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Sample records for thiamin vitamin b1

  1. Osmotic stress upregulates the transcription of thiamine (vitamin B1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osmotic stress upregulates the transcription of thiamine (vitamin B1) ... Oil palm's responses in terms of the expression profiles of these two thiamine biosynthesis genes to an osmotic stress inducer, polyethylene glycol ... from 32 Countries:.

  2. Competition for vitamin B1 (thiamin) structures numerous ecological interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Clifford E; Angert, Esther R

    2017-06-01

    Thiamin (vitamin B1) is a cofactor required for essential biochemical reactions in all living organisms, yet free thiamin is scarce in the environment. The diversity of biochemical pathways involved in the acquisition, degradation, and synthesis of thiamin indicates that organisms have evolved numerous ecological strategies for meeting this nutritional requirement. In this review we synthesize information from multiple disciplines to show how the complex biochemistry of thiamin influences ecological outcomes of interactions between organisms in environments ranging from the open ocean and the Australian outback to the gastrointestinal tract of animals. We highlight population and ecosystem responses to the availability or absence of thiamin. These include widespread mortality of fishes, birds, and mammals, as well as the thiamin-dependent regulation of ocean productivity. Overall, we portray thiamin biochemistry as the foundation for molecularly mediated ecological interactions that influence survival and abundance of a vast array of organisms.

  3. The Arabidopsis thiamin-deficient mutant pale green1 lacks thiamin monophosphate phosphatase of the vitamin B1 biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wei-Yu; Liao, Jo-Chien; Wang, Hsin-Tzu; Hung, Tzu-Huan; Tseng, Ching-Chih; Chung, Tsui-Yun; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2017-07-01

    Thiamin diphosphate (TPP, vitamin B 1 ) is an essential coenzyme present in all organisms. Animals obtain TPP from their diets, but plants synthesize TPPde novo. We isolated and characterized an Arabidopsis pale green1 (pale1) mutant that contained higher concentrations of thiamin monophosphate (TMP) and less thiamin and TPP than the wild type. Supplementation with thiamin, but not the thiazole and pyrimidine precursors, rescued the mutant phenotype, indicating that the pale1 mutant is a thiamin-deficient mutant. Map-based cloning and whole-genome sequencing revealed that the pale1 mutant has a mutation in At5g32470 encoding a TMP phosphatase of the TPP biosynthesis pathway. We further confirmed that the mutation of At5g32470 is responsible for the mutant phenotypes by complementing the pale1 mutant with constructs overexpressing full-length At5g32470. Most plant TPP biosynthetic enzymes are located in the chloroplasts and cytosol, but At5g32470-GFP localized to the mitochondrion of the root, hypocotyl, mesophyll and guard cells of the 35S:At5g32470-GFP complemented plants. The subcellular localization of a functional TMP phosphatase suggests that the complete vitamin B1 biosynthesis pathway may involve the chloroplasts, mitochondria and cytosol in plants. Analysis of PALE1 promoter-uidA activity revealed that PALE1 is mainly expressed in vascular tissues of Arabidopsis seedlings. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of TPP biosynthesis genes and genes encoding the TPP-dependent enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase revealed that the transcript levels of these genes were upregulated in the pale1 mutant. These results suggest that endogenous levels of TPP may affect the expression of genes involved in TPP biosynthesis and TPP-dependent enzymes. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Analytical determination of thiamine (vitamin B1) in irradiated and stored Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Bognar, A.

    1997-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B 1 ) content in two varieties of Brazilian beans, Phaselus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp, var. macacar , irradiated with doses ranging from 0,05, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy was investigated. After a 6 months storage period, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and variety. Sensorial evaluation tests were carried out by a panel of six people trained to this specific task. Our purpose to work with these beans is because conflicting results have appeared in studies about vitamin loss after low-dose irradiation. In our case, after a 6-month storage period of this two kinds of beans, in addition to the analysis of cooking time and sensory properties the vitamin B 1 content was evaluated. No significant vitamin losses were observed in Macacar beans until 10.0 kGy. Carioca beans showed small losses after 2.5 kGy. (author). 23 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  5. [Effects of excess vitamin B1 or vitamin B2 on growth and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in weaning rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Kuzuya, Mako; Satoh, Shiori; Shibata, Katsumi

    2009-04-01

    To determine the tolerable upper intake levels of vitamin B(1) and vitamin B(2) in humans, we investigated the effects of excess thiamin or riboflavin administration on body weight gain, food intake, tissue weights, and urinary excretion of B-group vitamins in weaning rats. The weaning rats were freely fed ordinary diet containing 0.0006% thiamin-HCl or the same diet with 0.006%, 0.03%, 0.18% or 1.0% thiamin-HCl for 30 days, or the diet containing 0.0006% riboflavin or the same diet with 0.1%, 0.5 or 1.0% riboflavin for 22 days. Mild diarrhea was seen only in the rats fed with 1.0% thiamin-HCl diet. Excess thiamin-HCl or riboflavin did not affect body weight gains, food intake or tissue weights. The urinary excretions of water-soluble vitamins also did not differ among the diets. These results clearly showed that feeding a diet containing up to 1.0% thiamin-HCl or 1.0% riboflavin did not induce apparent adverse effects, and the no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAELs) for thiamin-HCl and riboflavin in rats might be 1.0% in diet, corresponding to 900 mg/kg body weight/day.

  6. Chronic Nicotine Exposure In Vivo and In Vitro Inhibits Vitamin B1 (Thiamin Uptake by Pancreatic Acinar Cells.

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    Padmanabhan Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Thiamin (vitamin B1, a member of the water-soluble family of vitamins, is essential for normal cellular functions; its deficiency results in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Pancreatic acinar cells (PAC obtain thiamin from the circulation using a specific carrier-mediated process mediated by both thiamin transporters -1 and -2 (THTR-1 and THTR-2; encoded by the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes, respectively. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of chronic exposure of mouse PAC in vivo and human PAC in vitro to nicotine (a major component of cigarette smoke that has been implicated in pancreatic diseases on thiamin uptake and to delineate the mechanism involved. The results showed that chronic exposure of mice to nicotine significantly inhibits thiamin uptake in murine PAC, and that this inhibition is associated with a marked decrease in expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 at the protein, mRNA and hnRNAs level. Furthermore, expression of the important thiamin-metabolizing enzyme, thiamin pyrophosphokinase (TPKase, was significantly reduced in PAC of mice exposed to nicotine. Similarly, chronic exposure of cultured human PAC to nicotine (0.5 μM, 48 h significantly inhibited thiamin uptake, which was also associated with a decrease in expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 proteins and mRNAs. This study demonstrates that chronic exposure of PAC to nicotine impairs the physiology and the molecular biology of the thiamin uptake process. Furthermore, the study suggests that the effect is, in part, mediated through transcriptional mechanism(s affecting the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes.

  7. Long-Distance Transport of Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Is Concomitant with That of Polyamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, Jacopo; Gas-Pascual, Elisabet; Szydlowski, Nicolas; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Gisler, Alexandra; Bürkle, Lukas; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B

    2016-05-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is ubiquitous and essential for cell energy supply in all organisms as a vital metabolic cofactor, known for over a century. In plants, it is established that biosynthesis de novo is taking place predominantly in green tissues and is furthermore limited to plastids. Therefore, transport mechanisms are required to mediate the movement of this polar metabolite from source to sink tissue to activate key enzymes in cellular energy generating pathways but are currently unknown. Similar to thiamine, polyamines are an essential set of charged molecules required for diverse aspects of growth and development, the homeostasis of which necessitates long-distance transport processes that have remained elusive. Here, a yeast-based screen allowed us to identify Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PUT3 as a thiamine transporter. A combination of biochemical, physiological, and genetic approaches permitted us to show that PUT3 mediates phloem transport of both thiamine and polyamines. Loss of function of PUT3 demonstrated that the tissue distribution of these metabolites is altered with growth and developmental consequences. The pivotal role of PUT3 mediated thiamine and polyamine homeostasis in plants, and its importance for plant fitness is revealed through these findings. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in royal jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presoto Ana Elisa F

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is used as a food supplement, popularly known as rich in B vitamins. The present work has two objectives: firstly, to apply simultaneous quantitative determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of thiamin (vitamin B1, riboflavin (vitamin B2 and pyridoxine (vitamin B6 and secondly to compare the obtained data with the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI values. The values obtained showed no thiamin, a range from 20 to 171 ng g-1 of riboflavin and from 408 to 2 188 ng g-1 of pyridoxine in royal jelly. According to the Food and Nutrition Board (2000, the DRI of these vitamins varies from 0.2-1.4 mg for thiamin; 0.3-1.6 mg for riboflavin and 0.1-2.0 mg for pyridoxine, depending on age and sex. According to these recommendations, royal jelly is not a good source of vitamins B1, B2 or B6 as these vitamins appear only on order of ng g-1. The proposed method can be used in routine analysis for royal jelly, having the advantage of being simple, fast and reliable.

  9. B Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The B vitamins are B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 (pantothenic acid) B6 B7 (biotin) B12 Folic acid These ... help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, eggs, ...

  10. Vitamin-responsive disorders: cobalamin, folate, biotin, vitamins B1 and E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic properties of many enzymes depend on the participation of vitamins as obligatory cofactors. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and folic acid (folate) deficiencies in infants and children classically present with megaloblastic anemia and are often accompanied by neurological signs. A number of rare inborn errors of cobalamin and folate absorption, transport, cellular uptake, and intracellular metabolism have been delineated and identification of disease-causing mutations has improved our ability to diagnose and treat many of these conditions. Two inherited defects in biotin metabolism are known, holocarboxylase synthetase and biotinidase deficiency. Both lead to multiple carboxylase deficiency manifesting with metabolic acidosis, neurological abnormalities, and skin rash. Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia is characterized by megaloblastic anemia, non-type I diabetes, and sensorineural deafness that responds to pharmacological doses of thiamine (vitamin B1). Individuals affected with inherited vitamin E deficiencies including ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency and abetalipoproteinemia present with a spinocerebellar syndrome similar to patients with Friedreich's ataxia. If started early, treatment of these defects by oral or parenteral administration of the relevant vitamin often results in correction of the metabolic defect and reversal of the signs of disease, stressing the importance of early and correct diagnosis in these treatable conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of thiamine in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bubko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B1 (thiamine plays an important role in metabolism. It is indispensable for normal growth and development of the organism. Thiamine has a favourable impact on a number of systems, including the digestive, cardiovascular and nervous systems. It also stimulates the brain and improves the psycho-emotional state. Hence it is often called the vitamin of “reassurance of the spirit”. Thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin. It can be present in the free form as thiamine or as its phosphate esters: mono-, di- or triphosphate. The main source of thiamine as an exogenous vitamin is certain foodstuffs, but trace amounts can be synthesised by microorganisms of the large intestine. The recommended daily intake of thiamine is about 2.0 mg. Since vitamin B1 has no ability to accumulate in the organism, manifestations of its deficiency begin to appear very quickly. The chronic state of thiamine deficiency, to a large extent, because of its function, contributes to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. It was proved that supporting vitamin B1 therapy not only constitutes neuroprotection but can also have a favourable impact on advanced neurodegenerative diseases. This article presents the current state of knowledge as regards the effects of thiamine exerted through this vitamin in a number of diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Wernicke’s encephalopathy or Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and Huntington’s disease.

  12. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academies Press. Washington, DC, 1998. PMID: 23193625 ...

  13. Liver, plasma and erythrocyte levels of thiamine and its phosphate esters in rats with acute ethanol intoxication: a comparison of thiamine and benfotiamine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Vannucchi, Helio; Jordao, Alceu Afonso

    2013-03-12

    Thiamine and benfotiamine are vitamin B1 and pro-vitamin B1 substances, respectively. Vitamin B1 plays an essential role in energy metabolism, and its deficiency leads to neurologic and cardiovascular pathologies, as seen in alcoholics. This study presents new data about the effects of thiamine hydrochloride or benfotiamine treatment given to rats with acute alcohol intoxication, on the distribution of thiamine and its phosphate esters in liver, plasma and erythrocytes. The treatments were effective in increasing thiamine levels in plasma, erythrocytes and liver cells. The benfotiamine-treated group had its total plasma thiamine increased by 100%. In erythrocytes, thiamine levels were 4- and 25-fold higher in the groups treated with thiamine and benfotiamine, respectively, compared with the untreated groups. Liver thiamine was increased by 60% in the treated groups compared with the untreated groups. Thus, we verified the high bioavailability especially of benfotiamine within 6h of ethanol administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Volumetric properties of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1) in dilute HCl and in aqueous NaCl solutions at (283.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayranci, Guler; Sahin, Melike; Ayranci, Erol

    2007-01-01

    Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B 1 ) were determined from accurately measured density and sound velocity data in water and in aqueous NaCl solutions at (283.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K. These volume and compressibility data were extrapolated to zero concentration using suitable empirical or theoretical equations to determine the corresponding infinite dilution values. Apparent molar expansibilities at infinite dilution were determined from slopes of apparent molar volume vs. temperature plots. Ionization of both ascorbic acid and thiamine hydrochloride were suppressed using sufficiently acidic solutions. Apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution for ascorbic acid and thiamine hydrochloride were found to increase with temperature in acidic solutions and in the presence of co-solute, NaCl. Apparent molar expansibility at infinite dilution were found to be constant over the temperature range studied and were all positive, indicating the hydrophilic character of the two vitamins studied in water and in the presence of co-solute, NaCl. Apparent molar isentropic compressibilities of ascorbic acid at infinite dilution were positive in water and in the presence of co-solute, NaCl, at low molalities. Those of thiamine hydrochloride at infinitive dilution were all negative, consistent with its ionic nature. Transfer apparent molar volumes of vitamins at infinite dilution from water solutions to NaCl solutions at various temperatures were determined. The results were interpreted in terms of complex vitamin-water-co-solute (NaCl) interactions

  15. Examining strategies to facilitate vitamin B1 biofortification of plants by genetic engineering

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    Lucille ePourcel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thiamin (vitamin B1 is made by plants and microorganisms but is an essential micronutrient in the human diet. All organisms require it as a cofactor in its form as thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP for the activity of key enzymes of central metabolism. In humans, deficiency is widespread particularly in populations where polished rice is a major component of the diet. Considerable progress has been made on the elucidation of the biosynthesis pathway within the last few years enabling concrete strategies for biofortification purposes to be devised, with a particular focus here on genetic engineering. Furthermore, the vitamin has been shown to play a role in both abiotic and biotic stress responses. The precursors for de novo biosynthesis of thiamin differ between microorganisms and plants. Bacteria use intermediates derived from purine and isoprenoid biosynthesis, whereas the pathway in yeast involves the use of compounds from the vitamin B3 and B6 groups. Plants on the other hand use a combination of the bacterial and yeast pathways and there is subcellular partitioning of the biosynthesis steps. Specifically, thiamin biosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast of plants through the separate formation of the pyrimidine and thiazole moieties, which are then coupled to form thiamin monophosphate (TMP. Phosphorylation of thiamin to form TPP occurs in the cytosol. Therefore, thiamin (or TMP must be exported from the chloroplast to the cytosol for the latter step to be executed. The regulation of biosynthesis is mediated through riboswitches, where binding of the product TPP to the pre-mRNA of a biosynthetic gene modulates expression. Here we examine and hypothesize on genetic engineering approaches attempting to increase the thiamin content employing knowledge gained with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We will discuss the regulatory steps that need to be taken into consideration and can be used a prerequisite for devising such strategies in crop plants.

  16. Thiamin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academies Press. Washington, DC, 1998. PMID: 23193625 ...

  17. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A; Halkjaer, J; van Gils, C H; Buijsse, B; Verhagen, H; Jenab, M; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Ericson, U; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Touvier, M; Niravong, M; Waaseth, M; Skeie, G; Khaw, K T; Travis, R; Ferrari, P; Sanchez, M J; Agudo, A; Overvad, K; Linseisen, J; Weikert, C; Sacerdote, C; Evangelista, A; Zylis, D; Tsiotas, K; Manjer, J; van Guelpen, B; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes of the four B vitamins and vitamin C were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Intake of B vitamins did not vary considerably between centres, except in the UK health-conscious cohort, in which substantially higher intakes of thiamine and lower intakes of vitamin B12 were reported compared with other centres. Overall, meat was the most important contributor to the B vitamins in all centres except in the UK health-conscious group. Vitamin C showed a clear geographical gradient, with higher intakes in the southern centres as compared with the northern ones; this was more pronounced in men than in women. Vegetables and fruits were major contributors to vitamin C in all centres, but juices and potatoes were also important sources in the northern centres. This study showed no major differences across centres in the mean intakes of B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, B6, B12), whereas a tendency towards a north-south gradient was observed for vitamin C.

  18. Osmotic stress upregulates the transcription of thiamine (vitamin B1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syamimi Mimi

    2016-07-20

    Jul 20, 2016 ... damage tolerance when subjected to abiotic stress. (Machado et al. ... µg/µl of total RNA, 4 µl of 5× Reverse Transcriptase Buffer, 1 µl of 10 mM ..... facilitate vitamin B1 biofortification of plants by genetic engineering;. Front.

  19. Supply with the vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in carcinomas before and after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, U.; Wulff, K.; Schmidt, W.

    1983-01-01

    In 108 breast cancer, 63 cervix carcinoma, 35 corpus carcinoma and 15 ovarial cancer patients the erythrocyte transketolase, gluthathione reductase and aspartate aminotransferase activity were determined as parameters for the supply with vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 before and after radiotherapy. The effects of thiamine pyrophosphate determined in cancer patients were normal but the effects of flavin adenine dinucleotide and pyridoxal-5-phosphate were significantly increased compared to the controls. These results revealed radiation-induced disorders in the B 2 metabolism and tumor-induced disorders in the B 6 metabolism. Both disorders can be avoided by treatment with vitamin B complex. (author)

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincee, H.; Bognar, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macacar beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macacar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology

  1. URINARY EXCRETION OF WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS (C, B1, B2, AND B6 IN HEALTHY CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AND SCHOOL AGE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Svetlana G. Makarova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Children of preschool and school age are at risk of developing vitamin deficiency. Screening of the vitamin provision of children remains an urgent problem of pediatrics. Objective. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of low excretion of watersoluble vitamins among healthy preschool and school-age children.Methods. The study was conducted in March-April 2017. We determined the urinary excretion (fasting morning portion collected during 30–120 min after night-time urination of metabolites of vitamins C, B1, B2, and B6 in healthy children. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 metabolite was determined spectrophotometrically by titration with a riboflavin-binding apoprotein; 4-pyridoxyl acid (vitamin B6 metabolite and thiamine (vitamin B1 metabolite — by fluorescent method, ascorbic acid (vitamin C metabolite — by visual titration with Tillman’s reagent. The excretion considered to be low (equivalent to vitamin deficiency when thiamine excretion was < 7, 10, 11, and 12 μg/h and riboflavin < 6, 9, 10, and 13 μg/h in children aged 3–5, 6–8, 9–11, and above 12 years, respectively; 4-pyridoxylic acid — < 40, 60, and 70 μg/h in children aged 3–5, 6–8, and ≥ 9 years, ascorbic acid — < 0.2 and 0.4 mg/h in children aged 3–11 and ≥ 12 years, respectively.Results. Metabolites were excreted in 39 children (20 girls, 14 of them aged 4–6 years and 25 children aged 7–14 years. A low level of ascorbic acid excretion was found in 13 (33% children, of thiamine — in 24 (62%, of riboflavin — in 16 (41%, of 4-pyridoxyl acid — in 26 (67%. Low excretion of at least one vitamin metabolite was detected in 30 (77% children, of 3 or more metabolites simultaneously — in 15 (39%.Conclusion. A low level of urinary excretion of metabolites of at least one water-soluble vitamin (C, B1, B2, and B≥ occurs in most preschool and schoolage children.

  2. Optimisation of the determination of thiamin, 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)thiamin, and riboflavin in food samples by use of HPLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was first to optimise and validate a method using an enzyme-mixture to liberate protein- and phosphate-bound thiamin and riboflavin in food by the use of ultrasonication and HPLC, and second to include the quantitation of the vitamin B-1 active compound 2-(1-hydroxyethyl...

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Bognár, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology

  4. The vitamin B requirement of Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peperzak, L; Gieskes, WWC; Duin, R; Colijn, F

    In batch cultures of flagellates and non-flagellate cells of Phaeocystis globosa, the biomass yield was significantly enhanced by the addition of a mixture of the vitamins thiamine (B1), cyanocobalamin (B12) and biotin (H). A bioassay with B1 and B12 using the non-flagellate cells of P.globosa

  5. The upregulation of thiamine (vitamin B1 biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under salt and osmotic stress conditions is mediated by abscisic acid at the early stages of this stress response

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    Rapala-Kozik Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports suggest that vitamin B1 (thiamine participates in the processes underlying plant adaptations to certain types of abiotic and biotic stress, mainly oxidative stress. Most of the genes coding for enzymes involved in thiamine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana have been identified. In our present study, we examined the expression of thiamine biosynthetic genes, of genes encoding thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes and the levels of thiamine compounds during the early (sensing and late (adaptation responses of Arabidopsis seedlings to oxidative, salinity and osmotic stress. The possible roles of plant hormones in the regulation of the thiamine contribution to stress responses were also explored. Results The expression of Arabidopsis genes involved in the thiamine diphosphate biosynthesis pathway, including that of THI1, THIC, TH1 and TPK, was analyzed for 48 h in seedlings subjected to NaCl or sorbitol treatment. These genes were found to be predominantly up-regulated in the early phase (2-6 h of the stress response. The changes in these gene transcript levels were further found to correlate with increases in thiamine and its diphosphate ester content in seedlings, as well as with the enhancement of gene expression for enzymes which require thiamine diphosphate as a cofactor, mainly α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and transketolase. In the case of the phytohormones including the salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acids which are known to be involved in plant stress responses, only abscisic acid was found to significantly influence the expression of thiamine biosynthetic genes, the thiamine diphosphate levels, as well as the expression of genes coding for main thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes. Using Arabidopsis mutant plants defective in abscisic acid production, we demonstrate that this phytohormone is important in the regulation of THI1 and THIC gene expression during salt stress

  6. Production and consumption of B group vitamins in situ.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurata, A

    1984-01-01

    Les variations des concentrations en thiamine, biotine et vitamine B12 dans l'eau des bouteilles immergées in situ pendant 6 heures dans le bassin nord du lac Biwa ont été suivies sur 30 heures. Les concentrations en vitamines varient de façon comparable durant les 6 heures d'immersion. Généralement les concentrations en thiamine, biotine et vitamine B12 présentent des taux élevés le matin et bas le soir, ceci dans les bouteilles immergées comme dans l'eau de mer environnante. Les concentrati...

  7. CT study of infantile cerebral vitamin B1 deficiency (analysis of 22 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bin; Xi Meifang; Wang Mengding; Wang Chaoxiu

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study the CT features of infantile cerebral vitamin B 1 deficiency. Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical manifestations and CT findings of 22 cases of infantile vitamin B 1 deficiency. Results: The main clinical signs were seizure malaise dullness and vomiting. CT scans showed bilateral symmetrical hypodense foci in lenticular nucleus (20/22), head of caudate nucleus (15/22), thalamus (3/22), anterior limb of internal capsule (4/22), external capsule (1/22) and para-ventricle white matter (2/22), and in many cases, signs of cerebral atrophy. 22 cases received thiamine treatment and were fully recovered. Conclusion: The authors concluded that bilateral symmetric hypodense foci in lenticular nucleus thalamus, head of caudate nucleus, anterior limb of internal capsule, external capsule and para-ventricle white matter were important CT signs suggestive of infantile cerebral vitamin B 1 deficiency

  8. Can long-term thiamine treatment improve the clinical outcomes of myotonic dystrophy type 1?

    OpenAIRE

    Costantini, Antonio; Trevi, Erika; Pala, Maria Immacolata; Fancellu, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1, also known as Steinert′s disease, is an autosomal dominant disorder with multisystemic clinical features affecting the skeletal and cardiac muscles, the eyes, and the endocrine system. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is a cofactor of fundamental enzymes involved in the energetic cell metabolism; recent studies described its role in oxidative stress, protein processing, peroxisomal function, and gene expression. Thiamine deficiency is critical mainly in the central and periphe...

  9. Dietary reference values for thiamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for thiamin (vitamin B1). The Panel considers that data from depletion–repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake...... were measured. Results from other depletion–repletion studies are in agreement with this value. The Panel agrees on the coefficient of variation of 20% used by the SCF to cover uncertainties related to distribution of thiamin requirements in the general population, and endorses the population reference...

  10. B vitamins in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, D A

    1984-01-01

    The coenzyme functions of the B vitamins in intermediatry metabolism are well established; nevertheless, for none of them is it possible to determine precisely the connection between the biochemical lesions associated with deficiency and the neurological consequences. Although there is convincing evidence of a neurospecific role for thiamin and other B vitamins, in no case has this role been adequately described. Similarly, the neurochemical sequelae of intoxication by massive amounts of vitamins (so-called mega-vitamin therapy or orthomolecular medicine) remain largely unexplained.

  11. [Thiamine and its derivatives in the regulation of cell metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylicki, Adam; Siemieniuk, Magdalena

    2011-07-06

    For over 70 years thiamine (vitamin B1) has aroused the interest of biologists, biochemists and medical doctors because of its multilateral participation in key biochemical and physiological processes. The thiamine molecule is composed of pyrimidine and thiazole rings which are linked by a methylene bridge. It is synthesized by microorganisms, fungi and plants, whereas animals and humans have to obtain it from food. There are several known forms of vitamin B1 inside cells: free thiamine, three phosphate esters (mono-, di-, and triphosphate), and the recently found adenosine thiamine triphosphate. Thiamine has a dual, coenzymatic and non-coenzymatic role. First of all, it is a precursor of thiamin diphosphate, which is a coenzyme for over 20 characterized enzymes which are involved in cell bioenergetic processes leading to the synthesis of ATP. Moreover, these enzymes take part in the biosynthesis of pentose (required for the synthesis of nucleotides), amino acids and other organic compounds of cell metabolism. On the other hand, recent discoveries show the non-coenzymatic role of thiamine derivatives in the process of regulation of gene expression (riboswitches in microorganisms and plants), the stress response, and perhaps so far unknown signal transduction pathways associated with adverse environmental conditions, or transduction of nerve signals with participation of thiamine triphosphate and adenosine thiamine triphosphate. From the clinical point of view thiamine deficiency is related to beri-beri, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and other pathologies of the nervous system, and it is successfully applied in medical practice. On the other hand, identifying new synthetic analogues of thiamine which could be used as cytostatics, herbicides or agents preventing deficiency of vitamin B1 is currently the major goal of the research. In this paper we present the current state of knowledge of thiamine and its derivatives, indicating

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the B vitamins of pork chops and chicken breasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.B. Jr.; Thayer, D.W.; Jenkins, R.K.; Phillips, J.G.; Ackerman, S.A.; Beecher, G.R.; Holden, J.M.; Morrow, F.D.; Quirbach, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of low-dose gamma irradiation on the content of thiamine (B 1 ), riboflavin (B 2 ), niacin, pyridoxine (B 6 ) and cobalamin (B 12 ) in pork chops, and thiamine, riboflavin and niacin in chicken breasts. Over the range of dose and temperature studied (0.49-6.65 kGy from -20 to 20 0 C) it was possible to derive a mathematical expression for predicting losses. A calculation was made of the effect of the loss of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin due to irradiation on overall loss of these vitamins in the American diet. Losses of riboflavin and niacin were of the order of a fraction of a per cent. The calculated loss at 1.0kGy of thiamine in cooked pork was only 1.5%. There were initial increases with radiation doses up to 2-4 kGy in measured concentrations of riboflavin and niacin in pork and chicken. Increases were highly significant, and of concern to the study of radiation effects and the chemical method of determination of these vitamins. (author)

  13. Thiamin diphosphate in biological chemistry: new aspects of thiamin metabolism, especially triphosphate derivatives acting other than as cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettendorff, Lucien; Wins, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Prokaryotes, yeasts and plants synthesize thiamin (vitamin B1) via complex pathways. Animal cells capture the vitamin through specific high-affinity transporters essential for internal thiamin homeostasis. Inside the cells, thiamin is phosphorylated to higher phosphate derivatives. Thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) is the best-known thiamin compound because of its role as an enzymatic cofactor. However, in addition to ThDP, at least three other thiamin phosphates occur naturally in most cells: thiamin monophosphate, thiamin triphosphate (ThTP) and the recently discovered adenosine thiamin triphosphate. It has been suggested that ThTP has a specific neurophysiological role, but recent data favor a much more basic metabolic function. During amino acid starvation, Escherichia coli accumulate ThTP, possibly acting as a signal involved in the adaptation of the bacteria to changing nutritional conditions. In animal cells, ThTP can phosphorylate some proteins, but the physiological significance of this mechanism remains unknown. Adenosine thiamin triphosphate, recently discovered in E. coli, accumulates during carbon starvation and might act as an alarmone. Among the proteins involved in thiamin metabolism, thiamin transporters, thiamin pyrophosphokinase and a soluble 25-kDa thiamin triphosphatase have been characterized at the molecular level, in contrast to thiamin mono- and diphosphatases whose specificities remain to be proven. A soluble enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of adenosine thiamin triphosphate from ThDP and ADP or ATP has been partially characterized in E. coli, but the mechanism of ThTP synthesis remains elusive. The data reviewed here illustrate the complexity of thiamin biochemistry, which is not restricted to the cofactor role of ThDP.

  14. Particle length of silages affects apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnino, D S; Kammes, K L; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-08-01

    Effects of particle length of silages on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 feeding trials. Diets containing alfalfa (trial 1) or orchardgrass (trial 2) silages, chopped to either 19mm (long cut, LC) or 10mm (short cut, SC) theoretical particle length, as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Forages chopped to a theoretical particle length of 19 and 10mm had mean particles sizes of 14.1 and 8.1mm, respectively, in trial 1, and 15.3 and 11.3mm, respectively, in trial 2. Trial 1 was conducted with 13 multiparous cows in two 19-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 20% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 25% total NDF, and forage-to-concentrate ratios were approximately 47:53. Trial 2 was conducted with 15 cows in two 18-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 23% forage NDF, 28% total NDF, and had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 50:50. Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were measured in feed and duodenal content. Daily ARS was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. In trial 1, daily intake of individual B vitamins was increased with the LC diet, but ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and folates was reduced. In trial 2, except for folates, intakes of the other B vitamins were decreased with the LC diets, whereas ARS of riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 was increased. Daily ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 were correlated negatively with their intake, suggesting that ruminal bacteria reduced their synthesis when dietary supply increased. Microbial activity could have also reduced degradation of thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, which is supported by (1) the negative correlation between ARS of these vitamins and ruminal pH or microbial N duodenal flow; and (2) the positive correlation between ARS and ruminal concentrations

  15. Maternal consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce during pregnancy and lactation improves maternal and infant thiamin status and breast milk thiamin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantile beriberi, a disease caused by thiamin (vitamin B1) deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and other parts of Southeast Asia. Infantile beriberi presents during the exclusive breastfeeding period and without treatment commonly results in death within *24 hours of clinical p...

  16. Evaluation of synergistic antimicrobial effect of vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E and K) with antibiotics against resistant bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Shakeel; Ashraf, M Adnan; Sajid, M; Shahzad, Aqeel; Rafique, Azhar; Mahmood, M Shahid

    2018-02-02

    Multiple drug resistant super bugs of Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are becoming challenge for healthcare professionals. In this study, vitamins were evaluated for synergistic activity with the antibiotics. Synergistic effect between antibiotic and stock solutions of vitamins is evaluated by using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. Distilled water and propylene glycol were used as solvent for water soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins respectively. The final concentration of 10mg/ml of each water-soluble vitamin B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B6 (Pyridoxine) B12 (Methylcobalamin), C (Ascorbic acid) and 0.1mg/ml of each fat soluble vitamin A (retinol), D (cholecalciferol) E (αTocopherol) K (Menadione) were used with the antibiotics. The results depicted that vitamin K and E have better synergistic activity with piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem and doripenem antibiotics against A. baumannii. While vitamin B1, B2 and B12 showed remarkable synergistic activity with linezolid against MRSA. Vitamin B1 was further tested to have better synergism with antibiotics oxacillin, tetracycline, rifampicin and linezolid against MRSA. The fat-soluble vitamins E and K were good in synergism against Gram negative A. baumannii while water soluble vitamins as B1, B2 and B12 were effective against MRSA but not against A. baumannii. This synergistic action of vitamins with the antibiotics can be used as a tool to treat multiple drug resistant super bugs with further evaluation at molecular level. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural Versus Synthetic Vitamin B Complexes in Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-12

    Healthy; Thiamine and Niacin Deficiency States; Pyridoxine Deficiency; Folic Acid Deficiency Anemia, Dietary; Vitamin B 12 Deficiency; Peroxidase; Defect; Polyphenols; Oxidative Stress; Homocystine; Metabolic Disorder

  18. [Neurotropic effect of B vitamins in the complex treatment of pain syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavlovskaya, O A

    Combined vitamin preparations in therapeutic doses are used, along with simple analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), muscle and epidural blockade, for the relief of acute pain. It is recommended to use the B vitamin preparation neuromultivit. The tablet form of this preparation contains vitamin thiamine hydrochloride (100 mg), pyridoxine hydrochloride (200 mg), cyanocobalamin (0.2 mg), and injectable form includes thiamine hydrochloride (100mg), pyridoxine hydrochloride (100 mg), cyanocobalamin (1 mg). The efficacy of neuromultivit in a two stage scheme (intramuscular injections of 2 ml daily for 5-10 days with further injections 2-3 times a week for 2-3 weeks at the initial stage and 1 tablet 3 times a day for 4 weeks at the second stage) was shown.

  19. Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnino, D S; Seck, M; Beaudet, V; Kammes, K L; Linton, J A Voelker; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-03-01

    Effects of forage family (legume vs. grass) on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 experiments. Diets containing either alfalfa (AL) or orchardgrass (OG) silages as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Experiment 1 compared diets containing AL and OG [~23% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~27% total NDF] offered to 8 cows in two 15-d treatment periods. Experiment 2 compared diets containing AL and OG (~25% forage NDF and ~30% total NDF) offered to 13 cows in two 18-d treatment periods. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were analyzed in feeds and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow of each vitamin minus its intake. Forage family affected B vitamin intakes, duodenal flow, and ARS. In both experiments, AL diets increased vitamin B6 and decreased folate intakes. In experiment 1, riboflavin and niacin intakes were greater with the OG diet, whereas in experiment 2 thiamin intake was greater but riboflavin intake was smaller with the OG diet. In spite of the low contribution of either silage to the dietary folate content, folate intake was greater with OG diets than AL due to the difference in soybean meal contribution between diets. Niacin and folate ARS were not affected by the forage family. Duodenal microbial nitrogen flow was positively correlated with ARS of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12, but tended to be negatively correlated with thiamin ARS. Apparent ruminal synthesis of folates and vitamin B12 appear to be related to microbial biomass activity. Changes in nutrient composition of the diets likely affected the microbial population in the rumen and their B vitamin metabolism. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitamin B and its derivatives for diabetic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Amit D; Thakker, Divyesh; Rangoonwala, Arohi N; Gor, Deval; Walia, Rama

    2015-01-12

    Diabetes is a leading cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) mainly due to development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). In absence of definitive treatments of DKD, small studies showed that vitamin B may help in delaying progression of DKD by inhibiting vascular inflammation and endothelial cell damage. Hence, it could be beneficial as a treatment option for DKD. To assess the benefits and harms of vitamin B and its derivatives in patients with DKD. We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register to 29 October 2012 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. We included randomised controlled trials comparing vitamin B or its derivatives, or both with placebo, no treatment or active treatment in patients with DKD. We excluded studies comparing vitamin B or its derivatives, or both among patients with pre-existing ESKD. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility, risk of bias and extracted data. Results were reported as risk ratio (RR) or risk differences (RD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) with 95% CI for continuous outcomes. Statistical analyses were performed using the random-effects model. Nine studies compared 1354 participants randomised to either vitamin B or its derivatives with placebo or active control were identified. A total of 1102 participants were randomised to single vitamin B derivatives, placebo or active control in eight studies, and 252 participants randomised to multiple vitamin B derivatives or placebo. Monotherapy included different dose of pyridoxamine (four studies), benfotiamine (1), folic acid (1), thiamine (1), and vitamin B12 (1) while combination therapy included folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in one study. Treatment duration ranged from two to 36 months. Selection bias was unclear in three studies and low in the remaining six studies. Two studies reported blinding of patient

  1. Biochemical changes correlated with blood thiamine and its phosphate esters levels in patients with diabetes type 1 (DMT1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alharbi, Mohammed; Wani, Kaiser; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Sheshah, Eman; Alokail, Majed S

    2015-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential enzyme cofactor in most organisms required at several stages of anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism. However, little is known on the positive effects of thiamine in diabetic type 1 (DMT1) patients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the biochemical changes related to thiamine deficiency in patients with DMT1 outcomes among Saudi adults. We hypothesized that blood thiamine deficiency in patients with DMT1 manifestations might lead to an increase in metabolic syndrome. A total of 77 patients with DMT1 (age 35.8 ± 5.5) and 81 controls (age 45.0 ± 18.1) (total N = 158) were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. Saudi adults with diabetes type 1, a significant decrease in systolic (P < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.008) and microalbuminuria (P = 0.02). Moreover, cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides were significantly increased (P 0.001, 0.001 and 0.008, respectively) in patients with diabetes type 1 compared to controls. On the other hand, HDL, TMP, TDP and thiamine, were significantly decreased in patients with diabetes type 1 (P 0.005, 0.002, 0.005, and 0.002), respectively. A strong association between blood thiamine level and diabetes type 1 was detected in our study population. The results confirmed the role of thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters, in preventing metabolic changes and complications of diabetes type 1. The levels of these thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters were correlated with diabetes related biomarkers including HDL, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as microalbuminuria, LDL and urine thiamine. The results support a pivotal role of blood thiamine and its phosphate esters in preventing the biochemical changes and complications in patients with DMT1.

  2. Vitamin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prize Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Vitamin B1 - About The Chicken Farm educational game and ... the game window. Reading: "Christian Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1" - Who was Eijkman and why did he ...

  3. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1, B3, B6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOTE VLADIMIROV

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Asimple and sensitive reversed-phase, ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (B1, nicotinamide (B3, pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6 and folic acid in Pentovit® coated tablets. The cyanocobalamine (B12 was determined separately, because of its low concentration in the investigated multivitamin preparation. RP-HPLC analysis was performed with a LKB 2150 HPLC system, equipped with a UV/VIS Waters M484 detector. The procedures for the determination of B1, B2, B6 and folic acid were carried out on a Supelcosil ABZ+ (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column with methanol-5mM heptanesulphonic acid sodium salt 0.1%triethylamine TEA(25:75 V/V; pH 2.8 as themobile phase. For the determination of B12 a Suplex pKb-100 (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column andmethanol–water (22:78 V/V as themobile phase were used. The column effluentsweremonitored at 290 nm for B 1, B3, B6 and folic acid, and at 550 nm for B12. The obtained results and statistical parameters for all the investigated vitamins of the B-group in Pentovit® coated tablets were satisfactory and ranged from 90.4 % to 108.5 % (RSD. from 0.5% to 4.1 %. The parameters for the validation of the methods are given.

  4. Effect of vitamin B1 and mixtures of B1 with other vitamins on cytostatica efficiency under irradiation. A study in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, E.; Getoff, N.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In the last decades the research of malignant tumors (oncology) became a complex interdisciplinary branch of the modern sciences. In addition to other disciplines the radiation chemistry and radiation biology, applied in this respect, led to new and deeper understanding and knowledge in the radiation therapy of cancer. Following this line and by a combined use of both methods, studies in vitro for testing cytostatica activity and pulse radiolysis for characterisation of the corresponding transients, it was possible to gain a deeper and extensive understanding of complex reaction mechanisms. In addition to valuable biological data we have established that the cytostatica efficiency, e.g. of mitomycin C (MMC) can be very strongly increased in the presence of the vitamins C, E and β-carotene. As an essential step in this respect a cascade electron transfer with the sequence: vit. C → vit. E· + /vit. E → β-car. · + /β-car. → MMC/MMC· - was established. In the present work the ability of vitamin B1 (thiamine) to act under given conditions as cytostaticum or/and as radiation protecting agent will be reported. Extensive investigations in vitro (E. coli bacteria AB 1157 were used as a model) in different media showed that with a combination of vitamin B1 with sanazole (AK-2123) a synergistic effect occurs, which results in a very strong cytostatica enhancement. The presence of vitamin C in the system strongly contributes in this respect. The influence on the sanazole efficiency by other vitamins (E and β-carotene) added individually or in mixture will also be reported. The obtained results are of importance for the radiation therapy of cancer patients. The paper also demonstrates the significant role of radiation chemistry in radiation biology and medicine

  5. Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Lennart; Hägerroth, Per-Åke; Gustavsson, Hanna; Sigg, Lisa; Åkerman, Gun; Ruiz Muñoz, Yolanda; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Oliveira, Kenneth; Ström, Karin; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlsson, Simon; Ström, Marika; van Manen, Mathijs; Berg, Anna-Lena; Halldórsson, Halldór P.; Strömquist, Jennie; Collier, Tracy K.; Börjeson, Hans; Mörner, Torsten; Hansson, Tomas

    2016-12-01

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiamine-dependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.

  6. Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Lennart; Hägerroth, Per-Åke; Gustavsson, Hanna; Sigg, Lisa; Akerman, Gun; Ruiz Muñoz, Yolanda; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Tjarnlund, Ulla; Oliveira, Kenneth; Strom, Karin; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlsson, Simon; Strom, Marika; van Manen, Mathijs; Berg, Anna-Lena; Halldórsson, Halldór P.; Stromquist, Jennie; Collier, Tracy K.; Borjeson, Hans; Morner, Torsten; Hansson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiamine-dependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.

  7. Effects of thiamine on growth, aflatoxin production, and aflr gene expression in A. parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Nazemi

    2015-01-01

    Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration was yielded as > 500 mg/ml. However, HPLC analysis results showed that aflatoxin production reduced in samples treated with 500 mg/ml of thiamine. In addition, the level of afIR gene expression was significantly reduced after treating with 500 and 250 mg/ml of vitamin B1. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, thiamine could not inhibit the fungal growth completely. However, the rate of afIR gene expression and aflatoxin production was significantly reduced after fungal treating with thiamine. Consequently, using natural compounds such as vitamins may be regarded as potential antitoxic agent in food industry and the industries related to agriculture.

  8. Antiretroviral therapy provided to HIV-infected Malawian women in a randomized trial diminishes the positive effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements on breast-milk B vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H; Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; York, Emily R; Adair, Linda S; Flax, Valerie L; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S; Kamwendo, Debbie; Jamieson, Denise J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-12-01

    Little information is available on B vitamin concentrations in human milk or on how they are affected by maternal B vitamin deficiencies, antiretroviral therapy, or maternal supplementation. The objective was to evaluate the effects of antiretroviral therapy and/or lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) on B vitamin concentrations in breast milk from HIV-infected women in Malawi. Breast milk was collected from 537 women recruited within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study at 2 or 6 wk and 24 wk postpartum. Women were assigned to receive antiretrovirals and LNSs, antiretrovirals only, LNSs only, or a control. Antiretrovirals and LNSs were given to the mothers from weeks 0 to 28. The antiretrovirals were zidovudine/lamivudine and nelfinavir or lopinavir/ritonavir. LNSs provided 93-118% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and vitamin B-12. Infants were exclusively breastfed. LNSs increased milk concentrations of all vitamins except thiamin, whereas antiretrovirals lowered concentrations of nicotinamide, pyridoxal, and vitamin B-12. Although antiretrovirals alone had no significant effect on riboflavin concentrations, they negatively affected the LNS-induced increase in this vitamin. Thiamin was not influenced by the study interventions. Concentrations of all B vitamins were much lower than usually accepted values. All B vitamins were low in milk, and all but thiamin were increased by maternal supplementation with LNSs. Antiretrovirals alone decreased concentrations of some B vitamins in milk. When LNS was given in addition to antiretrovirals, the negative effect of antiretrovirals offset the positive effect of LNSs for all vitamins except thiamin. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00164762. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Prostatic acid phosphatase is required for the antinociceptive effects of thiamine and benfotiamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Julie K; Coleman, Jennifer L; Fitzpatrick, Brendan J; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Bridges, Arlene S; Vihko, Pirkko; Zylka, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Thiamine (Vitamin B1) is an essential vitamin that must be obtained from the diet for proper neurological function. At higher doses, thiamine and benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate, BT)-a phosphorylated derivative of thiamine-have antinociceptive effects in animals and humans, although how these compounds inhibit pain is unknown. Here, we found that Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP) can dephosphorylate BT in vitro, in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and in primary-afferent axon terminals in the dorsal spinal cord. The dephosphorylated product S-benzoylthiamine (S-BT) then decomposes to O-benzoylthiamine (O-BT) and to thiamine in a pH-dependent manner, independent of additional enzymes. This unique reaction mechanism reveals that BT only requires a phosphatase for conversion to thiamine. However, we found that the antinociceptive effects of BT, thiamine monophosphate (TMP) and thiamine-a compound that is not phosphorylated-were entirely dependent on PAP at the spinal level. Moreover, pharmacokinetic studies with wild-type and Pap(-/-) mice revealed that PAP is not required for the conversion of BT to thiamine in vivo. Taken together, our study highlights an obligatory role for PAP in the antinociceptive effects of thiamine and phosphorylated thiamine analogs, and suggests a novel phosphatase-independent function for PAP.

  10. Prostatic acid phosphatase is required for the antinociceptive effects of thiamine and benfotiamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie K Hurt

    Full Text Available Thiamine (Vitamin B1 is an essential vitamin that must be obtained from the diet for proper neurological function. At higher doses, thiamine and benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate, BT-a phosphorylated derivative of thiamine-have antinociceptive effects in animals and humans, although how these compounds inhibit pain is unknown. Here, we found that Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP can dephosphorylate BT in vitro, in dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and in primary-afferent axon terminals in the dorsal spinal cord. The dephosphorylated product S-benzoylthiamine (S-BT then decomposes to O-benzoylthiamine (O-BT and to thiamine in a pH-dependent manner, independent of additional enzymes. This unique reaction mechanism reveals that BT only requires a phosphatase for conversion to thiamine. However, we found that the antinociceptive effects of BT, thiamine monophosphate (TMP and thiamine-a compound that is not phosphorylated-were entirely dependent on PAP at the spinal level. Moreover, pharmacokinetic studies with wild-type and Pap(-/- mice revealed that PAP is not required for the conversion of BT to thiamine in vivo. Taken together, our study highlights an obligatory role for PAP in the antinociceptive effects of thiamine and phosphorylated thiamine analogs, and suggests a novel phosphatase-independent function for PAP.

  11. Efisiensi Konsumsi Pakan Dan Laju Respirasi Ulat Sutera Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombicidae) Yang Diberi Daun Murbei (Morus sp.) Yang Mengandung Vitamin B1 (TIAMIN)

    OpenAIRE

    Hayani, Rizma

    2014-01-01

    The Effect of Mulberry (Morus sp.) Leave that Contain Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) on the Efficiency of Feed Consumption and Respiration Rate of Silkworm Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombicidae)” has been carried out in the Laboratory of Genetics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Sumatra Utara, Medan. This study used Complete Random Design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 3 replications each replication consisted of 10 silkworm. The treatmants that vitamin B1 concentration of mg...

  12. Comparision of the Efficacy of Vit B1 (Thiamine and Ibuprofen in Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea in Young Girls, Yazd, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sakhavat

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was performed in order to compare the efficacy of vitamin B1and Iboprofen in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Methods: 180 women aged between 11-17 years with primary dysmenorrhea were divided to 2 groups: Group A: (n: 60 received 100mg vit B1 daily in leuteal phase for 3 months . Grope B :( n: 60 Received 400mg Ibuprofen 3 times/day for 5days (3 days before and 2 days after start of menses for 3 months. Results: 80% of group A and 88.4% of group B were treated as compared to control (P=0001 , but in group B, side effects were more and the regimen was less tolerated as compared to group A. Conclusion: Vit B (Thiamine is well tolerated and effective drug without side effects in primary dysmenorrhea.

  13. Perinatal consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia: a randomized controlled efficacy trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importance: Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamin deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where B-vitamin poor, polished white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamin intake reduces breast milk thiamin concentrations, placing breastfed infa...

  14. Can long-term thiamine treatment improve the clinical outcomes of myotonic dystrophy type 1?

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    Antonio Costantini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 1, also known as Steinert′s disease, is an autosomal dominant disorder with multisystemic clinical features affecting the skeletal and cardiac muscles, the eyes, and the endocrine system. Thiamine (vitamin B1 is a cofactor of fundamental enzymes involved in the energetic cell metabolism; recent studies described its role in oxidative stress, protein processing, peroxisomal function, and gene expression. Thiamine deficiency is critical mainly in the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as in the muscular cells. Our aim was to investigate the potential therapeutical effects of long-term treatment with thiamine in myotonic dystrophy type 1 in an observational open-label pilot study. We described two patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 treated with intramuscular thiamine 100 mg twice a week for 12 or 11 months. We evaluated the patients using the grading of muscle strength according to Medical Research Council (MRC, the Muscular Impairment Rating Scale (MIRS, and the Modified Barthel index. High-dose thiamine treatment was well tolerated and effective in improving the motor symptomatology, particularly the muscle strength evaluated with the MRC scale, and the patients′ activities of daily living using the Modified Barthel Index. At the end of treatment, the MRC score was 5 in the proximal muscles and 2-4 in the distal muscles (the MRC score before the treatment was 3-4 and 1-3, respectively. The MIRS grade improved by 25% compared to baseline for both patients. In patient #1, the Modified Barthel Index improved by 44%, and in patient #2 by 29%. These findings suggest that clinical outcomes are improved by long-term thiamine treatment.

  15. Can long-term thiamine treatment improve the clinical outcomes of myotonic dystrophy type 1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Antonio; Trevi, Erika; Pala, Maria Immacolata; Fancellu, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1, also known as Steinert's disease, is an autosomal dominant disorder with multisystemic clinical features affecting the skeletal and cardiac muscles, the eyes, and the endocrine system. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is a cofactor of fundamental enzymes involved in the energetic cell metabolism; recent studies described its role in oxidative stress, protein processing, peroxisomal function, and gene expression. Thiamine deficiency is critical mainly in the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as in the muscular cells. Our aim was to investigate the potential therapeutical effects of long-term treatment with thiamine in myotonic dystrophy type 1 in an observational open-label pilot study. We described two patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 treated with intramuscular thiamine 100 mg twice a week for 12 or 11 months. We evaluated the patients using the grading of muscle strength according to Medical Research Council (MRC), the Muscular Impairment Rating Scale (MIRS), and the Modified Barthel index. High-dose thiamine treatment was well tolerated and effective in improving the motor symptomatology, particularly the muscle strength evaluated with the MRC scale, and the patients' activities of daily living using the Modified Barthel Index. At the end of treatment, the MRC score was 5 in the proximal muscles and 2-4 in the distal muscles (the MRC score before the treatment was 3-4 and 1-3, respectively). The MIRS grade improved by 25% compared to baseline for both patients. In patient #1, the Modified Barthel Index improved by 44%, and in patient #2 by 29%. These findings suggest that clinical outcomes are improved by long-term thiamine treatment.

  16. Effects of combined heat and ionizing radiation on thiamine (Vitamin B1) content in model systems and food matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.; Shoemaker, L.; McDougall, T.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of heat and radiation on thiamine stability are being studied both singly and in combination. Heat, γ-radiation and a combination of them were applied to a model system consisting of 2 x 10 -5 M thiamine hydrochloride in 0.01N HCl (pH=2.5), and their effects are reported. The effects of these two agents on thiamine in two food matrices, concentrated orange juice and green peas, are also reported. Heat was not found to have a significant effect on thiamine in the model system at temperatures up to 120 0 C for up to 60 min of treatment. A small, but significant heat effect was found in the two foods. The retention of thiamine in the model system and in the two foods decreased exponentially as the radiation dose increased. The degradation of thiamine by γ-radiation in both foods was a factor of 10 less than that observed in the model system. A small, but significant synergistic effect was found when samples of the model system were heated at 120 0 C for one hour 24 h after irradiation. (author)

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, ... excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body ...

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Underivatized Vitamin B1 and B6 in Whole Blood by Reversed Phase Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puts, Johan; de Groot, Monique; Haex, Martin; Jakobs, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin B1 (thiamine-diphosphate) and B6 (pyridoxal-5’phosphate) are micronutrients. Analysis of these micronutrients is important to diagnose potential deficiency which often occurs in elderly people due to malnutrition, in severe alcoholism and in gastrointestinal compromise due to bypass surgery or disease. Existing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) based methods include the need for derivatization and long analysis time. We developed an Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) assay with internal standards for simultaneous measurement of underivatized thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5’phosphate without use of ion pairing reagent. Methods Whole blood, deproteinized with perchloric acid, containing deuterium labelled internal standards thiamine-diphosphate(thiazole-methyl-D3) and pyridoxal-5’phosphate(methyl-D3), was analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated for imprecision, linearity, recovery and limit of quantification. Alternate (quantitative) method comparisons of the new versus currently used routine HPLC methods were established with Deming regression. Results Thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5’phosphate were measured within 2.5 minutes instrumental run time. Limits of detection were 2.8 nmol/L and 7.8 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5’phosphate respectively. Limit of quantification was 9.4 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and 25.9 nmol/L for pyridoxal-5’phosphate. The total imprecision ranged from 3.5–7.7% for thiamine-diphosphate (44–157 nmol/L) and 6.0–10.4% for pyridoxal-5’phosphate (30–130 nmol/L). Extraction recoveries were 101–102% ± 2.5% (thiamine-diphosphate) and 98–100% ± 5% (pyridoxal-5’phosphate). Deming regression yielded slopes of 0.926 and 0.990 in patient samples (n = 282) and national proficiency testing samples (n = 12) respectively, intercepts of +3.5 and +3 for thiamine-diphosphate (n = 282 and n = 12) and slopes of

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Underivatized Vitamin B1 and B6 in Whole Blood by Reversed Phase Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Puts

    Full Text Available Vitamin B1 (thiamine-diphosphate and B6 (pyridoxal-5'phosphate are micronutrients. Analysis of these micronutrients is important to diagnose potential deficiency which often occurs in elderly people due to malnutrition, in severe alcoholism and in gastrointestinal compromise due to bypass surgery or disease. Existing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC based methods include the need for derivatization and long analysis time. We developed an Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS assay with internal standards for simultaneous measurement of underivatized thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate without use of ion pairing reagent.Whole blood, deproteinized with perchloric acid, containing deuterium labelled internal standards thiamine-diphosphate(thiazole-methyl-D3 and pyridoxal-5'phosphate(methyl-D3, was analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated for imprecision, linearity, recovery and limit of quantification. Alternate (quantitative method comparisons of the new versus currently used routine HPLC methods were established with Deming regression.Thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate were measured within 2.5 minutes instrumental run time. Limits of detection were 2.8 nmol/L and 7.8 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate respectively. Limit of quantification was 9.4 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and 25.9 nmol/L for pyridoxal-5'phosphate. The total imprecision ranged from 3.5-7.7% for thiamine-diphosphate (44-157 nmol/L and 6.0-10.4% for pyridoxal-5'phosphate (30-130 nmol/L. Extraction recoveries were 101-102% ± 2.5% (thiamine-diphosphate and 98-100% ± 5% (pyridoxal-5'phosphate. Deming regression yielded slopes of 0.926 and 0.990 in patient samples (n = 282 and national proficiency testing samples (n = 12 respectively, intercepts of +3.5 and +3 for thiamine-diphosphate (n = 282 and n = 12 and slopes of 1.04 and 0.84, intercepts of -2.9 and +20 for

  20. Dietary B Vitamin Intake Is Associated with Lower Urinary Monomethyl Arsenic and Oxidative Stress Marker 15-F2t-Isoprostane among New Hampshire Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Caitlin G; Li, Zhigang; Zens, Michael S; Palys, Thomas; Chen, Yu; Channon, Jacqueline Y; Karagas, Margaret R; Farzan, Shohreh F

    2017-12-01

    Background: Arsenic exposure has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Growing evidence suggests that B vitamins facilitate arsenic metabolism and may protect against arsenic toxicity. However, to our knowledge, few studies have evaluated this in US populations. Objective: Our objective was to examine whether higher B vitamin intake is associated with enhanced arsenic metabolism and lower concentrations of preclinical markers of CVD among New Hampshire adults. Methods: We used weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression to evaluate the collective impact of 6 dietary B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, and vitamins B-6 and B-12) on 1 ) the proportion of arsenic metabolites in urine and 2 ) 6 CVD-related markers [including urinary 15-F 2t -isoprostane (15-F 2t -IsoP)] among 418 participants (26-75 y of age) from the New Hampshire Health Study. Contributions of arsenic metabolites to B vitamin-CVD marker associations were also explored in structural equation models. Results: In WQS models, the weighted sum of B vitamin intakes from food sources was inversely associated with the proportion of monomethyl arsenic species in urine (uMMA) (β: -1.03; 95% CI: -1.91, -0.15; P = 0.02). Thiamin and vitamins B-6 and B-12 contributed the most to this association, whereas riboflavin had a negligible effect. Higher overall B vitamin intake was also inversely associated with 15-F 2t -IsoP (β: -0.21; 95% CI: -0.32, -0.11; P B vitamins, which was partially explained by differences in the proportion of uMMA (indirect effect β: -0.01; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.00). Conclusions: Among New Hampshire adults, higher intakes of certain B vitamins (particularly thiamin and vitamins B-6 and B-12 from food sources) may reduce the proportion of uMMA, an intermediate of arsenic metabolism that has been associated with an increased risk of CVD. Higher overall B vitamin intake may also reduce urinary 15-F 2t -IsoP, a marker of oxidative stress and potential risk

  1. One-electron redox reactions of water-soluble vitamins. IV. Thiamin (vitamin B1), biotin, and pantothenic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorthy, P.N.; Hayon, E.

