldarelli, Charles; John, George

    2015-06-01

    Crude oil spills are a major threat to marine biota and the environment. When light crude oil spills on water, it forms a thin layer that is difficult to clean by any methods of oil spill response. Under these circumstances, a special type of amphiphile termed as "chemical herder" is sprayed onto the water surrounding the spilled oil. The amphiphile forms a monomolecular layer on the water surface, reducing the air-sea surface tension and causing the oil slick to retract into a thick mass that can be burnt in situ. The current best-known chemical herders are chemically stable and nonbiodegradable, and hence remain in the marine ecosystem for years. We architect an eco-friendly, sacrificial, and effective green herder derived from the plant-based small-molecule phytol, which is abundant in the marine environment, as an alternative to the current chemical herders. Phytol consists of a regularly branched chain of isoprene units that form the hydrophobe of the amphiphile; the chain is esterified to cationic groups to form the polar group. The ester linkage is proximal to an allyl bond in phytol, which facilitates the hydrolysis of the amphiphile after adsorption to the sea surface into the phytol hydrophobic tail, which along with the unhydrolyzed herder, remains on the surface to maintain herding action, and the cationic group, which dissolves into the water column. Eventual degradation of the phytol tail and dilution of the cation make these sacrificial amphiphiles eco-friendly. The herding behavior of phytol-based amphiphiles is evaluated as a function of time, temperature, and water salinity to examine their versatility under different conditions, ranging from ice-cold water to hot water. The green chemical herder retracted oil slicks by up to ~500, 700, and 2500% at 5°, 20°, and 35°C, respectively, during the first 10 min of the experiment, which is on a par with the current best chemical herders in practice.

  19. Modelling of oil spill frequency, leak sources and contamination probability in the Caspian Sea using multi-temporal SAR images 2006–2010 and stochastic modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Bayramov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to detect oil spills, to determine the oil spill frequencies and to approximate oil leak sources around the Oil Rocks Settlement, the Chilov and Pirallahi Islands in the Caspian Sea using 136 multi-temporal ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Wide Swath Medium Resolution images acquired during 2006–2010. The following oil spill frequencies were observed around the Oil Rocks Settlement, the Chilov and Pirallahi Islands: 2–10 (3471.04 sq km, 11–20 (971.66 sq km, 21–50 (692.44 sq km, 51–128 (191.38 sq km. The most critical oil leak sources with the frequency range of 41–128 were observed at the Oil Rocks Settlement. The exponential regression analysis between wind speeds and oil slick areas detected from 136 multi-temporal ENVISAT images revealed the regression coefficient equal to 63%. The regression model showed that larger oil spill areas were observed with decreasing wind speeds. The spatiotemporal patterns of currents in the Caspian Sea explained the multi-directional spatial distribution of oil spills around Oil Rocks Settlement, the Chilov and Pirallahi Islands. The linear regression analysis between detected oil spill frequencies and predicted oil contamination probability by the stochastic model showed the positive trend with the regression coefficient of 30%.

  20. Influence of Base Oil Polarity on the Transient Shear Flow of Biodegradable Lubricating Greases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fiedler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to elucidate the physical mechanisms influencing the transient flow behavior of lubricating greases based on biogenic oleochemicals from a polarity point of view. This includes the mutually interacting influence of base oil polarity and thickening agents on the rheologically-measured mechanical structural degradation in transient shear flow. Due to the high temperature dependence of Keesom forces in the background of polar-active bond mechanisms, the analysis of the transient flow response as a function of temperature allows to attribute the observed influences to differences in base oil polarity. In general, clay-thickened greases show a greater tendency to be rheologically influenced by base oil polarities than soap-thickened lubricating greases.

  1. Crude Oil Remote Sensing, Characterization and Cleaning with CW and Pulsed Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Chirita, Arc; Gallegos, Sonia C.

    2014-01-01

    For detection, identification and characterization of crude oil we combine several optical methods of remote sensing of crude oil films and emulsions (coherent fringe projection illumination (CFP), holographic in-line interferometry (HILI), and laser induced fluorescence). These methods allow the three-dimensional characterization of oil spills, important for practical applications. Combined methods of CFP and HILI are described in the frame of coherent superposition of partial interference patterns. It is shown, that in addition to detection/identification laser illumination in the green-blue region can also degrade oil slicks. Different types of surfaces contaminated by oil spills are tested: oil on the water, oil on the flat solid surfaces and oil on the curved surfaces of pipes. For the detection and monitoring of the laser-induced oil degradation in pipes, coherent fiber bundles were used. Both continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed lasers are tested using pump-probe schemes. This finding suggests that properly structured laser clean-up can be an alternative environmentally-friendly method of decontamination, as compared to the currently used chemical methods that are dangerous to environment.

  2. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  3. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  4. Shear-thickening behavior of Fe-ZSM5 zeolite slurry and its removal with alumina/boehmites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-guang; Li, Yan; Xue, Wen-dong; Sun, Jia-lin; Tang, Qian

    2018-06-01

    A cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) technique was used to explore the shear-thickening behavior of Fe-ZSM5 zeolite pastes and to discover its underlying mechanism. Bare Fe-ZSM5 zeolite samples were found to contain agglomerations, which may break the flow of the pastes and cause shear-thickening behaviors. However, the shear-thickening behaviors can be eliminated by the addition of halloysite and various boehmites because of improved particle packing. Furthermore, compared with pure Fe-ZSM5 zeolite samples and its composite samples with halloysite, the samples with boehmite (Pural SB or Disperal) additions exhibited network structures in their cryo-SEM images; these structures could facilitate the storage and release of flow water, smooth paste flow, and avoid shear-thickening. By contrast, another boehmite (Versal 250) formed agglomerations rather than network structures after being added to the Fe-ZSM5 zeolite paste and resulted in shear-thickening behavior. Consequently, the results suggest that these network structures play key roles in eliminating the shear-thickening behavior.

  5. Optimal Water Recovery with Emphasis on Flocculant Consumption Rate in the Thickener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Hosseininasab

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Water plays a vital role in mineral processing as evidenced by the approximately 2 to 3 tons of water used for the treatment of one ton of ore. A major portion of this water may be recovered in thickeners. This study aimed to control the wet tailings output of the Hematite Gol-e-Gohar plant by changing  flocculant dosage and type and solid percentage in the feed in order to enhance effluent clarity and reduce water consumption. Materials and A series of settling experiments were performed using different combinations of the flocculants (A25, A26 Yazd, A26 Esfahan, A27, and A28, flocculant doses (20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 gr/ton, and solid loads in the feed (5, 7, 9, 10, and 11% to the thickener. The L25 Taguchi design method was chosen to handle the five different levels of the three factors. Adopting a 95% confidence interval, the results of analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that flocculant consumption rate had a high effect on settling velocity (p = 0.006 while flocculant type and solid percentage in the feed had no significant effects. Moreover, it was found that A26 (Akhtar-chemistry Company, Yazd used at a rate of 40 g/ton improved the settling performance to yield an optimal water clarity. Using the findings of this study in process planning at the plant led to a considerable reduction (from the original 0.86 to 0.49 m3 in average water consumption per ton of input material so that the solid content of the thickener underflow rose from 7 to 45%.

  6. Strain transformation between tectonic extrusion and crustal thickening in the growth of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.; Shen, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Eurasian continental collision since 50 Ma has thickened the crust to raise the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau and driven lateral extrusion of Asian lithospheric blocks to affect Cenozoic tectonics in central and east Asia. The relative roles of crustal thickening and tectonic extrusion, and the strain partitioning between them over time and space, remain controversial. We have analyzed the strain rates using GPS velocities, and correlated the results with vertical motion derived from precise leveling. We found that tectonic extrusion largely transforms to crustal thickening near the margins of the Tibetan Plateau. Near the NW margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the shear stain transforms to compressive strain, consistent with neotectonic studies that indicate crustal shortening and uplift. Around the SE margin, shear stain largely terminates in the southern Yunnan province of China. The present-day crustal motion in SE Tibetan Plateau can be well explained by gravitational spreading without invoking plate-edge push as envisioned in the tectonic extrusion model. Using data collected from local seismic arrays, we derived receiver functions to image the lithospheric structures across the Tibetan Plateau and the Alashan block to its north and the Ordos block to its east. Our results indicate that the mantle lithosphere of these bounding Asian blocks has not been reworked by Tibetan tectonics; instead they have acted as restrictive walls to the growing Tibetan Plateau. Our finite element modeling shows that crustal deformation along the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are consistent with the notion that the east- and southeastward extrusion of the Tibetan lithosphere is largely confined to the Tibetan Plateau because of the restrictive bounding blocks of the Asian lithosphere. Thus the tectonic impact of the Indo-Eurasian collision on the Cenozoic Asian tectonics may not be as extensive as previously thought.

  7. Characteristic Thickened Cell Walls of the Bracts of the ‘Eternal Flower’ Helichrysum bracteatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Kuniko; Ito, Hiroaki; Awano, Tatsuya; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Yazawa, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Helichrysum bracteatum is called an ‘eternal flower’ and has large, coloured, scarious bracts. These maintain their aesthetic value without wilting or discoloration for many years. There have been no research studies of cell death or cell morphology of the scarious bract, and hence the aim of this work was to elucidate these characteristics for the bract of H. bracteatum. Methods DAPI (4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindol dihydrochloride) staining and fluorescence microscopy were used for observation of cell nuclei. Light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and polarized light microscopy were used for observation of cells, including cell wall morphology. Key Results Cell death occurred at the bract tip during the early stage of flower development. The cell wall was the most prominent characteristic of H. bracteatum bract cells. Characteristic thickened secondary cell walls on the inside of the primary cell walls were observed in both epidermal and inner cells. In addition, the walls of all cells exhibited birefringence. Characteristic thickened secondary cell walls have orientated cellulose microfibrils as well as general secondary cell walls of the tracheary elements. For comparison, these characters were not observed in the petal and bract tissues of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Conclusions Bracts at anthesis are composed of dead cells. Helichrysum bracteatum bracts have characteristic thickened secondary cell walls that have not been observed in the parenchyma of any other flowers or leaves. The cells of the H. bracteatum bract differ from other tissues with secondary cell walls, suggesting that they may be a new cell type. PMID:18436550

  8. Orthophragminids with new axial thickening structures from the Bartonian of the Indian subcontinent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, E.; Kumar Saraswati, P.; Hanif, M.; Ali, N.

    2016-07-01

    The ‘axial thickening’, a morphological character of certain Eocene orthophragminids refers to the thickening of the equatorial and/or lateral layers in axial directions forming radial external structures, namely the ribs. The occurrence of ribs is considered to be a diagnostic specific character of the orthophragminids in the periMediterranean region and Europe (western Tethys). In the Bartonian orthophragminids of the Indian subcontinent we observe a new type of axial thickening that we name ‘bulges’. The bulges are semi-rounded to rounded, localized structures on the test surface formed solely by the greater development of lateral chamberlets. These specimens, with trybliolepidine to umbilicolepidine type embryon configuration, co-occur with ribbed discocyclinids having completely different internal features. We also record another type of axial thickening of the lateral layers in notably small omphaloid tests that are characterized by a thick umbo, deeply depressed at the center such that the periphery of it forms a thick circular structure. The reported omphaloid specimens possess a small, semiisolepidine to nephrolepidine type embryon configuration and characteristic early chambers, not comparable to any known species in the Tethys. These specimens occasionally may have incomplete and/or irregular septula, reminiscent of certain Caribbean orthophragminids. The specimens with bulges, identified in two geographically distant regions of the Indian subcontinent, possibly represent endemic foraminiferal fauna confined to the IndoPakistan region. We introduce two new species, Discocyclina kutchensis sp. nov. (characterized by bulges) and ‘D’. sulaimanensis sp. nov. (characterized by circular structures in omphaloid tests). The status of both taxa in the Tethys is discussed. (Author)

  9. Two unusual causes of pituitary stalk thickening in children without clinical features of diabetes insipidus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Furlan, Gisella; Fieggen, Anthony G.; Wilmshurst, Jo

    2003-01-01

    Pituitary stalk thickening has a wide differential diagnosis, but almost all infundibular diseases present with diabetes insipidus (DI). We present a child with metastatic involvement of the pituitary stalk from a primary pontine tumour and a child with tuberculous infiltration of the pituitary stalk and associated meningeal inflammation. Neither child presented with DI. Even though both metastatic disease and tuberculous infiltration of the stalk have been reported in adults, these are the first reports with accompanying cross-sectional images of pituitary stalk involvement by these diseases in children. (orig.)

  10. Two unusual causes of pituitary stalk thickening in children without clinical features of diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Furlan, Gisella; Fieggen, Anthony G.; Wilmshurst, Jo [Department of Paediatric Neuroradiology, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2003-07-01

    Pituitary stalk thickening has a wide differential diagnosis, but almost all infundibular diseases present with diabetes insipidus (DI). We present a child with metastatic involvement of the pituitary stalk from a primary pontine tumour and a child with tuberculous infiltration of the pituitary stalk and associated meningeal inflammation. Neither child presented with DI. Even though both metastatic disease and tuberculous infiltration of the stalk have been reported in adults, these are the first reports with accompanying cross-sectional images of pituitary stalk involvement by these diseases in children. (orig.)

  11. Ectopic eruption of maxillary central incisor through abnormally thickened labial frenum: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gugnani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic eruption is a deviation from the normal eruption pattern, making the tooth erupt out of its normal position, and possibly causing resorption of adjacent primary teeth. A wide range of etiological factors may be responsible for ectopic eruption of the teeth, so their management depends on the correction of the established etiological factor. The present case report describes an unusual case of ectopically erupted central incisor encased within an abnormally thickened labial frenum, which was treated by orthodontic repositioning of the ectopically erupting tooth after frenectomy.

  12. Nonlinear damping for vibration isolation of microsystems using shear thickening fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, S. S.; Vedad-Ghavami, R.; Lee, H.; Liger, M.; Kavehpour, H. P.; Candler, R. N.

    2013-06-01

    This work reports the measurement and analysis of nonlinear damping of micro-scale actuators immersed in shear thickening fluids (STFs). A power-law damping term is added to the linear second-order model to account for the shear-dependent viscosity of the fluid. This nonlinear model is substantiated by measurements of oscillatory motion of a torsional microactuator. At high actuation forces, the vibration velocity amplitude saturates. The model accurately predicts the nonlinear damping characteristics of the STF using a power-law index extracted from independent rheology experiments. This result reveals the potential to use STFs as adaptive, passive dampers for vibration isolation of microelectromechanical systems.

  13. Giant deviation of a relaxation time from generalized Newtonian theory in discontinuous shear thickening suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Rijan; Brown, Eric

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the transient relaxation of a discontinuous shear thickening (DST) suspension of cornstarch in water. We performed two types of relaxation experiments starting from a steady shear in a parallel-plate rheometer, followed either by stopping the top plate rotation and measuring the transient torque relaxation or by removing the torque on the plate and measuring the transient rotation of the tool. We found that at low effective weight fraction ϕeffmodel. The regime where the relaxation was inconsistent with the generalized Newtonian model was the same where we found positive normal stress during relaxation, and in some cases we found an oscillatory response, suggestive of a solidlike structure consisting of a system-spanning contact network of particles. This regime also corresponds to the same packing fraction range where we consistently found discontinuous shear thickening in rate-controlled, steady-state measurements. The relaxation time in this range scales with the inverse of the critical shear rate at the onset of shear thickening, which may correspond to a contact relaxation time for nearby particles in the structure to flow away from each other. In this range, the relaxation time was the same in both stress- and rate-controlled relaxation experiments, indicating the relaxation time is more intrinsic than an effective viscosity in this range and is needed in addition to the steady-state viscosity function to describe transient flows. The discrepancy between the measured relaxation times and the generalized Newtonian prediction was found to be as large as four orders of magnitude, and extrapolations diverge in the limit as ϕeff→ϕc as the generalized Newtonian prediction approaches 0. This quantitative discrepancy indicates the relaxation is not controlled by the dissipative terms in the constitutive relation. At the highest weight fractions, the relaxation time scales were measured to be on the order of ˜1 s. The fact that this time scale is

  14. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  16. External hazards in the PRA of Olkiluoto 1 and 2 NPP units - Accidental oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunturivuori, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Oil transports in Finnish territorial waters have increased significantly during the last 10 years. The Gulf of Finland is at this moment a very important route of oil being transported from Russia to the Western Europe. Although the number of accidental oil spills is decreasing in amount and in size, there is a growing concern of their effects to nuclear power plants (NPPs). The amounts of oil transported on the Gulf of Bothnia are much smaller than on the Gulf of Finland. However, accidental oil spills have occurred also there, the size and amount of which are smaller, though. Accidental oil spills are often a result of grounding of a ship or collision of two ships, and often occur during harsh weather conditions like storm or dense fog. However, also coastal oil depots may break, the oil of which may spread over wide distances on the sea. The modelling of initiating events resulting from accidental oil spills includes oil spill response actions performed by the regional rescue services, alarming of the oil spill by the emergency response centre to the NPP rescue services and spill response by the NPPs rescue services. It is unclear what the consequences are if drifted oil would enter the coolant water tunnels. The effect of different oil types to the operation of the safety-related service water systems and components are being assessed. In the ultimate case, an oil spill would clog the inlet channels thus failing the ultimate heat sink of the NPP units. The licensee is evaluating what is the optimal way to operate the NPP units in the case that an oil slick is threatening the plant to ensure reactor core cooling and RHR. The continued operation of, and especially the cooling of, at least one auxiliary feedwater pump is critical in the mitigation of the initiating event. Strategies, like reversing the water flow of the cooling water channels or closing of the cooling water channels, are being evaluated. (authors)

  17. Use of three generations of oil spill models during the Gulf War oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerkirge, H.M.; Al-Rabeh, A.H.; Gunay, N.

    1992-01-01

    During the January-May 1991 Gulf War, an estimated 6 million bbl of oil was spilled into the Arabian Gulf, mostly around Mina Al-Ahmadi in southern Kuwait. Three models were used to analyze the fate and transport of the spills originating at Al-Ahmadi. The first generation model, GULFSLIK I, was developed in the late 1970s and predicts the movements of a spill by considering that the center of the slick advects with a velocity equal to 3% of the wind speed. This model is best for the initial forecasting of oil spill movement. The second generation GULFSLIK II Model predicts the trajectory of spills at 24 h intervals, requiring as input the average daily wind velocity. Surface currents are obtained for the model from a reliable 3-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Gulf coupled with an appropriate interpolation scheme. Comparisons between predicted spill trajectories and actual sightings show GULFSLIK II to be reasonably accurate. The third generation model, called OILPOL, consists of a set of algorithms describing the processes of advection, turbulent diffusion, surface spreading, vertical mechanical dispersion, emulsification, and evaporation. After 80 days, results show under 8% of the initial oil volume remains on the sea surface while 15% is suspended in the water column or sedimented on the sea bed. Comparisons of simulation results and actual sightings show excellent agreement. 4 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Thickening of the left atrial wall shortly after radiofrequency ablation predicts early recurrence of atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokokawa, Miki; Koyama, Keiko; Ino, Toshihiko; Naito, Shigeto; Oshima, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Koichi; Tada, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory responses following atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation may aggravate arrhythmogenic activity and cause an early recurrence of AF (ERAF). In 56 patients who underwent circumferential pulmonary vein ablation (CPVA) for paroxysmal AF, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) was evaluated in 5 subdivided left atrial (LA) regions before the CPVA and at 1 day and 1 month after. At a mean of 7±10 days after the CPVA, 23 patients (41%) developed 1 or more episodes of AF (ERAF group), while 33 patients (59%) remained free from AF during the first month of follow up (no-ERAF group). LA wall thickness increased 1 day after the CPVA in both groups, as demonstrated by high T2-weighted signal. The LA roof thickness and its increase, however, were greater in the ERAF group than in the no-ERAF group (P<0.05). Regions of delayed enhancement (DE) were also frequently detected in both groups, but the total number of DE regions did not differ between the 2 groups. The thickening of the LA wall associated with a high T2-weighted signal resolved within 1 month. No significant difference between the 2 groups was found in any of the CMRI parameters before or 1 month after CPVA. Thickening of the LA roof shortly after CPVA may predict an ERAF. (author)

  19. Numerical study of shear thickening fluid with discrete particles embedded in a base fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Zhu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Shear Thickening Fluid (STF is a dilatant material, which displays non-Newtonian characteristics in its unique ability to transit from a low viscosity fluid to a high viscosity fluid. The research performed investigates the STF behavior by modeling and simulation of the interaction between the base flow and embedded rigid particles when subjected to shear stress. The model considered the Lagrangian description of the rigid particles and the Eulerian description of fluid flow. The numerical analysis investigated key parameters such as applied flow acceleration, particle distribution and arrangement, volume concentration of particles, particle size, shape and their behavior in a Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid base. The fluid-particle interaction model showed that the arrangement, size, shape and volume concentration of the particles had a significant effect on the behavior of the STF. Although non-conclusive, the addition of particles in non-Newtonian fluids showed a promising trend of improved shear thickening effects at high shear strain rates.

  20. Shear thinning and shear thickening of a confined suspension of vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nait Ouhra, A.; Farutin, A.; Aouane, O.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.; Misbah, C.

    2018-01-01

    Widely regarded as an interesting model system for studying flow properties of blood, vesicles are closed membranes of phospholipids that mimic the cytoplasmic membranes of red blood cells. In this study we analyze the rheology of a suspension of vesicles in a confined geometry: the suspension, bound by two planar rigid walls on each side, is subject to a shear flow. Flow properties are then analyzed as a function of shear rate γ ˙, the concentration of the suspension ϕ , and the viscosity contrast λ =ηin/ηout , where ηin and ηout are the fluid viscosities of the inner and outer fluids, respectively. We find that the apparent (or effective viscosity) of the suspension exhibits both shear thinning (decreasing viscosity with shear rate) or shear thickening (increasing viscosity with shear rate) in the same concentration range. The shear thinning or thickening behaviors appear as subtle phenomena, dependant on viscosity contrast λ . We provide physical arguments on the origins of these behaviors.

  1. Comparison of clinical utility between diaphragm excursion and thickening change using ultrasonography to predict extubation success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jung-Wan; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Jong Deog; Kim, Ho Cheol

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aims Both diaphragmatic excursion and change in muscle thickening are measured using ultrasonography (US) to assess diaphragm function and mechanical ventilation weaning outcomes. However, which parameter can better predict successful extubation remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical utility of these two diaphragmatic parameters to predict extubation success. Methods This study included patients subjected to extubation trial in the medical or surgical intensive care unit of a university-affiliated hospital from May 2015 through February 2016. Diaphragm excursion and percent of thickening change (Δtdi%) were measured using US within 24 hours before extubation. Results Sixty patients were included, and 78.3% (47/60) of these patients were successfully extubated, whereas 21.7% (13/60) were not. The median degree of excursion was greater in patients with extubation success than in those with extubation failure (1.65 cm vs. 0.8 cm, p success had a greater Δtdi% than those with extubation failure (42.1% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.03). The areas under the receiver operating curve for excursion and Δtdi% were 0.836 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.717 to 0.919) and 0.698 (95% CI, 0.566 to 0.810), respectively (p = 0.017). Conclusions Diaphragm excursion seems more accurate than a change in the diaphragm thickness to predict extubation success. PMID:29050461

  2. Origin of shear thickening in semidilute wormlike micellar solutions and evidence of elastic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marín-Santibáñez, Benjamín M.; Pérez-González, José; Rodríguez-González, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The origin of shear thickening in an equimolar semidilute wormlike micellar solution of cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium salicylate was investigated in this work by using Couette rheometry, flow visualization, and capillary Rheo-particle image velocimetry. The use of the combined methods allowed the discovery of gradient shear banding flow occurring from a critical shear stress and consisting of two main bands, one isotropic (transparent) of high viscosity and one structured (turbid) of low viscosity. Mechanical rheometry indicated macroscopic shear thinning behavior in the shear banding regime. However, local velocimetry showed that the turbid band increased its viscosity along with the shear stress, even though barely reached the value of the viscosity of the isotropic phase. This shear band is the precursor of shear induced structures that subsequently give rise to the average increase in viscosity or apparent shear thickening of the solution. Further increase in the shear stress promoted the growing of the turbid band across the flow region and led to destabilization of the shear banding flow independently of the type of rheometer used, as well as to vorticity banding in Couette flow. At last, vorticity banding disappeared and the flow developed elastic turbulence with chaotic dynamics

  3. Thickening of the cauda equina roots: a common finding in Krabbe disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Misun; Rodriguez, David [Department of Radiology of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok [Section of Neuroradiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poe, Michele D.; Escolar, Maria L. [Department of Pediatrics at Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Evaluation of Krabbe disease burden and eligibility for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are often based on neuroimaging findings using the modified Loes scoring system, which encompasses central but not peripheral nervous system changes. We show that quantitative evaluation of thickened cauda equina nerve roots may improve the evaluation of Krabbe disease and therapeutic guidance. Lumbar spine MRI scans of patients obtained between March 2013 and September 2013 were retrospectively evaluated and compared to those of controls. Quantitative evaluation of cauda equina roots was performed on the axial plane obtained approximately 5 mm below the conus medullaris. The largest nerves in the right and left anterior quadrants of the spinal canal were acquired. Fifteen symptomatic patients with Krabbe disease (5-44 months old) and eleven age-matched controls were evaluated. The average areas (mm{sup 2}) of anterior right and left nerves were 1.40 and 1.23, respectively, for patients and 0.61 and 0.60 for controls (differences: 0.79 and 0.63; p < 0.001). Cauda equina nerve root thickening is associated with Krabbe disease in both treated and untreated patients. Adding lumbar spine MRI to the current neurodiagnostic protocols, which fails to account for peripheral nerve abnormalities, will likely facilitate the diagnosis of Krabbe disease. (orig.)

  4. Utilization of a genetic algorithm for the automatic detection of oil spill from RADARSAT-2 SAR satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marghany, Maged

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An oil platform located 70 km from the coast of Louisiana sank on Thursday. • Oil spill has backscatter values of −25 dB in RADARSAT-2 SAR. • Oil spill is portrayed in SCNB mode by shallower incidence angle. • Ideal detection of oil spills in SAR images requires moderate wind speeds. • Genetic algorithm is excellent tool for automatic detection of oil spill in RADARSAT-2 SAR data. - Abstract: In this work, a genetic algorithm is applied for the automatic detection of oil spills. The procedure is implemented using sequences from RADARSAT-2 SAR ScanSAR Narrow single-beam data acquired in the Gulf of Mexico. The study demonstrates that the implementation of crossover allows for the generation of an accurate oil spill pattern. This conclusion is confirmed by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The ROC curve indicates that the existence of oil slick footprints can be identified using the area between the ROC curve and the no-discrimination line of 90%, which is greater than that of other surrounding environmental features. In conclusion, the genetic algorithm can be used as a tool for the automatic detection of oil spills, and the ScanSAR Narrow single-beam mode serves as an excellent sensor for oil spill detection and survey

  5. Descemet Membrane Thickening as a Sign for the Diagnosis of Corneal Graft Rejection: An Ex Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDenBerg, Ryan; Diakonis, Vasilios F; Bozung, Alison; Gameiro, Gustavo Rosa; Fischer, Oliver; El Dakkak, Ahmed; Ulloa-Padilla, Jan Paul; Anagnostopoulos, Apostolos; Dubovy, Sander; Abou Shousha, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    To disclose, using an ex vivo study, the histopathological mechanism behind in vivo thickening of the endothelium/Descemet membrane complex (En/DM) observed in rejected corneal grafts (RCGs). Descemet membrane (DM), endothelium, and retrocorneal membranes make up the total En/DM thickness. These layers are not differentiable by high-definition optical coherence tomography; therefore, the source of thickening is unclear from an in vivo perspective. A retrospective ex vivo study (from September 2015 to December 2015) was conducted to measure the thicknesses of DM, endothelium, and retrocorneal membrane in 54 corneal specimens (31 RCGs and 23 controls) using light microscopy. Controls were globes with posterior melanoma without corneal involvement. There were 54 corneas examined ex vivo with mean age 58.1 ± 12.2 in controls and 51.7 ± 27.9 years in RCGs. The ex vivo study uncovered the histopathological mechanism of En/DM thickening to be secondary to significant thickening (P < 0.001) of DM (6.5 ± 2.4 μm) in RCGs compared with controls (3.9 ± 1.5 μm). Our ex vivo study shows that DM is responsible for thickening of the En/DM in RCGs observed in vivo by high-definition optical coherence tomography and not the endothelium or retrocorneal membrane.

  6. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening by peptic ulcer : compared with gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Jung; Choi, Jong Chul; Seo, Keum Soo; Koo, Bon Sik; Park, Byeong Ho; Kim, Chung Ku; Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin

    2000-01-01

    To compare on the basis of helical CT findings gastric wall thickening of peptic gastric ulcer with that of gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Thirty-eight patients with pathologically proven gastric lesion (17 cases of peptic ulcer and 21 cases of ulcerative or ulceroinfiltrative gastric cancer (Borrman type II, III) underwent helical CT, and the findings were retrospectively reviewed in terms of maximum abnormal wall thickness, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, the presence three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and enhancement pattern. The enhancement pattern of abnormally thick wall was compared with that of the portal phase of back muscle, and was defined as low, iso, or high. The Chi-square test and Student t test were used for statistical analysis. In cases of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer with ulceration, maximum abnormal wall thickness was 7-30 (mean, 16.1)mm, and 11-33 (mean, 21.8)mm, respectively. The inner enhancing layer was preserved in 15 of 17 patients (88.2%) and one of 21 (4.8%); three discriminate layers of gastric wall were observed in 8 of 17 patients (47.0%), and one of 21 (4.8%). The enhancement pattern was low in 12 of 17 patients (70.5%), and 3 of 21 (14.3%); iso in 4 of 17 (23.5%), and 4 of 21 (19.0%), and high in one of 17 (5.9%), and 14 of 21 (66.7%). All figures refer, respectively, to the two distinct conditions. In terms of preservation of the inner enhancing layer, three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and a low enhancement pattern, there were statistically significant differences between peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Where the enhancement was high, however, the statistically significant difference between the two conditions was even greater. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of gastric wall thickness or iso-attenuation of thickened gastric. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, and three discriminate layers of

  7. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening by peptic ulcer : compared with gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Jung; Choi, Jong Chul; Seo, Keum Soo; Koo, Bon Sik; Park, Byeong Ho; Kim, Chung Ku; Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin [College of Medicine, Dong A University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    To compare on the basis of helical CT findings gastric wall thickening of peptic gastric ulcer with that of gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Thirty-eight patients with pathologically proven gastric lesion (17 cases of peptic ulcer and 21 cases of ulcerative or ulceroinfiltrative gastric cancer (Borrman type II, III)) underwent helical CT, and the findings were retrospectively reviewed in terms of maximum abnormal wall thickness, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, the presence three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and enhancement pattern. The enhancement pattern of abnormally thick wall was compared with that of the portal phase of back muscle, and was defined as low, iso, or high. The Chi-square test and Student t test were used for statistical analysis. In cases of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer with ulceration, maximum abnormal wall thickness was 7-30 (mean, 16.1)mm, and 11-33 (mean, 21.8)mm, respectively. The inner enhancing layer was preserved in 15 of 17 patients (88.2%) and one of 21 (4.8%); three discriminate layers of gastric wall were observed in 8 of 17 patients (47.0%), and one of 21 (4.8%). The enhancement pattern was low in 12 of 17 patients (70.5%), and 3 of 21 (14.3%); iso in 4 of 17 (23.5%), and 4 of 21 (19.0%), and high in one of 17 (5.9%), and 14 of 21 (66.7%). All figures refer, respectively, to the two distinct conditions. In terms of preservation of the inner enhancing layer, three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and a low enhancement pattern, there were statistically significant differences between peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Where the enhancement was high, however, the statistically significant difference between the two conditions was even greater. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of gastric wall thickness or iso-attenuation of thickened gastric. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, and three discriminate layers of

  8. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: Field observations and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vethamony, P. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India)]. E-mail: mony@nio.org; Sudheesh, K. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Babu, M.T. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Jayakumar, S. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Manimurali, R. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Saran, A.K. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Sharma, L.H. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India); Rajan, B. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India); Srivastava, M. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India)

    2007-07-15

    An oil spill occurred off Goa, west coast of India, on 23 March 2005 due to collision of two vessels. In general, fair weather with weak winds prevails along the west coast of India during March. In that case, the spill would have moved slowly and reached the coast. However, in 2005 when this event occurred, relatively stronger winds prevailed, and these winds forced the spill to move away from the coast. The spill trajectory was dominated by winds rather than currents. The MIKE21 Spill Analysis model was used to simulate the spill trajectory. The observed spill trajectory and the slick area were in agreement with the model simulations. The present study illustrates the importance of having pre-validated trajectories of spill scenarios for selecting eco-sensitive regions for preparedness and planning suitable response strategies whenever spill episodes occur. - This is the first time model results have been compared with real oil spill observations along an Indian Coast.

  9. Automated quantification of bronchiectasis, airway wall thickening and lumen tapering in chest CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Rovira, Adria; Kuo, Wieying; Petersen, Jens

    thickness and accompanying artery radius), and inter-branch Lumen-Ratio (LR, ratio between a branch's lumen and its parent branch lumen radius, a tapering measurement) were computed. Because CF-related structural abnormalities only affect a portion of branches, the 75th percentile was used as summarising......Purpose: To automatically quantify airway structural properties visualised on CT in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and controls, including: bronchiectasis, airway wall thickening, and lumen tapering. Methods and materials: The 3D surface of the airway lumen, outer wall, and bronchial arteries...... were obtained using a fully automatic, in-house developed, segmentation method. Subsequently, for each detected airway branch, the Airway-Artery Ratio (AAR, ratio between airway outer wall and accompanying artery radius, a bronchiectasis measurement), Wall-Artery Ratio (WAR, ratio between airway wall...

  10. Design and testing of a rotational brake with shear thickening fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tongfei; Nakano, Masami

    2017-03-01

    A rotational brake working with shear thickening fluid (STF) was designed and tested in this study. With the optimisation in design, most of the STF in the brake can receive the same shear rate when the brake rotates. The parts of this brake were fabricated with a 3D printer and then assembled manually. Three types of STFs with various carrier fluids and different particles were fabricated and tested with a rheometer. Then the brake with each STF was separately tested with the rheometer. The estimated and measured torques as a function of the angular velocity fit each other well. The stability of the rotational STF brake was investigated in repeated tests, which proved the function of the brake for a long time.

  11. Imaging the Microscopic Structure of Shear Thinning and Thickening Colloidal Suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, X.

    2011-09-01

    The viscosity of colloidal suspensions varies with shear rate, an important effect encountered in many natural and industrial processes. Although this non-Newtonian behavior is believed to arise from the arrangement of suspended particles and their mutual interactions, microscopic particle dynamics are difficult to measure. By combining fast confocal microscopy with simultaneous force measurements, we systematically investigate a suspension\\'s structure as it transitions through regimes of different flow signatures. Our measurements of the microscopic single-particle dynamics show that shear thinning results from the decreased relative contribution of entropic forces and that shear thickening arises from particle clustering induced by hydrodynamic lubrication forces. This combination of techniques illustrates an approach that complements current methods for determining the microscopic origins of non-Newtonian flow behavior in complex fluids.

  12. Quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic wall thickening using multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas S; Kofoed, Klaus F; Møller, Daniel V

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the heart provides both anatomical and functional information. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative assessment of left ventricular contractile function in relation to two-dimensional transthoracic echocard......BACKGROUND: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the heart provides both anatomical and functional information. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative assessment of left ventricular contractile function in relation to two-dimensional transthoracic...... echocardiography (TTE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent ECG-gated 64-slice MDCT and TTE. Regional left ventricular contractile function was measured by percent systolic wall thickening (SWT) in 16 myocardial segments using MDCT, and compared...

  13. Laminar flow of a shear-thickening fluid in a 90∘ pipe bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marn, Jure; Ternik, Primož

    2006-05-01

    The non-Newtonian fluid flow in a sharp 90∘ curved pipe is studied numerically to obtain the pressure loss coefficient prompted by disagreement between the existing empirical correlations and results obtained by computer codes. This disagreement results from presumption of fully developed flow throughout the curvature (correlations) while the actual flow is partially developed for the Newtonian and sharp 90∘ curved bend non-Newtonian flows, and fully developed for slightly bent 90∘ curvature non-Newtonian flow. The Quadratic model is employed to accommodate the shear-thickening behavior of an electrostatic ash and water mixture. Numerical results are obtained for different values of Reynolds number. Finally, results for local pressure loss coefficient are compared with values obtained for the Power law rheological model.

  14. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, reduces intimal thickening after vascular injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Hiromasa [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nomiyama, Takashi, E-mail: tnomiyama@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Mita, Tomoya; Yasunari, Eisuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Komiya, Koji; Arakawa, Masayuki; Jin, Wen Long; Kanazawa, Akio [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Kawamori, Ryuzo [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Center for Beta Cell Biology and Regeneration, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Fujitani, Yoshio; Hirose, Takahisa [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Watada, Hirotaka, E-mail: hwatada@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Exendin-4 reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury in a mouse model. {yields} Exendin-4 dose not alter metabolic parameters in non-diabetic, non-obese mouse model. {yields} Exendin-4 reduces PDGF-induced cell proliferation in cultured SMCs. {yields} Exendin-4 may reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury at least in part through its direct action on SMCs. -- Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a hormone secreted by L cells of the small intestine and stimulates glucose-dependent insulin response. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists such as exendin-4 are currently used in type 2 diabetes, and considered to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. To further elucidate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effects of exendin-4 on intimal thickening after endothelial injury. Under continuous infusion of exendin-4 at 24 nmol/kg/day, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to endothelial denudation injury of the femoral artery. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 reduced neointimal formation at 4 weeks after arterial injury without altering body weight or various metabolic parameters. In addition, in vitro studies of isolated murine, rat and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells showed the expression of GLP-1 receptor. The addition of 10 nM exendin-4 to cultured smooth muscle cells significantly reduced their proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor. Our results suggested that exendin-4 reduced intimal thickening after vascular injury at least in part by the suppression of platelet-derived growth factor-induced smooth muscle cells proliferation.

  15. Angiotensin II-induced arterial thickening, fibrosis and stiffening involves elevated arginase function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Bhatta

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness (AS is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Smooth muscle cell (SMC proliferation and increased collagen synthesis are key features in development of AS. Arginase (ARG, an enzyme implicated in many cardiovascular diseases, can compete with nitric oxide (NO synthase for their common substrate, L-arginine. Increased arginase can also provide ornithine for synthesis of polyamines via ornithine decarboxylase (ODC and proline/collagen via ornithine aminotransferase (OAT, leading to vascular cell proliferation and collagen formation, respectively. We hypothesized that elevated arginase activity is involved in Ang II-induced arterial thickening, fibrosis, and stiffness and that limiting its activity can prevent these changes.We tested this by studies in mice lacking one copy of the ARG1 gene that were treated with angiotensin II (Ang II, 4 weeks. Studies were also performed in rat aortic Ang II-treated SMC. In WT mice treated with Ang II, we observed aortic stiffening (pulse wave velocity and aortic and coronary fibrosis and thickening that were associated with increases in ARG1 and ODC expression/activity, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, hydroxyproline levels, and collagen 1 protein expression. ARG1 deletion prevented each of these alterations. Furthermore, exposure of SMC to Ang II (1 μM, 48 hrs increased ARG1 expression, ARG activity, ODC mRNA and activity, cell proliferation, collagen 1 protein expression and hydroxyproline content. Treatment with ABH prevented these changes.Arginase 1 is crucially involved in Ang II-induced SMC proliferation and arterial fibrosis and stiffness and represents a promising therapeutic target.

  16. On the effectiveness of incorporating shear thickening fluid with fumed silica particles in hip protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, A.; Goh, B. W. Y.; Tay, T. E.; Lee, H. P.; Rammohan, A. V.; Tan, V. B. C.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a smart hip protector by incorporating shear thickening fluid (STF) into conventional foam hip protectors. The shear thickening properties of fumed silica particles dispersed in liquid polyethylene glycol (PEG) were determined from rheological tests. Dynamic drop tests, using a 4 kg drop platen at 0.5 m drop height, were conducted to study how STF improves energy absorption as compared to unfilled foam and PEG filled foam. The results show that PEG filled foam reduces the mean peak force transmitted by a further 55% and mean peak displacement by 32.5% as compared to the unfilled foam; the STF filled foam further reduces mean peak force and displacement by 15% and 41% respectively when compared to the PEG filled foam. At a displacement of 22 mm, the STF filled foam absorbs 7.4 times more energy than the PEG filled foam. The results of varying the drop mass and drop height show that the energy absorbed per unit displacement for STF filled foam is always higher than that of PEG filled foam. Finally, the effectiveness of a prototype of hip protector made from 15 mm thick STF filled foam in preventing hip fractures was studied under two different loading conditions: distributed load (plate drop test) and concentrated load (ball drop test). The results of the plate and ball drop tests show that among all hip protectors tested in this study, only the prototype can reduce the mean peak impact force to be lower than the force required to fracture a hip bone (3.1 kN) regardless of the type of loading. Moreover, the peak force of the prototype is about half of this value, suggesting thinner prototype could have been used instead. These findings show that STF is effective in improving the performance of hip protectors.