    1977-01-01

    The technique of pulse radiolysis and kinetic absorption spectrophotometry was used to study the one-electron reduction of thiamin, thiazole, 4-aminopyrimidine, biotin, and pantothenic acid in aqueous solution. The acetone ketyl radical and e/sub aq/ - were used as the one-electron reducing agents. The reaction rate constants of e/sub aq/ - and (CH 3 ) 2 COH with these compounds were determined at different pH values, taking into account the dissociation constants of the substrates. The transient optical absorption spectra of the intermediates produced, their extinction coefficients, decay kinetics, and ionization constants were determined. One-electron reduction of the thiazolium ring of thiamin is suggested, based on the formation of dihydrothiamin as a final product. Other assignments for these radicals are suggested and discussed. The reaction of OH radicals with biotin and pantothenic acid leads, primarily, to H atom abstraction at various sites in the molecule. The formation and ionization of the -C(OH)CONH- radical from pantothenic acid, pK/sub a/ = 6.0 +- 0.3, is proposed

  2. Thiamine status in humans and content of phosphorylated thiamine derivatives in biopsies and cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Gangolf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thiamine (vitamin B1 is an essential molecule for all life forms because thiamine diphosphate (ThDP is an indispensable cofactor for oxidative energy metabolism. The less abundant thiamine monophosphate (ThMP, thiamine triphosphate (ThTP and adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP, present in many organisms, may have still unidentified physiological functions. Diseases linked to thiamine deficiency (polyneuritis, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome remain frequent among alcohol abusers and other risk populations. This is the first comprehensive study on the distribution of thiamine derivatives in human biopsies, body fluids and cell lines. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thiamine derivatives were determined by HPLC. In human tissues, the total thiamine content is lower than in other animal species. ThDP is the major thiamine compound and tissue levels decrease at high age. In semen, ThDP content correlates with the concentration of spermatozoa but not with their motility. The proportion of ThTP is higher in humans than in rodents, probably because of a lower 25-kDa ThTPase activity. The expression and activity of this enzyme seems to correlate with the degree of cell differentiation. ThTP was present in nearly all brain and muscle samples and in ∼60% of other tissue samples, in particular fetal tissue and cultured cells. A low ([ThTP]+[ThMP]/([Thiamine]+[ThMP] ratio was found in cardiovascular tissues of patients with cardiac insufficiency. AThTP was detected only sporadically in adult tissues but was found more consistently in fetal tissues and cell lines. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The high sensitivity of humans to thiamine deficiency is probably linked to low circulating thiamine concentrations and low ThDP tissue contents. ThTP levels are relatively high in many human tissues, as a result of low expression of the 25-kDa ThTPase. Another novel finding is the presence of ThTP and AThTP in poorly differentiated fast-growing cells

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and ... into the body with the use of bile acids, which are fluids used to absorb fat. The ...

  4. B-vitamin interventions for women and children in low-income populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Sumathi; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura V

    2015-05-01

    This review examines the effect of B vitamins on women and child health from recent evidence available. Findings were related to functional outcomes. In terms of foetal growth, although supplementation with B12 increased B12 status of nonpregnant and pregnant women and infants, maternal plasma homocysteine, which is related to multiple deficiencies of vitamin B12, B6, riboflavin or folate, has been shown to be associated with lower birth size rather than solely plasma B12. However, an experimental study with thiamine supplementation showed improvement in status in thiamine-deficient mothers and breast milk concentration, but not in infant status. Given the multiple aetiology of anaemia, the use of multiple micronutrient fortification has expectedly shown a reduction in anaemia prevalence in women. Furthermore, these micronutrients can interact with each other: high maternal folate intakes coupled with low B12 intakes were associated with a higher risk of delivering a small-for-gestational age infant. A high maternal plasma folate was also associated with insulin resistance in children aged 9.5 and 13.5 years. Interventions with B vitamins were found to be efficacious in improving the status in women and children. In multiple micronutrient supplementation programmes, the optimum composition of the supplement needs to be determined. The deleterious effect of high folate intakes with low B12 intakes needs to be explored further.

  5. Influence of Vitamin B Auxotrophy on Nitrogen Metabolism in Eukaryotic Phytoplankton

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    Erin M Bertrand

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While nitrogen availability is known to limit primary production in large parts of the ocean, vitamin starvation amongst eukaryotic phytoplankton is becoming increasingly recognized as an oceanographically relevant phenomenon. Cobalamin (B12 and thiamine (B1 auxotrophy are widespread throughout eukaryotic phytoplankton, with over 50% of cultured isolates requiring B12 and 20% requiring B1. The frequency of vitamin auxotrophy in harmful algal bloom species is even higher. Instances of colimitation between nitrogen and B vitamins have been observed in marine environments, and interactions between these nutrients have been shown to impact phytoplankton species composition. This review evaluates the potential for interactive effects of nitrogen and vitamin B12 and B1 starvation in eukaryotic phytoplankton. B12 plays essential roles in amino acid and one-carbon metabolism, while B1 is important for primary carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and likely useful as an anti-oxidant. Here we will focus on three potential metabolic interconnections between vitamin, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism that may have ramifications for the role of vitamin and nitrogen scarcities in driving ocean productivity and species composition. These include: (1 B12, B1, and N starvation impacts on osmolyte and antioxidant production, (2 B12 and B1 starvation impacts on polyamine biosynthesis, and (3 influence of B12 and B1 starvation on the diatom urea cycle and amino acid recycling through impacts on the citric acid cycle. We evaluate evidence for these interconnections and identify oceanographic contexts in which each may impact rates of primary production and phytoplankton community composition. Major implications include that B12 and B1 deprivation may impair the ability of phytoplankton to recover from nitrogen starvation and that changes in vitamin and nitrogen availability may synergistically impact harmful algal bloom formation.

  6. Thiamin and riboflavin vitamers in human milk: effects of lipid-based nutrient supplementation and stage of lactation on vitamer secretion and contributions to total vitamin content

    Science.gov (United States)

    While thiamin and riboflavin in breast milk have been analyzed for over 50 years, less attention has been given to the different forms of each vitamin. Thiamin-monophosphate (TMP) and free thiamin contribute to total thiamin content; flavin adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and free riboflavin are the main...

  7. Influence of concentration on the radiolytic decomposition of thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Albarrán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin loss during irradiation has been claimed as a critical area in food irradiation technology, especially that of thiamine (B1, which has been considered as the most sensitive to radiation. Although it has been suggested that no vitamin deficiency could result from consuming irradiated food, a long debate on the loss of vitamins and other nutrients during food irradiation has been maintained by the lack of experimental studies monitoring decomposition rates at different concentrations and doses. Since thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine are labile vitamins, this study has focused on their radiolytic decomposition in dilute aqueous solutions in the presence of air. The decomposition process was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a nonlinear function of the dose. Of these three compounds, the decomposition was higher for thiamine than for riboflavin and even less in pyridoxine.

  8. Effects of combined heat and ionizing radiation on thiamine (Vitamin B sub 1 ) content in model systems and food matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.; Shoemaker, L.; McDougall, T. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment)

    1989-01-01

    The effects of heat and radiation on thiamine stability are being studied both singly and in combination. Heat, {gamma}-radiation and a combination of them were applied to a model system consisting of 2 x 10{sup -5}M thiamine hydrochloride in 0.01N HCl (pH=2.5), and their effects are reported. The effects of these two agents on thiamine in two food matrices, concentrated orange juice and green peas, are also reported. Heat was not found to have a significant effect on thiamine in the model system at temperatures up to 120{sup 0}C for up to 60 min of treatment. A small, but significant heat effect was found in the two foods. The retention of thiamine in the model system and in the two foods decreased exponentially as the radiation dose increased. The degradation of thiamine by {gamma}-radiation in both foods was a factor of 10 less than that observed in the model system. A small, but significant synergistic effect was found when samples of the model system were heated at 120{sup 0}C for one hour 24 h after irradiation. (author).

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin ... providers before combining or substituting them with other foods or medicines." Frankos adds, "Do not self-diagnose ...

  10. High-concentrate diets based on forages harvested at different maturity stages affect ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnino, D S; Kammes, K L; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2017-04-01

    Effects of plant maturity on apparent ruminal synthesis and post-ruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in two feeding trials. Diets containing alfalfa (Trial 1) or orchardgrass (Trial 2) silages harvested either (1) early cut, less mature (EC) or (2) late cut, more mature (LC) as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. In Trial 1, conducted with 16 cows (569±43 kg of empty BW (ruminal content removed) and 43.7±8.6 kg/day of 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield; mean±SD) in two 17-day treatment periods, both diets provided ~22% forage NDF and 27% total NDF, and the forage-to-concentrate ratios were 53 : 47 and 42 : 58 for EC and LC, respectively. In Trial 2, conducted with 13 cows (588±55 kg of empty BW and 43.7±7.7 kg/day of 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield; mean±SD) in two 18-day treatment periods, both diets provided ~25% forage NDF and 31% total NDF; the forage-to-concentrate ratios were 58 : 42 and 46 : 54 for EC and LC, respectively. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates and vitamin B12 were measured in feed and duodenal content. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. Diets based on EC alfalfa decreased the amounts of thiamin, niacin and folates reaching the duodenum, whereas diets based on EC orchardgrass increased riboflavin duodenal flow. Daily apparent ruminal synthesis of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin B6 were correlated negatively with their intake, suggesting a microbial regulation of their concentration in the rumen. Vitamin B12 apparent ruminal synthesis was correlated negatively with total volatile fatty acids concentration, but positively with ruminal pH and microbial N duodenal flow.

  11. Effect of probiotic and storage time of thiamine and riboflavin content in the milk drinks fermented by Lactobacillus casei KNE-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drywień, Małgorzata; Frąckiewicz, Joanna; Górnicka, Magdalena; Gadek, Joanna; Jałosińska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Fermented milk drinks are unique products due to content of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium that are recognized as probiotics. They are a natural component of the colon microbiota as well as commonly used probiotics in functional food. The effects of the storage time and prebiotic type (inuline or oligofructose) were studied in banana-milk drink after fermentation by Lactobacillus casei KNE-1 on the thiamine and riboflavin concentrations. The material for the study was fermented fruit milk drinks: banana-milk prepared in laboratory conditions and fruit milk drinks purchased in a local shop, as a comparative material. The thiamine was determined by thiochrome method and the riboflavin was determined by fluorometric method. The storage time after the end of the fermentation process did not increase the content of thiamine and riboflavin in fermented banana-milk drink more than the output level. The addition of oligofructose significantly affected the synthesis of thiamine by Lactobacillus casei KNE-1 irrespectively of the storage time. The storage time but not the type of prebiotic affected the riboflavin concentration. Taking into account the highest content of both vitamins, the banana-milk drink fermented by Lactobacillus casei KNE-1 should be consumed immediately or 24 days after fermentation. This information could be used by manufacturers for the planning of technological process. The content of thiamine and riboflavin in the fermented milk drinks is the result of the type of prebiotic, the individual bacterial strain properties as well as the storage time. These factors should be investigated to optimize the content of B vitamins in fermented milk drinks in the future.

  12. [Evaluation of sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 of newborn infants feeding different types of nutrition, by means of urinary excretion determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Pereverzeva, O G; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Pustograev, N N

    2015-01-01

    With the help of non-invasive methods the sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 in 58 newborns (38-40 weeks of gestation) on breastfeeding as well as on mixed or artificial feeding has been evaluated. Urinary excretion and breast content of ascorbic acid (measured by visual titration), thiamin (by thiochrome fluorimetric method) andriboflavin (fluorimetrically by titration with riboflavin-binding protein) was determined on the 3-10th day after birth. 35 infants were exclusively breastfed. 40% of their mothers regularly took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy and 42.9%--both during pregnancy and after childbirth, 17.1% did not use vitamin complexes either duringpregnancy or after childbearing. The content of vitamins C, B1 and B2 in the breast milk of women who did not additionally intake vitamins during pregnancy and lactation, was reduced compared with that of mothers who took multivitamin supplements, and provided only a half of the needs of their child in these vitamins. All these babies have urinary excretion of vitamins below the lower limit of norm. Among infants whose mothers took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy, but stop taking them immediately after their birth, only 28.6% of newborns were provided with vitamin C, while all the children identified a lack of vitamins By and B2. The insufficiency with vitamins C and B1 was detected in one third of children breastfed by mothers who took vitamins during pregnancy and continued intaking them after birth, adequate supplied with vitamin B2 was 35.7% of the surveyed. Determination of vitamin urinary excretion (perg creatinine) is useful for vitamin status evaluation. The content of vitamins in breast milk can be used for assessment of vitamin status both a nursing woman and her child. Taking into consideration that the diet of a breastfeeding woman is not always the best, there is no doubt about the need to continue multivitamin intake during breastfeeding. The question on the doses of vitamins

  13. Determination of B-complex vitamins in pharmaceutical formulations by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, Benedito Roberto Alvarenga; Soares, Frederico Luis Felipe; Ardila, Jorge Armando; Durango, Luis Guillermo Cuadrado; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Carneiro, Renato Lajarim

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify B-complex vitamins in pharmaceutical samples by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy technique using gold colloid substrate. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed according to an adapted Turkevich method. Initial essays were able to suggest the orientation of molecules on gold nanoparticles surface. Central Composite design was performed to obtain the highest SERS signal for nicotinamide and riboflavin. The evaluated parameters in the experimental design were volume of AuNPs, concentration of vitamins and sodium chloride concentration. The best condition for nicotinamide was NaCl 2.3 × 10- 3 mol L- 1 and 700 μL of AuNPs colloid and this same condition showed to be adequate to quantify thiamine. The experimental design for riboflavin shows the best condition at NaCl 1.15 × 10- 2 mol L- 1 and 2.8 mL of AuNPs colloid. It was possible to quantify thiamine and nicotinamide in presence of others vitamins and excipients in two solid multivitamin formulations using the standard addition procedure. The standard addition curve presented a R2 higher than 0.96 for both nicotinamide and thiamine, at orders of magnitude 10- 7 and 10- 8 mol L- 1, respectively. The nicotinamide content in a cosmetic gel sample was also quantified by direct analysis presenting R2 0.98. The t-student test presented no significant difference regarding HPLC method. Despite the experimental design performed for riboflavin, it was not possible its quantification in the commercial samples.

  14. Analyzing B-vitamins in Human Milk: Methodological Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Daniela; Allen, Lindsay H

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life. However, there is insufficient information about the concentration of nutrients in human milk. For some nutrients, including B-vitamins, maternal intake affects their concentration in human milk but the extent to which inadequate maternal diets affect milk B-vitamin content is poorly documented. Little is known about infant requirements for B-vitamins; recommendations are generally set as Adequate Intakes (AI) calculated on the basis of the mean volume of milk (0.78 L/day) consumed by infants exclusively fed with human milk from well-nourished mothers during the first six months, and the concentration of each vitamin in milk based on reported values. Methods used for analyzing B-vitamins, commonly microbiological, radioisotope dilution or more recently chromatographic, coupled with UV, fluorometric and MS detection, have rarely been validated for the complex human milk matrix. Thus the validity, accuracy, and sensitivity of analytical methods is important for understanding infant requirements for these nutrients, the maternal intakes needed to support adequate concentrations in breast milk. This review summarizes current knowledge on methods used for analyzing the B-vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6 and pantothenic acid, vitamin B-12, folate, biotin, and choline in human milk, their chemical and physical properties, the different forms and changes in concentration during lactation, and the effects of deficiency on the infant.

  15. Plasma concentrations of water.soluble vitamins in metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Vitamins B1 (thiamine), B3 (niacin), B6 (pyridoxine), and C (ascorbic acid) are vital for energy, carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism and in the regulation of the cellular redox state. Some studies have associated low levels of water.soluble vitamins with metabolic syndrome and its various components.

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). AAFP cites two ... flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): Nerve damage to the ...

  17. Spectrofluorimetric determination of some water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdel-Maaboud I; Mohamed, Horria A; Abdel-Latif, Niveen M; Mohamed, Marwa R

    2011-01-01

    Two simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for determination of three water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, and B6) in mixtures in the presence of cyanocobalamin. The first one was for thiamine determination, which depends on the oxidation of thiamine HCl to thiochrome by iodine in an alkaline medium. The method was applied accurately to determine thiamine in binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures with pyridoxine HCl, riboflavin, and cyanocobalamin without interference. In the second method, riboflavin and pyridoxine HCl were determined fluorimetrically in acetate buffer, pH 6. The three water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, and B6) were determined spectrofluorimetrically in binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures in the presence of cyanocobalamin. All variables were studied in order to optimize the reaction conditions. Linear relationship was obeyed for all studied vitamins by the proposed methods at their corresponding lambda(exc) or lambda(em). The linear calibration curves were obtained from 10 to 500 ng/mL; the correlation ranged from 0.9991 to 0.9999. The suggested procedures were applied to the analysis of the investigated vitamins in their laboratory-prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical dosage forms from different manufacturers. The RSD range was 0.46-1.02%, which indicates good precision. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical additives. Good recoveries (97.6 +/- 0.7-101.2 +/- 0.8%) were obtained. Statistical comparison of the results with reported methods shows excellent agreement and indicates no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ... magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin ...

  19. Thiamine deficiency impairs common eider (Somateria mollissima) reproduction in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörner, Torsten; Hansson, Tomas; Carlsson, Le; Berg, Anna-Lena; Ruiz Muñoz, Yolanda; Gustavsson, Hanna; Mattsson, Roland; Balk, Lennart

    2017-10-31

    The Baltic Sea population of the common eider (Somateria mollissima) has declined dramatically during the last two decades. Recently, widespread episodic thiamine (vitamin B 1 ) deficiency has been demonstrated in feral birds and suggested to contribute significantly to declining populations. Here we show that the decline of the common eider population in the Baltic Sea is paralleled by high mortality of the pulli a few days after hatch, owing to thiamine deficiency and probably also thereby associated abnormal behaviour resulting in high gull predation. An experiment with artificially incubated common eider eggs collected in the field revealed that thiamine treatment of pulli had a therapeutic effect on the thiamine status of the brain and prevented death. The mortality was 53% in untreated specimens, whereas it was only 7% in thiamine treated specimens. Inability to dive was also linked to brain damage typical for thiamine deficiency. Our results demonstrate how thiamine deficiency causes a range of symptoms in the common eider pulli, as well as massive die-offs a few days after hatch, which probably are the major explanation of the recent dramatic population declines.

  20. Effect of irradiation dose and irradiation temperature on the thiamin content of raw and cooked chicken breast meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, W.D.; Stevenson, M.H.; Stewart, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of ionising radiation for the elimination of pathogenic bacteria in poultry meat has been well documented as have the effects of this processing treatment on the nutritional status of the food, in particular, the vitamins. Unfortunately, much of the earlier research carried out on the effect of irradiation on vitamins was carried out in solution or in model systems at doses much greater than those used commercially thereby resulting in considerable destruction of these compounds. Thus, those opposed to the process of food irradiation labelled the treated food as nutritionally poor. However, in reality, due to the complexity of food systems the effects of irradiation on vitamins are generally not as marked and many processes, for example cooking, cause the same degree of change to the vitamins. Thiamin (vitamin B1) is the most radiation sensitive of the water-soluble vitamins and is therefore a good indicator of the effect of irradiation treatment. In this study the effects of irradiation at either 4°C or −20°C followed by cooking on the thiamin content of chicken breast meat was determined. Results showed that whilst both irradiation and cooking resulted in a decrease in thiamin concentration, the losses incurred were unlikely to be of nutritional significance and could be further minimised by irradiating the chicken meat at a low temperature. Thiamin analyses were carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography since this technique is faster and more selective than the chemical or microbiological methods more commonly employed. Total thiamin, both free and combined form, was determined following acid and enzyme hydrolysis. © 1998 Society of Chemical Industry

  1. Thiamin and Riboflavin in Human Milk: Effects of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplementation and Stage of Lactation on Vitamer Secretion and Contributions to Total Vitamin Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E; Flax, Valerie L; Jamieson, Denise J; Ellington, Sascha R; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S; Kamwendo, Debbie; Allen, Lindsay H

    2016-01-01

    While thiamin and riboflavin in breast milk have been analyzed for over 50 years, less attention has been given to the different forms of each vitamin. Thiamin-monophosphate (TMP) and free thiamin contribute to total thiamin content; flavin adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and free riboflavin are the main contributors to total riboflavin. We analyzed milk collected at 2 (n = 258) or 6 (n = 104), and 24 weeks (n = 362) from HIV-infected Malawian mothers within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) study, randomly assigned at delivery to lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) or a control group, to investigate each vitamer's contribution to total milk vitamin content and the effects of supplementation on the different thiamin and riboflavin vitamers at early and later stages of lactation, and obtain insight into the transport and distribution of these vitamers in human milk. Thiamin vitamers were derivatized into thiochrome-esters and analyzed by high-performance liquid-chromatography-fluorescence-detection (HPLC-FLD). Riboflavin and FAD were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry (ULPC-MS/MS). Thiamin-pyrophosphate (TPP), identified here for the first time in breast milk, contributed 1.9-4.5% to total thiamin. Free thiamin increased significantly from 2/6 to 24 weeks regardless of treatment indicating an active transport of this vitamer in milk. LNS significantly increased TMP and free thiamin only at 2 weeks compared to the control: median 170 versus 151 μg/L (TMP), 13.3 versus 10.5 μg/L (free thiamin, priboflavin was consistently and significantly increased with LNS (range: 14.8-19.6 μg/L (LNS) versus 5.0-7.4 μg/L (control), priboflavin relative amounts from 92-94:6-8% to 85:15%, indicating a preferred secretion of the free form into breast milk. The continuous presence of FAD in breast milk suggests an active transport and secretion system for this vitamer or possibly formation of this co-enymatic form in the

  2. Suboptimal Vitamin B Intakes of Zambian Preschool Children: Evaluation of 24-Hour Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titcomb, Tyler J; Schmaelzle, Samantha T; Nuss, Emily T; Gregory, Jesse F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2018-06-01

    Hidden hunger affects individuals who chronically consume an inadequate intake of at least 1 micronutrient and is associated with low dietary diversity. Little data are available on dietary intake or status assessment of B vitamins among preschool children in Zambia. The aim of this study was to assess 24-hour dietary recall records obtained from Zambian children aged 3 to 7 years for B vitamin intake in relation to adequacy and change over time in the same community. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from 2 studies that were 2 years apart in the same district of Zambia. Data were retrospectively analyzed for B vitamin intake, that is, biotin, vitamin B 12 , folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B 6 , riboflavin, and thiamin. The estimated average requirement (EAR) cut point method was used to assess inadequacy prevalence for EARs established by the Institute of Medicine in the United States. For all B vitamins, mean values were below the EARs established for children 4 to 8 years old. Relative to the EAR, children had the highest intakes of vitamin B 6 with inadequacies of 77.9% and 60.1% in 2010 and 2012, respectively. The highest prevalence of inadequate intake was associated with folate, where ≥95% of the children had intakes below the EAR in both studies. All median vitamin B intakes were inadequate among these young children in rural Zambia. Future researchers and policy makers may need to consider B vitamin status in resource-poor areas of the country.

  3. B-Vitamin Intake from Diet and Supplements and Breast Cancer Risk in Middle-Aged Women: Results from the Prospective NutriNet-Santé Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnell, Manon; Fassier, Philippine; Lécuyer, Lucie; Zelek, Laurent; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Galan, Pilar; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Touvier, Mathilde

    2017-05-13

    Experimental studies suggest a protective effect of B-vitamins on breast cancer risk, potentially modulated by alcohol intake. However, epidemiological studies are limited, especially regarding non-folate B-vitamins. Furthermore, few studies included quantitative assessment of supplemental intake. This prospective study aimed to investigate the associations between intakes of B-vitamins (dietary, supplemental, total) and breast cancer risk. 27,853 women aged ≥45 years from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2016) were included, with a median follow-up time of 4.2 years. Dietary data were collected using repeated 24 h records. A specific questionnaire assessed dietary supplement use over a 12-month period. A composition database of 8000 supplements was developed. Associations were characterized by multivariable Cox models, and 462 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Dietary (HR Q4vs.Q1 = 0.74 (0.55, 0.99), P -trend = 0.05), supplemental (HR Q4vs.Q1 = 0.61 (0.38, 0.98), P -trend = 0.05), and total (HR Q4vs.Q1 = 0.67 (0.50, 0.91), P -trend = 0.01) pyridoxine intakes were inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Total thiamin intake was borderline inversely associated with breast cancer risk (HR per 1-unit increment = 0.78 (0.61, 1.00), P = 0.05). Statistically significant interactions between alcohol consumption and B-vitamin (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folate, and cobalamin) supplemental intake were observed, the latter being inversely associated with breast cancer risk in non-to-low alcohol drinkers but not in higher drinkers. This large prospective study, including quantitative assessment of supplemental intake, suggests a potential protective effect of pyridoxine and thiamin on breast cancer risk in middle-aged women.

  4. Genomic distribution of B-vitamin auxotrophy and uptake transporters in environmental bacteria from the Chloroflexi phylum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionova, Irina A.; Li, Xiaoqing; Plymale, Andrew E.; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Konopka, Allan; Romine, Margaret F.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Osterman, Andrei; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

    2015-04-01

    Bacteria from the Chloroflexi phylum are dominant members of phototrophic microbial mat communities in terrestrial thermal environments. Vitamins of B-group are key intermediates (precursors) in the biosynthesis of indispensable enzyme cofactors driving numerous metabolic processes in all forms of life. A genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of respective biosynthetic and salvage pathways and riboswitch regulons in over 20 representative Chloroflexi genomes revealed a widespread auxotrophy for some of the vitamins. The most prominent predicted phenotypic signature, auxotrophy for vitamins B1 and B7 was experimentally confirmed for the best studied model organism Chloroflexus aurantiacus. These observations along with identified candidate genes for the respective uptake transporters pointed to B vitamin exchange as an important aspect of syntrophic metabolism in microbial communities. Inferred specificities of homologous substrate-binding components of ABC transporters for vitamins B1 (ThiY) and B2 (RibY) were verified by thermofluorescent shift approach. A functional activity of the thiamine-specific transporter ThiXYZ from C. aurantiacus was experimentally verified by genetic complementation in E. coli. Expanding the integrative approach, which was applied here for a comprehensive analysis of B-vitamin metabolism in Chloroflexi would allow reconstruction of metabolic interdependencies in microbial communities.

  5. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1, niacin (vitamin B3, pyridoxine (vitamin B6, and menadione (vitamin K3. In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (10⁶ colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml. Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould.

  6. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yang, Hye Ji; Kim, Do Hoon; Sung, Chang Hyun; Park, Chang-Jin; Chang, Seog Won

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea , respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and menadione (vitamin K3). In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (10 6 colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml). Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea . The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea . Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould.

  7. Effects of thiamine and benfotiamine on intracellular glucose metabolism and relevance in the prevention of diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, Elena; Berrone, Elena; Tarallo, Sonia; Porta, Massimo

    2008-09-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential cofactor in most organisms and is required at several stages of anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism, such as intracellular glucose metabolism, and is also a modulator of neuronal and neuro-muscular transmission. Lack of thiamine or defects in its intracellular transport can cause a number of severe disorders. Thiamine acts as a coenzyme for transketolase (TK) and for the pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes, enzymes which play a fundamental role for intracellular glucose metabolism. In particular, TK is able to shift excess fructose-6-phosphate and glycerhaldeyde-3-phosphate from glycolysis into the pentose-phosphate shunt, thus eliminating these potentially damaging metabolites from the cytosol. Diabetes might be considered a thiamine-deficient state, if not in absolute terms at least relative to the increased requirements deriving from accelerated and amplified glucose metabolism in non-insulin dependent tissues that, like the vessel wall, are prone to complications. A thiamine/TK activity deficiency has been described in diabetic patients, the correction of which by thiamine and/or its lipophilic derivative, benfotiamine, has been demonstrated in vitro to counteract the damaging effects of hyperglycaemia on vascular cells. Little is known, however, on the positive effects of thiamine/benfotiamine administration in diabetic patients, apart from the possible amelioration of neuropathic symptoms. Clinical trials on diabetic patients would be necessary to test this vitamin as a potential and inexpensive approach to the prevention and/or treatment of diabetic vascular complications.

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, ... comes to purchasing dietary supplements, Vasilios Frankos, Ph.D., Director of FDA's Division of Dietary Supplement Programs, ...

  9. Effect of fasting on the urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Erina; Takahashi, Kei; Shibata, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the urinary excretion of the water-soluble vitamins can be useful as a nutritional index. To determine how fasting affects urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, a human study and an animal experiment were conducted. In the human study, the 24-h urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in 12 healthy Japanese adults fasting for a day was measured. One-day fasting drastically decreased urinary thiamin content to 30%, and increased urinary riboflavin content by 3-fold. Other water-soluble vitamin contents did not show significant change by fasting. To further investigate the alterations of water-soluble vitamin status by starvation, rats were starved for 3 d, and water-soluble vitamin contents in the liver, blood and urine were measured during starvation. Urinary excretion of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B(6) metabolite 4-pyridoxic acid, nicotinamide metabolites and folate decreased during starvation, but that of vitamin B(12), pantothenic acid and biotin did not. As for blood vitamin levels, only blood vitamin B(1), plasma PLP and plasma folate levels decreased with starvation. All water-soluble vitamin contents in the liver decreased during starvation, whereas vitamin concentrations in the liver did not decrease. Starvation decreased only concentrations of vitamin B(12) and folate in the skeletal muscle. These results suggest that water-soluble vitamins were released from the liver, and supplied to the peripheral tissues to maintain vitamin nutrition. Our human study also suggested that the effect of fasting should be taken into consideration for subjects showing low urinary thiamin and high urinary riboflavin.

  10. Enhancement of Thiamine Biosynthesis in Oil Palm Seedlings by Colonization of Endophytic Fungus Hendersonia toruloidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Amirah N.; Lai, Kok S.; Lamasudin, Dhilia U.; Idris, Abu S.; Balia Yusof, Zetty N.

    2017-01-01

    Thiamine, or vitamin B1 plays an indispensable role as a cofactor in crucial metabolic reactions including glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in all living organisms. Thiamine has been shown to play a role in plant adaptation toward biotic and abiotic stresses. The modulation of thiamine biosynthetic genes in oil palm seedlings was evaluated in response to root colonization by endophytic Hendersonia toruloidea. Seven-month-old oil palm seedlings were inoculated with H. toruloidea and microscopic analyses were performed to visualize the localization of endophytic H. toruloidea in oil palm roots. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that H. toruloidea colonized cortical cells. The expression of thiamine biosynthetic genes and accumulation of total thiamine in oil palm seedlings were also evaluated. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to measure transcript abundances of four key thiamine biosynthesis genes (THI4, THIC, TH1, and TPK) on days 1, 7, 15, and 30 in response to H. toruloidea colonization. The results showed an increase of up to 12-fold in the expression of all gene transcripts on day 1 post-inoculation. On days 7, 15, and 30 post-inoculation, the relative expression levels of these genes were shown to be downregulated. Thiamine accumulation was observed on day 7 post-colonization and subsequently decreased until day 30. This work provides the first evidence for the enhancement of thiamine biosynthesis by endophytic colonization in oil palm seedlings. PMID:29089959

  11. Thiamine Deficiency Induces Anorexia by Inhibiting Hypothalamic AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Alimov, Alexander; Wang, Haiping; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Katz, Wendy; Xu, Mei; Ke, Zun-Ji; Luo, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and eating disorders are prevailing health concerns worldwide. It is important to understand the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient. Thiamine deficiency (TD) can cause a number of disorders in humans, such as Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. We demonstrated here that TD caused anorexia in C57BL/6 mice. After feeding a TD diet for 16 days, the mice displayed a significant decrease in food intake and an increase in resting energy expenditure (REE), which resulted in a severe weight loss. At the 22nd day, the food intake was reduced by 69% and 74% for male and female mice, respectively in TD group. The REE increased by 9 folds in TD group. The loss of body weight (17–24%) was similar between male and female animals and mainly resulted from the reduction of fat mass (49% decrease). Re-supplementation of thiamine (benfotiamine) restored animal's appetite, leading to a total recovery of body weight. The hypothalamic AMPK is a critical regulator of food intake. TD inhibited the phosphorylation of AMPK in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus without affecting its expression. TD-induced inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation was reversed once thiamine was re-supplemented. In contrast, TD increased AMPK phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle and upregulated the uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 in brown adipose tissues which was consistent with increased basal energy expenditure. Re-administration of thiamine stabilized AMPK phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle as well as energy expenditure. Taken together, TD may induce anorexia by inhibiting hypothalamic AMPK activity. With a simultaneous increase in energy expenditure, TD caused an overall body weight loss. The results suggest that the status of thiamine levels in the body may affect food intake and body weight. PMID:24607345

  12. B-vitamin status and concentrations of homocysteine in Austrian omnivores, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, D; Singer, I; Männer, M; Rust, P; Genser, D; Wagner, K-H; Elmadfa, I

    2006-01-01

    A vegetarian diet is considered to promote health and longevity and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, a vegetarian diet may be deficient in some nutrients. Exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the status of certain B-vitamins, and further cause the rise of plasma homocysteine concentration. The nutritional status of various B-vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(6), B(12), folic acid) and the concentration of homocysteine in blood plasma of omnivores (n = 40), vegetarians (n = 36) and vegans (n = 42) in Austria was evaluated. The evaluation was done using the functional parameters erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), glutathione reductase (EGR) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (EGOT) activation coefficients. Enzyme activity was measured photometrically. The quantity of vitamins B(1), B(2) and B(6) in urine and the concentrations of vitamin B(6) and homocysteine in plasma were determined by HPLC methods with fluorescence detection. Plasma concentration of vitamin B(12) and folic acid were measured with radioimmunoassay. Most of the subjects showed a satisfying vitamin B(1) status. Vegans presented a significantly lower mean plasma vitamin B(12) concentration than omnivores and vegetarians and deficiency in 2.4% of the volunteers but the highest mean value of plasma folate among the investigated groups. A deficient status of folate was found in 18% of omnivores and in approximately 10% of vegans and vegetarians. The status of riboflavin is considered to be deficient in about 10% of omnivores and vegetarians and in over 30% of vegans. According to the activation coefficient of GOT, approximately one third of all subjects showed vitamin B(6) deficiency. Elevated homocysteine concentration in plasma was observed in 66% of the vegans and about 45-50% of the omnivores and vegetarians. Vegan subjects had significantly higher mean plasma homocysteine levels than omnivores. Thiamin and folate need not be a problem in a well

  13. New Methods for the Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Frederic; Giménez, Ester Campos; Konings, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Water-soluble vitamins (WSVs) are a group of organic compounds which are essential micronutrients. WSVs could be divided between the B complex group and vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid). Within the B complex group, eight vitamins are recognized: vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin or niacinamide), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid), and B12 (various cobalamins). This paper reviews the new methods for the analysis of these vitamins, with a focus on infant formula and adult nutritionals.

  14. Radiation protection of vitamins in aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, K.; Moorthy, P.N.; Rao, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the radiation induced decomposition of the B-group vitamins has been carried out in aqueous media at room temperature as well as in rigid matrices at low temperature. The detailed results on the effect of glucose and oxygen as protective additives at the different temperatures are presented in the case of Thiamine (Vitamin B 1 ). Comparative data are given on the extent of decomposition of this and other vitamins of the B-group at room temperature and at 193 K. The importance of these results in connection with the radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical preparations is indicated. (author)

  15. The distribution of thiamin and pyridoxine in the western tropical North Atlantic Amazon River plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Pualani Barada

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available B-vitamins are recognized as essential organic growth factors for many organisms, although little is known about their abundance and distribution in marine ecosystems. Despite their metabolic functions regulating important enzymatic reactions, the methodology to directly measure different B-vitamins in aquatic environments has only recently been developed. Here, we present the first direct measurements of two B-vitamins, thiamin (B1 and pyridoxine (B6, in the Amazon River plume-influenced Western Tropical North Atlantic (WTNA Ocean, an area known to have high productivity, carbon (C and dinitrogen (N2 fixation, and C sequestration. The vitamins B1 and B6 ranged in concentrations from undetectable to 230 pM and 40 pM, respectively. Significantly higher concentrations were measured in the surface plume water at some stations and variation with salinity was observed, suggesting a possible riverine influence on those B-vitamins. The influences of vitamins B1 and B6 on biogeochemical processes such as C and N2 fixation were investigated using a linear-regression model that indicated that the availability of those organic factors could affect these rates in the WTNA. In fact, significant increases in C fixation and N2 fixation were observed with increasing vitamin B1 concentrations at some low and mesohaline stations (stations 9.1 and 1; p value <0.017 and <0.03, respectively. N2 fixation was also found to have a significant positive correlation with B1 concentrations at station 1 (p value = 0.029, as well as vitamin B6 at station 9.1 (p value <0.017. This work suggests that there can be a dynamic interplay between essential biogeochemical rates (C and N2 fixation and B-vitamins, drawing attention to potential roles of B-vitamins in ecosystem dynamics, community structure, and global biogeochemistry.

  16. In vitro study of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 adsorption on zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basić Zorica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Zeolites are the hydratised alumosilicates of alcali and earthalcali cations, which have a long three-dimensional crystal structure. Preparations on the basis of zeolites are used for adsorption of organic and nonorganic toxic substances and they, also, find more and more use in veterinary and human medicine and pharmacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of zeolite to adsorb vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in acid and neutral solutions, as well as the characteristics of the process (saturability, reversibility and competitivness. Methods. The specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescent detector was used for determination of vitamins B1, B2 and B6. Analyte separation and detection were carried out by applying the reverse-phase method on column C18. An in vitro experiment was done by testing the influence of pH value (2 and 7, concentration of vitamin solution (1, 2 and 5 mg/L, the lenght of contact with zeolite (10-180 min and cation competitiveness on the exchange capacity, which is achieved by media and zeolite contact, as well as a possible vitamins desorption through changing pH value of the solution at 37°C. Jon competitiveness was examined by adding commercial feed mixture (grower with a defined content of the examined vitamines in zeolite solutions the pH = 2 and pH = 7. Results. Vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were stable in both pH=2 and pH = 7 solutions at 37°C, in the defined time intervals. In acid solution concentrations of vitamins significantly declined in the first 10 min, with no significant decline in further 30 min for all the three concentrations testch. In neutral solution, after the addition of 1% zeolite, decrease in vitamins concentrations was slightly lower than in acid solution, but also significant in the first 10 min of the contact with zeolite. It was found that zeolite, which adsorbed vitamins in acid solution, transferred in the neutral one released a significant quantity of adsorbed

  17. Effects of GA3, BA, Thiamine and Ascorbic Acid on Some Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baniasadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Catharanthus roseus (L. belongs to Apocynaceae family is an important medicinal plant and also cultivated as an ornamental plant almost throughout the tropical and subtropical areas all over the world. Recently, the uses of natural substances are considered very helpful to improve plant growth and development. Application of plant growth regulators (PGRs and vitamins are reported in many horticultural crops. Ascorbic acid is the most abundant antioxidant in plant which protects plant cells. This substance affects cell differentiation and growth. Now a day it is considered as a plant growth regulator. Thiamine or vitamin B1 is water soluble and one of the B complex vitamins. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the ascorbic acid, thiamine, BA and GA on growth and biochemical parameters of periwinkle. Materials and Methods: The experiment was perform as a completely randomized design with 5 replications at research greenhouse of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in 2014.The treatments used include spraying water (control, ascorbic acid 100 mg.l-1, gibberellic acid 100 mg.l-1, thiamine 100 mg.l-1, BA 200 mg. l-1 and combinations of two, three and four of them to determine the response of plants to these substances alone or in combination of them. When the seedlings become on 6-leavs stage, the first foliar spray was carried out. In other two steps was repeated with interval of 10 days. In this study, longevity of the flower, flower diameter, the number of lateral branches, branches length, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll content and reduced sugars were measured. Chlorophyll content and reduced sugars were measured according to method of Somogy (1952 and Lichtenthder (1987, respectively. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the effect of thiamine on the number of flowers was more pronounced than other substances. The lowest number of flowers per plant was found in plants treated with gibberellic acid

  18. The role of B vitamins in the management of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi-Namini, Parastoo; Ahmed, Mavra; Yan, Andrew T; Keith, Mary

    2012-06-01

    Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries, creating a significant burden on both the healthcare system and quality of life. Research efforts continue to explore new pharmaceutical or surgically based approaches to HF management, but the role of nutrition as an adjunct therapy has been largely ignored. Elderly age, anorexia, malabsorption, premature satiety, and disease severity are among the factors identified as contributing to reduced nutrient intakes in patients with HF. These factors suggest that patients with HF are at increased risk of multiple-nutrient deficiencies, including B vitamins. B vitamins may be of particular therapeutic interest because of their key roles as cofactors in energy-producing pathways. Recently, impaired stores of high-energy compounds have been linked with myocardial dysfunction and prognosis in patients with HF. Therefore, deficiencies of B vitamins might contribute to reduced energy stores and disease progression. This review summarizes the existing literature both with respect to the prevalence of B vitamin deficiency as well as evidence from supplementation trials in patients with HF. The findings suggest that most of the literature in this area has focused on thiamin deficiency in patients with HF, whereas other B vitamins remain largely unstudied. Although few sporadic trials suggest a role for B vitamins in the management of HF, none are conclusive. Therefore, there is a need for larger, more robust trials to assist in defining the B vitamin requirements as well as the impact of supplementation on both morbidity and mortality in patients with HF.

  19. Antiglycation activity of thiamin-HCl and benfotiamine in diabetic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousar, Samina; Sheikh, Munir Ahmad; Asghar, Muhammad

    2012-10-01

    To observe the antiglycation effect of water-soluble vitamin, thiamin-hydrochloride (B1) and its fat-soluble derivative benfotiamine and their comparison with two different glycation assays in diabetics. Plasma of both the normal's and diabetic persons was taken for this experimental study which was conducted in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad in 2008. Varying concentrations of both the glycation inhibitors and glucose were incubated for 5 weeks at 37 degrees C. Thiobarbituric acid and periodate borohydride assays were used to measure the antiglycation activity. The increase in glycation was observed from 1st to 3rd week of incubation, while it decreased after the 5th week due to the formation of advanced glycation end products. It was observed that 10mM concentration of benfotiamine and 5mM and 1mM concentrations of thiamine-hydrochloride produced fairly good response to decreased glycation. Comparison between two assays proved periodate borohydride to be more reliable and sensitive than thiobarbituric acid.

  20. B-Vitamin Levels in Human Milk among Different Lactation Stages and Areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiangnan; Yang, Zhenyu; Shao, Bing; Yin, Shi-An; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the contents of B-vitamins in human milk in China, we analyzed 1778 human milk samples from the sample bank of the National High Technique R & D Program (863 Projects) which was a cross-sectional survey and covered 6419 human milk samples from healthy lactating mothers who were at different stages of lactation (0-330 days postpartum) in 11 provinces of China. The contents of free forms of six B-vitamins in these human milk samples were analyzed by using UPLC-MS/MS. The median concentrations of free form of 6 B-vitamins in colostrums, transitional milk, 15-180 d mature milk and 181-330 d mature milk were respectively as follows: thiamin 5.0 µg/L, 6.7 µg/L, 21.1 µg/L and 40.7 µg/L; riboflavin 29.3 µg/L, 40.6 µg/L, 33.6 µg/L and 29.6 µg/L; niacin 470.7 µg/L, 661.3 µg/L, 687.0 µg/L and 571.3 µg/L; vitamin B-6 4.6 µg/L, 16.1 µg/L, 62.7 µg/L and 80.7 µg/L; flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 808.7 µg/L, 1162.8 µg/L, 1023.9 µg/L and 1057.2 µg/L; pantothenic acid 1770.9 µg/L, 2626.8 µg/L, 2213.0 µg/L and 1895.5 µg/L. The contents of 6 B-vitamins varied significantly among the different lactation stages and different areas (coastal area vs inland area, rural area vs urban area). The present study indicated that the concentrations of B-vitamins in colostrum were generally much lower than those in transitional milk and mature milk. Further studies are warranted for their roles and significance on B-vitamins in colostrum in nutrition and metabolism of neonates.

  1. Serum thiamine level during the initiation term of hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Ono

    2012-06-01

    Although water-soluble vitamins such as thiamine are lost during dialysis session, serum thiamine level tended to restore spontaneously during the hospitalization (25.47±10.07 vs. 27.44±11.37, pre HD value, p=0.09. A three months-follow up measurement after initiation of HD, which is now in progress (so far n=3, revealed increase of serum thiamine level in all patients (35.33±7.37 ng/ml. It may reflect the improvement of nutritional status after the initiation of HD, and suggests the loss of thiamine by HD procedure can be covered.

  2. Density, speed of sound, viscosity and refractive index properties of aqueous solutions of vitamins B1.HCl and B6.HCl at temperatures (278.15, 288.15, and 298.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhondge, Sudhakar S.; Deshmukh, Dinesh W.; Paliwal, Lalitmohan J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Study of aqueous solutions of vitamins B 1 .HCl and B 6 .HCl at different temperatures has been presented. ► These are important vitamins. ► Different interactions among solute and solvents have been investigated. ► The results are interpreted in terms of water structure making and breaking effects due to cations. -- Abstract: The experimental values of density (ρ), speed of sound (u), absolute viscosity (η) and refractive index (n D ) properties are reported for aqueous solutions of thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B 1 .HCl) and pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B 6 .HCl) within the concentration range (0.01 to 0.55) mol ⋅ kg −1 at three different temperatures, viz. T/K = 278.15, 288.15, and 298.15. Using experimental data, different derived parameters such as the apparent molar volume of solute (ϕ V ), isentropic compressibility of solution (β S ), apparent molar isentropic compressibility of solute (ϕ KS ) and relative viscosity of solution (η r ) have been computed. The limiting values of apparent molar volume (ϕ V 0 ) and apparent molar isentropic compressibility (ϕ KS 0 ) have been obtained. The limiting apparent molar expansivity (ϕ E 0 ) of solute, coefficient of thermal expansion (α ∗ ) and hydration numbers (n h ) of above vitamins in the aqueous medium have also been estimated. The experimental values of relative viscosity are used to calculate the Jones–Dole equation viscosity A and B coefficients for the hydrochlorides. The temperature coefficients of B i.e. (dB/dT) for these solutes have been used to study water structure making and breaking effects due to cations. Further, a discussion is made on the basis of solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions

  3. Serum thiamine concentration and oxidative stress as predictors of mortality in patients with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nara Aline; Gut, Ana Lúcia; de Souza Dorna, Mariana; Pimentel, José Alexandre Coelho; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato; Azevedo, Paula Schmidt; Fernandes, Ana Angélica Henrique; Zornoff, Leonardo Antonio Mamede; de Paiva, Sergio Alberto Rupp; Minicucci, Marcos Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the influence of serum thiamine, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and serum protein carbonyl concentrations in hospital mortality in patients with septic shock. This prospective study included all patients with septic shock on admission or during intensive care unit (ICU) stay, older than 18 years, admitted to 1 of the 3 ICUs of the Botucatu Medical School, from January to August 2012. Demographic information, clinical evaluation, and blood sample were taken within the first 72 hours of the patient's admission or within 72 hours after septic shock diagnosis for serum thiamine, GPx activity, and protein carbonyl determination. One hundred eight consecutive patients were evaluated. The mean age was 57.5 ± 16.0 years, 63% were male, 54.6% died in the ICU, and 71.3% had thiamine deficiency. Thiamine was not associated with oxidative stress. Neither vitamin B1 levels nor the GPx activity was associated with outcomes in these patients. However, protein carbonyl concentration was associated with increased mortality. In patients with septic shock, oxidative stress was associated with mortality. On the other hand, thiamine was not associated with oxidative stress or mortality in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of combined storage procedures of foods on B vitamins content demonstrated at the example of heat sterilisation and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozová, B.; Takácsová, M.

    1993-01-01

    This work presents a literary survey of accessible information on the applications of binary and trinary combinations of preservation methods (thermosterilization and irradiation with other preservation methods) and on their influence on B vitamin groups (thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and folacin) in comparison with traditionally used thermosterilization. It refers to the advantages of the combined techniques of preservation as a real possibility to replace the traditional preservation techniques by non-traditional and less destructive processes [de

  5. Thiamine plays a critical role in the acid tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeo, Moira; O'Riordan, Niamh; Fuchs, Thilo M; Utratna, Marta; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas G; O'Byrne, Conor P

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the molecular basis of acid tolerance in the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is important as this property contributes to survival in the food-chain and enhances survival within infected hosts. The aim of this study was to identify genes contributing to acid tolerance in L. monocytogenes using transposon mutagenesis and subsequently to elucidate the physiological role of these genes in acid tolerance. One mutant harboring a Tn917 insertion in the thiT gene (formerly lmo1429), which encodes a thiamine (vitamin B1) uptake system, was found to be highly sensitive to acid. The acid-sensitive phenotype associated with loss of this gene was confirmed with an independently isolated mutant, from which the thiT gene was deleted (∆thiT). Cells of both wild-type and ∆thiT mutant that were thiamine depleted were found to be significantly more acid sensitive than control cultures. Thiamine-depleted cultures failed to produce significant concentrations of acetoin, consistent with the known thiamine dependence of acetolactate synthase, an enzyme required for acetoin synthesis from pyruvate. As acetoin synthesis is a proton-consuming process, we suggest that the acid sensitivity observed in thiamine-depleted cultures may be owing to an inability to produce acetoin. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of sterilizing doses of ionizing radiation on contents of vitamins A, B1 and B2 in cereal-based mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mnukova, J.; Hanis, T.

    1984-01-01

    The diets were irradiated with doses of 25 kGy (diet I) an and 50 kGy (diet II) and stored for 79 days at room temperature with free access of air. In one month intervals the contents of the said vitamins were determined, this also for non-sterilized diets. No significant deviation was found in diet I and in the non-sterilized diet. In diet II the content of vitamin A and thiamine dropped mildly. As compared to autoclaving the decline is smaller. (E.F.)

  7. Dynamics of B group vitamins - the exametabolits of algae in lake Drukshiai - the cooler of Ignalina NPP in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlapkauskaite, G.; Pashkauskas, R.

    1995-01-01

    The investigations on 6 B group vitamins were carried out in the water of Lake Drukshiai in 1994. The results indicated that quantitative structure of the vitamins varied during seasons in different areas depths of the lake depending on the biomass of phytoplankton and their dominants. The vitamins balance characteristic to natural water basins was disturbed after the NPP operation. In summer of 1994 the amount of vitamins decreased and the deficit of biotin, thiamin and pyridoxine was observed to compare with 1992-1993. Therefore, the disturbance of stability in metabolic processes in which these vitamins take part may occur. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  8. Vitamin B1-deficient mice show impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory formation and loss of hippocampal neurons and dendritic spines: potential microendophenotypes of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroyoshi; Kishimoto, Takuya; Oishi, Satoru; Nagata, Kan; Hasegawa, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Tamae; Kida, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Patients with severe Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) associated with vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (TD) show enduring impairment of memory formation. The mechanisms of memory impairment induced by TD remain unknown. Here, we show that hippocampal degeneration is a potential microendophenotype (an endophenotype of brain disease at the cellular and synaptic levels) of WKS in pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) mice, a rodent model of WKS. PTD mice show deficits in the hippocampus-dependent memory formation, although they show normal hippocampus-independent memory. Similarly with WKS, impairments in memory formation did not recover even at 6 months after treatment with PTD. Importantly, PTD mice exhibit a decrease in neurons in the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus and reduced density of wide dendritic spines in the DG. Our findings suggest that TD induces hippocampal degeneration, including the loss of neurons and spines, thereby leading to enduring impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory formation.

  9. Vitamin B1-deficient mice show impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory formation and loss of hippocampal neurons and dendritic spines: potential microendophenotypes of Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroyoshi; Kishimoto, Takuya; Oishi, Satoru; Nagata, Kan; Hasegawa, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Tamae; Kida, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Patients with severe Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) associated with vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (TD) show enduring impairment of memory formation. The mechanisms of memory impairment induced by TD remain unknown. Here, we show that hippocampal degeneration is a potential microendophenotype (an endophenotype of brain disease at the cellular and synaptic levels) of WKS in pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) mice, a rodent model of WKS. PTD mice show deficits in the hippocampus-dependent memory formation, although they show normal hippocampus-independent memory. Similarly with WKS, impairments in memory formation did not recover even at 6 months after treatment with PTD. Importantly, PTD mice exhibit a decrease in neurons in the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus and reduced density of wide dendritic spines in the DG. Our findings suggest that TD induces hippocampal degeneration, including the loss of neurons and spines, thereby leading to enduring impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory formation. PMID:27576603

  10. Poor thiamin and riboflavin status is common among women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Liu, Yazheng; McCann, Adrian; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Kroeun, Hou; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene; Lynd, Larry D; Kitts, David D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    Thiamin deficiency in infancy is the underlying cause of beriberi, which can be fatal without rapid treatment. Reports of thiamin deficiency are common in Cambodia; however, population representative data are unavailable. Because B-complex vitamin deficiencies commonly occur in combination, riboflavin was also investigated. We determined the biomarker status of thiamin and riboflavin in women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia. We measured thiamin (erythrocyte thiamin diphosphate; TDP) and riboflavin (erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient; EGRac) status in a representative sample of Cambodian women (aged 20-45 y) in urban Phnom Penh (n = 146) and rural Prey Veng (n = 156), Cambodia, and, for comparison purposes, in a convenience sample of women in urban Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (n = 49). Thiamin insufficiency (TDP ≤ 90 nmol/L) was common among both urban (39%) and rural (59%) Cambodian women (P Cambodia. The unexpected finding of high riboflavin inadequacy status in Vancouver women warrants further investigation. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Effects of thiamine deficiency on food intake and body weight increment in adult female and growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bâ, Abdoulaye

    2012-09-01

    The present study compared the effects of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) on the patterns of food intake and body weight in adult female and neonatal Wistar rats. The adults weighed 250-270 g at the start and were fed for 60 days either with a synthetic TD diet (211 B1) or with the same synthetic diet+thiamine (210 B1). TD led to a marked reduction in food intake and the body weight set point, both recovering rapidly to their initial level in only 3 days after dietetic reversion. The effects of TD in developing rats were evaluated by subjecting pregnant rats to thiamine restriction during different time windows: prenatal (3 days before mating to parturition); perinatal (7 days after mating to the 10th postnatal day); and postnatal (from parturition to weaning). The effect of TD on the occurrence of low birth weight and ponderal growth retardation was examined from postnatal days 1 to 45. Only perinatal TD significantly decreased birth weight relative to untreated or pair-fed controls. Moreover, compared with the control treatments, ponderal growth retardation was not induced by prenatal TD, whereas induction of TD from perinatal into postnatal periods did cause ponderal growth retardation, with long-lasting effects persisting in adulthood. The results suggest a major physiological role of thiamine in the homeostasis of body weight programming, increment, and set point regulation in both offspring and adult female rats.

  12. Biogeochemical Insights into B-Vitamins in the Coastal Marine Sediments of San Pedro Basin, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, D.; Berelson, W.; Baronas, J. J.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal marine sediments support a high abundance of mircoorganisms which play key roles in the cycling of nutrients, trace metals, and carbon, yet little is known about many of the cofactors essential for their growth, such as the B-vitamins. The suite of B-vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B7, B12) are essential across all domains of life for both primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore, studying sediment concentrations of B-vitamins can provide a biochemical link between microbial processes and sediment geochemistry. Here we present B-vitamin pore water concentrations from suboxic sediment cores collected in September 2014 from San Pedro Basin, a silled, low oxygen, ~900 m deep coastal basin in the California Borderlands. We compare the B-vitamin concentrations (measured via LCMS) to a set of geochemical profiles including dissolved Fe (65-160 μM), dissolved Mn (30-300 nM), TCO2, solid phase organic carbon, and δ13C. Our results show high concentrations (0.8-3nM) of biotin (B7), commonly used for CO2 fixation as a cofactor in carboxylase enzymes. Thiamin (B1) concentrations were elevated (20-700nM), consistent with previous pore water measurements showing sediments could be a source of B1 to the ocean. Cobalamin (B12), a cofactor required for methyl transfers in methanogens, was also detected in pore waters (~4-40pM). The flavins (riboflavin [B2] and flavin mononucleotide[FMN]), molecules utilized in external electron transfer, showed a distinct increase with depth (10-90nM). Interestingly, the flavin profiles showed an inverse trend to dissolved Fe (Fe decreases with depth) providing a potential link to culture experiments which have shown extracellular flavin release to be a common trait in some metal reducers. As some of the first B-vitamin measurements made in marine sediments, these results illustrate the complex interaction between the microbial community and surrounding geochemical environment and provide exciting avenues for future research.