  17. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, reduces intimal thickening after vascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiromasa; Nomiyama, Takashi; Mita, Tomoya; Yasunari, Eisuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Komiya, Koji; Arakawa, Masayuki; Jin, Wen Long; Kanazawa, Akio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Hirose, Takahisa; Watada, Hirotaka

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Exendin-4 reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury in a mouse model. → Exendin-4 dose not alter metabolic parameters in non-diabetic, non-obese mouse model. → Exendin-4 reduces PDGF-induced cell proliferation in cultured SMCs. → Exendin-4 may reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury at least in part through its direct action on SMCs. -- Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a hormone secreted by L cells of the small intestine and stimulates glucose-dependent insulin response. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists such as exendin-4 are currently used in type 2 diabetes, and considered to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. To further elucidate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effects of exendin-4 on intimal thickening after endothelial injury. Under continuous infusion of exendin-4 at 24 nmol/kg/day, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to endothelial denudation injury of the femoral artery. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 reduced neointimal formation at 4 weeks after arterial injury without altering body weight or various metabolic parameters. In addition, in vitro studies of isolated murine, rat and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells showed the expression of GLP-1 receptor. The addition of 10 nM exendin-4 to cultured smooth muscle cells significantly reduced their proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor. Our results suggested that exendin-4 reduced intimal thickening after vascular injury at least in part by the suppression of platelet-derived growth factor-induced smooth muscle cells proliferation.

  18. Identifying decreased diaphragmatic mobility and diaphragm thickening in interstitial lung disease: the utility of ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Pauliane Vieira; Prina, Elena; Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Caruso, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the applicability of ultrasound imaging of the diaphragm in interstitial lung disease (ILD). Methods: Using ultrasound, we compared ILD patients and healthy volunteers (controls) in terms of diaphragmatic mobility during quiet and deep breathing; diaphragm thickness at functional residual capacity (FRC) and at total lung capacity (TLC); and the thickening fraction (TF, proportional diaphragm thickening from FRC to TLC). We also evaluated correlations between diaphragmatic dysfunction and lung function variables. Results: Between the ILD patients (n = 40) and the controls (n = 16), mean diaphragmatic mobility was comparable during quiet breathing, although it was significantly lower in the patients during deep breathing (4.5 ± 1.7 cm vs. 7.6 ± 1.4 cm; p < 0.01). The patients showed greater diaphragm thickness at FRC (p = 0.05), although, due to lower diaphragm thickness at TLC, they also showed a lower TF (p < 0.01). The FVC as a percentage of the predicted value (FVC%) correlated with diaphragmatic mobility (r = 0.73; p < 0.01), and an FVC% cut-off value of < 60% presented high sensitivity (92%) and specificity (81%) for indentifying decreased diaphragmatic mobility. Conclusions: Using ultrasound, we were able to show that diaphragmatic mobility and the TF were lower in ILD patients than in healthy controls, despite the greater diaphragm thickness at FRC in the former. Diaphragmatic mobility correlated with ILD functional severity, and an FVC% cut-off value of < 60% was found to be highly accurate for indentifying diaphragmatic dysfunction on ultrasound. PMID:27167428

  19. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria enriched by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill identified by cultivation and DNA-SIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R; Berry, David; Yang, Tingting; Aitken, Michael D; Teske, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The massive influx of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster triggered dramatic microbial community shifts in surface oil slick and deep plume waters. Previous work had shown several taxa, notably DWH Oceanospirillales, Cycloclasticus and Colwellia, were found to be enriched in these waters based on their dominance in conventional clone and pyrosequencing libraries and were thought to have had a significant role in the degradation of the oil. However, this type of community analysis data failed to provide direct evidence on the functional properties, such as hydrocarbon degradation of organisms. Using DNA-based stable-isotope probing with uniformly 13C-labelled hydrocarbons, we identified several aliphatic (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter)- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Colwellia)-degrading bacteria. We also isolated several strains (Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Halomonas, Marinobacter and Pseudoalteromonas) with demonstrable hydrocarbon-degrading qualities from surface slick and plume water samples collected during the active phase of the spill. Some of these organisms accounted for the majority of sequence reads representing their respective taxa in a pyrosequencing data set constructed from the same and additional water column samples. Hitherto, Alcanivorax was not identified in any of the previous water column studies analysing the microbial response to the spill and we discuss its failure to respond to the oil. Collectively, our data provide unequivocal evidence on the hydrocarbon-degrading qualities for some of the dominant taxa enriched in surface and plume waters during the DWH oil spill, and a more complete understanding of their role in the fate of the oil. PMID:23788333

  20. INEXPENSIVE CO{sub 2} THICKENING AGENTS FOR IMPROVED MOBILITY CONTROL OF CO{sub 2} FLOODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Enick; Eric J. Beckman; Andrew Hamilton

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this research was the design, synthesis and evaluation of inexpensive, nonfluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. We followed the same strategy employed in the design of fluorinated CO{sub 2} polymeric thickeners. First, a highly CO{sub 2}-philic, hydrocarbon-based monomer was to be identified. Polymers or oligomers of this monomer were then synthesized. The second step was to be completed only when a CO{sub 2}-soluble polymer that was soluble in CO{sub 2} at pressures comparable to the MMP was identified. In the second step, viscosity-enhancing associating groups were to be incorporated into the polymer to make it a viable thickener that exhibited high CO{sub 2} solubility at EOR MMP conditions. This final report documents the CO{sub 2} solubility of a series of commercial and novel polymers composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and, in some cases, nitrogen.

  1. Crushed tablets: does the administration of food vehicles and thickened fluids to aid medication swallowing alter drug release?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Yady J; Lee, Danielle J; Islam, Faiza; Nissen, Lisa M; Cichero, Julie A Y; Stokes, Jason R; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of co-administered vehicles on in vitro dissolution in simulated gastric fluid of crushed immediate release tablets as an indicator for potential drug bioavailability compromise. Release and dissolution of crushed amlodipine, atenolol, carbamazepine and warfarin tablets were tested with six foods and drinks that are frequently used in the clinical setting as mixers for crushed medications (water, orange juice, honey, yoghurt, strawberry jam and water thickened with Easythick powder) in comparison to whole tablets. Five commercial thickening agents (Easythick Advanced, Janbak F, Karicare, Nutilis, Viscaid) at three thickness levels were tested for their effect on the dissolution of crushed atenolol tablets. Atenolol dissolution was unaffected by mixing crushed tablets with thin fluids or food mixers in comparison to whole tablets or crushed tablets in water, but amlodipine was delayed by mixing with jam. Mixing crushed warfarin and carbamazepine tablets with honey, jam or yoghurt caused them to resemble the slow dissolution of whole tablets rather than the faster dissolution of crushed tablets in water or orange juice. Crushing and mixing any of the four medications with thickened water caused a significant delay in dissolution. When tested with atenolol, all types of thickening agents at the greatest thickness significantly restricted dissolution, and products that are primarily based on xanthan gum also delayed dissolution at the intermediate thickness level. Dissolution testing, while simplistic, is a widely used and accepted method for comparing drug release from different formulations as an indicator for in vivo bioavailability. Thickened fluids have the potential to retard drug dissolution when used at the thickest levels. These findings highlight potential clinical implications of the addition of these agents to medications for the purpose of dose delivery and indicate that further investigation of thickened fluids and their

  2. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  3. Automatic Mexico Gulf Oil Spill Detection from Radarsat-2 SAR Satellite Data Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghany, Maged

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a genetic algorithm is exploited for automatic detection of oil spills of small and large size. The route is achieved using arrays of RADARSAT-2 SAR ScanSAR Narrow single beam data obtained in the Gulf of Mexico. The study shows that genetic algorithm has automatically segmented the dark spot patches related to small and large oil spill pixels. This conclusion is confirmed by the receiveroperating characteristic (ROC) curve and ground data which have been documented. The ROC curve indicates that the existence of oil slick footprints can be identified with the area under the curve between the ROC curve and the no-discrimination line of 90%, which is greater than that of other surrounding environmental features. The small oil spill sizes represented 30% of the discriminated oil spill pixels in ROC curve. In conclusion, the genetic algorithm can be used as a tool for the automatic detection of oil spills of either small or large size and the ScanSAR Narrow single beam mode serves as an excellent sensor for oil spill patterns detection and surveying in the Gulf of Mexico.

  4. Validation of the natural resource damage assessment model using historical observations on oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.; Rines, H.

    1995-01-01

    The Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) was developed by Applied Science Associates to simulate the fate and effects of oil and chemical spills into estuarine and marine environments. The US Department of the Interior has proposed the NRDAM/CME for use in Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) regulations under CERCLA. As part of the evaluation of model performance, the NRDAM/CME has been validated with observational data from case histories of oil spills, including the Exxon Valdez, World Prodigy, Mega Borg, Apex Houston and a number of others. Primarily, the data available for validation were of oil slick trajectory and coverage (e.g., overflight maps), length of shoreline oiled, area of marshes oiled, and a number of oiled birds recovered. Model performance was dependent on the accuracy of available wind and current data (the primary forces affecting fate) and bird abundances. Where these data sources were good (relatively well quantified), model performance was excellent. Results of the model simulations also provide an interesting sensitivity analysis and indications of relative effects of oil under various spill scenarios and conditions

  5. Self-similar distribution of oil spills in European coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, Jose M; Platonov, Alexei K

    2009-01-01

    Marine pollution has been highlighted thanks to the advances in detection techniques as well as increasing coverage of catastrophes (e.g. the oil tankers Amoco Cadiz, Exxon Valdez, Erika, and Prestige) and of smaller oil spills from ships. The new satellite based sensors SAR and ASAR and new methods of oil spill detection and analysis coupled with self-similar statistical techniques allow surveys of environmental pollution monitoring large areas of the ocean. We present a statistical analysis of more than 700 SAR images obtained during 1996-2000, also comparing the detected small pollution events with the historical databases of great marine accidents during 1966-2004 in European coastal waters. We show that the statistical distribution of the number of oil spills as a function of their size corresponds to Zipf's law, and that the common small spills are comparable to the large accidents due to the high frequency of the smaller pollution events. Marine pollution from tankers and ships, which has been detected as oil spills between 0.01 and 100 km 2 , follows the marine transit routes. Multi-fractal methods are used to distinguish between natural slicks and spills, in order to estimate the oil spill index in European coastal waters, and in particular, the north-western Mediterranean Sea, which, due to the influence of local winds, shows optimal conditions for oil spill detection.

  6. A new concept for improved oil spill containment in open waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethness, E.D. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a new concept for improved oil spill containment in open waters is presented. The proposed system is a combination oil boom and wave barrier. Waveguard International has taken its extensive experience as a designer of floating breakwaters and applied this knowledge into the design of a readily transportable, readily deployable floating oil boom with integrated wave attenuation capabilities as well. The new concept is based on the attenuation of the two major natural causes of oil spill dispersion; first, horizontal dispersion caused by wind shear effects; and second, vertical entrainment into the water column caused by the mixing action of wave motion. The physical encirclement of an oil spill with a floating boom to contain horizontal dispersion is not a new concept. Existing systems, however, work best in calm water and rapidly loose efficiency as waves increase. The proposed system can not only physically surround the spill area, but is as much as 90% effective in stopping the transmission of wave energy. The oil boom thus minimizes vertical mixing of the contained oil slick

  7. Oil Spill Detection and Monitoring of Abu Dhabi Coastal Zone Using KOMPSAT-5 SAR Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahsheh, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    Abu Dhabi Government endorsed vision for its Maritime Strategy `A safe, secure and sustainable maritime domain for Abu Dhabi'. This research study share this vision using the concept of monitoring as tool for marine protection against any possible oil pollution. The best technology to detect and monitor oil pollution and in particularly oil spill is SAR imagery In this case study we chose KOMPSAT-5 SAR. KOMPSAT-5 carries X-band SAR for earth observation, and is capable of day-and-night imaging under all weather condition. It provides three operation modes: High Resolution Mode to provide 1 m resolution, Standard Mode to provide 3 m resolution and Wide Swath Mode to provide 20 m resolution with 100 km swath at 550 km altitude, with four modes of polarization. KOMPSAT-5 provides products for various applications; security and defense, mapping, and natural resource management, environmental monitoring, disaster monitoring and more. For our case study we chose to work with Wide Swath mode (WS) with Vertical polarization (VV) to cover a wide area of interest located to the north west of Abu Dhabi including some important islands like "Zirku Island", and areas with oil production activities. The results of data acquired on 4th May 2015 show some spot of oil spill with length estimated about 3 KM, and the daily satellite data acquisition over the period July 24 through July 31 shows serious and many oil spill events some are small, but many others are considered to be big with area size around 20 km2. In the context of oil spill pollution in the seas, we have to consider the development and increase of overseas transportation, which is an important factor for both social and economic sectors. The harmful effects of marine pollution are numerous, from the damage of marine life to the damage of the aquatic ecosystem as whole. As such, the need for oil slick detection is crucial, for the location of polluted areas and to evaluate slick drift to protect the coastline

  8. OIL SPILL DETECTION AND MONITORING OF ABU DHABI COASTAL ZONE USING KOMPSAT-5 SAR IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Harahsheh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abu Dhabi Government endorsed vision for its Maritime Strategy ‘A safe, secure and sustainable maritime domain for Abu Dhabi'. This research study share this vision using the concept of monitoring as tool for marine protection against any possible oil pollution. The best technology to detect and monitor oil pollution and in particularly oil spill is SAR imagery In this case study we chose KOMPSAT-5 SAR. KOMPSAT-5 carries X-band SAR for earth observation, and is capable of day-and-night imaging under all weather condition. It provides three operation modes: High Resolution Mode to provide 1 m resolution, Standard Mode to provide 3 m resolution and Wide Swath Mode to provide 20 m resolution with 100 km swath at 550 km altitude, with four modes of polarization. KOMPSAT-5 provides products for various applications; security and defense, mapping, and natural resource management, environmental monitoring, disaster monitoring and more. For our case study we chose to work with Wide Swath mode (WS with Vertical polarization (VV to cover a wide area of interest located to the north west of Abu Dhabi including some important islands like ”Zirku Island”, and areas with oil production activities. The results of data acquired on 4th May 2015 show some spot of oil spill with length estimated about 3 KM, and the daily satellite data acquisition over the period July 24 through July 31 shows serious and many oil spill events some are small, but many others are considered to be big with area size around 20 km2. In the context of oil spill pollution in the seas, we have to consider the development and increase of overseas transportation, which is an important factor for both social and economic sectors. The harmful effects of marine pollution are numerous, from the damage of marine life to the damage of the aquatic ecosystem as whole. As such, the need for oil slick detection is crucial, for the location of polluted areas and to evaluate slick drift to

  9. Quantification of Stokes Drift as a Mechanism for Surface Oil Advection in the DWH Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.

    2013-12-01

    Stokes drift has previously been qualitatively shown to be a factor in ocean surface particle transport, but has never been comprehensively quantified. In addition, most operational ocean particle advection models used during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill do not explicitly account for Stokes drift, instead using a simple parameterization based on wind drift (or ignoring it completely). This research works to quantify Stokes drift via direct calculation, with a focus on shallow water, where Stokes drift is more likely to have a relatively large impact compared to other transport processes such as ocean currents. For this study, WaveWatch III modeled waves in the Gulf of Mexico are used, from which Stokes drift is calculated using the peak wave period and significant wave height outputs. Trajectories are also calculated to examine the role Stokes drift plays in bringing surface particles (and specifically surface oil slicks) onshore. The impact of Stokes drift is compared to transport by currents and traditional estimates of wind drift.

  10. Oil Spill Detection and Modelling: Preliminary Results for the Cercal Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, R. T.; Azevedo, A.; da Silva, J. C. B.; Oliveira, A.

    2013-03-01

    Oil spill research has significantly increased mainly as a result of the severe consequences experienced from industry accidents. Oil spill models are currently able to simulate the processes that determine the fate of oil slicks, playing an important role in disaster prevention, control and mitigation, generating valuable information for decision makers and the population in general. On the other hand, satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery has demonstrated significant potential in accidental oil spill detection, when they are accurately differentiated from look-alikes. The combination of both tools can lead to breakthroughs, particularly in the development of Early Warning Systems (EWS). This paper presents a hindcast simulation of the oil slick resulting from the Motor Tanker (MT) Cercal oil spill, listed by the Portuguese Navy as one of the major oil spills in the Portuguese Atlantic Coast. The accident took place nearby Leix˜oes Harbour, North of the Douro River, Porto (Portugal) on the 2nd of October 1994. The oil slick was segmented from available European Remote Sensing (ERS) satellite SAR images, using an algorithm based on a simplified version of the K-means clustering formulation. The image-acquired information, added to the initial conditions and forcings, provided the necessary inputs for the oil spill model. Simulations were made considering the tri-dimensional hydrodynamics in a crossscale domain, from the interior of the Douro River Estuary to the open-ocean on the Iberian Atlantic shelf. Atmospheric forcings (from ECMWF - the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and NOAA - the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), river forcings (from SNIRH - the Portuguese National Information System of the Hydric Resources) and tidal forcings (from LNEC - the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering), including baroclinic gradients (NOAA), were considered. The lack of data for validation purposes only allowed the use of the

  11. Evaluation of three oil spill laboratory dispersant effectiveness tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, D.; Farlow, J.; Sahatjian, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical dispersants can be used to reduce the interfacial tension of floating oil slicks so that the oils disperse more rapidly into the water column and thus pose less of a threat to shorelines, birds, and marine mammals. The laboratory test currently specified in federal regulations to measure dispersant effectiveness is not especially easy or inexpensive, and generates a rather large quantity of oily waste water. This paper describes the results of an effort by the EPA to identify a more suitable laboratory dispersant effectiveness test. EPA evaluated three laboratory methods: the Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test currently used (and required by regulation) in the United States, the swirling flask test (developed by Environment Canada), and the IFP-dilution test (used in france and other European countries). Six test oils and three dispersants were evaluated; dispersants were applied to the oil at an average 1:10 ratio (dispersant to oil) for each of the three laboratory methods. Screening efforts were used to focus on the most appropriate oil/dispersant combination for detailed study. A screening criterion was established that required a combination that gave at least 20% effectiveness results. The selected combination turned out to be Prudhoe Bay crude oil and the dispersant Corexit 9527. This combination was also most likely to be encountered in US coastal waters. The EPA evaluation concluded that the three tests gave similar precision results, but that the swirling flask test was fastest, cheapest, simplest, and required least operator skill. Further, EPA is considering conducting the dispersant effectiveness test itself, rather than having data submitted by a dispersant manufacturer, and establishing an acceptability criterion (45% efficiency) which would have to be met before a dispersant could be placed on the Product Schedule of the National Contingency Plan (NCP)

  12. Assessment of sensors and aircraft for oil spill remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fruhwirth, M.

    1993-01-01

    Environment Canada has assessed sensors and aircraft suitable for remote sensing, particularly the capability of sensors to detect oil and to discriminate oil from background targets. The assessment was based on past experience and technical considerations. The first sensor recommended for use is an infrared camera or an IR/UV system. This recommendation is based on the system's ability to detect oil and discriminate this from the background, and the low cost of these sensors. The laser fluorosensor is recommended as the second device, as it is the only unit capable of positively discriminating oil on water, among weeds, and in sediment or beach material. Cameras operating in the visible region of the spectrum are recommended for two functions: documentation and providing background or location imagery for other sensors. Imaging radars, be they SAR or SLAR, are recommended for long-range searches or for oil spill work at night or when fog is present. Radars are expensive and require dedicated aircraft. Passive microwave devices are currently being developed but have not been proven as an alternative to radar or for measuring slick thickness. A laser based thickness sensor is under development. Satellite systems were also assessed. Satellite sensors operating in the visible spectrum have only limited application to major oil spills. New radar sensors show limited potential. The major limitation of any satellite system is the limited coverage time that is a function of its orbit. A study of aircraft and aircraft modifications was carried out to catalog aircraft modifications necessary to operate oil spill remote sensors. A potential user could select modifications that are already approved and thus save the high costs of aircraft modification design. The modifications already approved in Canada and the US for a given aircraft provide criteria for the selection of an aircraft

  13. Plugging the Patient Evidence Gap: What Patients with Swallowing Disorders Post-Stroke Say about Thickened Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurtin, Arlene; Healy, Chiara; Kelly, Linda; Murphy, Fiona; Ryan, Jean; Walsh, Joanne

    2018-01-01

    Background: Oropharyngeal dysphagia post-stroke is well known, with its presence increasing the risk of poor outcomes in particular aspiration and aspiration pneumonia. Management to minimize the risk of aspiration and improve swallow safety post-stroke includes the treatment of thickened liquids (TL), an established bolus modification…

  14. Thickening of the celiac axis and/or superior mesenteric artery: a sign of pancreatic carcinoma on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megibow, A.J.; Bosniak, M.A.; Ambos, M.A.; Beranbaum, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    Of 53 patients with carcinoma of the pancreas studied by computed tomography, 20 (37.7%) had apparent thickening of either the celiac axis or superior mesenteric artery. In 6 of them, the pancreatic mass was poorly defined. The frequency of this sign, correlation with angiographic findings, and pathogenesis are discussed

  15. Viscoelastic behaviour of butyl acrylate/styrene/2-hydroxyethyl acrylate/acrylic acid latices thickened with associative thickneres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quadrat, Otakar; Mikešová, Jana; Horský, Jiří; Šňupárek, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 6, 11-12 (2003), s. 1411-1416 ISSN 1631-0748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/02/1360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : viscoelasticity * associative thickeners * latices Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.518, year: 2003

  16. Effect of thickening agent in the in vitro mouth, stomach and intestine release of tyrosol from enriched custards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, T.; Luyten, J.M.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Custards prepared with four thickeners (two modified starches: waxy maize and tapioca, and two derives of cellulose: CMC and HPMC) and at two levels of consistency were enriched with a water-soluble functional ingredient (tyrosol) and its release evaluated after in vitro mouth, stomach and small

  17. LES of a laboratory-scale turbulent premixed bunsen flame using FSD, PCM-FPI and thickened flame models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Perez, F.E.; Yuen, F.T.C.; Groth, C.P.T.; Gülder, O.L.

    2011-01-01

    Large-eddy simulations (LES) of a turbulent premixed Bunsen flame were carried out with three subfilter-scale (SFS) modelling approaches for turbulent premixed combustion. One approach is based on the artificially thickened flame and power-law flame wrinkling models, the second approach is based on

  18. Stress-induced thickening of Ω phase in Al–Cu–Mg alloys containing various Ag additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Song [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Zhiyi, E-mail: liuzhiyi@mail.csu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhou, Xuanwei; Xia, Peng; Liu, Meng [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2014-01-01

    The thickening of Ω phase in Al–Cu–Mg alloys containing various bulk Ag contents during stress aging at 200 °C with a tensile stress of 240 MPa was investigated by a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). TEM characterization confirmed preferred orientation of Ω phase in all stress-aged samples. Corresponding quantitative TEM calculations revealed the thickening kinetics of Ω phase was significantly accelerated during stress aging as compared to that during stress-free aging at 200 °C. HRTEM analysis on the α/Ω interfacial structure confirmed that the applied tensile stress facilitated the rapid nucleation of the growth ledge on the broad face of Ω phase, thereby resulting in the accelerated plate thickening during stress aging at 200 °C. Meanwhile, quantitative TEM analysis highlighted the stress-induced thickening of Ω phase at 200 °C was affected by the bulk Ag content. This was consistent with the HRTEM observation as the ledge nucleation was found to be suppressed with increasing Ag addition. Our APT analysis on different stress-aged samples further suggested the progressive enrichment of Ag atoms in the segregation layer helped to stabilize the interfacial structure and was responsible for the lowest nucleation rate of the ledge in 1.77Ag alloy as compared to that in 0.46Ag alloy.

  19. Stress-induced thickening of Ω phase in Al–Cu–Mg alloys containing various Ag additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Song; Liu, Zhiyi; Zhou, Xuanwei; Xia, Peng; Liu, Meng

    2014-01-01

    The thickening of Ω phase in Al–Cu–Mg alloys containing various bulk Ag contents during stress aging at 200 °C with a tensile stress of 240 MPa was investigated by a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). TEM characterization confirmed preferred orientation of Ω phase in all stress-aged samples. Corresponding quantitative TEM calculations revealed the thickening kinetics of Ω phase was significantly accelerated during stress aging as compared to that during stress-free aging at 200 °C. HRTEM analysis on the α/Ω interfacial structure confirmed that the applied tensile stress facilitated the rapid nucleation of the growth ledge on the broad face of Ω phase, thereby resulting in the accelerated plate thickening during stress aging at 200 °C. Meanwhile, quantitative TEM analysis highlighted the stress-induced thickening of Ω phase at 200 °C was affected by the bulk Ag content. This was consistent with the HRTEM observation as the ledge nucleation was found to be suppressed with increasing Ag addition. Our APT analysis on different stress-aged samples further suggested the progressive enrichment of Ag atoms in the segregation layer helped to stabilize the interfacial structure and was responsible for the lowest nucleation rate of the ledge in 1.77Ag alloy as compared to that in 0.46Ag alloy

  20. Shear thickening in suspensions: the lubricated-to-frictional contact scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey

    2017-11-01

    Suspensions of solid particles in viscous liquids can vary from low-viscosity liquids to wet granular materials or soft solids depending on the solids loading and the forces acting between particles. When the particles are very concentrated, these mixtures are ''dense suspensions.'' Dense suspensions often exhibit shear thickening, an increase in apparent viscosity as the shear rate is increased. In its most extreme form, order of magnitude increases in viscosity over such a narrow range in shear rate occur that the term discontinuous shear thickening (DST) is applied. DST is particularly striking as it occurs in the relatively simple case of nearly hard spheres in a Newtonian liquid, and is found to take place for submicron particles in colloidal dispersions to much larger particle corn starch dispersions. We focus on simulations of a recently developed ``lubricated-to-frictional'' rheology in which the interplay of viscous lubrication, repulsive surface forces, and contact friction between particle surfaces provides a scenario to explain DST. Our simulation method brings together elements of the discrete-element method from granular flow with a simplified Stokesian Dynamics, and can rationalize not only the abrupt change in properties with imposed shear rate (or shear stress), but also the magnitude of the change. The large change in properties is associated with the breakdown of lubricating films between particles, with activation of Coulomb friction between particles. The rate dependence is caused by the shearing forces driving particles to contact, overwhelming conservative repulsive forces between surfaces; the repulsive forces are representative of colloidal stabilization by surface charge or steric effects, e.g. due to adsorbed polymer. The results of simulation are compared to developments by other groups, including a number of experimental studies and a theory incorporating the same basic elements as the simulation. The comparison to experiments of the

  1. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Attachment 3, Ground water hydrology report: Preliminary final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-04

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent ground water contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites (52 FR 36000 (1987)). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, 42 USC {section}7901 et seq., the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined that for Slick Rock, this assessment shall include hydrogeologic site characterization for two separate uranium processing sites, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site, and for the proposed Burro Canyon disposal site. The water resources protection strategy that describes how the proposed action will comply with the EPA ground water protection standards is presented in Attachment 4. The following site characterization activities are discussed in this attachment: Characterization of the hydrogeologic environment, including hydrostratigraphy, ground water occurrence, aquifer parameters, and areas of recharge and discharge. Characterization of existing ground water quality by comparison with background water quality and the maximum concentration limits (MCL) of the proposed EPA ground water protection standards. Definition of physical and chemical characteristics of the potential contaminant source, including concentration and leachability of the source in relation to migration in ground water and hydraulically connected surface water. Description of local water resources, including current and future use, availability, and alternative supplies.

  2. Interactions between marine bacteria and dissolved-phase and beached hydrocarbons after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, D.K.; Robertson, B.R.; McIntosh, D.; Juettner, F.

    1992-01-01

    Turnover times for toluene in Resurrection Bay after the Exxon Valdez grounding were determined to be decades, longer than expected considering that dissolved hydrocarbons were anticipated to drift with the current and stimulate development of additional hydrocarbon-utilizing capacity among the microflora in that downcurrent location. These turnover times were based on the recovery of 14 CO 2 from added [ 14 C]toluene that was oxidized. The concentrations of toluene there, 0.1 to 0.2 μg/liter, were similar to prespill values. Oxidation rates appeared to be enhanced upstream near islands in the wake of the wind-blown slick, and even more within the slick itself. Since current-driven mixing rates exceeded those of oxidation, dissolved spill components such as toluene should enter the world-ocean pool of hydrocarbons rather than biooxidize in place. Some of the floating oil slick washed ashore and permeated a coarse gravel beach. A bacterial biomass of 2 to 14 mg/kg appeared in apparent response to the new carbon and energy source. A large population of carbon- and energy-starved, induced hydrocarbon oxidizers with metabolism limited by the physical and molecular recalcitrance of the heavier components is suggested. The effects of a surfactant that was widely applied were unremarkable on a test beach after 1.5 months. Unresolved components appearing in chromatograms from the remaining mixture were characteristic of partial oxidation products. Such compounds, known to accumulate when concentrations of smaller aqueous-phase hydrocarbons exceed the K m , may form in sediments as well

  3. The cation-controlled and hydrogen bond-mediated shear-thickening behaviour of a tree-fern isolated polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, May S M; Matia-Merino, Lara; Goh, Kelvin K T

    2015-10-05

    The shear-thickening rheological behaviour (between 5 and 20s(-1)) of a 5% (w/w) viscoelastic gum extracted from the fronds of the native New Zealand black tree fern or mamaku in Māori was further explored by manipulating the salt content. The freeze-dried mamaku gum contained a high mineral content and sugars which upon removal via dialysis, resulted in the loss of shear thickening. However, this loss was reversible by the addition of salts to the dialysed dispersion. The mechanism of shear-thickening behaviour was therefore hypothesised to be due to shear-induced transition of intra- to intermolecular hydrogen bonding, promoted by the screening effect of cations. Mono-, di- and trivalent salts, i.e. Na(+), K(+), N(CH3)4(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+) and La(3+) at concentrations between 0.001 and 1.0M were tested to support the hypothesis as well as to demonstrate the sensitivity of the biopolymer to cation valency and concentrations. The cation valency and concentration were crucial factors in determining: (i) zero-shear viscosity, (ii) critical shear rate, γ˙c (or shear rate at the onset of shear-thickening) and (iii) the extent of shear-thickening of the solution. For mono- and divalent cations these parameters were similar at equivalent ionic strengths and fairly independent of the cation type. Trivalent cations (La(3+)) however caused precipitation of the gum in the concentration range of 0.005-0.05 M but clear dispersions were obtained above 0.05 M. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Analysis of Mucosal Thickening in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Maxillary Sinuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Katherine; Hale, Lindsay N; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Tholpady, Sunil; Starbuck, John M

    2016-11-01

      To compare maxillary mucosal thickening and sinus volumes of unilateral cleft lip and palate subjects (UCLP) with noncleft (nonCLP) controls.   Randomized, retrospective study of cone-beam computed tomographs (CBCT).   University.   Fifteen UCLP subjects and 15 sex- and age-matched non-CLP controls, aged 8 to 14 years.   Following institutional review board approval and reliability tests, Dolphin three-dimensional imaging software was used to segment and slice maxillary sinuses on randomly selected CBCTs. The surface area (SA) of bony sinus and airspace on all sinus slices was determined using Dolphin and multiplied by slice thickness (0.4 mm) to calculate volume. Mucosal thickening was the difference between bony sinus and airspace volumes. The number of slices with bony sinus and airspace outlines was totaled. Right and left sinus values for each group were pooled (t tests, P > .05; n = 30 each group). All measures were compared (principal components analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, analysis of variance) by group and age (P ≤ .016 was considered significant).   Principal components analysis axis 1 and 2 explained 89.6% of sample variance. Principal components analysis showed complete separation based on the sample on axis 1 only. Age groups showed some separation on axis 2. Unilateral cleft lip and palate subjects had significantly smaller bony sinus and airspace volumes, fewer bony and airspace slices, and greater mucosal thickening and percentage mucosal thickening when compared with controls. Older subjects had significantly greater bony sinus and airspace volumes than younger subjects.   Children with UCLP have significantly more maxillary sinus mucosal thickening and smaller sinuses than controls.

  5. Modeling comprehensive chemical composition of weathered oil following a marine spill to predict ozone and potential secondary aerosol formation and constrain transport pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Greg T.; Worton, David R.; Aeppli, Christoph; Reddy, Christopher M.; Zhang, Haofei; Variano, Evan; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2015-11-01

    Releases of hydrocarbons from oil spills have large environmental impacts in both the ocean and atmosphere. Oil evaporation is not simply a mechanism of mass loss from the ocean, as it also causes production of atmospheric pollutants. Monitoring atmospheric emissions from oil spills must include a broad range of volatile organic compounds (VOC), including intermediate-volatile and semivolatile compounds (IVOC, SVOC), which cause secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and ozone production. The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster in the northern Gulf of Mexico during Spring/Summer of 2010 presented a unique opportunity to observe SOA production due to an oil spill. To better understand these observations, we conducted measurements and modeled oil evaporation utilizing unprecedented comprehensive composition measurements, achieved by gas chromatography with vacuum ultraviolet time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-VUV-HR-ToFMS). All hydrocarbons with 10-30 carbons were classified by degree of branching, number of cyclic rings, aromaticity, and molecular weight; these hydrocarbons comprise ˜70% of total oil mass. Such detailed and comprehensive characterization of DWH oil allowed bottom-up estimates of oil evaporation kinetics. We developed an evaporative model, using solely our composition measurements and thermodynamic data, that is in excellent agreement with published mass evaporation rates and our wind-tunnel measurements. Using this model, we determine surface slick samples are composed of oil with a distribution of evaporative ages and identify and characterize probable subsurface transport of oil.

  6. Air-deployable oil spill sampling devices review phase 2 testing. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, L.; Dumouchel, A.; Fingas, M.; Brown, C.E.

    2007-01-01

    SAIC Canada tested air deployable oil sampling devices for the Emergencies Science and Technology Division of Environment Canada in order to determine the applicability and status of these devices. The 3 devices tested were: Canada's SABER (sampling autonomous buoy for evidence recovery), the United States' POPEIE (probe for oil pollution evidence in the environment); and, Sweden's SAR Floatation 2000. They were tested for buoyancy properties, drift behaviour and sampler sorbent pickup ratios. The SAR and SABER both had lesser draft and greater freeboard, while the POPEIE had much greater draft than freeboard. All 3 devices could be used for oil sample collection in that their drift characteristics would allow for the SABER and SAR devices to be placed upwind of the slick while the POPEIE device could be placed downwind of an oil spill. The sorbent testing revealed that Sefar sorbent and Spectra sorbent used in the 3 devices had negative pickup ratios for diesel but performance improved as oil viscosity increased. Both sorbents are inert and capable of collecting oil in sufficient volumes for consistent fingerprinting analysis. 10 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  7. Alyeska/SERVS technological innovations for oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of technological innovations in spill response by Alyeska Pipeline Service Company/SERVS (ship escort response vessel system), was presented. The company has developed a number of spill response techniques which have needed new strategies and modified equipment for fulfillment of the Prince William Sound Tanker Oil Discharge Prevention and Contingency Plan. One of the strategies was the training of personnel to be ready to deploy massive quantities of equipment on short notice to potential spill sites over an 11,000 square mile water body with more than 3,200 miles of wilderness shoreline. Specific response equipment and decision-making tools have been developed in direct support of large scale programs. Along with oil slick tracking buoys and mini barges, SERVS has developed high capacity skimmers with recovery capacities approaching 2,000 to 3,000 barrels of liquid per hour and strategy boom-towing vessels which divert oil into a long U shaped containment boom. SERVS fishing vessel program, hatchery protection and remote response center equipment program, and wildlife treatment facilities were also described. 10 refs., 13 figs

  8. Subchondral Bone Plate Thickening Precedes Chondrocyte Apoptosis and Cartilage Degradation in Spontaneous Animal Models of Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitunnatakhin Zamli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common joint disorder characterised by bone remodelling and cartilage degradation and associated with chondrocyte apoptosis. These processes were investigated at 10, 16, 24, and 30 weeks in Dunkin Hartley (DH and Bristol Strain 2 (BS2 guinea pigs that develop OA spontaneously. Both strains had a more pronounced chondrocyte apoptosis, cartilage degradation, and subchondral bone changes in the medial than the lateral side of the tibia, and between strains, the changes were always greater and faster in DH than BS2. In the medial side, a significant increase of chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage degradation was observed in DH between 24 and 30 weeks of age preceded by a progressive thickening and stiffening of subchondral bone plate (Sbp. The Sbp thickness consistently increased over the 30-week study period but the bone mineral density (BMD of the Sbp gradually decreased after 16 weeks. The absence of these changes in the medial side of BS2 may indicate that the Sbp of DH was undergoing remodelling. Chondrocyte apoptosis was largely confined to the deep zone of articular cartilage and correlated with thickness of the subchondral bone plate suggesting that cartilage degradation and chondrocyte apoptosis may be a consequence of continuous bone remodelling during the development of OA in these animal models of OA.

  9. Thymol reduces oxidative stress, aortic intimal thickening, and inflammation-related gene expression in hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Mei Yu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis plays a key role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, and is often associated with oxidative stress and local inflammation. Thymol, a major polyphenolic compound in thyme, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we measured the in vitro antioxidant activity of thymol, and investigated the effect of thymol on high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. New Zealand white rabbits were fed with regular chow, high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HC, T3, or T6 (HC with thymol supplementation at 3 mg/kg/d or 6 mg/kg/d, respectively for 8 weeks. Aortic intimal thickening, serum lipid parameters, multiple inflammatory markers, proinflammatory cytokines, and atherosclerosis-associated indicators were significantly increased in the HC group but decreased upon thymol supplementation. In summary, thymol exhibits antioxidant activity, and may suppress the progression of high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis by reducing aortic intimal lipid lesion, lowering serum lipids and oxidative stress, and alleviating inflammation-related responses.

  10. Modeling mechanical properties of a shear thickening fluid damper based on phase transition theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Minghai; Lin, Kun; Guo, Qian

    2018-03-01

    Shear thickening fluids (STFs) are highly concentrated colloidal suspensions consisting of monodisperse nano-particles suspended in a carrying fluid, and have the capacity to display both flowable and rigid behaviors, when subjected to sudden stimuli. In that process, the external energy that acts on an STF can be dissipated quickly. The aim of this study is to present a dynamic model of a damper filled with STF that can be directly used in control engineering fields. To this end, shear stress during phase transition of the STF material is chosen as an internal variable. A non-convex function with bifurcation behavior is used to describe the phase transitioning of STF by determining the relationship between the behavioral characteristics of the microscopic phase and macroscopic damping force. This model is able to predict force-velocity and force-displacement relationships as functions of the loading frequency. Efficacy of the model is demonstrated via comparison with experimental results from previous studies. In addition, the results confirm the hypothesis regarding the occurrence of STF phase transitioning when subject to shear stress.

  11. Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Diffuse Skin Thickening as Kaposi Sarcoma Clinical Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Querido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old African patient received a kidney from a deceased donor with 4 HLA mismatches in April 2013. He received immunosuppression with basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. Immediate diuresis and a good allograft function were soon observed. Six months later, the serum creatinine level increased to 2.6 mg/dL. A renal allograft biopsy revealed interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy grade II. Toxicity of calcineurin inhibitor was assumed and, after a switch for everolimus, renal function improved. However, since March 2014, renal function progressively deteriorated. A second allograft biopsy showed no new lesions. Two months later, the patient was admitted due to anuria, haematochezia with anaemia, requiring 5 units of packed red blood cells, and diffuse skin thickening. Colonoscopy showed haemorrhagic patches in the colon and the rectum; histology diagnosis was Kaposi sarcoma (KS. A skin biopsy revealed cutaneous involvement of KS. Rapid clinical deterioration culminated in death in June 2014. This case is unusual as less than 20 cases of KS with gross gastrointestinal bleeding have been reported and only 6 cases had the referred bleeding originating in the lower gastrointestinal tract. So, KS should be considered in differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding in some kidney transplant patients.

  12. Comparison of semi-automated and manual measurements of carotid intima-media thickening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mac Ananey, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickening (CIMT) is a marker of both arteriosclerotic and atherosclerotic risks. Technological advances have semiautomated CIMT image acquisition and quantification. Studies comparing manual and automated methods have yielded conflicting results possibly due to plaque inclusion in measurements. Low atherosclerotic risk subjects (n = 126) were recruited to minimise the effect of focal atherosclerotic lesions on CIMT variability. CIMT was assessed by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound (Philips HDX7E, Phillips, UK) images of the common carotid artery using both manual and semiautomated methods (QLAB, Phillips, UK). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the mean differences of paired measurements (Bland-Altman method) were used to compare both methodologies. The ICC of manual (0.547 ± 0.095 mm) and automated (0.524 ± 0.068 mm) methods was R = 0.74 and an absolute mean bias ± SD of 0.023 ± 0.052 mm was observed. Interobserver and intraobserver ICC were greater for automated (R = 0.94 and 0.99) compared to manual (R = 0.72 and 0.88) methods. Although not considered to be clinically significant, manual measurements yielded higher values compared to automated measurements. Automated measurements were more reproducible and showed lower interobserver variation compared to manual measurements. These results offer important considerations for large epidemiological studies.