  13. Evidence for altered thiamine metabolism in diabetes: Is there a potential to oppose gluco- and lipotoxicity by rational supplementation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pácal, Lukáš; Kuricová, Katarína; Kaňková, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Growing prevalence of diabetes (type 2 as well as type 1) and its related morbidity due to vascular complications creates a large burden on medical care worldwide. Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of chronic micro-, macro- and avascular complications mediated by hyperglycemia is of crucial importance since novel therapeutic targets can be identified and tested. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential cofactor of several enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and published data suggest that thiamine metabolism in diabetes is deficient. This review aims to point out the physiological role of thiamine in metabolism of glucose and amino acids, to present overview of thiamine metabolism and to describe the consequences of thiamine deficiency (either clinically manifest or latent). Furthermore, we want to explain why thiamine demands are increased in diabetes and to summarise data indicating thiamine mishandling in diabetics (by review of the studies mapping the prevalence and the degree of thiamine deficiency in diabetics). Finally, we would like to summarise the evidence for the beneficial effect of thiamine supplementation in progression of hyperglycemia-related pathology and, therefore, to justify its importance in determining the harmful impact of hyperglycemia in diabetes. Based on the data presented it could be concluded that although experimental studies mostly resulted in beneficial effects, clinical studies of appropriate size and duration focusing on the effect of thiamine supplementation/therapy on hard endpoints are missing at present. Moreover, it is not currently clear which mechanisms contribute to the deficient action of thiamine in diabetes most. Experimental studies on the molecular mechanisms of thiamine deficiency in diabetes are critically needed before clear answer to diabetes community could be given. PMID:24936250

  14. Evidence for altered thiamine metabolism in diabetes: Is there a potential to oppose gluco- and lipotoxicity by rational supplementation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pácal, Lukáš; Kuricová, Katarína; Kaňková, Kateřina

    2014-06-15

    Growing prevalence of diabetes (type 2 as well as type 1) and its related morbidity due to vascular complications creates a large burden on medical care worldwide. Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of chronic micro-, macro- and avascular complications mediated by hyperglycemia is of crucial importance since novel therapeutic targets can be identified and tested. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential cofactor of several enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and published data suggest that thiamine metabolism in diabetes is deficient. This review aims to point out the physiological role of thiamine in metabolism of glucose and amino acids, to present overview of thiamine metabolism and to describe the consequences of thiamine deficiency (either clinically manifest or latent). Furthermore, we want to explain why thiamine demands are increased in diabetes and to summarise data indicating thiamine mishandling in diabetics (by review of the studies mapping the prevalence and the degree of thiamine deficiency in diabetics). Finally, we would like to summarise the evidence for the beneficial effect of thiamine supplementation in progression of hyperglycemia-related pathology and, therefore, to justify its importance in determining the harmful impact of hyperglycemia in diabetes. Based on the data presented it could be concluded that although experimental studies mostly resulted in beneficial effects, clinical studies of appropriate size and duration focusing on the effect of thiamine supplementation/therapy on hard endpoints are missing at present. Moreover, it is not currently clear which mechanisms contribute to the deficient action of thiamine in diabetes most. Experimental studies on the molecular mechanisms of thiamine deficiency in diabetes are critically needed before clear answer to diabetes community could be given.

  15. Ethnic differences in grains consumption and their contribution to intake of B-vitamins: results of the Multiethnic Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Research indicates that a diet rich in whole grains may reduce the risk of prevalent chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and some cancers, and that risk for these diseases varies by ethnicity. The objective of the current study was to identify major dietary sources of grains and describe their contribution to B vitamins in five ethnic groups. Methods A cross-sectional mail survey was used to collect data from participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and Los Angeles County, United States, from 1993 to 1996. Dietary intake data collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire was available for 186,916 participants representing five ethnic groups (African American, Latino, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian and Caucasian) aged 45–75 years. The top sources of grain foods were determined, and their contribution to thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, and folic acid intakes were analyzed. Results The top source of whole grains was whole wheat/rye bread for all ethnic-sex groups, followed by popcorn and cooked cereals, except for Native Hawaiian men and Japanese Americans, for whom brown/wild rice was the second top source; major contributors of refined grains were white rice and white bread, except for Latinos. Refined grain foods contributed more to grain consumption (27.1-55.6%) than whole grain foods (7.4-30.8%) among all ethnic-sex groups, except African American women. Grain foods made an important contribution to the intakes of thiamin (30.2-45.9%), riboflavin (23.1-29.2%), niacin (27.1-35.8%), vitamin B6 (22.9-27.5%), and folic acid (23.3-27.7%). Conclusions This is the first study to document consumption of different grain sources and their contribution to B vitamins in five ethnic groups in the U.S. Findings can be used to assess unhealthful food choices, to guide dietary recommendations, and to help reduce risk of chronic diseases in these populations. PMID:23688109

  16. Effect of Thiamine, Ascorbic acid and Gibberellic acid (GA3 on Growth Characteristics, Pigment Content and Reduced Sugars of Petunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    moslem salehi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bedding plants, especially petunia is important element for urban landscaping and attracted the attention of landscapers. This is due to some properties such as growth habit and color. The petunia (Petunia hybrida L. belongs to Solanaceae family that has annual and perennial varieties. This plant is originally from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Some plant growth regulators such as gibberellic acid (GA3 and vitamins including thiamine and ascorbic acid affect plant growth and development and may extend flowering period. Vitamin C affects cell division and cell growth in plants and is effective on the feeding cycle activity in higher plants and it has an important role in electron transport system. The concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm of vitamin C and thiamine can increase the plant height, leaf number, leaf area, fresh and dry weight, and chemical compounds of the Syngonium plant. The application of 100 mg/l of GA3 significantly increased plant height and the number of leaves of gladiolus. Material and methods: The experiment was arranged in a factorial based on a completely randomized design with five replications. In this research, growth characteristics (lateral branch number, flower number, flower diameter, stem diameter, root length, and lateral branch length and biochemical characteristics (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, and reducing sugar were measured. After seeding and transplanting the seedling at 6 leaf stage, plants sprayed at 4 various growth stages with following treatments: 1-\tControl 2-\tVitamin C(100 mg/l 3-\tThiamin (100 mg/l 4-\tGibberellic acid (100 mg/l 5-\tVitamin C and Thiamin (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 6-\tVitamin C and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 7-\tThiamin and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 8-\tVitamin C, Thiamin and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of three 100 mg/l Data obtained from the measured parameters

  17. Studies of the polynuclear complexes of labile ligands of vitamin B1 and Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) with Fe(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, J.O.

    2003-01-01

    The ligands (complex salts) of vitamin B/sub 1/ (H Vit.) and the chlorides of Zn, Cd and Hg with the general formula, [H Vit]/sup +2/ [MCl/sub 4/]/sup -2/ were prepared and their interactions with iron (III) investigated. It was found that the complex salts of Zn and Cd produced the dinuclear complexes and that of mercury produced a complex without the thiamine moiety. The possible reason for the absence of a Hg complex similar to those of Zn and Cd may be that large size of mercury ion. The complexes were characterized by elementary analyses, infrared and visible spectra, magnetic moment and conductivity measurements.(author)

  18. Usual Vitamin Intakes by Mexican Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; López-Olmedo, Nancy; García-Guerra, Armando; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Villalpando, Salvador; Carriquiry, Alicia; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    In the past several years, the consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor foods has increased globally. Dietary intake data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2012 provide information to assess the quality of the Mexican diet and to guide food and nutrition policy. The aim was to describe the usual intake and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamins for the overall Mexican population and by subgroups defined by sex, age, region, urban or rural areas, and socioeconomic status (SES). ENSANUT 2012 is a cross-sectional probabilistic survey representative of the Mexican population. Dietary information was collected by using the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method (n = 10,096) with a repeated measurement on a subsample (n = 889) to permit adjustment for intraindividual variability with the use of the Iowa State University method. Mean usual intakes and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, and B-12 were calculated for children aged 1-4 y (CH1-4y), children aged 5-11 y (CH5-11y), adolescents aged 12-19 y, and adults aged ≥20 y. In all of the age groups, prevalences of inadequate intakes of vitamins D and E were the highest (77-99% of adults and adolescents and 53-95% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y) and those of folate and vitamin A were intermediate (47-70% of adults and adolescents, 15-23% of CH5-11y and 8-13% of CH1-4y), whereas those of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, and C were the lowest (0-37% of adults, 1-27% of adolescents, and 0-2.4% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y). With few exceptions, the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for vitamins were observed in the poorest populations (rural South region and the lowest tertile of SES). The intake of vitamins among Mexicans is inadequate overall. Information collected by ENSANUT can help target food assistance programs and develop strategies to prevent vitamin deficiencies. © 2016 American Society

  19. Thiamine Deficiency and Neurodegeneration: the Interplay Among Oxidative Stress, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, and Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dexiang; Ke, Zunji; Luo, Jia

    2017-09-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient and indispensable for normal growth and development of the organism due to its multilateral participation in key biochemical and physiological processes. Humans must obtain thiamine from their diet since it is synthesized only in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Thiamine deficiency (TD) can result from inadequate intake, increased requirement, excessive deletion, and chronic alcohol consumption. TD affects multiple organ systems, including the cardiovascular, muscular, gastrointestinal, and central and peripheral nervous systems. In the brain, TD causes a cascade of events including mild impairment of oxidative metabolism, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration, which are commonly observed in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). Thiamine metabolites may serve as promising biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases, and thiamine supplementations exhibit therapeutic potential for patients of some neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental TD has been used to model aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. However, to date, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TD-induced neurodegeneration are not clear. Recent research evidence indicates that TD causes oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and autophagy in the brain, which are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress, ER stress, and autophagy in TD-mediated neurodegeneration. We propose that it is the interplay of oxidative stress, ER stress, and autophagy that contributes to TD-mediated neurodegeneration.

  20. The B vitamins nicotinamide (B3) and riboflavin (B2) stimulate metamorphosis in larvae of the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella teleta: implications for a sensory ligand-gated ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Robert T; Pechenik, Jan A; Biggers, William J; Scavo, Gia; Lehman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Marine sediments can contain B vitamins, presumably incorporated from settled, decaying phytoplankton and microorganisms associated with decomposition. Because B vitamins may be advantageous for the energetically intensive processes of metamorphosis, post-metamorphic growth, and reproduction, we tested several B vitamins to determine if they would stimulate larvae of the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella teleta to settle and metamorphose. Nicotinamide and riboflavin individually stimulated larvae of C. teleta to settle and metamorphose, generally within 1-2 hours at nicotinamide concentrations as low as 3 µM and riboflavin concentrations as low as 50 µM. More than 80% of the larvae metamorphosed within 30 minutes at a nicotinamide concentration of 7 µM. The pyridine channel agonist pyrazinecarboxamide also stimulated metamorphosis at very low concentrations. In contrast, neither lumichrome, thiamine HCl, pyridoxine HCl, nor vitamin B12 stimulated larvae of C. teleta to metamorphose at concentrations as high as 500 µM. Larvae also did not metamorphose in response to either nicotinamide or pyrazinecarboxamide in calcium-free seawater or with the addition of 4-acetylpyridine, a competitive inhibitor of the pyridine receptor. Together, these results suggest that larvae of C. teleta are responding to nicotinamide and riboflavin via a chemosensory pyridine receptor similar to that previously reported to be present on crayfish chela and involved with food recognition. Our data are the first to implicate B vitamins as possible natural chemical settlement cues for marine invertebrate larvae.

  1. The B Vitamins Nicotinamide (B3) and Riboflavin (B2) Stimulate Metamorphosis in Larvae of the Deposit-Feeding Polychaete Capitella teleta: Implications for a Sensory Ligand-Gated Ion Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Robert T.; Pechenik, Jan A.; Biggers, William J.; Scavo, Gia; Lehman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Marine sediments can contain B vitamins, presumably incorporated from settled, decaying phytoplankton and microorganisms associated with decomposition. Because B vitamins may be advantageous for the energetically intensive processes of metamorphosis, post-metamorphic growth, and reproduction, we tested several B vitamins to determine if they would stimulate larvae of the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella teleta to settle and metamorphose. Nicotinamide and riboflavin individually stimulated larvae of C. teleta to settle and metamorphose, generally within 1–2 hours at nicotinamide concentrations as low as 3 µM and riboflavin concentrations as low as 50 µM. More than 80% of the larvae metamorphosed within 30 minutes at a nicotinamide concentration of 7 µM. The pyridine channel agonist pyrazinecarboxamide also stimulated metamorphosis at very low concentrations. In contrast, neither lumichrome, thiamine HCl, pyridoxine HCl, nor vitamin B12 stimulated larvae of C. teleta to metamorphose at concentrations as high as 500 µM. Larvae also did not metamorphose in response to either nicotinamide or pyrazinecarboxamide in calcium-free seawater or with the addition of 4-acetylpyridine, a competitive inhibitor of the pyridine receptor. Together, these results suggest that larvae of C. teleta are responding to nicotinamide and riboflavin via a chemosensory pyridine receptor similar to that previously reported to be present on crayfish chela and involved with food recognition. Our data are the first to implicate B vitamins as possible natural chemical settlement cues for marine invertebrate larvae. PMID:25390040

  2. Effect of irradiation and storage time on the content of thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamin A in feeds based on cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanis, T.; Pospisil, M.; Klir, P.; Bondy, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two diets for laboratory rat, based on cereals, were either irradiated with 25 or 50 kGy or untreated and stored under free access of air and day light at ambient temperature for 79 d. At the beginning of the experiment and at one month intervals the changes in moisture and vitamin A, thiamine and riboflavin content were evaluated. (author)

  3. Efficacy of benfotiamine versus thiamine on function and glycation products of peripheral nerves in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, H; Hammes, H P; Werkmann, D; Mavrakis, K; Bitsch, I; Netzel, M; Geyer, J; Köpcke, W; Sauerland, C; Bretzel, R G; Federlin, K F

    2001-01-01

    In rats with streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes the effect of (watersoluble) thiamine nitrate and of (lipidsoluble) benfotiamine on peripheral nerve function (motor nerve conduction velocity) as well as on the formation of advanced glycation end-products in peripheral nerve tissue was studied. In one group of animals drug administration was started immediately after diabetes induction (prevention study) and in another group two months after diabetes induction (treatment study). Motor nerve conduction velocity (NCV) dropped by 10.5% in diabetic animals, carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) rose to a 3.5fold concentration, deoxyglucosone (3DG)-type AGE formation was increased 5.1fold compared with controls. After three months preventive administration of both vitamin B(1) preparations NCV had increased substantially compared with results in diabetic controls. It was nearly normal after six months with benfotiamine, while the administration of thiamine nitrate resulted in no further amelioration. NCV was nearly normalized after six months of benfotiamine application but not with thiamine. Furthermore, benfotiamine induced a major inhibition of neural imidazole-type AGE formation and completely prevented diabetes induced glycoxidation products (CML). Treatment with thiamine did not significantly affect AGE or cmL levels. Unlike treatment with water-soluble thiamine nitrate timely administration of liposoluble prodrug benfotiamine was effective in the prevention of functional damage and of AGE and cmL formation in nerves of diabetic rats.

  4. Thiamin, riboflavin and alpha-tocopherol retention in processed and stored irradiated pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.; Thayer, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Combination treatments for preservation of irradiated pork were investigated with respect to vitamin loss. Ground pork was prepared under nitrogen and packaged in anaerobic foil. The samples were enzyme denatured by heating before and after irradiation, then cooked and stored. Irradiation resulted in thiamin loss, but neither riboflavin nor alpha-tocopherol was affected. Neither thiamin nor riboflavin was affected by heat denaturation, cooking or storage, but heating and cooking increased the measured alpha-tocopherol. The lack of loss of the vitamins was attributed to the exclusion of oxygen

  5. Ion-pair cloud-point extraction: a new method for the determination of water-soluble vitamins in plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Rouhollah; Elyasi, Najmeh S

    2014-10-01

    A novel, simple, and effective ion-pair cloud-point extraction coupled with a gradient high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for determination of thiamine (vitamin B1 ), niacinamide (vitamin B3 ), pyridoxine (vitamin B6 ), and riboflavin (vitamin B2 ) in plasma and urine samples. The extraction and separation of vitamins were achieved based on an ion-pair formation approach between these ionizable analytes and 1-heptanesulfonic acid sodium salt as an ion-pairing agent. Influential variables on the ion-pair cloud-point extraction efficiency, such as the ion-pairing agent concentration, ionic strength, pH, volume of Triton X-100, extraction temperature, and incubation time have been fully evaluated and optimized. Water-soluble vitamins were successfully extracted by 1-heptanesulfonic acid sodium salt (0.2% w/v) as ion-pairing agent with Triton X-100 (4% w/v) as surfactant phase at 50°C for 10 min. The calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2) > 0.9916) and precision in the concentration ranges of 1-50 μg/mL for thiamine and niacinamide, 5-100 μg/mL for pyridoxine, and 0.5-20 μg/mL for riboflavin. The recoveries were in the range of 78.0-88.0% with relative standard deviations ranging from 6.2 to 8.2%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. High prevalence of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in early childhood among a nationally representative sample of Cambodian women of childbearing age and their children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Smith, Geoffry; Chamnan, Chhoun

    2017-01-01

    the thiamine status (measured as erythrocyte thiamine diphosphate concentrations; eThDP) among a representative sample of Cambodian women of childbearing age (15-49 y) and their young children (6-69 mo). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Samples for this cross-sectional analysis were collected as part...... of a national micronutrient survey linked to the Cambodian Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS) 2014. One-sixth of households taking part in the CDHS were randomly selected and re-visited for additional blood sampling for eThDP analysis (719 women and 761 children). Thiamine status was assessed using different...... cut-offs from literature. Women were mean (SD) 30 (6) y, and children (46% girls) were 41 (17) mo. Women had lower mean (95% CI) eThDP of 150 nmol/L (146-153) compared to children, 174 nmol/L (171-179; P

  7. Effect of Diclofenac with B Vitamins on the Treatment of Acute Pain Originated by Lower-Limb Fracture and Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Ponce-Monter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of diclofenac, for the treatment of acute pain originated by lower-limb fracture and surgery, with that of diclofenac plus B vitamins. This was a single-center, prospective, randomized, and double-blinded clinical trial. Patients with lower-limb closed fractures rated their pain on a 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS. Patients were then randomized to receive diclofenac or diclofenac plus B vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin intramuscularly twice daily. Patient evaluations of pain intensity were recorded throughout two periods: twenty-four hours presurgery and twenty-four hours postsurgical. One hundred twenty-two patients completed the study. The subjects' assessments of limb pain on the VAS showed a significant reduction from baseline values regardless of the treatment group. Diclofenac plus B vitamins combination was more effective to reduce the pain than diclofenac alone. The results showed that the addition of B vitamins to diclofenac increased its analgesic effect. The novelty of this paper consists in that diclofenac and diclofenac plus B vitamins were useful for treatment of acute pain originated by lower-limb fracture and surgery.

  8. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far

  9. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  10. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B12 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B12? Disclaimer What is vitamin B12 and what does it do? Vitamin B12 ...

  11. Thiamine and benfotiamine improve cognition and ameliorate GSK-3β-associated stress-induced behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Nataliia; Bazhenova, Nataliia; Anthony, Daniel C; Vignisse, Julie; Svistunov, Andrey; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Bettendorff, Lucien; Strekalova, Tatyana

    2017-04-03

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the brain has been implicated in the development of dementia and symptoms of depression. Indirect evidence suggests that thiamine may contribute to these pathologies by controlling the activities of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β. While decreased GSK-3β activity appears to impair memory, increased GSK-3β activity is associated with the distressed/depressed state. However, hitherto direct evidence for the effects of thiamine on GSK-3β function has not been reported. Here, we administered thiamine or, the more bioavailable precursor, benfotiamine at 200mg/kg/day for 2weeks to C57BL/6J mice, to determine whether treatment might affect behaviours that are known to be sensitive to GSK-3β activity and whether such administration impacts on GSK-3β expression within the brain. The mice were tested in models of contextual conditioning and extinction, a 5-day rat exposure stress test, and a modified swim test with repeated testing. The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (7.5mg/kg/day), was administered as a positive control for the effects of thiamine or benfotiamine. As for imipramine, both compounds inhibited the upregulation of GSK-3β induced by predator stress or repeated swimming, and reduced floating scores and the predator stress-induced behavioural changes in anxiety and exploration. Coincident, thiamine and benfotiamine improved learning and extinction of contextual fear, and the acquisition of the step-down avoidance task. Our data indicate that thiamine and benfotiamine have antidepressant/anti-stress effects in naïve animals that are associated with reduced GSK-3β expression and conditioning of adverse memories. Thus thiamine and benfotiamine may modulate GSK-3β functions in a manner that is dependent on whether the contextual conditioning is adaptive or maladaptive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Water concentration/activity and loss of vitamins B1 and E in pork due to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.; Kohout, K.M.; Thayer, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    When irradiated, increasing the water content of pork by partial rehydration of freeze-dried L. dorsi muscle resulted in increasing rate of thiamin loss from zero in dry tissue to ca 6%/kGy of irradiation in tissue with 70% water. Conversely, the rate of loss of alpha-tocopherol decreased from 44%/kGy at 0% to 32%/kGy at 70% water. Decreasing water activity in buffers or in ground or freeze-dried pork by salt or sucrose had no effect on rate of loss of either vitamin following irradiation. Salt decreased the loss of both vitamins in pork due to competition for the hydroxyl radical by chloride ions

  13. B-Vitamin Competition: Intracellular and Dissolved B-Vitamins Provide Insight into Marine Microbial Community Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffridge, C.; Gomez-Consarnau, L.; Qu, P.; Tenenbaum, N.; Fu, F.; Hutchins, D. A.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The availability of B-vitamins has the ability to directly affect the dynamics of the marine microbial community. Here we show, for the first time, the connection between dissolved and intracellular B-vitamins in a marine environmental community. Two incubation experiments were conducted at a long-term study site (SPOT) in the San Pedro Basin off the coast of Los Angeles, CA. Experiments were conducted in oligotrophic, preupwelling conditions. Due to the 2015 El Niño event, the seasonal upwelling at SPOT did not occur, creating unusually nutrient depleted conditions. Vitamins B1, B7, and B12 were added in addition to macronutrients at concentrations similar to typical SPOT upwelling conditions. Intracellular and dissolved B-vitamin analyses were conducted to determine shifts in cellular B-vitamin requirements as a function of growth rate. We observed a significant bacterioplankton and phytoplankton growth responses with the addition of B-vitamins in a manner that appears to match the enzymatic requirements for these compounds (e.g. B1>B7>B12). Intracellular B-vitamin analysis of T0 samples support this observation, as all four forms of B12 were not detectable within cells, yet multiple forms of B1 and B7 were detected at or near levels previously reported. Treatments with B12 and macronutrients were observed to have the greatest growth rates. This finding, in addition to the apparent lack of intracellular B12 in the initial community, appears to indicate that the initial microbial community was limited by B12. The addition of each vitamin caused a distinct shift in the blooming microbial community. Our results demonstrate that B-vitamins strongly influence not only the growth rate, but also the species composition and species succession of the microbial community as a whole. Large-scale changes to upwelling regimes are predicted in the future ocean; our results indicate that B-vitamins will have a substantial role in controlling microbial community dynamics under

  14. Production of vitamin B12 and labeled vitamin B12 by Streptomyces griseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaheri Tehrani, M.; Ghorbanzadeh Mashkani, S.; Tajer Mohammad Ghazvini, P.; Nazari, A.; Aflakee, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the production of labeled vitamin B 12 with one strain of actinomycet in a novel synthetic medium by batch fermentation method was investigated. After releasing vitamin B 12 from microbial cells, the solution containing cobalamin analogues was fixed on amberlite XAD-4 exchanger and eluted by various solutions. Vitamin B 12 in the collected fractions were measured by HPLC method and also in order to confirm the existence of cobalamin compounds in the samples, TLC technique was used. In the optimal conditions, production of vitamin B 12 by this microorganism was 1456μg/1. The best recoveries of vitamin B 12 from the column were obtained when the column was eluted by ethanol followed by acetone. The R f , values for cyanocobalamin and methylcobalamin, produced by this microorganism were the same as the standard values of R f . The desorption of labeled vitamine B 12 was carried out by different eluants, including acetone, ethanol (absolute), ethanol 25% and deionized water. The activity of labeled vitamin B 12 was 8.55, 6.90, 0.79, 5.75 Bq/ml, respectively. Therefore, the total specific activity of 21.99 Bq/ml was obtained for labeled vitamin B 12 .

  15. Assessment of bioavailable B vitamin content in food using in vitro digestibility assay and LC-MS SIDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paalme, Toomas; Vilbaste, Allan; Kevvai, Kaspar; Nisamedtinov, Ildar; Hälvin-Tanilas, Kristel

    2017-11-01

    Standardized analytical methods, where each B vitamin is extracted from a given sample individually using separate procedures, typically ensure that the extraction conditions provide the maximum recovery of each vitamin. However, in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the extraction conditions are the same for all vitamins. Here, we present an analytically feasible extraction protocol that simulates conditions in the GIT and provides a measure of the content of bioavailable vitamins using LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. The results show that the activities of both human gastric and duodenal juices were insufficient to liberate absorbable vitamers (AV) from pure cofactors. The use of an intestinal brush border membrane (IBBM) fraction derived from the mucosal tissue of porcine small intestine ensured at least 70% AV recovery. The rate of AV liberation, however, was strongly dependent on the cofactor, e.g., in the case of NADH, it was magnitudes higher than in the case of thiamine diphosphate. For some vitamins in some food matrices, the use of the IBBM fraction assay resulted in lower values for the content of AV than conventional vitamin determination methods. Conventional methods likely overestimate the actual bioavailability of some vitamins in these cases. Graphical abstract Assessment of bioavailable B vitamin content in food.

  16. Short communication: Effect of fatty acid supplements on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnino, D S; Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2017-10-01

    The effect of fat supplements (FS) providing different proportions of saturated (SFA) and unsaturated (UFA) fatty acids on supply, apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS), and duodenal flow (DF) of some B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B 6 , folates, and vitamin B 12 ) were evaluated in an experiment using 8 ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows. The experiment was a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d treatment periods. The 4 treatments were a control diet without fatty acid supplement and 3 diets with 2.5% additional fatty acids from supplements containing (1) SFA, (2) an intermediate mixture of SFA and UFA, or (3) UFA. All diets were served as a total mixed ration once daily at 115% of the expected intake. B-vitamin concentrations were analyzed in feed and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis of each B vitamin was calculated as the DF minus the intake. B-vitamin concentrations were similar among the 4 treatments; consequently, daily intake of the vitamins followed the same pattern as dry matter intake. Adding FS decreased B-vitamin intakes (except vitamin B 12 ), as did increasing the proportion of UFA. Riboflavin and niacin DF and ARS, expressed as total daily amount or per unit of dry matter intake, were not affected by FS, but increasing the proportion of UFA decreased riboflavin and niacin DF and ARS. Fat supplements decreased DF of vitamin B 6 , expressed either as total daily amount or per unit of dry matter intake. No treatment effects were observed on total daily folate DF and ARS. However, when expressed per unit of dry matter intake, folate DF and ARS were greater when cows were fed FS and they increased linearly with the proportion of UFA in the supplement. Inclusion of fat supplements into the dairy cow diet had a limited effect on the fate of most B vitamins in the rumen although increasing the proportion of UFA in the FS linearly decreased apparent synthesis of riboflavin and niacin in the rumen

  17. Simultaneous in situ derivatization and ultrasound-assisted dispersive magnetic solid phase extraction for thiamine determination by spectrofluorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigh, Ghazale Daneshvar; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2014-06-01

    A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous in situ derivatizaion, preconcentration and extraction of thiamine (vitamin B1) as a model analyte was developed by a novel quantitative method, namely ultrasound-assisted dispersive magnetic solid phase extraction spectrofluorimetry (USA-DMSPE-FL) from different real samples. This method consists of sample preparation, in situ derivatization, exhaustive extraction and clean up by a single process. High extraction efficiency and in situ derivatization in a short period of time is the main advantages of this procedure. For this purpose, the reusable magnetic multi-wall carbon nanotube (MMWCNT) nanocomposite was used as an adsorbent for preconcentration and determination of thiamine. Thiamine was, simultaneously, in situ derivatized as thiochrome by potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) and adsorbed on MMWCNT in an ultrasonic water bath. The MMWCNTs were then collected using an external magnetic field. Subsequently, the extracted thiochrome was washed from the surface of the adsorbent and determined by spectrofluorimetry. The developed method, which has been analytically characterized under its optimal operating conditions, allows the detection of the analyte in the samples with method detection limits of 0.37 µg L(-1). The repeatability of the method, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD, n=6), varies between 2.0% and 4.8% in different real samples, while the enhancement factor is 197. The proposed procedure has been applied for the determination of thiamine in biological (serum and urine), pharmaceutical (multivitamin tablet and B complex syrup) and foodstuff samples (cereal, wheat flour, banana and honey) with the good recoveries in the range from 90% to 105%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Animal experiments and clinical studies on the role of the vitamins B1, B2, and B6 in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.; Wulff, K.; Grimm, U.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on erythrocytic transketolase, glutathion reductase, and aspartate-aminotransferase activities with and without addition of coenzymes were studied in 152 Wistar rats, six beagles, and 225 carcinoma patients, as a measure for vitamin B 1 , B 2 , and B 6 supplies. Examinations of 108 patients with mammary carcinoma and 117 patients with cervical, corpus, and ovarian carcinomas were undertaken prior to, during, and after termination of radiotherapy. Two check-up series were run, the first without vitamin B complex therapy, and the second with three daily applications of one dragee each, beginning on the first day of irradiation. The TPP effects recorded indicated no impairment of vitamin B 1 supply. FAD and PLP effects, on the other hand, were significantly increased, which suggested B 2 and B 6 deficits. Vitamin B 2 metabolism was causally impaired by radiation, while the disordes in vitamin B 6 metabolism were attributed to tumour-related causes. The results obtained revealed that both types of disorders can be avoided by prophylactic vitamin B complex treatment. (author)

  19. [Effect of vitamins B1, B2, B6, folic acid and vitamin C on the motor activity of chicken's intestines in chronic experiments and in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagórna-Stasiak, B; Wawrzeńska, M

    1987-01-01

    The studies were carried out on 33 chickens of the broiler breed in chronic experiments and in vitro. In the chronic experiments the motility of the jejunum under the influence of vitamins of group B and vitamine C was recorded in 8 chickens. The vitamins were used at concentrations from 10 mg/l to 2.5 x 10(3) mg/l. In the experiments in vitro, the motility of the isolated segment of the jejunum was recorded by the method of Magnus. In this part of experiments the chickens were divided into 3 groups, of which group I (15 chickens) were fed with DKA finischer mixture, group II (5 hens) received, besides the mixture, per os 200 mg of vitamin C for 2 weeks, group III (5 hens) received the mixture and for 2 weeks intraperitoneally 200 mg of vitamin C. The effect of vitamins of group B in vitro was determined in chickens of group I, whereas that of vitamin C in chickens of group I, II and III. At the same time the level of vitamin C in the wall of the jejunum was determined by the method of Roe-Kuenther. It was shown that vitamin B2 and folic acid caused stimulation of intestine motility in the chickens, while vitamin B1, B6 and C decreased the motoric activity. Increased level of vitamin C in the intestinal wall resulted in increased intestine sensitivity. Chicken intestines sensitivity to vitamins was 10 times stronger to vitamins than that of the intestines of rabbits.

  20. B-vitamin consumption and the prevalence of diabetes and obesity among the US adults: population based ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wu-Ping

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes occurred after the worldwide spread of B-vitamins fortification, in which whether long-term exposure to high level of B vitamins plays a role is unknown. Our aim was to examine the relationships between B-vitamins consumption and the obesity and diabetes prevalence. Methods This population based ecological study was conducted to examine possible associations between the consumption of the B vitamins and macronutrients and the obesity and diabetes prevalence in the US population using the per capita consumption data from the US Economic Research Service and the prevalence data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results The prevalences of diabetes and adult obesity were highly correlated with per capita consumption of niacin, thiamin and riboflavin with a 26-and 10-year lag, respectively (R2 = 0.952, 0.917 and 0.83 for diabetes, respectively, and R2 = 0.964, 0.975 and 0.935 for obesity, respectively. The diabetes prevalence increased with the obesity prevalence with a 16-year lag (R2 = 0.975. The relationships between the diabetes or obesity prevalence and per capita niacin consumption were similar both in different age groups and in male and female populations. The prevalence of adult obesity and diabetes was highly correlated with the grain contribution to niacin (R2 = 0.925 and 0.901, respectively, with a 10-and 26-year lag, respectively. The prevalence of obesity in US adults during 1971-2004 increased in parallel with the increase in carbohydrate consumption with a 10-year lag. The per capita energy and protein consumptions positively correlated with the obesity prevalence with a one-year lag. Moreover, there was an 11-year lag relationship between per capita energy and protein consumption and the consumption of niacin, thiamin and riboflavin (R2 = 0.932, 0.923 and 0.849 for energy, respectively, and R2 = 0.922, 0.878 and 0.787 for protein

  1. [Vitamins and nutritional supplements in older persons: How to diagnose and when to substitute?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, D; von Arnim, C A F

    2015-11-01

    Despite an excellent food supply in Germany, a large percentage of older persons living at home or institutionalized older persons suffer from or are at risk for malnutrition. The purpose of this article is to highlight the association between nutrient deficiencies and age-related diseases and give rational recommendations for substitution. Both malnutrition and low levels of specific nutrients are associated with cognitive and functional impairment, dementia, and depression in older persons. Most prevalent are deficiencies in vitamin B1, vitamin B12, and vitamin D. Serum levels are often misleading and show false negative results in vitamin B1 and B12 deficiencies; therefore, determination of erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKA) and the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) effect for vitamin B1 and of methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamine for vitamin B12 is recommended. Prophylactic supplementation with vitamins is not supported by prospective trials; however, positive data from observational studies support a Mediterranean diet combined with intake of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids. Older persons should be regularly screened for malnutrition and the threshold for determination of vitamin B1, B12, and vitamin D should be low. Vitamin substitution should be reserved for proven deficits. There is now data regarding cognition from prospective trials on effects of a healthy diet combined with other life-style factors like physical and cognitive activity.

  2. Vitamins for enhancing plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubakri, Hatem; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Mliki, Ahmed; Brini, Faiçal; Chong, Julie; Jbara, Moez

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides an overview on vitamins with inducing activities in plants, the molecular and cellular mechanisms implicated, and the hormonal signalling-network regulating this process. Moreover, it reports how vitamins might be part of the molecular events linked to induced resistance by the conventional elicitors. Induced resistance (IR), exploiting the plant innate-defense system is a sustainable strategy for plant disease control. In the last decade, vitamins have been proven to act as inducers of disease resistance, and these findings have received an important attention owing to their safety and cost effectiveness. Vitamins, including thiamine (TH, vitamin B1), riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2), menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB, vitamin K3), Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, vitamin Bx), and folic acid (FA, vitamin B9) provided an efficient protection against a wide range of pathogens through the modulation of specific host-defense facets. However, other vitamins, such as ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C) and tocopherols (vitamin E), have been shown to be a part of the molecular mechanisms associated to IR. The present review is the first to summarize what vitamins are acting as inducers of disease resistance in plants and how could they be modulated by the conventional elicitors. Thus, this report provides an overview on the protective abilities of vitamins and the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their activities. Moreover, it describes the hormonal-signalling network regulating vitamin-signal transduction during IR. Finally, a biochemical model describing how vitamins are involved in the establishment of IR process is discussed.

  3. Thiamine supplementation facilitates thiamine transporter expression in the rumen epithelium and attenuates high-grain-induced inflammation in low-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X H; Yang, L; Beckers, Y; Xue, F G; Tang, Z W; Jiang, L S; Xiong, B H

    2017-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to uncover the effects of increasing dietary grain levels on expression of thiamine transporters in ruminal epithelium, and to assess the protective effects of thiamine against high-grain-induced inflammation in dairy cows. Six rumen-fistulated, lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 16.9 kg of body weight, 180 ± 6 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control (20% dietary starch, dry matter basis), high-grain diet (HG, 33.2% dietary starch, DM basis), and HG diet supplemented with 180 mg of thiamine/kg of dry matter intake. On d 19 and 20 of each period, milk performance was measured. On d 21, ruminal pH, endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and thiamine contents in rumen and blood, and plasma inflammatory cytokines were detected; a rumen papillae biopsy was taken on d 21 to determine the gene and protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathways. The HG diet decreased ruminal pH (5.93 vs. 6.49), increased milk yield from 17.9 to 20.2 kg/d, and lowered milk fat and protein from 4.28 to 3.83%, and from 3.38 to 3.11%, respectively. The HG feeding reduced thiamine content in rumen (2.89 vs. 8.97 μg/L) and blood (11.66 vs. 17.63 μg/L), and the relative expression value of thiamine transporter-2 (0.37-fold) and mitochondrial thiamine pyrophosphate transporter (0.33-fold) was downregulated by HG feeding. The HG-fed cows exhibited higher endotoxin LPS in rumen fluid (134,380 vs. 11,815 endotoxin units/mL), and higher plasma concentrations of lipopolysaccharide binding protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines when compared with the control group. The gene and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), IL1B, and IL6 in rumen epithelium increased when cows were fed the HG diet, indicating that local inflammation occurred. The depressions in ruminal pH, milk fat, and protein of HG-fed cows were reversed by thiamine

  4. Vitamin composition of ethnic foods commonly consumed in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Ireland

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin analyses are particularly important for estimating dietary intakes, determining nutritional status and regulating food labelling. Due to the increased popularity of ethnic foods, the vitamin composition of these foods is required to ensure that national food databases are up-to-date.Objectives: The key objective of this study was to generate new and reliable data on the contents of fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamins A (all trans-retinol, D3 & E (α-tocopherol and those that are water-soluble (vitamins B6, B12, C, biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and thiamin in ethnic foods commonly consumed in Europe.Design: Thirty commonly-consumed ethnic foods in Europe (from Belgium, France, Israel, Italy, The Netherlands, and the UK were analysed using harmonised methodologies for identification of representative foods, sampling, data scrutiny and documentation to generate reliable data. Analyses were carried out using International standard methods. Results: Certain vitamins were present in appreciable amounts: β-carotene in tayer leaves (7919µg/100g, thiamin in frik dry (0.24mg/100g, riboflavin in mbinzo worms (0.79mg/100g, and niacin in commercial soy patty (17.5mg/100g. However, retinol, pantothenic acid, vitamins D and B12 were below detectable levels in the majority of the foods analysed.Conclusions: The majority of the foods contained most of the water-soluble vitamins but lacked fat-soluble vitamins. However, these preliminary data represent only a small number of foods per country and so no conclusions about vitamin imbalances can be drawn. Additional data are required on a much wider range of commonly-consumed ethnic foods to make firm conclusions about adequacy of diets.

  5. Vitamin B-12 and Perinatal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Layden, Alexander J; Stover, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency (importance of adequate vitamin B-12 status periconceptionally and during pregnancy cannot be overemphasized, given its fundamental role in neural myelination, brain development, and growth. Infants born to vitamin B-12-deficient women may be at increased risk of neural tube closure defects, and maternal vitamin B-12 insufficiency (pregnancy complications, few prospective studies and, to our knowledge, only 1 randomized trial have examined the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy. The role of vitamin B-12 in the etiology of adverse perinatal outcomes needs to be elucidated to inform public health interventions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Chapter 30: historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: the water-soluble B vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2010-01-01

    This historical review addresses major neurological disorders associated with deficiencies of water-soluble B vitamins: beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, pellagra, neural tube defects, and subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. Beriberi: Beriberi was known for millennia in Asia, but was not described by a European until the 17th century when Brontius in the Dutch East Indies reported the progressive sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The prevalence of beriberi increased greatly in Asia with a change in the milling process for rice in the late 19th century. In the 1880s, Takaki demonstrated the benefits of dietary modification in sailors, and later instituted dietary reforms in the Japanese Navy, which largely eradicated beriberi from the Japanese Navy by 1887. In 1889 Eijkman in Java serendipitously identified dietary factors as a major contributor to "chicken polyneuritis," which he took to be an animal model for beriberi; the polyneuritis could be cured or prevented by feeding the chickens either unpolished rice or rice polishings. By 1901, Grijns, while continuing studies of beriberi in Java, suggested a dietary deficiency explanation for beriberi after systematically eliminating deficiencies of known dietary components and excluding a toxic effect. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: In the late 1870s, Wernicke identified a clinicopathological condition with ophthalmoparesis, nystagmus, ataxia, and encephalopathy, associated with punctate hemorrhages symmetrically arranged in the grey matter around the third and fourth ventricles and the aqueduct of Sylvius. In the late 1880s, Korsakoff described a spectrum of cognitive disorders, including a confabulatory amnestic state following an agitated delirium, occurring in conjunction with peripheral polyneuropathy. Beginning around 1900, investigators recognized the close relationship between Korsakoff's psychosis, delirium tremens, and Wernicke's encephalopathy, but not until several decades later were Wernicke

  7. Food fortification improves the intake of all fortified nutrients, but fails to meet the estimated dietary requirements for vitamins A and B6, riboflavin and zinc, in lactating South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathakis, Peggy C; Pearson, Kerry E

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the impact of fortification by comparing food records and selected biochemical indicators of nutritional status pre- and post-fortification. Mean intake from 24 h recalls (n 142) was compared with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) to determine the proportion with inadequate intake. In a subsample (n 34), diet and serum retinol, folate, ferritin and Zn were compared pre- and post-fortification for fortified nutrients vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, Fe and Zn. South Africa. Breast-feeding women (ninety-four HIV-infected, forty eight HIV-uninfected) measured at ~6, 14, 24 weeks, and 9 and 12 months postpartum. Pre-fortification, >80 % of women did not meet the EAR for vitamins A, C, D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12 and folate and minerals Zn, iodine and Ca. Dietary intake post-fortification increased for all fortified nutrients. In post-fortification food records, >70 % did not meet the EAR for Zn and vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Serum folate and Zn increased significantly post-fortification (P 93 % were retinol replete. There was no change in Fe deficiency (16.7 % pre v. 19.4 % post; P = 0.728). Micronutrient intake improved with fortification, but >70 % of lactating women did not meet the EAR for Zn, vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Although 100 % exceeded the EAR for Fe after fortification, Fe status did not improve.

  8. Influence of lifestyle on vitamin bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Henk; van der Gaag, Martijn; Hendriks, Henk

    2002-01-01

    In this review the effects of lifestyle factors, especially alcohol consumption, on vitamin bioavailability are summarized and discussed. Alcohol effects are clearly dose-dependent. Excessive chronic alcohol intake is generally associated with vitamin deficiency (especially folate, thiamine, and vitamin B6) due to malnutrition, malabsorption, and ethanol toxicity. Effects of moderate alcohol use are mainly explained by a lower vitamin intake. In the case of vitamin A and beta-carotene, effects on post-absorptive (lipoprotein) metabolism have been demonstrated. In one diet-controlled crossover study, alcohol consumption resulted in an increase in the plasma vitamin B6 (PLP) content, especially after beer consumption (containing vitamin B6), but also after wine and spirit consumption (not containing vitamin B6). Smoking is also associated with a lower dietary vitamin intake. In the case of vitamin C, B12, folate, and beta-carotene, evidence has been presented for effects on postabsorptive metabolism, due to smoke-induced oxidative stress and/or vitamin inactivation. For vitamin E a direct effect of smoking on absorption has been demonstrated. There is no convincing evidence that low-fat diets negatively affect fat-soluble vitamin absorption, but cholesterol-lowering compounds (diets), or unabsorbable fat substitutes, may do so. Vitamin bioavailability may be compromised from certain vegetables (particularly raw), and/or from high-fiber foods, because of limited digestion and inefficient release of vitamins from the food matrix.

  9. Thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzymes: from enzymology to metabolic regulation, drug design and disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunik, Victoria I; Tylicki, Adam; Lukashev, Nikolay V

    2013-12-01

    Bringing a knowledge of enzymology into research in vivo and in situ is of great importance in understanding systems biology and metabolic regulation. The central metabolic significance of thiamin (vitamin B1 ) and its diphosphorylated derivative (thiamin diphosphate; ThDP), and the fundamental differences in the ThDP-dependent enzymes of metabolic networks in mammals versus plants, fungi and bacteria, or in health versus disease, suggest that these enzymes are promising targets for biotechnological and medical applications. Here, the in vivo action of known regulators of ThDP-dependent enzymes, such as synthetic structural analogs of the enzyme substrates and thiamin, is analyzed in light of the enzymological data accumulated during half a century of research. Mimicking the enzyme-specific catalytic intermediates, the phosphonate analogs of 2-oxo acids selectively inhibit particular ThDP-dependent enzymes. Because of their selectivity, use of these compounds in cellular and animal models of ThDP-dependent enzyme malfunctions improves the validity of the model and its predictive power when compared with the nonselective and enzymatically less characterized oxythiamin and pyrithiamin. In vitro studies of the interaction of thiamin analogs and their biological derivatives with potential in vivo targets are necessary to identify and attenuate the analog selectivity. For both the substrate and thiamin synthetic analogs, in vitro reactivities with potential targets are highly relevant in vivo. However, effective concentrations in vivo are often higher than in vitro studies would suggest. The significance of specific inihibition of the ThDP-dependent enzymes for the development of herbicides, antibiotics, anticancer and neuroprotective strategies is discussed. © 2013 FEBS.

  10. [Role of the vitamin factor in preventing phenol poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsova, R I; Pozniakovskiĭ, V M; Agarkova, I A

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on rats were made to examine the effect of vitamin B1, pantothenic and ascorbic acids on the acetylation system and some characteristics of protein metabolism under chronic exposure to phenol. Inhibition of phenol vapours led to inhibition of the acetylation on the 105th day of the experiment, to accumulation of pyruvic acid by the blood and diurnal urine, to elevation of cholesterol content in the blood serum. The total content of protein and protein fractions in the blood serum remained unchanged. Additional vitaminization of the animals with thiamine (150 micrograms), calcium pantothenate (650 micrograms) or with their mixture containing ascorbic acid (2 mg) resulted in normalization of the test characteristics of carbohydrate and fat metabolism. The data obtained and the clinical trials carried out by the authors suggest introduction of the physiological doses of thiamine, calcium pantothenate and ascorbic acid into the diet of the workers in order to prevent phenol poisonings more effectively.

  11. "Send & Hold" Clinical Decision Support Rules improvement to reduce unnecessary testing of vitamins A, E, K, B1, B2, B3, B6 and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Borja, Enrique; Corchon-Peyrallo, Africa; Barba-Serrano, Esther; Villalba Martínez, Celia; Carratala Calvo, Arturo

    2018-02-03

    We assessed the impact of several "send & hold" clinical decision support rules (CDSRs) within the electronical request system for vitamins A, E, K, B1, B2, B3, B6 and C for all outpatients at a large health department. When ordered through electronical request, providers (except for all our primary care physicians who worked as a non-intervention control group) were always asked to answer several compulsory questions regarding main indication, symptomatology, suspected diagnosis, vitamin active treatments, etc., for each vitamin test using a drop-down list format. After samples arrival, tests were later put on hold internally by our laboratory information system (LIS) until review for their appropriateness was made by two staff pathologists according to the provided answers and LIS records (i.e. "send & hold"). The number of tests for each analyte was compared between the 10-month period before and after CDSRs implementation in both groups. After implementation, vitamins test volumes decreased by 40% for vitamin A, 29% for vitamin E, 42% for vitamin K, 37% for vitamin B1, 85% for vitamin B2, 68% for vitamin B3, 65% for vitamin B6 and 59% for vitamin C (all p values 0.03 or lower except for vitamin B3), whereas in control group, the majority increased or remained stable. In patients with rejected vitamins, no new requests and/or adverse clinical outcome comments due to this fact were identified. "Send & hold" CDSRs are a promising informatics tool that can support in utilization management and enhance the pathologist's leadership role as tests specialist.

  12. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ross, J.P.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Terrell, S.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Schoeb, T.R.; Perceval, H.F.; Hinterkopf, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B"1) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  13. Vitamin B2, vitamin B12 and total homocysteine status in children and their associations with dietary intake of B-vitamins from different food groups: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Dekkers, Renske; Mavrogianni, Christina; Grammatikaki, Eva; van den Heuvel, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    To examine the associations between the dietary intakes of certain B-vitamins from different food sources with the relevant plasma status indices in children. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9-13 years from the Healthy Growth Study was selected. Dietary intakes of vitamins B 2 , B 12 , B 6 and folate derived from different food sources were estimated. Plasma levels of vitamin B 2 (or riboflavin), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy) were also measured. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B 2 below 3 μg/L were found in 22.8 % of the children. Children in the lower quartile of dietary vitamin B 2 intake were found to have the lowest plasma vitamin B 2 levels compared to children in the upper three quartiles (5.06 ± 7.63 vs. 6.48 ± 7.88, 6.34 ± 7.63 and 6.05 ± 4.94 μg/L respectively; P = 0.003). Regarding vitamin B 12 children in the lower quartile of dietary intake had higher mean plasma tHcy levels compared to children in the upper two quartiles, respectively (6.00 ± 1.79 vs. 5.41 ± 1.43 and 5.46 ± 1.64 μmol/L; P = 0.012). Positive linear associations were observed between plasma vitamin B 2 levels and dietary vitamin B 2 derived from milk and fruits (β = 0.133; P = 0.001 and β = 0.086; P = 0.037). Additionally, nonlinear associations were also observed between plasma vitamin B 2 levels and vitamin B 2 derived from red meat, as well as between tHcy levels and vitamins B 12 and B 6 derived from milk; vitamins B 12 , B 6 and folate derived from cereal products and folate derived from fruits. A considerably high prevalence of poor plasma vitamin B 2 status was observed in children. The intake of milk, fruits and cereals was associated with more favorable tHcy levels, while the intake of milk and fruits with more favorable plasma B2 levels. However, these findings need to be further confirmed from controlled dietary intervention studies examining the modulation of biomarkers of B-vitamins.

  14. Assessment of intake and nutritional status of vitamin b1, b2, and b6 in men and women with different physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malara, M; Hübner-Wozniak, E; Lewandowska, I

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6 in respect to dietary intake of these vitamins and activity coefficients of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase, and aspartic aminotransferase in young men and women with different physical activity levels. The participants of this study were 20 women and 20 men with high physical activity (groups HAW and HAM, respectively), and 20 women and 20 men with low physical activity (groups LAW and LAM, respectively). The intake of vitamins B1, B2, B6, proteins, and calorie content of the diet was based on the average of the 4-day dietary recalls. To assess nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6, the activity coefficients (α) of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGR), and erythrocyte aspartic aminotransferase (EAST) were estimated in blood hemolysates. The intake of the studied vitamins in the diet was statistically significantly lower in the female groups compared with the respective male groups. Deficiency of vitamin B6 in the diet was present more often in women than in men (in terms of the recommended dietary allowances [RDA]). Values of the activity coefficient αETK indicated that none of the groups in this study suffered the risk of vitamin B1 deficiency. The value of the activity coefficient αEGR indicated that the groups of women and men with low physical activity were more prone to vitamin B2 deficiency compared with the high physical activity groups. The risk of vitamin B6 deficiency (αEAST) in both male groups was higher than in both female groups. The obtained results do not allow for unequivocal determination of the impact of sex and the level of physical activity on intake and nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6. Independently of sex and the level of physical activity, the women and men consumed insufficient quantities of vitamins B1 and B6, although this was not always related to

  15. Effect of vitamin B1 and mixtures of B1 with other vitamins on cytostatic efficiency of sanazole under irradiation. A study in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, Edith; Getoff, Nikola

    2003-01-01

    Experiments in vitro, using bacteria Escherichia coli (AB 1157) as a biological model, showed that the cytostatic efficiency of sanazole (AK-2123, a nitrotriazole-type radiosensitizer) in radiation treatment can be strongly influenced by the presence of various vitamins. In airfree media the sanazole action is increased by a factor of 2.5 in the presence of vitamin (vit.) B1, vit. C E-acetate and β-carotene, whereas vit. B1 used individually possesses a 2.7-times higher cytostatic activity than sanazole itself. In media containing air the highest increase of sanazole action is observed in the presence of vit. B1 and C, whereas the individual use of vit. B1 shows a radiation protection effect. In media saturated with N 2 O the addition of the vit. B1 and C causes a 1.8-times larger sanazole activity, but the application of vit. B1 alone brings about a very high radiation protection. >From studies of vit. B1-radiolysis it can be concluded that OH radicals are the major primary transients leading to substrate degradation. The results are of interest for the radiation therapy of cancer

  16. Effect of vitamin B1 and mixtures of B1 with other vitamins on cytostatic efficiency of sanazole under irradiation. A study in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Edith; Getoff, Nikola

    2003-06-01

    Experiments in vitro, using bacteria Escherichia coli (AB 1157) as a biological model, showed that the cytostatic efficiency of sanazole (AK-2123, a nitrotriazole-type radiosensitizer) in radiation treatment can be strongly influenced by the presence of various vitamins. In airfree media the sanazole action is increased by a factor of 2.5 in the presence of vitamin (vit.) B1, vit. C E-acetate and β-carotene, whereas vit. B1 used individually possesses a 2.7-times higher cytostatic activity than sanazole itself. In media containing air the highest increase of sanazole action is observed in the presence of vit. B1 and C, whereas the individual use of vit. B1 shows a radiation protection effect. In media saturated with N 2O the addition of the vit. B1 and C causes a 1.8-times larger sanazole activity, but the application of vit. B1 alone brings about a very high radiation protection. From studies of vit. B1-radiolysis it can be concluded that OH radicals are the major primary transients leading to substrate degradation. The results are of interest for the radiation therapy of cancer.

  17. Effect of vitamin B1 and mixtures of B1 with other vitamins on cytostatic efficiency of sanazole under irradiation. A study in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, Edith; Getoff, Nikola E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.at

    2003-06-01

    Experiments in vitro, using bacteria Escherichia coli (AB 1157) as a biological model, showed that the cytostatic efficiency of sanazole (AK-2123, a nitrotriazole-type radiosensitizer) in radiation treatment can be strongly influenced by the presence of various vitamins. In airfree media the sanazole action is increased by a factor of 2.5 in the presence of vitamin (vit.) B1, vit. C E-acetate and {beta}-carotene, whereas vit. B1 used individually possesses a 2.7-times higher cytostatic activity than sanazole itself. In media containing air the highest increase of sanazole action is observed in the presence of vit. B1 and C, whereas the individual use of vit. B1 shows a radiation protection effect. In media saturated with N{sub 2}O the addition of the vit. B1 and C causes a 1.8-times larger sanazole activity, but the application of vit. B1 alone brings about a very high radiation protection. >From studies of vit. B1-radiolysis it can be concluded that OH radicals are the major primary transients leading to substrate degradation. The results are of interest for the radiation therapy of cancer.

  18. Chemical stability study of vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and ascorbic acid in parenteral nutrition for neonatal use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this work was to study the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C stability in a pediatric formulation containing high amounts of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements under different conditions using developed and validated analytical methods. Methods The study was carried out during 72 h with formulations packaged in recommended storage temperature (4°C) and 25°C, with and without photoprotection. Results The results showed that the methodologies used for assessing the chemical stability of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C in the formulation were selective, linear, precise and accurate. The vitamins could be considered stable in the formulation during the three days of study if stored at 4°C. When stored at 25°C vitamin C presented instability after 48 h. Conclusion The pediatric formulation containing high amount of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements packaged in bag-type trilaminate presented a shelf life of the 72 h, when maintained under refrigeration, between 2°C and 8°C. This shelf life was measured considering the vitamins studied. Further studies are needed including all the vitamins present in this formulation. PMID:21569609

  19. Chemical stability study of vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and ascorbic acid in parenteral nutrition for neonatal use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral Lúcio M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this work was to study the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C stability in a pediatric formulation containing high amounts of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements under different conditions using developed and validated analytical methods. Methods The study was carried out during 72 h with formulations packaged in recommended storage temperature (4°C and 25°C, with and without photoprotection. Results The results showed that the methodologies used for assessing the chemical stability of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C in the formulation were selective, linear, precise and accurate. The vitamins could be considered stable in the formulation during the three days of study if stored at 4°C. When stored at 25°C vitamin C presented instability after 48 h. Conclusion The pediatric formulation containing high amount of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements packaged in bag-type trilaminate presented a shelf life of the 72 h, when maintained under refrigeration, between 2°C and 8°C. This shelf life was measured considering the vitamins studied. Further studies are needed including all the vitamins present in this formulation.

  20. Validation of a homology model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DXS: rationalization of observed activities of thiamine derivatives as potent inhibitors of two orthologues of DXS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, T; Lacy, B; Monjas, L; Hawksley, D; de Voogd, A R; Illarionov, B; Iqbal, A; Leeper, F J; Fischer, M; Kontoyianni, M; Hirsch, A K H

    2015-12-14

    The enzyme DXS catalyzes the first, rate-limiting step of the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP, 1) pathway using thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) as cofactor; the DXS-catalyzed reaction constitutes also the first step in vitamin B1 and B6 metabolism in bacteria. DXS is the least studied among the enzymes of this pathway in terms of crystallographic information, with only one complete crystal structure deposited in the Protein Data Bank (Deinococcus radiodurans DXS, PDB: ). We synthesized a series of thiamine and ThDP derivatives and tested them for their biochemical activity against two DXS orthologues, namely D. radiodurans DXS and Mycobacterium tuberculosis DXS. These experimental results, combined with advanced docking studies, led to the development and validation of a homology model of M. tuberculosis DXS, which, in turn, will guide medicinal chemists in rationally designing potential inhibitors for M. tuberculosis DXS.

  1. HILIC separation and quantitation of water-soluble vitamins using diol column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatapanis, Andreas E; Fiamegos, Yiannis C; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2009-04-01

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid-chromatography (HILIC) in conjunction with diode array detection has been applied for the separation of selected-water-soluble vitamins using an end-capped HILIC-diol column. Vitamins with significant biological importance, such as thiamine (B(1)), riboflavin (B(2)), nicotinic acid (B(3)), nicotinamide (B(3)), pyridoxine (B(6)), folic acid (B(9)), cyanocobalamin (B(12)) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) were simultaneously separated. Chromatographic conditions including type and percentage of organic modifier in the mobile phase, pH, type and concentration of buffer salt and flow rate were investigated. ACN was shown to offer superior separation for the compounds tested as compared to methanol, isopropanol and THF. Isocratic separation and analysis were achieved for six vitamins (B(1), B(2), nicotinic acid/nicotinamide, B(6) and C) at ACN-H(2)O 90:10, containing ammonium acetate 10 mM, triethylamine 20 mM, pH 5.0, using a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, while a gradient was necessary to resolve a mixture of all eight water-soluble vitamins. The HILIC method was validated and successfully applied to the analysis of a pharmaceutical formulation and an energy drink negating the need for time consuming clean-up steps.

  2. The connection between maternal thiamine shortcoming and offspring cognitive damage and poverty perpetuation in underprivileged communities across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando M V; Silva, Danielle Marra de Freitas; Doyle, Flavia Costa de Proença; Ribeiro, Angela Maria

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of cognitive, sensory-motor and social emotional functions depend on a proper development of the Central Nervous System (CNS). This set of functions, known as intelligence, allows a better adaptation to the environment. In the last decades, an increase in the average of intelligence has been reported. However, such an increase cannot be observed in an equivalent way in economically and social underprivileged regions. Children from those regions are in great risk of being affected by mental retardation or impaired cognitive development. In later life they will, probably, be unable to transform and improve themselves and their communities, perpetuating the poverty of the region. Therefore, knowledge of factors involved in CNS development is a matter of health closely related to social improvement. Malnutrition throughout pregnancy and breastfeeding is clearly identifiable as a cause of damage in CNS development. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) is a micronutrient important to the growth and maturity of the CNS. Thiamine shortcoming may affect 50% of pregnant women. Thiamine function in cerebral development is still not well known. There is a gap in the literature regarding systematical research about the blood thiamine concentration throughout the periods of gestation and breastfeeding. These studies are relevant in populations with a high level of nutritional vulnerability, because in a follow up offspring cognitive exam they could reveal if the maternal thiamine deficiency is related to child CNS impairment. This paper introduce the hypothesis that thiamine shortcoming during pregnancy and breastfeeding is directly related to cognitive impairment of child. Data about the neurophysiological role of thiamine, consequences of its shortcoming in experimental models, populations under the risk of thiamine shortcoming are presented. The hypothesis that maternal thiamine shortcoming causes damage related to child cognitive development needs to be considered. Thus

  3. Chemoreactomic analysis of thiamine disulfide, thiamine hydrochloride, and benfotiamine molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the interactions that could indicate the potential pharmacological properties of the molecules of thiamin, thiamine disulfide, and others.Material and methods. The investigators simulated the properties of thiamine disulfide (bistiamin versus those of the reference molecules of thiamin hydrochloride and benfotiamine. The study was performed using chemoreactomic simulation that is the newest area in post-genome pharmacology.Results and discussion. Chemoreactomic analysis has shown that thiamine disulfide can inhibit the molecular receptors involved in blood pressure regulation: adrenoceptors, vasopressin receptor, and angiotensin receptor. Thiamine disulfide can inhibit the reuptake of serotonin, increase its levels, inhibit benzodiazepine receptor and dopamine reuptake, and enhance neuronal acetylcholine release to a large extent than benfotiamine. These molecular effects are consistent with the sedative and anticonvulsant action profile of thiamine disulfide. Simulation has indicated that thiamine disulfide has neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, normolipidemic, and antitumor activities.Conclusion. The simulation results are confirmed by the available clinical and experimental findings and indicate the virtually unstudied molecular mechanisms of action of thiamine disulfide, benfotiamine, and thiamin hydrochloride. 

  4. Radioassay of vitamin B-12 employing bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, N.; Fries, J.E.; Richards, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioassay for vitamin B-12 using the unknown quantity of non-radioactive vitamin B-12 released from serum mixed with the radioactivity of a known quantity of radioactive vitamin B-12 tracer. A solution of intrinsic factor having a binding capacity less than the quantity of serum vitamin B-12 and radioactive vitamin B-12 is used to bind a portion of the vitamin B-12 mixture. The vitamin B-12 not bound to intrinsic factor is removed by addition of a bentonite-containing tablet. The quantity of radioactive vitamin B-12 bound to intrinsic factor is compared with standard values and the unknown serum vitamin B-12 obtained. In the steps of the procedure the acid assay medium is pre-combined with the radioactive tracer so that the radioactive vitamin B-12 tracer receives the same treatment as serum vitamin B-12. Certain of the other reagent solutions are pre-combined and the concentration of the components adjusted so that the volume used of each of these other reagent solutions is the same in different assay steps. Thus, fewer pipetting steps are necessary. 7 claims, 1 drawing figure

  5. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pork Nuts Poultry Whole grains and fortified cereals Canned chickpeas Fortified breads and cereals may also contain vitamin B6. Fortified means that a vitamin or mineral has been added to the food. Side Effects Large doses of vitamin B6 can cause: Difficulty ...

  6. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (uplc-ms/ms) for the rapid, simultaneous analysis of thiamin, riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide and pyridoxal in human milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel, rapid and sensitive Ultra Performance Liquid-Chromatography tandem Mass-Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of several B-vitamins in human milk was developed. Resolution by retention time or multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for thiamin, riboflavin, flavin a...

  7. Effectiveness of egg immersion in aqueous solutions of thiamine and thiamine analogs for reducing early mortality syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S.B.; Brown, L.R.; Brown, M.; Moore, K.; Villella, M.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Williston, B.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Zajicek, J.L.; Wolgamood, M.

    2005-01-01

    Protocols used for therapeutic thiamine treatments in salmonine early mortality syndrome (EMS) were investigated in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush and coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch to assess their efficacy. At least 500 mg of thiamine HCl/L added to egg baths was required to produce a sustained elevation of thiamine content in lake trout eggs. Thiamine uptake from egg baths was not influenced by a pH ranging from 5.5 to 7.5 or by a water hardness between 2 and 200 mg CaCO3/L. There was poorer thiamine uptake when initial thiamine levels were low, suggesting that current treatment regimes may not be as effective when thiamine levels are severely depressed and that higher treatment doses are necessary. Exposure of eggs to the more lipid-soluble thiamine analog allithiamine (1,000 mg/L) during water hardening increased egg thiamine levels by 1.5-2.5 nmol/g and was completely effective at reversing EMS. Another more lipid-soluble thiamine analog, benfotiamine (100 mg/L), reduced EMS but did not produce detectable increases in egg thiamine content. Although benfotiamine may be more effective than thiamine at mitigating EMS, it is more expensive than thiamine HCl or allithiamine. In addition, there still needs to be a more thorough examination of dose-response relationships. We conclude that allithiamine is an alternative to the use of thiamine in egg baths as a therapeutic treatment for salmonid EMS. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  8. Comparative Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Thiamine and Its Phosphorylated Metabolites Administered as Multivitamin Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wan-Su; Lee, Jongtae; Hong, Taegon; Park, Gabjin; Youn, Sunil; Seo, Youngwhan; Lee, Sanghun; Han, Seunghoon

    2016-10-01

    Fursultiamine and benfotiamine are lipophilic thiamine derivatives used as oral sources of thiamine. Although there are many publications on the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of thiamine-containing products, no direct comparisons between these agents . We aimed to compare the PK profiles of these lipophilic thiamine derivatives and to compare the extent of the increase in bioavailability to that of naïve thiamine. Two randomized, single-dose, 2-way crossover, full PK studies were conducted in healthy Korean male subjects (n = 24 per group). Among the test compounds, fursultiamine was compared with benfotiamine (reference A in study A) and thiamine nitrate (reference B in study B). All formulations were multivitamin preparations containing the test or reference formulation as the major thiamine source. In study A, the plasma and hemolysate concentrations of thiamine and its metabolites were measured, while only the plasma thiamine concentration was assayed in study B. The systemic thiamine exposure of the test compound was slightly greater than that of reference A, based on the geometric mean ratio (%) of the AUC last value for plasma (116.6%) and hemolysate (137.5%). The thiamine diphosphate (TDP) distribution between plasma and hemolysate showed clear differences according to the formulations, in that more TDP was present in the hemolysate when thiamine was given as the test formulation. The AUC last value of plasma thiamine showed a >300% increase when thiamine was given as the test formulation in study B. The summed total exposure to thiamine (thiamine + TDP in both plasma and hemolysate) observed as a point estimate after the administration of fursultiamine was slightly greater than that with benfotiamine; however, the 90% CI was within the conventional bioequivalence range. These findings support clear benefits of lipophilic thiamine derivatives in the absorption of thiamine in healthy volunteers. Clinical Research Information Service identifiers: KCT

  9. Detection of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people by measuring vitamin B12 or the active fraction of vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Sherliker, Paul; Hin, Harold

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired vitamin B(12) function and decreased vitamin B(12) status have been associated with neurological and cognitive impairment. Current assays analyze total vitamin B(12) concentration, only a small percentage of which is metabolically active. Concentrations of this active component......, carried on holotranscobalamin (holoTC), may be of greater relevance than total vitamin B(12). METHODS: We compared the utility of serum holoTC with conventional vitamin B(12) for detection of vitamin B(12) deficiency in a population-based study of older people, using increased methylmalonic acid (MMA......) concentrations as a marker of metabolic vitamin B(12) deficiency in the overall population (n = 2403) and in subsets with normal (n = 1651) and abnormal (n = 752) renal function. RESULTS: Among all participants, 6% had definite (MMA >0.75 micromol/L) and 16% had probable (MMA >0.45 micromol/L) metabolic vitamin...

  10. Pantothenic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B complex generally includes vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin/niacinamide), vitamin B5 (pantothenic ... Calcium, Pantothenol, Pantothenylol, Vitamin B5, Vitamin B-5, Vitamina B5, Vitamine B5.

  11. Insufficient self-shielding correction in VITAMIN-B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Chikara; Ochiai, Kentaro; Ohnishi, Seiki

    2011-01-01

    We carried out a simple benchmark calculation test with a multigroup cross-section library VITAMIN-B6 generated from ENDF/B-VI. The model of this test consisted of an iron sphere of 1 m in radius with an isotropic 20 MeV neutron source in the center. Neutron spectra in the sphere were calculated with an Sn code ANISN and VITAMIN-B6 or FENDL/MG-1.1. A calculation with MCNP and ENDF/B-VI was carried out as a reference. The neutron spectra with ANISN and FENDL/MG-1.1 agreed with those with MCNP, while those with ANISN and VITAMIN-B6 were at most 50% different from those with MCNP. We uncovered that the discrepancy came from insufficient self-shielding correction due to the followings; 1) The smallest background cross section of 56 Fe in VITAMIN-B6 is 1. 2) The weighting flux used in generating VITAMIN-B6 is not adequate. VITAMIN-B6 should be revised for adequate self-shielding correction. (author)

  12. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J

    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 mug), vitamin B-12 (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA), and

  13. Metformin Is a Substrate and Inhibitor of the Human Thiamine Transporter, THTR-2 (SLC19A3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaomin; Chien, Huan-Chieh; Yee, Sook Wah; Giacomini, Marilyn M; Chen, Eugene C; Piao, Meiling; Hao, Jia; Twelves, Jolyn; Lepist, Eve-Irene; Ray, Adrian S; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2015-12-07

    The biguanide metformin is widely used as first-line therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Predominately a cation at physiological pH's, metformin is transported by membrane transporters, which play major roles in its absorption and disposition. Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that organic cation transporter 1, OCT1, the major hepatic uptake transporter for metformin, was also the primary hepatic uptake transporter for thiamine, vitamin B1. In this study, we tested the reverse, i.e., that metformin is a substrate of thiamine transporters (THTR-1, SLC19A2, and THTR-2, SLC19A3). Our study demonstrated that human THTR-2 (hTHTR-2), SLC19A3, which is highly expressed in the small intestine, but not hTHTR-1, transports metformin (Km = 1.15 ± 0.2 mM) and other cationic compounds (MPP(+) and famotidine). The uptake mechanism for hTHTR-2 was pH and electrochemical gradient sensitive. Furthermore, metformin as well as other drugs including phenformin, chloroquine, verapamil, famotidine, and amprolium inhibited hTHTR-2 mediated uptake of both thiamine and metformin. Species differences in the substrate specificity of THTR-2 between human and mouse orthologues were observed. Taken together, our data suggest that hTHTR-2 may play a role in the intestinal absorption and tissue distribution of metformin and other organic cations and that the transporter may be a target for drug-drug and drug-nutrient interactions.

  14. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. Plasma Homocysteine, Serum Folic Acid, Serum Vitamin B12, Serum Vitamin B6, MTHFR, and Risk of Normal-Tension Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinmiao; Xu, Fan; Zeng, Rui; Gong, Haijun; Lan, Yuqing

    2016-02-01

    This meta-analysis aims to comprehensively evaluate the association between total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, serum folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 levels, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, and risk of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). A systematic search of the EMBASE and PubMed databases was performed to evaluate plasma tHcy levels, serum folic acid, B vitamins' mean difference, and odds ratios of MTHFR C677T genotype between cases and controls. A total of 7 studies including 458 cases and 555 controls meeting the inclusion criteria were involved in this meta-analysis. There were 4 studies for tHcy (149 cases and 148 controls), 2 studies for vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate (90 cases and 82 controls), and 4 studies for MTHFR (343 cases and 449 controls). Overall, the mean plasma tHcy levels, serum folic acids, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 levels were 1.16 μmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI), -0.13, 2.45], -0.62 μmol/L (95% CI, -1.98, 0.74), 5.81 μmol/L (95% CI, -3.53, 15.14), and -16.79 μmol/L (95% CI, -86.09, 52.51). MTHFR TT genotype was found to be unrelated to NTG risk (odds ratio=1.08; 95% CI, 0.69, 1.69). NTG is not associated with elevated plasma tHcy, serum folic acid, serum vitamin B12, serum vitamin B6, and MTHFR C677T genotype.

  16. HPLC analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6) in in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... B6 (pyridoxine HCl) were higher in in vitro germinated seedlings. Thus, vitamin production was age and culture conditions dependent, which is discussed in detail. The study revealed that the germinated chickpea grains can be used for human consumption with value addition of vitamin B-group in the diet of vegetarians.

  17. Radiation protection of vitamins in aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, K.; Moorthy, P.N.; Rao, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    Thiamine and other vitamins of the B complex group are highly sensitive to γ radiation in aqueous solution owing to their high reactivity with the primary species formed by radiolysis of water, viz. hydrated electrons and hydroxyl radicals. In order to protect these compounds from radiolytic degradation, nitrous oxide and oxygen have been used as scavengers for the hydrated electrons and glucose for the hydroxyl radicals. By comparison of uv spectra it is shown that the above vitamins do not undergo radiolytic degradation in presence of nitrous oxide and glucose or oxygen and glucose. The importance of these results in connection with the sterilization of vitamin preparations is discussed. (author)

  18. Associations between B Vitamins and Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang

    2015-08-27

    B vitamins may correlate with Parkinson's disease (PD) through regulating homocysteine level. However, there is no comprehensive assessment on the associations between PD and B vitamins. The present study was designed to perform a meta-analytic assessment of the associations between folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 and PD, including the status of B vitamins in PD patients compared with controls, and associations of dietary intakes of B vitamins and risk of PD. A literature search using Medline database obtained 10 eligible studies included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Pooled data revealed that there was no obvious difference in folate level between PD patients and healthy controls, and PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 than controls. Available data suggested that higher dietary intake of vitamin B6 was associated with a decreased risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = (0.30, 1.01)), while no significant association was observed for dietary intake of folate and vitamin B12 and risk of PD. PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 and similar level of folate compared with controls. Dietary intake of vitamin B6 exhibited preventive effect of developing PD based on the available data. As the number of included studies is limited, more studies are needed to confirm the findings and elucidate the underpinning underlying these associations.

  19. Preconception serum 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2,bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane and B-vitamin status: independent and joint effects on women's reproductive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Fengxiu; Longnecker, Matthew P; Venners, Scott A; Johnson, Sara; Korrick, Susan; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Xiping; Christian, Parul; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-12-01

    Although preconception 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2,bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) exposure and B-vitamin deficiencies have each been shown to negatively affect human reproductive outcomes, little is known about their joint effect. We sought to examine whether B-vitamin sufficiency protects against adverse effects of DDT on clinical pregnancy (CP) and subclinical early pregnancy loss (EPL). We measured preconception concentrations of plasma B vitamins (vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and folate) and serum total DDT [sum of p,p' and o,p' isomers of DDT and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] in 291 nulligravid women from Anhui, China, who were studied in 1996-1998. The women were followed prospectively from the time they stopped contraception until CP (gestational age ≥42 d) or 12 mo (whichever occurred first). EPL was identified by using daily urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. The women were categorized according to B-vitamin status (deficiency compared with sufficiency) and DDT concentration (high compared with low). Of 291 study women, a total of 385 conceptions (31% of which ended in EPL) and 265 CPs occurred. Compared with women with adequate B-vitamins and low DDT, incidence rates of CP were reduced in women with B-vitamin deficiency and a high DDT concentration (P vitamin B-12, DDT was not associated with the incidence of CP; in contrast, in women with vitamin B-12 deficiency, high DDT was associated with a lower incidence of CP (HR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.84); and the test for interaction was significant (P vitamin B-12 and folate sufficiency may help protect against adverse reproductive effects of DDT exposure. Additional studies are needed to confirm our findings. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Thiamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency. Brain disorder due to thiamine deficiency (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). Thiamine helps decrease the risk and symptoms of a specific brain disorder called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). This brain disorder is related to low ...

  1. Vitamin profile of cooked foods: how healthy is the practice of ready-to-eat foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agte, Vaishali; Tarwadi, Kirtan; Mengale, Sangeeta; Hinge, Ashwini; Chiplonkar, Shashi

    2002-05-01

    During recent years importance of B complex vitamins, beta-carotene and vitamin C has been realised in terms of their antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. Fruits and vegetables are the rich sources of these vitamins. However, there are considerable cooking losses of vitamins, and information on vitamin contents of cooked foods is essential for assessing the adequacy of vitamin intakes. Secondly, there is a growing trend to consume ready-to-eat foods such as stuffed pancakes (samosa, patties), pastries, French fries; replacing traditional foods for lunch or dinner like roti, vegetable curry, bread, non-vegetarian items. Ready-to-eat foods are considered to give empty calories rather than a balanced diet. A study was undertaken to estimate ascorbic acid, folic acid, riboflavin, thiamine and beta-carotene of 263 cooked food samples and 260 meals representing dietary patterns of Asia, Africa, Europe, USA and Latin America by spectrophotometry and photoflurometry. A broad range of beta-carotene (84-2038 mcg%), riboflavin (0.01-0.48 mg%), thiamine (0.04-0.36 mg%), vitamin C (1-28 mg%) and folate (26-111 mcg%) was observed in individual foods. Bakery products and sweets were found to be poor sources and green leafy vegetables and fruits were good sources of these five vitamins. The differences between ready-to-eat foods and meals consumed during lunch or dinner were prominent for beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, riboflavin and folic acid (P < 0.05). The cooking losses were 34.6, 30, 52.2, 45.9 and 32.2% in case of ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, beta-carotene and folic acid respectively. Irrespective of whether it is ready-to-eat or a lunch/dinner food item, the contribution of vegetables in the preparations was found to make a marked impact on the vitamin profile. While results justify the concept of a food pyramid, emphasis needs to be given to types of fruits and vegetables rich in vitamins; preferably in their uncooked form, rather than considering their

  2. A novel encephalopathy in a thiamine-deficient dog resembling human Wernicke’s disease with atypical MRI pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Gernone

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin, which participates in several vital metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis of mammals. In companion animals thiamine deficiency is classically associated with signs of diffuse encephalopathy and lesions on brainstem nuclei and mesencephalic colliculi evident on magnetic resonance imaging. This paper describes a novel clinical presentation in a thiamine-deficient dog showing multifocal, central and peripheral nervous and cardiovascular system alterations. Brain MRI showed bilateral caudate nuclei damage, with necrotic-malacic evolution, similar to the atypical MRI pattern found in Wernicke’s encephalopathy in humans. Detection of bilateral symmetrical lesions of the caudate nuclei in dogs should prompt consideration of a thiamine deficiency among the differential diagnoses.

  3. Chemoreactomic analysis of thiamine disulfide, thiamine hydrochloride, and benfotiamine molecules

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Gromova; I. Yu. Torshin; L. V. Stakhovskaya; L. E. Fedotova

    2017-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the interactions that could indicate the potential pharmacological properties of the molecules of thiamin, thiamine disulfide, and others.Material and methods. The investigators simulated the properties of thiamine disulfide (bistiamin) versus those of the reference molecules of thiamin hydrochloride and benfotiamine. The study was performed using chemoreactomic simulation that is the newest area in post-genome pharmacology.Results and discussion. Chemoreactomic analysis...

  4. Status of B-vitamins and homocysteine in diabetic retinopathy: association with vitamin-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Alleboena; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Pitla, Sujatha; Reddy, Paduru Yadagiri; Mudili, Sivaprasad; Lopamudra, Pratti; Suryanarayana, Palla; Viswanath, Kalluru; Ayyagari, Radha; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of blindness. Although many studies have indicated an association between homocysteine and DR, the results so far have been equivocal. Amongst the many determinants of homocysteine, B-vitamin status was shown to be a major confounding factor, yet very little is known about its relationship to DR. In the present study, we, therefore, investigated the status of B-vitamins and homocysteine in DR. A cross-sectional case-control study was conducted with 100 normal control (CN) subjects and 300 subjects with type-2 diabetes (T2D). Of the 300 subjects with T2D, 200 had retinopathy (DR) and 100 did not (DNR). After a complete ophthalmic examination including fundus fluorescein angiography, the clinical profile and the blood levels of all B-vitamins and homocysteine were analyzed. While mean plasma homocysteine levels were found to be higher in T2D patients compared with CN subjects, homocysteine levels were particularly high in the DR group. There were no group differences in the blood levels of vitamins B1 and B2. Although the plasma vitamin-B6 and folic acid levels were significantly lower in the DNR and DR groups compared with the CN group, there were no significant differences between the diabetes groups. Interestingly, plasma vitamin-B12 levels were found to be significantly lower in the diabetes groups compared with the CN group; further, the levels were significantly lower in the DR group compared with the DNR group. Higher homocysteine levels were significantly associated with lower vitamin-B12 and folic acid but not with other B-vitamins. Additionally, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin-B12 deficiency did not seem to be related to subjects' age, body mass index, or duration of diabetes. These results thus suggest a possible association between vitamin-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia in DR. Further, the data indicate that vitamin-B12 deficiency could be an independent risk factor for DR.

  5. B Vitamins Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the body through the urine. Because B vitamins are water-soluble, only small amounts are stored by the body and they must be obtained from foods rich in B vitamins or from supplements on a regular basis. Severe ...

  6. Gastric emptying in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagci, Muenci; Yamac, Kadri; Acar, Kadir; Haznedar, Rauf; Cingi, Elif; Kitapci, Mehmet

    2002-01-01

    The clinical presentation of patients with vitamin B 12 deficiency varies in a spectrum ranging from haematological disorders to neuropsychiatric diseases. In rare cases, orthostatic hypotension, impotence, constipation and urinary retention have been attributed to autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B 12 deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin B 12 deficiency on autonomic nervous system function by studying gastric emptying times (T 1/2 ). Twenty patients with newly diagnosed vitamin B 12 deficiency and 12 control patients with gastritis and normal vitamin B 12 levels were enrolled in this study. Gastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic biopsy, histopathological evaluation of the biopsy specimens and radionuclide gastric emptying studies were performed. After vitamin B 12 replacement therapy for 3 months, radionuclide gastric emptying studies were repeated. Mean gastric emptying T 1/2 in patients before and after treatment and in controls were 103.83±48.80 min, 90.00±17.29 min and 74.55±8.52 min, respectively. The difference in mean gastric emptying T 1/2 between patients before treatment and controls was statistically significant (P 12 treatment (P 1/2 was somewhat shorter. There were no positive or negative correlations between gastric emptying T 1/2 and the following parameters: haemoglobin, vitamin B 12 level and Helicobacter pylori positivity. In conclusion, gastric emptying T 1/2 was prolonged in patients with vitamin B 12 deficiency and this prolongation was not corrected after vitamin B 12 replacement therapy. Although autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B 12 deficiency rarely gives rise to clinical manifestations, latent dysfunction demonstrated by laboratory tests seems to be a frequent phenomenon. The level of vitamin B 12 does not correlate with the degree of autonomic nervous system dysfunction measured by radionuclide gastric emptying studies. (orig.)

  7. Holo-transcobalamin is an indicator of vitamin B-12 absorption in healthy adults with adequate vitamin B-12 status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Castel-Roberts, Kristina M; Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Nexo, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that the response of holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC) to oral vitamin B-12 may be used to assess absorption. To develop a reliable clinical absorption test that uses holo-TC, it is necessary to determine the optimal timeline for vitamin B-12 administration...... and postdose assessment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and patterns of change in the postabsorption response of holo-TC to oral vitamin B-12. DESIGN: Adult (18-49 y) male and female participants (n = 21) with normal vitamin B-12 status were given three 9-mug doses...... of vitamin B-12 at 6-h intervals beginning early morning (baseline) on day 1. Blood was drawn at 17 timed intervals over the course of 3 d for the analysis of holo-TC and other indicators of vitamin B-12 status. RESULTS: Mean holo-TC increased significantly (P

  8. Effects of dietary nitrogen levels and carbohydrate sources on apparent ruminal synthesis of some B vitamins in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudet, V; Gervais, R; Graulet, B; Nozière, P; Doreau, M; Fanchone, A; Castagnino, D D S; Girard, C L

    2016-04-01

    Effects of nitrogen level and carbohydrate source on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were evaluated using 4 lactating Holstein cows distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with treatments following a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Cows were fitted with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum. The treatments were 2 N levels and 2 carbohydrate sources. The diet with the high N level provided 14% crude protein, calculated to meet 110% of the protein requirements and an adequate supply in rumen-degradable protein, whereas the diet with the low N level contained 11% crude protein, calculated to meet 80% of the protein requirements with a shortage in rumen-degradable protein. Carbohydrate source treatments differed by their nature (i.e., high in starch from barley, corn, and wheat, or high in fiber from soybean hulls and dehydrated beet pulp). All 4 diets were isoenergetic, based on corn silage, and had the same forage-to-concentrate ratio (60:40, dry matter basis). Duodenal flow was determined using YbCl3 as a marker. Each B-vitamin ARS was calculated as duodenal flow minus daily intake. The intake of several B vitamins varied among treatments, but because the animals consumed a similar amount of feed every day (average of 20 kg of dry matter/d) the difference was mostly due to vitamin content of each ingredient and their relative proportion in the diets. Decreasing N concentration in the diet reduced vitamin B6 duodenal flow and increased its apparent ruminal degradation. It also decreased duodenal flow and ARS of folates. The high-starch diets increased duodenal flow and ruminal balance of riboflavin, vitamin B6, and folates, whereas the high-fiber diets increased vitamin B12 ARS and duodenal flow. These effects on apparent synthesis are possibly due to changes in ruminal fermentation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparison of the retention of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, and cooking yield in pork loin with conventional and enhanced meal-service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Kall, M.; Hansen, K.

    2002-01-01

    processing included warm-holding, conventional cook-chill, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and sous vide. Compared to retention in the freshly cooked samples, vitamin B-2 retention remained unaffected, irrespective of the meal-service system used and storage period. As regards vitamin B-1 and vitamin B-6......, retentions declined significantly, by 14% and 21% respectively during 3 h of warm-holding, and by 11% and 19% respectively after 1 day of storage and subsequent reheating (cook-chill, MAP and sous vide). Vitamin B-1 retention declined by an extra 4% during storage for 14 days (sous vide) (not significant...

  10. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  11. Vitamin B-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

  12. The Role of B Vitamins in Marine Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Suffridge, Christopher; Webb, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    The soluble B vitamins (B1, B7, and B12) have long been recognized as playing a central metabolic role in marine phytoplankton and bacteria; however, the importance of these organic external metabolites in marine ecology has been largely disregarded, as most research has focused on inorganic nutrients and trace metals. Using recently available genomic data combined with culture-based surveys of vitamin auxotrophy (i.e., vitamin requirements), we show that this auxotrophy is widespread in the marine environment and occurs in both autotrophs and heterotrophs residing in oligotrophic and eutrophic environments. Our analysis shows that vitamins originate from the activities of some bacteria and algae and that taxonomic changes observed in marine phytoplankton communities could be the result of their specific vitamin requirements and/or vitamin availability. Dissolved vitamin concentration measurements show that large areas of the world ocean are devoid of B vitamins, suggesting that vitamin limitation could be important for the efficiency of carbon and nitrogen fixation in those regions.

  13. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  14. Protective effects of B vitamins and antioxidants on the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia B; Chen, Yu; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; van Geen, Alexander; Howe, Geoffrey R; Ahsan, Habibul

    2008-08-01

    An estimated 25-40 million of the 127 million people of Bangladesh have been exposed to high levels of naturally occurring arsenic from drinking groundwater. The mitigating effects of diet on arsenic-related premalignant skin lesions are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of the vitamin B group (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and cobalamin) and antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E) on arsenic-related skin lesions. We performed a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), 2000-2002, with individual-level, time-weighted measures of arsenic exposure from drinking water. A total of 14,828 individuals meeting a set of eligibility criteria were identified among 65,876 users of all 5,996 tube wells in the 25-km(2) area of Araihazar, Bangladesh; 11,746 were recruited into the study. This analysis is based on 10,628 subjects (90.5%) with nonmissing dietary data. Skin lesions were identified according to a structured clinical protocol during screening and confirmed with further clinical review. Riboflavin, pyridoxine, folic acid, and vitamins A, C, and E significantly modified risk of arsenic-related skin lesions. The deleterious effect of ingested arsenic, at a given exposure level, was significantly reduced (ranging from 46% reduction for pyridoxine to 68% for vitamin C) for persons in the highest quintiles of vitamin intake. Intakes of B-vitamins and antioxidants, at doses greater than the current recommended daily amounts for the country, may reduce the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh.

  15. Associations between B Vitamins and Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available B vitamins may correlate with Parkinson’s disease (PD through regulating homocysteine level. However, there is no comprehensive assessment on the associations between PD and B vitamins. The present study was designed to perform a meta-analytic assessment of the associations between folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 and PD, including the status of B vitamins in PD patients compared with controls, and associations of dietary intakes of B vitamins and risk of PD. A literature search using Medline database obtained 10 eligible studies included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Pooled data revealed that there was no obvious difference in folate level between PD patients and healthy controls, and PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 than controls. Available data suggested that higher dietary intake of vitamin B6 was associated with a decreased risk of PD (odds ratio (OR = 0.65, 95% confidence intervals (CI = (0.30, 1.01, while no significant association was observed for dietary intake of folate and vitamin B12 and risk of PD. PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 and similar level of folate compared with controls. Dietary intake of vitamin B6 exhibited preventive effect of developing PD based on the available data. As the number of included studies is limited, more studies are needed to confirm the findings and elucidate the underpinning underlying these associations.

  16. Pengaruh asupan Fe, vitamin A, vitamin B12, dan vitamin C terhadap kadar hemoglobin pada remaja vegan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanti Siallagan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vegan has become a diet that started to be many people's choice. Low intake of iron and vitamin B12 is factors that can cause anemia in vegan. On the other side vegans often consume vegetables and fruits that contained high of vitamin A and vitamin C which helps the absorption of iron, that can help prevent anemia. Objective: The purpose of the research know the effect of the intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin C on hemoglobin (Hblevels in young Buddhist vegan Pusdiklat Maitreyawira. Method: This research uses cross-sectional design. The population in this study are all adolescent vegan in the Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira. Samples in this study were 31 peoples. Independent variable is an intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and vitamin C was obtained by SQ-FFQ, while the dependent variable was Hb with hemoglobin testing system quick-check set. Analysis of the data in this study using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression. Results: There is a relationship intake of iron (p=0,000, vitamin B12 (p=0,037, and vitamin C (p=0,000 to Hb level of adolescent vegan in Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira, there is no relationship intake of vitamin A with a Hb level of adolescent vegan (p=0,220. The result of multivariate analysis using multiple regression analysis of the variables that most influence haemoglobin levels of adolescent vegan are the intake of iron and vitamin C. Each increase of 1 mg Fe intake will increase the Hb concentration as much as 0.013 g/dl and increase of 1 mg of vitamin C intake will increase Hb levels as much as 0.002 g/dl. Conclusion: Iron and vitamin C intake is the most influence factors to hemoglobin levels of adolescent vegan in Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of vitamin B_9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazev, A.V.; Emel’yanenko, V.N.; Shipilova, A.S.; Lelet, M.I.; Gusarova, E.V.; Knyazeva, S.S.; Verevkin, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B_9 has been measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. • The thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B_9 have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 333 K. • The character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. • Enthalpy of combustion of the vitamin B_9 was measured using high-precision combustion calorimeter. - Abstract: In the present work temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B_9 (folic acid dihydrate) has been measured for the first time in the range from (6 to 333) K by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Based on the experimental values, the thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B_9, namely, the heat capacity, enthalpy H°(T) − H°(0), entropy S°(T) − S°(0) and Gibbs function G°(T) − H°(0) have been determined for the range from T → (0 to 333) K. The value of the fractal dimension D in the function of multifractal generalization of Debye’s theory of the heat capacity of solids was estimated and the character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. Enthalpy of combustion (−8942.8 ± 7.5) kJ·mol"−"1 of the vitamin B_9 was measured for the first time using a high-precision combustion calorimeter. The standard molar enthalpy of formation in the crystalline state (−1821.0 ± 7.9) kJ·mol"−"1 of B_9 at 298.15 K was derived from the combustion experiments. Using a combination of the adiabatic and combustion calorimetry results, the thermodynamic functions of formation of the folic acid dihydrate at T = 298.15 K and p = 0.1 MPa have been calculated. The low-temperature X-ray diffraction was used for the determination of coefficients of thermal expansion.

  18. In vitro study of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 adsorption on zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Basić Zorica; Kilibarda Vesna; Dobrić Silva; Resanović Radmila

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim. Zeolites are the hydratised alumosilicates of alcali and earthalcali cations, which have a long three-dimensional crystal structure. Preparations on the basis of zeolites are used for adsorption of organic and nonorganic toxic substances and they, also, find more and more use in veterinary and human medicine and pharmacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of zeolite to adsorb vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in acid and neutral solutions, as well as the chara...

  19. Nonalcoholic Thiamine-Related Encephalopathy (Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome) Among Inpatients With Cancer: A Series of 18 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg-Grzeda, Elie; Alici, Yesne; Hatzoglou, Vaios; Nelson, Christian; Breitbart, William

    2016-01-01

    Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome caused by thiamine deficiency. Cancer predisposes to thiamine deficiency through various mechanisms. Although many case reports exist on nonalcoholic WKS in cancer, larger qualitative studies are lacking. Retrospective study of patients admitted to a cancer hospital and diagnosed with WKS during routine care on a psychiatric consultation service. Only patients with at least 1 additional supporting feature (magnetic resonance imaging findings, low serum thiamine concentrations, or response to treatment) were included. Data pertaining to demographics, risk factors, phenomenology, and outcomes were abstracted from medical records by chart review. In all, 18 patients were included. All patients developed WKS during cancer treatment. Hematologic malignancy, gastrointestinal tract tumors, low oral intake, and weight loss were common risk factors. All patients presented with cognitive dysfunction, most commonly impaired alertness, attention, and short-term memory. All were diagnosed by operational criteria proposed by Caine et al., 1997 (where 2 of the following are required: nutritional deficiency, ocular signs, cerebellar signs, and either altered mental status or mild memory impairment). Few exhibited Wernicke's classic triad. Diagnostic and treatment delay were common. Only 3 patients recovered fully. Nonalcoholic WKS can occur during cancer treatment and manifests clinically as delirium. Diagnosis should be made using operational criteria, not Wernicke's triad. Most patients were not underweight and had normal serum concentration of vitamin B12 and folate. A variety of mechanisms might predispose to thiamine deficiency and WKS in cancer. Given the high frequency of residual morbidity, studies should focus on decreasing diagnostic and treatment delay. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gastric emptying in patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagci, Muenci; Yamac, Kadri; Acar, Kadir; Haznedar, Rauf [Department of Hematology, Gazi Medical School (Turkey); Cingi, Elif; Kitapci, Mehmet [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi Medical School (Turkey)

    2002-09-01

    The clinical presentation of patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency varies in a spectrum ranging from haematological disorders to neuropsychiatric diseases. In rare cases, orthostatic hypotension, impotence, constipation and urinary retention have been attributed to autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency on autonomic nervous system function by studying gastric emptying times (T{sub 1/2}). Twenty patients with newly diagnosed vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency and 12 control patients with gastritis and normal vitamin B{sub 12} levels were enrolled in this study. Gastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic biopsy, histopathological evaluation of the biopsy specimens and radionuclide gastric emptying studies were performed. After vitamin B{sub 12} replacement therapy for 3 months, radionuclide gastric emptying studies were repeated. Mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} in patients before and after treatment and in controls were 103.83{+-}48.80 min, 90.00{+-}17.29 min and 74.55{+-}8.52 min, respectively. The difference in mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} between patients before treatment and controls was statistically significant (P<0.01). The statistically significant difference persisted after vitamin B{sub 12} treatment (P<0.05), though mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} was somewhat shorter. There were no positive or negative correlations between gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} and the following parameters: haemoglobin, vitamin B{sub 12} level and Helicobacter pylori positivity. In conclusion, gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} was prolonged in patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency and this prolongation was not corrected after vitamin B{sub 12} replacement therapy. Although autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency rarely gives rise to clinical manifestations, latent dysfunction demonstrated by laboratory tests seems to be a frequent phenomenon

  1. Visual loss and optic nerve head swelling in thiamine deficiency without prolonged dietary deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratton SM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sean M Gratton, Byron L LamBascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Visual loss due to optic neuropathy is a rare manifestation of thiamine deficiency. We report a case of a 39-year-old woman with a body mass index (BMI of 29 kg/m2 who developed visual loss and bilateral optic nerve head swelling after a short, self-limited gastrointestinal illness. She was disoriented and inattentive and had absent ankle jerk reflexes, diminished sensation in both legs below the knees, and marked truncal ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed increased T2-signal in the medial thalami and mammillary bodies. The serum thiamine level was 8 nmol/L (normal 8–30. The diagnosis of thiamine deficiency was made, and the patient’s vision and neurologic symptoms improved significantly with intramuscular thiamine treatment. Thiamine deficiency can occur in the absence of an obvious predisposing factor such as alcoholism or low body weight. The clinician must be aware of the factors that govern vitamin availability and maintain a high index of suspicion to make the diagnosis in such cases.Keywords: optic neuropathy, nutritional deficiency

  2. Effect of aqueous vitamin B on the growth of blister blight pathogen, Exobasidium vexans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Nagao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three aqueous solution of biotin, thiamine and calcium pantothenate, on the growth of Exobasidiumvexans was examined in vitro. The germination process of basidiospores of E. vexans differed from those of the otherExobasidium species. Basidiospore germination commenced after 19.5 hr incubation and chlamydospore-like bodies wereformed after 96 hr of incubation. Addition of biotin, calcium pantothenate, and thiamine to Difco PDA and Czapek’s mediumdid not affect the proportion of germinating basidiospores. The length of germ tubes was enhanced only by addition ofthiamine in the media. Larger size germ tubes (thick germ tubes were occasionally observed among the ordinary hyphae.Most germlings of basidiospores developed chlamydospore-like bodies or autolysed on the media. Thick germ tubesfrequently appeared on the calcium pantothenate amended media and developed into a colony when these hyphae weretransferred to new calcium pantothenate amended media. However, further transfer of colonies did not successfully bring anew colony to grow on the calcium pantothenate amended media. Vitamin B5, calcium pantothenate, was only partially effective in generating the thick germ tubes and to induce the initial colony formation, whereas amendment of biotin and thiamineto the media did not induce visible colony growth.

  3. Disruption of thiamine uptake and growth of cells by feline leukemia virus subgroup A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Ramon; Miller, A Dusty; Overbaugh, Julie

    2013-03-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in domestic cats and some wild cats despite the availability of relatively effective vaccines against the virus. FeLV subgroup A (FeLV-A) is transmitted in natural infections, and FeLV subgroups B, C, and T can evolve directly from FeLV-A by mutation and/or recombination with endogenous retroviruses in domestic cats, resulting in a variety of pathogenic outcomes. The cell surface entry receptor for FeLV-A is a putative thiamine transporter (THTR1). Here, we have addressed whether FeLV-A infection might disrupt thiamine uptake into cells and, because thiamine is an essential nutrient, whether this disruption might have pathological consequences. First, we cloned the cat ortholog of the other of the two known thiamine transporters in mammals, THTR2, and we show that feline THTR1 (feTHTR1) and feTHTR2 both mediate thiamine uptake, but feTHTR2 does not function as a receptor for FeLV-A. We found that feTHTR1 is widely expressed in cat tissues and in cell lines, while expression of feTHTR2 is restricted. Thiamine uptake mediated by feTHTR1 was indeed blocked by FeLV-A infection, and in feline fibroblasts that naturally express feTHTR1 and not feTHTR2, this blockade resulted in a growth arrest at physiological concentrations of extracellular thiamine. The growth arrest was reversed at high extracellular concentrations of thiamine. Our results show that FeLV-A infection can indeed disrupt thiamine uptake with pathological consequences. A prediction of these experiments is that raising the plasma levels of thiamine in FeLV-infected cats may ameliorate the pathogenic effects of infection.

  4. Hampered Vitamin B12 Metabolism in Gaucher Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Hannibal PhD

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Untreated vitamin B 12 deficiency manifests clinically with hematological abnormalities and combined degeneration of the spinal cord and polyneuropathy and biochemically with elevated homocysteine (Hcy and methylmalonic acid (MMA. Vitamin B 12 metabolism involves various cellular compartments including the lysosome, and a disruption in the lysosomal and endocytic pathways induces functional deficiency of this micronutrient. Gaucher disease (GD is characterized by dysfunctional lysosomal metabolism brought about by mutations in the enzyme beta-glucocerebrosidase (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM: 606463; Enzyme Commission (EC 3.2.1.45, gene: GBA1 . In this study, we collected and examined available literature on the associations between GD, the second most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder in humans, and hampered vitamin B 12 metabolism. Results from independent cohorts of patients show elevated circulating holotranscobalamin without changes in vitamin B 12 levels in serum. Gaucher disease patients under enzyme replacement therapy present normal levels of Hcy and MMA. Although within the normal range, a significant increase in Hcy and MMA with normal serum vitamin B 12 was documented in treated GD patients with polyneuropathy versus treated GD patients without polyneuropathy. Thus, a functional deficiency of vitamin B 12 caused by disrupted lysosomal metabolism in GD is a plausible mechanism, contributing to the neurological form of the disorder but this awaits confirmation. Observational studies suggest that an assessment of vitamin B 12 status prior to the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy may shed light on the role of vitamin B 12 in the pathogenesis and progression of GD.

  5. Role of riboflavin and thiamine in induced resistance against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of two inducer chemicals, that is, riboflavin (B2) and thiamine (B1) on the induction of systemic resistance in soybean against charcoal rot disease as well as biochemical changes associated with these treatments in soybean plants was investigated. Under greenhouse condition, the dose effect of 0.1 to 15 mM ...

  6. Vitamins and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Ana Laura, Guadarrama-López; Elina, Martínez-Carrillo Beatriz; Donají, Benítez-Arciniega Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The present review evaluates the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and individual or combined vitamins. Antioxidant vitamins A, C and E are found decreased in diabetic subjects, possibly due to an increased need to control the excessive oxidative stress produced by abnormalities in glucose metabolism. On the other hand, retinol binding protein exerts a modulating effect, as it has adipokine functions. With respect to the B group vitamins, thiamin, pyridoxine and biotin have been found decreased but the mechanisms are not clear, however supplementation has shown some improvement of the metabolic control in diabetic patients. The absorption of folic acid and vitamin B12 is importantly decreased by the prolongued use of metformin, which is the first choice drug in uncomplicated diabetes, thus these two nutrients have been found deficient in the disease and most probably need to be supplemented regularly. On the other hand, vitamin D is considered a risk factor for the development of diabetes as well as its complications, particularly cardiovascular ones. Although some studies have found an association of vitamin K intake with glucose metabolism further research is needed. Studies on the use of multivitamin supplements have shown unconclusive results. After reviewing the evidence, no real recommendation on the use of vitamin supplements in type 2 diabetes mellitus can be issued, however patients using metformin during prolongued periods may need folic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25388747

  7. Thiamine and benfotiamine prevent increased apoptosis in endothelial cells and pericytes cultured in high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, E; Berrone, E; Buttiglieri, S; Porta, M

    2004-01-01

    High glucose induces pathological alterations in small and large vessels, possibly through increased formation of AGE, activation of aldose reductase and protein kinase C, and increased flux through the hexosamine pathway. We showed previously that thiamine and benfotiamine correct delayed replication and increase lactate production in endothelial cells subjected to high glucose. We now aim at verifying the effects of thiamine and benfotiamine on cell cycle, apoptosis, and expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells and pericytes, under high ambient glucose. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells and bovine retinal pericytes were cultured in normal (5.6 mmol/L) or high (28 mmol/L) glucose, with or without thiamine or benfotiamine, 50 or 100 micro mol/L. Apoptosis was determined by two separate ELISA methods, measuring DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity, respectively. Cell cycle and integrin subunits alpha3, alpha5, and beta1 concentration were measured by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was increased in high glucose after 3 days of culture, both in endothelium and pericytes. Thiamine and benfotiamine reversed such effects. Neither cell cycle traversal nor integrin concentrations were modified in these experimental conditions. Thiamine and benfotiamine correct increased apoptosis due to high glucose in cultured vascular cells. Further elucidations of the mechanisms through which they work could help set the basis for clinical use of this vitamin in the prevention and/or treatment of diabetic microangiopathy. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Vitamin B12-catalyzed synthesis of some peracetylated alkyl b-D-xylopyranosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA STEVANOVIC

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin B12-catalyzed glycosylation reaction of brominated b-D-xylose peracetate with alkanols ROH (C1-C8 has been studied. The catalytically active species in this reaction was cob(Ialamin, obtained by chemical reduction of Vitamin B12 with NaBH4 (Co(III to Co(I. The reaction was carried out with 2 mol% of vitamin B12, with respect to xylosyl bromide 1, under argon at room temperature. Under these conditions, peracetylated C1-C8-alkyl b-D-xylopyranosides (3a–3f were obtained in moderate yield (55–70 %. In all cases 3,4-di-O-acetyl-D-xylal (4 was obtained, as the product of reductive elimination of peracetylated xylosyl bromide (15–25 %.

  9. Wernicke’s Encephalopathy, Wet Beriberi, and Polyneuropathy in a Patient with Folate and Thiamine Deficiency Related to Gastric Phytobezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Huertas-González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Wernicke’s encephalopathy (WE is an acute neurological disorder resulting from thiamine deficiency. It is mainly related to alcohol abuse but it can be associated with other conditions such as gastrointestinal disorders. This vitamin deficiency can also present with cardiovascular symptoms, called “wet beriberi.” Association with folate deficit worsens the clinical picture. Subject. A 70-year-old man with gastric phytobezoar presented with gait instability, dyspnoea, chest pain associated with right heart failure and pericarditis, and folate deficiency. Furosemide was administered and cardiac symptoms improved but he soon developed vertiginous syndrome, nystagmus, diplopia, dysmetria, and sensitive and motor deficit in all four limbs with areflexia. Results. A cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed typical findings of WE. He was immediately treated with thiamine. Neurological symptoms improved in a few days and abnormal signals disappeared in a follow-up MRI two weeks later. Conclusion. Patients with malabsorption due to gastrointestinal disorders have an increased risk of thiamine deficiency, and folate deficiency can make this vitamin malabsorption worse. An established deficiency mainly shows neurological symptoms, WE, or rarely cardiovascular symptoms, wet beriberi. Early vitamin treatment in symptomatic patients improves prognosis. We recommend administration of prophylactic multivitamins supplements in patients at risk as routine clinical practice.

  10. Third EU MAT intercomparison on methods for the determination of vitamins B-1, B-2 and B-6 in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Schaik, F. van; Finglas, P.M.; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    1996-01-01

    An intercomparison study on the determination of vitamin B-1, B-2 and B-6 was performed as part of the EU MAT project involving 16 laboratories. Each laboratory was requested to analyse three different food samples (lyophilized pig's liver, mixed vegetables and wholemeal flour, respectively) using

  11. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske M. Brouwer-Brolsma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (≥65 years. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs, and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th–75th percentile: 4.18 (3.29–5.38 versus 3.47 (2.64–4.40 μg/day, serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD: 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L. Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy—predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish.

  12. Determination of four forms of vitamin B12 and other B vitamins in seawater by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, Katherine R; Carlson, Laura Truxal; Devol, Allan H; Armbrust, E Virginia; Moffett, James W; Stahl, David A; Ingalls, Anitra E

    2014-11-30

    Vitamin B(12) is an essential nutrient for more than half of surveyed marine algae species, but methods for directly measuring this important cofactor in seawater are limited. Current mass spectrometry methods do not quantify all forms of B(12), potentially missing a significant portion of the B(12) pool. We present a method to measure vitamins B(1), B(2), B(6), B(7) and four forms of B(12) dissolved in seawater. The method entails solid-phase extraction, separation by ultra-performance liquid chromatography, and detection by triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry using stable-isotope-labeled internal standards. We demonstrated the use of this method in the environment by analyzing B(12) concentrations at different depths in the Hood Canal, part of the Puget Sound estuarine system in Washington State. Recovery of vitamin B(12) forms during the preconcentration steps was >71% and the limits of detection were B(12) in seawater at our field site. We developed a method for quantifying four forms of B(12) in seawater by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with the option of simultaneous analysis of vitamins B(1), B(2), B(6), and B(7). We validated the method and demonstrated its application in the field. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Neurologic Manifestations of Vitamin B Deficiency after Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punchai, Suriya; Hanipah, Zubaidah Nor; Meister, Katherine M; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Aminian, Ali

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcomes of neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiencies following bariatric surgery. Patients at a single academic institution who underwent bariatric surgery and developed neurologic complications secondary to low levels of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and B12 between the years 2004 and 2015 were studied. In total, 47 (0.7%) bariatric surgical patients (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass n = 36, sleeve gastrectomy n = 9, and duodenal switch n = 2) developed neurologic manifestations secondary to vitamin B deficiencies. Eleven (23%) patients developed postoperative anatomical complications contributed to poor oral intake. Median duration to onset of neurologic manifestation following surgery was 12 months (IQR, 5-32). Vitamin deficiencies reported in the cohort included B1 (n = 30), B2 (n = 1), B6 (n = 12), and B12 (n = 12) deficiency. The most common manifestations were paresthesia (n = 31), muscle weakness (n = 15), abnormal gait (n = 11), and polyneuropathy (n = 7). Four patients were diagnosed with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) which was developed after gastric bypass (n = 3) and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 1). Seven patients required readmission for management of severe vitamin B deficiencies. Overall, resolution of neurologic symptoms with nutritional interventions and pharmacotherapy was noted in 40 patients (85%). The WKS was not reversible, and all four patients had residual mild ataxia and nystagmus at the last follow-up time. Nutritional neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiency are relatively uncommon after bariatric surgery. While neurologic disorders are reversible in most patients (85%) with vitamin replacements, persistent residual neurologic symptoms are common in patients with WKS.

  14. Influence of B-Complex Vitamins on the Pharmacokinetics of Ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, and Ro After Oral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Peihe; Chen, Yinbin; Fu, Yangyang; Wang, Hecheng; Wang, Jia; Zheng, Siwen; Xiao, Shengyuan; Wang, Yingping

    2017-11-01

    After cultivation of ginseng, ginsenosides, which are the major active ingredients of gingeng, were approved for use by the food industry, and began to be used as added functional ingredients to try to improve the quality and price of functional foods. However, the interaction between different types of ginsenosides and nutrients needs further study. We investigated the effect of B-complex vitamins (which are essential nutrients) on the pharmacokinetics of the ginsenosides protopanaxatriol-type saponin Rg 1 , protopanaxadiol-type saponin Rb 1 , and oleanolic acid-type saponin Ro after oral administration. Ginsenosides Rg 1 , Rb 1 , and Ro, with or without B-complex vitamins, respectively, were administered orally to rats to evaluate their pharmacokinetics. The concentration of ginsenosides in plasma was determined by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were fitted using WinNonlin v6.2. After oral coadministration with B-complex vitamins, the area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ) of ginsenoside Rg 1 was reduced by 70%, that of ginsenoside Rb 1 was reduced by 43%, and that of ginsenoside Ro was reduced by 34%. The AUC 0-∞ of ginsenosides Rg 1 and Rb 1 showed significant differences between different treatments, but the AUC 0-∞ of ginsenoside Ro did not. These results suggest significant ginsenoside-nutrient interactions between ginsenosides Rg 1 , Rb 1 , and B-complex vitamins.

  15. HPLC Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and Fat-Soluble Vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-Carotene of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokayya Sami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra is consumed as a vegetable by populations in Africa and Asia and particularly in Egypt. In this study, we investigated some nutritional components of okra grown in four different geographical locations of Egypt. A comparative analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and fat-soluble vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-carotene in okra pods was carried out. Results of principal component analysis (PCA showed three clusters of varieties. The first cluster included the Dakahlia (D and Kafr El-Sheikh (K varieties. The second and the third clusters separated out the Suez (S and Mansoura (M varieties independently. The S pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B6 (49.81 μg/100 g and E (1.47 mg/100 g but contained the lowest contents of vitamins B3 (1.42 μg/100 g and B12 (undetected. The K pod showed the lowest vitamin C content (11.60 mg/100 g. The M pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B3 (22.70 μg/100 g, B12 (91.20 μg/100 g, C (27.14 mg/100 g, and K (0.21 mg/100 g. The D pod showed the lowest contents of vitamins E (0.15 mg/100 g, K (0.05 mg/100 g, and B6 (11.50 μg/100 g. These findings could help develop meal planning at the community level by incorporating okra varieties with high vitamin content.

  16. Synthesis of retinoid vitamin A-vitamin B6 conjugate analogues for antiviral chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesel, Andreas J.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of retinoid vitamin A-vitamin B 6 conjugate analogues from a vitamin B 6 coenzyme analogue and putative HIV-1 trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein Tat antagonist (Z)-5 ' -O-phosphono-pyridoxylidenerhodanine (B6PR) monosodium salt hemiheptadecahydrate [(Z)-B6PRNa8.5H 2 O] is discussed here. All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is coupled to B6PR by a modified Stork enamine acylation. It results in a product library of more than eight compounds, each with at least one intact all-trans or 13-cis vitamin A double bond system. This yellow oily concentrate mixture was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry (MS), UV/VIS-spectrophotometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-NMR). The chemical structures of six components of the concentrate mixture could be established by combination of these analytical methods. The two main components are 65% 2 ' C,3O-(all-trans-retinylidyne)B6PT (B6RA) and 25% 2 ' C-(all-trans-retinoyl)B6PT, chemically derived from (5RS)-5-(5 ' -O-phosphono-pyridoxyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (B6PT). This new retinoid selection could be of further interest in antiviral applications, especially treating conditions caused by RNA viruses like HIV

  17. Adenylate kinase 1 knockout mice have normal thiamine triphosphate levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarchikov, A.F.; Wins, P.; Janssen, E.E.W.; Wieringa, B.; Grisar, T.; Bettendorff, L.

    2002-01-01

    Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) is found at low concentrations in most animal tissues and it may act as a phosphate donor for the phosphorylation of proteins, suggesting a potential role in cell signaling. Two mechanisms have been proposed for the enzymatic synthesis of ThTP. A thiamine diphosphate

  18. Inhibitory effects of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and vitamin B-complex on the biological activities induced by Bothrops venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carlos Henrique de Moura; Assaid Simão, Anderson; Marcussi, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Natural compounds have been widely studied with the aim of complementing antiophidic serum therapy. The present study evaluated the inhibitory potential of ascorbic acid and a vitamin complex, composed of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and all the B-complex vitamins, on the biological activities induced by snake venoms. The effect of vitamins was evaluated on the phospholipase, proteolytic, coagulant, and fibrinogenolytic activities induced by Bothrops moojeni (Viperidae), B. jararacussu, and B. alternatus snake venoms, and the hemagglutinating activity induced by B. jararacussu venom. The vitamin complex (1:5 and 1:10 ratios) totally inhibited the fibrinogenolytic activity and partially the phospholipase activity and proteolytic activity on azocasein induced by the evaluated venoms. Significant inhibition was observed in the coagulation of human plasma induced by venoms from B. alternatus (1:2.5 and 1:5, to vitamin complex and ascorbic acid) and B. moojeni (1:2.5 and 1:5, to vitamin complex and ascorbic acid). Ascorbic acid inhibited 100% of the proteolytic activities of B. moojeni and B. alternatus on azocasein, at 1:10 ratio, the effects of all the venoms on fibrinogen, the hemagglutinating activity of B. jararacussu venom, and also extended the plasma coagulation time induced by all venoms analyzed. The vitamins analyzed showed relevant in vitro inhibitory potential over the activities induced by Bothrops venoms, suggesting their interaction with toxins belonging to the phospholipase A2, protease, and lectin classes. The results can aid further research in clarifying the possible mechanisms of interaction between vitamins and snake enzymes.