  13. Shear banding, discontinuous shear thickening, and rheological phase transitions in athermally sheared frictionless disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vâgberg, Daniel; Olsson, Peter; Teitel, S.

    2017-05-01

    We report on numerical simulations of simple models of athermal, bidisperse, soft-core, massive disks in two dimensions, as a function of packing fraction ϕ , inelasticity of collisions as measured by a parameter Q , and applied uniform shear strain rate γ ˙. Our particles have contact interactions consisting of normally directed elastic repulsion and viscous dissipation, as well as tangentially directed viscous dissipation, but no interparticle Coulombic friction. Mapping the phase diagram in the (ϕ ,Q ) plane for small γ ˙, we find a sharp first-order rheological phase transition from a region with Bagnoldian rheology to a region with Newtonian rheology, and show that the system is always Newtonian at jamming. We consider the rotational motion of particles and demonstrate the crucial importance that the coupling between rotational and translational degrees of freedom has on the phase structure at small Q (strongly inelastic collisions). At small Q , we show that, upon increasing γ ˙, the sharp Bagnoldian-to-Newtonian transition becomes a coexistence region of finite width in the (ϕ ,γ ˙) plane, with coexisting Bagnoldian and Newtonian shear bands. Crossing this coexistence region by increasing γ ˙ at fixed ϕ , we find that discontinuous shear thickening can result if γ ˙ is varied too rapidly for the system to relax to the shear-banded steady state corresponding to the instantaneous value of γ ˙.

  14. Phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells during formation of neointimal thickenings following vascular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyberg, J

    1998-07-01

    Smooth muscle cells build up the media of mammalian arteries and constitute one of the principal cell types in atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. Accordingly, they show a high degree of plasticity and are able to shift from a differentiated, contractile phenotype to a less differentiated, synthetic phenotype, and then back again. This modulation occurs as a response to vascular injury and includes a prominent structural reorganization with loss of myofilaments and formation of an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and a large Golgi complex. At the same time, the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and other gene products is altered. As a result, the cells lose their contractility and become able to migrate from the media to the intima, proliferate, and secrete extracellular matrix components, thereby contributing to the formation of intimal thickenings. The mechanisms behind this change in morphology and function of the smooth muscle cells are still incompletely understood. A crucial role has been ascribed to basement membrane proteins such as laminin and collagen type IV and adhesive proteins such as fibronectin. A significant role is also played by mitogenic proteins such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). An improved knowledge of the regulation of smooth muscle differentiated properties represents an important part in the search for new methods of prevention and treatment of vascular disease.

  15. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  16. Reproducibility of an automatic quantitation of regional myocardial wall motion and systolic thickening on gated Tc-99m-MIBI myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Soo; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the reproducibility of the quantitative assessment of segmental wall motion and systolic thickening provided by an automatic quantitation algorithm. Tc-99m-MIBI gated myocardial SPECT with dipyridamole stress was performed in 31 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (4 with single, 6 with two, 11 with triple vessel disease; ejection fraction 51±14%) twice consecutively in the same position. Myocardium was divided into 20 segments. Segmental wall motion and systolic thickening were calculated and expressed in mm and % increase respectively, using AutoQUANT TM software. The reproducibility of this quantitative measurement of wall motion and thickening was tested. Correlations between repeated measurements on consecutive gated SPECT were excellent for wall motion (r=0.95) and systolic thickening (r=0.88). On Bland-Altman analysis, two standard deviation was 2 mm for repeated measurement of segmental wall motion, and 20% for that of systolic thickening. The weighted kappa values of repeated measurements were 0.807 for wall motion and 0.708 for systolic thickening. Sex, perfusion, or segmental location had no influence on reproducibility. Segmental wall motion and systolic thickening quantified using AutoQUANT TM software on gated myocardial SPECT offers good reproducibility and is significantly different when the change is more than 2 mm for wall motion and more than 20% for systolic thickening

  17. Sensitivity of the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus to chemically dispersed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug; Coquillé, Nathalie; Le Floch, Stephane; Geraudie, Perrine; Dussauze, Matthieu; Lemaire, Philippe; Camus, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    In the context of an oil spill accident and the following oil spill response, much attention is given to the use of dispersants. Dispersants are used to disperse an oil slick from the sea surface into the water column generating a cloud of dispersed oil droplets. The main consequence is an increasing of the sea water-oil interface which induces an increase of the oil biodegradation. Hence, the use of dispersants can be effective in preventing oiling of sensitive coastal environments. Also, in case of an oil blowout from the seabed, subsea injection of dispersants may offer some benefits compared to containment and recovery of the oil or in situ burning operation at the sea surface. However, biological effects of dispersed oil are poorly understood for deep-sea species. Most effects studies on dispersed oil and also other oil-related compounds have been focusing on more shallow water species. This is the first approach to assess the sensitivity of a macro-benthic deep-sea organism to dispersed oil. This paper describes a toxicity test which was performed on the macro-benthic deep-sea amphipod (Eurythenes gryllus) to determine the concentration causing lethality to 50% of test individuals (LC50) after an exposure to dispersed Brut Arabian Light (BAL) oil. The LC50 (24 h) was 101 and 24 mg L(-1) after 72 h and 12 mg L(-1) at 96 h. Based on EPA scale of toxicity categories to aquatic organisms, an LC50 (96 h) of 12 mg L(-1) indicates that the dispersed oil was slightly to moderately toxic to E. gryllus. As an attempt to compare our results to others, a literature study was performed. Due to limited amount of data available for dispersed oil and amphipods, information on other crustacean species and other oil-related compounds was also collected. Only one study on dispersed oil and amphipods was found, the LC50 value in this study was similar to the LC50 value of E. gryllus in our study. Since toxicity data are important input to risk assessment and net environmental

  18. The solution of the problem of oil spill risk control in the Baltic Sea taking into account the processes of oil propagation and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, Nikita; Agoshkov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    The report is devoted to the one approach to the problem of oil spill risk control of protected areas in the Baltic Sea (Aseev et al., 2014). By the problem of risk control is meant a problem of determination of optimal resources quantity which are necessary for decreasing the risk to some acceptable value. It is supposed that only moment of accident is a random variable. Mass of oil slick is chosen as a function of control. For the realization of the random variable the quadratic 'functional of cost' is introduced. It comprises cleaning costs and deviation of damage of oil pollution from its acceptable value. The problem of minimization of this functional is solved based on the methods of optimal control and the theory of adjoint equations (Agoshkov, 2003, Agoshkov et al., 2012). The solution of this problem is explicitly found. In order to solve the realistic problem of oil spill risk control in the Baltic Sea the 2d model of oil spill propagation on the sea surface based on the Seatrack Web model (Liungman, Mattson, 2011) is developed. The model takes into account such processes as oil transportation by sea currents and wind, turbulent diffusion, spreading, evaporation from sea surface, dispersion and formation of emulsion 'water-in-oil'. The model allows to calculate basic oil slick parameters: localization, mass, volume, thickness, density of oil, water content and viscosity of emulsion. The results of several numerical experiments in the Baltic Sea using the model and the methodology of oil spill risk control are presented. Along with moment of accident other parameters of oil spill and environment could be chosen as a random variables. The methodology of solution of oil spill risk control problem will remain the same but the computational complexity will increase. Conversion of the function of control to quantity of resources with a glance to methods of pollution removal should be processed. As a result, the developed 2d model of oil spill propagation

  19. Boundary Effects and Shear Thickening of Colloidal Suspensions: A study based on measurement of Suspension Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, M. Tharanga D.

    Microstructure is key to understanding rheological behaviors of flowing particulate suspensions. During the past decade, Stokesian Dynamics simulations have been the dominant method of determining suspension microstructure. Structure results obtained numerically reveal that an anisotropic structure is formed under high Peclet (Pe) number conditions. Researchers have used various experimental techniques such as small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and light scattering methods to validate microstructure. This work outlines an experimental technique based on confocal microscopy to study microstructure of a colloidal suspension in an index-matched fluid flowing in a microchannel. High resolution scans determining individual particle locations in suspensions 30-50 vol % yield quantitative results of the local microstructure in the form of the pair distribution function, g(r). From these experimentally determined g(r), the effect of shear rate, quantified by the Peclet number as a ratio of shear and Brownian stress, on the suspension viscosity and normal stress follow that seen in macroscopic rheological measurements and simulations. It is generally believed that shear thickening behavior of colloidal suspensions is driven by the formation of hydroclusters. From measurements of particle locations, hydroclusters are identified. The number of hydroclusters grows exponentially with increasing Pe, and the onset of shear thickening is driven by the increase in formation of clusters having 5-8 particles. At higher Pe, we notice the emergence of 12 or more particle clusters. The internal structure of these hydroclusters has been investigated, and there is some evidence that particles internal to hydroclusters preferentially align along the 45° and 135° axis. Beyond observations of bulk suspension behavior, the influence of boundaries on suspension microstructure is also investigated. Experiments were performed for suspensions flowing over smooth walls, made of glass

  20. Simulation of an oil film at the sea surface and its radiometric properties in the SWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Frédéric; Van Eijk, Alexander M. J.

    2017-10-01

    The knowledge of the optical contrast of an oil layer on the sea under various surface roughness conditions is of great interest for oil slick monitoring techniques. This paper presents a 3D simulation of a dynamic sea surface contaminated by a floating oil film. The simulation considers the damping influence of oil on the ocean waves and its physical properties. It calculates the radiance contrast of the sea surface polluted by the oil film in relation to a clean sea surface for the SWIR spectral band. Our computer simulation combines the 3D simulation of a maritime scene (open clear sea/clear sky) with an oil film at the sea surface. The basic geometry of a clean sea surface is modeled by a composition of smooth wind driven gravity waves. Oil on the sea surface attenuates the capillary and short gravity waves modulating the wave power density spectrum of these waves. The radiance of the maritime scene is calculated in the SWIR spectral band with the emitted sea surface radiance and the specularly reflected sky radiance as components. Wave hiding and shadowing, especially occurring at low viewing angles, are considered. The specular reflection of the sky radiance at the clean sea surface is modeled by an analytical statistical bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the sea surface. For oil at the sea surface, a specific BRDF is used influenced by the reduced surface roughness, i.e., the modulated wave density spectrum. The radiance contrast of an oil film in relation to the clean sea surface is calculated for different viewing angles, wind speeds, and oil types characterized by their specific physical properties.

  1. Gray Matter Hypertrophy and Thickening with Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Middle-aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Andrée-Ann; Gagnon, Katia; Brayet, Pauline; Montplaisir, Jacques; De Beaumont, Louis; Carrier, Julie; Lafond, Chantal; L'Heureux, Francis; Gagnon, Jean-François; Gosselin, Nadia

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxemia, hemodynamic fluctuations, and sleep fragmentation, all of which could damage cerebral gray matter that can be indirectly assessed by neuroimaging. To investigate whether markers of obstructive sleep apnea severity are associated with gray matter changes among middle-aged and older individuals. Seventy-one subjects (ages, 55-76 yr; apnea-hypopnea index, 0.2-96.6 events/h) were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Two techniques were used: (1) voxel-based morphometry, which measures gray matter volume and concentration; and (2) FreeSurfer (an open source software suite) automated segmentation, which estimates the volume of predefined cortical/subcortical regions and cortical thickness. Regression analyses were performed between gray matter characteristics and markers of obstructive sleep apnea severity (hypoxemia, respiratory disturbances, and sleep fragmentation). Subjects had few symptoms, that is, sleepiness, depression, anxiety, and cognitive deficits. Although no association was found with voxel-based morphometry, FreeSurfer revealed increased gray matter with obstructive sleep apnea. Higher levels of hypoxemia correlated with increased volume and thickness of the left lateral prefrontal cortex as well as increased thickness of the right frontal pole, the right lateral parietal lobules, and the left posterior cingulate cortex. Respiratory disturbances positively correlated with right amygdala volume, and more severe sleep fragmentation was associated with increased thickness of the right inferior frontal gyrus. Gray matter hypertrophy and thickening were associated with hypoxemia, respiratory disturbances, and sleep fragmentation. These structural changes in a group of middle-aged and older individuals may represent adaptive/reactive brain mechanisms attributed to a presymptomatic stage of obstructive sleep apnea.

  2. MRI shows thickening and altered diffusion in the median and ulnar nerves in multifocal motor neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakma, Wieke [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aarhus University, Department of Forensic Medicine and Comparative Medicine Lab, Aarhus (Denmark); Jongbloed, Bas A.; Goedee, H.S.; Berg, Leonard H. van den; Pol, W.L. van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Brain Centre Rudolf Magnus, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Froeling, Martijn; Bos, Clemens; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Leemans, Alexander [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-05-15

    To study disease mechanisms in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the median and ulnar nerves. We enrolled ten MMN patients, ten patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ten healthy controls (HCs). Patients underwent MRI (in a prone position) and nerve conduction studies. DTI and fat-suppressed T2-weighted scans of the forearms were performed on a 3.0T MRI scanner. Fibre tractography of the median and ulnar nerves was performed to extract diffusion parameters: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) were measured on T2-weighted scans. Forty-five out of 60 arms were included in the analysis. AD was significantly lower in MMN patients (2.20 ± 0.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) compared to ALS patients (2.31 ± 0.17 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; p < 0.05) and HCs (2.31± 0.17 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; p < 0.05). Segmental analysis showed significant restriction of AD, RD and MD (p < 0.005) in the proximal third of the nerves. CSA was significantly larger in MMN patients compared to ALS patients and HCs (p < 0.01). Thickening of nerves is compatible with changes in the myelin sheath structure, whereas lowered AD values suggest axonal dysfunction. These findings suggest that myelin and axons are diffusely involved in MMN pathogenesis. (orig.)

  3. Cuticle thickening associated with pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coetzee M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in South Africa is primarily transmitted by Anopheles funestus Giles. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in An. funestus in northern Kwazulu/Natal, South Africa, and in neighbouring areas of southern Mozambique enabled populations of this species to increase their ranges into areas where pyrethroids were being exclusively used for malaria control. Pyrethroid resistance in southern African An. funestus is primarily conferred by monooxygenase enzyme metabolism. However, selection for this resistance mechanism is likely to have occurred in conjunction with other factors that improve production of the resistance phenotype. A strong candidate is cuticle thickening. This is because thicker cuticles lead to slower rates of insecticide absorption, which is likely to increase the efficiency of metabolic detoxification. Results Measures of mean cuticle thickness in laboratory samples of female An. funestus were obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. These females were drawn from a laboratory colony carrying the pyrethroid resistance phenotype at a stable rate, but not fixed. Prior to cuticle thickness measurements, these samples were characterised as either more or less tolerant to permethrin exposure in one experiment, and either permethrin resistant or susceptible in another experiment. There was a significant and positive correlation between mean cuticle thickness and time to knock down during exposure to permethrin. Mean cuticle thickness was significantly greater in those samples characterised either as more tolerant or resistant to permethrin exposure compared to those characterised as either less tolerant or permethrin susceptible. Further, insecticide susceptible female An. funestus have thicker cuticles than their male counterparts. Conclusion Pyrethroid tolerant or resistant An. funestus females are likely to have thicker cuticles than less tolerant or susceptible females, and females generally have

  4. Alterations of carotid arterial mechanics preceding the wall thickening in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Ai; Park, Sun-Hee; Jo, Sang-Ho; Park, Kyoung-Ha; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Han, Sang-Jin; Park, Woo-Jung; Ha, Jong-Won

    2016-05-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an established surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. However, cIMT may not reflect the whole arterial changes occurring in various pathologic conditions, such as hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vascular properties of carotid artery (CA) in patients with hypertension differ from those of patients with diabetes and controls before the progression of cIMT. Vascular properties of CA were assessed in 402 consecutive asymptomatic subjects who have normal cIMT (131 with hypertension, 151 with diabetes mellitus, and 120 controls). Conventional carotid stiffness indices calculated from vessel diameter and blood pressure, and parameters from velocity-vector imaging (VVI), including vessel area, fractional area change (FAC), radial velocity, circumferential strain, and strain rate were measured to assess the differences between the groups. In univariate analysis, both patients with hypertension and diabetes showed higher elastic modulus, lower distensibility coefficients and FAC of VVI than those of controls. However, when adjusting for baseline covariates, only FAC (odds ratio [OR] = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-0.97, p = 0.025) and vessel area (OR = 2.84, 95% CI = 1.64-4.91, p hypertension from those of controls. Also, patients with hypertension showed larger vessel area than diabetes (OR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.75-3.80, p hypertensive patients was stiffer than those of controls and positive remodeling preceded the wall thickening independent of baseline covariates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  6. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  7. Oil spill monitoring and forecasting on the Prestige-Nassau accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, P.; Blanco, J.; Cabanas, J.M.; Maneiro, J.; Pazos, Y.; Morono, A. [Unidade de Observacion Proxima CPAM, Vilaxoan, Pontevedra (Spain); Balseiro, C.F.; Carracedo, P.; Gomez, B.; Penabad, E.; Perez-Munuzuri, V. [MeteoGalicia CMA, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Braunschweig, F.; Fernandes, R.; Leitao, P.C.; Neves, R. [MARETEC IST, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-07-01

    The Prestige-Nassau tanker ship spilled about 10,000 tons of oil off the coast of Spain on November 13, 2002 during a severe storm. On November 19, the ship split in half and sank 133 nautical miles from the Galician coast to a depth of 3,500 metres, spilling another 20,000 tons of oil. The Galician government set up an Office of Nearshore Surveillance and recruited people from the Galician Regional Meteorological Service and the Spanish Institute of Oceanography to monitor the slick and forecast its trajectory. The main spill arrived at Galicia on November 30, damaging most of the coast. A variety of models that combined surface wind drift and ocean currents were used to forecast the movement of the spill. These included the Mothy from MeteoFrance, and DERIVA from the Portuguese Hydrographic Institute. Two models were also developed by MeteoGalicia and MAETEC. The path followed by the oil spill was classified in three parts. The first spill of 10,000 tons took place from November 13 until the ship split in two. The second spill of around 20,000 tons of oil occurred when the ship sank on November 19. The last spill includes oil that continued to leak from the sunken tanker at a rate of 125 tons per day. The trajectory predictions were found to be in good agreement with aerial observations. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Application of Deep Networks to Oil Spill Detection Using Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guandong Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR remote sensing provides an outstanding tool in oil spill detection and classification, for its advantages in distinguishing mineral oil and biogenic lookalikes. Various features can be extracted from polarimetric SAR data. The large number and correlated nature of polarimetric SAR features make the selection and optimization of these features impact on the performance of oil spill classification algorithms. In this paper, deep learning algorithms such as the stacked autoencoder (SAE and deep belief network (DBN are applied to optimize the polarimetric feature sets and reduce the feature dimension through layer-wise unsupervised pre-training. An experiment was conducted on RADARSAT-2 quad-polarimetric SAR image acquired during the Norwegian oil-on-water exercise of 2011, in which verified mineral, emulsions, and biogenic slicks were analyzed. The results show that oil spill classification achieved by deep networks outperformed both support vector machine (SVM and traditional artificial neural networks (ANN with similar parameter settings, especially when the number of training data samples is limited.