  19. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter J [Davis, CA; Dueker, Stephen [Davis, CA; Miller, Joshua [Davis, CA; Green, Ralph [Elmacero, CA; Roth, John [Davis, CA; Carkeet, Colleen [Silver Spring, MD; Buchholz,; Bruce, A [Orinda, CA

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  20. B vitamins in stroke prevention: time to reconsider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J David; Yi, Qilong; Hankey, Graeme J

    2017-09-01

    B vitamin therapy lowers plasma total homocysteine concentrations, and might be a beneficial intervention for stroke prevention; however, cyanocobalamin (a form of vitamin B12) can accelerate decline in renal function and increase the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with impaired renal function. Although early trials did not show benefit in reduction of stroke, these results might have been due to harm in participants with impaired renal function. In patients with diabetic nephropathy, cyanocobalamin is harmful, whereas B vitamins appear to reduce cardiovascular events in study participants with normal renal function. Our meta-analysis of individual patient data from two large trials of B vitamin therapy (VISP and VITATOPS) indicates that patients with impaired renal function who are exposed to high-dose cyanocobalamin do not benefit from therapy with B vitamins for the prevention of stroke (risk ratio 1·04, 95% CI 0·84-1·27), however, patients with normal renal function who are not exposed to high-dose cyanocobalamin benefit significantly from this treatment (0.78, 0·67-0·90; interaction p=0·03). The potential benefits of B vitamin therapy with folic acid and methylcobalamin or hydroxycobalamin, instead of cyanocobalamin, to lower homocysteine concentrations in people at high risk of stroke warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation for preparation and production of radio-kit Vitamin B12 with med-grade (part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafourian, H.; Mazaheri Tehrani, M.; Ezadyar, A.; Shams Rafiee, M.; Nazari, A.

    2005-01-01

    Labelled vitamins B 12 with 58 Co is one of the important ingredients of the diagnostic Kits for diagnosis of patients affected by anemia. The insufficient absorption of vitamin B 12 is one of the causes of anemia in humans and one of the accurate methods for measurement of the absorbed vitamin B 12 is application of labelled vitamin B 12 with the cobalt-58 radioisotope.The isolation and purifications of the labelled vitamin B 12 from fermentation medium of streptomyces olivaceus is an essential process for kit preparation. The first experiment in this research was isolation and purification of B 12 using different resins with the solution of cyanocobalamin containing cobalt-59, produced by this bacterium. After investigation and pre-feasibility experiments two non-polar resins XAD-4 and XAD-7 were selected. The results that obtained from different experiments on XAD-4 and XAD-7 showed that XAD-4 is much better than the latter one due to immobilization of cobalamin. The isolation of vitamin B1 2 on XAD-4 column was achieved by different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and isopropanol in different concentration ratios. The results of Thin Layer Chromatography showed that the best eluant solutions for desorbtion of cobalamin from XAD-4 column are solvents such as methanol,ethanol and isopropanol with the maximum concentration of vitamin B 12 in the concentration ranges of 25 up to 50 per-cent, 30 up to 40 per-cent and 10 per-cent, respectively. Cobalamin was collected in aceton and crystallized in low temperature

  2. Illumina Sequencing Approach to Characterize Thiamine Metabolism Related Bacteria and the Impacts of Thiamine Supplementation on Ruminal Microbiota in Dairy Cows Fed High-Grain Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaohua; Xue, Fuguang; Nan, Xuemei; Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Kun; Beckers, Yves; Jiang, Linshu; Xiong, Benhai

    2017-01-01

    The requirements of thiamine in adult ruminants are mainly met by ruminal bacterial synthesis, and thiamine deficiencies will occur when dairy cows overfed with high grain diet. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ruminal thiamine synthesis bacteria, and whether thiamine deficiency is related to the altered bacterial community by high grain diet is still unclear. To explore thiamine synthesis bacteria and the response of ruminal microbiota to high grain feeding and thiamine supplementation, six rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned into a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control diet (CON, 20% dietary starch, DM basis), high grain diet (HG, 33.2% dietary starch, DM basis) and high grain diet supplemented with 180 mg thiamine/kg DMI (HG+T). On day 21 of each period, rumen content samples were collected at 3 h postfeeding. Ruminal thiamine concentration was detected by high performance liquid chromatography. The microbiota composition was determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Cows receiving thiamine supplementation had greater ruminal pH value, acetate and thiamine content in the rumen. Principal coordinate analysis and similarity analysis indicated that HG feeding and thiamine supplementation caused a strong shift in bacterial composition and structure in the rumen. At the genus level, compared with CON group, the relative abundances of 19 genera were significantly changed by HG feeding. Thiamine supplementation increased the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria including Bacteroides, Ruminococcus 1, Pyramidobacter, Succinivibrio , and Ruminobacter , and their increases enhanced the fiber degradation and ruminal acetate production in HG+T group. Christensenellaceae R7, Lachnospira, Succiniclasticum , and Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 exhibited a negative response to thiamine supplementation. Moreover, correlation analysis revealed that ruminal thiamine concentration was positively

  3. Illumina Sequencing Approach to Characterize Thiamine Metabolism Related Bacteria and the Impacts of Thiamine Supplementation on Ruminal Microbiota in Dairy Cows Fed High-Grain Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of thiamine in adult ruminants are mainly met by ruminal bacterial synthesis, and thiamine deficiencies will occur when dairy cows overfed with high grain diet. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ruminal thiamine synthesis bacteria, and whether thiamine deficiency is related to the altered bacterial community by high grain diet is still unclear. To explore thiamine synthesis bacteria and the response of ruminal microbiota to high grain feeding and thiamine supplementation, six rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned into a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control diet (CON, 20% dietary starch, DM basis, high grain diet (HG, 33.2% dietary starch, DM basis and high grain diet supplemented with 180 mg thiamine/kg DMI (HG+T. On day 21 of each period, rumen content samples were collected at 3 h postfeeding. Ruminal thiamine concentration was detected by high performance liquid chromatography. The microbiota composition was determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Cows receiving thiamine supplementation had greater ruminal pH value, acetate and thiamine content in the rumen. Principal coordinate analysis and similarity analysis indicated that HG feeding and thiamine supplementation caused a strong shift in bacterial composition and structure in the rumen. At the genus level, compared with CON group, the relative abundances of 19 genera were significantly changed by HG feeding. Thiamine supplementation increased the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria including Bacteroides, Ruminococcus 1, Pyramidobacter, Succinivibrio, and Ruminobacter, and their increases enhanced the fiber degradation and ruminal acetate production in HG+T group. Christensenellaceae R7, Lachnospira, Succiniclasticum, and Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 exhibited a negative response to thiamine supplementation. Moreover, correlation analysis revealed that ruminal thiamine concentration was

  4. [Molecular-kinetic parameters of thiamine enzymes and the mechanism of antivitamin action of hydroxythiamine in animal organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskiĭ KuM; Voskoboev, A I; Gorenshtenĭn, B I; Dosta, G A

    1979-09-01

    The molecula-kinetic parameters (Km, Ki) of three thiamine enzymes, e. g. thiamine pyrophosphokinase (EC 2.7.6.2), pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.1) and transketolase (EC 2.2.1.1) with respect to the effects of the thiamine antimetabolite hydroxythiamine in the whole animal organism have been compared. It has been shown that only the first two enzymes, which interact competitively with the vitamin, antivitamin or their pyrophosphate ethers, obey the kinetic parameters obtained for the purified enzymes in vitro. The anticoenzymic effect of hydroxythiamine pyrophosphate with respect to transketolase is not observed in vivo at maximal concentration of the anticoenzyme in tissues due to the absence of competitive interactions with thiamine pyrophosphate. The incorporation of the true and false coenzymes into transketolase occurs only during de novo transketolase synthesis (the apoform is absent in tissues, with the exception of erythrocytes) and proceeds slowly with a half-life time equal to 24--30 hrs. After a single injection of hydroxythiamine at a large dose (70--400 mg/kg) the maximal inhibition of the transketolase activity in tissues (liver, heart, kidney, muscle, spleen, lungs adrenal grands) manifests itself by the 48th--72nd hour, when the concentration of free hydroxythiamine and its pyrophosphate is minimal and the whole anticoenzyme is tightly bound to the protein, forming the false holoenzyme. The use of hydroxythiamine for inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase or transketolase in animal organism is discussed.

  5. Prostaglandin E1 in conjunction with high doses of vitamin B12 improves nerve conduction velocity of patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jilai Li; Zhirong Wan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E1 improves diabetic peripheral neuropathy in symptoms and sensory threshold. Vitamin B1 and methyl-vitamin B12 improve microcirculation to peripheral nerve tissue and promote neurotrophy.OBJECTIVE: To observe motor nerve and sensory nerve conduction velocity in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, prior to and after treatment with prostaglandin E1, vitamin B1 and different doses of vitamin B12.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled experiment, performed at the Department of Neurology. Beijing Hantian Central Hospital, between February 2002 and September 2007.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 122 patients with type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy; 73 males and 49 females were included. All patients met the diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus, as determined by the World Health Organization in 1999 and 2006, and also the diagnostic criteria of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. For each subject, conduction disorders in the median nerve and in the common peroneal nerve were observed using electromyogram. Also, after diet and drug treatment, the blood glucose level of subjects was observed to be at a satisfactory level for more than two weeks, and the symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy were not alleviated.METHODS: All patients were randomly divided into the following three groups. A control group (n=40), in which, 100mg vitamin B1 and 500μg vitamin B12 were intramuscularly injected. A vitamin B12 low-dose treated group (n=42), in which 10μg prostaglandin E1 in 250mL physiological saline was intravenously injected once a day and 100mg vitamin B1 and 500μg vitamin B12 was intramuscularly injected once a day. Lastly, a vitamin B12 high-dose treated group (n=40), in which administration was the same as in the vitamin B12 low-dose treated group, except that 500μg vitamin B12 was replaced by 1mg vitamin B12. Administration was performed for four weeks for each group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The motor nerve and sensory nerve

  6. Dietary sources of vitamin B-12 and their association with vitamin B-12 status markers in healthy older adults in the B-PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Velde, van der N.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between

  7. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; Zwaluw, Nikita L. van der; Velde, Nathalie van der; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between

  8. Dietary sources of vitamin B-12 and their association with vitamin B-12 status markers in healthy older adults in the B-PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Brouwer-Brolsma (Elske); R.A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten (Rosalie); J.P. van Wijngaarden (Janneke); N.L. van der Zwaluw (N.); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLow vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations

  9. Use of vitamin B 1 preparations with different solubility in fats/oils and aqueous media: Clinical and pharmacological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Vladislavovna Ramenskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An abundance of drugs to prevent and treat vitamin B 1 deficiency-induced neurological diseases has been today registered on the Russian pharmaceutical market. The most used agents are vitamin B 1 preparations, the therapeutic efficiency of which has been proven in many trials. It is noted that it is urgent to develop and introduce into practice the lipophilic formulations of water-soluble vitamins, which will make vitamin therapy more effective.

  10. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Hamilton, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The application concerns the manufacture of radioactive forms of vitamin B-12 in which the cobalt atom present in the vitamin B-12 molecule is replaced with a radioactive isotope of cobalt, usually cobalt-57 or cobalt-58. Such radioactive forms of B-12 are used extensively in the diagnosis of B-12 deficiency states

  11. [Effects of packaging forms on the stability of vitamin B1 and vitamin C in TPN admixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Daisuke; Iwahara, Ryosei; Sato, Hideki

    2010-12-01

    In order to reduce a microbial contamination and needle stick injuries that are associated with a mixing procedure in home parentera nutrition(HPN), nutrition(TPN)solution bags pre-mixed with trace elements may be provided in a form of outer packaging. On the other hand, a packaging form used to enclose the TPN bag after admixture may significantly affect the stability of vitamins. With a focus on possible decrease in vitamin B1 and C content, we investigated the effects of the packaging form. As a result, the TPN bag, which is packed in a light-resistant outer wrap of oxygen-barrier film with an oxygen absorbent under reduced pressure, suppressed a decrease in vitamin content most. However, the decrease in vitamin C content was observed when there was a long time-lag between a preparation and a packaging. We thought it was desirable to pack the TPN bag promptly after the preparation.

  12. How common is vitamin B-12 deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2009-02-01

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification. This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers whether fortification would improve the status of deficient subgroups of the population. In large surveys in the United States and the United Kingdom, approximately 6% of those aged > or =60 y are vitamin B-12 deficient (plasma vitamin B-12 life. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Inadequate intake, due to low consumption of animal-source foods, is the main cause of low serum vitamin B-12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor populations worldwide; in most studies, serum vitamin B-12 concentration is correlated with intake of this vitamin. In older persons, food-bound cobalamin malabsorption becomes the predominant cause of deficiency, at least in part due to gastric atrophy, but it is likely that most elderly can absorb the vitamin from fortified food. Fortification of flour with vitamin B-12 is likely to improve the status of most persons with low stores of this vitamin. However, intervention studies are still needed to assess efficacy and functional benefits of increasing intake of the amounts likely to be consumed in flour, including in elderly persons with varying degrees of gastric atrophy.

  13. Enhancement of Thiamin Content in Arabidopsis thaliana by Metabolic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Stockwell, Virginia O; Goyer, Aymeric

    2015-12-01

    Thiamin is an essential nutrient in the human diet. Severe thiamin deficiency leads to beriberi, a lethal disease which is common in developing countries. Thiamin biofortification of staple food crops is a possible strategy to alleviate thiamin deficiency-related diseases. In plants, thiamin plays a role in the response to abiotic and biotic stresses, and data from the literature suggest that boosting thiamin content could increase resistance to stresses. Here, we tested an engineering strategy to increase thiamin content in Arabidopsis. Thiamin is composed of a thiazole ring linked to a pyrimidine ring by a methylene bridge. THI1 and THIC are the first committed steps in the synthesis of the thiazole and pyrimidine moieties, respectively. Arabidopsis plants were transformed with a vector containing the THI1-coding sequence under the control of a constitutive promoter. Total thiamin leaf content in THI1 plants was up approximately 2-fold compared with the wild type. THI1-overexpressing lines were then crossed with pre-existing THIC-overexpressing lines. Resulting THI1 × THIC plants accumulated up to 3.4- and 2.6-fold more total thiamin than wild-type plants in leaf and seeds, respectively. After inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae, THI1 × THIC plants had lower populations than the wild-type control. However, THI1 × THIC plants subjected to various abiotic stresses did not show any visible or biochemical changes compared with the wild type. We discuss the impact of engineering thiamin biosynthesis on the nutritional value of plants and their resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Blood homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 levels in psoriasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Uslu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is known to be related with autoimmunity-inflammation, cardiovascular disease and DNA methylation. In this case-control study, we aimed to determine plasma homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 levels in patients with psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption habits were recorded in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis and age- and sex-matched controls. Height and weight measurements were performed and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI scores were calculated. Fasting venous blood samples were collected to determine homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results: There was no significant difference between psoriasis patients (n=43 and controls (n=47 in body mass index and alcohol and coffee consumption. Smoking rate was significantly high in psoriasis patients. The median PASI score was 10.0 (8.3-12.8. Plasma homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, total cholesterol, triglyseride, ESR and CRP values were not significantly different between patients and the controls. HDL level was low in psoriasis patients (p=0.001. Plasma homocysteine level was higher in males than in females. There was no relationship of homocysteine levels with patient’s age, PASI scores, ESR, CRP values and lipids. Homocysteine levels were inversely related with folic acid and vitamin B12 (p=0.000, r=-0.436, p=0.047, r=-0.204, respectively. We did not find any relationship between homocysteine and vitamin B6 levels. Conclusion: There was no increase in plasma homocysteine levels in psoriasis patients we followed up. Homocysteine level increases in inflammatory disorders and this increase is accepted as a cardiovascular disease marker. Homocysteine homeostasis may be balanced in our

  15. Vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation increases maternal, breast milk, and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H; Bosch, Ronald J; Kurpad, Anura V

    2014-05-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women vitamin B-12 (50 μg) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12-supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12-supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P vitamin B-12-supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are correlations between these findings and neurologic and metabolic functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00641862.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may be...

  17. Absorption of vitamin B12 and effect of pancreatic juice on gastric vitamin B12 binder in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasaki, Yukio

    1977-01-01

    The effect of pancreatic juice on vitamin B 12 absorption was studied in dogs. It was found that dog gastric juice as well as pancreatic juice contain vitamin B 12 binding proteins which differ in the elution pattern on DEAE-cellulose columns, the former being eluted at much lower sodium chloride concentrations. When radio-active vitamin B 12 was fed or instilled in the proximal bowel and vitamin B 12 recovered at different bowel levels, it was found that vitamin B 12 -protein complex behaved like gastric juice binder in the proximal bowel and like pancreatic binder in the distal. In vitro digestion of gastric binder with pancreatic juice altered vitamin B 12 -protein complex in such a way that elution pattern became similar to that of pancreatic juice. It was also shown that the change was not due to transfer of vitamin B 12 from gastric binder to pancreatic binder. Trypsin digestion had similar effect on gastric binder, and Sephadex G-200 gelfiltration demonstrated reduction in the molecular size. In the doz, vitamin B 12 first bound to gastric binder undergoes chemical changes in the bowel and becomes a readily absorbable form in the distal bowel. (auth.)

  18. Rice flakes produced from commercial wild rice: Chemical compositions, vitamin B compounds, mineral and trace element contents and their dietary intake evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumczynski, Daniela; Koubová, Eva; Šenkárová, Lenka; Orsavová, Jana

    2018-10-30

    Non-traditional wild rice flakes were analysed for chemical composition, vitamin B compounds, α-tocopherol, mineral and trace elements. Dietary intakes of vitamins, minerals and trace elements were evaluated using FAO/WHO and Institute of Medicine regulations. Wild rice flakes proved to be significant contributors of pyridoxine, pantothenic and folic acids, niacin, thiamine, chromium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, zinc, copper, molybdenum and iron to essential dietary intakes values. Toxic dietary intake values for aluminium, cadmium, tin and mercury were less than 33%, which complies the limits for adults set by FAO/WHO for toxic elements intake related to the body weight of 65 kg for females and 80 kg for males taking 100 g of flakes as a portion. However, concentrations of Hg reaching between 3.67 and 12.20 µg/100 g in flakes exceeded the average Hg value of 0.27-1.90 μg/100 g in cereals consumed in the EU. It has to be respected in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Screening Natural Content of Water-Soluble B Vitamins in Fish: Enzymatic Extraction, HILIC Separation, and Tandem Mass Spectrometric Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Niladri Sekhar; Kumar, K Ashok; Ajeeshkumar, K K; Kumari, K R Remya; Vishnu, K V; Anandan, Rangasamy; Mathew, Suseela; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-05-01

    Despite the potential of LC with tandem MS (MS/MS) in improving sensitivity and selectivity, analytical methods are scarce for the determination of protein-bound and phosphorylated forms of B vitamins in food. This prompted us to develop a method for LC-MS/MS determination of naturally occurring nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, and cyanocobalamin in fish. Baseline separation of the vitamins was achieved in a hydrophilic interaction LC condition. An ultrasonication-assisted enzymatic extraction protocol for sample preparation was optimized and validated. The time required for extraction was significantly reduced (to 4 h), while maintaining good extraction efficiency. Acetonitrile content (80%, v/v) in the prepared sample was found to be optimum for excellent peak shape and sensitivity. The dynamic linear range of the vitamins ranged from 2.5 to 500 ng/g, and the regression coefficient values were greater than 0.99. LOQ values ranged from 0.4 to 50 ng/g for the different vitamins. The spike recovery values at 50 and 100 ng/g ranged from 87.5 to 97.5%. The intra- and interday precision values were satisfactory. Accuracy of the developed method was determined by analysis of a Certified Reference Material. The method could also be used for unambiguous determination of the natural content of the target vitamins in fish.

  20. The Long-Term Cost to the UK NHS and Social Services of Different Durations of IV Thiamine (Vitamin B1) for Chronic Alcohol Misusers with Symptoms of Wernicke's Encephalopathy Presenting at the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Edward C F; Stanley, George; Mirza, Zulfiquar

    2016-04-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an acute neuropsychiatric condition caused by depleted intracellular thiamine, most commonly arising in chronic alcohol misusers, who may present to emergency departments (EDs) for a variety of reasons. Guidelines recommend a minimum 5-day course of intravenous (IV) thiamine in at-risk patients unless WE can be excluded. To estimate the cost impact on the UK public sector (NHS and social services) of a 5-day course of IV thiamine, vs a 2- and 10-day course, in harmful or dependent drinkers presenting to EDs. A Markov chain model compared expected prognosis of patients under alternative admission strategies over 35 years. Model inputs were derived from a prospective cohort study, expert opinion via structured elicitation and NHS costing databases. Costs (2012/2013 price year) were discounted at 3.5 %. Increasing treatment from 2 to 5 days increased acute care costs but reduced the probability of disease progression and thus reduced the expected net costs by GBP87,000 per patient (95 % confidence interval GBP19,300 to GBP172,300) over 35 years. Increasing length of stay to optimize IV thiamine replacement will place additional strain on acute care but has potential UK public sector cost savings. Social services and the NHS should explore collaborations to realise both the health benefits to patients and savings to the public purse.

  1. Beriberi (thiamine deficiency and high infant mortality in northern Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Barennes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Infantile beriberi (thiamine deficiency occurs mainly in infants breastfed by mothers with inadequate intake of thiamine, typically among vulnerable populations. We describe possible and probable cases of infantile thiamine deficiency in northern Laos.Three surveys were conducted in Luang Namtha Province. First, we performed a retrospective survey of all infants with a diagnosis of thiamine deficiency admitted to the 5 hospitals in the province (2007-2009. Second, we prospectively recorded all infants with cardiac failure at Luang Namtha Hospital. Third, we further investigated all mothers with infants (1-6 months living in 22 villages of the thiamine deficiency patients' origin. We performed a cross-sectional survey of all mothers and infants using a pre-tested questionnaire, physical examination and squat test. Infant mortality was estimated by verbal autopsy. From March to June 2010, four suspected infants with thiamine deficiency were admitted to Luang Namtha Provincial hospital. All recovered after parenteral thiamine injection. Between 2007 and 2009, 54 infants with possible/probable thiamine deficiency were diagnosed with acute severe cardiac failure, 49 (90.2% were cured after parenteral thiamine; three died (5.6%. In the 22 villages, of 468 live born infants, 50 (10.6%, 95% CI: 8.0-13.8 died during the first year. A peak of mortality (36 deaths was reported between 1 and 3 months. Verbal autopsy suggested that 17 deaths (3.6% were due to suspected infantile thiamine deficiency. Of 127 mothers, 60 (47.2% reported edema and paresthesia as well as a positive squat test during pregnancy; 125 (98.4% respected post-partum food avoidance and all ate polished rice. Of 127 infants, 2 (1.6% had probable thiamine deficiency, and 8 (6.8% possible thiamine deficiency.Thiamine deficiency may be a major cause of infant mortality among ethnic groups in northern Laos. Mothers' and children's symptoms are compatible with thiamine deficiency. The severity

  2. A novel spectral resolution and simultaneous determination of multicomponent mixture of Vitamins B1, B6, B12, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac in tablets and capsules by derivative and MCR-ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Maha A.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.; Fayed, Ahmed S.

    2015-04-01

    A novel method was developed for spectral resolution and further determination of five-component mixture including Vitamin B complex (B1, B6, B12 and Benfotiamine) along with the commonly co-formulated Diclofenac. The method is simple, sensitive, precise and could efficiently determine the five components by a complementary application of two different techniques. The first is univariate second derivative method that was successfully applied for determination of Vitamin B12. The second is Multivariate Curve Resolution using the Alternating Least Squares method (MCR-ALS) by which an efficient resolution and quantitation of the quaternary spectrally overlapped Vitamin B1, Vitamin B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac sodium were achieved. The effect of different constraints was studied and the correlation between the true spectra and the estimated spectral profiles were found to be 0.9998, 0.9983, 0.9993 and 0.9933 for B1, B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac, respectively. All components were successfully determined in tablets and capsules and the results were compared to HPLC methods and they were found to be statistically non-significant.

  3. Prebiotic chemistry: Ribozyme takes its vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Cynthia J.

    2013-11-01

    Selection of an RNA catalyst that can use the vitamin thiamin to catalyse a key metabolic decarboxylation reaction has broad implications for understanding the role of RNA in the early stages of chemical evolution.

  4. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of eight water-soluble vitamins in multivitamin formulations and human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Suyog S; Srivastava, Ashwini K

    2013-01-01

    A simple, precise, and rapid RPLC method has been developed without incorporation of any ion-pair reagent for the simultaneous determination of vitamin C (C) and seven B-complex vitamins, viz, thiamine hydrochloride (B1), pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6), nicotinamide (B3), cyanocobalamine (B12), folic acid, riboflavin (B2), and 4-aminobenzoic acid (Bx). Separations were achieved within 12.0 min at 30 degrees C by gradient elution on an RP C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of 15 mM ammonium formate buffer and 0.1% triethylamine adjusted to pH 4.0 with formic acid and acetonitrile. Simultaneous UV detection was performed at 275 and 360 nm. The method was validated for system suitability, LOD, LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, and robustness in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The developed method was implemented successfully for determination of the aforementioned vitamins in pharmaceutical formulations containing an individual vitamin, in their multivitamin combinations, and in human urine samples. The calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity, with coefficients of correlation higher than 0.9998. Accuracy, intraday repeatability (n = 6), and interday repeatability (n = 7) were found to be satisfactory.

  5. Treatment of biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease: Open comparative study between the combination of biotin plus thiamine versus thiamine alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarki, Brahim; Alfadhel, Majid; AlShahwan, Saad; Hundallah, Khaled; AlShafi, Shatha; AlHashem, Amel

    2015-09-01

    To compare the combination of biotin plus thiamine to thiamine alone in treating patients with biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease in an open-label prospective, comparative study. twenty patients with genetically proven biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease were enrolled, and received for at least 30 months a combination of biotin plus thiamine or thiamine alone. The outcome measures included duration of the crisis, number of recurrence/admissions, the last neurological examination, the severity of dystonia using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS), and the brain MRI findings during the crisis and after 30 months of follow-up. Ten children with a mean age of 6 years(1/2) were recruited in the biotin plus thiamine group (group 1) and ten children (6 females and 4 males) with a mean age of 6 years and 2 months were recruited in the thiamine group (group 2). After 2 years of follow-up treatment, 6 of 20 children achieved complete remission, 10 had minimal sequelae in the form of mild dystonia and dysarthria (improvement of the BFMDRS, mean: 80%), and 4 had severe neurologic sequelae. All these 4 patients had delayed diagnosis and management. Regarding outcome measures, both groups have a similar outcome regarding the number of recurrences, the neurologic sequelae (mean BFMDS score between the groups, p = 0.84), and the brain MRI findings. The only difference was the duration of the acute crisis: group 1 had faster recovery (2 days), versus 3 days in group 2 (p = 0.005). Our study suggests that over 30 months of treatment, the combination of biotin plus thiamine is not superior to thiamine alone in the treatment of biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation sterilization of vitamins - studies on the radiolysis and radiation protection of vitamins in aqueous systems and the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.N.; Moorthy, P.N.; Kishore, K.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical products may cause their radiation degradation and loss in their potency. Radiation degradation may even give rise to new products whose effects on the organisms could be different from the parent substances. Extent of radiolytic decomposition of vitamins thiamine, nicotinamide, riboflavine and pyridoxine was studied under controlled conditions so that either only the hydrated electrons (esub(aq)) or only hydrogen atom (H) and hydroxyl radical react with these molecules. Experiments were also conducted in which scavengers for these species were added to reduce radiolytic degradation of the vitamins. It was found that irradiation of vitamins in the frozen aqueous state and with addition of glucose reduces radiolytic degradation and their irradiation in dry solid state causes no detectable damage. The last finding indicates that the best method for radiation sterilization of vitamin preparations may be to irradiate the components in the dry solid state and then compound them together. (M.G.B.)

  7. Thiamine, fasting and the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Thiamine, Vasten en de Nier In dit proefschrift hebben we de rol van thiamine in ischemie-reperfusie schade van de nier onderzocht. Thiamine is cruciaal voor het behoud van optimale hoeveelheden gereduceerd glutathion (een anti-oxidant) en voor regeneratie van ATP (energiebron) in cellen. We

  8. Fuzzy modeling for Vitamin B12 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbik, A.M.; van Loon, S.L.M.; Boer, A.K.; Kaymak, U.; Scharnhorst, V.; Carvalho, J.; Lesot, M.J.; Kaymak, U.; Vieira, S.; Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Yager, R.

    2016-01-01

    Blood vitamin B12 levels are not representative for actual vitamin B12 status in tissue. Instead plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels can be measured because MMA concentrations increase relatively early in the course of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, MMA levels in plasma may also be increased

  9. New method for the radioactive determination of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, Nathan; Fries, J.E.; Richards, C.S.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a method for the radioactive determination of vitamin B12 in a sample solution of serum in which a radioactive tracer of vitamin B12 and the vitamin B12 of the serum compete with respect to an intrinsic factor of limited linking capacity. The free radioactive vitamin B12 and the free vitamin B12 of the serum are separated from the intrinsic factor and from the radioactive vitamin B12 and from the serum vitamin B12 linked to this factor, before the radioactivity is measured against standard values. The method consists in separating the free radioactive vitamin B12 and the free serum vitamin B12 of the intrinsic factor and portions of radioactive and serum vitamin B12 linked to this factor, by adding an adequate quantity of bentonite to adsorb the free radioactive vitamin B12 and free serum vitamin B12 so that the intrinsic factor surface floating solution in association with the linked radioactive vitamin B12 and the linked serum vitamin B12 may be physically isolated from the solid bentonite that has adsorbed the free radioactive vitamin B12 and the free serum vitamin B12 [fr

  10. Covalent versus Charge Transfer Modification of Graphene/Carbon-Nanotubes with Vitamin B1: Co/N/S-C Catalyst toward Excellent Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Varun; Tiwari, Jitendra N; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-06-29

    High-performance nonprecious cathodic catalysts for oxygen reduction are highly demanded for low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Here, we report a noble-meta- free, nitrogen and sulfur codoped graphene(G)/carbon-nanotube(CNT) material decorated with Co nanoparticles (NPs), which serve as catalytic sites for excellent oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in basic and acidic media. Out of the cathodic catalysts synthesized by either covalent (cov) or charge transfer (CT) modification of graphen oxide (GO) with thiamine (Th: Vitamin B1), ThG/CNT/Co-cov shows more promising ORR properties than ThG/CNT/Co-CT. Catalyst ThG/CNT/Co-cov exhibits onset/halfwave potentials of 0.95/0.86 V in 0.1 M KOH and 0.92/0.83 V in 0.1 M HClO4, which are comparable to those of commercial catalyst Pt/C (0.95/0.86 V). As compared to Pt/C, our catalyst shows higher current densities of 6.72 mA cm(-2) in basic medium and 7.08 mA cm(-2) in acidic medium at 0.55 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)). It also exhibits better catalytic stability and methanol tolerance. High catalytic efficiency and stability of ThG/CNT/Co-cov show a promising prospect of materialization of PEMFCs for clean energy production.

  11. Tiamina e riboflavina: evolução com a maturação de Cabernet Sauvignon e comportamento durante a fermentação com diferentes níveis de anidrido sulfuroso adicionado Thiamine and riboflavin: evolution during ripening of Cabernet Sauvignon and during fermentation with different levels of so2 added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o comportamento das vitaminas,tiamina (vitamina B1 e riboflavina (vitamina B2,durante a maturação de Vitis vinifera cultivar Cabemet Sauvignon e durante a fermentação do mosto, usando diferentes quantidades de SO2. Os valores mínimos encontrados para tiamina e riboflavina foram respectivamente (ug/100nd: 7,67 e 6,85 com 5,5 °Brix e os máximos foram, respectivamente, 19,35 (na colheita e 15,75 com 12,8 °Brix. A tiamina foi quase totalmente consumida antes da fermentação inicial, aparecendo novamente ao final da mesma. A riboflavina, ao contrário aumentou durante a fermentação. Ambas as vitaminas aumentaram durante a maturação de Cabemet Sauvignon, estando a tiamina presente em maior quantidade. O aumento das quantidades de SO2 adicionado ao mosto, afetou a tiamina numa proporção direta, mas não teve nenhum efeito sobre a riboflavina. A tiamina diminuiu durante a fermentação, ao mesmo tempo em que ocorreu um aumento da riboflavina.The aim of the work was to follow the behaviour of both vitamins, thiamine and riboflavin, during ripening of Vitis vinifera Cabemet Sauvignon and during fermentation of the must using different amounts of SO2. Minimum values for thiamine and riboflavin were, respectivelly, (ug/100ml: 7.67 and 6.85 at 5.5 °Brix and the maximum values were, respectivelly, 19.35 (at harvest and 15.75 at 12.87 °Brix. Thiamine was almost completelly consumed before the start of fermentation showing up again at the end of the process; riboflavin, on the contrary, increased during fermentation. Both vitamins increased during ripening of Cabemet Sauvignon but -in grapes- the amount of thiamine was greater than riboflavin. Fermentation procedures, as increasing levels of SO2, affected thiamine in a direct proportion but did not have any effect upon riboflavin. Thiamine decreased during fermentation and riboflavin increased.

  12. Influence of vitamins on cytostatic drugs: radiation-chemical and radiation-biological investigations in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, E.

    2002-03-01

    Many environmental burdens (air pollution, formation of ozone etc.), humans nowadays are exposed to, in connection with unhealthy way of living promote the formation of free radicals e.g. OH and peroxylradicals in the organism. Those show an enormous cell-damaging effect, and can weaken the immune system or cause cancer diseases. The number of humans suffering from different forms of cancer is rising world-wide. Therefore it is necessary to find new and better therapy forms for this illness. The organism has its own protective system, which is able to capture free radicals and make them innocuous to a large extent. Apart from various enzyme systems the antioxidizing vitamins C (ascorbic acid), E (α-tocopherol) and β-carotin play an important role in this process. Now it was of interest whether vitamin B1 (thiamine) also possesses the ability to work as a radiation protector or to influence the effect of different cytostatic drugs. In the context of this thesis the radiation-chemical and radiation-biological behaviour of vitamin B1 was examined under different conditions (in presence and absence of oxygen as well as in media saturated with N 2 O). HPLC analysis were performed to establish radiolysis products. Furthermore the synergistic effect of vitamin B1 on cytostatic drugs (sanazole, mitomycin C) was studied alone or in combination with other vitamins (C, E and β-carotin) by using two different E. coli bacteria strains as a model for living systems. (author)

  13. Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limsuwan, T.; Lovell, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks

  14. feeding value of processed horse eye bean meal as alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    ; Vitamin D3 2,000000I.U; Vitamin E 20,000IU; Vitamin K 2,250mg; Thiamine 1,750mg;. Riboflavin B 5,000mg; Pyridoxine B6 2,750mg; Anti oxidant 125g; Niacin 27,500mg; Vitamin B12 15mg; Panthotenic acids 7,500mg; Biotin 50mg; Choline ...

  15. Effect of freezing and canning on the content of selected vitamins and pigments in seeds of two grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars at the not fully mature stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia; Kmiecik, Waldemar

    2002-08-01

    Seeds of the grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars Derek and Krab, with a dry matter content of about 33%, were used for freezing and for canning. The content of vitamins C, B1, and B2 and of carotenoids, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls was determined in raw and blanched material, in frozen products after 6-month storage before and after cooking to consumption consistency, and in canned products after 6-month storage. In comparison with the cultivar Krab, raw seeds of Derek contained 45% more vitamin C, 14% more total chlorophylls, 13% less thiamine (vitamin B1), and 7% less riboflavin (vitamin B2). The level of carotenoids was similar. Blanching of seeds led to a statistically significant decrease only in the content of vitamin C. Freezing and frozen storage significantly lowered the level of vitamin C and chlorophylls. The cooking of frozen seeds and the production of canned products and their storage resulted in a statistically verified reduction in the content of components analysed in all the samples. Greater losses were found in products prepared from seeds of the cv. Krab. After cooking, frozen seeds contained more of all the analysed components than the canned products.

  16. Effects of Mild and Severe Vitamin B Deficiencies on the Meiotic Maturation of Mice Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Tsuji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of vitamin B 1 deficiency on the meiosis maturation of oocytes. Female Crl:CD1 (ICR mice were fed a 20% casein diet (control group or a vitamin B 1 –free diet (test group. The vitamin B 1 concentration in ovary was approximately 30% lower in the test group than in the control group. Oocyte meiosis was not affected by vitamin B 1 deficiency when the deficiency was not accompanied by body weight loss. On the contrary, frequency of abnormal oocyte was increased by vitamin B 1 deficiency when deficiency was accompanied by body weight loss (referred to as severe vitamin B 1 deficiency; frequency of abnormal oocyte, 13.8% vs 43.7%, P  = .0071. The frequency of abnormal oocytes was decreased by refeeding of a vitamin B 1 –containing diet (13.9% vs 22.9%, P  = .503. These results suggest that severe vitamin B 1 deficiency inhibited meiotic maturation of oocytes but did not damage immature oocytes.

  17. Vitamin B12 status and the effects of vitamin B12 supplementation during the first year of life of spring calves from pasture-fed dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, N D; Knowles, S O; Nortjé, R

    2014-09-01

    To determine the vitamin B12 status of dairy calves during their first year of life, and to evaluate the benefits of vitamin B12 supplementation. In Experiment I, 20 17-day-old heifer calves from the AgResearch Flock House herd were monitored until 198 days old. On Days 0 and 90 of the study, half of the animals received an injection of microencapsulated vitamin B12 at 0.12 mg/kg bodyweight. All received colostrum, milk replacer and calf meal, with ad libitum access to pasture. At regular intervals the calves were weighed and serum collected for vitamin B12 measurement. In Experiment II at Flock House and the adjacent Landcorp Tangimoana station, 80 150-day-old heifer calves were monitored until 342 days old. On Days 0 and 97, half of the animals received vitamin B12 as per Experiment I. At regular intervals samples were collected from 12 calves per group, to determine concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum. Mean concentration of vitamin B12 in milk replacer was 63 (SE 4) µg/kg dry matter (DM). Cobalt concentrations in calf meal were 0.45-1.58 and 0.07-0.28 mg/kg DM in pastures. From 17 to 198 days of age (Experiment I) mean concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum of the control group decreased from 119 (SE 8) to 57 (SE 5) pmol/L. From 150 to 342 days of age (Experiment II), overall mean concentrations of the control groups at Flock House and Tangimoana were 90 (SE 2) and 96 (SE 3) pmol/L, respectively. Vitamin B12 injections increased (ppasture-based diet. Supplementation increased concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum but did not improve liveweight gains. Under this calf rearing system, vitamin B12 deficiency is unlikely to occur prior to weaning, and vitamin B12 supplementation is unlikely to increase growth rates of grazing calves when concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum are > 90 pmol/L.

  18. Supramolecular Encapsulation of Vitamin B6 by Macrocyclic Nanocontainer Cucurbit[7]uril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pharmaceutically and biologically relevant molecule, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6, was encapsulated inside the cavity of a molecular container, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7], in aqueous solution. The CB[7] based “nanocapsule” of vitamin B6 has been investigated for the first time, via 1H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titrations (including Job’s plot and ab initio molecular modeling. The results have demonstrated that vitamin B6 forms stable host-guest complexes within CB[7] in 1 : 1 stoichiometry, with a binding affinity of (4.0±0.5×103 M−1. Such a nanocapsule could potentially find application in vitamin B6 formulation for the purpose of enhancing the stability, absorption, and delivery of this important vitamin.

  19. Simultaneous radioassay of folate and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutcho, S.; Mansbach, L.

    1979-01-01

    A serum sample is heated at an alkaline pH to release folate and vitamin B 12 from endogenous binders. A simultaneous radioassay for folate and vitamin B 12 is effected by contacting the sample with binder for folate, binder for vitamin B 12 , folote labeled with one radioactive isotope and vitamin B 12 labeled with another radioacitve isotope, followed by separation of bound and free portions, and determination of the radioactivity of at least one of the portions. The amounts of folate and vitamin B 12 present in the sample may be determined from standard curves

  20. KANDUNGAN VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 DAN E BEBERAPA JENIS DAGING, TELUR, IKAN DAN UDANG LAUT DI BOGOR DAN SEKITARNYA (VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 AND E CONTENT OF SEVERAL TYPES OF MEATS, EGGS, FISHES AND MARINE SHRIMPS IN BOGOR AND SURROUNDING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Yuniati

    2012-06-01

    dianalisis dengan High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Sampel yang digunakan adalah bahan mentah, yang diambil dari 3 lokasi di Bogor dan sekitarnya. Ikan, daging dan telur mengandung tinggi asam folat, yang besarnya bervariasi tergantung pada bagian bahan makanan. Jumlah asam folat di dalam sayap ayam berbeda dengan di dalam paha, dalam daging kambing berlemak sedikit lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan di dalam daging tanpa lemak. Jumlah asam folat dalam kuning telur juga lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan di dalam bagian putih telur. Kandungan vitamin E ikan kakap  paling tinggi dibandingkan dengan ikan lainnya (6,54 µg/100 g. Telur ayam mengandung vitamin lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan telur itik, demikian pula bagian kuning telur lebih tinggi daripada bagian putih telur. [Penel Gizi Makan 2012, 35(1: 78-89] Kata kunci: makanan hewani, asam folat, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin E

  1. Simultaneous radioassay of folate and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An improved simultaneous radioassay for folate and vitamin B 12 in biological specimens is described. A sample containing folate and vitamin B 12 is contacted with 125 I-folate and 57 Co-vitamin B 12 and their respective specific binders. After separation of the bound and free portions, the radioactivity in the portions is counted and the amounts of folate and vitamin B 12 then determined from standard curves. (U.K.)

  2. Vitamin B12 and Semen Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Saleem Ali

    2017-06-09

    Various studies have revealed the effects of vitamin B12, also named cobalamin, on semen quality and sperm physiology; however, these studies collectively are still unsummarized. Here, we systematically discuss and summarize the currently understood role of vitamin B12 on semen quality and sperm physiology. We searched the Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases for only English language articles or abstracts from September 1961 to March 2017 (inclusive) using the key words "vitamin B12" and "cobalamin" versus "sperm". Certain relevant references were included to support the empirical as well as the mechanistic discussions. In conclusion, the mainstream published work demonstrates the positive effects of vitamin B12 on semen quality: first, by increasing sperm count, and by enhancing sperm motility and reducing sperm DNA damage, though there are a few in vivo system studies that have deliberated some adverse effects. The beneficial effects of vitamin B12 on semen quality may be due to increased functionality of reproductive organs, decreased homocysteine toxicity, reduced amounts of generated nitric oxide, decreased levels of oxidative damage to sperm, reduced amount of energy produced by spermatozoa, decreased inflammation-induced semen impairment, and control of nuclear factor-κB activation. However, additional research, mainly clinical, is still needed to confirm these positive effects.

  3. Study on fluorescence spectra of thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Xuesong; Hu, Lan; Lv, Caofang; Yin, Zhangkun

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of vitamin B1, B2 and B6 measured with 3D fluorescence Spectrophotometer. Three strong fluorescence areas of vitamin B2 locate at λex/λem=270/525nm, 370/525nm and 450/525nm, one fluorescence areas of vitamin B1 locates at λex/λem=370/460nm, two fluorescence areas of vitamin B6 locate at λex/λem=250/370nm and 325/370nm were found. The influence of pH of solution to the fluorescence profile was also discussed. Using the PARAFAC algorithm, 10 vitamin B1, B2 and B6 mixed solutions were successfully decomposed, and the emission profiles, excitation profiles, central wavelengths and the concentration of the three components were retrieved precisely through about 5 iteration times.

  4. Radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanchi, X.; Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A.

    2000-01-01

    Research on the radiolysis of vitamins is of considerable interest since these compounds are important nutritional constituents in foods and in dietetic supplements. In spite of these considerations there are few data and very often difficult to compare for the radiolytic behavior of vitamins. In this work we focused our attention on to the study of the radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12 ) in solid state and in aqueous solutions. The procedure was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a linear function of the dose. The G of decomposition for a 1x10 -5 M solution was 3.3. In the solid state the vitamin was very stable towards the irradiation in the conditions used in this study with a G=2.1x10 -3 . A study made with Serratia marcescens as a microbiological contaminant showed that at the sterilization dose there is a destruction of the vitamin in aqueous solution. In the solid state the degree of decomposition was 7%. (author)

  5. Vitamin intake: a possible determinant of plasma homocyst(e)ine among middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, T; Nieto, F J; Malinow, M R; Chambless, L E; Schreiner, P J; Szklo, M

    1997-05-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have identified elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thromboembolic disease. To examined the relationship between vitamin intakes and plasma homocyst(e)ine, we analyzed dietary intake data from a case-control study of 322 middle-aged individuals with atherosclerosis in the carotid artery and 318 control subjects without evidence of this disease. All of these individuals were selected from a probability sample of 15,800 men and women who participated in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Plasma homocyst(e)ine was inversely associated with intakes of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 (controls only for this vitamin)--the three key vitamins in homocyst(e)ine metabolism. Among nonusers of vitamin supplement products, on average each tertile increase in intake of these vitamins was associated with 0.4 to 0.7 mumol/L decrease in plasma homocyst(e)ine. An inverse association of plasma homocyst(e)ine was also found with thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, phosphorus, and iron. Methionine and protein intake did not show any significant association with plasma homocyst(e)ine. In almost all analyses, cases and controls showed similar associations between dietary variables and plasma homocyst(e)ine. Plasma homocyst(e)ine among users of vitamin supplement products was 1.5 mumol/L lower than that among nonusers. Further studies to examine possible causal relationships among vitamin intake, plasma homocyst(e)ine, and cardiovascular disease are needed.

  6. Vitamin B-12 Concentrations in Breast Milk Are Low and Are Not Associated with Reported Household Hunger, Recent Animal-Source Food, or Vitamin B-12 Intake in Women in Rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anne M; Chantry, Caroline J; Young, Sera L; Achando, Beryl S; Allen, Lindsay H; Arnold, Benjamin F; Colford, John M; Dentz, Holly N; Hampel, Daniela; Kiprotich, Marion C; Lin, Audrie; Null, Clair A; Nyambane, Geoffrey M; Shahab-Ferdows, Setti; Stewart, Christine P

    2016-05-01

    Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentration may be inadequate in regions in which animal-source food consumption is low or infrequent. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia and impairs growth and development in children. We measured vitamin B-12 in breast milk and examined its associations with household hunger, recent animal-source food consumption, and vitamin B-12 intake. In a cross-sectional substudy nested within a cluster-randomized trial assessing water, sanitation, hygiene, and nutrition interventions in Kenya, we sampled 286 women 1-6 mo postpartum. Mothers hand-expressed breast milk 1 min into a feeding after 90 min observed nonbreastfeeding. The Household Hunger Scale was used to measure hunger, food intake in the previous week was measured with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and vitamin B-12 intake was estimated by using 24-h dietary recall. An animal-source food score was based on 10 items from the FFQ (range: 0-70). Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentration was measured with the use of a solid-phase competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay and was modeled with linear regression. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for correlated observations at the cluster level. Median (IQR) vitamin B-12 intake was 1.5 μg/d (0.3, 9.7 μg/d), and 60% of women consumed hunger prevalence was 27%; the animal-source food score ranged from 0 to 30 item-d/wk. Hunger and recent animal-source food and vitamin B-12 intake were not associated with breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations. Maternal age was negatively associated with breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations. Most lactating Kenyan women consumed less than the estimated average requirement of vitamin B-12 and had low breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations. We recommend interventions that improve vitamin B-12 intake in lactating Kenyan women to foster maternal health and child development. The main trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01704105. © 2016

  7. Vitamin B supplementation for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Bhavani; Low, Lian Leng

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. This review aims to examine the existing evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin B12 supplementation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all relevant randomised controlled trials was conducted in December 2014. Any type of therapy using vitamin B12 or its coenzyme forms was assessed for efficacy and safety in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. Changes in vibration perception thresholds, neuropathic symptoms and nerve conduction velocities, as well as the adverse effects of vitamin B12 therapy, were assessed. Four studies comprising 363 patients met the inclusion criteria. This review found no evidence that the use of oral vitamin B12 supplements is associated with improvement in the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, the majority of studies reported no improvement in the electrophysiological markers of nerve conduction. Copyright © Singapore Medical Association.

  8. Thiamine content and turnover rates of some rat nervous regions, using labeled thiamine as a tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindi, G.; Patrini, C.; Comincioli, V.; Reggiani, C.

    1980-01-01

    The content of total thiamine radioactivity in some nervous structures and liver of the rat was determined in a steady state condition, using [thiazole-2- 14 C]thiamine as a tracer. The contents were analyzed by a mamillary type compartmental model which enabled the authors to calculate the influx and efflux fractional rate constants, turnover times, turnover rates and relative accuracy. The results show in general a good agreement between turnover rate values and brain regional sensitivity to thiamine deficiency, the most vunerable areas to thiamine depletion being those with the highest turnover rates. (Auth.)

  9. Analysis of thiamine concentrations in commercial canned foods formulated for cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovich, Jessica E; Freeman, Lisa M; Heinze, Cailin R

    2014-01-15

    To measure thiamine concentrations in commercial canned foods formulated for cats as an initial assessment of the variation among canned foods and to determine the effects of flavor (fish vs nonfish) of the food, texture (paté vs nonpaté) of the food, country of manufacture, and size of the company on thiamine concentration. Prospective cross-sectional study. 90 canned, nontherapeutic diets formulated for cats (1 fish and 1 nonfish flavor for each of 45 brands). Each canned food was homogenized, and thiamine concentration was analyzed with a fluorometric method. Thiamine concentration was below the minimums of the Association of American Feed Control Officials in 12 of 90 (13.3%) foods and below the recommended allowance of the National Research Council in 14 of 90 (15.6%) foods. Paté foods had significantly lower thiamine concentrations than did nonpaté foods, and foods from smaller companies had significantly lower thiamine concentrations, compared with concentrations in foods from larger companies. Flavor of food and country of manufacture were not significantly associated with thiamine concentration. A wide range of thiamine concentrations was found in the foods evaluated. Thiamine concentration in a substantial percentage of commercially available canned foods was below the amount recommended for adult cats. Additional research on interlot and intralot variation in thiamine concentrations of foods formulated for cats is warranted. Companies should implement strict quality control and analysis practices regarding food products. Clinicians should consider thiamine deficiency as a differential diagnosis in a cat with acute neurologic dysfunction.

  10. Effects of Holding Methods and Time on the Vitamin Contents of Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The five leafy vegetables are fair sources of thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. There were losses in the vitamins as holding time increased, regardless of the holding method employed. The rate of loss of vitamins was highest in Lot I (the unwrapped leaves that were kept in a shade both day and night). The rate of loss of vitamins ...

  11. Evaluation of phytonutrients and vitamin contents in a wild yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The species studied was found to contain bioactive compounds comprising saponins (18.46 mg 100-1g), alkaloids (0.68 mg 100-1 g), flavonoids (8.84 mg 100-1 g), tannins (4.2 x102 mg 100-1 g) and phenols (2.8x103 mg 100-1 g). This yam contained vitamins such as ascorbic acid, riboflavin and thiamin. The importance of ...

  12. Vitamin B12 and Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Ali Banihani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have revealed the effects of vitamin B12, also named cobalamin, on semen quality and sperm physiology; however, these studies collectively are still unsummarized. Here, we systematically discuss and summarize the currently understood role of vitamin B12 on semen quality and sperm physiology. We searched the Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases for only English language articles or abstracts from September 1961 to March 2017 (inclusive using the key words “vitamin B12” and “cobalamin” versus “sperm”. Certain relevant references were included to support the empirical as well as the mechanistic discussions. In conclusion, the mainstream published work demonstrates the positive effects of vitamin B12 on semen quality: first, by increasing sperm count, and by enhancing sperm motility and reducing sperm DNA damage, though there are a few in vivo system studies that have deliberated some adverse effects. The beneficial effects of vitamin B12 on semen quality may be due to increased functionality of reproductive organs, decreased homocysteine toxicity, reduced amounts of generated nitric oxide, decreased levels of oxidative damage to sperm, reduced amount of energy produced by spermatozoa, decreased inflammation-induced semen impairment, and control of nuclear factor-κB activation. However, additional research, mainly clinical, is still needed to confirm these positive effects.

  13. Genetic determinants of serum vitamin B12 and their relation to body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H.; Friedrich, Nele; Pietzner, Maik

    2017-01-01

    for associations between (1) serum vitamin B12 levels and body mass index (BMI), (2) genetic variants and serum vitamin B12 levels, and (3) genetic variants and BMI. The effect of a genetically determined decrease in serum vitamin B12 on BMI was estimated by instrumental variable regression. Decreased serum......Lower serum vitamin B12 levels have been related to adverse metabolic health profiles, including adiposity. We used a Mendelian randomization design to test whether this relation might be causal. We included two Danish population-based studies (ntotal = 9311). Linear regression was used to test...... vitamin B12 associated with increased BMI (P vitamin B12 associated variants associated strongly with serum vitamin B12 (P vitamin B12...

  14. Riboflavin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Taking riboflavin along with iron, thiamine, and vitamin C by mouth, does not reduce the number or ... 5' Phosphate, Riboflavina, Riboflavine, Vitamin B2, Vitamin G, Vitamina B2, Vitamine B2, Vitamine G.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  16. Effects of B Vitamins Overload on Plasma Insulin Level and Hydrogen Peroxide Generation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wuping; Zhai, Mingzhu; Zhou, Qian; Qian, Chengrui; Jiang, Changyu

    2017-08-31

    It has been reported that nicotinamide-overload induces oxidative stress associated with insulin resistance, the key feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to investigate the effects of B vitamins in T2DM. Glucose tolerance tests were carried out in adult Sprague-Dawley rats treated with or without cumulative doses of B vitamins. More specifically, insulin tolerance tests were also carried out in adult Sprague-Dawley rats treated with or without cumulative doses of Vitamin B3. We found that cumulative Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B3 administration significantly increased the plasma H₂O₂ levels associated with high insulin levels. Only Vitamin B3 reduced muscular and hepatic glycogen contents. Cumulative administration of nicotinic acid, another form of Vitamin B3, also significantly increased plasma insulin level and H₂O₂ generation. Moreover, cumulative administration of nicotinic acid or nicotinamide impaired glucose metabolism. This study suggested that excess Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B3 caused oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

  17. Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumeau Dominique

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced by singlet oxygen (1O2. These results raise the important question as to whether plants employ vitamin B6 as an antioxidant to protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Results The pdx1.3 mutation affects the vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzyme, pyridoxal synthase (PDX1, and leads to a reduction of the vitamin B6 concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Although leaves of the pdx1.3 Arabidopsis mutant contained less chlorophyll than wild-type leaves, we found that vitamin B6 deficiency did not significantly impact photosynthetic performance or shoot and root growth. Chlorophyll loss was associated with an increase in the chlorophyll a/b ratio and a selective decrease in the abundance of several PSII antenna proteins (Lhcb1/2, Lhcb6. These changes were strongly dependent on light intensity, with high light amplifying the difference between pdx1.3 and the wild type. When leaf discs were exposed to exogenous 1O2, lipid peroxidation in pdx1.3 was increased relative to the wild type; this effect was not observed with superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. When leaf discs or whole plants were exposed to excess light energy, 1O2-mediated lipid peroxidation was enhanced in leaves of the pdx1.3 mutant relative to the wild type. High light also caused an increased level of 1O2 in vitamin B6-deficient leaves. Combining the pdx1.3 mutation with mutations affecting the level of 'classical' quenchers of 1O2 (zeaxanthin, tocopherols resulted in a highly photosensitive phenotype. Conclusion This study demonstrates that vitamin B6 has a function in

  18. Simultaneous detection of water-soluble vitamins using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemond Godbless Dadzie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-soluble vitamins (WSV: ascorbic acid (vitamin C, thiamine (B1, riboflavin (B2, niacin (B3, panthothenic acid (B5, pyridoxine, and pyridoxal (B6, folic acid (B9, biotin(B8 , and B12 are very essential in the diet of humankind. As a result of ever increasing pressures from both consumers and legal enforcers, to specify accurately nutritive compositions of WSV that are present in food materials, many researchers have attempted to fill this niche through the provision of highly sensitive and rapid high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedures. In view of the health benefits of WSV, a replete of HPLC methods have been developed for simultaneous determination of their contents in nature and fortified food samples, nutritional supplements, as well as blood plasmas. The rate of losses of these vitamins during food processing and analysis, in addition to their transient dynamics, presents complexities in developing a highly sensitive HPLC procedure for their simultaneous separations and assays. This review critically assesses the different HPLC procedures developed by researchers and available in the open literature for simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins (WSV in dried tropical fruits materials. The study revealed that not a single chromatographic run developed by researchers can simultaneously elute all the WSV at a time. However, the HPLC procedures that are capable of determining all the WSV were coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS, thus making the set-up expensive.

  19. THE STUDY OF VITAMINS B1, B6, AND B12 EFFECTS ON ADRENAL CORTEX ADAPTATION BY MONITORING SOME ENZYME SYSTEMS IN RATS TRAINED BY SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Veličković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal hormones play a central role in response to environmental stimuli, both internal and external. We analyzed enzymes activities (LDH- lactate dehydrogenase, GLDHglutamate dehydrogenase and AcPh – acid phosphatase in adrenal cortex through swimming exercises and under the influence of B-group vitamins. The analyzed cases in the experiment revealed significant increase of enzyme activities, namely in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex. Physical exertion is a form of stress and causes steroidogenesis process expression. The vitamins used take part as co-ferments in production of a lot of enzymes and in their activities as well. Improvement of the enzyme system in adrenal glands in animals through swimming training with addition of vitamins B1, B6 and B12 leads to faster and long-term production of hormones necessary for stress response known as General Adaptation Syndrome

  20. Pharmacokinetics of thiamine derivatives especially of benfotiamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, D

    1996-02-01

    Pharmacokinetic data of orally administered lipid-soluble thiamine analogues like benfotiamine are reviewed and assessed. It is quite clear that benfotiamine is absorbed much more better than water-soluble thiamine salts: maximum plasma levels of thiamine are about 5 times higher after benfotiamine, the bioavailability is at maximum about 3.6 times as high as that of thiamine hydrochloride and better than other lipophilic thiamine derivates. The physiological activity (alphaETK) increased only after benfotiamine was given. Due to its excellent pharmacokinetic profile benfotiamine should be preferred in treatment of relevant indications.