  9. Contingency plan improvement for managing oil spills in the coastal waters of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singkran, Nuanchan

    2014-12-15

    The estimated risks of being impacted by oil spills in the coastal waters were used to improve the oil spill contingency plan of Thailand. Functional roles of local agencies are integrated into the plan. Intensive measures are suggested for the coastal provinces located in high-very high risk zones, whereas light and moderate measures are suggested for the coastal provinces located in low and moderate risk zones, respectively. The estimated percentage risks due to simulated oil slicks hitting the coast and/or important resources (PRoilspill) were used to guide the year-round water activities that should be carefully handled at a certain radius with a low-moderate PRoilspill, whereas they should be avoided at a certain radius with a high-very high PRoilspill. Important measures before, during, and post periods of an oil spill incident are suggested to prevent and monitor oil spill incidents and mitigate their impacts on the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wave tank to simulate the movement of oil under breaking waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botrus, D.; Wickley-Olsen, E.; Boufadel, M.C.; Weaver, J.W.; Weggle, R.; Lee, K.; Venosa, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Methods to mitigate offshore oil spills before they reach the shoreline have been investigated in order to reduce environmental impacts. Artificial dispersants are commonly used on offshore oil spills to decrease the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The wave action helps break the slick into droplets that penetrate into the sea. This paper presented the results of wave tank tests in which the effectiveness of dispersants was evaluated. The focus was on the transport of oil during the breakup of a wave. In this study, the energy dissipation rate per unit mass was evaluated at various depths in the tank for regular and breaking waves. It was shown that breaking waves play an important role in the dispersion of oil at sea. Contrary to previous studies which suggested that the plume moves forward following the breaker, the results of this study showed that the plume splits into two parts, with one part going upstream. Understanding how the plume travels will provide insight as to where to add the dispersant with respect to the location of the breaker. The addition of the dispersant should take place before the location of the breaker. It was concluded that future work should include computational fluid dynamics simulation, as well as the use of a higher resolution camera. 9 refs., 17 figs

  11. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  12. Effect of addition of different nano-clays on the fumed silica-polyethylene glycol based shear-thickening fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mansi; Mehta, Rajeev; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Biswas, Ipsita

    2018-01-01

    A comparative study of the rheology of shear thickening suspensions of 20% fumed silica in polyethylene glycol (PEG200) with different nano clays as additives has been done. The nano-clays used are montmorillonite (MMT), Closite15A, Kaolin and Halloysite clay. The objective was to study the effect of relatively cost-effective clays as a partial substitute of silica. Specifically, the effect of type, concentration, temperature and frequency were considered. The results indicate that the shear thickening properties of Closite15A as additive in temperature ranges of 25 °C-45 °C performs the best and Halloysite performs best at higher (55 °C) and lower temperatures (5, 15 °C). The elasticity effects in dynamic experiments were markedly enhanced by Halloysite clay addition. Addition of MMT, however, led to insignificant enhancement in critical viscosity in steady-state as well as dynamic state-rheology. Interestingly, shear thickening fluid (STF) with all clay except MMT was stable after storing for more than a month. These findings indicate that the introduction of nano-clay as additives is a promising and cost effective method for enhancing the STF behavior which can be utilized in high impact resistant (about 3000% strain and 300 rad s-1 frequency) applications.

  13. Effect of benzyladenine (BA on auxin-induced stem elongation and thickening in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that stem elongation in tulip is induced by the auxin produced in the leaves and gynoecium. Excision of the flower bud and all the leaves in an early stage of tulip growth resulted in almost total inhibition of stem growth, but the inhibition was completely recovered by the exogenous application of auxin to the place from which the flower bud had been removed. Hormonal control of stem thickening in tulip is much less known. Additional application of benzyladenine (BA to the tulip stem by soaking a cotton wick wrapped around all the internodes only slightly inhibited stem growth induced by IAA at a concentration of 0.1 and 2.0%, but substantially stimulated the thickening of all the internodes. The treatment of the tulip stem with benzyladenine enabled direct contact of the cytokinin with the epidermis, which is an important factor in stem elongation. The experiment conducted in field conditions also showed that BA only slightly inhibited the elongation of the fourth internode induced by IAA, but stimulated the thickening of that internode. IAA applied at a concentration of 2.0% stimulated ethylene production to a much higher extent than IAA at a concentration of 0.1%, and BA affected the auxin-induced ethylene production only to a small extent. Metabolic significance of these findings is discussed.

  14. Mathematical modelling of oil spill fate and transport in the marine environment incorporating biodegradation kinetics of oil droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina

    2016-04-01

    Oil biodegradation by native bacteria is one of the most important natural processes that can attenuate the environmental impacts of marine oil spills. However, very few numerical models of oil spill fate and transport include biodegradation kinetics of spilled oil. Furthermore, in models where biodegradation is included amongst the oil transformation processes simulated, it is mostly represented as a first order decay process neglecting the effect of several important parameters that can limit biodegradation rate, such as oil composition and oil droplets-water interface. To this end, the open source numerical model MEDSKIL-II, which simulates oil spill fate and transport in the marine environment, has been modified to include biodegradation kinetics of oil droplets dispersed in the water column. MEDSLIK-II predicts the transport and weathering of oil spills following a Lagrangian approach for the solution of the advection-diffusion equation. Transport is governed by the 3D sea currents and wave field provided by ocean circulation models. In addition to advective and diffusive displacements, the model simulates several physical and chemical processes that transform the oil (evaporation, emulsification, dispersion in the water column, adhesion to coast). The fate algorithms employed in MEDSLIK-II consider the oil as a uniform substance whose properties change as the slick weathers, an approach that can lead to reduced accuracy, especially in the estimation of oil evaporation and biodegradation. Therefore MEDSLIK-II has been modified by adopting the "pseudo-component" approach for simulating weathering processes. Spilled oil is modelled as a relatively small number of discrete, non-interacting components (pseudo-components). Chemicals in the oil mixture are grouped by physical-chemical properties and the resulting pseudo-component behaves as if it were a single substance with characteristics typical of the chemical group. The fate (evaporation, dispersion

  15. Topography of the Betics: crustal thickening, dynamic topography and relief inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowski, Marianne; Loget, Nicolas; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Husson, Laurent; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Meyer, Bertrand

    2017-04-01

    The main mechanism that explains high orogenic topographies is the isostatic adjustment due to crustal thickening. However in the Betic Cordillera (South Spain), the present-day elevation and crustal thickness are not correlated. That is at odds with the general premise of isostasy and requires reappraising the question of the driving mechanisms leading to the current topography. The Betics are located at the western edge of the alpine Mediterranean belt. Its Cenozoic orogenic building was disrupted by a major crustal thinning event induced by a slab rollback in the internal zones (Alboran domain) during Neogene. Topography was largely levelled and flooded by the sea during Neogene extension, and then has been folded since the Late Tortonian inversion. The present-day topography shows flat summits still preserved from fluvial regression in the internal zones (central and eastern Betics). These low-relief surfaces may be inherited from the Neogene planation toward sea-level as rocks cooling histories inferred from low-temperature thermochronology seem to point it out. Post-Tortonian shortening estimated thanks to a crustal-scale N-S cross-section in the eastern Betics (at the Sierra Nevada longitude) does not exceed few kilometers which is much lower than the shortening required by isostatic equilibrium, and is thus insufficient to explain the post-Tortonian topography building. We tested the hypothesis that mantle dynamics could in fact be an important mechanism that explains the topography of the Betics. We first computed the residual topography (i.e. the non-isostatic component of the elevation) using the most recent published Moho mapping of the area. In the western Betics, our results show important negative residual topography (down to -3 km) possibly associated with the west-Alboran slab suction. In the eastern Betics however, positive residual topography is important (up to +3 km) and can be explained by the dynamic mantle support of the topography, possibly

  16. Uroepithelial thickening improves detection of vesicoureteral reflux in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Zachary N; McLeod, Daryl J; Ching, Christina B; Herz, Daniel B; Bates, D Gregory; Becknell, Brian; Alpert, Seth A

    2016-08-01

    Postnatal evaluation of prenatal hydronephrosis (PNH) often includes a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for VUR assessment. Despite limited supporting data, VCUG is currently recommended if postnatal renal and bladder ultrasound (RBUS) reveals moderate/severe hydronephrosis (HN) or hydroureter (HU). Recent studies have shown VUR is more accurately diagnosed by using certain sonographic findings as criteria for obtaining VCUG. Uroepithelial thickening (UET) of the renal pelvis is a finding associated with high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (HGVUR); however, the clinical significance of UET with PNH has not been studied. We sought to determine if the presence of UET implies increased risk for VUR, and to investigate whether UET can improve the test characteristics of RBUS for VUR. We retrospectively analyzed postnatal RBUS and VCUG findings in infants ≤30 days undergoing evaluation for "prenatal hydronephrosis" over an 11-year period. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with VUR. Test characteristics of RBUS for HGVUR were compared based on the presence of UET and two criteria sets to define abnormal RBUS. Criteria set 1 consisted of HN SFU grade 3-4 and/or HU; criteria set 2 was defined by the presence of two of following: UET, HU, duplication, and/or renal dysmorphia. Of 135 patients, 39 (29%) had VUR, of whom 16 (41%) had HGVUR. UET was significantly associated with VUR (p < 0.001), and the sensitivity for HGVUR based on UET alone was 94%. On multivariable analysis, UET, HU, duplication, and renal dysmorphia remained significant independent predictors of HGVUR. Compared to criteria 1, using criteria 2 resulted in 43 fewer VCUGs, and significant improvement in sensitivity and specificity for HGVUR (Table). Consistent with previous studies, HN alone on postnatal RBUS has little value in predicting the presence or severity of VUR. This study is the largest known series to evaluate UET in the setting of PNH, and our results demonstrate that UET

  17. The Aegean Sea incident: A quantitative evaluation of the fate of the oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro Lopez, J.R.; Morales Correas, N.; Dominguez Laseca, F.

    1993-01-01

    In December 1992, the tanker Aegean Sea was shipwrecked at the entrance to a harbor in northwest Spain. The accident was partly due to bad weather conditions and possibly also to the poor condition of the ship, which subsequently broke in two and caught fire. The tanker was carrying 79,000 tons of low-viscosity light oil, of which 40-60% burned. The oil slick coming from the wrecked ship spread westward and northward into nearby bays, impacting 100-200 km of coast with varying degrees of severity. Strong winds and stormy sea conditions at the time of the incident favored evaporation and natural dispersion of much of the spilled oil. Spill response and countermeasures included restriction of fishing zones, manual and mechanical cleaning of beaches and nearby rocks, use of pumps and skimmers to recover oil from water and shore, and stirring oil-penetrated sand to ca 50 cm depth to facilitate oxygenation and ensure degradation of oil traces. About 6,000 m 3 of emulsified oil were collected from the water and another 1,000 m 3 from the shore; 5,000-6,000 tons of unspilled oil was recovered from the tanker. A simulation model estimated that if no burning had occurred, 2/3 of the oil would have dispersed in the sea or evaporated into the air in ca 3 d. Ecological impacts on plankton, benthos, and pelagic and bird communities appears to have been minor or at least relatively localized. Long-term ecological impacts are being studied. However, zones of fish/shellfish breeding were affected, with short-term damages estimated at over $45 million. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. The pulmonary pseudonodule: Characteristic features of a normal variant due to a bone thickening at the junction of the laminae and posterior spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The normal thickening of bone at the junction of the laminae and posterior spine should not be confused with a patholigc process. Its appearance on the plain radiograph and computed tomography is pathognomonic. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of the rheological properties of ready-to-serve and powdered instant food-thickened beverages at different temperatures for dysphagic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Bernice; Rachal, Corryn

    2007-07-01

    Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, affects an estimated 15 million Americans. Its management may include use of instant food thickener (IFT) to modify beverage consistency to minimize the risk of aspiration and prevent dehydration. However, inconsistencies with the desired viscosity of these thickened liquids occur both within and across product lines for both ready-to-serve commercially packaged prethickened (CPPT) and IFT-thickened beverages. To examine the rheological property differences between CPPT and similar IFT-thickened beverages, and to assess the stability of these products at two temperature ranges using three viscosity measurement techniques. The rheological properties of five CPPT and IFT-thickened beverages at both nectar- and honey-like consistencies were evaluated at 10 degrees C (50 degrees F) and 20 degrees C (68 degrees F) using the line spread, funnel, and viscometry methods. One-way analysis of variance was used for data analysis. When a significant difference was observed, Tukey's test was used to separate the means. Each viscosity measurement technique showed the CPPT nectar- and honey-like consistency beverages were significantly more viscous (Pbeverages at nectar and honey consistencies were almost always more viscous than the National Dysphagia Diet Task Force-defined standards, whereas the IFT-thickened beverages were more frequently within those standards. A reevaluation of the viscosity of CPPT beverages with reference to the National Dysphagia Diet Task Force set standard ranges needs to be considered. A strong need also exists for development of a standard protocol on product labels that includes the expected rheological properties of CPPT and IFT-thickened beverages. To the clinicians, especially registered dietitians, it is an important clinical consideration to recognize that CPPT products may be thicker than IFT-thickened products and also may be more viscous than the National Dysphagia Diet Task Force-defined standards.

  20. Identification of pleural effusion with low levels of adenosine deaminase but without signs of acute inflammation or pleural thickening to diagnose early malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Satoru; Tanahashi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Eriko

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the clinical findings and diagnostic methods used in the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in patients with pleural effusion with low levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA), but without signs of acute inflammation or pleural thickening. The hospital records of 40 patients with pleural effusion of unknown origin or pleural thickening were retrospectively investigated. In all of those studies, pleural effusion was exudative, lymphocyte-dominant, no mycobacteria or other bacteria, and low levels of ADA. There were 30 men and 10 women with an average age of 62.8 years old. The diagnosis of MPM was obtained by cytology of the pleural effusion in 3 patients and by core-needle biopsy of the thickened pleura in 3. Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy under general anesthesia was performed for the other 34 patients. The pathologic diagnosis of pleural biopsy was MPM in 20 patients, inflammatory change in 12, and pleural dissemination of cancer in 2. All of the 7 patients with more than 100 μg/ml of hyaluronic acid in their pleural effusion received a diagnosis of MPM. A total of 20 of 23 patients with irregular or nodular pleural thickening on computed tomography findings were confirmed to have MPM. Moreover, 6 of 17 patients with smooth pleural thickening were confirmed to have MPM. In patients with nodular pleural thickening it was easy to make the diagnosis. However, in those with smooth thickening, careful observation was required to select the appropriate biopsy site and resection margins of full-thickness pleura. As the rate of MPM in the patients with pleural effusion with low levels of ADA, but without signs of acute inflammation or pleural thickening is high (65%), an early thoracoscopic pleural biopsy is strongly recommended. (author)

  1. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  2. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  3. Algorithm and interface modifications of the NOAA oil spill behavior model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, W.; Wesley, D.; Simecek-Beatty, D.; Jones, R.; Kachook, G.; Lankford, J.

    2000-01-01

    The oil spill weathering program called ADIOS (Automated Data Inquiry for Oil Spills) which is widely used by the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has been completely upgraded to include modified algorithms for evaporation, spreading, dispersion and emulsification. This paper was divided into three parts to outlined the changes in the existing algorithms implemented in the new version and to discuss the new algorithms for additional weathering processes and cleanup activities. The paper also described the new interface, which is the result of the NOAA/HAZMAT research in software usability and uncertainty. In the new model, evaporation uses a pseudo-component approach and dispersion includes the effects of sedimentation. Droplet size distribution and water content were considered as factors for new estimates for wave breaking and emulsification. Numerical techniques that allow non-uniformity in slick thickness have been used to determine spreading. The inhalation hazard resulting from benzene evaporation from oil spill surfaces can be calculated using new sub models which can also record the effects of cleanup. The submodels also provide options regarding the initial spill release. Users of the ADIOS 2 can enter ranges of selected input parameters that are likely to be uncertain during a spill. The ADIOS 2 program is also equipped with a library of more than a thousand oils and refined products. 34 refs., 1 fig

  4. Mechanism and look-alikes analysis of oil spill monitoring with optical remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Guoxin; Ma, Long; Li, Ying; Liu, Bingxin

    2011-12-01

    Remote Sensing surveillance constitutes an important component of oil spill disaster management system, but subject to monitoring accuracy and ability, which suffered from resolution, environmental conditions, and look-alikes. So this article aims to provide information of identification and distinguishing of look-alikes for optical sensors, and then improve the monitoring precision. Although limited by monitoring conditions of the atmosphere and night, optical satellite remote sensing can provide the intrinsic spectral information of the film and the background sea, then affords the potentiality for detailed identification of the film thickness, oil type classification (crude/light oil), trends, and sea surface roughness by multi-type data products. This paper focused on optical sensors and indicated that these false targets of sun glint, bottom feature, cloud shadow, suspend bed sediment and surface bioorganic are the main factors for false alarm in optical images. Based on the detailed description of the theory of oil spill detection in optical images, depending on the preliminary summary of the feature of look-alikes in visible-infrared bands, a discriminate criteria and work-flow for slicks identification are proposed. The results are helpful to improve the remote sensing monitoring ability and the contingency planning.

  5. Measuring ignitability for in situ burning of oil spills weathered under Arctic conditions: From laboratory studies to large-scale field experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Brandvik, Per Johan

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the ignitability of Troll B crude oil weathered under simulated Arctic conditions (0%, 50% and 90% ice cover). The experiments were performed in different scales at SINTEF’s laboratories in Trondheim, field research station on Svalbard and in broken ice (70–90% ice cover......) in the Barents Sea. Samples from the weathering experiments were tested for ignitability using the same laboratory burning cell. The measured ignitability from the experiments in these different scales showed a good agreement for samples with similar weathering. The ice conditions clearly affected the weathering...... process, and 70% ice or more reduces the weathering and allows a longer time window for in situ burning. The results from the Barents Sea revealed that weathering and ignitability can vary within an oil slick. This field use of the burning cell demonstrated that it can be used as an operational tool...

  6. Association of testicular undescent induced by prenatal flutamide treatment with thickening of the cremaster muscle in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Komiyama, Masatoshi; Tobe, Toyofusa; Toyota, Naoji; Adachi, Tetsuya

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aims:  Previously, in cryptorchid rats, which were induced by prenatal exposure to flutamide, we found a thickening of the cremaster muscle. This study was undertaken to quantify the increase of the cremaster muscle thickness in the cryptorchid rats, and to examine its possible relationship with the proliferation of muscle cells. Methods:  To obtain cryptorchid rats, pregnant Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with flutamide (100 mg/kg per day) during gestational days 16–17. Serial sections of the scrotum, containing the testis and cremaster muscle, were prepared from the control and cryptorchid rats that were 2–6 weeks of age, and stained with hematoxylin–eosin for morphometry, or stained with antibody against the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to analyze the cell proliferation ability. Results:  The thickened cremaster muscle was always associated with cryptorchid testis and, in the case of unilateral cryptorchidism, the cremaster muscle of the contralateral (descended testis) side exhibited normal thickness. The average thickness of the affected cremaster muscle was 0.80 and 1.89 mm at 4 and 6 weeks of age, respectively, although that of the normal muscle was 0.28 and 0.33 mm at the same time period, respectively. Conclusion:  Our results showed that the cremaster muscle of the cryptorchid rats was significantly thicker than that of the control rats. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that a thickened cremaster muscle contained many PCNA‐positive nuclei even at 4 weeks of age, in contrast to the control, which had only a few positive nuclei. Our present study indicates that continuous proliferation of the muscle cells associated with cryptorchid testis increases the thickness of cremaster cells in rats exposed to flutamide prenatally. (Reprod Med Biol 2003; 2: 109–113) PMID:29699173

  7. Blood-pressure-independent wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles in experimental uraemia: evidence for a permissive action of PTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, K; Törnig, J; Flechtenmacher, C; Nabokov, A; Mall, G; Ritz, E

    1995-11-01

    Abnormalities in cardiovascular structures, e.g. LV hypertrophy and thickening of vessels (arteries, arterioles, veins) are hallmarks of renal failure. They are in part independent of elevated blood pressure. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been shown to affect cardiac function and has also been identified as a permissive factor in the genesis of cardiac fibrosis. The present study in rats with experimental renal failure was designed to examine whether PTH was permissive for wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles as well. Male SD rats were sham operated or subtotally nephrectomized and maintained for 2 weeks. Subgroups of subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) rats were parathyroidectomized (PTX). Saline or rat 1, 34 PTH was administered by osmotic minipump. Eucalcaemia was maintained in PTX animals by a high-calcium diet (3%). Serum calcium was not statistically different between the groups. After perfusion fixation, intramyocardial arterioles were assessed using stereological techniques (wall thickness; wall/lumen ratio; minimal lumen diameter; length density). In random samples of the left ventricle, wall thickness of arterioles was 2.2 +/- 0.25 microns in sham-op controls and 2.76 +/- 0.41 in SNX (n = at least 8 animals per group). SNX-PTX animals+solvent did not differ significantly from sham-op controls (2.08 +/- 0.42 microns), while SNX-PTX animals+PTH had values not significantly different from SNX (2.59 +/- 0.54 microns). Differences in wall thickness were not paralleled by differences in systolic blood pressure (sham-op 110 +/- 13.3 mmHg; SNX 138 +/- 8.4 mmHg, SNX-PTX+solvent 142 +/- 5.2 mmHg; SNX-PTX+PTH 148 +/- 5.7 mmHg). PTH treated animals showed signs of marked vascular smooth-muscle cell and endothelial-cell activation. The data suggest that wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles in short-term experimental uraemia is dependent upon the presence of PTH (permissive effect).