  1. Loss of vitamin B(12) in fish (round herring) meats during various cooking treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Michiko; Kanosue, Fuki; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    The loss of vitamin B(12) in round herring meats during various cooking treatments was evaluated. Although amounts of vitamin B(12) were three times greater in the viscera (37.5 ± 10.6 µg/100 g fresh weight) than in the meats, about 73% of total vitamin B(12) found in the whole fish body (except for head and bones) were recovered in the meats (5.1 ± 1.0 µg of vitamin B(12)). The vitamin B(12) contents of the round herring's meats were significantly decreased up to ~62% during cooking by grilling, boiling, frying, steaming, and microwaving. There was, however, no loss of vitamin B(12) during vacuum-packed pouch cooking. Model experiment using hydroxocobalamin suggest that loss of vitamin B(12) is dependent on the degree of temperature and time used in conventional cooking, and is further affected by the concomitant ingredients of food. Retention of vitamin B(12) was not dependent on vacuum or temperature (or both) used in the vacuum-packed pouch cooking.

  2. Interactions and encapsulation of vitamins C, B3, and B6 with dendrimers in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisselier, Elodie; Liang, Liyuan; Dalko-Csiba, Maria; Ruiz, Jaime; Astruc, Didier

    2010-05-25

    Titrations of commercial diaminobutane (DAB) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers by vitamins C (ascorbic acid, AA), B(3) (nicotinic acid), and B(6) (pyridoxine) were monitored by (1)H NMR spectroscopy using the chemical shifts of both dendrimer and vitamin protons and analyzed by comparison with the titration of propylamine. Quaternarizations of the terminal primary amino groups and intradendritic tertiary amino groups, which are nearly quantitative with vitamin C, were characterized by more or less sharp variations (Deltadelta) of the (1)H chemical shift (delta) at the equivalence points. The peripheral primary amino groups of the DAB dendrimers were quaternarized first, but not selectively, whereas a sharp chemical-shift variation was recorded for the inner methylene protons near the tertiary amines, thereby indicating encapsulation, when all the dendritic amines were quaternarized. With DAB-G5-64-NH(2), some excess acid is required to protonate the inner amino groups, presumably because of basicity decrease due to excess charge repulsion. On the other hand, this selectivity was not observed with PAMAM dendrimers. The special case of the titration of the dendrimers by vitamin B(6) indicates only dominant supramolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions and no quaternarization, with core amino groups being privileged, which indicates the strong tendency to encapsulate vitamins. With vitamin B(3), a carboxylic acid, titration of DAB-G3-16-NH(2) shows that only six peripheral amino groups are protonated on average, even with excess vitamin B(3), because protonation is all the more difficult due to increased charge repulsion, as positive charges accumulate around the dendrimer. Inner amino groups interact with this vitamin, however, thus indicating encapsulation presumably with supramolecular hydrogen bonding without much charge transfer.

  3. Toward Eradication of B-Vitamin Deficiencies: Considerations for Crop Biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Strobbe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ‘Hidden hunger’ involves insufficient intake of micronutrients and is estimated to affect over two billion people on a global scale. Malnutrition of vitamins and minerals is known to cause an alarming number of casualties, even in the developed world. Many staple crops, although serving as the main dietary component for large population groups, deliver inadequate amounts of micronutrients. Biofortification, the augmentation of natural micronutrient levels in crop products through breeding or genetic engineering, is a pivotal tool in the fight against micronutrient malnutrition (MNM. Although these approaches have shown to be successful in several species, a more extensive knowledge of plant metabolism and function of these micronutrients is required to refine and improve biofortification strategies. This review focuses on the relevant B-vitamins (B1, B6, and B9. First, the role of these vitamins in plant physiology is elaborated, as well their biosynthesis. Second, the rationale behind vitamin biofortification is illustrated in view of pathophysiology and epidemiology of the deficiency. Furthermore, advances in biofortification, via metabolic engineering or breeding, are presented. Finally, considerations on B-vitamin multi-biofortified crops are raised, comprising the possible interplay of these vitamins in planta.

  4. Comparative autoradiographic investigations on the tissue distribution of benfotiamine versus thiamine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, R; Rahmann, H

    1998-05-01

    The tissue distribution of two therapeutically applied preparations of B-vitamins were investigated in blood and selected organs (liver, brain, muscle, kidney) of laboratory mice using autoradiographic techniques. Incorporation of lipid-soluble 3H-benfotiamine (CAS 22457-89-2) and water-soluble 3H-thiaminehydrochloride (CAS 67-03-8) (200 microCi, equivalent to 105 mg vitamin/kg body weight) was monitored between 0.75 and 168 h after an oral or subcutaneous administration. The labelled tissue slices were autoradiographically analysed after a differential histochemical extraction procedure to evaluate the respective total radioactivity, the uptake into lipid-soluble, water-soluble and residual macromolecular compounds. Evaluation of these autoradiographic data (given as mumol vitamin preparation/mg tissue equivalent) proved that benfotiamine is incorporated much better than thiaminehydrochloride independent of the administration mode. In muscle and brain tissue a 5 to 25 fold higher amount of tracer incorporation was registered following benfotiamine as compared with the thiamine application, whereas in all other organs the difference in the label was mostly between 10 and 40%. Concerning the organ specific distribution, liver and kidney were the structures labelled highest by both substances and administration procedures. In the liver, concerning all incorporation times, a higher proportion of residual macromolecular compounds was found, whereas in the kidney the proportions of lipid- as well as of water-soluble materials prevailed. These data should be clinically relevant.

  5. The Relationship of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Red Cell Distribution Width-Platelet Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Yilmaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and red cell distribution widthplatelet ratio (RPR, and the variations in the parameters on vitamin B12 treatment. Methods: One hundred fifty-four patients with untreated vitamin B12 deficiency (56% men, mean age: 50 ± 12.7 years (untreated group, 86 patients with vitamin B12 deficiency (62% men, mean age: 42 ± 20.7 years on vitamin B12 treatment (treated group, and 92 age- and sex-matched control group (54% men, mean age: 45 ± 15.1 years were included in the study. Hematological parameters were evaluated by the method of laser-based flow cytometric impedance, using an automated blood cell counter (ABX Pentra 120 Hematology Blood Analyzer. Results: RPR was significantly reduced in treated group compared with untreated group (4.88 ± 1.06; 6.13 ± 1.27; p0.05. Conclusion: We proposed that vitamin B12 deficiency has effects on RPR and supplementation with vitamin B12 corrects the RPR levels. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (3: 211-215

  6. Improvement of vitamin B-6 production by gamma radiation in bacterial isolates from soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trongpanich, Yanee; Anutrakunchai, Chitchanok; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    A vitamin B-6 producing bacterium, Rhizobium sp. 6.1C1 was isolated from soil and produced vitamin B-6 (mainly pyridoxamine) 0.27 mg per liter. Rhizobium sp. 6.1C1 is mesophile bacterium which was not able to grow at over 4 0C. The objective of this study was to improve vitamin B-6 production in high temperature by gamma radiation. The result showed that 677 mutant isolates which were obtained from irradiation dose 0.8 and 1 kGy, were able to grow at 5 0C. Only 4 isolates (08-361, 10-3, 10-94 and 10-98) showed high amount of vitamin B-6 per mg protein. From the results of optimum temperature and initial pH of medium showed high amount of vitamin B-6 per mg protein. From the results of optimum temperature and initial pH of medium showed that isolate 08-361 showed higher amount of vitamin b-6 than wild type. However, this value of vitamin B-6 from this mutant was lower than that when screening. Forms of produced vitamin B-6 from mutant were identified by HPLC. The result showed produced vitamin B-6 were PM and PMP, similar with wild type. Effect of gamma radiation stability of mutant is further study.

  7. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... off the market in 1983 because they were running up expensive legal bills in defense of their ... effects and are not likely to increase the beneficial effects. Movement disorders (tardive dyskinesia).Taking vitamin B6 ...

  8. Thiamine absorption is not compromised in folate-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzem, R.L.; Clifford, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Thiamine absorption and excretion were assessed in rats with severe folate deficiency (FD) by determining the fate of oral 3 H-labeled and intravenous 14 C-labeled thiamine over a 6-h test period. Thiamine status was evaluated in these same rats by measuring transketolase activity levels of blood before (TKA) and after (TPPE) addition of thiamine pyrophosphate to the incubation mixture of the assay procedure. Two additional experiments assessed active transport of thiamine and the effect of dietary succinylsulfathiazole (SST) on TKA and TPPE in rats with moderate FD. Intestinal absorption in general and thiamine absorption in particular and thiamine status were unaltered in rats with severe FD. Inanition associated with severe FD may impair thiamine status. Thiamine absorption by active transport was not compromised in FD, and dietary succinylsulfathiazole did not affect thiamine status

  9. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  10. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Watanabe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS KOMBUCHA TEA ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY BASED ON LONG FERMENTATION AS A BEVERAGE FUNCTIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Puspitasari, Yenny; Nurikasari, Maulina; Siwi, Retno Palupi Yoni

    2017-01-01

    Bacground: Kombucha is a symbiosis between bacteria (Acetobacter) and yeast (Saccharomyces), in English abbreviated SCOBY (Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast). SCOBY in this research will be fermented using green tea media, to make kombucha tea product. Kombucha tea content is very beneficial for health, such as vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), vitamin C, acetic acid, amino acids, glucoronic acid, lactic acid and antiocasi...

  12. New thiamine functionalized silica microparticules as a sorbent for the removal of lead, mercury and cadmium ions in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Sabahattin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of heavy metal ions in aqueous media is one of the biggest environmental pollution problems and thus the removal of heavy metals is a very important procedure. In this work, a new adsorbent was synthesized by modifying 3-aminopropyl-functionalized silica gel with thiamine (vitamin B1 and characterized. The influence of the uptake conditions, such as pH, contact time, initial feed concentration and foreign metal ions, on the binding capacity of thiamine-functionalized silica gel sorbent (M3APS were investigated. Maximum obtained adsorption capacities for Pb(II, Hg(II and Cd(II were 39.4±0.2, 30.9±0.5 and 9.54±0.4 mg g-1 M3APS, respectively, at pH 5.0. The observed selectivity of M3APS for these metal ions was the following: Pb(II > Hg(II > Cd(II. Adsorption isotherm models were also applied to the adsorption process. As a result, the Langmuir isotherm model gave the best fit for the adsorption of metal ions on M3APS. The Gibbs energy change (ΔG for the adsorption of Pb(II, Hg(II and Cd(II were calculated to predict the nature of adsorption process. Having such satisfactory adsorption results, M3APS is a potential candidate adsorbent for Pb(II and Hg(II removal from aqueous media.

  13. Clinical Trial Assessing the Efficacy of Gabapentin Plus B Complex (B1/B12 versus Pregabalin for Treating Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mimenza Alvarado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN is a prevalent and impairing disorder. The objective of this study was to show the efficacy and safety of gabapentin (GBP plus complex B vitamins: thiamine (B1 and cyanocobalamine (B12 compared to pregabalin in patients with moderate to severe intensity PDN. Method. Multicenter, randomized, blind study. Two hundred and seventy patients were evaluated, 147 with GBP/B1/B12 and 123 with PGB, with a 7/10 pain intensity on the Visual Analog Scale (VAS. Five visits (12 weeks were scheduled. The GBP/B1 (100 mg/B12 (20 mg group started with 300 mg at visit 1 to 3600 mg at visit 5. The PGB group started with 75 mg/d at visit 1 to 600 mg/d at visit 5. Different safety and efficacy scales were applied, as well as adverse event assessment. Results. Both drugs showed reduction of pain intensity, without significant statistical difference (P=0.900. In the GBP/B1/B12 group, an improvement of at least 30% on VAS correlated to a 900 mg/d dose, compared with PGB 300 mg/d. Likewise, occurrence of vertigo was lower in the GBP/B1-B12 group, with a significant statistical difference, P=0.014. Conclusions. Our study shows that GPB/B1-B12 combination is as effective as PGB. Nonetheless, pain intensity reduction is achieved with 50% of the minimum required gabapentin dose alone (800 to 1600 mg/d in classic NDD trials. Less vertigo and dizziness occurrence was also observed in the GBP/B1/B12 group. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01364298.

  14. Studies on the intestinal absorption of vitamin B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Moriwaki, Chiaki

    1978-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of vitamin B 2 was studied by in situ mesenteric perfusion system. Free form riboflavin (FR), FMN and FAD (1 mg each) were injected into the ligated jejunum of rat which was infused Krebs Ringer bicarbonate solution from the superior mesenteric artery. Perfusate was recovered from the mesenteric vein and the recoveries of the total riboflavin during 120 min after the administration of these 3 types vitamin B 2 were 1.0, 1.5 and 2.8%, respectively. Furthermore, riboflavin and its esters were detected in the perfusates from 14 C-FR and 14 C-FAD given rats. There was a considerable amount of labeled substance which was not vitamin B 2 derivatives in the radiopaperchromatogram of the perfusate of 14 C-FR dosed rats, and it is suggested that a portion of riboflavin is decomposed in the process of absorption. (auth.)

  15. B vitamin and/or ω-3 fatty acid supplementation and cancer: ancillary findings from the supplementation with folate, vitamins B6 and B12, and/or omega-3 fatty acids (SU.FOL.OM3) randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Julia, Chantal; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2012-04-09

    To advance knowledge about the cancer-chemopreventive potential of individual nutrients, we investigated the effects of B vitamin and/or ω-3 fatty acid supplements on cancer outcomes among survivors of cardiovascular disease. This was an ancillary study of the Supplementation With Folate, Vitamins B(6) and B(12) and/or Omega-3 Fatty Acids (SU.FOL.OM3) secondary prevention trial (2003-2009). In all, 2501 individuals aged 45 to 80 years were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of the following 4 daily supplementation groups: (1) 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (0.56 mg), pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B(6); 3 mg) and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12); 0.02 mg); (2) eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (600 mg) in a 2:1 ratio; (3) B vitamins and ω-3 fatty acids; or (4) placebo. Overall and sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs regarding the cancer outcomes were estimated with Cox proportional hazards models. After 5 years of supplementation, incident cancer was validated in 7.0% of the sample (145 events in men and 29 in women), and death from cancer occurred in 2.3% of the sample. There was no association between cancer outcomes and supplementation with B vitamins (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.85-1.55]) and/or ω-3 fatty acids (HR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.87-1.58]). There was a statistically significant interaction of treatment by sex, with no effect of treatment on cancer risk among men and increased cancer risk among women for ω-3 fatty acid supplementation (HR, 3.02 [95% CI, 1.33-6.89]). We found no beneficial effects of supplementation with relatively low doses of B vitamins and/or ω-3 fatty acids on cancer outcomes in individuals with prior cardiovascular disease. Trial Registration  isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN41926726.

  16. Assay of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovey, K.C.; Carrick, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    A radioassay is described for vitamin B12 which involves denaturing serum protein binding proteins with alkali. In the denaturation step a dithiopolyol and cyanide are used and in the intrinsic factor assay step a vitamin B12 analogue such as cobinamide is used to bind with any remaining serum proteins. The invention also includes a kit in which the dithiopolyol is provided in admixture with the alkali. The dithiopolyol may be dithiothreitol or dithioerythritol. (author)

  17. Examination of Vitamin and Amino Acid Profiles of Gmelina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the vitamin and amino acid profiles of Unripe Gmelina Whole Fruit (UGWF), Ripe Gmelina Whole Fruit (RGWF) and Ripe Gmelina Fruit Pulp (RGFP). The combined riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, ascorbic acid, vitamins A and E of all the samples ranged from 0.09-0.30 mg/100g, 0.22-0.88 mg/100g, 0.12-0.64 ...

  18. [Vitamin B12 deficiency: what's new?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braillard, O; Casini, A; Samii, K; Rufenacht, P; Junod, Perron N

    2012-09-26

    Vitamin B12 screening is only recommended among symptomatic patients or in those with risk factors. The main cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is the food cobalamin malabsorption syndrom. Holotranscobalamin is a more reliable marker than cyanocobalamin to confirm vitamin B12 deficiency, but it has not been validated yet in complex situations. An autoimmune gastritis must be excluded in the absence of risk factors but in the presence of a probable deficiency. Oral substitution treatment is effective but requires excellent therapeutic compliance and close follow-up to monitor the response to treatment. It has not yet been studied among patients suffering from severe symptoms, inflammatory bowel disease and ileal resection.

  19. Efeitos de diferentes níveis das vitaminas tiamina, riboflavina e piridoxina sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte Effects of different levels of thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Pozzobon de Souza

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para analisar os efeitos de níveis altos e baixos das vitaminas tiamina (B1, riboflavina (B2 e piridoxina (B6 sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. Um total de 576 pintos de corte de um dia, foram distribuídos em desenho experimental trifatorial (2³, inteiramente casualizado onde dois níveis (alto e baixo de cada vitamina foram testados: vitamina B1 (A=3 mg/kg; B=2 mg/kg, vitamina B2 (A=6 mg/kg; B=4 mg/kg e vitamina B6 (A=4,5 mg/kg; B=3 mg/kg. Deste modo, dezoito aves por tratamento (8, em quatro repetições, foram distribuídas em boxes sobre piso e receberam dietas isonutritivas, variando somente em relação às vitaminas estudadas. Os dados foram submetidos a análise de variância e teste de Tukey. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos para todos os parâmetros estudados. Portanto, os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que os níveis das vitaminas B1, B2 e B6, para frangos de corte, podem ser reduzidos em até 66% dos níveis atualmente utilizados, sem prejuízo na performance dos mesmos.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effècts of high and low levels of vitamins thiamine (B1 ribofiavin (B2 andpyridoxin (B3 on the performance of boilers. A total of 576 day old broiler chicks of both sexes was distributed in a trifactorial (23 completely randomized experimental desing, where two levels (high and low} of each vitamin were tested: vitamin B1 (A=3 mg/kg; B=2 mg/kg; vitamin B2 (A=6 mg/kg; B=4 mg/kg and vitamin B6 (A=4,5 mg/kg; B=3 mg/kg. Therefore, eighteenth birds in each treatment (8, in four replications, were distributed in floor pens andreceived isonutritious diets, varying only in respect to the vitamins studied. Data were submitted to the analysis of variance and Tukey test. No significant differences (P>0.05 among treatments were observed for all parameters studied. Then, the results from this work suggest that the levels of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, for

  20. Vitamin B-12 in breast milk and diet, and riboflavin in breastmilk, are very low in Kenyan lactating women, although vitamin B-6 is sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Breastmilk B-vitamin concentrations can fluctuate with maternal intake. Low maternal intake of B-vitamins may result in low B-vitamin breastmilk concentrations and consequently B-vitamin deficiency in their infants because infants 0–6 months are recommended to be exclusively breastfed. T...

  1. Development and testing of the VITAMIN-B7/BUGLE-B7 coupled neutron-gamma multigroup cross-section libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risner, J.M.; Wiarda, D.; Miller, T.M.; Peplow, D.E.; Patton, B.W.; Dunn, M.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, MS 6170, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6170 (United States); Parks, B.T. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Mail Stop O10-B3, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.190 states that calculational methods used to estimate reactor pressure vessel (RPV) fluence should use the latest version of the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF). The VITAMIN-B6 fine-group library and BUGLE-96 broad-group library, which are widely used for RPV fluence calculations, were generated using ENDF/B-VI.3 data, which was the most current data when Regulatory Guide 1.190 was issued. We have developed new fine-group (VITAMIN-B7) and broad-group (BUGLE-B7) libraries based on ENDF/B-VII.0. These new libraries, which were processed using the AMPX code system, maintain the same group structures as the VITAMIN-B6 and BUGLE-96 libraries. Verification and validation of the new libraries were accomplished using diagnostic checks in AMPX, 'unit tests' for each element in VITAMIN-B7, and a diverse set of benchmark experiments including critical evaluations for fast and thermal systems, a set of experimental benchmarks that are used for SCALE regression tests, and three RPV fluence benchmarks. The benchmark evaluation results demonstrate that VITAMIN-B7 and BUGLE-B7 are appropriate for use in RPV fluence calculations and meet the calculational uncertainty criterion in Regulatory Guide 1.190. (authors)

  2. Development and Testing of the VITAMIN-B7/BUGLE-B7 Coupled Neutron-Gamma Multigroup Cross-Section Libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risner, Joel M.; Wiarda, Dorothea; Miller, Thomas Martin; Peplow, Douglas E.; Patton, Bruce W.; Dunn, Michael E.; Parks, Benjamin T.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.190 states that calculational methods used to estimate reactor pressure vessel (RPV) fluence should use the latest version of the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF). The VITAMIN-B6 fine-group library and BUGLE-96 broad-group library, which are widely used for RPV fluence calculations, were generated using ENDF/B-VI data, which was the most current data when Regulatory Guide 1.190 was issued. We have developed new fine-group (VITAMIN-B7) and broad-group (BUGLE-B7) libraries based on ENDF/B-VII. These new libraries, which were processed using the AMPX code system, maintain the same group structures as the VITAMIN-B6 and BUGLE-96 libraries. Verification and validation of the new libraries was accomplished using diagnostic checks in AMPX, unit tests for each element in VITAMIN-B7, and a diverse set of benchmark experiments including critical evaluations for fast and thermal systems, a set of experimental benchmarks that are used for SCALE regression tests, and three RPV fluence benchmarks. The benchmark evaluation results demonstrate that VITAMIN-B7 and BUGLE-B7 are appropriate for use in LWR shielding applications, and meet the calculational uncertainty criterion in Regulatory Guide 1.190.

  3. Vitamin D-Dependent Rickets Type 1B (25-Hydroxylase Deficiency): A Rare Condition or a Misdiagnosed Condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Arnaud; Wiedemann, Arnaud; Demers, Nick; Kaufmann, Martin; Do Cao, Jérémy; Mainard, Laurent; Dousset, Brigitte; Journeau, Pierre; Abeguile, Geneviève; Coudray, Nadia; Mittre, Hervé; Richard, Nicolas; Weryha, Georges; Sorlin, Arthur; Jones, Glenville; Kottler, Marie-Laure; Feillet, Francois

    2017-09-01

    Vitamin D requires a two-step activation by hydroxylation: The first step is catalyzed by hepatic 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1, 11p15.2) and the second one is catalyzed by renal 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1, 12q13.1), which produces the active hormonal form of 1,25-(OH) 2 D. Mutations of CYP2R1 have been associated with vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1B (VDDR1B), a very rare condition that has only been reported to affect 4 families to date. We describe 7 patients from 2 unrelated families who presented with homozygous loss-of-function mutations of CYP2R1. Heterozygous mutations were present in their normal parents. We identified a new c.124_138delinsCGG (p.Gly42_Leu46delinsArg) variation and the previously published c.296T>C (p.Leu99Pro) mutation. Functional in vitro studies confirmed loss-of-function enzymatic activity in both cases. We discuss the difficulties in establishing the correct diagnosis and the specific biochemical pattern, namely, very low 25-OH-D suggestive of classical vitamin D deficiency, in the face of normal/high concentrations of 1,25-(OH) 2 D. Siblings exhibited the three stages of rickets based on biochemical and radiographic findings. Interestingly, adult patients were able to maintain normal mineral metabolism without vitamin D supplementation. One index case presented with a partial improvement with 1alfa-hydroxyvitamin D 3 or alfacalcidol (1α-OH-D 3 ) treatment, and we observed a dramatic increase in the 1,25-(OH) 2 D serum concentration, which indicated the role of accessory 25-hydroxylase enzymes. Lastly, in patients who received calcifediol (25-OH-D 3 ), we documented normal 24-hydroxylase activity (CYP24A1). For the first time, and according to the concept of personalized medicine, we demonstrate dramatic improvements in patients who were given 25-OH-D therapy (clinical symptoms, biochemical data, and bone densitometry). In conclusion, the current study further expands the CYP2R1 mutation spectrum. We note that VDDR1B could be easily

  4. Folic acid fortification: why not vitamin B12 also?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selhub, Jacob; Paul, Ligi

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid fortification of cereal grains was introduced in many countries to prevent neural tube defect occurrence. The metabolism of folic acid and vitamin B12 intersect during the transfer of the methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine catalyzed by B12-dependent methioine synthase. Regeneration of tetrahydrofolate via this reaction makes it available for synthesis of nucleotide precursors. Thus either folate or vitamin B12 deficiency can result in impaired cell division and anemia. Exposure to extra folic acid through fortification may be detrimental to those with vitamin B12 deficiency. Among participants of National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey with low vitamin B12 status, high serum folate (>59 nmol/L) was associated with higher prevalence of anemia and cognitive impairment when compared with normal serum folate. We also observed an increase in the plasma concentrations of total homocysteine and methylmalonic acid (MMA), two functional indicators of vitamin B12 status, with increase in plasma folate under low vitamin B12 status. These data strongly imply that high plasma folate is associated with the exacerbation of both the biochemical and clinical status of vitamin B12 deficiency. Hence any food fortification policy that includes folic acid should also include vitamin B12. Copyright © 2011 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Amino Acid and Vitamin Content of Propolis Collected by Native Caucasican Honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eroglu Nazife

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The polyphenol content of propolis has received a lot of attention due to the benign biological properties noted in the chemical composition studies. However, there are very limited studies about other chemical components found in trace amounts in nature which contribute to the therapeutic properties of propolis. The present study, therefore, investigated the amino acid and vitamin composition of propolis. Propolis harvested by 60 colonies of Apis mellifera caucasica belonged to local non-migratory beekeepers. The A. m. caucasica is known for its distinctive propolis collecting capability which native to the secluded Ardahan Province of Turkey. Vitamin (Thiamine, Riboflavin combinations of propolis were determined using the HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography fluorescent detector. An amino acid analysis was also performed with the UFLC (Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography system consisting of binary pump and UV/VIS. Our findings record that the vitamin and amino acid content of propolis samples collected from three areas of different altitudes in the same region differed from each other. Vitamin B1 content and Vitamin B2 content ranged between 0.025-0.16 mg/100g, and 0.304-0.777mg/100g, respectively. A maximum amount of amino acid was reported as leucine, while a minimum amount of amino acid was seen as tryptophan in Ardahan propolis. Consequently, the vitamin and amino acid content of propolis, which derived from secondary plant metabolites of resin, varied depending on their geographical altitudes. Those vitamin and amino acids found in the propolis composition are believed to have beneficial therapeutic properties.

  6. Plasma homocysteine and B vitamins levels in Nigerian children with nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orimadegun, Bose Etaniamhe; Orimadegun, Adebola Emmanuel; Ademola, Adebowale Dele; Agbedana, Emmanuel Oluyemi

    2014-01-01

    Available data on plasma homocysteine level in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) are controversial with increased, decreased and unchanged values reported. Therefore, plasma homocysteine and serum B vitamins in Nigerian children with NS were assessed in this study. Fasting blood samples were analysed for plasma homocysteine, serum folate and B vitamins in 42 children with NS and 42 age and sex-matched healthy controls in this case control study. Data were compared between NS and control using t test and Chi square. Relationships were tested with regression analysis with p set at 0.05. Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia, low folate and cyanocobalamin in NS was 57.1%, 14.3% and 9.5% respectively. The mean homocysteine level was significantly higher in NS than control (11.3±2.6 µmol/L versus 5.5±2.3 µmol/L). Also, NS had lower folate and cyanocobalamin than control: 9.1±3.9 ng/mL versus 11.2±3.1 ng/dL and 268.5±95.7 pg/mL versus 316±117.2 pg/mL respectively. Weak but significant correlation between homocysteine and serum albumin (r = 0.347), folate (r = -0.607) and vitamin B12 (r = -0.185) were found in the NS group. Significant relationship was also found between homocysteine and vitamin B12 (ß = -0.64, 95% CI = -1.20, -0.08) after controlling for folate and vitamin B6 levels. Clinically important hyperhomocysteinaemia and low B vitamins occur in Nigerian children with nephrotic syndrome. This data suggest that potential usefulness of folate and vitamin B supplementation for reducing high homocysteine levels in nephrotic syndrome need to be further investigated.

  7. Radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B{sub 12})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanchi, X.; Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A

    2000-03-01

    Research on the radiolysis of vitamins is of considerable interest since these compounds are important nutritional constituents in foods and in dietetic supplements. In spite of these considerations there are few data and very often difficult to compare for the radiolytic behavior of vitamins. In this work we focused our attention on to the study of the radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B{sub 12}) in solid state and in aqueous solutions. The procedure was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a linear function of the dose. The G of decomposition for a 1x10{sup -5} M solution was 3.3. In the solid state the vitamin was very stable towards the irradiation in the conditions used in this study with a G=2.1x10{sup -3}. A study made with Serratia marcescens as a microbiological contaminant showed that at the sterilization dose there is a destruction of the vitamin in aqueous solution. In the solid state the degree of decomposition was 7%. (author)

  8. Thiamine Deficiency in Tropical Pediatrics: New Insights into a Neglected but Vital Metabolic Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiffler, Laurent; Rakotoambinina, Benjamin; Lafferty, Nadia; Martinez Garcia, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In humans, thiamine is a micronutrient prone to depletion that may result in severe clinical abnormalities. This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on thiamine deficiency (TD) and bridges the gap between pathophysiology and clinical presentation by integrating thiamine metabolism at subcellular level with its function to vital organs. The broad clinical spectrum of TD is outlined, with emphasis on conditions encountered in tropical pediatric practice. In particular, TD is associated with type B lactic acidosis and classic forms of beriberi in children, but it is often unrecognized. Other severe acute conditions are associated with hypermetabolism, inducing a functional TD. The crucial role of thiamine in infant cognitive development is also highlighted in this review, along with analysis of the potential impact of TD in refeeding syndrome during severe acute malnutrition (SAM). This review aims to increase clinical awareness of TD in tropical settings where access to diagnostic tests is poor, and advocates for an early therapeutic thiamine challenge in resource-limited settings. Moreover, it provides evidence for thiamine as treatment in critical conditions requiring metabolic resuscitation, and gives rationale to the consideration of increased thiamine supplementation in therapeutic foods for malnourished children. PMID:27379239

  9. Thermodynamic properties of vitamin B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazev, A.V.; Letyanina, I.A.; Plesovskikh, A.S.; Smirnova, N.N.; Knyazeva, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B 2 has been measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. • The thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B 2 have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 322 K. • The energy of combustion of the riboflavin has been measured at 298.15 K. • The enthalpy of combustion Δ c H° and the thermodynamic parameters Δ f H°, Δ f S°, Δ f G° have been calculated. - Abstract: In the present work temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B 2 (riboflavin) has been measured for the first time in the range from 6 to 322 K by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Based on the experimental data, the thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B 2 , namely, the heat capacity, enthalpy H°(T) − H°(0), entropy S°(T) − S°(0) and Gibbs function G°(T) − H°(0) have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 322 K. The value of the fractal dimension D in the function of multifractal generalization of Debye's theory of the heat capacity of solids was estimated and the character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. In a calorimeter with a static bomb and an isothermal shield, the energy of combustion of the riboflavin has been measured at 298.15 K. The enthalpy of combustion Δ c H° and the thermodynamic parameters Δ f H°, Δ f S°, Δ f G° and of reaction of formation of the riboflavin from simple substances at T = 298.15 K and p = 0.1 MPa have been calculated

  10. Effect of flour extraction rate and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Michalska, A; Frias, J; Piskula, M K; Vidal-Valverde, C; Zieliński, H

    2009-01-01

    The effect of rye flour extraction rates and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content, and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread were studied and compared with white wheat flour. The content of thiamine was higher (10.9%) in rye dough formulated with dark rye flour (F-100%; extraction rate of 100%) than in rye dough formulated with brown rye flour (F-92%; extraction rate of 92%) that was similar to dough made with wheat flour. The riboflavin content in rye dough made from flour F-100% was also higher (16%) than in dough formulated with flour F-92%, and both provided larger riboflavin content than wheat dough. Baking led to reductions in thiamine of 56% for wheat bread and of 20% for both rye breads; however, this process caused only a 10% decrease in riboflavin for wheat bread and a 30% decrease for rye breads. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity were higher in rye than in wheat dough and bread. Baking process produced slight changes in antioxidant activity, except for Superoxide Dismutase-like activity where a sharp decrease was observed. Our findings showed that rye breads are an important source of B vitamins and rye breads formulated with dark and brown flours showed better antioxidant properties than wheat bread. Therefore, rye breads should be more widely recommended in human nutrition.

  11. Beneficial effects on host energy metabolism of short-chain fatty acids and vitamins produced by commensal and probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Chain, Florian; Martín, Rebeca; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Courau, Stéphanie; Langella, Philippe

    2017-05-08

    The aim of this review is to summarize the effect in host energy metabolism of the production of B group vitamins and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by commensal, food-grade and probiotic bacteria, which are also actors of the mammalian nutrition. The mechanisms of how these microbial end products, produced by these bacterial strains, act on energy metabolism will be discussed. We will show that these vitamins and SCFA producing bacteria could be used as tools to recover energy intakes by either optimizing ATP production from foods or by the fermentation of certain fibers in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Original data are also presented in this work where SCFA (acetate, butyrate and propionate) and B group vitamins (riboflavin, folate and thiamine) production was determined for selected probiotic bacteria.

  12. Vitamin B12 intake and status and cognitive function in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doets, Esmée L; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Szczecińska, Anna; Dullemeijer, Carla; Souverein, Olga W; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; van 't Veer, Pieter; Brzozowska, Anna; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2013-01-01

    Current recommendations on vitamin B12 intake vary from 1.4 to 3.0 μg per day and are based on the amount needed for maintenance of hematologic status or on the amount needed to compensate obligatory losses. This systematic review evaluates whether the relation between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function should be considered for underpinning vitamin B12 recommendations in the future. The authors summarized dose-response evidence from randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies on the relation of vitamin B12 intake and status with cognitive function in adults and elderly people. Two randomized controlled trials and 6 cohort studies showed no association or inconsistent associations between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that serum/plasma vitamin B12 (50 pmol/L) was not associated with risk of dementia (4 cohort studies), global cognition z scores (4 cohort studies), or memory z scores (4 cohort studies). Although dose-response evidence on sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status (methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamin) was scarce, 4 of 5 cohort studies reported significant associations with risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or global cognition. Current evidence on the relation between vitamin B12 intake or status and cognitive function is not sufficient for consideration in the development of vitamin B12 recommendations. Further studies should consider the selection of sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin content in cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Škrovánková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B2 (riboflavin is a water-soluble essential vitamin. Nowadays an increased risk for riboflavin deficiency may be seen in people on special diets (diabetes mellitus, smokers or heavy alcohol drinkers. In the Czech diet the main sources of the vitamin intake are milk and dairy products followed by cereals and meat. Cereals are good source of this vitamin as it is widely and regularly consumed in different forms. Analyses of the vitamin B2 content in different types of cereal products (flours, breads, pastries, breakfast cereals, cooked pasta of Czech origin using HPLC with reversed phase and UV detection were done. The vitamin B2 content of chosen cereal products decreased in this progression: enriched wholemeal breakfast cereals (the best source of the vitamin, enriched wheat flours, breads – rye and wholemeal wheat breads, whole wheat and spelt flours, wheat bread, cooked whole wheat and rye spaghetti, wheat and multigrain pastries and finally scoured wheat flours.

  14. Validation of a screening method for the simultaneous identification of fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins (A, E, B1, B2 and B6) in an aqueous micellar medium of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Ruiz, V; Vera, S; San Andrés, M P

    2005-04-01

    Simultaneous determination of the fat-soluble vitamins A and E and the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2 and B6 has been carried using a screening method from fluorescence contour graphs. These graphs show different colour zones in relation to the fluorescence intensity measured for the pair of excitation/emission wavelengths. The identification of the corresponding excitation/emission wavelength zones allows the detection of different vitamins in an aqueous medium regardless of the fat or water solubility of each vitamin, owing to the presence of a surfactant which forms micelles in water at the used concentration (over the critical micelle concentration). The micelles dissolve very water insoluble compounds, such as fat-soluble vitamins, inside the aggregates. This approach avoids the use of organic solvents in determining these vitamins and offers the possibility of analysing fat- and water-soluble vitamins simultaneously. The method has been validated in terms of detection limit, cut-off limit, sensitivity, number of false positives, number of false negatives and uncertainty range. The detection limit is about microg L(-1). The screening method was applied to different samples such as pharmaceuticals, juices and isotonic drinks.

  15. Long-Term, Supplemental, One-Carbon Metabolism-Related Vitamin B Use in Relation to Lung Cancer Risk in the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasky, Theodore M; White, Emily; Chen, Chi-Ling

    2017-10-20

    Purpose Inconsistent findings have been reported of a link between the use of one-carbon metabolism-related B vitamins and lung cancer risk. Because of the high prevalence of supplemental vitamin B use, any possible increased association warrants further investigation. We examined the association between long-term use of supplemental B vitamins on the one-carbon metabolism pathway and lung cancer risk in the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort, which was designed specifically to look at supplement use relative to cancer risk. Methods A total of 77,118 participants of the VITAL cohort, 50 to 76 years of age, were recruited between October 2000 and December 2002 and included in this analysis. Incident, primary, invasive lung cancers (n = 808) were ascertained by prospectively linking the participants to a population-based cancer registry. The 10-year average daily dose from individual and multivitamin supplements were the exposures of primary interest. Results Use of supplemental vitamins B 6 , folate, and B 12 was not associated with lung cancer risk among women. In contrast, use of vitamin B 6 and B 12 from individual supplement sources, but not from multivitamins, was associated with a 30% to 40% increase in lung cancer risk among men. When the 10-year average supplement dose was evaluated, there was an almost two-fold increase in lung cancer risk among men in the highest categories of vitamin B 6 (> 20 mg/d; hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.65) and B 12 (> 55µg/d; hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.32 to 2.97) compared with nonusers. For vitamin B 6 and B 12 , the risk was even higher among men who were smoking at baseline. In addition, the B 6 and B 12 associations were apparent in all histologic types except adenocarcinoma, which is the type less related to smoking. Conclusion This sex- and source-specific association provides further evidence that vitamin B supplements are not chemopreventive for lung cancer and may be harmful.

  16. Clinically unapparent infantile thiamin deficiency in Vientiane, Laos.

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    Sengmanivong Khounnorath

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Beriberi occurs in Vientiane, Lao PDR, among breastfed infants. Clinical disease may be the tip of an iceberg with subclinical thiamin deficiency contributing to other illnesses. Thiamin treatment could improve outcome.A cohort of 778 sick infants admitted during one year without clinical evidence of beriberi were studied prospectively and erythrocyte transketolase assays (ETK performed. Biochemical thiamin deficiency was defined both in terms of the activation coefficient (α>31% and basal ETK activity 31% and 13.4 % basal ETK<0.59 micromoles/min/gHb. Infants≥2 months old had a higher frequency of biochemical markers of thiamin deficiency. Mortality was 5.5% but, among infants ≥2 months old, mortality was higher in those with basal ETK<0.59 micromoles/min/gHb (3/47, 6.4% than in those with basal ETK≥0.59 micromoles/min/gHb (1/146, 0.7% (P=0.045, relative risk=9.32 (95%CI 0.99 to 87.5. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that infant age≥2 months and fewer maternal years of schooling were independently associated with infant basal ETK<0.59 micromoles/min/gHb.Clinically unapparent thiamin deficiency is common among sick infants (≥2 months old admitted to hospital in Vientiane. This may contribute to mortality and a low clinical threshold for providing thiamin to sick infants may be needed.

  17. Benfotiamine, a synthetic S-acyl thiamine derivative, has different mechanisms of action and a different pharmacological profile than lipid-soluble thiamine disulfide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volvert, Marie-Laure; Seyen, Sandrine; Piette, Marie; Evrard, Brigitte; Gangolf, Marjorie; Plumier, Jean-Christophe; Bettendorff, Lucien

    2008-06-12

    Lipid-soluble thiamine precursors have a much higher bioavailability than genuine thiamine and therefore are more suitable for therapeutic purposes. Benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate), an amphiphilic S-acyl thiamine derivative, prevents the progression of diabetic complications, probably by increasing tissue levels of thiamine diphosphate and so enhancing transketolase activity. As the brain is particularly sensitive to thiamine deficiency, we wanted to test whether intracellular thiamine and thiamine phosphate levels are increased in the brain after oral benfotiamine administration. Benfotiamine that is practically insoluble in water, organic solvents or oil was solubilized in 200 mM hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and the mice received a single oral administration of 100 mg/kg. Though thiamine levels rapidly increased in blood and liver to reach a maximum after one or two hours, no significant increase was observed in the brain. When mice received a daily oral administration of benfotiamine for 14 days, thiamine derivatives were increased significantly in the liver but not in the brain, compared to control mice. In addition, incubation of cultured neuroblastoma cells with 10 muM benfotiamine did not lead to increased intracellular thiamine levels. Moreover, in thiamine-depleted neuroblastoma cells, intracellular thiamine contents increased more rapidly after addition of thiamine to the culture medium than after addition of benfotiamine for which a lag period was observed. Our results show that, though benfotiamine strongly increases thiamine levels in blood and liver, it has no significant effect in the brain. This would explain why beneficial effects of benfotiamine have only been observed in peripheral tissues, while sulbutiamine, a lipid-soluble thiamine disulfide derivative, that increases thiamine derivatives in the brain as well as in cultured cells, acts as a central nervous system drug. We propose that benfotiamine only penetrates the cells

  18. A novel CYP27B1 mutation causes a feline vitamin D-dependent rickets type IA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Robert A; Ellis, Melanie R; Grahn, Jennifer C; Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-08-01

    A 12-week-old domestic cat presented at a local veterinary clinic with hypocalcemia and skeletal abnormalities suggestive of rickets. Osteomalacia (rickets) is a disease caused by impaired bone mineralization leading to an increased prevalence of fractures and deformity. Described in a variety of species, rickets is most commonly caused by vitamin D or calcium deficiencies owing to both environmental and or genetic abnormalities. Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR-1A) is a result of the enzymatic pathway defect caused by mutations in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)-1-alpha-hydroxylase gene [cytochrome P27 B1 (CYP27B1)]. Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D(3), regulates calcium homeostasis, which requires sufficient dietary calcium availability and correct hormonal function for proper bone growth and maintenance. Patient calcitriol concentrations were low while calcidiol levels were normal suggestive of VDDR-1A. The entire DNA coding sequencing of CYP27B1 was evaluated. The affected cat was wild type for previously identified VDDR-1A causative mutations. However, six novel mutations were identified, one of which was a nonsense mutation at G637T in exon 4. The exon 4 G637T nonsense mutation results in a premature protein truncation, changing a glutamic acid to a stop codon, E213X, likely causing the clinical presentation of rickets. The previously documented genetic mutation resulting in feline VDDR-1A rickets, as well as the case presented in this research, result from novel exon 4 CYP27B1 mutations, thus exon 4 should be the initial focus of future sequencing efforts.

  19. [Folate, vitamin B12 and human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Alex; Hertrampf, Eva; Olivares, Manuel; Gaitán, Diego; Sánchez, Hugo; Allen, Lindsay H; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-11-01

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared functions and intertwined metabolic pathways that define the size of the "methyl donor" pool utilized in multiple metabolic pathways; these include DNA methylation and synthesis of nucleic acids. In Chile, folate deficiency is virtually nonexistent, while vitamin B12 deficiency affects approximately 8.5-51% depending on the cut-off value used to define deficiency. Folate is found naturally mainly in vegetables or added as folic acid to staple foods. Vitamin B12 in its natural form is present only in foods of animal origin, which is why deficit is more common among strict vegetarians and populations with a low intake of animal foods. Poor folate status in vulnerable women of childbearing age increases the risk of neural tube birth defects, so the critical time for the contribution of folic acid is several months before conception since neural tube closure occurs during the first weeks of life. The absorption of vitamin B12 from food is lower in older adults, who are considered to have higher risk of gastric mucosa atrophy, altered production of intrinsic factor and acid secretion. Deficiency of these vitamins is associated with hematological disorders. Vitamin B12 deficiency can also induce clinical and sub-clinical neurological and of other disorders. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent advances in the basic and applied knowledge of these vitamins relative to human health.

  20. Validação de métodos cromatográficos por clae para análise das vitaminas B1, B2, B6 e niacina naturalmente presentes em farinha de cereais Validation of hplc methods for analysis of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin naturally present in cereal flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Ferreira Presoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex B vitamins are present in some cereal foods and the ingestion of enriched products contributes to the recommended dietary intake of these micronutrients. To adapt the label of some products, it is necessary to develop and validate the analytical methods. These methods must be reliable and with enough sensitivity to analyze complex B vitamins naturally present in food at low concentration. The purpose of this work is to evaluate, with validated methods, the content of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin in five cereal flours used in food industry (oat, rice, barley, corn and wheat.

  1. Malabsorption of protein bound vitamin B12.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, D W; Sawers, A H; Sharma, R K

    1984-01-01

    Patients with subnormal serum vitamin B12 concentrations were tested for absorption of protein bound vitamin B12 and compared with controls. Absorption of the protein bound vitamin appeared to decrease with increasing age in healthy subjects. Differences between the result of this test and the result of the Schilling test in patients who had undergone gastric surgery were confirmed; such differences were also seen in some patients who had iron deficiency anaemia, an excessive alcohol intake, ...

  2. Tumoral vitamin D synthesis by CYP27B1 1-alpha-hydroxylase delays mammary tumor progression in the PyMT-MMTV mouse model and its action involves NF-kappaB modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biologically-active vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) is synthetized from inactive prohormone 25(OH)D by the enzyme CYP27B1 1-a-hydroxylase in kidney and several extra-renal tissues including breast. While the development of breast cancer has been linked to inadequate vitamin D status, the importance of bioac...

  3. High Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and No Folate Deficiency in Young Children in Nepal

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    Bernadette N. Ng’eno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many children in low- and middle-income countries may have inadequate intake of vitamin B12 and folate; data confirming these inadequacies are limited. We used biochemical, demographic, behavioral and anthropometric data to describe the folate and vitamin B12 concentrations among six- to 23-month-old Nepalese children. Vitamin B12 (serum B12 < 150 pmol/L and folate deficiencies (red blood cell (RBC folate < 226.5 nmol/L were assessed. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of vitamin B12 deficiency. The vitamin B12 geometric mean was 186 pmol/L; 30.2% of children were deficient. The mean RBC folate concentration was 13,612 nmol/L; there was no deficiency. Factors associated with vitamin B12 deficiency included: (a age six to 11 months (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.18, 1.92 or 12–17 months (aOR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.72 compared to 18–23 months; (b being stunted (aOR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.50 compared to not being stunted; (c and not eating animal-source foods (aOR 1.85; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.41 compared to eating animal-source foods the previous day. There was a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, but no folate deficiency. Improving early feeding practices, including the consumption of rich sources of vitamin B12, such as animal-source foods and fortified foods, may help decrease deficiency.

  4. ANALYSE QUANTITATIVE PAR FLUORESCENCE DE VITAMINE E DANS LES FORMULES PHARMACEUTIQUES

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    Alexandru Stoica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Many applications of this technique are encountered in the determination of organic compounds or molecules of biological importance, such as thiamin, riboflavin, adrenalin, cholesterol, paraffins or certain medications and drugs. Fluorimetric determinations are sensitive and selective and could determine the concentrations up to 10-10 g•mL-1, which corresponds to a sensitivity of 100 - 1000 times higher than most methods based on molecular absorption.This paper has developed two methods for spectrofluorimetric determination of vitamin E in pharmaceutical formulations (soft gelatin capsules of vitamin E and serum.

  5. Thiamine deficiency activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α to facilitate pro-apoptotic responses in mouse primary astrocytes.

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    Kristy Zera

    Full Text Available Thiamine is an essential enzyme cofactor required for proper metabolic function and maintenance of metabolism and energy production in the brain. In developed countries, thiamine deficiency (TD is most often manifested following chronic alcohol consumption leading to impaired mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, inflammation and excitotoxicity. These biochemical lesions result in apoptotic cell death in both neurons and astrocytes. Comparable histological injuries in patients with hypoxia/ischemia and TD have been described in the thalamus and mammillary bodies, suggesting a congruency between the cellular responses to these stresses. Consistent with hypoxia/ischemia, TD stabilizes and activates Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α under physiological oxygen levels. However, the role of TD-induced HIF-1α in neurological injury is currently unknown. Using Western blot analysis and RT-PCR, we have demonstrated that TD induces HIF-1α expression and activity in primary mouse astrocytes. We observed a time-dependent increase in mRNA and protein expression of the pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory HIF-1α target genes MCP1, BNIP3, Nix and Noxa during TD. We also observed apoptotic cell death in TD as demonstrated by PI/Annexin V staining, TUNEL assay, and Cell Death ELISA. Pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1α activity using YC1 and thiamine repletion both reduced expression of pro-apoptotic HIF-1α target genes and apoptotic cell death in TD. These results demonstrate that induction of HIF-1α mediated transcriptional up-regulation of pro-apoptotic/inflammatory signaling contributes to astrocyte cell death during thiamine deficiency.

  6. Racial difference in serum Vitamin B12 levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwee, H.G.; Bowman, H.S.; Wells, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the serum Vitamin B 12 concentrations of 49 black and 49 white healthy adults demonstrate a significantly higher mean serum Vitamin B 12 level in blacks when compared to whites. The reason for this difference appears to be genetic, although environmental factors may also be involved. It is suggested that clinical laboratories should establish their own separate reference values of serum Vitamin B 12 for blacks and whites in order to prevent misinterpretation of test results

  7. Determination of selected water-soluble vitamins using hydrophilic chromatography: a comparison of photodiode array, fluorescence, and coulometric detection, and validation in a breakfast cereal matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Swen; Lodge, John K

    2014-06-01

    Water-soluble vitamins are an important class of compounds that require quantification from food sources to monitor nutritional value. In this study we have analysed six water-soluble B vitamins ([thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), nicotinic acid (B3, NAc), nicotinamide (B3, NAm), pyridoxal (B6), folic acid (B9)], and ascorbic acid (vit C) with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), and compared UV, fluorescent (FLD) and coulometric detection to optimise a method to quantitate the vitamins from food sources. Employing UV/diode array (DAD) and fluorimetric detection, six B vitamins were detected in a single run using gradient elution from 100% to 60% solvent B [10mM ammonium acetate, pH 5.0, in acetonitrile and water 95:5 (v:v)] over 18 min. UV detection was performed at 268 nm for B1, 260 nm for both B3 species and 284 nm for B9. FLD was employed for B2 at excitation wavelength of 268 nm, emission of 513 nm, and 284 nm/317 nm for B6. Coulometric detection can be used to detect B6 and B9, and vit C, and was performed isocratically at 75% and 85% of solvent B, respectively. B6 was analysed at a potential of 720 mV, while B9 was analysed at 600 mV, and vit C at 30 mV. Retention times (0.96 to 11.81 min), intra-day repeatability (CV 1.6 to 3.6), inter-day variability (CV 1.8 to 11.1), and linearity (R 0.9877 to 0.9995) remained good under these conditions with limits of detection varying from 6.6 to 164.6 ng mL(-1), limits of quantification between 16.8 and 548.7 ng mL(-1). The method was successfully applied for quantification of six B vitamins from a fortified food product and is, to our knowledge, the first to simultaneously determine multiple water-soluble vitamins extracted from a food matrix using HILIC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hearing ...

  9. Thiamine and magnesium deficiencies: keys to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, D

    2015-02-01

    Thiamine deficiency (TD) is accepted as the cause of beriberi because of its action in the metabolism of simple carbohydrates, mainly as the rate limiting cofactor for the dehydrogenases of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate, both being critical to the action of the citric acid cycle. Transketolase, dependent on thiamine and magnesium, occurs twice in the oxidative pentose pathway, important in production of reducing equivalents. Thiamine is also a cofactor in the dehydrogenase complex in the degradation of the branched chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine and valine. In spite of these well accepted facts, the overall clinical effects of TD are still poorly understood. Because of the discovery of 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1) as the first peroxisomal enzyme in mammals found to be dependent on thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and the ability of thiamine to bind with prion protein, these factors should improve our clinical approach to TD. HACL1 has two important roles in alpha oxidation, the degradation of phytanic acid and shortening of 2-hydroxy long-chain fatty acids so that they can be degraded further by beta oxidation. The downstream effects of a lack of efficiency in this enzyme would be expected to be critical in normal brain metabolism. Although TD has been shown experimentally to produce reversible damage to mitochondria and there are many other causes of mitochondrial dysfunction, finding TD as the potential biochemical lesion would help in differential diagnosis. Stresses imposed by infection, head injury or inoculation can initiate intermittent cerebellar ataxia in thiamine deficiency/dependency. Medication or vaccine reactions appear to be more easily initiated in the more intelligent individuals when asymptomatic marginal malnutrition exists. Erythrocyte transketolase testing has shown that thiamine deficiency is widespread. It is hypothesized that the massive consumption of empty calories, particularly those derived from carbohydrate and fat, results in

  10. Production Of Vitamin B 12 By Streptomyces Fulvissimus | Atta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty five of actinomycete isolates were screened for vitamin B12 production by growing on soybean meal medium fortified with cobalt. Only one AZ-Z-88 among nine actinomycete cultures was found to produce significantly higher yield of the vitamin B12 (64.57 ug/ml). Determination of vitamin B12 production was carried out ...

  11. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Haye H; Comin-Colet, Josep; Klip, Ijsbrand T; Enjuanes, Cristina; Grote Beverborg, Niels; Voors, Adriaan A; Banasiak, Waldemar; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Bruguera, Jordi; Ponikowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Ewa A; van der Meer, Peter

    2015-02-01

    To determine the prevalence, clinical correlates and the effects on outcome of vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). We studied an international pooled cohort comprising 610 patients with chronic HF. The main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Mean age of the patients was 68±12 years and median serum N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide level was 1801 pg/mL (IQR 705-4335). Thirteen per cent of the patients had an LVEF >45%. Vitamin B12 deficiency (serum level <200 pg/mL), folate deficiency (serum level <4.0 ng/mL) and iron deficiency (serum ferritin level <100 µg/L, or 100-299 µg/L with a transferrin saturation <20%) were present in 5%, 4% and 58% of the patients, respectively. No significant correlation between mean corpuscular volume and vitamin B12, folic acid or ferritin levels was observed. Lower folate levels were associated with an impaired health-related quality of life (p=0.029). During a median follow-up of 2.10 years (1.31-3.60 years), 254 subjects died. In multivariable proportional hazard models, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were not associated with prognosis. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency are relatively rare in patients with chronic HF. Since no significant association was observed between mean corpuscular volume and neither vitamin B12 nor folic acid levels, this cellular index should be used with caution in the differential diagnosis of anaemia in patients with chronic HF. In contrast to iron deficiency, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were not related to prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Self-assembly of palladium nanoparticles: Synthesis of nanobelts, nanoplates and nanotrees using vitamin B1 and their application in carbon-carbon coupling reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    An environmentally friendly one-step method to synthesize palladium (Pd) nanobelts, nanoplates and nanotrees using vitamin B1 without using any special capping agents at room temperature is described. This greener method, which uses water as benign solvent and vitamin B1 as a red...

  13. A general review on vitamin B12 deficiency with focus on the situation in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qutob, M. S.; Takruri, H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 (cobalamin) is an essential nutrient that is only obtained from foods of animal origin, such as meat, eggs and dairy products. Vitamin B 12 plays an important role in DNA synthesis and neurological function. Thus its deficiency can lead to several neurological symptoms such as memory loss, dizziness and in severe cases may lead to dementia. Many factors can cause or lead to vitamin B-1 2 deficiency. Among these are malabsorption, several gastron intestinal problems (i.e. celiac disease, Crobn's disease) and gastrointestinal surgeries. diagnosis of vitamin B-1 2 status depends commonly on serum vitamin B 12 which is nonspecific tool for the deficiency. Other more specific tests, which reflect true deficiency, include serum and urine methylmalonic aci de, total serum homocysteine and serum holotranscobalamin. Vitamin B 12 deficiency is a worldwide public health problem; epidemiological studies showed that its prevalence in industrialized countries ranges from 5-60% of the population depending on the used cutoff point of cobalamin level. In Jordan, many reports were published on vitamin B 12 deficiency. However, these reports gave different results of its prevalence ranging from 16-48% depending on the serum vitamin B 12 cutoff point used. A recent study showed a prevalence of true deficiency of 32.7% based on measuring both serum vitamin B 12 level and plasma methylmalonic acid. (authors).