  8. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  9. Thickening of inner retinal layers in the parafovea after bariatric surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Troels; Laugesen, Caroline S; Floyd, Andrea K

    2016-01-01

    . METHODS: We examined 51 patients with T2D 2 weeks before and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after bariatric surgery. Retinal thickness was measured with optical coherence tomography and automated segmentation in the fovea, parafovea and perifovea in each retinal layer. Retinal vessels were semiautomatically...... measured in a zone 0.5-1 disc diameters from the optic disc. RESULTS: The total macula thickened with a peak after 6 months in both univariate (2.7 ± 0.4 μm, p

  10. Final Research Performance Report - Small Molecular Associative Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Thickeners for Improved Mobility Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enick, Robert M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-12-31

    The initial objective of this project was to promote the application of a CO2 thickener for improved mobility control during CO2 EOR based on solubility tests, viscosity tests, and core floods. Ultimately, it was demonstrated that the CO2-soluble polymeric thickeners are much better suited for use a CO2-soluble conformance control agents for diverting the flow of CO2 away from thief zones. Our team generated several effective small molecule CO2 thickeners with ARPA-e funding. Unfortunately, none of these small molecule thickeners could dissolve in CO2 without the addition of unacceptably large amounts of hexane or toluene as a co-solvent Therefore none were viable candidates for the core flooding studies associated with NETL award. Therefore during the entire core flood testing program associated with this NETL award, our team used only the most promising polymeric CO2 thickener, a polyfluoroacrylate (PFA). In order to produce an environmentally benign polymer, the monomer used to make the new polymers used in this study was a fluoroacrylate that contains only six fluorinated carbons. We verified CO2 solubility with a phase behavior cell. The thickening potential of all polymer samples was substantiated with a falling ball viscometer and a falling cylinder viscometer at Pitt. Two different viscometers were used to determine the increase in CO2 viscosity that could be achieved via the dissolution of PFA. Praxair, which has an interest in thickening CO2 for pilot EOR projects and for waterless hydraulic fracturing, agreed to measure the viscosity of CO2-PFA solutions at no cost to the project. Falling cylinder viscometery was conducted at Pitt in our windowed high pressure phase behavior cell. Both apparatuses indicated that at very low shear rates the CO2 viscosity increased by a factor of roughly 3.5 when 1wt% PFA was

  11. New techniques on oil spill modelling applied in the Eastern Mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; Kokinou, Eleni; Alves, Tiago; Lardner, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Small or large oil spills resulting from accidents on oil and gas platforms or due to the maritime traffic comprise a major environmental threat for all marine and coastal systems, and they are responsible for huge economic losses concerning the human infrastructures and the tourism. This work aims at presenting the integration of oil-spill model, bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, geomorphological and geological data to assess the impact of oil spills in maritime regions such as bays, as well as in the open sea, carried out in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea within the frame of NEREIDs, MEDESS-4MS and RAOP-Med EU projects. The MEDSLIK oil spill predictions are successfully combined with bathymetric analyses, the shoreline susceptibility and hazard mapping to predict the oil slick trajectories and the extend of the coastal areas affected. Based on MEDSLIK results, oil spill spreading and dispersion scenarios are produced both for non-mitigated and mitigated oil spills. MEDSLIK model considers three response combating methods of floating oil spills: a) mechanical recovery using skimmers or similar mechanisms; b) destruction by fire, c) use of dispersants or other bio-chemical means and deployment of booms. Shoreline susceptibility map can be compiled for the study areas based on the Environmental Susceptibility Index. The ESI classification considers a range of values between 1 and 9, with level 1 (ESI 1) representing areas of low susceptibility, impermeable to oil spilt during accidents, such as linear shorelines with rocky cliffs. In contrast, ESI 9 shores are highly vulnerable, and often coincide with natural reserves and special protected areas. Additionally, hazard maps of the maritime and coastal areas, possibly exposed to the danger on an oil spill, evaluate and categorize the hazard in levels from low to very high. This is important because a) Prior to an oil spill accident, hazard and shoreline susceptibility maps are made available to design

  12. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  13. Physiochemical, texture properties, and the microstructure of set yogurt using whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate aggregates as thickening agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianjun; Xie, Siyu; Yin, Yuan; Feng, Xianmin; Wang, Shuai; Guo, Mingruo; Ni, Chunlei

    2017-07-01

    Polymerized whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate can be induced to gel in an acidic environment provided during fermentation. The variety of thickening agent has an influence on texture that is an essential aspect of yogurt quality affecting consumer preference. Similar to polysaccharide stabilizers, the cold gelation properties of whey proteins can improve the body texture of yogurt products. Polymerized whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate could be a favorable and interesting thickening agent for making set yogurt. The effects of whey protein isolate (WPI), heat-treated whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate (WPI-STPP), heat-treated WPI and pectin on the storage properties and microstructure of yogurt were investigated. All samples were analyzed for syneresis, pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, texture profile and microstructure during storage. The results showed that incorporating heat-treated WPI-STPP had a significant impact on syneresis (32.22 ± 0.60), viscosity (10 956.67 ± 962.1) and hardness (209.24 ± 12.48) (p Yogurt fermented with modified WPI-STPP had higher levels of protein and better hardness compared with yogurt using pectin. The microstructure was observed to be a uniform and denser, complicated network. Heat-treated WPI-STPP may be useful for improving yogurt texture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Numerical modeling of cracking pattern's influence on the dynamic response of thickened tailings disposals: a periodic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Gabriel; Sáez, Esteban; Ledezma, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Copper production is an essential component of the Chilean economy. During the extraction process of copper, large quantities of waste materials (tailings) are produced, which are typically stored in large tailing ponds. Thickened Tailings Disposal (TTD) is an alternative to conventional tailings ponds. In TTD, a considerable amount of water is extracted from the tailings before their deposition. Once a thickened tailings layer is deposited, it loses water and it shrinks, forming a relatively regular structure of tailings blocks with vertical cracks in between, which are then filled up with "fresh" tailings once the new upper layer is deposited. The dynamic response of a representative column of this complex structure made out of tailings blocks with softer material in between was analyzed using a periodic half-space finite element model. The tailings' behavior was modeled using an elasto-plastic multi-yielding constitutive model, and Chilean earthquake records were used for the seismic analyses. Special attention was given to the liquefaction potential evaluation of TTD.

  15. A facile construction strategy of stable lipid nanoparticles for drug delivery using a hydrogel-thickened microemulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huabing; Xiao, Ling; Du, Danrong; Mou, Dongsheng; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2010-01-01

    We report a novel facile method for preparing stable nanoparticles with inner spherical solid spheres and an outer hydrogel matrix using a hot O/W hydrogel-thickened microemulsion with spontaneous stability. The nanoparticles with average diameters of about 30.0 nm and 100.0 nm were constructed by cooling the hot hydrogel-thickened microemulsion at different temperatures, respectively. We explained the application of these nanoparticles by actualizing the cutaneous delivery of drug-loaded nanoparticles. The in vitro skin permeation studies showed that the nanoparticles could significantly reduce the penetration of model drugs through skin and resulted in their dermal uptakes in skin. The sol-gel process of TEOS was furthermore used in the template of HTM to regulate the particle size of nanoparticles. The coating of silica on the surface of nanoparticles could regulate the penetration of drug into skin from dermal delivery to transdermal delivery. This strategy provides a facile method to produce nanoparticles with long-term stability and ease of manufacture, which might have a promising application in drug delivery.

  16. Thickening of the epicardial adipose tissue can be alleviated by thyroid hormone replacement therapy in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Irmak; Erkan, Aycan Fahri; Ekici, Berkay; Kutuk, Utku; Corakci, Ahmet; Tore, Hasan Fehmi

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a common disorder which has adverse cardiovascular effects. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), a novel marker of cardiovascular risk, is increased in SCH. We aimed to investigate whether L-thyroxine treatment can reverse the thickening of EAT in SCH. Forty-four patients with SCH and 42 euthyroid control subjects were included. EAT thickness was measured using transthoracic echocardiography at baseline and after restoration of the euthyroid status with 3 months of L-thyroxine treatment. At baseline, mean EAT thickness was significantly greater in the SCH group when compared to the control group (6.3 ± 1.7 mm vs. 4.1 ± 0.9 mm, respectively, p treatment (6.3 ± 1.7 mm vs. 5.1 ± 1.4 mm, p treatment when compared to baseline (DEAT) significantly correlated to the difference in TSH levels before and after treatment (DTSH; r = 0.323; p = 0.032). Epicardial adipose tissue thickness is increased in patients with SCH. This thickening was alleviated with restoration of the euthyroid status with L-thyroxine treatment in our study population of predominantly male, relatively old subjects with greater baseline EAT thickness.

  17. Regional wall thickening in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in a Japanese population: effect of sex, radiotracer, rotation angles and frame rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhter, Nasima; Nakajima, Kenichi; Okuda, Koichi; Matsuo, Shinro; Yoneyama, Tatsuya; Taki, Junichi; Kinuya, Seigo [Kanazawa University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    Gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of myocardium by {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 201}Tl is used extensively to measure quantitative cardiac functional parameters. However, factors affecting normal values for myocardial functional parameters and population-specific standards have not yet been established. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of sex, radiotracer, rotation angles and frame rates on resting myocardial wall thickening (WT) and to develop a Japanese standard of normal values for WT. Data from a total of 202 patients with low possibility of having cardiac problems were collected from nine hospitals throughout Japan. Patients were divided into five groups according to study protocol, and WT was evaluated according to the 17-segment and four-region (basal, mid and apical regions and the apex) polar map distribution. WT was generally higher in women than in men irrespective of the use of radiotracers, rotation angles or frame rates, and the difference was highly significant in the mid and apical regions. In any protocol used, resting myocardial thickening in the apex was higher than in the mid and apical regions, and thickening was lowest in the basal region, suggesting heterogeneous regional myocardial thickening (%) in normal subjects. Different rotation angles showed no significant change on WT, but different frame rates and tracers showed significant WT change in both sexes. Percent thickening of the myocardium was significantly higher in imaging by {sup 99m}Tc-labelled tracers than in {sup 201}Tl. Sex, radiotracers and frame rates had a significant effect on myocardial thickening, and the importance of population-specific standards should be emphasized. A normal database can serve as a standard for gated SPECT evaluation of myocardial thickening in a Japanese population and might be applicable to Asian populations having a similar physique. (orig.)

  18. Oil Pollution in the Marine Environment: A 35 Year Perspective of Communicating Broadly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, J. W.; Tripp, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    Large accidental oil spills such as the tanker Torrey Canyon off the United Kingdom in 1967 and the Santa Barbara Oil Well Blowout of 1969, and attendant publicity, demonstrated that oil spills could be messy, have adverse effects on birds and other wildlife by oiling, and capture the public attention. However, careful scientific study of oil spills using modern biological sciences methods and modern geochemical analyses were needed to overcome the "out of sight, out of mind" conclusion that all was well when visible oil slicks on the water's surface disappeared. Documenting the long lasting persistence of chemicals from spilled oils and attendant biological effects began with a few dedicated scientists who not only published their findings in the scientific literature, but also made them known in testimony before Congress, in interviews with the press and publishing in magazines designed to communicate science to the public. They served as examples for our own efforts, and those of colleagues, to communicate the magnitude of the chronic input of petroleum compounds to the oceans as a result of the every day use of fossil fuels and how this input was quantitatively much larger than inputs from accidental spills and resulted in contamination of coastal areas near urban harbors and at offshore dumpsites. Over a period of the past thirty years mainly during 1971-2000, we used a combination of participation in review and advisory panels and committees, testimony before Congress, letters to government officials, public lectures, articles in the lay press, print and electronic media interviews, and museum exhibits to communicate the message from our scientific papers in ways that could be understood by the general public and acted on by their elected and appointed officials. Lessons learned from these efforts will be summarized

  19. The slick that never was

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.

    is practised at a few sites in the UK, it is more common in other countries. Over 60% of the USA's municipal waste water was disinfected in 1984 and over 100 ultraviolet disinfection systems were in operation or under con- struction in Canada and the USA...

  20. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  1. Application of secondary of polymers and surface active agents to increase heavy oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Luner

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Basin on a comparison of laboratory results with results obtained by screening modelling, one of the most promising methods was selected – the method of oil displacement by means of the polymer injection.Water intended for the injection is thickened with high molecular weight polymers (e.g. Polyacrylamid or Xantan, which increase the water viscosity and, on the other hand, decrease the water mobility. The concentrations of polymers vary in the range from 250 to 2 000 mg l-1 of water and the required volumes of injected water thickened with polymers achieve values ranging from 25 to 60 % of the volume of total oil saturation of the deposit. The method is used as complementary to the process of water flooding. It is suitable even in cases where other tertiary methods are not expected to be successful.

  2. Oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  3. Intron-Mediated Alternative Splicing of WOOD-ASSOCIATED NAC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1B Regulates Cell Wall Thickening during Fiber Development in Populus Species1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunjun; Sun, Jiayan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Laigeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism involved in regulating the development of multicellular organisms. Although many genes in plants undergo alternative splicing, little is understood of its significance in regulating plant growth and development. In this study, alternative splicing of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) wood-associated NAC domain transcription factor (PtrWNDs), PtrWND1B, is shown to occur exclusively in secondary xylem fiber cells. PtrWND1B is expressed with a normal short-transcript PtrWND1B-s as well as its alternative long-transcript PtrWND1B-l. The intron 2 structure of the PtrWND1B gene was identified as a critical sequence that causes PtrWND1B alternative splicing. Suppression of PtrWND1B expression specifically inhibited fiber cell wall thickening. The two PtrWND1B isoforms play antagonistic roles in regulating cell wall thickening during fiber cell differentiation in Populus spp. PtrWND1B-s overexpression enhanced fiber cell wall thickening, while overexpression of PtrWND1B-l repressed fiber cell wall thickening. Alternative splicing may enable more specific regulation of processes such as fiber cell wall thickening during wood formation. PMID:24394777

  4. Intron-mediated alternative splicing of WOOD-ASSOCIATED NAC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1B regulates cell wall thickening during fiber development in Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunjun; Sun, Jiayan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Laigeng

    2014-02-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism involved in regulating the development of multicellular organisms. Although many genes in plants undergo alternative splicing, little is understood of its significance in regulating plant growth and development. In this study, alternative splicing of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) wood-associated NAC domain transcription factor (PtrWNDs), PtrWND1B, is shown to occur exclusively in secondary xylem fiber cells. PtrWND1B is expressed with a normal short-transcript PtrWND1B-s as well as its alternative long-transcript PtrWND1B-l. The intron 2 structure of the PtrWND1B gene was identified as a critical sequence that causes PtrWND1B alternative splicing. Suppression of PtrWND1B expression specifically inhibited fiber cell wall thickening. The two PtrWND1B isoforms play antagonistic roles in regulating cell wall thickening during fiber cell differentiation in Populus spp. PtrWND1B-s overexpression enhanced fiber cell wall thickening, while overexpression of PtrWND1B-l repressed fiber cell wall thickening. Alternative splicing may enable more specific regulation of processes such as fiber cell wall thickening during wood formation.

  5. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Peppermint Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about peppermint and peppermint oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  6. OIL BOND®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  7. Mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [de

  8. A multi-component oil spill model for calculation of evaporation and dissolution of condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rye, H.

    1994-01-01

    It is sometimes argued that oil spilled on the sea surface will go much faster into evaporation than solution. This statement may not always be true due to effects from wave action. In such cases high concentrations in the water may occur which could be harmful to biologic life below the sea surface. This paper explains a numerical model which simulates the surface spreading of a continuous spill, exposed to currents, wind and wave action. The spill is decomposed into the different constituents present in the spill. The oil or condensate is divided into 20 different classes with increasing carbon number within the interval C4 to C55. Asphalthenes are not included (non-emulgating spill). Within each class, the hydrocarbons are divided further into 5 subsets (n-alcanes, cycloalcanes, aromatics, napthenes and resins). The model then keeps track of what happens to each of the components (evaporation, dissolution, as droplets or remains in the slick) during an actual spill event. The effect of wave action is included by assuming a balance between the downward flux of hydrocarbons caused by the breaking waves, and the upward flux of droplets driven by the boyancy of the droplets. The dissolution and evaporation of the different oil (or spill) components are then computed. The model shows that the evaporation and dissolution may in some cases be competing processes, in particular for the aromatic compounds. The paper outlines the approach chosen, as well as some example results. 16 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Oil vaporizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumontier, F

    1904-03-31

    An oil burner particularly applicable to heavy oils, composed essentially of one or more gasification chambers, heated by the flame from the burners, to which the combustible gases are fed by the collectors suitably fixed on the chambers, all parts of the apparatus and especially the gasification chambers being easily demountable to permit cleaning, and all arranged in such a manner as to avoid fouling by reducing or localizing the deposition of solid deposits in the coking chamber.

  10. Oil on seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerresen, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The present book discusses the effects of oil spills at sea. Topics covered are as follow: Petroleum properties; oil spills at sea; harmfulness of oil spills; effects from acute oil spills; experience of oil spills; oil spill contingency planning in Norway; oil spill protecting equipment and methods; emergency of unloading equipment. 252 refs., 86 figs., 54 tabs

  11. Development of test method for evaluating root resistance of pavement used for roof garden caused by thickening growth of root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Saori; Tanaka, Kyoji [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The growth of roots of plants can damage roof garden components, such as pavements. This paper developed a test method for evaluating the resistance of pavement used in roof gardens to damage from a thickening growth of roots. The study assessed the behaviour of plant roots and evaluated the force of root growth subjected to hypertrophy. A system to measure the enlargement force of roots was designed and used for measurements over a period of 8 months on a cherry blossom of 21 years growth. The enlargement force was approximately 440 N/cm. A mechanical simulated root was designed and used to carry out experimental tests on asphalt pavements. The tests results demonstrated the viability of simulated root for evaluation of root resistances in pavements and various components of roof gardens.

  12. The rheology of shear thickening fluid (STF) and the dynamic performance of an STF-filled damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X Z; Li, W H; Gong, X L

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the rheological properties of shear thickening fluid (STF) and its application as a damper. The STF samples, with different weight fractions, were prepared by dispersing nanosized silica particles in a solvent. By using a parallel-plate rheometer, both steady-state and dynamic experiments were carried out to investigate the rheological properties of STFs. Experimental results indicated that these suspensions show an abrupt increase in complex viscosity beyond a critical dynamic shear rate, as well as this increase being reversible. Working with the fabricated STF materials, a prototype damper was fabricated and its dynamic performances were experimentally evaluated. An equivalent linear model through effective elastic stiffness and viscous damping was developed to address both the damping and the stiffness capabilities of the damper. Also, a mathematical model was developed to investigate working mechanisms of STF-based devices

  13. Cine MR imaging assessment of regional left ventricular systolic wall thickening in patients with remote myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfugfelder, P.; White, R.D.; Sechtem, U.; Gould, R.G.; Higgins, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    Cine MR imaging, a new rapid imaging technique, was used to acquire transverse images of the heart at a rate of 16-30 frames per cardiac cycle. Left ventricular wall thickness was measured at end diastole and end systole in six regions in the midventricular section of 13 healthy subjects and seven patients with previously documented myocardial infarction. Mean percent systolic wall thickening (%SWT) was 51% +- 26% in healthy subjects. In patients, %SWT was -8% +- 22% in the infarct zone and 42% +- 22% in the normal myocardium. In addition to the qualitative information derived from the cinematic display, determination of regional %SWT by cine-MR imaging may be useful for quantifying regional left ventricular dysfunction

  14. Chemical and sensory characteristics of frozen wheygurt with the addition of taro and lesser yam flours as thickening agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Widowati, E.; Karunawati, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    Cheese whey is a waste product from cheese processing. It has low solid contents thus required the addition of a thickening agent. Lactic acid bacteria could utilize it in the fermented drink. This research aims to study the effect of taro and lesser yam flour addition as a thickening agent on chemical and sensory characteristics of frozen wheygurt. This research used Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with one factor that is variation ratio of taro and lesser yam flour F1 (4: 0), F2 (3: 1), F3 (2: 2), F4 (1: 3), F5 (0: 4). The number of lactic acid bacteria cell determined by using hemocytometer. The lactic acid content determined by the titrimetric method by using 0.1 N NaOH and phenolphthalein as indicator. pH value measured with pH meter. Sensory characteristics evaluated using hedonic test. The result showed that the addition of taro and lesser yam flour have a significant effect on the number of lactic acid bacteria in frozen wheygurt. The higher lesser yam flour addition, the higher lactic acid bacteria count on frozen wheygurt, due to lesser yam higher glucose and fructo-oligosaccharide content than taro. The higher lesser yam addition, the higher the lactic acid produced. The higher the total bacteria and higher levels of lactic acid, the lower the pH obtained. The conclusion of this study is addition ratio of taro and lesser yam flour effect on the chemical characteristics of frozen wheygurt. There is no difference in the level of acceptance of the panelists in sensory evaluation.