  14. Voltammetry of Vitamin B12 on a thin self-assembled monolayer modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Nianjun; Wan Qijin; Wang, Xiaoxia

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 showed three reduction waves at a thin self-assembled monolayer of mercaptoacetic acid modified gold electrode at 0.21, 0.16, -0.41 V in a 0.01 mol l -1 HCl solution at a scan rate of 100 mV s -1 . The overall electrode reaction followed an ECE mechanism, leading to a total two-electron exchange. The predominant Co(III) form was reduced directly at 0.21 V by a one-electron transfer accomplished by CN - cleavage into the cyanocob(II)alamin. The latter species then equilibrated with the base-off B 12r , which was immediately reduced into B 12s at 0.16 V. The wave at -0.41 V might be a catalytic hydrogen wave. The cathodic peak currents at 0.21 V were controlled by the diffusion of Vitamin B 12 . On the base of its diffusion behavior, the semi-derivate voltammetric method for the detection of Vitamin B 12 was presented. The semi-derivate voltammetric peak current of the wave at 0.21 V was linear with the content of Vitamin B 12 in the range of 4.0 x 10 -9 to 4.0 x 10 -5 mol l -1 . The detection limit was 1.0 x 10 -9 mol l -1 . The proposed method was applied successfully to determine the content of Vitamin B 12 in pharmaceutical preparations

  15. Effect of B-vitamin supplementation on stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: B vitamins have been extensively used to reduce homocysteine levels; however, it remains uncertain whether B vitamins are associated with a reduced risk of stroke. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of B vitamins on stroke. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify studies for our analysis. Relative risk (RR was used to measure the effect of B-vitamin supplementation on the risk of stroke. The analysis was further stratified based on factors that could affect the treatment effects. Of the 13,124 identified articles, we included 18 trials reporting data on 57,143 individuals and 2,555 stroke events. B-vitamin supplementation was not associated with a significant reduction in the risk of stroke (RR, 0.91, 95%CI: 0.82-1.01, P = 0.075; RD, -0.003, 95%CI: -0.007-0.001, P = 0.134. Subgroup analyses suggested that B-vitamin supplementation might reduce the risk of stroke if included trials had a man/woman ratio of more than 2 or subjects received dose of folic acid less than 1 mg. Furthermore, in a cumulative meta-analysis for stroke, the originally proposed nonsignificant B-vitamin effect was refuted by the evidence accumulated up to 2006. There is a small effect with borderline statistical significance based on data gathered since 2007. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study indicates that B-vitamin supplementation is not associated with a lower risk of stroke based on relative and absolute measures of association. Subgroup analyses suggested that B-vitamin supplementation can effectively reduce the risk of stroke if included trials had a man/woman ratio of more than 2 or subjects received dose of folic acid less than 1 mg.

  16. Intake of niacin, folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 through young adulthood and cognitive function in midlife: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bo; Xun, Pengcheng; Jacobs, David R; Zhu, Na; Daviglus, Martha L; Reis, Jared P; Steffen, Lyn M; Van Horn, Linda; Sidney, Stephen; He, Ka

    2017-10-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence regarding niacin, folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 intake in relation to cognitive function is limited, especially in midlife. Objective: We hypothesize that higher intake of these B vitamins in young adulthood is associated with better cognition later in life. Design: This study comprised a community-based multicenter cohort of black and white men and women aged 18-30 y in 1985-1986 (year 0, i.e., baseline) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study ( n = 3136). We examined participants' CARDIA diet history at years 0, 7, and 20 to assess nutrient intake, including dietary and supplemental B vitamins. We measured cognitive function at year 25 (mean ± SD age: 50 ± 4 y) through the use of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) for verbal memory, the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) for psychomotor speed, and a modified Stroop interference test for executive function. Higher RAVLT and DSST scores and a lower Stroop score indicated better cognitive function. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regressions to estimate mean differences in cognitive scores and 95% CIs. Results: Comparing the highest quintile with the lowest (quintile 5 compared with quintile 1), cumulative total intake of niacin was significantly associated with 3.92 more digits on the DSST (95% CI: 2.28, 5.55; P -trend vitamin B-6 (quartile 5 compared with quartile 1: 2.62; 95% CI: 0.97, 4.28; P -trend = 0.02) and vitamin B-12 (quartile 5 compared with quartile 1: 2.08; 95% CI: 0.52, 3.65; P -trend = 0.02) resulted in better psychomotor speed measured by DSST scores. Conclusion: Higher intake of B vitamins throughout young adulthood was associated with better cognitive function in midlife. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Vitamin b 12 supplementation: effects on some biochemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenytoin is known to have some toxicological implications. Vitamin B12 supplementation during phenytoin administration was investigated to assess the benefits and risks of single vitamin supplementation. This study evaluated the biochemical and haematological effects of vitamin B12 on phenytoin toxicity. Twenty-four ...

  18. Evaluation of the radioprotective Effect of the co-oral Administration of Vitamin B12 with Vitamin c on some Haematological and Biochemical Alterations in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Magied, N.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of co-oral administration of vitamin B 12 with vitamin C against radiation induced haematological and biochemical alterations in male albino rats. Male albino rats were divided into six groups (n=8). Group 1: rats were kept as control, Group 2; rats received orally vita-min B 12 (2000μgkg -1 ). Group 3; rats received Vitamin B 12 with Vitamin C (500mgkg -1 ). Group 4; rats whole body exposed to 7Gy of gamma rays. Group 5; rats received vitamin B 12 for 21 successive days before irradiation. Group 6; rats received Vitamin B 12 with Vitamin C for 21 successive days before irradiation. Animals were sacrificed the third day post irradiation. The oral administration of Vitamin B 12 with or with-out Vitamin C enhanced the recovery from radiation-induced haemopoietic injury and some biochemical changes demonstrated by a significant increase (p0.05>) of WBCs, RBCs and Platelets count, Hb content, Hct%, serum erythropoietin and iron levels and a significant reduction (p0.05>) of serum homocysteine level (Hcy), creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities compared to their respective values in irradiated rats. Improvement of oxidative stress in heart and spleen tissues denoted by a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (MDA) and a significant increase in glutathione (GSH) content was recorded also. The co-oral administration of vitamin B 12 with vitamin C has no effect on the prophylactic efficacy of vitamin B 12

  19. DETERMINATION OF B-GROUP VITAMINS IN ENRICHED FLAVORED MILK MIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. A. COSTA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the levels of enrichment of vitamins B1, B2, B6, B3 and B12 in vanilla, strawberry and chocolate flavored milk. The chromatographic separation was performed in a C18 column with gradient elution and UV detector at 254, 278 and 358 nm. The B12 levels were the most near of the values declared in the package of the analysis products, while the vitamin B2 levels were found between 20-150% more than the package value. In general, the levels of vitamins determined in the samples were higher than the declared values on the labels and did not be in accordance with the legislation to enriched foods.

  20. Different apoptotic responses of human and bovine pericytes to fluctuating glucose levels and protective role of thiamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, Elena; Berrone, Elena; Tarallo, Sonia; Porta, Massimo

    2009-09-01

    Vascular cells in diabetes are subjected to daily fluctuations from high to low glucose. We aimed at investigating whether pulsed exposure to different glucose concentrations influences apoptosis in human retinal pericytes (HRP) versus bovine retinal pericytes (BRP), with consequences on the onset of diabetic retinopathy, and the possible protective role of thiamine. BRP and HRP (wild-type and immortalized) were grown in physiological/high glucose for 7 days, and then returned to physiological glucose for another 24, 48 or 72 h. Cells were also kept intermittently at 48-h intervals in high/normal glucose for 8 days, with/without thiamine/benfotiamine. Apoptosis was determined through ELISA, TUNEL, Bcl-2, Bax and p53 expression/concentration. Continuous exposure to high glucose increased apoptosis in BRP, but not HRP. BRP apoptosis normalized within 24 h of physiological glucose re-entry, while HRP apoptosis increased within 24-48 h of re-entry. Intermittent exposure to high glucose increased apoptosis in HRP and BRP. Bcl-2/Bax results were consistent with DNA fragmentation, while p53 was unchanged. Thiamine and benfotiamine countered intermittent high glucose-induced apoptosis. Human pericytes are less prone to apoptosis induced by persistently high glucose than bovine cells. However, while BRP recover after returning to physiological levels, HRP are more vulnerable to both downwardly fluctuating glucose levels and intermittent exposure. These findings reinforce the hypotheses that (1) glycaemic fluctuations play a role in the development of diabetic retinopathy and (2) species-specific models are needed. Thiamine and benfotiamine prevent human pericyte apoptosis, indicating this vitamin as an inexpensive approach to the prevention and/or treatment of diabetic complications.

  1. The synthesis of tritium-labelled vitamin B-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babain, V.A.; Kaminskij, Yu.L.; Nagorskij, A.I.; Rozenberg, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    Specimens of pyridoxine (B-6 vitamin) labelled by tritium are obtained due to techniques of liquid-phase and solid-phase heterogeneous isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium over palladium catalysts. [ 3 H] molar activity of the vitamin obtained due to liquid-phase exchange constitutes 925-1295 TBq/mole, due to solid-phase one - 1.85-2.96 PBq/mole. 60 % of tritium are localized in 2-CH 3 -group, 25 % - in 4-C 2 HOH-group, 15 % - in 6H in the vitamin specimen obtained due to liquid-phase exchange, while at solid-phase exchange it is localized respectively as 36, 37 and 25 %

  2. Prevalence of thiamine deficiency in heart failure patients on long-term diuretic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrenik Doshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Loop diuretics are an integral part of heart failure management. It has been shown that loop diuretics cause thiamine deficiency (TD by increasing its urinary loss. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of TD in heart failure patients on long-term oral loop diuretics. Methods: Heart failure patients (cases on oral loop diuretics (furosemide ≥40 mg/day or torsemide ≥20 mg/day, irrespective of the cause of heart failure, were compared to non-heart failure patients (controls not on loop diuretics in a 1:1 ratio. Whole blood free thiamine level was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Results: A total of 100 subjects were enrolled in a 1:1 ratio (50 cases and 50 controls. 67% of the total study population had TD, (defined as whole blood free thiamine level <0.7 ng/ml. There was no difference in mean thiamine level between cases and controls. On comparing patients with TD in both groups, patients on diuretics had significantly lower thiamine level compared to the patients, not on diuretics (P < 0.0001. Conclusions: There was no difference in the thiamine level when patients on loop diuretics were compared to controls. However, very low thiamine levels (<0.1 ng/ml was significantly more common in patients on loop diuretics.

  3. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in vitamin B 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Varshney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B 12 (cobalamin is a water-soluble vitamin generally synthesized by microorganisms. Mammals cannot synthesize this vitamin but have evolved processes for absorption, transport and cellular uptake of this vitamin. Only about 30% of vitamin B 12 , which is bound to the protein transcobalamin (TC (Holo-TC [HoloTC] enters into the cell and hence is referred to as the biologically active form of vitamin B 12 . Vitamin B 12 deficiency leads to several complex disorders, including neurological disorders and anemia. We had earlier shown that vitamin B 12 deficiency is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD in Indian population. In the current study, using a proteomics approach we identified proteins that are differentially expressed in the plasma of individuals with low HoloTC levels. Materials and Methods: We used isobaric-tagging method of relative and absolute quantitation to identify proteins that are differently expressed in individuals with low HoloTC levels when compared to those with normal HoloTC level. Results: In two replicate isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation experiments several proteins involved in lipid metabolism, blood coagulation, cholesterol metabolic process, and lipoprotein metabolic process were found to be altered in individuals having low HoloTC levels. Conclusions: Our study indicates that low HoloTc levels could be a risk factor in the development of CAD.

  4. Micronutrients Involved in One-Carbon Metabolism and Risk of Breast Cancer Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Cancarini

    Full Text Available Vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism are hypothesized to influence breast cancer (BC risk. However, epidemiologic studies that examined associations between B vitamin intake and BC risk have provided inconsistent results. We prospectively examined, in the Italian ORDET cohort, whether B vitamin consumption was associated with risk of BC and BC subtypes.After a mean follow-up of 16.5 years, 391 BCs were diagnosed among 10,786 cohort women. B vitamin intakes were estimated from food frequency questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for energy intake and confounders, estimated hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for BC according to intake.RRs were 0.61 (95% CI 0.38-0.97 highest vs. lowest quartile; P trend 0.025 for thiamine; 0.48 (95% CI 0.32-0.71; P trend <0.001 for riboflavin; 0.59 (95% CI 0.39-0.90; P trend 0.008 for vitamin B6, and 0.65 (95% CI 0.44-0.95; P trend 0.021 for folate. As regards risk of BC subtypes, high riboflavin and folate were significantly associated with lower risk of estrogen receptor positive (ER+ and progesterone receptor positive (PR+ cancers, and high thiamine was associated with lower risk of ER-PR- cancers. High riboflavin was associated with lower risk of both HER2+ and HER2- cancers, high folate with lower risk of HER2- disease, and high thiamine with HER2+ disease.These findings support protective effects of thiamine and one-carbon metabolism vitamins (folate, riboflavin, and vitamin B6 against BC in general; while folate may also protect against ER+PR+ and HER2- disease; and thiamine against ER-PR-, and HER2+ disease.

  5. A novel thiamine-derived pigment, pyrizepine, formed by the Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoshi, Asuka; Noda, Kyoko; Murata, Masatsune

    2018-04-26

    To find a Maillard pigment derived from thiamine, a solution containing glucose and thiamine was heated and analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with diode-array detection. As a result, a unique peak showing an absorption maximum at 380 nm was detected. This peak was then isolated from a reaction solution containing glucose, lysine and thiamine, and was identified as 1-(2-methyl-6,9-dihydro-5H-pyrimido[4,5-e][1,4]diazepin-7-yl)ethan-1-one using instrumental analyses. This compound, named pyrizepine, was a novel yellow pigment having a fused ring consisting of pyrimidine and diazepine. Pyrizepine was a major low-molecular-weight pigment in the reaction solution. The structure suggests that pyrizepine is formed by condensation reaction between a degradation product of thiamine and a tetrosone derivative formed from glucose by the Maillard reaction.

  6. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

    2014-08-19

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  7. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam S. Woo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80% in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  8. Low vitamin K1 intake in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Noale, Marianna; Tripepi, Giovanni; Plebani, Mario; Veronese, Nicola; Iervasi, Giorgio; Giannini, Sandro; Rossini, Maurizio; Tarroni, Giovanni; Lucatello, Sandro; Vianello, Alberto; Santinello, Irene; Bonfante, Luciana; Fabris, Fabrizio; Sella, Stefania; Piccoli, Antonio; Naso, Agostino; Ciurlino, Daniele; Aghi, Andrea; Gallieni, Maurizio; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin K acts as a coenzyme in the γ-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, including coagulation factors, osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and the growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) protein. Osteocalcin is a key factor for bone matrix formation. MGP is a local inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. GAS6 activity prevents the apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Few data on vitamin K intake in chronic kidney disease patients and no data in patients on a Mediterranean diet are available. In the present study, we evaluate the dietary intake of vitamin K1 in a cohort of patients undergoing haemodialysis. In this multi-centre controlled observational study, data were collected from 91 patients aged >18 years on dialysis treatment for at least 12 months and from 85 age-matched control subjects with normal renal function. Participants completed a food journal of seven consecutive days for the estimation of dietary intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients (minerals and vitamins). Compared to controls, dialysis patients had a significant lower total energy intake, along with a lower dietary intake of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fibres, and of all the examined minerals (Ca, P, Fe, Na, K, Zn, Cu, and Mg). With the exception of vitamin B12, vitamins intake followed a similar pattern, with a lower intake in vitamin A, B1, B2, C, D, E, folates, K1 and PP. These finding were confirmed also when normalized for total energy intake or for body weight. In respect to the adequate intakes recommended in the literature, the prevalence of a deficient vitamin K intake was very high (70-90%) and roughly double than in controls. Multivariate logistic model identified vitamin A and iron intake as predictors of vitamin K deficiency. Haemodialysis patients had a significantly low intake in vitamin K1, which could contribute to increase the risk of bone fractures and vascular calcifications. Since the deficiency of vitamin K intake seems to be remarkable, dietary

  9. Degradation of vitamin B12 in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keiko; Shimodaira, Michiko; Chida, Seiko; Yamada, Noriko; Matsushima, Norio; Fukuda, Morimichi; Yamada, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Beverages and solid dietary supplements rich in various added vitamins and minerals have recently become available. It seems reasonable to consider that the intake of these foods is convenient for easy ingestion of nutrients, but problems caused by blending different nutrients in high concentrations have arisen. We focused on vitamin B12 (B12) among vitamins and determined the B12 contents of beverages and solid dietary supplements purchased from a retail shop. The B12 contents of three of five beverages were less than stated on the labels. On the other hand, certain beverages unexpectedly contained much more B12 than stated on the labels. In these beverages the amount of B12 decreased rapidly with time, whereas B12 content was lower than stated on the label in only one of four solid dietary supplements. The content of B12 was affected by storage time, light exposure, temperature and vitamin C. From experimental analysis with a competitive binding assay method employing a ACS Chemiluminescent B12 kit, examining differential binding by intrinsic factors and spectral analysis of B12, it was determined that some of the B12 might have been converted into B12 analogues or small degradation products by multinutrient interaction during storage.

  10. Dipstick based immunochemiluminescence biosensor for the analysis of vitamin B12 in energy drinks: A novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvakumar, L.S.; Thakur, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Schematic representation of immunochemiluminescence based dipstick technique for detection of vitamin B 12 . (b) Enzymatic dephosphorylation of dioxetane by alkaline phosphatase. Highlights: ► Dipstick based immunochemiluminescence biosensor proposed for vitamin B 12 analysis. ► The limit of detection of vitamin B 12 is 1 ng mL −1 and applied in energy drinks. ► Chemiluminescence generated was inversely proportional to vitamin B 12 concentration. ► Chemiluminescence analytical procedure was compared with ELISA. ► Alkaline phosphatase was stable chemiluminescent enzyme than Horse Radish Peroxidase. - Abstract: In this article, we describe a dipstick based immunochemiluminescence (immuno-CL) biosensor for the detection of vitamin B 12 in energy drinks. The method is a direct competitive type format involving the immobilization of vitamin B 12 antibody on nitrocellulose membrane (NC) followed by treatment with vitamin B 12 and vitamin B 12 –alkaline phosphatase conjugate to facilitate the competitive binding. The dipstick was further treated with substrate disodium 2-chloro-5-(4-methoxyspiro {1,2-dioxetane-3,2¢-(5¢-chloro)tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decan}-4-yl)-1-phenyl phosphate (CDP-Star) to generate chemiluminescence (CL). The number of photons generated was inversely proportional to the vitamin B 12 concentration. After systematic optimization, the limit of detection was 1 ng mL −1 . The coefficient of variation was below 0.2% for both intra- and inter-assay precision. Vitamin B 12 was extracted from energy drinks with recovery ranged from 90 to 99.4%. Two different energy drinks samples were analyzed, and a good correlation was observed when the data were compared with a reference enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The developed method is suitable for an accurate, sensitive, and high-throughput screening of vitamin B 12 in energy drinks samples. The dipstick technique based on immuno-CL is suitable for the

  11. Effect of adding B-vitamins to vitamin D and calcium supplementation on CpG methylation of epigenetic aging markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, R; Hübner, U; Bodis, M; Graeber, S; Geisel, J

    2018-04-01

    B-vitamins may influence DNA methylation. We studied the effects of vitamin D + Ca + B versus D + Ca on epigenetic age markers and biological age. Participants (mean ± SD of age = 68.4 ± 10.1 years) were randomized to receive 1200 IE vitamin D3 plus 800 mg Ca-carbonate alone (n = 31) or with 0.5 mg B9, 50 mg B6, and 0.5 mg B12 (n = 32). The CpG methylation of 3 genes (ASPA, ITGA2B, and PDE4C) and the changes in methylation were compared between the groups after 1 year. The changes of ASPA methylation from baseline were higher in the D + Ca + B than in the D + Ca group (1.40 ± 4.02 vs. -0.96 ± 5.12, respectively; p = 0.046, adjusted for age, sex, and baseline methylation). The changes in PDE4C from baseline were slightly higher in the D + Ca + B group (1.95 ± 3.57 vs. 0.22 ± 3.57; adjusted p = 0.062). Methylation of ITGA2B and its changes from baseline were not different between the intervention groups. Sex-adjusted odds ratio of accelerated aging (chronological age B compared with the D + Ca group. Accelerated aging in both groups was associated with younger age. In the D + Ca + B group, it was additionally associated with lower baseline homocysteine. Vitamin D + Ca + B and D + Ca differentially affected epigenetic age markers, although the effect size appeared to be small after 1 year. B-vitamins effect in young subjects with low homocysteine requires further investigation. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02586181. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Thiamine and benfotiamine prevent stress-induced suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis in mice exposed to predation without affecting brain thiamine diphosphate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignisse, Julie; Sambon, Margaux; Gorlova, Anna; Pavlov, Dmitrii; Caron, Nicolas; Malgrange, Brigitte; Shevtsova, Elena; Svistunov, Andrey; Anthony, Daniel C; Markova, Natalyia; Bazhenova, Natalyia; Coumans, Bernard; Lakaye, Bernard; Wins, Pierre; Strekalova, Tatyana; Bettendorff, Lucien

    2017-07-01

    Thiamine is essential for normal brain function and its deficiency causes metabolic impairment, specific lesions, oxidative damage and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). Thiamine precursors with increased bioavailability, especially benfotiamine, exert neuroprotective effects not only for thiamine deficiency (TD), but also in mouse models of neurodegeneration. As it is known that AHN is impaired by stress in rodents, we exposed C57BL6/J mice to predator stress for 5 consecutive nights and studied the proliferation (number of Ki67-positive cells) and survival (number of BrdU-positive cells) of newborn immature neurons in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. In stressed mice, the number of Ki67- and BrdU-positive cells was reduced compared to non-stressed animals. This reduction was prevented when the mice were treated (200mg/kg/day in drinking water for 20days) with thiamine or benfotiamine, that were recently found to prevent stress-induced behavioral changes and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) upregulation in the CNS. Moreover, we show that thiamine and benfotiamine counteract stress-induced bodyweight loss and suppress stress-induced anxiety-like behavior. Both treatments induced a modest increase in the brain content of free thiamine while the level of thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) remained unchanged, suggesting that the beneficial effects observed are not linked to the role of this coenzyme in energy metabolism. Predator stress increased hippocampal protein carbonylation, an indicator of oxidative stress. This effect was antagonized by both thiamine and benfotiamine. Moreover, using cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells, we show that in particular benfotiamine protects against paraquat-induced oxidative stress. We therefore hypothesize that thiamine compounds may act by boosting anti-oxidant cellular defenses, by a mechanism that still remains to be unveiled. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that thiamine and benfotiamine prevent

  13. Effect of B vitamin supplementation on plasma homocysteine levels in celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadithi, M. al; Mulder, C.J.J.; Stam, F.; Azizi, J.; Crusius, J.B.A.; Pena, A.S.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Smulders, Y.M.

    2009-01-01

    0.001, P = 0.007, for vitamin B6, folate, and vitamin B12, respectively). Lower plasma homocysteine levels were found in patients using vitamin supplements than in patients who did not (P = 0.001) or healthy controls (P = 0.003). However, vitamin B6 and folate, not vitamin B12, were significantly

  14. Vitamin B Supplementation: What's the Right Choice for Your Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Laura G

    2017-07-01

    As many patients turn to vitamins and supplements to enhance energy, relieve fatigue, or generally feel better, it is important to understand the connection between the B vitamins and psychiatric symptomatology. Vitamins B6, B8, and B12 have been shown not only to reduce psychiatric symptoms but also shorten the duration of illness. Vitamin B9, also known as folate or folic acid, has also been associated with psychiatric symptoms. However, when patients lack a specific genetic enzyme, which converts folate/folic acid to its most usable form, L-methylfolate, the neuroprotective and neuropsychiatric benefits are lost. L-methylfolate allows for the synthesis of the three major neurochemicals-serotonin, nor-epinephrine, and dopamine-across the blood-brain barrier. Exploring the conversion of folate/folic acid into L-methylfolate and the various polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene and examining the B vitamins associated with the treatment of psychiatric symptoms will further allow nurses to comprehensively treat their patients with the appropriate B vitamins. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(7), 7-11.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Nutrition Quality and Microbiology of Goat Milk Kefir Fortified with Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D3 during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianti, EP; Anjani, G.; Afifah, DN; Rustanti, N.; Panunggal, B.

    2018-02-01

    Goat milk kefir fortified vitamin B12 and vitamin D3 can be an alternative to improve insulin resistance. Fortification of vitamin B12 and vitamin D3 could affect the balance of complex ecosystems of bacteria and yeasts in goat milk kefir. We analyzed the nutritional quality and microbiology of goat milk kefir during storage. This experiment was done with completely randomized design consisted of five treatments, ie storage day 0, 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 15th. Vitamin B12, vitamin D3, protein were analyzed using spectrophotometric, fat using babcock method, total lactic acid bacteria using total plate count, pH with pH meter, and viscosity using ostwald method. During 15 days in refrigerated storage, there was no significant difference (p>0,05) of vitamin B12 concentration, protein, fat, and viscosity of kefir. Storage time of the final product caused the decrease of vitamin D3 concentration between day 9 and 15 (p=0,038), pH (p=0,023), and total lactic acid of kefir (p=0,0001). Total lactic acid bacteria increased until 9 days of storage (6161 ± 1.296x107cfu / ml), but decreased to 24% on day 15 (150 ±7.78x107cfu/ml). pH kefir tends to fluctuate during storage with the highest pH value of 4,38 on day-3, and lowest 4.13 on day-9.

  16. Prospective cohort studies of vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer incidence: modification by time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Lee, Jung Eun; Ma, Jing; Je, Youjin; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2012-10-01

    The relation between vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer risk remains uncertain. We prospectively evaluated whether a higher vitamin B-6 intake in the remote past is more strongly associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer than is an intake in the recent past in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We assessed vitamin B-6 intake every 4 y by using validated food-frequency questionnaires and followed 86,440 women and 44,410 men for ≤28 y. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable RRs and 95% CIs. The total vitamin B-6 intake was significantly associated with an ∼20-30% lower risk of colorectal cancer in age-adjusted results, but this association became attenuated and nonsignificant after additional adjustment for nondietary and dietary factors. When the highest to lowest quintiles of cumulative total vitamin B-6 intake were compared, RRs (95% CIs) for colorectal cancer were 0.99 (0.80, 1.24; P-trend = 0.55) for women and 0.95 (0.73, 1.23; P-trend = 0.75) for men. For the same comparison, RRs were 0.92 (0.73, 1.16) for total vitamin B-6 intake 0-4 y before diagnosis, 0.99 (0.78, 1.26) for intake 4-8 y before diagnosis, 0.92 (0.71, 1.21) for intake 8-12 y before diagnosis, and 0.93 (0.69, 1.26) for intake 12-16 y before diagnosis in women. Corresponding RRs for men were 0.86 (0.63, 1.17), 0.96 (0.70, 1.32), 0.90 (0.63, 1.29), and 1.16 (0.75, 1.79). Results did not differ by cancer subsite, source of vitamin B-6 (food or supplement), alcohol consumption, or folate intake. Our data do not support a strong role of adulthood vitamin B-6 intake in colorectal carcinogenesis in these US health professionals.

  17. On the behaviour of some B-vitamins after radio- and/or cytostatic therapy of gynaecological carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladner, H.A.; Holtz, F.

    1979-01-01

    After a large-scale examination sequence concerning the influences on vitamins during the radio- or cytostatic treatment for female cancer patients the vitamin-B 6 -insufficiencies described before can now be analyzed better on 420 gynaecological carcinoma patients and classified in other radiation-caused metabolic changes. According to the investigation, tumour - induced biochemical vitamin-B 6 -insufficiencies of different degrees were observed in the basic values, e.g. in cervical and corpus carcinomas, noticeable also in carcinomas of the breast. Thus, the stage of the tumour also affects the vitamin-B 6 -insufficiency. The more severe the insufficiency before starting the therapy, the more significant is the B-insufficiency during the radio- and cytostatic treatment. As for vitamin B 1 this is similar. In addition to this (however often at different times during the application of radiation and cytostatics, also vitamin B 1 -insufficiencies can be found approx. 2/3 of our radiation- and 100% of the cytostatica cases). Less frequently, in approx. 1/3 of the radiation therapy patients a vitamin-B 2 -insufficiency is seen. According to course observations over 10 years after radiation therapy, the impression is gained that the elimination of vitamin-B 6 -insufficiencies by administration of B 6 might have a favourable effect, e.g. on the survival rate of patients with cervical and corpus carcinoma. The discussion is actualized by information in literature pointing out the importance of vitamin B-insufficiencies both for tumour development and for the genesis of late radiation effects. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 RDG [de

  18. Simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins and preservatives in multivitamin syrup by validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Stojanka; Stojanović, Biljana; Veljković, Jelena; Prazić-Arsić, Ljiljana; Roglić, Goran; Manojlović, Dragan

    2008-08-22

    HPLC stability-indicating method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins (ascorbic acid, thiamine hydrochloride, riboflavin-5'-phosphate sodium, pyridoxine hydrochloride, nicotinamide, D(+)-panthenol) and two preservatives (methylparaben and sodium benzoate) in multivitamin syrup preparation. Water-soluble vitamins, preservatives and their degradants were separated on Zorbax SB-Aq (C(18)) (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column at an ambient temperature. Combined isocratic and gradient elution was performed with a mobile phase consisting of 0.0125 M hexane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt in 0.1% (m/v) o-phosphoric acid, pH 2.4-2.5 (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) at the flow-rate 1 ml min(-1). Starting with solvent A an isocratic elution was performed for 15 min, then the composition was changed to 85% of A and 15% of B during the next 20 min and it was constant for 5 min, then the composition was changed to 70% of A and 30% of B during next 15 min and it was constant for 5 min and finally was changed to 100% of A as at the beginning of the elution. Detection was performed with diode array detector at 210, 230 and 254 nm. Multivitamin syrup preparation was subjected to stress testing (forced degradation) in order to demonstrate that degradants from the vitamins, preservatives and/or product excipients do not interfere with the quantification of vitamins and preservatives. Typical validation characteristics: selectivity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of quantification and limit of detection were evaluated for vitamins and preservatives.

  19. Extraction vitamins of group B water-soluble polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Korenman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available General lows of extraction of B vitamins in aquatic environments of the solution of polymers (poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone, poly-N-vinilkaprolaktam has been studied. The influence of polymer concentration and structure on the distribution coefficients and degree of extraction of vitamins has been established. As a result, the direct search of a stable two-phase systems based on water-soluble polymers has been developed effective systems for the extraction of vitamin B from aqueous salt solutions.

  20. Vitamin B12 and eicosanoids in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakayama, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 was not detected in the house fly, Musca domestica, which apparently cannot interconvert propionate and succinate. In contrast, the termite readily interconverts succinate and methylmalonate, and contains high amounts of vitamin B 12 . The intestinal bacteria were the major source of vitamin B 12 in the termite, Coptotermes formosanus. The presence of arachidonic acid (20:4) and eicosatrienoic acid (20:3,n-6) at low levels in adult male and female house flies was demonstrated by chemical ionization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After injection, over 80% of 20:4 was rapidly incorporated into the phospholipid (PL) fraction. Over 80% of the sequestered 20:4 was in the 2-position of PLs. The 20:4 was injected into the insect or was included in the diet prior to administration of [ 3 H] 20:4; large amounts of radioactivity were recovered in the triacylglycerol and free fatty acid fractions. Arachidonic acid (20:4) injected into house flies was rapidly converted to prostaglandins, and was also catabolized rapidly. Radiolabeled 20:4 injected into the hemolymph was incorporated into the reproductive tissues of male insects. About 2.1% of the total radioactivity from [ 3 H] 20:4 injected into males just prior to mating was transferred to females during mating

  1. Comparing the Effects of Vitamin B1 and Calcium on Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS among Female Students, Ilam- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Samieipour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is a combination of physical, psychological and emotional symptoms that occur periodically before menstruation and disappear with the onset of menstruation. There are some therapeutic methods mostly according to the clinical trials that reduce the prevalence and intensity of symptoms of PMS by unknown mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Calcium and vitamin B1 on Premenstrual syndrome among female students. Materials and Methods: This is a triple-blind clinical trial conducted on 210 female students living in dormitories of Ilam University of Medical Sciences who had PMS. PMS symptoms questionnaire was used to investigate the symptoms. Participants were assigned in 3 groups of 70 people with the following regimen: group 1 received one pill containing 100 milligrams vitamin B1, group 2 received Calcium pills and group 3 received placebo. The participants in all groups took medicines for 2 months and then reported the intensity of their symptoms by the questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics, using SPSS-16. Results: In groups receiving vitamin B1, Calcium and placebo, the intensity of physical and psychological symptoms as well as general symptoms of PMS had a remarkable reduction (P

  2. B-vitamin status in relation to bone mineral density in treated celiac disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michelle; Ward, Mary; Dickey, William; Hoey, Leane; Molloy, Anne M; Waldron, Lisa; Varghese, Abraham; McCann, Adrian; Blayney, Jaine K; McNulty, Helene

    2015-08-01

    Patients with celiac disease (CD) are at increased risk of osteoporosis and compromised B-vitamin status. Emerging evidence supports a beneficial role of folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins in bone health in generally healthy adults, but no previous study has investigated this in CD patients. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship of folate, vitamins B12, B6 and B2 (riboflavin), and the related metabolite homocysteine, with bone mineral density (BMD) in CD patients. Of the 400 treated adult CD patients invited to participate, 110 responded and met the eligibility criteria for study participation. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning at the lumbar spine (L1-L4), femoral neck, and total hip sites. Biomarker status of the relevant B-vitamins and homocysteine, and dietary B-vitamin intakes, were measured. The significant predictors of low BMD were increasing age (B = 0.080, p B = 0.072, p = 0.004), whereas no significant relationship with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (B = 0.093, p = 0.928) was observed. Following adjustment for these predictors, serum vitamin B12 (but no other B-vitamin biomarker) was found to be a significant determinant of BMD at the femoral neck (β = 0.416, p = 0.011) and total hip (β = 0.327, p = 0.049) in men only. No significant relationships were found between any of the B-vitamin biomarkers investigated and BMD (at any measured site) in women. These findings add to current evidence suggesting a potential role of vitamin B12 in BMD, particularly in men, and show such a relationship for the first time in CD patients.

  3. The quantitative analysis of thiamin and riboflavin and their respective vitamers in fermented alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucker, Barry; Wakeling, Lara; Vriesekoop, Frank

    2011-12-14

    This research aimed to develop a simple and effective method for analyzing thiamin (B(1)), riboflavin (B(2)) and their respective vitamers by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in fermented alcoholic beverages. The method developed here employs a phosphate buffer/methanol gradient elution on a single reverse phase column, coupled with independent fluorescent detection regimes. It also employs a precolumn derivatization to convert thiamin to thiochrome via an alkaline potassium ferricyanide solution. The method described here allowed a spike recovery of better than 97%, with a typical linear detection range (R(2) ≥ 0.9997) between ≤ 5 and ≥ 500 μg/L for all vitamers studied. Lager style beers were found to contain significantly (p porters, 104.4 μg/L; wheat beers, 130.7 μg/L), which may be due to the raw material and extensive processing that occurs for this style. There was no statistical difference (p = 0.608) between the riboflavin content of each beer style. Furthermore, wines and ciders contain less thiamin and riboflavin than beer, which is also likely to be due to the base materials used and the differences in processing steps to produce these beverages.

  4. The distribution of total vitamin b12 holotranscobalamin and the active vitamin b12 fraction in the first 5 weeks postpartum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, D.A.A.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; de Vries, J.; van Wijk, E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Total vitamin B12 levels decrease significantly during pregnancy and recover to normal values within 8-week postpartum. Holotranscobalamin (holoTC) reflects the active part of vitamin B12 and has been shown to remain constant during pregnancy and postpartum. A mechanism of

  5. Household Consumption of Thiamin-Fortified Fish Sauce Increases Erythrocyte Thiamin Concentrations among Rural Cambodian Women and Their Children Younger Than 5 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Kroeun, Hou; Sokhoing, Ly; Chan, Benny B; Borath, Mam; Sophonneary, Prak; Moore, Kirsten; Tong, Jeffery K T; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Kitts, David D; Green, Tim J

    2017-02-01

    To assess whether ad libitum consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce over 6 months yields higher erythrocyte thiamin diphosphate concentrations (eTDP) among women of childbearing age and their children aged 12-59 months compared with control sauce containing no thiamin. In this double-blind, randomized controlled efficacy trial, 276 nonpregnant, nonlactating women (18-45 years of age) and their families in Prey Veng, Cambodia, were randomized to receive 1 of 3 fish sauce formulations: low thiamin concentration (low, 2 g/L), high thiamin concentration (high, 8 g/L), or a control (no thiamin) fish sauce. Baseline (t = 0) and endline (t = 6 months) eTDP were measured with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Fish sauce consumption did not differ between treatment groups (P = .19). In intent-to-treat analysis, women's baseline-adjusted endline eTDP (mean; 95% CI) was higher among women in the low (259; 245-274 nmol/L) and high (257; 237-276 nmol/L) groups compared with control (184; 169-198 nmol/L; P sauce appears to be an efficacious means of improving biochemical thiamin status in nonpregnant, nonlactating women and their children (1-5 years of age) living in rural Cambodia. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02221063. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A benfotiamine-vitamin B combination in treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, H; Lindemann, A; Federlin, K

    1996-01-01

    In a double-blind, randomized, controlled study, the effectiveness of treatment with a combination of Benfotiamine (an Allithiamine, a lipid-soluble derivative of vitamin B1 with high bioavailability) plus vitamin B6/B12 on objective parameters of neuropathy was studied over a period of 12 weeks on 24 diabetic patients with diabetic polyneuropathy. The results showed a significant improvement (p = 0.006) of nerve conduction velocity in the peroneal nerve and a statistical trend toward improvement of the vibration perception threshold. Long-term observation of 9 patients with verum over a period of 9 months support the results. Therapy-specific adverse effects were not seen. The results of this double-blind investigation, of the long-term observation and of the reports in the literature support the contention that the neurotropic benfotiamine-vitamin B combination represents a starting point in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy.

  7. Lhermitte's sign and vitamin B12 deficiency: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Haratz, Salo; Zavala, Jorge; Munhoz, Renato Puppi; Scola, Rosana Hermínia; Werneck, Lineu César

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Lhermitte's sign, a classical neurological sign, is a rare manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. The aim here was to report on a case of an elderly patient with vitamin B12 deficiency whose first clinical manifestation was the presence of Lhermitte's sign. CASE REPORT: We describe an elderly patient with vitamin B12 deficiency who presented cognitive dysfunction, peripheral polyneuropathy and sensory ataxia, and whose first clinical manifestation was the presence of ...

  8. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Hua Cui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients’ clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR (95% confidence intervals (CI of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15–0.60, 0.33 (0.17–0.65, and 0.19 (0.09–0.38. Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02–3.98. HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels, whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results.

  9. The Folate-Vitamin B12 Interaction, Low Hemoglobin, and the Mortality Risk from Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-03-21

    Abnormal hemoglobin levels are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the mechanism underlying these associations is elusive, inadequate micronutrients, particularly folate and vitamin B12, may increase the risk for anemia, cognitive impairment, and AD. In this study, we investigated whether the nutritional status of folate and vitamin B12 is involved in the association between low hemoglobin levels and the risk of AD mortality. Data were obtained from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the NHANES (1999-2006) Linked Mortality File. A total of 4,688 participants aged ≥60 years with available baseline data were included in this study. We categorized three groups based on the quartiles of folate and vitamin B12 as follows: Group I (low folate and vitamin B12); Group II (high folate and low vitamin B12 or low folate and high vitamin B12); and Group III (high folate and vitamin B12). Of 4,688 participants, 49 subjects died due to AD. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education, smoking history, body mass index, the presence of diabetes or hypertension, and dietary intake of iron, significant increases in the AD mortality were observed in Quartile1 for hemoglobin (HR: 8.4, 95% CI: 1.4-50.8), and the overall risk of AD mortality was significantly reduced with increases in the quartile of hemoglobin (p for trend = 0.0200), in subjects with low levels of both folate and vitamin B12 at baseline. This association did not exist in subjects with at least one high level of folate and vitamin B12. Our finding shows the relationship between folate and vitamin B12 levels with respect to the association between hemoglobin levels and AD mortality.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BTBGD thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome 2 thiamine-responsive encephalopathy thiamine transporter-2 deficiency THMD2 Related Information How ... genetic testing? What is precision medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages LMNA-related congenital muscular dystrophy ...

  11. Relationship among plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Tohidhi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a new risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is a sensitive marker of the vitamin B12 and folate insufficiency. Folate and vitamin B12 may be a protective effect on cardiovascular disease. According to limited data about role of vitamin B12 and folate in coronary artery disease (CAD, we conducted this study to measure these factors in patients with coronary artery disease and in control subjects. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 139 subjects who underwent coronary angiography in Shiraz. Plasma vitamin B12 and folate level were measured and compared between patients with CAD and control subjects. Results: 139 individuals with a mean age 56.99±11.93 were enrolled in this study. 31.2% of them had a normal coronary angiography. Mean plasma level of folate in patients with CAD was lower than control subjects (4.46±1.28 ng/ml versus 5.00±1.81 ng/ml, P = 0.04. Also mean plasma level of vitamin B12 in patients CAD and control subjects were 451.43±138.90 and 503.60±199.35 pg/ml respectively. Although mean level of vitamin B12 in patients with CAD was lower than control group, but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.07. Conclusion: Mean plasma level of vitamin B12 and folate were lower in patients with CAD than control group. It seems that supplementation with this vitamins may be useful in patients with CAD.

  12. Vitamin B12 deficiency: Characterization of psychometrics and MRI morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yen-Hsuan; Huang, Ching-Feng; Lo, Chung-Ping; Wang, Tzu-Lan; Tu, Min-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is essential for the integrity of the central nervous system. However, performances in different cognitive domains relevant to vitamin B12 deficiency remain to be detailed. To date, there have been limited studies that examined the relationships between cognitions and structural neuroimaging in a single cohort of low-vitamin B12 status. The present study aimed to depict psychometrics and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometrics among patients with vitamin B12 deficiency, and to examine their inter-relations. We compared 34 consecutive patients with vitamin B12 deficiency (serum level ≤ 250 pg/ml) to 34 demographically matched controls by their cognitive performances and morphometric indices of brain MRI. The correlations between psychometrics and morphometrics were analyzed. The vitamin B12 deficiency group had lower scores than the controls on total scores of Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) (both P psychometric and morphometric indices, pronounced correlations between bicaudate ratio and long-term memory, mental manipulation, orientation, language, and verbal fluency were noted (all P < 0.01). Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with a global cognition decline with language, orientation, and mental manipulation selectively impaired. Preferential atrophy in frontal regions is the main neuroimaging feature. Although the frontal ratio highlights the relevant atrophy among patients, the bicaudate ratio might be the best index on the basis of its strong association with global cognition and related cognitive domains, implying dysfunction of fronto-subcortical circuits as the fundamental pathogenesis related to vitamin B12 deficiency.

  13. Analytical electrochemistry of vitamin B12 on a bismuth-film electrode surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreft, Gabriel L.; Braga, Otoniel C. de; Spinelli, Almir

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SWAdSV) were used to investigate the performance of an ex situ plated bismuth-film electrode (BiFE) employed to study the electrochemical behavior and the electroanalytical determination of vitamin B 12 . Two pH-dependent reversible peaks were observed for the B 12r –B 12s (Co(II)–Co(I)) couple after pre-concentration of vitamin B 12 at −1.2 V for 30 s. An adsorption-controlled reaction rate with one electron involved in the electrochemical step was observed for the mechanism implicated. The calibration curve obtained in a Britton–Robinson solution at pH 12.0 was linear in the concentration range of 0.100–1.000 μmol L −1 (r = 0.9980). The detection limit was found to be 33.1 nmol L −1 . The electrode was successfully employed for the determination of vitamin B 12 in two pharmaceutical products. The electrode performance was compared with those of modified and unmodified electrodes as well as with the UV–vis spectrophotometric method.

  14. Simultaneous radiodetermination of folate and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutcho, S.; Mansbach, L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention concerns a method to simultaneously investigate or determine folate and vitamin B12. The differentiation between both compounds is based on the use of radioactive tracers; a radio-iodized folic acid is used as folate tracer; vitamin B12 can be labelled with 57 Co. (VJ) [de

  15. Powerful beneficial effects of benfotiamine on cognitive impairment and beta-amyloid deposition in amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoli; Gong, Neng; Zhao, Jing; Yu, Zhe; Gu, Fenghua; Chen, Jia; Sun, Xiaojing; Zhao, Lei; Yu, Meijing; Xu, Zhiru; Dong, Wenxin; Qin, Yan; Fei, Guoqiang; Zhong, Chunjiu; Xu, Tian-Le

    2010-05-01

    Reduction of glucose metabolism in brain is one of the main features of Alzheimer's disease. Thiamine (vitamin B1)-dependent processes are critical in glucose metabolism and have been found to be impaired in brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, thiamine treatment exerts little beneficial effect in these patients. Here, we tested the effect of benfotiamine, a thiamine derivative with better bioavailability than thiamine, on cognitive impairment and pathology alterations in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, the amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 transgenic mouse. We show that after a chronic 8 week treatment, benfotiamine dose-dependently enhanced the spatial memory of amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 mice in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, benfotiamine effectively reduced both amyloid plaque numbers and phosphorylated tau levels in cortical areas of the transgenic mice brains. Unexpectedly, these effects were not mimicked by another lipophilic thiamine derivative, fursultiamine, although both benfotiamine and fursultiamine were effective in increasing the levels of free thiamine in the brain. Most notably, benfotiamine, but not fursultiamine, significantly elevated the phosphorylation level of glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha and -3beta, and reduced their enzymatic activities in the amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 transgenic brain. Therefore, in the animal Alzheimer's disease model, benfotiamine appears to improve the cognitive function and reduce amyloid deposition via thiamine-independent mechanisms, which are likely to include the suppression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 activities. These results suggest that, unlike many other thiamine-related drugs, benfotiamine may be beneficial for clinical Alzheimer's disease treatment.

  16. Total serum homocysteine as an indicator of vitamin B12 and folate status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, R.C.; Hall, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a modification of an assay for total serum homocysteine (Hcy) in which the Hcy plus radioactive adenosine is converted enzymatically to labeled S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). The modifications included a commerical source for the AdoHcy hydrolase, adenosine labeled with either 14 C or 3 H, and separation of the AdoHcy by thin layer chromatography. The assay was sensitive to 25 pmol. Hcy levels in sera from 18 controls ranged from 6.9 to 12.1 mumol/L with a mean of 9.1 and a SD of 1.5 mumol/L. The total serum Hcy was increased in vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The level was high in congenital defects of vitamin B12 metabolism, blocking the methylation of Hcy regardless of the serum vitamin B12 levels, but was normal in the absence of tissue deficiency even if the serum vitamin B12 levels were low. The procedure has been found practical in two years of use and requires only 0.1 mL of serum

  17. Studies on the biosynthesis of vitamin B2 and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Feeding experiments with Ashbya gossypii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting riboflavin showed incorporation of deuterium from D-[2- 2 H]ribose at C-2' and from D-[1- 2 H]ribose in the pro-R position at C-1' of the ribityl side chain. The results rule out an Amadori rearrangement mechanism for the reduction of the ribosylamino to the ribitylamino linkage and point to formation of a Schiff base that is reduced stereospecifically opposite to the face from which the oxygen has departed. As prerequisite for the analysis, the 1 H NMR signals for the pro-R and pro-S hydrogens at C-1' of riboflavin and its tetraacetate were assigned with the aid of synthetic stereospecifically deuteriated samples. Feeding experiments with Propionibacterium shermianii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting vitamin B 12 showed: (1) 5-methylbenzimidazole (5MBI) incorporated and only one regioisomer (B6-demethylcyanocobalamin)formed. (2) 8-demethylriboflavin incorporated and the same regioisomer was obtained as 5MBI experiment. (3) [1'- 13 C, 5- 15 N]riboflavin incorporated and 13 C-NMR showed that 13 C at the B2 position of cyanocobalamin coupled to both adjacent nitrogen-15 atoms at about the same ratio

  18. Thermodynamic properties of vitamin B{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, A.V., E-mail: knyazevav@gmail.com; Letyanina, I.A.; Plesovskikh, A.S.; Smirnova, N.N.; Knyazeva, S.S.

    2014-01-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B{sub 2} has been measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. • The thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B{sub 2} have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 322 K. • The energy of combustion of the riboflavin has been measured at 298.15 K. • The enthalpy of combustion Δ{sub c}H° and the thermodynamic parameters Δ{sub f}H°, Δ{sub f}S°, Δ{sub f}G° have been calculated. - Abstract: In the present work temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B{sub 2} (riboflavin) has been measured for the first time in the range from 6 to 322 K by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Based on the experimental data, the thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B{sub 2}, namely, the heat capacity, enthalpy H°(T) − H°(0), entropy S°(T) − S°(0) and Gibbs function G°(T) − H°(0) have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 322 K. The value of the fractal dimension D in the function of multifractal generalization of Debye's theory of the heat capacity of solids was estimated and the character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. In a calorimeter with a static bomb and an isothermal shield, the energy of combustion of the riboflavin has been measured at 298.15 K. The enthalpy of combustion Δ{sub c}H° and the thermodynamic parameters Δ{sub f}H°, Δ{sub f}S°, Δ{sub f}G° and of reaction of formation of the riboflavin from simple substances at T = 298.15 K and p = 0.1 MPa have been calculated.

  19. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid and ferritin levels in patients with migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Acar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that disability due to migraine may be reduced with homocysteine-lowering treatment including folic acid and vitamin B12. In addition, recently the periaqueductal gray matter iron deposits have been found to be increased in migraine patients. There are few studies regarding vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and transferrin levels in patients with migraine. The aims of this study was to measure vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and transferrin levels in patients with migraine and compare them with the control group. METHODS: Fifty-one consecutive newly diagnosed migraine patients who did not receive any vitamin supplement medication were enrolled. The study group consisted of 51 patients, suffering from migraine with aura (n= 23 and migraine without aura (n= 28. The control group consisted of 28 healthy participants without history of headache, anemia and vitamin supplement. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and transferin levels were measured using a chemiluminescence method. RESULTS: Migraine patients had significantly lower concentrations of vitamin B12 and folic acid compared with the healthy controls (for vitamin B12; 215.6±133.7 pg/ml vs. 289.9±12 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.005; for folic acid; 6.74 ± 4.31 pg/ml vs. 8.47 ± 1.85 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.048. The vitamin B12 levels were found to be significantly lower during attacks in migraine patients than in interictal periods (177.3 ± 139.2 pg/ml vs 252.5 ± 119.5 pg/ml, p=0.043. There were no differences in folic acid, ferritin, and transferritin levels between during attacks and in interictal period of patients with migraine (p>0.05. The ferritin levels were found to be significantly lower during attacks in migraine patients than in interictal periods (43.4 ± 41.1 mg/ml, vs 75.4 ± 51.7, mg/ml, p=0.018. CONCLUSION: Migraine patients had lower serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels than healthy subjects. These findings supported that vitamin B12

  20. HPLC analysis of vitamin B6 in foods

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    V.-M. OLLILAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the methods for determination of vitamin B6 in foods. To achieve this, the literature review focused on sample treatment and liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamin B6 related compounds. In the experimental part, the chosen sample pretreatment and the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method were validated, and used to produce vitamin B6 data on various food items commonly consumed in Finland. The main emphasis of the sample treatment was on the extraction efficiency and the maintenance of the original concentration profile of the vitamers. Several acid extraction procedures were tested for this purpose. Perchloric acid was chosen as the extraction agent. Routine food analysis was then performed using dilute ice-cold perchloric acid extraction followed by an internally standardized ion-paired reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Food samples were hydrolyzed with takadiastase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes, phosphorylated and glycosylated vitamers were quantitated before and after the enzymatic digestion. This procedure enabled the extraction of vitamin B6 compounds in their intact forms, and the measurement of free, phosphorylated and glycosylated forms. The maintenance of the concentration profile of the vitamers was verified by using 14C -labeled pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the examination of the extraction procedure. The extraction efficiency and laboratory performance were confirmed by interlaboratory studies. Up-to-date data on vitamin B6 content of about fifty common food items was produced. The data includes the results from meat and poultry, fish and fish product, dairy product, cereal and vegetable, and ready-to-eat food samples. Free and phosphorylated vitamin B6 compounds were measured in all food groups, and the glycosylated vitamer fraction was analyzed in all plant-derived foods. The results obtained in this work showed that vitamin B6 content of nearly all foods of plant

  1. Energy and B Vitamins Intake in Elderly Population under Health Care in Isfahan, Iran

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    Sanaz Jamshidi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: B vitamins are essential nutrients to maintain body health. These water soluble vitamins are critical co-enzymes in different cycles. Also, the intake of an adequate energy in elderly contributes to more ability to perform daily activities. This study aims at assessing the energy and water-soluble vitamins intake in elderly population under health care in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: One hundred and fifty two old men and women (82 were under health care in Ghadir Elderly Care Center, Isfahan, Iran and 70 without health care were enrolled in a case-control study. Food frequency questionnaire (168 items was used for dietary intake assessment and N4 software for analysis of food content of the used diet. Results: The intake of energy was significantly higher in the elderly population under health care than those without health care (p=0.038. Also, after adjustion of variables for energy and B vitamins, B1 and B9 vitamins were higher in case group when compared to the control group (p=0.032, p=0.012, respectively. Conclusion: Old population in elderly centers had desirable levels of vitamins B1 and B9 and also energy intake denoting to the high health cares in the health centers.

  2. TOTAL PARENTERAL NUTRITION (TPN: ROLE OF RIBOFLAVIN (VITAMIN B2 AND CYANOCOBALAMIN (VITAMIN B12

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    Samina Shiekh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Total parenteral nutrition (TPN replaces and maintains essential nutrients in patients in whom oral or tube feedings are contraindicated or inadequate. A nutritional assessment must be carried out before initiating TPN in order to determine nutritional needs and any metabolic changes due to the patient’s underlying condition, medications or concurrent therapies. In addition to carbohydrates, proteins and fats, certain amounts of micronutirents are also added to TPN solutions. These micronutrients include electrolytes, vitamins, and trace minerals. This review highlights some basic concepts regarding the use and formulation of TPNs along with their advantages and disadvantages and the importance of water soluble vitamins B2 and B12 in human nutrition.

  3. Vitamin B6 in Health Supplements and Neuropathy: Case Series Assessment of Spontaneously Reported Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hunsel, Florence; van de Koppel, Sonja; van Puijenbroek, Eugène; Kant, Agnes

    2018-05-08

    In the literature, vitamin B 6 has been linked to the development of polyneuropathy. Most often, these complaints were seen when taking high doses of vitamin B 6 for a long time. Evidence as to whether a lower dosage range of vitamin B 6 (< 50 mg/day) can also induce neuropathy is scarce. We aim to comprehensively describe the cases of neuropathy associated with vitamin B 6 received by the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb and to assess the case series concerning the use of vitamin B 6 and neuropathic complaints. We describe the number and nature of the reported cases, including suspect product, dosage, duration of use, and vitamin B 6 serum levels. In addition, we describe the causality for the individual cases (Naranjo Probability Scale) and for the entire case series (Bradford Hill criteria). In total, 90 reports on products containing vitamin B 6 included at least one adverse drug reaction in the standardized Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA ® ) query (SMQ; broad) 'peripheral neuropathy'. The amount of vitamin B 6 in the products varied between 1.4 and 100 mg per tablet. The serum vitamin B 6 level was known in 36 cases (88-4338 nmol/l), and the mean serum vitamin B 6 level was 907 nmol/l. However, no statistical correlation between dosage and vitamin B 6 blood levels was found. Causality assessment of the case series of 90 reports to Lareb shows it is plausible for the vitamin B 6 supplements to have caused complaints such as neuropathies. This is especially the case with higher dosages and prolonged use, but dosages < 50 mg/day also cannot be excluded.

  4. Pharmacokinetic study of benfotiamine and the bioavailability assessment compared to thiamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feifan; Cheng, Zeneng; Li, Sanwang; Liu, Xingling; Guo, Xin; Yu, Peng; Gu, Zhenkun

    2014-06-01

    Benfotiamine is a lipid-soluble thiamine precursor which can transform to thiamine in vivo and subsequently be metabolized to thiamine monophosphate (TMP) and thiamine diphosphate (TDP). This study investigated the pharmacokinetic profiles of thiamine and its phosphorylated metabolites after single- and multiple-dose administration of benfotiamine in healthy Chinese volunteers, and assessed the bioavailability of orally benfotiamine administration compared to thiamine hydrochloride. In addition, concentration of hippuric acid in urine which is produced in the transformation process of benfotiamine was determined. The results showed that thiamine and its phosphorylated metabolites exhibited different pharmacokinetic characteristics in plasma, blood and erythrocyte, and one-compartment model provided the best fit for pharmacokinetic profiles of thiamine. The transformation process of benfotiamine to thiamine produced large amount of hippuric acid. No accumulation of hippuric acid was observed after multiple-dose of benfotiamine. Compared to thiamine hydrochloride, the bioavailability of thiamine in plasma and TDP in erythrocyte after oral administration of benfotiamine were 1147.3 ± 490.3% and 195.8 ± 33.8%, respectively. The absorption rate and extent of benfotiamine systemic availability of thiamine were significantly increased indicating higher bioavailability of thiamine from oral dose of benfotiamine compared to oral dose of thiamine hydrochloride. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  5. Presumed primary thiamine deficiency in a young African lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGesualdo, Cynthia L; Hoover, John P; Lorenz, Michael D

    2005-09-01

    A 1-yr-old intact male African lion (Panthera leo) fed only beef muscle meat was evaluated for episodes of hypermetric ataxia, generalized weakness and tonic-clonic front limb movements. A hemogram, biochemical profile, blood lead, electrocardiogram, survey radiographs, and brain computed tomography were normal. Cerebral spinal fluid analyses suggested mild inflammation. Acetylcholine receptor antibody and serologic tests for all infectious agents tested were negative. Clinical signs resolved completely 9 days after instituting oral thiamine (3 mg/kg/day) and a completely nutritional diet. This lion's pretreatment thiamine blood value (11 nmol/L) was markedly lower than that of a healthy lion (191 nmol/L) and a proposed reference range for adult African lions (160-350 nmol/L). The lion remained clinically normal 2 yr later when his blood thiamine value was 340 nmol/L. African lions can develop clinical primary thiamine deficiency and may respond favorably when thiamine treatment and adequate diet are instituted prior to irreversible neuronal necrosis.