  15. Dietary Compound Kaempferol Inhibits Airway Thickening Induced by Allergic Reaction in a Bovine Serum Albumin-Induced Model of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Daekeun; Park, Sin-Hye; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kim, Yun-Ho; Antika, Lucia Dwi; Habibah, Nurina Umy; Kang, Min-Kyung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-12-16

    Asthma is characterized by aberrant airways including epithelial thickening, goblet cell hyperplasia, and smooth muscle hypertrophy within the airway wall. The current study examined whether kaempferol inhibited mast cell degranulation and prostaglandin (PG) release leading to the development of aberrant airways, using an in vitro model of dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA)-sensitized rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells and an in vivo model of BSA-challenged asthmatic mice. Nontoxic kaempferol at 10-20 μM suppressed β-hexosaminidase release and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)-mediated production of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in sensitized mast cells. Oral administration of ≤20 mg/kg kaempferol blocked bovine serum albumin (BSA) inhalation-induced epithelial cell excrescence and smooth muscle hypertrophy by attenuating the induction of COX2 and the formation of PGD2 and PGF2α, together with reducing the anti-α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in mouse airways. Kaempferol deterred the antigen-induced mast cell activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) responsive to protein kinase Cμ (PKCμ) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, the antigen-challenged activation of Syk-phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) pathway was dampened in kaempferol-supplemented mast cells. These results demonstrated that kaempferol inhibited airway wall thickening through disturbing Syk-PLCγ signaling and PKCμ-ERK-cPLA2-COX2 signaling in antigen-exposed mast cells. Thus, kaempferol may be a potent anti-allergic compound targeting allergic asthma typical of airway hyperplasia and hypertrophy.

  16. Lab-scale demonstration of recuperative thickening technology for enhanced biogas production and dewaterability in anaerobic digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbledick, Jeffrey; Aubry, Nicholas; Zhang, Victor; Rollings-Scattergood, Sasha; Latulippe, David R

    2016-05-15

    There is growing interest in the use of high performance anaerobic digestion (AD) processes for the production of biogas at wastewater treatment facilities to offset the energy demands associated with wastewater treatment. Recuperative thickening (RT) is a promising technique which involves recycling a portion of the digested solids back to the incoming feed. In general there exists a significant number of knowledge gaps in the field of RT because the studies that have been conducted to date have almost exclusively occurred in pilot plant or full scale trials; this approach greatly limits the amount of process optimization that can be done in a given trial. In this work, a detailed and comprehensive study of RT was conducted at the lab scale; two custom designed digesters (capacity = 1.5 L) were operated in parallel with one acting as a 'control' digester and the other operating under a semi-batch RT mode. There was no significant change in biogas methane composition for the two digesters, however the RT digester had an average biogas productivity over two times higher than the control one. It was found that the recycling of the polymer flocculant back into the RT digester resulted in a significant improvement in dewatering performance. At the highest polymer concentration tested, the capillary suction time (CST) values for flocculated samples for the RT digester were over 6 times lower than the corresponding values for the control digester. Thus, there exists an opportunity to decrease the overall consumption of polymer flocculants through judicious selection of the dose of polymer flocculant that is used both for the thickening and end-stage dewatering steps in RT processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of at-home bleaching with different thickeners and aging on physical properties of a nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Thayla Hellen Nunes; Públio, Juliana do Carmo; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of 16% carbamide peroxide (CP) containing different thickeners on the physical characteristics of a nanocomposite resin submitted or not to accelerated artificial aging (AAA). One hundred samples were randomly distributed into two groups (n = 50) according to AAA. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups (n = 10) depending on the bleaching/thickener treatment: CP + carbopol, CP + natrosol, carbopol, natrosol, and no treatment (control). The physical properties tested were color (ΔE), gloss (GU), mean roughness (Ra), and Knoop microhardness (KHN). The resin surface was performed with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The color (variable Δ E) was assessed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and additionally with Tukey's and Dunnett's tests, the roughness values were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn's, and Mann-Whitney's tests. Data on gloss and KHN were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Among the physical properties evaluated, CP + carbopol promoted a reduction in composite microhardness only, thus differing statistically from the controls. As for CP + natrosol, such a change was not observed. The aging process reduced all the physical properties, thus differing statistically from the nonaging group. CP + carbopol increased the roughness and decreased the gloss of aged resins, whereas natrosol reduced gloss only, which differed statistically from the controls. AFM showed evidence of the loss of organic matrix and exposure to load particles in the aged samples. Therefore, the replacement of carbopol with natrosol provided maintenance of the composite microhardness following bleaching. The aging process reduced the physical properties evaluated, and some changes were enhanced by the application of bleaching.

  18. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  19. Purifying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-15

    Gasoline, lamp oils, and lubricating or other mineral or shale oils are refined by contacting the vapor with a hot aqueous solution of salts of zinc, cadmium, or mercury, or mixtures thereof which may contain 0-5-3-0 percent of oxide or hydroxide in solution or suspension. Chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulfates, nitrates, and sulfonates of benzol, toluol, xylol, and petroleum are specified. Washing with a solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide or carbonate of calcium hydroxide may follow. The oil may first be purified by sulfuric acid or other known agent, or afterwards caustic alkali and sulfuric acid. The Specification as open to inspection under Sect. 91 (3) (a) describes also the use of salts of copper, iron, chromium, manganese, aluminum, nickel, or cobalt, with or without their oxides or hydroxides. This subject-matter does not appear in the Specification as accepted.

  20. Distilling oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffer, L G

    1912-01-29

    In a process for converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as petroleum or shale oil, into light hydrocarbons by distilling under the pressure of an inert gas, the operation is conducted at a temperature not exceeding 410/sup 0/C and under an accurately regulated pressure, the gas being circulated through the still and the condenser by means of a pump. The oil in the still may be agitated by stirring vanes or by blowing the gas through it. Hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, or gases generated in the distillation may be used as pressure media; the gas is heated before its admission to the still. A pressure of from 11 to 12 atmospheres is used in treating gas oil. Specification 10,277/89 is referred to.

  1. Risks resulting from using rules-of-thumb when cementing oil wells; Riscos decorrentes do uso de chavoes nas cimentacoes de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria das Gracas Pena; Miranda, Cristiane Richard de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Superintendencia de Pesquisa de Exploracao e Producao

    1994-07-01

    In the oil industry the two most popular rules-of-thumb related to interpreting the thickening time tests are: 'On reaching 50 Uc (consistency units) the cement slurries are no longer pumpable' and 'Time spent on mixing and displacing the slurries should not exceed 60% of the thickening time'. To check these rules more then 200 experimental tests were carried out which show that depending on the additives used, the consistometry curves may require individual interpretation and slurries with different composition have great changes of showing different apparent viscosities even when having the same consistency. (author)

  2. Oil integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela agree in to have a bigger exchange of information, technology and experiences in areas of mutual interest that allow in the future, combined developments of the hydrocarbons industry. In such a sense, ECOPETROL narrowed its relationships with the two powerful Latin American oil enterprises, when suiting in Bogota agreements of mutual collaboration with representatives of the respective state companies. To begin, the company signed a cooperation agreement with Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), with the purpose of to narrow the relationships between the two companies and to undertake combined actions in those matters of the oil and petrochemical industry of mutual interest

  3. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  4. The oil industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  5. A thickened or indistinct junctional zone on T2-weighted MR images in patients with endometrial carcinoma: pathologic consideration based on microcirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Saida, Yukihisa; Itai, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine' ' University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, 305-8575, Ibaraki (Japan); Nishida, Masato; Tsunoda, Hajime; Ichikawa, Yoshihito [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, 305-8575, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-08-01

    Thickened or indistinct junctional zone (JZ) is a problematic finding in staging endometrial carcinoma. We studied the incidence, pathological cause of this condition correlated to microcirculation, and the utility of dynamic contrast MRI for differential diagnosis. T2-weighted images were analyzed in 119 cases with endometrial carcinoma. The enhancement of the JZ during the dynamic contrast MRI, histopathological causes, and the density of arterioles in the JZ were retrospectively analyzed in cases with thickened or indistinct JZ. The MRI histopathological correlation of all 31 patients with a thickened or indistinct JZ were analyzed, in which it was corresponded to myometrial cancer invasion only in 22%. The sensitivity of a poor early enhancement pattern on dynamic study for detecting myometrial invasion was 71.4%, the specificity was 100%, and the overall accuracy was 92.5%. Although only weak relationship between the contrast enhancement and the arteriole density was revealed, the arteriole density within the JZ with cancer invasion was significantly decreased. Poor enhancement of JZ in early dynamic phase was correlated with the decreased density of arterioles within the myometrium which was invaded by endometrial carcinoma. Dynamic contrast study should be performed in staging endometrial carcinoma especially when JZ was thickened or indistinct. (orig.)

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis of pneumonia associated with thin liquid vs. thickened liquid intake in patients who aspirate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneoka, Asako; Pisegna, Jessica M; Saito, Hiroki; Lo, Melody; Felling, Katey; Haga, Nobuhiko; LaValley, Michael P; Langmore, Susan E

    2017-08-01

    To investigate whether drinking thin liquids with safety strategies increases the risk for pneumonia as compared with thickened liquids in patients who have demonstrated aspiration of thin liquids. Seven electronic databases, one clinical register, and three conference archives were searched. No language or publication date restrictions were imposed. Reference lists were scanned and authors and experts in the field were contacted. A blind review was performed by two reviewers for published or unpublished randomized controlled trials and prospective non-randomized trials comparing the incidence of pneumonia with intake of thin liquids plus safety strategies vs. thickened liquids in adult patients who aspirated on thin liquids. The data were extracted from included studies. Odds ratios (OR) for pneumonia were calculated from the extracted data. Risk of bias was also assessed with the included published trials. Seven studies out of 2465 studies including 650 patients met the inclusion criteria. All of the seven studies excluded patients with more than one known risk factor for pneumonia. Six studies compared thin water protocols to thickened liquids for pneumonia prevention. A meta-analysis was done on the six studies, showing no significant difference for pneumonia risk (OR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.05-13.42; p = 0.89). There was no significant difference in the risk of pneumonia in aspirating patients who took thin liquids with safety strategies compared with those who took thickened liquids only. This result, however, is generalizable only for patients with low risk of pneumonia.

  7. Evaluation of the Safety Issue Concerning the Potential for Loss of Decay Heat Removal Function due to Crude Oil Spill in the Ultimate Heat Sink of Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kang, Dong Gu; Kim, Hho Jhung

    2008-01-01

    A barge crashed into a moored oil tanker at about 7:15 a.m., Dec. 12, 2007, dumping around 10,500 tons of crude oil into the sea in Korea. The incident took place about 15 kilometers northwest of Manripo beach in South Chungcheong where is Korea's west coast in the Yellow Sea. In a few days, the oil slicks spread to the northern and southern tips of the Taean Peninsula by strong winds and tides. As time went the spilled oil floating on the surface of sea water was volatilized to become tar-balls and lumps and drifted far away in the southern direction. 13 days after the incident, some of oil slicks and tar lumps were observed to flow in the service water intake at the Younggwang nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating 6 reactors, which are over 150 km away from the incident spot in the southeastern direction. According to the report by the Younggwang NPPs, a total weight 83 kg of tar lumps was removed for about 3 days. Oil spills in the sea can happen in any country or anytime due to human errors or mistakes, wars, terrors, intentional dumping of waste oils, and natural disasters like typhoon and tsunami. In fact, there have been 7 major oil spills over 10,000 tons that have occurred around the world since 1983. As such serious oil spill incidents may happen near the operating power plants using the sea water as ultimate heat sink. To ensure the safe operation of nuclear reactors it is required to evaluate the potential for loss of decay heat removal function of nuclear reactors due to the spilled oils flowing in the service water intake, from which the service water is pumped. Thus, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety identified this problem as one of the important safety. When an incident of crude oil spill from an oil carrier occurs in the sea near the nuclear power plants, the spilled oil can be transported to the intake pit, where all service water pumps locate, by sea current and wind drift (induced) current. The essential service water pumps take the service

  8. Evaluation of the Safety Issue Concerning the Potential for Loss of Decay Heat Removal Function due to Crude Oil Spill in the Ultimate Heat Sink of Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kang, Dong Gu; Kim, Hho Jhung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    A barge crashed into a moored oil tanker at about 7:15 a.m., Dec. 12, 2007, dumping around 10,500 tons of crude oil into the sea in Korea. The incident took place about 15 kilometers northwest of Manripo beach in South Chungcheong where is Korea's west coast in the Yellow Sea. In a few days, the oil slicks spread to the northern and southern tips of the Taean Peninsula by strong winds and tides. As time went the spilled oil floating on the surface of sea water was volatilized to become tar-balls and lumps and drifted far away in the southern direction. 13 days after the incident, some of oil slicks and tar lumps were observed to flow in the service water intake at the Younggwang nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating 6 reactors, which are over 150 km away from the incident spot in the southeastern direction. According to the report by the Younggwang NPPs, a total weight 83 kg of tar lumps was removed for about 3 days. Oil spills in the sea can happen in any country or anytime due to human errors or mistakes, wars, terrors, intentional dumping of waste oils, and natural disasters like typhoon and tsunami. In fact, there have been 7 major oil spills over 10,000 tons that have occurred around the world since 1983. As such serious oil spill incidents may happen near the operating power plants using the sea water as ultimate heat sink. To ensure the safe operation of nuclear reactors it is required to evaluate the potential for loss of decay heat removal function of nuclear reactors due to the spilled oils flowing in the service water intake, from which the service water is pumped. Thus, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety identified this problem as one of the important safety. When an incident of crude oil spill from an oil carrier occurs in the sea near the nuclear power plants, the spilled oil can be transported to the intake pit, where all service water pumps locate, by sea current and wind drift (induced) current. The essential service water pumps take the

  9. Meristematic activity of the Endodermis and the Pericycle in the primary thickening in monocotyledons: considerations on the "PTM"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanuza L. de Menezes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new interpretation for primary thickening in monocotyledons. The anatomy of the vegetative organs of the following species was examined: Cephalostemon riedelianus (Rapataceae, Cyperus papyrus (Cyperaceae, Lagenocarpus rigidus, L. junciformis (Cyperaceae, Echinodorus paniculatus (Alismataceae and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae. The endodermis with meristematic activity was observed in the root of all the species, in the stem of Cyperus, Cephalostemum and Lagenocarpus rigidus, and in the leaf trace of Cyperus and leaf of Echinodorus. Considering the continuity of tissues through the root, stem and leaf, the authors conclude that in the stem the pericycle remains active throughout the life of the plant as the generator of the vascular tissue. The "Primary Thickening Meristem" is in fact the pericycle plus the endodermis and its derivatives (or only the pericycle. Close to the stem apex, the assemblage of seems to be a unique meristem, giving rise to the inner cortex and vascular tissues.A proposta deste trabalho é mostrar uma nova interpretação do meristema de espessamento primário em monocotiledôneas. Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos das seguintes espécies foi examinada: Cephalostemon riedelianus (Rapataceae, Cyperus papyrus (Cyperaceae, Lagenocarpus rigidus, L. Junciformis (Cyperaceae, Echinodorus paniculatus (Alismataceae and Zingiberofficinale (Zingiberaceae. A atividade meristemática da endoderme foi observada nas raizes de todas as espécies, no caule de Cyperus, Cephalostemum e Lagenocarpus rigidus, e no traço foliar de Cyperus e folha de Echinodorus. Considerando a continuidade dos tecidos através da raiz, caule e folha, as autoras concluem que no caule o periciclo permanece ativo durante a vida da planta, como um gerador de tecidos vasculares. O "Meristema de Espessamento Primário" é o periciclo em fase meristemática, juntamente com a endoderme e suas derivadas (ou apenas o periciclo. Próximo ao

  10. Did Oligocene crustal thickening precede basin development in northern Thailand? A geochronological reassessment of Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas J.; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Morley, Christopher K.; Searle, Michael P.; Whitehouse, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    The Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep metamorphic core complexes in northern Thailand are comprised of amphibolite-grade migmatitic gneisses mantled by lower-grade mylonites and metasedimentary sequences, thought to represent Cordilleran-style core complexes exhumed through the mobilization of a low-angle detachment fault. Previous studies have interpreted two metamorphic events (Late Triassic and Late Cretaceous), followed by ductile extension between the late Eocene and late Oligocene, a model which infers movement on the detachment at ca. 40 Ma, and which culminates in a rapid unroofing of the complexes in the early Miocene. The Chiang Mai Basin, the largest such Cenozoic Basin in the region, lies immediately to the east. Its development is related to the extension observed at Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep, however it is not definitively dated, and models for its development have difficulty reconciling Miocene cooling ages with Eocene detachment movement. Here we present new in-situ LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb age data of zircon and monazite grains from gneiss and leucogranite samples taken from Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep. Our new zircon data exhibit an older age range of 221-210 Ma, with younger ages of ca. 72 Ma, and 32-26 Ma. Our monazite data imply an older age cluster at 83-67 Ma, and a younger age cluster of 34-24 Ma. While our data support the view of Indosinian basement being reworked in the Cretaceous, they also indicate a late Eocene-Oligocene tectonothermal event, resulting in prograde metamorphism and anatexis. We suggest that this later event is related to localized transpressional thickening associated with sinistral movement on the Mae Ping Fault, coupled with thickening at the restraining bend of the Mae Yuan Fault to the immediate west of Doi Inthanon. Further, this upper Oligocene age limit from our zircon and monazite data would imply a younger Miocene constraint on movement of the detachment, which, when combined with the previously recorded Miocene

  11. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  12. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as "medium chain triglycerides." Some of these fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. When applied ... in food amounts. But coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase cholesterol levels. So people should ...

  13. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Crude jatropha oil; Heterogeneous catalyst; Transesterification ... mmage for alternative fuel ... be designed to give higher activity and lifetimes [13]. So, the need for a cheap catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from no ... methanol (High Performance Liquid Chromatography ... ratio and were then charged into the glass reactor.

  14. Structure of a shear-thickening polysaccharide extracted from the New Zealand black tree fern, Cyathea medullaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, May S M; Matia-Merino, Lara; Carnachan, Susan M; Sims, Ian M; Goh, Kelvin K T

    2014-09-01

    A shear-thickening water-soluble polysaccharide was purified from mucilage extracted from the fronds of the New Zealand black tree fern (Cyathea medullaris or 'mamaku' in Māori) and its structure characterised. Constituent sugar analysis by three complementary methods, combined with linkage analysis (of carboxyl reduced samples) and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) revealed a glucuronomannan comprising a backbone of 4-linked methylesterified glucopyranosyl uronic acid and 2-linked mannopyranosyl residues, branched at O-3 of 45% and at both O-3 and O-4 of 53% of the mannopyranosyl residues with side chains likely comprising terminal xylopyranosyl, terminal galactopyranosyl, non-methylesterified terminal glucopyranosyl uronic acid and 3-linked glucopyranosyl uronic acid residues. The weight-average molecular weight of the purified polysaccharide was ∼1.9×10(6) Da as determined by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS). The distinctive rheological properties of this polysaccharide are discussed in relation to its structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Does the routine echocardiographic exam have a role in the detection and evaluation of cholelithiasis and gallbladder wall thickening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, David D; El-Shurafa, Haytham; Nanda, Navin C; Dumaswala, Bhavin; Dumaswala, Komal; Kumar, Nilay; Mutluer, Ferit Onur

    2012-09-01

    Cholelithiasis is a very common disease in the United States. Most cases remain asymptomatic but a fraction of these patients can develop serious complications such as cholecystitis which may lead to gallbladder perforation and gallbladder cancer which is much less common. Here, we present three cases of cholelithiasis where transthoracic echocardiography was performed routinely. In each case, echocardiography detected cholelithiasis which prompted three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic evaluation. Three-dimensional echocardiography allowed for more comprehensive examination of the gallbladder shape, size, and wall thickening and the measurement and composition of the stones in three dimensions, measurement of stone volumes, and minimized shadowing produced by stone calcifications. These cases suggest that routine echocardiography has value in detecting gallstones and that 3D echocardiography has incremental value over two-dimensional echocardiography due to pyramidal data sets which allow sequential slicing through the gallbladder and full gallbladder examination without a technologist who is trained in gallbladder imaging. These pyramidal data sets can be further viewed and cropped by a radiologist specialized in abdominal ultrasound. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Simvastatin reduces neointimal thickening in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice after experimental angioplasty without changing plasma lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiping; Fukutomi, Tatsuya; Zago, Alexandre C; Ehlers, Raila; Detmers, Patricia A; Wright, Samuel D; Rogers, Campbell; Simon, Daniel I

    2002-07-02

    Statins exert antiinflammatory and antiproliferative actions independent of cholesterol lowering. To determine whether these actions might affect neointimal formation, we investigated the effect of simvastatin on the response to experimental angioplasty in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice, a model of hypercholesterolemia in which changes in plasma lipids are not observed in response to simvastatin. Carotid artery dilation (2.5 atm) and complete endothelial denudation were performed in male C57BL/6J LDLR-/- mice treated with low-dose (2 mg/kg) or hi