  6. Effects of γ-irradiation and cooking on vitamins B6 and B12 in grass prawns (Penaeus monodon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, L.-B.; Liew, M.-S.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of radiation doses, irradiation temperature and a combined treatment of irradiation and cooking on the vitamin B 6 and B 12 contents of grass prawns have been studied. Grass prawns were irradiated at refrigerated (4 o C) or frozen (-20 o C) temperatures with different doses. A domestic cooling procedure was followed after irradiation. The changes in vitamins B 6 and B 12 of both raw and cooked grass prawns were evaluated. Results showed no significant changes of vitamin B 6 and B 12 in grass prawns with a radiation dose up to 7 kGy at either 4 o C or -20 o C. Irradiation at 4 o C caused more destruction of vitamin B 12 but not vitamin B 6 than did irradiation at -20 o C in grass prawns. There was significant destruction of both vitamins B 6 and B 12 in unirradiated samples during cooking. The introduction of the irradiation process before cooking had no effect on either vitamin. These results indicate that the loss of vitamins B 6 and B 12 in the combined treatments was caused mainly by thermal destruction. (author)

  7. Increase of vitamin D2 by UV-B exposure during the growth phase of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus

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    Hanne L. Kristensen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mushrooms are the only non-animal food source of vitamin D. Wild mushrooms have naturally high vitamin D2 content, and cultivated mushrooms produce vitamin D2 from ergosterol when exposed to supplementary UV-B during the post-harvest phase.Objectives: This study investigated the effects of providing supplementary UV-B during the growth phase on vitamin D2 formation and the interactions with growth of mushrooms, as compared to supplementary UV-B during the post-harvest phase or exposure to sunlight for both cultivated and wild mushrooms.Methods: Experiments were carried out with exposure to supplementary UV-B just prior to harvest in the range of 0–2,400 mJ cm−2. Mushrooms grew for 2 days with or without repeated UV-B exposure each day. Vitamin D2 and growth rate were determined. In addition, some mushrooms were post-harvest treated by exposure at 200 mJ cm−2 supplementary UV-B or natural sunlight, prior to vitamin D2 determination.Results: The content of vitamin D2 was 0.2–164 µg 100 g−1 fresh weight, and there was a linear relationship between UV-dose up to 1,000 mJ cm−2 and vitamin D2 content. The fast growth rate of the mushrooms diluted the vitamin D2 from 24 to 3 µg 100 g−1 within 2 days of exposure at 200 mJ cm−2. Following repeated UV-B exposure, vitamin D2 increased to 33 µg vitamin D2 100 g−1. Growth was unaffected by UV-B. Post-harvest exposure to supplementary UV-B resulted in a higher vitamin D2 content of 32 µg 100 g−1 compared to the 24 µg 100 g−1 obtained from exposure to UV-B during the growth phase. In contrast, wild and cultivated mushrooms with and without exposure to sunlight had vitamin D2 content in the range of 0.2–1.5 µg vitamin D2 100 g−1.Conclusions: This study showed that mushrooms with a well-defined content of vitamin D2 can be obtained by exposure to supplementary UV-B just prior to harvest.

  8. A novel and sensitive method for determining vitamin B3 and B7 by pre-column derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection.

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    Baolei Fan

    Full Text Available A new labeling reagent for vitamin analysis, 2-amino-10-ethyl acridine ketone (AEAO, has been synthesized and successfully applied to the analysis of vitamin B3 and vitamin B7 in different tea samples. The reaction of AEAO with vitamins could proceed easily and quickly in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl-carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC as condensing reagent within 45 min. The derivatives exhibited excellent fluorescence property with excitation and emission wavelengths of 290 nm and 430 nm, respectively. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to the optimization of pre-column derivatization. Solid phase extraction with HLB cartridges was used for the extraction and purification of water-soluble vitamins in tea samples. The LODs for vitamin B3 and vitamin B7 were 2.56 and 2.22 ng mL-1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of vitamin B3 and vitamin B7 in different tea samples. The study provided a highly sensitive method for accurate analysis of trace vitamins from natural products.

  9. B vitamins and magnetic resonance imaging-detected ischemic brain lesions in patients with recent transient ischemic attack or stroke: the VITAmins TO Prevent Stroke (VITATOPS) MRI-substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Margherita; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chen, Christopher; Mok, Vincent; de Freitas, Gabriel R; Song, Swithin; Yi, Qilong; Ropele, Stefan; Grazer, Anja; Homayoon, Nina; Enzinger, Christian; Loh, Katherine; Wong, Ka Sing Lawrence; Wong, Adrian; Xiong, Yunyun; Chang, Hui Meng; Wong, Meng Cheong; Fazekas, Franz; Eikelboom, John W; Hankey, Graeme J

    2012-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of homocysteine are associated with cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). B-vitamin supplementation with folate and vitamins B12 and B6 reduces homocysteine concentrations. In a substudy of the VITAmins TO Prevent Stroke (VITATOPS) trial, we assessed the hypothesis that the addition of once-daily supplements of B vitamins would reduce the progression of CSVD-related brain lesions. A total of 359 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack, who were randomly allocated to double-blind treatment with placebo or b vitamins, underwent brain MRI at randomization and after 2 years of B-vitamin supplementation. MR images were analyzed blinded to treatment allocation. Outcomes related to the prespecified hypothesis were progression of white matter hyperintensities and incident lacunes. We also explored the effect of B-vitamin supplementation on the incidence of other ischemic abnormalities. After 2 years of treatment with b vitamins or placebo, there was no significant difference in white matter hyperintensities volume change (0.08 vs 0.13 cm3; P=0.419) and incidence of lacunes (8.0% vs 5.9%, P=0.434; odds ratio=1.38). In a subanalysis of patients with MRI evidence of severe CSVD at baseline, b-vitamin supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in white matter hyperintensities volume change (0.3 vs 1.7 cm3; P=0.039). Daily B-vitamin supplementation for 2 years did not significantly reduce the progression of brain lesions resulting from presumed CSVD in all patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack but may do so in the subgroup of patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack and severe CSVD. http://vitatops.highway1.com.au/. Unique identifier: NCT00097669 and ISRCTN74743444.

  10. Efficacy of folate and vitamin B12 in lowering homocysteine concentrations in hemodialysis patients

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    Azadibakhsh Nassim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of supplementation with high dose folic acid with and with-out vitamin B 12 in lowering plasma total homocysteine (tHcy concentrations in hemodialysis (HD patients, we studied 36 HD patients randomized into four groups according to the received thera-peutic regimen: group I (only folic acid (FA, 5 mg/day, group II (FA, 5 mg/day + vitamin B 12 , 1 mg/day group III (only FA, 15 mg/day, group IV (FA, 15 mg/day, vitamin B 12 , 1 mg/day for a period of 8 weeks. Plasma tHcy and serum FA and vitamin B 12 levels were measured at baseline and after the supplementation period. Dietary intakes were assessed during the study period. At baseline, 27.8% of the patients had normal levels of tHcy and 72.2% had hyperhomocysteinemia. After supplementation, plasma tHcy increased by 1.35% in group I and decreased by 6.99%, 14.54% and 30.09% in groups II, III and IV respectively, which was only significant in group IV (P= 0.014. The patients did not show any significant changes in serum folic acid, but a significant change in serum vitamin B 12 in group IV (P= 0.006. Percentage of patients reaching normal levels of plasma tHcy was 5.6 fold higher in group IV than in the reference group (group I. No corre-lations were found between changes of plasma tHcy levels and dietary intakes. We conclude that oral supplementation with 15 mg/day folic acid together with 1 mg/day of vitamin B 12 is effective in reducing tHcy levels in HD patients. These supplements also have a desirable effect on serum folic acid and vitamin B12.

  11. Advances in clinical determinants and neurological manifestations of B vitamin deficiency in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, GianPietro; Sechi, Elia; Fois, Chiara; Kumar, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    B vitamin deficiency is a leading cause of neurological impairment and disability throughout the world. Multiple B vitamin deficiencies often coexist, and thus an understanding of the complex relationships between the different biochemical pathways regulated in the brain by these vitamins may facilitate prompter diagnosis and improved treatment. Particular populations at risk for multiple B vitamin deficiencies include the elderly, people with alcoholism, patients with heart failure, patients with recent obesity surgery, and vegetarians/vegans. Recently, new clinical settings that predispose individuals to B vitamin deficiency have been highlighted. Moreover, other data indicate a possible pathogenetic role of subclinical chronic B vitamin deficiency in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In light of these findings, this review examines the clinical manifestations of B vitamin deficiency and the effect of B vitamin deficiency on the adult nervous system. The interrelationships of multiple B vitamin deficiencies are emphasized, along with the clinical phenotypes related to B vitamin deficiencies. Recent advances in the clinical determinants and diagnostic clues of B vitamin deficiency, as well as the suggested therapies for B vitamin disorders, are described. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David O

    2016-01-27

    The B-vitamins comprise a group of eight water soluble vitamins that perform essential, closely inter-related roles in cellular functioning, acting as co-enzymes in a vast array of catabolic and anabolic enzymatic reactions. Their collective effects are particularly prevalent to numerous aspects of brain function, including energy production, DNA/RNA synthesis/repair, genomic and non-genomic methylation, and the synthesis of numerous neurochemicals and signaling molecules. However, human epidemiological and controlled trial investigations, and the resultant scientific commentary, have focused almost exclusively on the small sub-set of vitamins (B9/B12/B6) that are the most prominent (but not the exclusive) B-vitamins involved in homocysteine metabolism. Scant regard has been paid to the other B vitamins. This review describes the closely inter-related functions of the eight B-vitamins and marshals evidence suggesting that adequate levels of all members of this group of micronutrients are essential for optimal physiological and neurological functioning. Furthermore, evidence from human research clearly shows both that a significant proportion of the populations of developed countries suffer from deficiencies or insufficiencies in one or more of this group of vitamins, and that, in the absence of an optimal diet, administration of the entire B-vitamin group, rather than a small sub-set, at doses greatly in excess of the current governmental recommendations, would be a rational approach for preserving brain health.

  13. Vitamin B 12 absorption: correction of intestinal retention by whole-body profile activity of vitamin B 12-58 cobalt and by double tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M.R. Bencke; Gheldof, R.; Paternot, L. van Tricht; Delmotte, E.; Verschaeren, A.; Martin, P.; Verhas, M.; Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Intestinal retention could give false negative results in determining the whole-body retention of vitamin B 12 absorption (WBC B12-58Co). After having validate the WBC B12-58Co, taking the Schilling test as reference, we have studied the feasibility to evaluate the intestinal contamination by measurement of the profile activity distribution of vitamin B12-58Co and by a double tracer technique (WBC B12-58Co/ WBC 51 Cr Cl3). Methodology: twenty five patients were studied for the setting up of the new methodology. For eleven of them the WBC B12-58 Co retention was measured at the 7th day after the oral administration of 37KBq of B12-58Co using a four detectors whole body counter. One week later, a Schilling test was performed after the oral absorption of 18,5 KBq B12-57Co. Results were expressed as %ID. In these patients, one single peak of hepatic activity was observed on the whole body profile and thus no further intestinal correction was needed. In order to evaluate the intestinal contribution, we made in nine other patients the profile of the whole body distribution of activity at 1 h, 1 week and two weeks after the oral administration of B12-58Co. For five other patients a double tracer technique was used for intestinal correction after the simultaneous oral administration of 37 KBq of B12-58Co and 1,85 MBq of 51 Cr Cl3. The B12-58Co absorption was evaluated after intestinal correction based on subtraction of the 51Cr Cl3 contribution after the formula: B12-58Co(%ID) = WBC B12-58Co - WBC 51 Cr Cl3/1 - WBC 51 Cr Cl3. Results: the correlation with the Schilling test was found excellent: r=0,94 (n=11). The normality for WBC retention (n=7) was define as 53,2 +-12,4% ID (SD). For nine patients studied at the 7th day, the presence of a double peak (hepatic and intestinal peaks) allowed the subtraction by exponential extrapolation; the correction range was 4,4% to 37,2%. With the exception of one observation there was no difference in the measure of vitamin

  14. Mathematical modeling of glutathione status in type 2 diabetics with vitamin B12 deficiency

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    Varun eKaramshetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in vitamin B12 and glutathione (GSH are associated with anumber of diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus. We tested newly diag-nosed Indian diabetic patients for correlation between their vitamin B12 andGSH, and found it to be weak. Here we seek to examine the theoreticaldependence of GSH on vitamin B12 with a mathematical model of 1-carbonmetabolism due to Reed and co-workers. We study the methionine cycleof the Reed-Nijhout model by developing a simple ‘stylized model’ that cap-tures its essential topology and whose kinetics are analytically tractable. Theanalysis shows – somewhat counter-intuitively – that the flux responsible forthe homeostasis of homocysteine is, in fact, peripheral to the methioninecycle. Elevation of homocysteine arises from reduced activity of methioninesynthase, a vitamin B12-dependent enzyme, however, this does not increaseGSH biosynthesis. The model suggests that the lack of vitamin B12–GSHcorrelation is explained by suppression of activity in the trans-sulfurationpathway that limits the synthesis of cysteine and GSH from homocysteine.We hypothesize this ‘cysteine-block’ is an essential consequence of vitaminB12 deficiency. It can be clinically relevant to appreciate that these secondaryeffects of vitamin B12 deficiency could be central to its pathophysiology.

  15. Prospective cohort studies of vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer incidence: modification by time?1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Lee, Jung Eun; Ma, Jing; Je, Youjin; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2012-01-01

    Background: The relation between vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer risk remains uncertain. Objective: We prospectively evaluated whether a higher vitamin B-6 intake in the remote past is more strongly associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer than is an intake in the recent past in the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Design: We assessed vitamin B-6 intake every 4 y by using validated food-frequency questionnaires and followed 86,440 women and 44,410 men for ≤28 y. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable RRs and 95% CIs. Results: The total vitamin B-6 intake was significantly associated with an ∼20–30% lower risk of colorectal cancer in age-adjusted results, but this association became attenuated and nonsignificant after additional adjustment for nondietary and dietary factors. When the highest to lowest quintiles of cumulative total vitamin B-6 intake were compared, RRs (95% CIs) for colorectal cancer were 0.99 (0.80, 1.24; P-trend = 0.55) for women and 0.95 (0.73, 1.23; P-trend = 0.75) for men. For the same comparison, RRs were 0.92 (0.73, 1.16) for total vitamin B-6 intake 0–4 y before diagnosis, 0.99 (0.78, 1.26) for intake 4–8 y before diagnosis, 0.92 (0.71, 1.21) for intake 8–12 y before diagnosis, and 0.93 (0.69, 1.26) for intake 12–16 y before diagnosis in women. Corresponding RRs for men were 0.86 (0.63, 1.17), 0.96 (0.70, 1.32), 0.90 (0.63, 1.29), and 1.16 (0.75, 1.79). Results did not differ by cancer subsite, source of vitamin B-6 (food or supplement), alcohol consumption, or folate intake. Conclusion: Our data do not support a strong role of adulthood vitamin B-6 intake in colorectal carcinogenesis in these US health professionals. PMID:22875713

  16. A rapid solid-phase extraction fluorometric method for thiamine and riboflavin in salmonid eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek, James L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Brown, Scott B.; Brown, Lisa R.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Fitzsimons, John D.

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed and successfully applied to the selective measurement of thiamine (nonphosphorylated), total thiamine (sum of thiamine, thiamine monophosphate [TMP], thiamine diphosphate [TDP], and thiamine triphosphate [TTP]), and potentially interfering riboflavin in acidic (2% trichloroacetic acid) extracts of selected salmonid and walleye egg samples. Acidic extracts of eggs were applied directly to end-capped C18, reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns and separated into three fractions by elution with mixtures of PO4 buffer (pH 2), methanol (10%), and acetonitrile (20%). All thiamine compounds recovered in the first two fractions were oxidized to their corresponding thiochromes with alkaline potassium hexacyanoferrate, and we measured the thiochrome fluorescence (excitation at 360 nm, emission at 460 nm) in a 96-well microplate reader. Riboflavin, recovered in third fraction (eluted with pH 2, 20% acetonitrile), was analyzed directly by measuring the fluorescence of this fraction (excitation at 450 nm, emission at 530 nm). Significant portions of the phosphate esters of thiamine (TMP, TDP, and presumably TTP), when present at low concentrations (extract thiamine compounds into 2% trichlororacetic acid solution; an inexpensive, commercially available SPE column; small amounts of sample (0.5-1 g); microliter volumes of solvents per sample; a traditional, relatively nonhazardous, oxidation of thiamine compounds to fluorescent thiochromes; and an ultraviolet-visible-wavelength-filter fluorometer for the measurements. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  17. Vitamin B12 absorption judged by measurement of holotranscobalamin, active vitamin B12: evaluation of a commercially available EIA kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greibe, Eva; Nexo, Ebba

    2011-11-01

    Active vitamin B12 absorption is followed by an increase in holotranscobalamin (holoTC) upon loading with a high physiological dose of the vitamin (the CobaSorb test). This study evaluates the use of a newly launched EIA kit for measurement of holoTC (active B12) in relation to the CobaSorb test. Intra-assay imprecision and linearity of the EIA kit was examined, employing serum pools of increasing holoTC concentrations. For the CobaSorb test, holoTC was measured before and after loading with 3-times 9 μg of vitamin B12 employing both the in-house ELISA and the EIA kit (n=25). The EIA kit showed an intra-assay CV between 2.2% and 5.8% for holoTC values ranging from 21 to 80 pmol/L. Employing diluted serum samples resulted in spurious high values of holoTC. The EIA kit performed well in relation to the CobaSorb test and classified the patients studied as capable of absorbing vitamin B12 (n=10) or not (n=15), as did the in-house ELISA. The Active B12 (holoTC) EIA kit proved suitable for use with the CobaSorb test, but not for analysis of diluted serum samples.

  18. Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with geographical latitude and solar radiation in the older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Sebastián; Benavente, David; Alvo, Miriam; de Pablo, Paola; Ferro, Charles J

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency are common in the older and are associated with several conditions including anaemia, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and cancer. Evidence from in vitro studies suggests that solar radiation can degrade both vitamins in the skin. Chile is the longest country in the world running perfectly North-South making it an ideal place to study potential associations of latitude and solar radiation on vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. The objective was to examine the association between vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies and latitude. Plasma samples were collected from Chileans aged 65+ years (n=1013) living across the whole country and assayed for vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations as part of the Chilean Health Survey 2009-2010, which is a national representative sample study. Overall, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was 11.3%, with the prevalence in the North of the country being significantly greater than in the Central and South zones (19.1%,10.5%, and 5.7%, respectively; Psolar radiation (OR 1.203 [95% confidence intervals 1.119-1.294], Psolar radiation. Although degradation by solar radiation might explain this observation, further work is required to establish the potential mechanisms. In countries that routinely fortify food with folic acid, efforts to identify vitamin B12 deficiency might be more cost-efficiently targeted in areas closest to the Equator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. EFFET DES VITAMINES B12, B9 ET B6 ET LEURS INTERACTIONS SUR LA FRAGILITE OSMOTIQUE DES ERYTHROCYTES HUMAINS

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    B HOUCHER

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available L’effet des vitamines B12, B9 et B6 sur la fragilité osmotique des érythrocytes humains a été exploré in vitro. De fortes concentrations de vitamines B12 et B6 ont protégé les érythrocytes de l’hémolyse hypotonique, avec une protection maxima atteinte respectivement à 10 et 500 µg/ml. A concentrations plus faibles, cependant, ces vitamines ont favorisé grandement l’hémolyse hypotonique. Par contre, la vitamine B9 a montré uniquement un effet hémolytique de 4 à 200 µg/ml. Cet effet peut être expliqué par la nature acide de la molécule. L’effet nul sur la fragilité osmotique de deux vitamines antagonistes, peut probablement être expliqué par l’antagonisme partiel ou par la présence de ces deux vitamines simultanément: ces dernières se lient en quantités appréciables à la cellule intacte de même qu’à l’hémolysat et il y’ a compétition mutuelle entre ces vitamines et leur transport.

  20. The effects of thiamin on lead metabolism: organ distribution of lead 203.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J S; Hamilton, D L; Blakley, B R; Rousseaux, C G

    1992-01-01

    The effect of thiamin on the organ distribution of lead was evaluated in CD-1 mice exposed intragastrically or intraperitoneally to a single dose of lead acetate (100 micrograms) containing 100 microCi lead 203. They were treated with either thiamin (25 or 50 mg/kg body weight), calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaEDTA) (50 mg/kg body weight), or combinations of thiamin and CaEDTA. The whole body retention and the organ distribution of lead 203 varied depending upon the route of lead administration, dose of thiamin and the specific treatment combination. Thiamin (25 or 50 mg/kg) treatment increased the whole body retention of both intragastric and intraperitoneal lead by approximately 10% in each instance. Calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, either alone or in combination with thiamin (50 mg/kg) reduced the whole body retention of lead by as much as 14% regardless of route of lead exposure. The relative retention of lead by the liver, kidney and spleen was greater in mice exposed to lead by the intragastric route. Regardless of route, CaEDTA in the combined treatment reduced the relative retention of lead in both the liver and kidney, whereas thiamin alone only reduced the retention of lead in the kidney. The results of this study indicate that thiamin in combination with CaEDTA alters the distribution and retention of lead in a manner which may have therapeutic application as it relates to chelation therapy. PMID:1423063

  1. Correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in atrophic gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Kong, Yu; Sun, Ning-Ning; Dong, Ai-Qin

    2018-01-01

    AIM To explore the correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). METHODS A total of 593 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis by gastroscopy and pathological examination from September 2013 to September 2016 were selected for this study. The age of these patients ranged within 18- to 75-years-old. Blood pressure, height and weight were measured in each patient, and the body mass index value was calculated. Furthermore, gastric acid, serum gastrin, serum vitamin and serum creatinine tests were performed, and peripheral nerve conduction velocity and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were detected. In addition, the type of gastritis was determined by gastroscopy. The above factors were used as independent variables to analyze chronic gastritis with peripheral neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency risk factors, and to analyze the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and peripheral nerve conduction velocity. In addition, in the treatment of CAG on the basis of vitamin B12, patients with peripheral neuropathy were observed. RESULTS Age, H. pylori infection, CAG, vitamin B9 and vitamin B12 were risk factors for the occurrence of peripheral nerve degeneration. Furthermore, CAG and H. pylori infection were risk factors for chronic gastritis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Serum vitamin B12 level was positively correlated with sensory nerve conduction velocity in the tibial nerve (R = 0.463). After vitamin B12 supplementation, patients with peripheral neuropathy improved. CONCLUSION Serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with chronic gastritis significantly decreased, and the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy had a certain correlation. CAG and H. pylori infection are risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy. When treating CAG, vitamin B12 supplementation can significantly reduce peripheral nervous system lesions. Therefore, the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy

  2. Correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Kong, Yu; Sun, Ning-Ning; Dong, Ai-Qin

    2018-03-28

    To explore the correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). A total of 593 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis by gastroscopy and pathological examination from September 2013 to September 2016 were selected for this study. The age of these patients ranged within 18- to 75-years-old. Blood pressure, height and weight were measured in each patient, and the body mass index value was calculated. Furthermore, gastric acid, serum gastrin, serum vitamin and serum creatinine tests were performed, and peripheral nerve conduction velocity and Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) were detected. In addition, the type of gastritis was determined by gastroscopy. The above factors were used as independent variables to analyze chronic gastritis with peripheral neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency risk factors, and to analyze the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and peripheral nerve conduction velocity. In addition, in the treatment of CAG on the basis of vitamin B12, patients with peripheral neuropathy were observed. Age, H. pylori infection, CAG, vitamin B9 and vitamin B12 were risk factors for the occurrence of peripheral nerve degeneration. Furthermore, CAG and H. pylori infection were risk factors for chronic gastritis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Serum vitamin B12 level was positively correlated with sensory nerve conduction velocity in the tibial nerve ( R = 0.463). After vitamin B12 supplementation, patients with peripheral neuropathy improved. Serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with chronic gastritis significantly decreased, and the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy had a certain correlation. CAG and H. pylori infection are risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy. When treating CAG, vitamin B12 supplementation can significantly reduce peripheral nervous system lesions. Therefore, the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy associated with vitamin B12

  3. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David O.

    2016-01-01

    The B-vitamins comprise a group of eight water soluble vitamins that perform essential, closely inter-related roles in cellular functioning, acting as co-enzymes in a vast array of catabolic and anabolic enzymatic reactions. Their collective effects are particularly prevalent to numerous aspects of brain function, including energy production, DNA/RNA synthesis/repair, genomic and non-genomic methylation, and the synthesis of numerous neurochemicals and signaling molecules. However, human epidemiological and controlled trial investigations, and the resultant scientific commentary, have focused almost exclusively on the small sub-set of vitamins (B9/B12/B6) that are the most prominent (but not the exclusive) B-vitamins involved in homocysteine metabolism. Scant regard has been paid to the other B vitamins. This review describes the closely inter-related functions of the eight B-vitamins and marshals evidence suggesting that adequate levels of all members of this group of micronutrients are essential for optimal physiological and neurological functioning. Furthermore, evidence from human research clearly shows both that a significant proportion of the populations of developed countries suffer from deficiencies or insufficiencies in one or more of this group of vitamins, and that, in the absence of an optimal diet, administration of the entire B-vitamin group, rather than a small sub-set, at doses greatly in excess of the current governmental recommendations, would be a rational approach for preserving brain health. PMID:26828517

  4. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The B-vitamins comprise a group of eight water soluble vitamins that perform essential, closely inter-related roles in cellular functioning, acting as co-enzymes in a vast array of catabolic and anabolic enzymatic reactions. Their collective effects are particularly prevalent to numerous aspects of brain function, including energy production, DNA/RNA synthesis/repair, genomic and non-genomic methylation, and the synthesis of numerous neurochemicals and signaling molecules. However, human epidemiological and controlled trial investigations, and the resultant scientific commentary, have focused almost exclusively on the small sub-set of vitamins (B9/B12/B6 that are the most prominent (but not the exclusive B-vitamins involved in homocysteine metabolism. Scant regard has been paid to the other B vitamins. This review describes the closely inter-related functions of the eight B-vitamins and marshals evidence suggesting that adequate levels of all members of this group of micronutrients are essential for optimal physiological and neurological functioning. Furthermore, evidence from human research clearly shows both that a significant proportion of the populations of developed countries suffer from deficiencies or insufficiencies in one or more of this group of vitamins, and that, in the absence of an optimal diet, administration of the entire B-vitamin group, rather than a small sub-set, at doses greatly in excess of the current governmental recommendations, would be a rational approach for preserving brain health.

  5. Evaluation of vitamin B 12 deficiency in various clinical condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, J.A.; Alam, J.M.; Kazmi, T.; Waseem, S.; Hussain, A.; Arif, S.; Shaheen, R.; Sultana, I.

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of vitamin B 12 have been associated with several clinical conditions. However no single symptom or group of symptoms can be made responsible. Reported causes of deficiency among older population are hematologic or neurological, followed by gastrointestinal and possibly vascular symptoms. The present prospective observational study was, hence, initiated to evaluate the underlying clinical condition or symptoms associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. The study was prospective observational and carried out on 121 patients (males, n=63 and females, n=58) for the period from January 1, 2004 to January 24, 2007. Age ranges were between 16 - 70 years, and categorized as > 60 yrs and < 60 years. All blood parameters were analyzed by standardized methods on automated analyzers. The deficiency was found to be more prevalent in males and increased from 52.06% to 58.10% in individuals with vitamin B12 <150 pg/ml. Mal nourishment was noted among the most subjects and weakness and anemia were frequent clinical findings (35.55%, n=43, 14%, n=51). Other clinical conditions were neuropsychiatric. Whereas less frequent findings were paraesthesia and gastrointestinal symptoms. Hypertension was more prevalent in vitamin B12 deficient individuals followed by diabetes, dementia, stroke, ischemic heart disease and Parkinson's disease. (author)

  6. Proximate composition, functional properties, amino acid, mineral and vitamin contents of a novel food: Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farga, Ammar; Zhang, Hui; Siddeeg, Azhari; Shamoon, Muhammad; V M Chamba, Moses; Al-Hajj, Nabil

    2016-11-15

    Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour was evaluated for chemical and nutritional composition, and functional properties in a pursuit to identify an innovative plant with high nutraceuticals value which could be exploited in other food applications. The flour was found to be rich in dietary fiber (30.13%), protein (14.60%), crude fat (11.49%), carbohydrates (30.77%), and ash (6.88%) and encompassed adequate amounts of essential amino acids and minerals, whereas, sucrose constituted 71.3% of total sugar contents. Vitamins analysis revealed that flour is rich in water-soluble vitamins such as Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2) and Niacin (B3), to the amounts of 19.3, 8.2 and 2.3mg/100g, respectively. Results on functional properties demonstrated high water and oil absorption capacities of 6.31 and 2.43g/g, respectively. Foaming capacity, foam stability and emulsion capacity were 9.35%, 6.90%, and 29.60%, respectively. It can be concluded that alhydwan is an excellent food material with a high nutritional value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between lactate and thiamine levels in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Ari; Graver, Amanda; Giberson, Tyler; Berg, Katherine; Liu, Xiaowen; Uber, Amy; Gautam, Shiva; Donnino, Michael W

    2014-02-01

    Thiamine functions as an important cofactor in aerobic metabolism and thiamine deficiency can contribute to lactic acidosis. Although increased rates of thiamine deficiency have been described in diabetic outpatients, this phenomenon has not been studied in relation to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In the present study, we hypothesize that thiamine deficiency is associated with elevated lactate in patients with DKA. This was a prospective observational study of patients presenting to a tertiary care center with DKA. Patient demographics, laboratory results, and outcomes were recorded. A one-time blood draw was performed and analyzed for plasma thiamine levels. Thirty-two patients were enrolled. Eight patients (25%) were thiamine deficient, with levels lower than 9 nmol/L. A negative correlation between lactic acid and plasma thiamine levels was found (r = -0.56, P = .002). This relationship remained significant after adjustment for APACHE II scores (P = .009). Thiamine levels were directly related to admission serum bicarbonate (r = 0.44, P = .019), and patients with thiamine deficiency maintained lower bicarbonate levels over the first 24 hours (slopes parallel with a difference of 4.083, P = .002). Patients with DKA had a high prevalence of thiamine deficiency. Thiamine levels were inversely related to lactate levels among patients with DKA. A study of thiamine supplementation in DKA is warranted. © 2013.

  8. [Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Bello, Carlos; Capitão, Ricardo Miguel; Sequeira Duarte, João; Azinheira, Jorge; Vasconcelos, Carlos

    2017-10-31

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common disease, affecting up to 13.1% of the Portuguese population. In addition to the known micro and macrovascular complications, drug side effects constitute a major concern, leading to changes in the treatment guidelines, which favor safety over efficacy. Metformin is the first-line pharmacological treatment for most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; however, it has been associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in up to 30% of treated patients. The authors describe the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in a diabetic population and explore the possible underlying factors. Retrospective, observational study. Clinical and laboratory data of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients whose vitamin B12 status was evaluated in the last decade (2005 - 2016) were analyzed. Patients with known malabsorptive syndromes or having undergone bariatric surgery were excluded from the study. Statistical analysis of the data was done and the results were considered statistically significant at p values 2.2 years and 11 ± 10.4 years of type 2 diabetes mellitus duration. These patients had a high prevalence of complications: diabetic renal disease 47.7%, neuropathy 9.2%, retinopathy 14.9%, coronary artery disease 8.4%, cerebrovascular disease 10.9%, and peripheral arterial disease 5.5%. Vitamin B12 deficiency (21.4% of the population and this subgroup was older (68.4 vs 65.8 years, p = 0.006), had a longer type 2 diabetes mellitus duration (13.35 vs 10.36 years; p = 0.001), higher prevalence of retinopathy (20.9% vs 13.3%; p = 0.005) and thyroid dysfunction (34% vs 23.7%; p = 0.002). Vitamin B12 deficiency was also more frequent in patients treated with metformin (24.7% vs 15.8%; p = 0.017), antiplatelet agents (25.4% vs 16.2%, p 26.8% vs 18.2%; p = 0.001). After adjustment for possible confounders, the variables associated with B12 deficiency were: metformin, hypothyroidism, age and type 2 diabetes mellitus duration. Despite the retrospective design

  9. Danskernes kostvaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Gondolf, Ulla Holmboe; Ege, Majken

    . Indholdet af mikronæringsstoffer i gennemsnitskosten var rigelig for følgende mikronæringsstoffer: Vitamin A, thiamin, folat, vitamin B12, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium samt jod. For følgende mikronæringsstoffer var kostens indhold acceptabel: riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, magnesium, fosfor, zink, selen...

  10. Biological Variability and Impact of Oral Contraceptives on Vitamins B6, B12 and Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Samman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins B6, B12 and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum vitamins B6, B12, folate and erythrocyte folate concentrations in young women; identify factors that contribute to variability; and determine dietary intakes and sources of these vitamins. Data were obtained from the control group of a trial aimed at investigating the effect of iron on the nutritional status of young women (age 25.2 ± 4.2 year; BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2. The coefficients of variability within-subject (CVI and between-subject (CVG for serum vitamins B6, B12 and folate, and erythrocyte folate were calculated. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary data. CVI and CVG were in the range 16.1%–25.7% and 31.7%–62.2%, respectively. Oral contraceptive pill (OCP use was associated (P = 0.042 with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Initial values were 172 ± 16 pmol/L and 318 ± 51 pmol/L for OCP and non-OCP users, respectively; with differences maintained at four time points over 12 weeks. BMI, age, physical activity, alcohol intake and haematological variables did not affect serum or erythrocyte vitamin concentrations. Vitamin B12 intakes were derived from traditional and unexpected sources including commercial energy drinks. Young women using OCP had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. This should be considered in clinical decision making and requires further investigation.

  11. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary thiamin and riboflavin intake and blood thiamin and riboflavin concentrations in college swimmers undergoing intensive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akiko; Shimoyama, Yoshimitsu; Ishikawa, Tomoji; Murayama, Nobuko

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of high-intensity physical activity during training on the biochemical status of thiamin and riboflavin in athletes. Thiamin and riboflavin concentrations in whole blood of a group of 19 athletes (6 men and 13 women) were measured during a low-intensity preparatory period and compared with measurements taken during a high-intensity training period. Additional variables measured included anthropometric characteristics, estimated energy expenditure during swim training, distance covered, resting energy expenditure obtained by indirect calorimetry, estimated energy requirement per day, and dietary intake of energy, thiamin, and riboflavin estimated from 3-day food records. For both male and female subjects, no major changes were observed in anthropometric characteristics or dietary intake, but energy expenditure during swim training per day significantly increased in the intensive-training period (496 ± 0 kcal in the preparation period compared with 995 ± 96 kcal in the intensive-training period for male subjects [p riboflavin was unchanged. These results suggest that intense training affects thiamin concentration, but not riboflavin concentration, in the whole blood of college swimmers.

  13. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20 patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus.

  14. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Charu; Kawatra, Rahul; Gupta, Jaya; Awasthi, Vishnu; Dungana, Homnath

    2016-01-01

    True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases) received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg) weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20) patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS) after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus.

  15. Assessment of Serum Vitamin B12 Concentrations in Patients with a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum vitamin B12 levels were obtained preoperatively and every 6 months postoperatively. All patients received 100 microgram of vitamin B-12 twice yearly. Follow up ranged from 3-10 years. Results All 16 patients included in the study had a normal concentration of serum vitamin B12 preoperatively with a range of ...

  16. Vitamin B12 supplementation and cognitive scores in geriatric patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Chauhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Neurodegenerative diseases are increasingly affecting the elderly with a severe impact on their brain health. There is a wide gap in supplementation based studies for increasing the cognition levels of the geriatric population, especially in developing countries like India which are at extreme risk of developing neurological disorders. And recently Vitamin B12 has drawn considerable attention due to its ability to improve the cognitive status. Current literature has linked the possibility of alleviating neurological disorders in the elderly with effective vitamin B12 management. Abundant animal and human models have proved that supplementation of vitamin B12 is beneficial for the restoration of cognitive functions. Objective: To supplement vitamin B12 deficient mild cognitively impaired geriatric patients with injectable doses of vitamin B12 followed by impact evaluation. Methods: Screening of the mild cognitively impaired patients was carried out using the Mini- Mental State Examination and Yamaguchi Fox Pigeon Imitation test. Baseline information was elicited from the patients residing in urban Vadodara (a district in the state of Gujarat, India. This included socio-demographic, medical and drug history, anthropometric and physical activity pattern, in addition to biochemical parameters comprising of serum vitamin B12 and glycated haemoglobin profile. A sub-sample of 60 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI demonstrating severe vitamin B12 deficiency were conveniently enrolled for injectable doses of Vitamin B 12 in the dosage of 1,000 µg every day for one week, followed by 1,000 µg every week for 4 weeks & finishing with 1,000 µg for the remaining 4 months. An intervention six- month after the experiment with all the parameters were elicited. Results: Vitamin B12 supplementation resulted in a significant (p<0.001 improvement in the MMSE scores of the patients with a rise of 9.63% in the total patients. Gender

  17. The role of nitrergic system in antidepressant effects of acute administration of zinc, magnesium and thiamine on progesterone induced postpartum depression in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikseresht S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that has harmful effects on mothers, infants, family and relationships. Acute decrease of progesterone after delivery has been proposed as a cause for postpartum depression. This hormone can affect neurotransmitters' function. Zinc (Zn and magnesium (Mg as trace elements exert their antidepressant effects through neurotransmitter pathways. On the other hand, thiamin (Vit B1 deficiency leads to depression in animal models. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of combination of zinc, magnesium and thiamine on postpartum depression and role of nitrergic system. "n"nMethods: One hundred ten female mice in five groups were used. Postpartum depression was conducted using progesterone injections. Combinations of Zinc chloride, magnesium chloride and thiamine HCL were administered 30 minutes before open field and forced swimming test (FST. In order to investigate role of nitrergic system, L-arginine and LNAME were administered. "n"nResults: All treatment groups spent less immobility time than the control group (p< 0.05. Combined administration of Zn+ Mg+ Vit B1 caused the most reduction in immobility time. Administration of L-NAME in Zn+ Mg+ Vit B1 group caused reduction in immobility time while administration of L-arginine caused increase in immobility time in the same group. "nConclusion: Zinc, magnesium and thiamine can improve depressive symptoms by nitrergic pathway. These elements as supplement compounds could be alternatives for antidepressants in postpartum period.

  18. [Evaluation of the dietary intake of vitamins and minerals in the daily food rations by the students of the Rzeszów University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Marian; Głodek, Elzbieta; Rudy, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    To function properly the human body needs, from a nutritional point of view, the supply of a wide variety of nutrients. In this respect, in addition to essential nutrients, vitamins and minerals play an important role. Particular attention should be paid to the nutrition of studying youth as in their diet there are observed many irregularities arising from the specific nature of student life. The aim of the study was to identify and assess the level of intake of selected vitamins and minerals in a group of students with consideration of gender. The study included the group of 200 persons studying at the Faculty of Biology and Agriculture at the University of Rzeszów. The assessment of intake was made using the method of immediate recording of products and beverages consumed by students within three successive days. Using the Tables of Nutritional Value of Foods and Dishes there was calculated the average daily intake of minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese) and vitamins (A, D, E, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates and vitamin B12). It was found that the nutrition of women had seriously deficient intake of vitamin D (49%), folates (54%), thiamine and niacin. In terms of mineral intake in women there was diagnosed insufficient contribution of iron (46%), potassium (51.4%), calcium (55.4%) and magnesium (71.6%) in the diet. In the group of men deficiencies were found in the case of vitamin D (79.4%), foliates (71.6%) and vitamin C (76.0%). The excess of manganese (210.0%), phosphorus (198.9%), sodium (170.2%) in the diet and deficiency of potassium (65.5%), calcium (67.0%) and magnesium (73.9%) were found. The diet of men to a greater extent fulfils the need for vitamins and minerals. The results of the study show the necessity of education in order to foster healthy nutritional habits and to increase the share of natural sources of vitamins and minerals in the diet to prevent the occurrence of

  19. Redistribution of carbon flux in Torulopsis glabrata by altering vitamin and calcium level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Li, Yin; Zhu, Yang; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2007-01-01

    Manipulation of cofactor (thiamine, biotin and Ca(2+)) levels as a potential tool to redistribute carbon flux was studied in Torulopsis glabrata. With sub-optimization of vitamin in fermentation medium, the carbon flux was blocked at the key node of pyruvate, and 69 g/L pyruvate was accumulated. Increasing the concentrations of thiamine and biotin could selectively open the valve of carbon flux from pyruvate to pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, the pyruvate carboxylase (PC) pathway and the channel into the TCA cycle, leading to the over-production of alpha-ketoglutarate. In addition, the activity of PC was enhanced with Ca(2+) present in fermentation medium. By combining high concentration's vitamins and CaCO(3) as the pH buffer, a batch culture was conducted in a 7-L fermentor, with the pyruvate concentration decreased to 21.8 g/L while alpha-ketoglutarate concentration increased to 43.7 g/L. Our study indicated that the metabolic flux could be redistributed to overproduce desired metabolites with manipulating the cofactor levels. Furthermore, the manipulation of vitamin level provided an alternative tool to realize metabolic engineering goals.

  20. Clinical value of serum vitamin B12 and folate in cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Hao; Zhang Yongxue

    2002-01-01

    To study the clinical value of serum vitamin B 12 and folate in cerebrovascular disease, the concentration of serum vitamin B 12 and folate in 32 patients with cerebrovascular disease was measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that the changes in folate in all groups were not significant. The content of vitamin B 12 in multi-infarct dementia was markedly lower than that in cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage. Moreover, the level of vitamin B 12 was lower in paralytic patients with muscular strength of grade 0-III. It can be concluded that serum vitamin B 12 level had association with intelligent disorder and paralytic degree

  1. Treatment of depression: time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppen, Alec; Bolander-Gouaille, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ) and vitamin B12 (1 mg daily) should be tried to improve treatment outcome in depression.

  2. Effects of vitamins E and Riboflavin (B2 and combinations of them on the hematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifzadeh Seyedeh Atefeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of vitamins E, B2 and combinations of them on hematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., were investigated during a 56-day experiment. The various dietary levels of vitamins E, B2 and their combination were used as experimental treatments, as follows: T1: vitamin E (80 mg, T2: vitamin E (160 mg kg diet-1, T3: vitamin E (240 mg kg diet-1, T4: vitamin B2 (7 mg kg diet-1, T5: vitamin B2 (15 mg kg diet-1, T6: vitamin B2 (20 mg kg diet-1, T7: vitamin E (80 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (7 mg kg diet-1, T8: vitamin E (160 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (15 mg kg diet-1, T9: vitamin E (240 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (20 mg kg diet-1. One group not given vitamin supplements was the control. The values of red blood cells (RBC, hemoglobin (Hb, and hematocrit (Hct were higher in T7 than in the other experimental treatments. The values of white blood cells (WBC were higher in T2 than in the other treatments. The concentration of immunoglobulin (IgM was also lower in T10 than in the other experimental treatments. The highest values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular volume (MCV were observed in T2. No significant differences were noted among experimental groups in the values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC. This study showed that vitamin E and B2 supplements alter the hematological parameters of common carp.

  3. Homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels in premature coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallah Nader

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia is known as an independent risk factor of atherosclerosis, but the probable role of hyperhomocysteinemia in premature Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the role of hyperhomocysteinemia, folate and Vitamin B12 deficiency in the development of premature CAD. Methods We performed an analytical case-control study on 294 individuals under 45 years (225 males and 69 females who were admitted for selective coronary angiography to two centers in Tehran. Results After considering the exclusion criteria, a total number of 225 individuals were enrolled of which 43.1% had CAD. The mean age of participants was 39.9 +/- 4.3 years (40.1 +/- 4.2 years in males and 39.4 +/- 4.8 years in females. Compared to the control group, the level of homocysteine measured in the plasma of the male participants was significantly high (14.9 +/- 1.2 versus 20.3 +/- 1.9 micromol/lit, P = 0.01. However there was no significant difference in homocysteine level of females with and without CAD (11.8 +/- 1.3 versus 11.5 ± 1.1 micromol/lit, P = 0.87. Mean plasma level of folic acid and vitamin B12 in the study group were 6.3 +/- 0.2 and 282.5 +/- 9.1 respectively. Based on these findings, 10.7% of the study group had folate deficiency while 26.6% had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Logistic regression analysis for evaluating independent CAD risk factors showed hyperhomocysteinemia as an independent risk factor for premature CAD in males (OR = 2.54 0.95% CI 1.23 to 5.22, P = 0.01. Study for the underlying causes of hyperhomocysteinemia showed that male gender and Vitamin B12 deficiency had significant influence on incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia. Conclusion We may conclude that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for CAD in young patients (bellow 45 years old – especially in men -and vitamin B12 deficiency is a preventable cause of hyperhomocysteinemia.

  4. The relationship between lactate and thiamine levels in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Ari; Graver, Amanda; Giberson, Tyler; Berg, Katherine; Liu, Xiaowen; Uber, Amy; Gautam, Shiva; Donnino, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Thiamine functions as an important cofactor in aerobic metabolism and thiamine deficiency can contribute to lactic acidosis. Although increased rates of thiamine deficiency have been described in diabetic outpatients, this phenomenon has not been studied in relation to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In the present study, we hypothesize that thiamine deficiency is associated with elevated lactate in patients with DKA. Materials and Methods This was a prospective observational study of patients presenting to a tertiary care center with DKA. Patient demographics, laboratory results, and outcomes were recorded. A one-time blood draw was performed and analyzed for plasma thiamine levels. Results Thirty-two patients were enrolled. Eight patients (25%) were thiamine deficient, with levels lower than 9 nmol/L. A negative correlation between lactic acid and plasma thiamine levels was found (r = −0.56, P = .002). This relationship remained significant after adjustment for APACHE II scores (P = .009). Thiamine levels were directly related to admission serum bicarbonate (r = 0.44, P = .019), and patients with thiamine deficiency maintained lower bicarbonate levels over the first 24 hours (slopes parallel with a difference of 4.083, P = .002). Conclusions Patients with DKA had a high prevalence of thiamine deficiency. Thiamine levels were inversely related to lactate levels among patients with DKA. A study of thiamine supplementation in DKA is warranted. PMID:23993771

  5. Accounting for the contribution of vitamin B to Canada's WWII effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Canada began to fortify its flour and bread with vitamin B when it entered the Second World War. The decision was informed by the biology of vitamin B and therefore I suggest that the complexity of this political maneuver can best be understood by considering the specificity of the biochemistry of vitamin B. In this paper I will show that the specific biology of vitamin B allowed the Canadian government the possibility of a healthier population under wartime conditions but also allowed the government a variety of means by which to develop and organize food processing practices to this end.

  6. Prognostic impact of vitamin B6 metabolism in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio; Senovilla, Laura; Olaussen, Ken André; Pinna, Guillaume; Eisenberg, Tobias; Goubar, Aïcha; Martins, Isabelle; Michels, Judith; Kratassiouk, Gueorgui; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Scoazec, Marie; Vacchelli, Erika; Schlemmer, Frederic; Kepp, Oliver; Shen, Shensi; Tailler, Maximilien; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Morselli, Eugenia; Criollo, Alfredo; Adjemian, Sandy; Jemaà, Mohamed; Chaba, Kariman; Pailleret, Claire; Michaud, Mickaël; Pietrocola, Federico; Tajeddine, Nicolas; de La Motte Rouge, Thibault; Araujo, Natalia; Morozova, Nadya; Robert, Thomas; Ripoche, Hugues; Commo, Frederic; Besse, Benjamin; Validire, Pierre; Fouret, Pierre; Robin, Angélique; Dorvault, Nicolas; Girard, Philippe; Gouy, Sébastien; Pautier, Patricia; Jägemann, Nora; Nickel, Ann-Christin; Marsili, Sabrina; Paccard, Caroline; Servant, Nicolas; Hupé, Philippe; Behrens, Carmen; Behnam-Motlagh, Parviz; Kohno, Kimitoshi; Cremer, Isabelle; Damotte, Diane; Alifano, Marco; Midttun, Oivind; Ueland, Per Magne; Lazar, Vladimir; Dessen, Philippe; Zischka, Hans; Chatelut, Etienne; Castedo, Maria; Madeo, Frank; Barillot, Emmanuel; Thomale, Juergen; Wistuba, Ignacio Ivan; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Zitvogel, Laurence; Soria, Jean-Charles; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-08-30

    Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are routinely treated with cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin. Through a genome-wide siRNA-based screen, we identified vitamin B6 metabolism as a central regulator of cisplatin responses in vitro and in vivo. By aggravating a bioenergetic catastrophe that involves the depletion of intracellular glutathione, vitamin B6 exacerbates cisplatin-mediated DNA damage, thus sensitizing a large panel of cancer cell lines to apoptosis. Moreover, vitamin B6 sensitizes cancer cells to apoptosis induction by distinct types of physical and chemical stress, including multiple chemotherapeutics. This effect requires pyridoxal kinase (PDXK), the enzyme that generates the bioactive form of vitamin B6. In line with a general role of vitamin B6 in stress responses, low PDXK expression levels were found to be associated with poor disease outcome in two independent cohorts of patients with NSCLC. These results indicate that PDXK expression levels constitute a biomarker for risk stratification among patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stability of hydrophilic vitamins mixtures in the presence of electrolytes and trace elements for parenteral nutrition: a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Balzano, Federica; Aiello, Federica; Falugiani, Niccolò; Desideri, Ielizza

    2015-03-25

    In total parenteral nutrition (TPN), especially in the case of preterm infants, simultaneous administration of vitamins and trace elements is still a problematic issue: guidelines put in evidence the lack of specific documentation. In this work NMR spectroscopy was applied to the study of vitamins (pyridoxine hydrochloride, thiamine nitrate, riboflavin-5'-phosphate and nicotinamide) stability in presence of salts and trace elements. Vitamins in D2O were first analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy in absence of salts and trace elements; changes in chemical shifts or in diffusion coefficients, measured by NMR DOSY technique, were analyzed. The effects of salts and trace elements on single vitamins and on their admixtures were then investigated by performing quantitative analyses during 48h. Selected vitamins are subject to intermolecular interactions. No degradative effects were observed in presence of salts and trace elements. Only riboflavin-5'-phosphate is subject to precipitation in presence of divalent cations; however, at low concentration and in presence of other vitamins this effect was not observed. Solutions analyzed, in the condition of this study, are stable for at least 48h and vitamins and trace elements can be administered together in TPN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet Poor diet in infants Poor nutrition during pregnancy Certain health conditions can make it difficult for your body to absorb enough vitamin B12. They include: Chronic alcoholism Crohn disease, celiac disease, infection with the fish ...

  9. B700, a murine melanoma-specific antigen, binds Vitamin D3; conservation of binding among albuminoid molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzaneh, N.K.; Walden, T.L. Jr.; Hearing, V.J.; Gersten, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    B700, a murine melanoma-specific antigen, is a member of the serum albumin protein family. Other members of this family include serum albumin (SMA), a-fetoprotein (AFP), vitamin D binding protein (DBP), and C700. The primary structure and biochemical functions of B700, as well as its in vivo metabolic fate are largely unknown. The authors examined the functional characteristics of MSA, AFP, and DBP, and for their ability to specifically bind [ 3 H]-1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D 3 . Scatchard analysis revealed a single binding site for B700 with a Kd of 51,000 M and a Bmax of 4.51 x 10 -7 . There is no significant difference between the Kd and Bmax values among the albuminoid proteins. However, differences in the binding sites could be distinguished by competition of the 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 with other steroids. 2nM of vitamin D 3 , vitamin D 2 , or estrogen competed for the specific binding of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 by B700 but not by DBP. The MSA binding site for 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D 3 more closely resembles that of DBP than B700. These data indicate that the binding function of the albuminoid proteins has been conserved in the B700 melanoma antigen

  10. The effects of thiamin on lead metabolism: organ distribution of lead 203.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J S; Hamilton, D L; Blakley, B R; Rousseaux, C G

    1992-01-01

    The effect of thiamin on the organ distribution of lead was evaluated in CD-1 mice exposed intragastrically or intraperitoneally to a single dose of lead acetate (100 micrograms) containing 100 microCi lead 203. They were treated with either thiamin (25 or 50 mg/kg body weight), calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaEDTA) (50 mg/kg body weight), or combinations of thiamin and CaEDTA. The whole body retention and the organ distribution of lead 203 varied depending upon the route of lead a...

  11. Niacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 1998. PMID: 23193625 ...

  12. Salinity Induced Changes in β-carotene, Thiamine, Riboflavin and Ascorbic Acid Content in Spinacia oleracea L. var. All Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Ratnakar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are the functional components of various enzyme-regulated biochemical reactions occurring to create energy. Vitamin contents of plants are known to show altered metabolism under the influence of salinity. Not much of work has been done on the influence of salinity on the vitamin content in higher plants. Present study was carried out to study the influence of NaCl salinity on vitamin content in the leaves of Spinacia oleracea. Spinacia oleracea plants were grown in earthen pots and were subjected to different concentrations of saline water (NaCl treatment. Control plants were irrigated with tap water. Treatments started after the seedling emergence and continued till the plants were 45 day old. Mature leaves of these plants were harvested and used for studies. Thiamine and riboflavin content were found to increase with increase in NaCl concentration, however, β-carotene was found to decrease with increasing level of NaCl in the growth medium.

  13. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offer the folate test. Can taking too many vitamin B12 and folic acid supplements hurt me? Not usually. Since B12 and folic acid are water-soluble, the body will rid itself of any excess by excreting it in the urine. However, taking ...

  14. Effectiveness and retention of thiamine and its analogs administered to steelhead and landlocked Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketola, H.G.; Isaacs, G.R.; Robins, J.S.; Lloyd, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of enhancing the reproduction of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss and landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in lakes where the consumption of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and other forage fishes containing thiaminase can cause them to become thiamine deficient and thereby reduce the survival of their fry. We evaluated feeding fingerling steelhead excess thiamine hydrochloride (THCl) for 1 or 2 weeks or equimolar amounts of thiamine mononitrate, thiamine-tetrahydrofurfuryl-disulfide, benfotiamine, or dibenzoyl thiamine (DBT). We found minimal internal reserves of thiamine after 6 months. We also compared the ability of injections of thiamine and its analogs to prevent mortality in thiamine-deficient steelhead and Atlantic salmon sac fry and found all forms to be effective, although benfotiamine was the least effective on an equimolar basis. Further, we injected yearling steelhead and found that DBT was tolerated at approximately 11,200 nmol/g of body weight, about 10 times more than thiamine in any other form. When yearling steelhead were injected with near-maximal doses of thiamine hydrochloride and several analogs and then fed a thiamine-deficient diet, DBT was retained for approximately 2 years - in contrast to other forms, which were retained for less than about 6 months. Therefore, these results suggest that neither feeding nor injecting young hatchery salmonids with DBT is likely to enhance their reproduction for more than 2 years after stocking. However, injecting DBT in nearly mature fish (either cultured fish from hatcheries or wild fish captured in lakes) may provide them with enough thiamine to successfully spawn within 2 years even though they consume mainly thiaminase-containing forage fishes. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  15. The Role of Thiamine and Effects of Deficiency in Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Kritikos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent pet food recalls for insufficient dietary thiamine have highlighted the importance of adequate thiamine intake in dogs and cats, as thiamine is an essential dietary nutrient with a critical role in energy metabolism. Prolonged thiamine deficiency leads to clinical signs that can span several organ systems, and deficiency can be fatal if not reversed. In this review, the current knowledge of thiamine metabolism will be summarized. Dietary recommendations for dogs and cats will be discussed, and the risk factors and clinical signs associated with thiamine deficiency will be examined.

  16. The Role of Thiamine and Effects of Deficiency in Dogs and Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritikos, Georgia; Verbrugghe, Adronie

    2017-01-01

    Recent pet food recalls for insufficient dietary thiamine have highlighted the importance of adequate thiamine intake in dogs and cats, as thiamine is an essential dietary nutrient with a critical role in energy metabolism. Prolonged thiamine deficiency leads to clinical signs that can span several organ systems, and deficiency can be fatal if not reversed. In this review, the current knowledge of thiamine metabolism will be summarized. Dietary recommendations for dogs and cats will be discussed, and the risk factors and clinical signs associated with thiamine deficiency will be examined.

  17. Serum B vitamin levels and risk of lung cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, M.; Relton, C.; Ueland, P.M.; Vollset, S.E.; Midttun, O.; Nygard, O.; Slimani, N.; Boffetta, P.; Jenab, M.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Fagherazzi, G.; Kaaks, R.; Rohrmann, S.; Boeing, H.; Weikert, C.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Agudo, A.; Barricarte, A.; Navarro, C; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, M.J.; Larrañaga, N.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Allen, N.E.; Crowe, F.; Gallo, V.; Norat, T.; Krogh, V.; Masala, G.; Panico, S.; Sacerdote, C.; Tumino, R.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Rasmuson, T.; Hallmans, G.; Riboli, E.; Vineis, P.; Brennan, P.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: B vitamins and factors related to 1-carbon metabolism help to maintain DNA integrity and regulate gene expression and may affec